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ENGINEERING (1199 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 217)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 176)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
  [SJR: 0.293]   [H-I: 19]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0158-9938 - ISSN (Online) 1879-5447
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Short tangential arcs in VMAT based breast and chest wall radiotherapy
           lead to conformity of the breast dose with lesser cardiac and lung doses:
           a prospective study of breast conservation and mastectomy patients
    • Authors: Anusheel Munshi; Biplab Sarkar; Anbu Sateeshkumar; Upendra K. Giri; Harpreet Kaur; Kanan Jassal; Tharmar Ganesh; Bidhu Kalyan Mohanti
      Abstract: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is modern rotational intensity modulated therapy used for treatment of several sites. The study aimed to analyze partial tangential arc VMAT treatment planning and delivery, including analyzing the cardiac and contralateral breast doses resulting from this technique. A total of 153 consecutively treated breast cancer (conservation as well as mastectomy) patients were taken for this dosimetric study. All patients were planned using partial arc VMAT in the Monaco treatment planning system using two partial arc beams. All patients were divided into seven different categories: (1) all the patients in the study, (2) left sided whole breast and chest wall patients, (3) left Chest wall patients, (4) left whole breast patients, (5) right sided whole breast and chest wall patients, (6) right chest wall patients, and (7) right whole breast patients. We evaluated each treatment plan for PTV coverage and doses to OARs. SPSS version 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis. There were 91 left sided and 62 right sided breast cancer patients in the overall analysis. The percentage of PTV volume receiving 95% of the prescription dose (PTV V95%, mean ± SD) varied in the range of 91.2 ± 5.2–94.8 ± 2.1% with mean dose of 92.4 ± 5.2% for all cases. The (mean ± SD) cardiac dose for all the patients was 289 ± 23 cGy. The (mean ± SD) cardiac doses were higher for left sided patients (424 ± 33.8 cGy) as compared to right sided patients (123.9 ± 80 cGy) (p < 0.001). Cardiac mean doses were higher with arc angles >30° versus 30° (324.5 ± 247.1 vs. 234.4 ± 188.4 cGy) (p = 0.001). Similarly contralateral breast mean dose was higher with arc angles >30° versus 30° (126 ± 115 vs. 88.6 ± 76.1 cGy) (p = 0.001). However cardiac V20, V30 and V40 Gy did not exhibit any statistical difference between the two groups (p = 0.26, 0.057 and 0.054 respectively). This is the first large study of its kind that assesses the dosimetric outcome of tangential partial arc VMAT treatments in a large group of mastectomy and breast conservation patients. Our study demonstrates the efficacy of this technique in dose coverage of PTV as well as in minimizing dose to OARs. Further, based on our results, we conclude that the arc length for the bi-tangential arcs should be 30° since it helps to achieve the most optimal balance between target coverage and acceptable OAR doses.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0558-y
  • Development of a novel radiotherapy motion phantom using a stepper motor
           driver circuit and evaluation using optical surface scanning
    • Authors: Michael Lempart; Malin Kügele; Jonatan Snäll; Lee Ambolt; Sofie Ceberg
      Abstract: Recent developments in radiotherapy have focused on the management of patient motion during treatment. Studies have shown that significant gains in treatment quality can be made by ‘gating’ certain treatments, simultaneously keeping target coverage, and increasing separation to nearby organs at risk (OAR). Motion phantoms can be used to simulate patient breathing motion and provide the means to perform quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) of gating functionality as well as to assess the dosimetric impact of motion on individual patient treatments. The aim of this study was to design and build a motion phantom that accurately reproduces the breathing motion of patients to enable end-to-end gating system quality control of various gating systems as well as patient specific quality assurance. A motion phantom based on a stepper motor driver circuit was designed. The phantom can be programmed with both real patient data from an external gating system and with custom signals. The phantom was programmed and evaluated with patient data and with a square wave signal to be tracked with a Sentinel™ (C-Rad, Uppsala, Sweden) motion monitoring system. Results were compared to the original curves with respect to amplitude and phase. The comparison of patient curve data showed a mean error value of −0.09 mm with a standard deviation of 0.24 mm and a mean absolute error of 0.29 mm. The square wave signals could be reproduced with a mean error value of −0.03 mm, a standard deviation of 0.04 mm and a mean absolute error of 0.13 mm. Breathing curve data acquired from an optical scanning system can be reproduced accurately with the help of the in-house built motion phantom. The phantom can also be programmed to follow user designed curve data. This offers the potential for QC of gating systems and various dosimetric quality control applications. Graphical
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0556-0
  • System for automatic heart rate calculation in epileptic seizures
    • Authors: Marcin Kołodziej; Andrzej Majkowski; Remigiusz J. Rak; Bartosz Świderski; Andrzej Rysz
      Abstract: This article presents a comprehensive system for automatic heart rate (HR) detection. The system is robust and resistant to disturbances (noise, interferences, artifacts) occurring mainly during epileptic seizures. ECG signal filtration (IIR) and normalization due to skewness and standard deviation were used as preprocessing steps. A key element of the system is a reference QRS complex pattern calculated individually for each ECG recording. Next, a cross-correlation of the reference QRS pattern with short, normalized ECG windows is calculated and the maxima of the correlation are found (R-wave locations). Determination of the RR intervals makes possible calculation of heart rate changes and also heart rate variability (HRV). The algorithm was tested using a simulation in which a noise of an amplitude several times higher than ECG standard deviation levels was added. The proposed algorithm is characterized by high QRS detection accuracy, and high sensitivity and specificity. The algorithm proved to be useful in clinical practice, where it was used to automatically determine HR for ECG signals recorded before and during 58 focal seizures in 56 adult patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0557-z
  • Evaluation of dose enhancement in presence of gold nanoparticles in eye
           brachytherapy by 103 Pd source
    • Authors: Hadi Rezaei; Mansour Zabihzadeh; Mahdi Ghorbani; Foad Goli Ahmadabad; Hesameddin Mostaghimi
      Abstract: In recent years, the use of gold nanoparticles in radiation therapy has been introduced as a new approach in radiotherapy. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in plaque brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. MCNPX code was used for simulation of human eye, 103Pd (model 200) brachytherapy source and the 20 mm COMS eye plaque that was loaded with 24 103Pd seeds and standardized by Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS). The tumour was defined from the inner surface of choroid with 0.55 cm height and latticed with gold nanospheres and it was filled with different concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 mg/g GNPs, separately. Dose rate and dose enhancement factor in tumour and normal tissues of the eye (without gold) was examined for this case and compared with gold–water mixture of the same concentrations distributed in the tumour. The results show that with increasing the concentration of GNPs, the dose in the tumour increases and the dose to the normal tissues decreases. Furthermore, the time that is required to deliver the prescribed dose to the tumour decreases. In the gold nanosphere case for 5, 10 and 15 mg/g concentrations, the DEF in the apex of the tumour are 1.28, 1.46, 1.44 and at the distance of 6.5 mm in the normal tissue (outside the tumour) this factor would be 0.82, 0.73 and 0.68. The comparison between two cases of gold nanospheres and gold–water mixture shows that when the gold concentrations are defined as mixed with water, the dose enhancement in the first depths are higher than when the gold-nanoparticles are distributed inside the tumour. Furthermore due to more reduced particle flux for water-mixture case, by an increase in the depth the dose enhancement in gold-nanosphere increases compared with gold–water mixture case.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0555-1
  • The abdominal radiation doses for paediatric patients undergoing X-ray
           examinations at southern Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Jobran Miree Alqahtani
      Abstract: Abstract This study aims to estimate radiation doses for paediatric patients undergoing abdominal X-ray examinations in Najran, Saudi Arabia, through evaluation of the entrance surface doses using DoseCal software. Two X-ray units were used at a paediatric referral hospital. A total of 216 patients were examined with an age range between 0 and 7 years. The mean ESDs were found to be 0.042 and 0.101 mGy, for abdomen anteroposterior (AP) and posteroanterior (PA) respectively. The results are useful to the National Centre for Radiation Protection in Saudi Arabia and other professional organizations elsewhere, to set up safety protocols to prevent paediatric patients from needless radiation and to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs).
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0553-3
  • A pilot study on geometrical uncertainties for intra ocular cancers in
    • Authors: Rachitha Antony; Alan Herschtal; Stephen Todd; Claire Phillips; Annette Haworth
      Abstract: Abstract A system for stabilising and monitoring eye movements for linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy associated with the mobile eye, the Eye Tracker, was developed. Whilst the Eye Tracker design is based on a previously reported system, the purpose of this study was to confirm that the modified version can be used with clinically acceptable treatment margins. We report the estimates of the margin required to account for inter- and intra-fraction eye motion based on data from 12 consecutive patients treated with the Eye Tracker system in place. Patients were immobilised in a head and neck mask and were required to fixate on a light source. A camera system monitored eye movements relative to CT simulation baseline measurements. The Exactrac system (Brainlab, Feldkirchen, Germany) combined with the Varian TrueBeamSTx (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) confirmed pre- and intra-treatment setup of the head position. Displacement/rotation of the image of the pupil/iris was determined in the lateral and superior-inferior directions using a video display. A standard margin equation was applied to estimate the margin required to account for inter- and intra-fraction eye movement. The average displacement in both directions was 0.1–0.2 mm (0.36 mm SD). All patients maintained a position within 1 mm of the intended position during treatment. Based on a Bayesian estimation of the systematic and treatment errors, accounting for displacements in two-planes and a standard deviation of the penumbral width of 1.3 mm, the estimated margins to achieve coverage of the GTV with the 95% isodose in 90% of patients was found to be less than 1 mm. Small random and systematic uncertainties due to inter- and intra-fraction movement of the eye were achieved with the Eye Tracker. Whilst the estimated margins are small (<1 mm) they need to be considered in addition to contouring and treatment delivery uncertainties.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0551-5
  • Technical note: real-time web-based wireless visual guidance system for
    • Authors: Danny Lee; Siyong Kim; Jatinder R. Palta; Taeho Kim
      Abstract: Abstract Describe a Web-based wireless visual guidance system that mitigates issues associated with hard-wired audio-visual aided patient interactive motion management systems that are cumbersome to use in routine clinical practice. Web-based wireless visual display duplicates an existing visual display of a respiratory-motion management system for visual guidance. The visual display of the existing system is sent to legacy Web clients over a private wireless network, thereby allowing a wireless setting for real-time visual guidance. In this study, active breathing coordinator (ABC) trace was used as an input for visual display, which captured and transmitted to Web clients. Virtual reality goggles require two (left and right eye view) images for visual display. We investigated the performance of Web-based wireless visual guidance by quantifying (1) the network latency of visual displays between an ABC computer display and Web clients of a laptop, an iPad mini 2 and an iPhone 6, and (2) the frame rate of visual display on the Web clients in frames per second (fps). The network latency of visual display between the ABC computer and Web clients was about 100 ms and the frame rate was 14.0 fps (laptop), 9.2 fps (iPad mini 2) and 11.2 fps (iPhone 6). In addition, visual display for virtual reality goggles was successfully shown on the iPhone 6 with 100 ms and 11.2 fps. A high network security was maintained by utilizing the private network configuration. This study demonstrated that a Web-based wireless visual guidance can be a promising technique for clinical motion management systems, which require real-time visual display of their outputs. Based on the results of this study, our approach has the potential to reduce clutter associated with wired-systems, reduce space requirements, and extend the use of medical devices from static usage to interactive and dynamic usage in a radiotherapy treatment vault.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0548-0
  • Investigation of X-ray focal spot alignment using a jig of novel design
    • Authors: Lockie Yuen; Cameron McLucas
      Abstract: Abstract The X-ray focal spot and the centre of the flattening filter should be placed as close as possible to the central axis (CAX) on a linear accelerator (linac) to produce a radially symmetric beam. The aim of this study is to devise a method to easily optimise the focal spot position of Varian linac photon beams generated with a flattening filter. A simple and robust jig was designed and built to be inserted into the largest electron applicator. Accessory and jaw position interlocks were overridden to enable photon beam operation. The jig was made from aluminium and consists of a plate permanently fixed inside a low melting point alloy (LMPA) insert frame and a block machined to suspend an ion chamber below the plate, such that the axis of the chamber is at the linac isocentre. The jig was used to optimise the position of the X-ray beam focal spot with respect to the device central axis (CAX). This was achieved by minimising the percentage change in ionisation chamber signal between collimator rotations from 90° to 270° as position steering was changed. As part of the investigation, in-plane (radial) and cross-plane (transverse) profiles obtained from water phantom scans were used to quantify how large the percentage ionisation change can be before profiles are distorted in the region of the CAX.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0549-z
  • Multichannel interictal spike activity detection using
           time–frequency entropy measure
    • Authors: Palani Thanaraj; B. Parvathavarthini
      Abstract: Abstract Localization of interictal spikes is an important clinical step in the pre-surgical assessment of pharmacoresistant epileptic patients. The manual selection of interictal spike periods is cumbersome and involves a considerable amount of analysis workload for the physician. The primary focus of this paper is to automate the detection of interictal spikes for clinical applications in epilepsy localization. The epilepsy localization procedure involves detection of spikes in a multichannel EEG epoch. Therefore, a multichannel Time–Frequency (T–F) entropy measure is proposed to extract features related to the interictal spike activity. Least squares support vector machine is used to train the proposed feature to classify the EEG epochs as either normal or interictal spike period. The proposed T–F entropy measure, when validated with epilepsy dataset of 15 patients, shows an interictal spike classification accuracy of 91.20%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 84.23%. Moreover, the area under the curve of Receiver Operating Characteristics plot of 0.9339 shows the superior classification performance of the proposed T–F entropy measure. The results of this paper show a good spike detection accuracy without any prior information about the spike morphology.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0550-6
  • Winning images from the Photography in Medical Physics (PiMP) competition
    • PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0546-2
  • Monte Carlo simulation of the RBE of I-131 radiation using DNA damage as
    • Authors: Ahad Ollah Ezzati; Ali Mahmoud-Pashazadeh; Matthew T. Studenski
      Abstract: Abstract In general, a weighting factor of one is applied for low linear energy transfer radiations. However, several studies indicate that relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of low energy photons and electrons is greater than one. The aim of this current study was calculating the RBE of I-131 radiation relative to Co-60 gamma photons in 100 μm spheroid cells using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. These calculations were compared to experimentally measured results. MCNPX2.6 was used to simulate the I-131 and Co-60 irradiation setups and calculate the secondary electron spectra at energies higher than 1 keV with varying oxygen concentrations. The electron spectra at energies lower than 1 keV were obtained by extrapolation (down to 10 eV). The calculated electron spectra were input into the MCDS micro-dosimetric Monte Carlo code to calculate the DSB induction and related RBE. The calculated RBE of I-131 radiation relative to Co-60 photons, as the reference radiation recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), was 1.06, 1.03 and 1.02 for oxygen concentrations of 0, 5 and 100%, respectively. Results of MC simulations indicate the RBE of I-131 is greater than one. This finding, despite a 10% discrepancy with the findings of the previous in vitro study of one of the authors of this paper, reemphasizes that I-131 radiation induces more severe biological damage than current ICRP recommendations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0544-4
  • A neural controller for online laser power adjustment during the heat
           therapy process in the presence of nanoparticles
    • Authors: S. Ehsan Razavi
      Abstract: Abstract The present research evaluated the efficiency of a control approach to control the temperature of a breast tumor mass in the presence of nanoparticles exposed to laser radiation. However, if the radiation is carried out in open loop manner it may result in excessive temperature rise healthy cells that exist in the vicinity of tumor’s cells. This may lead to the death of healthy cells. So, using closed loop control methods is necessary to guarantee the preservation of healthy cells during the period of radiation. Therefore, in this study, an artificial neural network was trained as a controller. In other words, the trained neural network adjusted the laser power over a period of time in such a way that the temperature in the center of the tumor reached the desired level with an appropriate temporal behavior. The difference between the real temperature of the tumor and the desired temperature of it is the controller input, while the controller output determined the amount of laser power. The simulation studies were carried out using an appropriate physiological model in the presence of nanoparticles. First, Schrödinger equations were solved followed by the effective mass equation. Afterward the optimum number of nanoparticles to be used in the IR field was calculated. Next, the important electro-optical features related to the nanostructure, such as the absorption continuum and reflection continuum had been calculated. The neural network proposed controller was then evaluated through other simulation studies in the tumor mass model. The results showed a promising performance by the trained artificial neural network in adjusting radiated laser power for the desired temperature increase in the center of a tumor mass.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0541-7
  • The impact of smart metal artefact reduction algorithm for use in
           radiotherapy treatment planning
    • Authors: Connor Guilfoile; Peter Rampant; Michael House
      Abstract: Abstract The presence of metal artefacts in computed tomography (CT) create issues in radiation oncology. The loss of anatomical information and incorrect Hounsfield unit (HU) values produce inaccuracies in dose calculations, providing suboptimal patient treatment. Metal artefact reduction (MAR) algorithms were developed to combat these problems. This study provides a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the “Smart MAR” software (General Electric Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA), determining its usefulness in a clinical setting. A detailed analysis was conducted using both patient and phantom data, noting any improvements in HU values and dosimetry with the GE-MAR enabled. This study indicates qualitative improvements in severity of the streak artefacts produced by metals, allowing for easier patient contouring. Furthermore, the GE-MAR managed to recover previously lost anatomical information. Additionally, phantom data showed an improvement in HU value with GE-MAR correction, producing more accurate point dose calculations in the treatment planning system. Overall, the GE-MAR is a useful tool and is suitable for clinical environments.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0543-5
  • Gaming the impact factor: where who cites what, whom and when
    • Authors: Martin Caon
      PubDate: 2017-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0547-1
  • Commissioning a hobby cutting device for radiochromic film preparation
    • Authors: Somayeh Zolfaghari; Kirby E. Francis; Tanya Kairn; Scott B. Crowe
      Abstract: Abstract In addition to a high spatial resolution and well characterised dose response, one of the major advantages of radiochromic film as a dosimeter is that sheets of film can be cut into pieces suitable for use as calibration films, and for in vivo and phantom measurements. The cutting of film is typically done using scissors or a guillotine, and this process can be time-consuming, limited in precision, requires extensive handling and does not allow holes to be cut from the film without cutting from an existing edge. This study investigated the use of a Brother ScanNCut hobby cutting system for EBT3 film preparation. The optimal operating parameters (blade size, pressure, speed) that resulted in precise cuts with minimal delamination at cut edges were identified using test cutting patterns. These parameters were then used to cut a large film insert for a stereotactic head phantom for comparison against an insert cut with scissors. While the hobby cutting system caused a wider region of delamination at the film edge (1.8 mm) compared to scissors (1 mm), the hobby cutting system was found to be able to produce reproducible cuts more efficiently and more accurately than scissors. The use of the hobby cutting system is recommended for complex phantom inserts (containing sharp corners or holes for alignment rods) or in situations where large numbers of film pieces need to be prepared.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0545-3
  • A comparative evaluation of Ac225 vs Bi213 as therapeutic radioisotopes
           for targeted alpha therapy for cancer
    • Authors: Barry J. Allen
      Abstract: Abstract The Ac225:Bi213 generator is the mainstay for preclinical and clinical studies of targeted alpha therapy for cancer. Both Ac225 (four alpha decays) and Bi213 (one alpha decay) are being used to label targeting vectors to form the alpha immunoconjugate for cancer therapy. This paper considers the radiobiological and economic aspects of Ac225 vs Bi213 as the preferred radioisotope for preclinical and clinical TAT. The in vitro and in vivo evidence and the role of DNA repair processes is examined. The maximum tolerance dose and therapeutic gain are endpoints for comparison. Ac225 has the higher therapeutic gain, when normalised to equal alpha production. However, the slow repair of double strand breaks reduces this advantage. Comparisons are made for the specific energy deposition in targeted and non-targeted cells, for endothelial cells by direct or indirect targeting, the need for sparing agents to save critical organs and cost considerations for preclinical and clinical trials and clinical use. Overall, Ac225 is found to have the better or equal performance to Bi213 at a much lower cost.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0534-6
  • High dose rate brachytherapy source measurement intercomparison
    • Authors: Joel Poder; Ryan L. Smith; Nikki Shelton; May Whitaker; Duncan Butler; Annette Haworth
      Abstract: Abstract This work presents a comparison of air kerma rate (AKR) measurements performed by multiple radiotherapy centres for a single HDR 192Ir source. Two separate groups (consisting of 15 centres) performed AKR measurements at one of two host centres in Australia. Each group travelled to one of the host centres and measured the AKR of a single 192Ir source using their own equipment and local protocols. Results were compared to the 192Ir source calibration certificate provided by the manufacturer by means of a ratio of measured to certified AKR. The comparisons showed remarkably consistent results with the maximum deviation in measurement from the decay-corrected source certificate value being 1.1%. The maximum percentage difference between any two measurements was less than 2%. The comparisons demonstrated the consistency of well-chambers used for 192Ir AKR measurements in Australia, despite the lack of a local calibration service, and served as a valuable focal point for the exchange of ideas and dosimetry methods.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0542-6
  • The effect of cement on hip stem fixation: a biomechanical study
    • Authors: Talip Çelik; İbrahim Mutlu; Arif Özkan; Yasin Kişioğlu
      Abstract: Abstract This study presents the numerical analysis of stem fixation in hip surgery using with/without cement methods since the use of cement is still controversial based on the clinical studies in the literature. Many different factors such as stress shielding, aseptic loosening, material properties of the stem, surgeon experiences etc. play an important role in the failure of the stem fixations. The stem fixation methods, cemented and uncemented, were evaluated in terms of mechanical failure aspects using computerized finite element method. For the modeling processes, three dimensional (3D) femur model was generated from computerized tomography (CT) images taken from a patient using the MIMICS Software. The design of the stem was also generated as 3D CAD model using the design parameters taken from the manufacturer catalogue. These 3D CAD models were generated and combined with/without cement considering the surgical procedure using SolidWorks program and then imported into ANSYS Workbench Software. Two different material properties, CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V, for the stem model and Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) for the cement were assigned. The material properties of the femur were described according to a density calculated from the CT images. Body weight and muscle forces were applied on the femur and the distal femur was fixed for the boundary conditions. The calculations of the stress distributions of the models including cement and relative movements of the contacts examined to evaluate the effects of the cement and different stem material usage on the failure of stem fixation. According to the results, the use of cement for the stem fixation reduces the stress shielding but increases the aseptic loosening depending on the cement crack formations. Additionally, using the stiffer material for the stem reduces the cement stress but increases the stress shielding. Based on the results obtained in the study, even when taking the disadvantages into account, the cement usage is more suitable for the hip fixations.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0539-1
  • Relative biological effectiveness in a proton spread-out Bragg peak formed
           by pencil beam scanning mode
    • Authors: Anna Michaelidesová; Jana Vachelová; Monika Puchalska; Kateřina Pachnerová Brabcová; Vladimír Vondráček; Lembit Sihver; Marie Davídková
      Abstract: Abstract In recent years, there is an increased interest in using scanning modes in proton therapy, due to the more conformal dose distributions, thanks to the spot-weighted dose delivery. The dose rate in each spot is however much higher than the dose rate when using passive irradiation modes, which could affect the cell response. The purpose of this work was to investigate how the relative biological effectiveness changes along the spread-out Bragg peak created by protons delivered by the pencil beam scanning mode. Cell survival and micronuclei formation were investigated in four positions along the spread-out Bragg peak for various doses. Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the dose-averaged linear energy transfer values in the irradiation positions. The cell survival was found to decrease the deeper the sample was placed in the spread-out Bragg peak, which corresponds to the higher linear energy transfer values found using Monte Carlo simulations. The micronuclei frequencies indicate more complex cell injuries at that distal position compared to the proximal part of the spread-out Bragg peak. The relative biological effectiveness determined in this study varies significantly and systematically from 1.1, which is recommended value by the International Commission on Radiation Units, in all the studied positions. In the distal position of spread-out Bragg peak the relative biological effectiveness values were found to be 2.05 ± 0.44, 1.85 ± 0.42, 1.53 ± 0.38 for survival levels 90, 50 and 10%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0540-8
  • Expert system classifier for adaptive radiation therapy in prostate cancer
    • Authors: Gabriele Guidi; Nicola Maffei; Claudio Vecchi; Giovanni Gottardi; Alberto Ciarmatori; Grazia Maria Mistretta; Ercole Mazzeo; Patrizia Giacobazzi; Frank Lohr; Tiziana Costi
      Abstract: Abstract A classifier-based expert system was developed to compare delivered and planned radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients. Its aim is to automatically identify patients that can benefit from an adaptive treatment strategy. The study predominantly addresses dosimetric uncertainties and critical issues caused by motion of hollow organs. 1200 MVCT images of 38 prostate adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed. An automatic daily re-contouring of structures (i.e. rectum, bladder and femoral heads), rigid/deformable registration and dose warping was carried out to simulate dose and volume variations during therapy. Support vector machine, K-means clustering algorithms and similarity index analysis were used to create an unsupervised predictive tool to detect incorrect setup and/or morphological changes as a consequence of inadequate patient preparation due to stochastic physiological changes, supporting clinical decision-making. After training on a dataset that was considered sufficiently dosimetrically stable, the system identified two equally sized macro clusters with distinctly different volumetric and dosimetric baseline properties and defined thresholds for these two clusters. Application to the test cohort resulted in 25% of the patients located outside the two macro clusters thresholds and which were therefore suspected to be dosimetrically unstable. In these patients, over the treatment course, mean volumetric changes of 30 and 40% for rectum and bladder were detected which possibly represents values justifying adjustment of patient preparation, frequent re-planning or a plan-of-the-day strategy. Based on our research, by combining daily IGRT images with rigid/deformable registration and dose warping, it is possible to apply a machine learning approach to the clinical setting obtaining useful information for a decision regarding an individualized adaptive strategy. Especially for treatments influenced by the movement of hollow organs, this could reduce inadequate treatments and possibly reduce toxicity, thereby increasing overall RT efficacy.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0535-5
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