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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2284 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1208 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1208 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 227)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access  
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 226)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
  [SJR: 0.293]   [H-I: 19]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0158-9938 - ISSN (Online) 1879-5447
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Indices from lagged poincare plots of heart rate variability: an efficient
           nonlinear tool for emotion discrimination
    • Authors: Ateke Goshvarpour; Ataollah Abbasi; Atefeh Goshvarpour
      Pages: 277 - 287
      Abstract: Interest in human emotion recognition, regarding physiological signals, has recently risen. In this study, an efficient emotion recognition system, based on geometrical analysis of autonomic nervous system signals, is presented. The electrocardiogram recordings of 47 college students were obtained during rest condition and affective visual stimuli. Pictures with four emotional contents, including happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear were selected. Then, ten lags of Poincare plot were constructed for heart rate variability (HRV) segments. For each lag, five geometrical indices were extracted. Next, these features were fed into an automatic classification system for the recognition of the four affective states and rest condition. The results showed that the Poincare plots have different shapes for different lags, as well as for different affective states. Considering higher lags, the greatest increment in SD1 and decrements in SD2 occurred during the happiness stimuli. In contrast, the minimum changes in the Poincare measures were perceived during the fear inducements. Therefore, the HRV geometrical shapes and dynamics were altered by the positive and negative values of valence-based emotion dimension. Using a probabilistic neural network, a maximum recognition rate of 97.45% was attained. Applying the proposed methodology based on lagged Poincare indices, a valuable tool for discriminating the emotional states was provided.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0530-x
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 2 (2017)
  • Dosimetry in MARS spectral CT: TOPAS Monte Carlo simulations and ion
           chamber measurements
    • Authors: Gray Lu; Steven Marsh; Jerome Damet; Pierre Carbonez; John Laban; Christopher Bateman; Anthony Butler; Phil Butler
      Pages: 297 - 303
      Abstract: Spectral computed tomography (CT) is an up and coming imaging modality which shows great promise in revealing unique diagnostic information. Because this imaging modality is based on X-ray CT, it is of utmost importance to study the radiation dose aspects of its use. This study reports on the implementation and evaluation of a Monte Carlo simulation tool using TOPAS for estimating dose in a pre-clinical spectral CT scanner known as the MARS scanner. Simulated estimates were compared with measurements from an ionization chamber. For a typical MARS scan, TOPAS estimated for a 30 mm diameter cylindrical phantom a CT dose index (CTDI) of 29.7 mGy; CTDI was measured by ion chamber to within 3% of TOPAS estimates. Although further development is required, our investigation of TOPAS for estimating MARS scan dosimetry has shown its potential for further study of spectral scanning protocols and dose to scanned objects.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0532-8
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 2 (2017)
  • The effect of cement on hip stem fixation: a biomechanical study
    • Authors: Talip Çelik; İbrahim Mutlu; Arif Özkan; Yasin Kişioğlu
      Pages: 349 - 357
      Abstract: This study presents the numerical analysis of stem fixation in hip surgery using with/without cement methods since the use of cement is still controversial based on the clinical studies in the literature. Many different factors such as stress shielding, aseptic loosening, material properties of the stem, surgeon experiences etc. play an important role in the failure of the stem fixations. The stem fixation methods, cemented and uncemented, were evaluated in terms of mechanical failure aspects using computerized finite element method. For the modeling processes, three dimensional (3D) femur model was generated from computerized tomography (CT) images taken from a patient using the MIMICS Software. The design of the stem was also generated as 3D CAD model using the design parameters taken from the manufacturer catalogue. These 3D CAD models were generated and combined with/without cement considering the surgical procedure using SolidWorks program and then imported into ANSYS Workbench Software. Two different material properties, CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V, for the stem model and Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) for the cement were assigned. The material properties of the femur were described according to a density calculated from the CT images. Body weight and muscle forces were applied on the femur and the distal femur was fixed for the boundary conditions. The calculations of the stress distributions of the models including cement and relative movements of the contacts examined to evaluate the effects of the cement and different stem material usage on the failure of stem fixation. According to the results, the use of cement for the stem fixation reduces the stress shielding but increases the aseptic loosening depending on the cement crack formations. Additionally, using the stiffer material for the stem reduces the cement stress but increases the stress shielding. Based on the results obtained in the study, even when taking the disadvantages into account, the cement usage is more suitable for the hip fixations.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0539-1
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 2 (2017)
  • A comparative evaluation of Ac225 vs Bi213 as therapeutic radioisotopes
           for targeted alpha therapy for cancer
    • Authors: Barry J. Allen
      Pages: 369 - 376
      Abstract: The Ac225:Bi213 generator is the mainstay for preclinical and clinical studies of targeted alpha therapy for cancer. Both Ac225 (four alpha decays) and Bi213 (one alpha decay) are being used to label targeting vectors to form the alpha immunoconjugate for cancer therapy. This paper considers the radiobiological and economic aspects of Ac225 vs Bi213 as the preferred radioisotope for preclinical and clinical TAT. The in vitro and in vivo evidence and the role of DNA repair processes is examined. The maximum tolerance dose and therapeutic gain are endpoints for comparison. Ac225 has the higher therapeutic gain, when normalised to equal alpha production. However, the slow repair of double strand breaks reduces this advantage. Comparisons are made for the specific energy deposition in targeted and non-targeted cells, for endothelial cells by direct or indirect targeting, the need for sparing agents to save critical organs and cost considerations for preclinical and clinical trials and clinical use. Overall, Ac225 is found to have the better or equal performance to Bi213 at a much lower cost.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0534-6
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 2 (2017)
  • High dose rate brachytherapy source measurement intercomparison
    • Authors: Joel Poder; Ryan L. Smith; Nikki Shelton; May Whitaker; Duncan Butler; Annette Haworth
      Pages: 377 - 383
      Abstract: This work presents a comparison of air kerma rate (AKR) measurements performed by multiple radiotherapy centres for a single HDR 192Ir source. Two separate groups (consisting of 15 centres) performed AKR measurements at one of two host centres in Australia. Each group travelled to one of the host centres and measured the AKR of a single 192Ir source using their own equipment and local protocols. Results were compared to the 192Ir source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer by means of a ratio of measured to certified AKR. The comparisons showed remarkably consistent results with the maximum deviation in measurement from the decay-corrected source certificate value being 1.1%. The maximum percentage difference between any two measurements was less than 2%. The comparisons demonstrated the consistency of well-chambers used for 192Ir AKR measurements in Australia, despite the lack of a local calibration service, and served as a valuable focal point for the exchange of ideas and dosimetry methods.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0542-6
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 2 (2017)
  • Corpuls cpr resuscitation device generates superior emulated flows and
           pressures than LUCAS II in a mechanical thorax model
    • Authors: S. Eichhorn; A. Mendoza Garcia; M. Polski; J. Spindler; A. Stroh; M. Heller; R. Lange; M. Krane
      Pages: 441 - 447
      Abstract: The provision of sufficient chest compression is among the most important factors influencing patient survival during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). One approach to optimize the quality of chest compressions is to use mechanical-resuscitation devices. The aim of this study was to compare a new device for chest compression (corpuls cpr) with an established device (LUCAS II). We used a mechanical thorax model consisting of a chest with variable stiffness and an integrated heart chamber which generated blood flow dependent on the compression depth and waveform. The method of blood-flow generation could be changed between direct cardiac-compression mode and thoracic-pump mode. Different chest-stiffness settings and compression modes were tested to generate various blood-flow profiles. Additionally, an endurance test at high stiffness was performed to measure overall performance and compression consistency. Both resuscitation machines were able to compress the model thorax with a frequency of 100/min and a depth of 5 cm, independent of the chosen chest stiffness. Both devices passed the endurance test without difficulty. The corpuls cpr device was able to generate about 10–40% more blood flow than the LUCAS II device, depending on the model settings. In most scenarios, the corpuls cpr device also generated a higher blood pressure than the LUCAS II. The peak compression forces during CPR were about 30% higher using the corpuls cpr device than with the LUCAS II. In this study, the corpuls cpr device had improved blood flow and pressure outcomes than the LUCAS II device. Further examination in an animal model is required to prove the findings of this preliminary study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0537-3
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 2 (2017)
  • Commissioning a hobby cutting device for radiochromic film preparation
    • Authors: Somayeh Zolfaghari; Kirby E. Francis; Tanya Kairn; Scott B. Crowe
      Pages: 449 - 453
      Abstract: In addition to a high spatial resolution and well characterised dose response, one of the major advantages of radiochromic film as a dosimeter is that sheets of film can be cut into pieces suitable for use as calibration films, and for in vivo and phantom measurements. The cutting of film is typically done using scissors or a guillotine, and this process can be time-consuming, limited in precision, requires extensive handling and does not allow holes to be cut from the film without cutting from an existing edge. This study investigated the use of a Brother ScanNCut hobby cutting system for EBT3 film preparation. The optimal operating parameters (blade size, pressure, speed) that resulted in precise cuts with minimal delamination at cut edges were identified using test cutting patterns. These parameters were then used to cut a large film insert for a stereotactic head phantom for comparison against an insert cut with scissors. While the hobby cutting system caused a wider region of delamination at the film edge (1.8 mm) compared to scissors (1 mm), the hobby cutting system was found to be able to produce reproducible cuts more efficiently and more accurately than scissors. The use of the hobby cutting system is recommended for complex phantom inserts (containing sharp corners or holes for alignment rods) or in situations where large numbers of film pieces need to be prepared.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0545-3
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 2 (2017)
  • Operational statistics for the APESM journal (2014–2016)
    • Authors: Martin Caon
      PubDate: 2017-07-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0569-8
  • The role of impairment of mesenchymal stem cell function in osteoporotic
           bone fracture healing
    • Authors: Lihai Zhang; Saeed Miramini; Martin Richardson; Priyan Mendis; Peter Ebeling
      Abstract: With demographic change and increasing life expectancy, osteoporotic fractures have become one of the most prevalent trauma conditions seen in daily clinical practice. A variety of factors are known to affect the rate of healing in osteoporotic conditions (e.g. both biochemical and biomechanical environment of callus cells). However, the influence of impairment of mesenchymal stem cell function in the osteoporotic condition on bone fracture healing has not been fully understood. In the present study, we develop a mathematical model that quantifies the change in biological processes within the fracture callus as a result of osteoporosis. The model includes special features of osteoporosis such as reduction in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) number in osteoporotic bone, impaired response of osteoporotic MSCs to their biomechanical microenvironment and the effects of configuration of locking compression plate (LCP) system on healing in this context. The results presented here suggest that mechanically-mediated MSCs differentiation at early stages of healing are significantly affected under osteoporotic conditions, while it is predicted that the flexible fixation achieved by increasing bone-plate distance of LCP could alleviate the negative effects of osteoporosis on healing. The outcomes of this study could potentially lead to patient specific surgical solutions, and thus achieve optimal healing outcomes in osteoporotic conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0566-y
  • Investigation of the optimum heel pad stiffness: a modeling study
    • Authors: Che-Yu Lin; Hung-Jui Chuang; Daniel H. Cortes
      Abstract: Due to the controversy regarding the criterion for diagnosing heel pad (HP) pathology based on evaluating the state of the heel pad stiffness (HPS), this paper intended to apply modeling to understand the influence of the HPS on the mechanical responses of the HP at heelstrike during locomotion, in an attempt to investigate the optimum HPS in terms of the health-related mechanical responses. Two different models, a finite element model and a classical mechanical model, were used to simulate the mechanical responses (force loading and deformation) experienced by the HP at heelstrike. Both excessive force loading and deformation are believed to be detrimental to the heel pad. In the simulation, the corresponding force loading, deformation and net effect (the adding of the normalized force loading and deformation) were calculated for each HPS value. Two models found consistent trends that the stiffer the HP, the greater the force loading and the lower the deformation. In contrast, a softer HP experienced a lower force loading and a greater deformation. Both the force loading and deformation were at medium levels and the net effect was minimal at a HPS value between the highest and lowest values used in the simulation. The modeling result suggested that the optimum HPS should be in a state at which both the force loading and deformation were at medium levels and the net effect was minimal, in terms of the health-related mechanical responses. The abnormal level of HPS, either too high or too low, may correlate to respective pathologies.
      PubDate: 2017-06-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0565-z
  • Probability density distribution of delta RR intervals: a novel method for
           the detection of atrial fibrillation
    • Authors: Yanjun Li; Xiaoying Tang; Ancong Wang; Hui Tang
      Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) monitoring and diagnosis require automatic AF detection methods. In this paper, a novel image-based AF detection method was proposed. The map was constructed by plotting changes of RR intervals (△RR) into grid panes. First, the map was divided into grid panes with 20 ms fixed resolution in y-axes and 15–60 s step length in x-axes. Next, the blank pane ratio (BPR), the entropy and the probability density distribution were processed using linear support-vector machine (LSVM) to classify AF and non-AF episodes. The performance was evaluated based on four public physiological databases. The Cohen’s Kappa coefficients were 0.87, 0.91 and 0.64 at 50 s step length for the long-term AF database, the MIT-BIH AF database and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, respectively. Best results were achieved as follows: (1) an accuracy of 93.7%, a sensitivity of 95.1%, a specificity of 92.0% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 93.5% were obtained for the long-term AF database at 60 s step length. (2) An accuracy of 95.9%, a sensitivity of 95.3%, a specificity of 96.3% and a PPV of 94.1% were obtained for the MIT-BIH AF database at 40 s step length. (3) An accuracy of 90.6%, a sensitivity of 94.5%, a specificity of 90.0% and a PPV of 55.0% were achieved for the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database at 60 s step length. (4) Both accuracy and specificity were 96.0% for the MIT-BIH normal sinus rhythm database at 40 s step length. In conclusion, the intuitive grid map of delta RR intervals offers a new approach to achieving comparable performance with previously published AF detection methods.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0554-2
  • Erratum to: Short tangential arcs in VMAT based breast and chest wall
           radiotherapy lead to conformity of the breast dose with lesser cardiac and
           lung doses: a prospective study of breast conservation and mastectomy
    • Authors: Anusheel Munshi; Biplab Sarkar; Satheeshkumar Anbazhagan; Upendra K. Giri; Harpreet Kaur; Kanan Jassal; Tharmar Ganesh; Bidhu Kalyan Mohanti
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0562-2
  • Both sides now: diagnostic imaging medical physics in two hemispheres
    • Authors: Donald McRobbie
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0561-3
  • The abdominal radiation doses for paediatric patients undergoing X-ray
           examinations at southern Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Jobran Miree Alqahtani
      Abstract: This study aims to estimate radiation doses for paediatric patients undergoing abdominal X-ray examinations in Najran, Saudi Arabia, through evaluation of the entrance surface doses using DoseCal software. Two X-ray units were used at a paediatric referral hospital. A total of 216 patients were examined with an age range between 0 and 7 years. The mean ESDs were found to be 0.042 and 0.101 mGy, for abdomen anteroposterior (AP) and posteroanterior (PA) respectively. The results are useful to the National Centre for Radiation Protection in Saudi Arabia and other professional organizations elsewhere, to set up safety protocols to prevent paediatric patients from needless radiation and to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs).
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0553-3
  • A pilot study on geometrical uncertainties for intra ocular cancers in
    • Authors: Rachitha Antony; Alan Herschtal; Stephen Todd; Claire Phillips; Annette Haworth
      Abstract: A system for stabilising and monitoring eye movements for linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy associated with the mobile eye, the Eye Tracker, was developed. Whilst the Eye Tracker design is based on a previously reported system, the purpose of this study was to confirm that the modified version can be used with clinically acceptable treatment margins. We report the estimates of the margin required to account for inter- and intra-fraction eye motion based on data from 12 consecutive patients treated with the Eye Tracker system in place. Patients were immobilised in a head and neck mask and were required to fixate on a light source. A camera system monitored eye movements relative to CT simulation baseline measurements. The Exactrac system (Brainlab, Feldkirchen, Germany) combined with the Varian TrueBeamSTx (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) confirmed pre- and intra-treatment setup of the head position. Displacement/rotation of the image of the pupil/iris was determined in the lateral and superior-inferior directions using a video display. A standard margin equation was applied to estimate the margin required to account for inter- and intra-fraction eye movement. The average displacement in both directions was 0.1–0.2 mm (0.36 mm SD). All patients maintained a position within 1 mm of the intended position during treatment. Based on a Bayesian estimation of the systematic and treatment errors, accounting for displacements in two-planes and a standard deviation of the penumbral width of 1.3 mm, the estimated margins to achieve coverage of the GTV with the 95% isodose in 90% of patients was found to be less than 1 mm. Small random and systematic uncertainties due to inter- and intra-fraction movement of the eye were achieved with the Eye Tracker. Whilst the estimated margins are small (<1 mm) they need to be considered in addition to contouring and treatment delivery uncertainties.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0551-5
  • Investigation of X-ray focal spot alignment using a jig of novel design
    • Authors: Lockie Yuen; Cameron McLucas
      Abstract: The X-ray focal spot and the centre of the flattening filter should be placed as close as possible to the central axis (CAX) on a linear accelerator (linac) to produce a radially symmetric beam. The aim of this study is to devise a method to easily optimise the focal spot position of Varian linac photon beams generated with a flattening filter. A simple and robust jig was designed and built to be inserted into the largest electron applicator. Accessory and jaw position interlocks were overridden to enable photon beam operation. The jig was made from aluminium and consists of a plate permanently fixed inside a low melting point alloy (LMPA) insert frame and a block machined to suspend an ion chamber below the plate, such that the axis of the chamber is at the linac isocentre. The jig was used to optimise the position of the X-ray beam focal spot with respect to the device central axis (CAX). This was achieved by minimising the percentage change in ionisation chamber signal between collimator rotations from 90° to 270° as position steering was changed. As part of the investigation, in-plane (radial) and cross-plane (transverse) profiles obtained from water phantom scans were used to quantify how large the percentage ionisation change can be before profiles are distorted in the region of the CAX.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0549-z
  • Winning images from the Photography in Medical Physics (PiMP) competition
    • PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0546-2
  • Monte Carlo simulation of the RBE of I-131 radiation using DNA damage as
    • Authors: Ahad Ollah Ezzati; Ali Mahmoud-Pashazadeh; Matthew T. Studenski
      Abstract: In general, a weighting factor of one is applied for low linear energy transfer radiations. However, several studies indicate that relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of low energy photons and electrons is greater than one. The aim of this current study was calculating the RBE of I-131 radiation relative to Co-60 gamma photons in 100 μm spheroid cells using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. These calculations were compared to experimentally measured results. MCNPX2.6 was used to simulate the I-131 and Co-60 irradiation setups and calculate the secondary electron spectra at energies higher than 1 keV with varying oxygen concentrations. The electron spectra at energies lower than 1 keV were obtained by extrapolation (down to 10 eV). The calculated electron spectra were input into the MCDS micro-dosimetric Monte Carlo code to calculate the DSB induction and related RBE. The calculated RBE of I-131 radiation relative to Co-60 photons, as the reference radiation recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), was 1.06, 1.03 and 1.02 for oxygen concentrations of 0, 5 and 100%, respectively. Results of MC simulations indicate the RBE of I-131 is greater than one. This finding, despite a 10% discrepancy with the findings of the previous in vitro study of one of the authors of this paper, reemphasizes that I-131 radiation induces more severe biological damage than current ICRP recommendations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0544-4
  • The impact of smart metal artefact reduction algorithm for use in
           radiotherapy treatment planning
    • Authors: Connor Guilfoile; Peter Rampant; Michael House
      Abstract: The presence of metal artefacts in computed tomography (CT) create issues in radiation oncology. The loss of anatomical information and incorrect Hounsfield unit (HU) values produce inaccuracies in dose calculations, providing suboptimal patient treatment. Metal artefact reduction (MAR) algorithms were developed to combat these problems. This study provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the “Smart MAR” software (General Electric Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA), determining its usefulness in a clinical setting. A detailed analysis was conducted using both patient and phantom data, noting any improvements in HU values and dosimetry with the GE-MAR enabled. This study indicates qualitative improvements in severity of the streak artefacts produced by metals, allowing for easier patient contouring. Furthermore, the GE-MAR managed to recover previously lost anatomical information. Additionally, phantom data showed an improvement in HU value with GE-MAR correction, producing more accurate point dose calculations in the treatment planning system. Overall, the GE-MAR is a useful tool and is suitable for clinical environments.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0543-5
  • Gaming the impact factor: where who cites what, whom and when
    • Authors: Martin Caon
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0547-1
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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