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ENGINEERING (1197 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
  [SJR: 0.293]   [H-I: 19]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0158-9938 - ISSN (Online) 1879-5447
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Multiple authorship of scientific manuscripts
    • Authors: Martin Caon
      Pages: 7 - 9
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-016-0516-0
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2017)
  • Comparison between X-rays spectra and their effective energies in small
           animal CT tomographic imaging and dosimetry
    • Authors: Mahdjoub Hamdi; Malika Mimi; M’hamed Bentourkia
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Abstract Small animal CT imaging and dosimetry usually rely on X-ray radiation produced by X-ray tubes. These X-rays typically cover a large energy range. In this study, we compared poly-energetic X-ray spectra against estimated equivalent (effective) mono-energetic beams with the same number of simulated photons for small animal CT imaging and dosimetry applications. Two poly-energetic X-ray spectra were generated from a tungsten anode at 50 and 120 kVp. The corresponding effective mono-energetic beams were established as 36 keV for the 50 kVp spectrum and 49.5 keV for the 120 kVp spectrum. To assess imaging applications, we investigated the spatial resolution by a tungsten wire, and the contrast-to-noise ratio in a reference phantom and in a realistic mouse phantom. For dosimetry investigation, we calculated the absorbed dose in a segmented digital mouse atlas in the skin, fat, heart and bone tissues. Differences of 2.1 and 2.6% in spatial resolution were respectively obtained between the 50 and 120 kVp poly-energetic spectra and their respective 36 and 49.5 keV mono-energetic beams. The differences in contrast-to-noise ratio between the poly-energetic 50 kVp spectrum and its corresponding mono-energetic 36 keV beam for air, fat, brain and bone were respectively −2.9, −0.2, 11.2 and −4.8%, and similarly between the 120 kVp and its effective energy 49.5 keV: −11.3, −20.2, −4.2 and −13.5%. Concerning the absorbed dose, for the lower X-ray beam energies, 50 kVp against 36 keV, the poly-energetic radiation doses were higher than the mono-energetic doses. Instead, for the higher X-ray beam energies, 120 kVp and 49.5 keV, the absorbed dose to the bones and lungs were higher for the mono-energetic 49.5 keV. The intensity and energy of the X-ray beam spectrum have an impact on both imaging and dosimetry in small animal studies. Simulations with mono-energetic beams should take into account these differences in order to study biological effects or to be compared to experimental data.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-016-0514-2
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2017)
  • Development and verification of a time delivery model for prostate
           intensity modulated radiotherapy using a Siemens ® Artiste™ 160
           Multi-leaf Collimator Linac
    • Authors: Nicola Fourie; Omer A. Ali; William I. D. Rae
      Pages: 51 - 56
      Abstract: Abstract Time delivery models thus far proposed for prediction of radiotherapy delivery times are not applicable to all makes of Linac. Our purpose was to develop a time delivery model, which would also be applicable for a Siemens® ARTISTE™ 160 Multi-leaf Collimator (MLC) linear accelerator (Linac) and validate the model using prostate Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. To our knowledge, a time delivery model has not yet been proposed for a Siemens® ARTISTE™ 160 MLC Linac. We used the principles of the time delivery model created for a Varian® Linac and added the radio frequency (RF) wave component, and the MLC delay time to the MLC travel time component. Machine input parameters were confirmed using a WIN® stopwatch. We tested our derived model by selecting ten random 15 MV prostate IMRT treatment plans from our clinic. The delivery time was measured three times, once per day on three different days. The calculated and measured times were compared by means of correlation. The time delivery ranged between 314 and 480 s. The largest percentage difference was 3.3% (16 s) and the smallest 0.2% (1 s); the mean percentage difference was 1.9%. MLC delay and MLC speed, representing segment delivery, had the greatest uncertainties. From the successfully verified time delivery model created, it is concluded that the inter-segmental component of the process is most time-consuming. In order to decrease delivery time it is proposed that the total segments of a treatment plan be decreased.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-016-0518-y
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2017)
  • Biomechanical investigation of titanium elastic nail prebending for
           treating diaphyseal long bone fractures
    • Authors: Yen-Nien Chen; Pei-Yuan Lee; Chih-Wei Chang; Yi-Hung Ho; Yao-Te Peng; Chih-Han Chang; Chun-Ting Li
      Pages: 115 - 126
      Abstract: Abstract This study numerically investigated the deformation of titanium elastic nails prebent at various degrees during implantation into the intramedullary canal of fractured bones and the mechanism by which this prebending influenced the stability of the fractured bone. Three degrees of prebending the implanted portions of the nails were used: equal to, two times, and three times the diameter of the intramedullary canal. Furthermore, a simulated diaphyseal fracture with a 5-mm gap was created in the middle shaft portion of the bone fixed with two elastic nails in a double C-type configuration. End caps were simulated using a constraint equation. To confirm that the simulation process is able to present the mechanical response of the nail inside the intramedullary, an experiment was conducted by using sawbone for validation. The results indicated that increasing the degrees of nail prebending facilitated straightening the nails against the inner aspect of canal after implantation, with increase in stability under torsion. Furthermore, reducing nail prebending caused a larger portion of the nails to move closer to the loading site and center of bone after implantation; the use of end caps prevented the nail tips from collapsing and increased axial stability. End cap use was critical for preventing the nail tips from collapsing and for increasing the stability of the nails prebent at a degree equal to the diameter of the canal with insufficient frictional force between the nail and canal. Therefore, titanium elastic nail prebending in a double C-type configuration with a degree three times the diameter of the canal represents a superior solution for treating transverse fractures without a gap, whereas that with a degree equal to the diameter of the intramedullary canal and combined with end cap use represents an advanced solution for treating comminuted fractures in a diaphyseal long bone fracture.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-016-0509-z
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2017)
  • Design, simulation and modelling of auxiliary exoskeleton to improve human
           gait cycle
    • Authors: O. Ashkani; A. Maleki; N. Jamshidi
      Pages: 137 - 144
      Abstract: Abstract Exoskeleton is a walking assistance device that improves human gait cycle through providing auxiliary force and transferring physical load to the stronger muscles. This device takes the natural state of organ and follows its natural movement. Exoskeleton functions as an auxiliary device to help those with disabilities in hip and knee such as devotees, elderly farmers and agricultural machinery operators who suffer from knee complications. In this research, an exoskeleton designed with two screw jacks at knee and hip joints. To simulate extension and flexion movements of the leg joints, bearings were used at the end of hip and knee joints. The generated torque and motion angles of these joints obtained as well as the displacement curves of screw jacks in the gait cycle. Then, the human gait cycle was simulated in stance and swing phases and the obtained torque curves were compared. The results indicated that they followed the natural circle of the generated torque in joints with a little difference from each other. The maximum displacement obtained 4 and 6 cm in hip and knee joints jack respectively. The maximum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in foot contact phase. Also the minimum torques in hip and knee joints were generated in toe off and heel off phases respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-016-0502-6
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2017)
  • The impact of patient table on size-specific dose estimate (SSDE)
    • Authors: Choirul Anam; Freddy Haryanto; Rena Widita; Idam Arif; Geoff Dougherty; Donald McLean
      Pages: 153 - 158
      Abstract: Abstract The use of parameters water equivalent diameter (D W ) and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) are becoming increasingly established as a recognised method to relate patient dose from a CT examination to the dose indicator volume CT dose index (CTDIVOL). However, the role of the attenuation due to the patient table in these estimations requires careful consideration and is the subject of this study. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of a minimal part of the patient table when calculating the D W and SSDE. We investigated 164 patients who had undergone CT examinations for the pelvis, abdomen, thorax and head. We subsequently calculated D W and SSDE using two methods: one using a small circular region of interest (ROI) including a minimal part of the patient table and the other using a ROI fitted to the patient border alone. The results showed that the water equivalent diameter calculated with the table included in the ROI (D W,t ) is greater, compared to that without the consideration of the patient table (D W,nt ), by 1.5–6.2% depending on the anatomy being imaged. On the other hand, the SSDE calculated with inclusion of the patient table (SSDEt) is smaller than otherwise (SSDEnt) by 1.0–5.5% again depending on the anatomy being imaged. The effect of the patient table on D W and SSDE in the thorax CT examination was statistically significant, but its effect on D W and SSDE in the other examinations of head, pelvis and abdomen was relatively small and not statistically significant.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-016-0497-z
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2017)
  • An assessment of radiation oncology medical physicists’ perspectives
           on undertaking research
    • Authors: Martin A. Ebert; Georgia K. B. Halkett; Melissa Berg; David Cutt; Michael Davis; Desley Hegney; Michael House; Michele Krawiec; Rachel Kearvell; Leanne Lester; Sharon Maresse; Peter McLoone; Jan McKay
      Pages: 173 - 180
      Abstract: Abstract As part of a study of the radiation oncology workforce, radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) who had worked in Australia were surveyed regarding their attitudes to participating in research. Responses from 88 ROMPs were available for analysis, representing a broad mix of employment situations and research experience. Greater than 70% of ROMPs described their involvement in research as “liking it” or “loving it”, with associated identified benefits including skills development, job satisfaction and career progression. Over half of respondents agreed that involvement in research inspired them to stay in their profession. However, lack of time, support and motivation were all identified as barriers to participation in research. Areas of research interest were identified. This study highlights the importance of a research culture for job satisfaction and staff retention.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-016-0505-3
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2017)
  • Evaluation of the influences of various force magnitudes and
           configurations on scoliotic curve correction using finite element analysis
    • Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karimi; Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi; Ali Mohammadi; Anthony McGarry
      Pages: 231 - 236
      Abstract: Abstract Scoliosis is a lateral curvature in the normally straight vertical line of the spine, and the curvature can be moderate to severe. Different treatment can be used based on severity and age of subjects, but most common treatment for this disease is using orthosis. To design orthosis types of force arrangement can be varied, from transverse loads to vertical loads or combination of them. But it is not well introduced how orthoses control scoliotic curve and how to achieve the maximum correction based on force configurations and magnitude. Therefore, it was aimed to determine the effect of various loads configurations and magnitudes on curve correction of a degenerative scoliotic subject. A scoliotic subject participated in this study. The CT-Scan of the subject was used to produce 3D model of spine. The 3D model of spine was produced by Mimics software and the finite element analysis and deformation of scoliotic curve of the spine under seven different forces and in three different conditions was determined by ABAQUS software. The Cobb angle in scoliosis curve decreased significantly by applying forces. In each condition depends on different forces, different corrections have been achieved. It can be concluded that the configurations of the force application mentioned in this study is effective to decrease the scoliosis curve. Although it is a case study, it can be used for a vast number of subjects to predict the correction of scoliosis curve before orthotic treatment. Moreover, it is recommended that this method and the outputs can be compared with clinical findings.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-016-0501-7
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2017)
  • Echocardiographic assessment of long-term hemodynamic characteristics of
           mechanical mitral valve prostheses with different mitral valvular diseases
    • Authors: Xiliang Zhu; Qian Li; Hong Tang; Xijun Xiao
      Pages: 259 - 266
      Abstract: Abstract Mitral stenosis (MS) and mitral insufficiency (MI) have different pre-operative hemodynamic characteristics. However, it is unclear if there are differences in long-term echocardiographic characteristics of MS and MI patients after mechanical mitral valve replacement. This study is to compare long-term echocardiographic results of mechanical mitral valve prostheses between MS and MI patients. From January 2003 to January 2009, a total of 199 consecutive patients were recruited in this study. Patients were classified as group MS (n = 123) and MI (n = 76) according to the manifestation of mitral valvular disease. The mean age for patients was 50.1 ± 10.5 years and follow-up time was 7.2 ± 2.0 years. The MS after operation were more likely to experience atrial fibrillation (p = 0.002). The New York Heart Association (NYHA) class in MI showed a greater improvement (p = 0.006) than in MS. The left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) (p = 0.010) and stroke volume (SV) (p = 0.000) in MI were still larger than that in MS patients. These differences did not disappear with time after operation. The long-term echocardiographic results of mechanical mitral valve prostheses between MS and MI patients are significantly different. Over a long-term follow up, MI patients still have a larger LVEDD and SV than MS, and associated with a greater improvement of NYHA class.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-016-0521-3
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 1 (2017)
  • A comparative evaluation of Ac225 vs Bi213 as therapeutic radioisotopes
           for targeted alpha therapy for cancer
    • Authors: Barry J. Allen
      Abstract: Abstract The Ac225:Bi213 generator is the mainstay for preclinical and clinical studies of targeted alpha therapy for cancer. Both Ac225 (four alpha decays) and Bi213 (one alpha decay) are being used to label targeting vectors to form the alpha immunoconjugate for cancer therapy. This paper considers the radiobiological and economic aspects of Ac225 vs Bi213 as the preferred radioisotope for preclinical and clinical TAT. The in vitro and in vivo evidence and the role of DNA repair processes is examined. The maximum tolerance dose and therapeutic gain are endpoints for comparison. Ac225 has the higher therapeutic gain, when normalised to equal alpha production. However, the slow repair of double strand breaks reduces this advantage. Comparisons are made for the specific energy deposition in targeted and non-targeted cells, for endothelial cells by direct or indirect targeting, the need for sparing agents to save critical organs and cost considerations for preclinical and clinical trials and clinical use. Overall, Ac225 is found to have the better or equal performance to Bi213 at a much lower cost.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0534-6
  • High dose rate brachytherapy source measurement intercomparison
    • Authors: Joel Poder; Ryan L. Smith; Nikki Shelton; May Whitaker; Duncan Butler; Annette Haworth
      Abstract: Abstract This work presents a comparison of air kerma rate (AKR) measurements performed by multiple radiotherapy centres for a single HDR 192Ir source. Two separate groups (consisting of 15 centres) performed AKR measurements at one of two host centres in Australia. Each group travelled to one of the host centres and measured the AKR of a single 192Ir source using their own equipment and local protocols. Results were compared to the 192Ir source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer by means of a ratio of measured to certified AKR. The comparisons showed remarkably consistent results with the maximum deviation in measurement from the decay-corrected source certificate value being 1.1%. The maximum percentage difference between any two measurements was less than 2%. The comparisons demonstrated the consistency of well-chambers used for 192Ir AKR measurements in Australia, despite the lack of a local calibration service, and served as a valuable focal point for the exchange of ideas and dosimetry methods.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0542-6
  • The effect of cement on hip stem fixation: a biomechanical study
    • Authors: Talip Çelik; İbrahim Mutlu; Arif Özkan; Yasin Kişioğlu
      Abstract: Abstract This study presents the numerical analysis of stem fixation in hip surgery using with/without cement methods since the use of cement is still controversial based on the clinical studies in the literature. Many different factors such as stress shielding, aseptic loosening, material properties of the stem, surgeon experiences etc. play an important role in the failure of the stem fixations. The stem fixation methods, cemented and uncemented, were evaluated in terms of mechanical failure aspects using computerized finite element method. For the modeling processes, three dimensional (3D) femur model was generated from computerized tomography (CT) images taken from a patient using the MIMICS Software. The design of the stem was also generated as 3D CAD model using the design parameters taken from the manufacturer catalogue. These 3D CAD models were generated and combined with/without cement considering the surgical procedure using SolidWorks program and then imported into ANSYS Workbench Software. Two different material properties, CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V, for the stem model and Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) for the cement were assigned. The material properties of the femur were described according to a density calculated from the CT images. Body weight and muscle forces were applied on the femur and the distal femur was fixed for the boundary conditions. The calculations of the stress distributions of the models including cement and relative movements of the contacts examined to evaluate the effects of the cement and different stem material usage on the failure of stem fixation. According to the results, the use of cement for the stem fixation reduces the stress shielding but increases the aseptic loosening depending on the cement crack formations. Additionally, using the stiffer material for the stem reduces the cement stress but increases the stress shielding. Based on the results obtained in the study, even when taking the disadvantages into account, the cement usage is more suitable for the hip fixations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0539-1
  • Relative biological effectiveness in a proton spread-out Bragg peak formed
           by pencil beam scanning mode
    • Authors: Anna Michaelidesová; Jana Vachelová; Monika Puchalska; Kateřina Pachnerová Brabcová; Vladimír Vondráček; Lembit Sihver; Marie Davídková
      Abstract: Abstract In recent years, there is an increased interest in using scanning modes in proton therapy, due to the more conformal dose distributions, thanks to the spot-weighted dose delivery. The dose rate in each spot is however much higher than the dose rate when using passive irradiation modes, which could affect the cell response. The purpose of this work was to investigate how the relative biological effectiveness changes along the spread-out Bragg peak created by protons delivered by the pencil beam scanning mode. Cell survival and micronuclei formation were investigated in four positions along the spread-out Bragg peak for various doses. Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the dose-averaged linear energy transfer values in the irradiation positions. The cell survival was found to decrease the deeper the sample was placed in the spread-out Bragg peak, which corresponds to the higher linear energy transfer values found using Monte Carlo simulations. The micronuclei frequencies indicate more complex cell injuries at that distal position compared to the proximal part of the spread-out Bragg peak. The relative biological effectiveness determined in this study varies significantly and systematically from 1.1, which is recommended value by the International Commission on Radiation Units, in all the studied positions. In the distal position of spread-out Bragg peak the relative biological effectiveness values were found to be 2.05 ± 0.44, 1.85 ± 0.42, 1.53 ± 0.38 for survival levels 90, 50 and 10%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0540-8
  • Expert system classifier for adaptive radiation therapy in prostate cancer
    • Authors: Gabriele Guidi; Nicola Maffei; Claudio Vecchi; Giovanni Gottardi; Alberto Ciarmatori; Grazia Maria Mistretta; Ercole Mazzeo; Patrizia Giacobazzi; Frank Lohr; Tiziana Costi
      Abstract: Abstract A classifier-based expert system was developed to compare delivered and planned radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients. Its aim is to automatically identify patients that can benefit from an adaptive treatment strategy. The study predominantly addresses dosimetric uncertainties and critical issues caused by motion of hollow organs. 1200 MVCT images of 38 prostate adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed. An automatic daily re-contouring of structures (i.e. rectum, bladder and femoral heads), rigid/deformable registration and dose warping was carried out to simulate dose and volume variations during therapy. Support vector machine, K-means clustering algorithms and similarity index analysis were used to create an unsupervised predictive tool to detect incorrect setup and/or morphological changes as a consequence of inadequate patient preparation due to stochastic physiological changes, supporting clinical decision-making. After training on a dataset that was considered sufficiently dosimetrically stable, the system identified two equally sized macro clusters with distinctly different volumetric and dosimetric baseline properties and defined thresholds for these two clusters. Application to the test cohort resulted in 25% of the patients located outside the two macro clusters thresholds and which were therefore suspected to be dosimetrically unstable. In these patients, over the treatment course, mean volumetric changes of 30 and 40% for rectum and bladder were detected which possibly represents values justifying adjustment of patient preparation, frequent re-planning or a plan-of-the-day strategy. Based on our research, by combining daily IGRT images with rigid/deformable registration and dose warping, it is possible to apply a machine learning approach to the clinical setting obtaining useful information for a decision regarding an individualized adaptive strategy. Especially for treatments influenced by the movement of hollow organs, this could reduce inadequate treatments and possibly reduce toxicity, thereby increasing overall RT efficacy.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0535-5
  • EEG-based alpha neurofeedback training for mood enhancement
    • Authors: Swee Wu Phneah; Humaira Nisar
      Abstract: Abstract The aim of this paper is to develop a preliminary neurofeedback system to improve the mood of the subjects using audio signals by enhancing their alpha brainwaves. Assessment of the effect of music on the human subjects is performed using three methods; subjective assessment of mood with the help of a questionnaire, the effect on brain by analysing EEG signals, and the effect on body by physiological assessment. In this study, two experiments have been designed. The first experiment was to determine the short-term effect of music on soothing human subjects, whereas the second experiment was to determine its long-term effect. Two types of music were used in the first experiment, the favourite music selected by the participants and a relaxing music with alpha wave binaural beats. The research findings showed that the relaxing music has a better soothing effect on the participants psychologically and physiologically. However, the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) results showed that the short-term soothing effect of both favourite music and relaxing music was not significant in changing the mean alpha absolute power and mean physiological measures (blood pressure and heart rate) at the significance level of 0.05. The second experiment was somewhat similar to an alpha neurofeedback training whereby the participants trained their brains to produce more alpha brainwaves by listening to the relaxing music with alpha wave binaural beats for a duration of 30 min daily. The results showed that the relaxing music has a long-term psychological and physiological effect on soothing the participants, as can be observed from the increase in alpha power and decrease in physiological measures after each session of training. The training was found to be effective in increasing the alpha power significantly [F(2,12) = 11.5458 and p = 0.0016], but no significant reduction in physiological measures was observed at the significance level of 0.05.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0538-2
  • Corpuls cpr resuscitation device generates superior emulated flows and
           pressures than LUCAS II in a mechanical thorax model
    • Authors: S. Eichhorn; A. Mendoza Garcia; M. Polski; J. Spindler; A. Stroh; M. Heller; R. Lange; M. Krane
      Abstract: Abstract The provision of sufficient chest compression is among the most important factors influencing patient survival during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). One approach to optimize the quality of chest compressions is to use mechanical-resuscitation devices. The aim of this study was to compare a new device for chest compression (corpuls cpr) with an established device (LUCAS II). We used a mechanical thorax model consisting of a chest with variable stiffness and an integrated heart chamber which generated blood flow dependent on the compression depth and waveform. The method of blood-flow generation could be changed between direct cardiac-compression mode and thoracic-pump mode. Different chest-stiffness settings and compression modes were tested to generate various blood-flow profiles. Additionally, an endurance test at high stiffness was performed to measure overall performance and compression consistency. Both resuscitation machines were able to compress the model thorax with a frequency of 100/min and a depth of 5 cm, independent of the chosen chest stiffness. Both devices passed the endurance test without difficulty. The corpuls cpr device was able to generate about 10–40% more blood flow than the LUCAS II device, depending on the model settings. In most scenarios, the corpuls cpr device also generated a higher blood pressure than the LUCAS II. The peak compression forces during CPR were about 30% higher using the corpuls cpr device than with the LUCAS II. In this study, the corpuls cpr device had improved blood flow and pressure outcomes than the LUCAS II device. Further examination in an animal model is required to prove the findings of this preliminary study.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0537-3
  • How many physicists does it take to test a mammography unit?
    • Authors: Jennifer Diffey
      PubDate: 2017-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0531-9
  • Winning images from the photography in medical physics (PiMP) competition
    • PubDate: 2017-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0525-7
  • Addendum to 39(1) Special section: Medical imaging and insights into the
           mechanics of heart and circulatory physiology and dysfunction
    • Authors: Martin Caon
      PubDate: 2017-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0528-4
  • Practical time considerations for optically stimulated luminescent
           dosimetry (OSLD) in total body irradiation
    • Authors: Martin Butson; Mamoon Haque; Leon Smith; Ethan Butson; David Odgers; Dane Pope; Tina Gorjiana; May Whitaker; Johnny Morales; Angela Hong; Robin Hill
      Abstract: Abstract Total body irradiation (TBI) treatments are used to treat the whole body in preparation for hematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation. Our standard clinical regimen is a 12 Gy in 6 fraction, bi-daily technique using 6 MV X-rays at an extended Source-to-Surface distance (SSD) of 300 cm. Utilizing these characteristics, the beam dose rate is reduced below 7 cGy/min as is standard for TBI treatment. Dose received by the patient is monitored using optically stimulated luminescent dosimetry (OSLD). This work presents some practical calibration corrections based on time-dependant factors for OSLD calibration related to TBI procedure. Results have shown that a negligible difference is seen in OSL sensitivity for 6 MV X-rays irradiated in standard SSD (100 cm) and high dose rate (600 cGy/min) conditions compared to extended SSD (300 cm) and low TBI dose rate (6 cGy/min) conditions. Results have also shown that whilst short term signal fading occurs in the OSL after irradiation at a high dose rate (37% reduction in signal in the first 15 min), thereafter, negligible differences are seen in the OSL signal between 600 and 7 cGy/min irradiations. Thus a direct comparison can be made between calibration OSLs and clinical TBI OSLs between 15 min and 2 h. Finally a table is presented to provide corrections between calibration OSL readout and clinical TBI dose readout for a period up to 7 days. Combining these three results allows users to pre-irradiate their calibration OSLs at standard dose rate and SSD, up to 1 week prior to clinical treatment, and still provide accurate in-vivo dosimetry. This can help with time saving and work efficiency in the clinic.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-016-0504-4
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