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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2383 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (204 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (199 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (109 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1248 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (396 journals)
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    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (74 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (97 journals)

ENGINEERING (1248 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 275)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 247)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 185)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
  [SJR: 0.293]   [H-I: 19]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0158-9938 - ISSN (Online) 1879-5447
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Design of an optimum Poincaré plane for extracting meaningful samples
           from EEG signals
    • Authors: Babak Sharif; Amir Homayoun Jafari
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Biosignals are considered as important sources of data for diagnosing and detecting abnormalities, and modeling dynamics in the body. These signals are usually analyzed using features taken from time and frequency domain. In theory‚ these dynamics can also be analyzed utilizing Poincaré plane that intersects system’s trajectory. However‚ selecting an appropriate Poincaré plane is a crucial part of extracting best Poincaré samples. There is no unique way to choose a Poincaré plane‚ because it is highly dependent to the system dynamics. In this study, a new algorithm is introduced that automatically selects an optimum Poincaré plane able to transfer maximum information from EEG time series to a set of Poincaré samples. In this algorithm‚ EEG time series are first embedded; then a parametric Poincaré plane is designed and finally the parameters of the plane are optimized using genetic algorithm. The presented algorithm is tested on EEG signals and the optimum Poincaré plane is obtained with more than 99% data information transferred. Results are compared with some typical method of creating Poinare samples and showed that the transferred information using with this method is higher. The generated samples can be used for feature extraction and further analysis.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0599-2
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Development of GATE Monte Carlo simulation for a CsI pixelated gamma
           camera dedicated to high resolution animal SPECT
    • Authors: Payvand Taherparvar; Alireza Sadremomtaz
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: GATE is currently considered in scintigraphic imaging as a powerful tool to develop, design and optimize nuclear medicine modalities. This paper describes the GATE simulation of a pixelated gamma camera which is dedicated to high resolution of small animals imaging. It consists of a CsI(Na) crystal array coupled to position sensitive photomultiplier tube. The simulation model includes photon tracking through low energy high resolution hexagonal parallel holes collimator, CsI(Na) pixelated crystal, back-compartment, and camera shielding. Simulations were compared with experimental results by some criteria such as energy spectrum, energy resolution, spatial resolution, sensitivity and count profiles obtained from line and point sources imaging. The acquired energy resolution show good agreement with measured spectra. Difference between calculated and experimental values is about 0.3% for absolute sensitivity measurement. The result of the image uniformity is more consistent after implementation of non-uniformity correction. These values were about 1.3 and 1.2% for experimental and simulation study in the central field of view, respectively. Measurements showed that the spatial resolutions differences at the head surface along the long dimensions of gamma camera for simulation and experimental differed by no more than 4%.Differences along the short axis were about 6%. The FWHMs of images of point and line sources show good consistency between experimental images and corresponding simulated ones. The difference between experimental and simulated system parameters was within 11%. Our results demonstrate the ability and flexibility of the Monte Carlo simulation for modeling pixelated gamma camera with position sensitive detector by selecting the appropriate parameters for digitizer chain and collimator position on the detector surface.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0607-6
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Detection of electrocardiographic changes in partial epileptic patients
           using local binary pattern based composite feature
    • Authors: T. Sunil Kumar; Vivek Kanhangad
      Pages: 209 - 216
      Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel method for detecting electrocardiographic (ECG) changes in partial epileptic patients using a composite feature set. At the core of our approach is a local binary pattern (LBP) based feature representation containing a set of statistical features derived from the distribution of LBPs of the ECG signal. In order to enhance the discriminating power, a set of statistical features are also extracted from the original ECG signal. The composite feature is then generated by combining the two homogeneous feature sets. The discriminating ability of the proposed composite feature is investigated using two different classifiers namely, support vector machine and a bagged ensemble of decision trees. Results from the experimental evaluation on the publicly available MIT-BIH ECG dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed features over conventional histogram based LBP features. Our results also show that the proposed approach provides better classification accuracy than methods existing in the literature for classification of normal and partial epileptic beats in ECG.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0605-8
      Issue No: Vol. 41, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Winning images from the Photography in Medical Physics (PiMP) competition
    • PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0639-6
       
  • Alexander fractional differential window filter for ECG denoising
    • Authors: Atul Kumar Verma; Indu Saini; Barjinder Singh Saini
      Abstract: The electrocardiogram (ECG) non-invasively monitors the electrical activities of the heart. During the process of recording and transmission, ECG signals are often corrupted by various types of noises. Minimizations of these noises facilitate accurate detection of various anomalies. In the present paper, Alexander fractional differential window (AFDW) filter is proposed for ECG signal denoising. The designed filter is based on the concept of generalized Alexander polynomial and the R–L differential equation of fractional calculus. This concept is utilized to formulate a window that acts as a forward filter. Thereafter, the backward filter is constructed by reversing the coefficients of the forward filter. The proposed AFDW filter is then obtained by averaging of the forward and backward filter coefficients. The performance of the designed AFDW filter is validated by adding the various type of noise to the original ECG signal obtained from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The two non-diagnostic measure, i.e., SNR, MSE, and one diagnostic measure, i.e., wavelet energy based diagnostic distortion (WEDD) have been employed for the quantitative evaluation of the designed filter. Extensive experimentations on all the 48-records of MIT-BIH arrhythmia database resulted in average SNR of 22.014 ± 3.806365, 14.703 ± 3.790275, 13.3183 ± 3.748230; average MSE of 0.001458 ± 0.00028, 0.0078 ± 0.000319, 0.01061 ± 0.000472; and average WEDD value of 0.020169 ± 0.01306, 0.1207 ± 0.061272, 0.1432 ± 0.073588, for ECG signal contaminated by the power line, random, and the white Gaussian noise respectively. A new metric named as morphological power preservation measure (MPPM) is also proposed that account for the power preservance (as indicated by PSD plots) and the QRS morphology. The proposed AFDW filter retained much of the original (clean) signal power without any significant morphological distortion as validated by MPPM measure that were 0.0126, 0.08493, and 0.10336 for the ECG signal corrupted by the different type of noises. The versatility of the proposed AFDW filter is also validated by its application on the ECG signal from MIT-BIH database corrupted by the combination of the noises as well as on the real noisy ECG signals are taken from MIT-BIH ID database. Furthermore, the comparative study has also been done between the proposed AFDW filter and existing state of the art denoising algorithms. The results clearly prove the supremacy of our proposed AFDW filter.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0642-y
       
  • ECG-derived respiration based on iterated Hilbert transform and Hilbert
           vibration decomposition
    • Authors: Hemant Sharma; K. K. Sharma
      Abstract: Monitoring of the respiration using the electrocardiogram (ECG) is desirable for the simultaneous study of cardiac activities and the respiration in the aspects of comfort, mobility, and cost of the healthcare system. This paper proposes a new approach for deriving the respiration from single-lead ECG based on the iterated Hilbert transform (IHT) and the Hilbert vibration decomposition (HVD). The ECG signal is first decomposed into the multicomponent sinusoidal signals using the IHT technique. Afterward, the lower order amplitude components obtained from the IHT are filtered using the HVD to extract the respiration information. Experiments are performed on the Fantasia and Apnea-ECG datasets. The performance of the proposed ECG-derived respiration (EDR) approach is compared with the existing techniques including the principal component analysis (PCA), R-peak amplitudes (RPA), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), slopes of the QRS complex, and R-wave angle. The proposed technique showed the higher median values of correlation (first and third quartile) for both the Fantasia and Apnea-ECG datasets as 0.699 (0.55, 0.82) and 0.57 (0.40, 0.73), respectively. Also, the proposed algorithm provided the lowest values of the mean absolute error and the average percentage error computed from the EDR and reference (recorded) respiration signals for both the Fantasia and Apnea-ECG datasets as 1.27 and 9.3%, and 1.35 and 10.2%, respectively. In the experiments performed over different age group subjects of the Fantasia dataset, the proposed algorithm provided effective results in the younger population but outperformed the existing techniques in the case of elderly subjects. The proposed EDR technique has the advantages over existing techniques in terms of the better agreement in the respiratory rates and specifically, it reduces the need for an extra step required for the detection of fiducial points in the ECG for the estimation of respiration which makes the process effective and less-complex. The above performance results obtained from two different datasets validate that the proposed approach can be used for monitoring of the respiration using single-lead ECG.
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0640-0
       
  • Fully convolutional networks (FCNs)-based segmentation method for
           colorectal tumors on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images
    • Authors: Junming Jian; Fei Xiong; Wei Xia; Rui Zhang; Jinhui Gu; Xiaodong Wu; Xiaochun Meng; Xin Gao
      Abstract: Segmentation of colorectal tumors is the basis of preoperative prediction, staging, and therapeutic response evaluation. Due to the blurred boundary between lesions and normal colorectal tissue, it is hard to realize accurate segmentation. Routinely manual or semi-manual segmentation methods are extremely tedious, time-consuming, and highly operator-dependent. In the framework of FCNs, a segmentation method for colorectal tumor was presented. Normalization was applied to reduce the differences among images. Borrowing from transfer learning, VGG-16 was employed to extract features from normalized images. We conducted five side-output blocks from the last convolutional layer of each block of VGG-16 along the network, these side-output blocks can deep dive multiscale features, and produced corresponding predictions. Finally, all of the predictions from side-output blocks were fused to determine the final boundaries of the tumors. A quantitative comparison of 2772 colorectal tumor manual segmentation results from T2-weighted magnetic resonance images shows that the average Dice similarity coefficient, positive predictive value, specificity, sensitivity, Hammoude distance, and Hausdorff distance were 83.56, 82.67, 96.75, 87.85%, 0.2694, and 8.20, respectively. The proposed method is superior to U-net in colorectal tumor segmentation (P < 0.05). There is no difference between cross-entropy loss and Dice-based loss in colorectal tumor segmentation (P > 0.05). The results indicate that the introduction of FCNs contributed to accurate segmentation of colorectal tumors. This method has the potential to replace the present time-consuming and nonreproducible manual segmentation method.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0636-9
       
  • A prospective case study of high boost, high frequency emphasis and
           two-way diffusion filters on MR images of glioblastoma multiforme
    • Authors: B. N. Anoop; Justin Joseph; J. Williams; J. Sivaraman Jayaraman; Ansa Maria Sebastian; Praveer Sihota
      Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) appears undifferentiated and non-enhancing on magnetic resonance (MR) imagery. As MRI does not offer adequate image quality to allow visual discrimination of the boundary between GBM focus and perifocal vasogenic edema, surgical and radiotherapy planning become difficult. The presence of noise in MR images influences the computation of radiation dosage and precludes the edge based segmentation schemes in automated software for radiation treatment planning. The performance of techniques meant for simultaneous denoising and sharpening, like high boost filters, high frequency emphasize filters and two-way anisotropic diffusion is sensitive to the selection of their operational parameters. Improper selection may cause overshoot and saturation artefacts or noisy grey level transitions can be left unsuppressed. This paper is a prospective case study of the performance of high boost filters, high frequency emphasize filters and two-way anisotropic diffusion on MR images of GBM, for their ability to suppress noise from homogeneous regions and to selectively sharpen the true morphological edges. An objective method for determining the optimum value of the operational parameters of these techniques is also demonstrated. Saturation Evaluation Index (SEI), Perceptual Sharpness Index (PSI), Edge Model based Blur Metric (EMBM), Sharpness of Ridges (SOR), Structural Similarity Index Metric (SSIM), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Noise Suppression Ratio (NSR) are the objective functions used. They account for overshoot and saturation artefacts, sharpness of the image, width of salient edges (haloes), susceptibility of edge quality to noise, feature preservation and degree of noise suppression. Two-way diffusion is found to be superior to others in all these respects. The SEI, PSI, EMBM, SOR, SSIM, PSNR and NSR exhibited by two-way diffusion are 0.0016 ± 0.0012, 0.2049 ± 0.0187, 0.0905 ± 0.0408, 2.64 × 1012 ± 1.6 × 1012, 0.9955 ± 0.0024, 38.214 ± 5.2145 and 0.3547 ± 0.0069, respectively.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0638-7
       
  • Investigation of contrast-enhanced subtracted breast CT images with MAP-EM
           based on projection-based weighting imaging
    • Authors: Zhengdong Zhou; Shaolin Guan; Runchao Xin; Jianbo Li
      Abstract: Contrast-enhanced subtracted breast computer tomography (CESBCT) images acquired using energy-resolved photon counting detector can be helpful to enhance the visibility of breast tumors. In such technology, one challenge is the limited number of photons in each energy bin, thereby possibly leading to high noise in separate images from each energy bin, the projection-based weighted image, and the subtracted image. In conventional low-dose CT imaging, iterative image reconstruction provides a superior signal-to-noise compared with the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. In this paper, maximum a posteriori expectation maximization (MAP-EM) based on projection-based weighting imaging for reconstruction of CESBCT images acquired using an energy-resolving photon counting detector is proposed, and its performance was investigated in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The simulation study shows that MAP-EM based on projection-based weighting imaging can improve the CNR in CESBCT images by 117.7%–121.2% compared with FBP based on projection-based weighting imaging method. When compared with the energy-integrating imaging that uses the MAP-EM algorithm, projection-based weighting imaging that uses the MAP-EM algorithm can improve the CNR of CESBCT images by 10.5%–13.3%. In conclusion, MAP-EM based on projection-based weighting imaging shows significant improvement the CNR of the CESBCT image compared with FBP based on projection-based weighting imaging, and MAP-EM based on projection-based weighting imaging outperforms MAP-EM based on energy-integrating imaging for CESBCT imaging.
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0634-y
       
  • Study of continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse transit time,
           heart rate and photoplethysmography-derived hemodynamic covariates
    • Authors: Jingjie Feng; Zhongyi Huang; Congcong Zhou; Xuesong Ye
      Abstract: It is widely recognized that pulse transit time (PTT) can track blood pressure (BP) over short periods of time, and hemodynamic covariates such as heart rate, stiffness index may also contribute to BP monitoring. In this paper, we derived a proportional relationship between BP and PPT−2 and proposed an improved method adopting hemodynamic covariates in addition to PTT for continuous BP estimation. We divided 28 subjects from the Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care database into two groups (with/without cardiovascular diseases) and utilized a machine learning strategy based on regularized linear regression (RLR) to construct BP models with different covariates for corresponding groups. RLR was performed for individuals as the initial calibration, while recursive least square algorithm was employed for the re-calibration. The results showed that errors of BP estimation by our method stayed within the Association of Advancement of Medical Instrumentation limits (− 0.98 ± 6.00 mmHg @ SBP, 0.02 ± 4.98 mmHg @ DBP) when the calibration interval extended to 1200-beat cardiac cycles. In comparison with other two representative studies, Chen’s method kept accurate (0.32 ± 6.74 mmHg @ SBP, 0.94 ± 5.37 mmHg @ DBP) using a 400-beat calibration interval, while Poon’s failed (− 1.97 ± 10.59 mmHg @ SBP, 0.70 ± 4.10 mmHg @ DBP) when using a 200-beat calibration interval. With additional hemodynamic covariates utilized, our method improved the accuracy of PTT-based BP estimation, decreased the calibration frequency and had the potential for better continuous BP estimation.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0637-8
       
  • Glossokinetic potential based tongue–machine interface for 1-D
           extraction
    • Authors: Kutlucan Gorur; M. Recep Bozkurt; M. Serdar Bascil; Feyzullah Temurtas
      Abstract: The tongue is an aesthetically useful organ located in the oral cavity. It can move in complex ways with very little fatigue. Many studies on assistive technologies operated by tongue are called tongue–human computer interface or tongue–machine interface (TMI) for paralyzed individuals. However, many of them are obtrusive systems consisting of hardware such as sensors and magnetic tracer placed in the mouth and on the tongue. Hence these approaches could be annoying, aesthetically unappealing and unhygienic. In this study, we aimed to develop a natural and reliable tongue–machine interface using solely glossokinetic potentials via investigation of the success of machine learning algorithms for 1-D tongue-based control or communication on assistive technologies. Glossokinetic potential responses are generated by touching the buccal walls with the tip of the tongue. In this study, eight male and two female naive healthy subjects, aged 22–34 years, participated. Linear discriminant analysis, support vector machine, and the k-nearest neighbor were used as machine learning algorithms. Then the greatest success rate was achieved an accuracy of 99% for the best participant in support vector machine. This study may serve disabled people to control assistive devices in natural, unobtrusive, speedy and reliable manner. Moreover, it is expected that GKP-based TMI could be alternative control and communication channel for traditional electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain–computer interfaces which have significant inadequacies arisen from the EEG signals.
      PubDate: 2018-04-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0635-x
       
  • Monte Carlo simulations for dose enhancement in cancer treatment using
           bismuth oxide nanoparticles implanted in brain soft tissue
    • Authors: Eslam Taha; Fathi Djouider; Essam Banoqitah
      Abstract: The objective of this work is to study the dosimetric performances of bismuth oxide nanoparticles implanted in tumors in cancer radiotherapy. GEANT4 based Monte Carlo numerical simulations were performed to assess dose enhancement distributions in and around a 1 × 1 × 1 cm3 tumor implanted with different concentrations of bismuth oxide and irradiated with low energies 125I, 131Cs, and 103Pd radioactive sources. Dose contributions were considered from photoelectrons, Auger electrons, and characteristic X-rays. Our results show the dose enhancement increased with increasing both bismuth oxide concentration in the target and photon energy. A dose enhancement factor up to 18.55 was obtained for a concentration of 70 mg/g of bismuth oxide in the tumor when irradiated with 131Cs source. This study showed that bismuth oxide nanoparticles are innovative agents that could be potentially applicable to in vivo cancer radiotherapy due to the fact that they induce a highly localized energy deposition within the tumor.
      PubDate: 2018-03-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0633-z
       
  • A simulation study comparing nine mathematical models of arterial input
           function for dynamic contrast enhanced MRI to the Parker model
    • Authors: Dianning He; Lisheng Xu; Wei Qian; James Clarke; Xiaobing Fan
      Abstract: Due to large inter- and intra-patient variabilities of arterial input functions (AIFs), accurately modeling and using patient-specific AIF are very important for quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. Computer simulations were performed to evaluate and compare nine population AIF models with the Parker AIF used as ‘gold standard’. The Parker AIF was calculated with a temporal resolution of 1.5 s, and then the other nine AIF models were used to fit the Parker AIF. A total of 100 randomly generated volume transfer constants (Ktrans) and distribution volumes (ve) were used to calculate the contrast agent concentration curves based on the Parker AIF and the extended Tofts model with blood plasma volume (vp) = 0.0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10. Subsequently, nine AIF models were used to fit these curves to extract physiological parameters (Ktrans, ve and vp). The agreements between generated and extracted Ktrans and ve values were evaluated using Bland–Altman analysis. The effects of the second pass of the Parker AIF model with and without adding Rician noise on extracted physiological parameters were evaluated by 1000 simulations using one of the nine mathematical AIF models closest to the Parker model with the smallest number of parameters. The results demonstrated that a six-parameter linear function plus bi-exponential function AIF model was almost equivalent to the Parker AIF and that the corresponding generated and extracted Ktrans and ve were in excellent agreements. The effects of the second pass of contrast agent circulation were small on extracted physiological parameters using the extended Tofts model, unless noise was added with signal to noise ratio less than 10 dB.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0632-0
       
  • Rejoinder to Letters to the Editor: Luke Wilkinson and Donald McLean, in
           response to Giovanni Bibbo’s letter to the editor: Standardisation of
           shielding of medical X-ray installations
    • Authors: Giovanni Bibbo
      PubDate: 2018-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0631-1
       
  • Reply to Letter to the Editor: Giovanni Bibbo, Standardisation of
           shielding of medical X-ray installations
    • Authors: Luke Wilkinson
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0626-y
       
  • Reply to Letter to the Editor: Giovanni Bibbo, Standardisation of
           shielding of medical X-ray installations
    • Authors: Donald McLean
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0625-z
       
  • A comparative study of three small-field detectors for patient specific
           stereotactic arc dosimetry
    • Authors: Luke K. Webb; Emma K. Inness; Paul H. Charles
      Abstract: This paper examines the difference in patient specific dosimetry using three different detectors of varying active volume, density and composition, for quality assurance of stereotactic treatments. A PTW 60017 unshielded electron diode, an Exradin W1 scintillator, and a PTW 31014 PinPoint small volume ionisation chamber were setup in a Lucy 3D QA phantom, and were positioned at the isocentre of an Elekta Axesse, with beam modulator collimator, using Exactrac and a HexaPODTM couch. Dose measurements were acquired for 43 stereotactic arcs, and compared to BrainLAB iPlan version 3.0.0 treatment planning system (TPS) calculations using a pencil beam algorithm. It was found that for arcs with field sizes \(>15\)  mm, the properties of a detector have minimal impact on the measured doses, with all three detectors agreeing with the TPS (to within 5%). However, for field sizes \(<15\)  mm, only the scintillator was found to yield results to within 5% of the TPS. The dose discrepancies were found to increase with decreasing field size. It is recommended that for field sizes \(<15\)  mm, a water equivalent dosimeter like the Exradin W1 scintillator be used in order to minimise detector composition perturbations in the measured doses.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0622-2
       
  • Standardisation of shielding of medical X-ray installations
    • Authors: Giovanni Bibbo
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0619-x
       
  • Winning images from the Photography in Medical Physics (PiMP) competition
    • PubDate: 2018-01-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0616-0
       
  • “Revise before review; Reject without review; Reject after review”:
           why manuscripts are rejected
    • Authors: Martin Caon
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0615-1
       
 
 
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