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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2316 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1215 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 260)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 260)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 200)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
  [SJR: 0.293]   [H-I: 19]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0158-9938 - ISSN (Online) 1879-5447
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Reply to Letter to the Editor: Giovanni Bibbo, Standardisation of
           shielding of medical X-ray installations
    • Authors: Donald McLean
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0625-z
  • A comparative study of three small-field detectors for patient specific
           stereotactic arc dosimetry
    • Authors: Luke K. Webb; Emma K. Inness; Paul H. Charles
      Abstract: This paper examines the difference in patient specific dosimetry using three different detectors of varying active volume, density and composition, for quality assurance of stereotactic treatments. A PTW 60017 unshielded electron diode, an Exradin W1 scintillator, and a PTW 31014 PinPoint small volume ionisation chamber were setup in a Lucy 3D QA phantom, and were positioned at the isocentre of an Elekta Axesse, with beam modulator collimator, using Exactrac and a HexaPODTM couch. Dose measurements were acquired for 43 stereotactic arcs, and compared to BrainLAB iPlan version 3.0.0 treatment planning system (TPS) calculations using a pencil beam algorithm. It was found that for arcs with field sizes \(>15\)  mm, the properties of a detector have minimal impact on the measured doses, with all three detectors agreeing with the TPS (to within 5%). However, for field sizes \(<15\)  mm, only the scintillator was found to yield results to within 5% of the TPS. The dose discrepancies were found to increase with decreasing field size. It is recommended that for field sizes \(<15\)  mm, a water equivalent dosimeter like the Exradin W1 scintillator be used in order to minimise detector composition perturbations in the measured doses.
      PubDate: 2018-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0622-2
  • Automated sleep staging of OSAs based on ICA preprocessing and
           consolidation of temporal correlations
    • Authors: Somayeh Raiesdana
      Abstract: An automated sleep staging based on analyzing long-range time correlations in EEG is proposed. These correlations, indicating time-scale invariant property or self-similarity at different time scales, are known to be salient dynamical characteristics of stage succession for a sleeping brain even when the subject suffers a destructive disorder such as Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The goal is to extract a set of complementary features from cerebral sources mapped onto the scalp electrodes or from a number of denoised EEG channels. For this purpose, source localization/extraction and noise reduction approaches based on Independent Component Analysis were used prior to correlation analysis. Feature extracted segments were then classified in one of the five classes including WAKE, STAGE1, STAGE2, SWS and REM via an ensemble neuro-fuzzy classifier. Some techniques were employed to improve the classifier’s performance including Scaled Conjugate Gradient Method to speed up learning the ANFIS classifiers, a pruning algorithm to eliminate irrelevant fuzzy rules and the 10-fold cross-validation technique to train and test the system more efficiently. The performance of classification for two strategies including (1) feature extraction from effective cerebral sources and (2) feature extraction from selected channels of denoised EEG signals was compared and contrasted in terms of training errors and test accuracies. The first and second strategies achieved 92.23 and 88.74% agreement with human expert respectively which indicates the effectiveness of the staging system based on cerebral sources of activity. Our results further indicate that the misclassification rates were almost below 10%. The proposed automated sleep staging system is reliable due to the fact that it is based on the underlying dynamics of sleep staging which is less likely to be affected by sleep fragmentations occurred repeatedly in OSA.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0624-0
  • Efficient algorithm for baseline wander and powerline noise removal from
           ECG signals based on discrete Fourier series
    • Authors: Mohamed Bahaz; Redha Benzid
      Abstract: Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are often contaminated with artefacts and noises which can lead to incorrect diagnosis when they are visually inspected by cardiologists. In this paper, the well-known discrete Fourier series (DFS) is re-explored and an efficient DFS-based method is proposed to reduce contribution of both baseline wander (BW) and powerline interference (PLI) noises in ECG records. In the first step, the determination of the exact number of low frequency harmonics contributing in BW is achieved. Next, the baseline drift is estimated by the sum of all associated Fourier sinusoids components. Then, the baseline shift is discarded efficiently by a subtraction of its approximated version from the original biased ECG signal. Concerning the PLI, the subtraction of the contributing harmonics calculated in the same manner reduces efficiently such type of noise. In addition of visual quality results, the proposed algorithm shows superior performance in terms of higher signal-to-noise ratio and smaller mean square error when faced to the DCT-based algorithm.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0623-1
  • A positive move: proton therapy in Australia
    • Authors: Scott Penfold
      PubDate: 2018-01-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0621-3
  • Geant4 beam model for boron neutron capture therapy: investigation of
           neutron dose components
    • Authors: Leyla Moghaddasi; Eva Bezak
      Abstract: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically-targeted type of radiotherapy, selectively delivering localized dose to tumour cells diffused in normal tissue, while minimizing normal tissue toxicity. BNCT is based on thermal neutron capture by stable \(^{10}\) B nuclei resulting in emission of short-ranged alpha particles and recoil \(^7\) Li nuclei. The purpose of the current work was to develop and validate a Monte Carlo BNCT beam model and to investigate contribution of individual dose components resulting of neutron interactions. A neutron beam model was developed in Geant4 and validated against published data. The neutron beam spectrum, obtained from literature for a cyclotron-produced beam, was irradiated to a water phantom with boron concentrations of 100 μg/g. The calculated percentage depth dose curves (PDDs) in the phantom were compared with published data to validate the beam model in terms of total and boron depth dose deposition. Subsequently, two sensitivity studies were conducted to quantify the impact of: (1) neutron beam spectrum, and (2) various boron concentrations on the boron dose component. Good agreement was achieved between the calculated and measured neutron beam PDDs (within 1%). The resulting boron depth dose deposition was also in agreement with measured data. The sensitivity study of several boron concentrations showed that the calculated boron dose gradually converged beyond 100 μg/g boron concentration. This results suggest that 100μg/g tumour boron concentration may be optimal and above this value limited increase in boron dose is expected for a given neutron flux.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0617-z
  • Accuracy and efficiency of published film dosimetry techniques using a
           flat-bed scanner and EBT3 film
    • Authors: E. Spelleken; S. B. Crowe; B. Sutherland; C. Challens; T. Kairn
      Abstract: Gafchromic EBT3 film is widely used for patient specific quality assurance of complex treatment plans. Film dosimetry techniques commonly involve the use of transmission scanning to produce TIFF files, which are analysed using a non-linear calibration relationship between the dose and red channel net optical density (netOD). Numerous film calibration techniques featured in the literature have not been independently verified or evaluated. A range of previously published film dosimetry techniques were re-evaluated, to identify whether these methods produce better results than the commonly-used non-linear, netOD method. EBT3 film was irradiated at calibration doses between 0 and 4000 cGy and 25 pieces of film were irradiated at 200 cGy to evaluate uniformity. The film was scanned using two different scanners: The Epson Perfection V800 and the Epson Expression 10000XL. Calibration curves, uncertainty in the fit of the curve, overall uncertainty and uniformity were calculated following the methods described by the different calibration techniques. It was found that protocols based on a conventional film dosimetry technique produced results that were accurate and uniform to within 1%, while some of the unconventional techniques produced much higher uncertainties (> 25% for some techniques). Some of the uncommon methods produced reliable results when irradiated to the standard treatment doses (< 400 cGy), however none could be recommended as an efficient or accurate replacement for a common film analysis technique which uses transmission scanning, red colour channel analysis, netOD and a non-linear calibration curve for measuring doses up to 4000 cGy when using EBT3 film.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0620-4
  • Standardisation of shielding of medical X-ray installations
    • Authors: Giovanni Bibbo
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0619-x
  • Electromagnetic induction sensor for dynamic testing of coagulation
    • Authors: Zhe Wang; Yuanhua Yu; Zhanjiang Yu; Qimeng Chen
      Abstract: With the increasing demand for coagulation POCT for patients in the surgery department or the ICU, rapid coagulation testing techniques and methods have drawn widespread attention from scholars and businessmen. This paper proposes the use of electromagnetic induction sensor probe for detection of dynamic process causing changes in the blood viscosity and density before and after coagulation based on the damped vibration principle, in order to evaluate the coagulation status. Utilizing the dynamic principle, the differential equation of vibration system comprising elastic support and electromagnetic induction device is established through sensor dynamic modeling. The structural parameters of elastic support are optimized, and the circular sheet spring is designed. Furthermore, harmonic response analysis and vibration fatigue coupling analysis are performed on the elastic support of the sensor by considering the natural frequency of the system, and the electromagnetic induction sensor testing device is set up. Using the device and coagulation reagent, the standard curve for coagulation POCT is plotted, and the blood sample application in clinical patients is established, which are methodologically compared with the imported POCT coagulation analyzer. The results show that the sensor designed in this paper has a first-order natural frequency of 11.368 Hz, which can withstand 5.295 × 102 million times of compressions and rebounds. Its correlation with the results of SONOCLOT analyzer reaches 0.996, and the reproducibility 0.002. The electromagnetic induction coagulation testing sensor designed has good elasticity and anti-fatigue, which can meet the accuracy requirement of clinical detection. This study provides the core technology for developing the electromagnetic induction POCT instrument for dynamic testing of coagulation process.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0618-y
  • Winning images from the Photography in Medical Physics (PiMP) competition
    • PubDate: 2018-01-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0616-0
  • “Revise before review; Reject without review; Reject after review”:
           why manuscripts are rejected
    • Authors: Martin Caon
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-018-0615-1
  • Application of image recognition-based automatic hyphae detection in
           fungal keratitis
    • Authors: Xuelian Wu; Yuan Tao; Qingchen Qiu; Xinyi Wu
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of two methods in diagnosis of fungal keratitis, whereby one method is automatic hyphae detection based on images recognition and the other method is corneal smear. We evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the method in diagnosis of fungal keratitis, which is automatic hyphae detection based on image recognition. We analyze the consistency of clinical symptoms and the density of hyphae, and perform quantification using the method of automatic hyphae detection based on image recognition. In our study, 56 cases with fungal keratitis (just single eye) and 23 cases with bacterial keratitis were included. All cases underwent the routine inspection of slit lamp biomicroscopy, corneal smear examination, microorganism culture and the assessment of in vivo confocal microscopy images before starting medical treatment. Then, we recognize the hyphae images of in vivo confocal microscopy by using automatic hyphae detection based on image recognition to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity and compare with the method of corneal smear. The next step is to use the index of density to assess the severity of infection, and then find the correlation with the patients’ clinical symptoms and evaluate consistency between them. The accuracy of this technology was superior to corneal smear examination (p < 0.05). The sensitivity of the technology of automatic hyphae detection of image recognition was 89.29%, and the specificity was 95.65%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.946. The correlation coefficient between the grading of the severity in the fungal keratitis by the automatic hyphae detection based on image recognition and the clinical grading is 0.87. The technology of automatic hyphae detection based on image recognition was with high sensitivity and specificity, able to identify fungal keratitis, which is better than the method of corneal smear examination. This technology has the advantages when compared with the conventional artificial identification of confocal microscope corneal images, of being accurate, stable and does not rely on human expertise. It was the most useful to the medical experts who are not familiar with fungal keratitis. The technology of automatic hyphae detection based on image recognition can quantify the hyphae density and grade this property. Being noninvasive, it can provide an evaluation criterion to fungal keratitis in a timely, accurate, objective and quantitative manner.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0613-8
  • Epileptic seizure detection in EEG signal using machine learning
    • Authors: Abeg Kumar Jaiswal; Haider Banka
      Abstract: Epilepsy is a well-known nervous system disorder characterized by seizures. Electroencephalograms (EEGs), which capture brain neural activity, can detect epilepsy. Traditional methods for analyzing an EEG signal for epileptic seizure detection are time-consuming. Recently, several automated seizure detection frameworks using machine learning technique have been proposed to replace these traditional methods. The two basic steps involved in machine learning are feature extraction and classification. Feature extraction reduces the input pattern space by keeping informative features and the classifier assigns the appropriate class label. In this paper, we propose two effective approaches involving subpattern based PCA (SpPCA) and cross-subpattern correlation-based PCA (SubXPCA) with Support Vector Machine (SVM) for automated seizure detection in EEG signals. Feature extraction was performed using SpPCA and SubXPCA. Both techniques explore the subpattern correlation of EEG signals, which helps in decision-making process. SVM is used for classification of seizure and non-seizure EEG signals. The SVM was trained with radial basis kernel. All the experiments have been carried out on the benchmark epilepsy EEG dataset. The entire dataset consists of 500 EEG signals recorded under different scenarios. Seven different experimental cases for classification have been conducted. The classification accuracy was evaluated using tenfold cross validation. The classification results of the proposed approaches have been compared with the results of some of existing techniques proposed in the literature to establish the claim.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0610-y
  • A principal component analysis based data fusion method for ECG-derived
           respiration from single-lead ECG
    • Authors: Yue Gao; Hong Yan; Zhi Xu; Meng Xiao; Jinzhong Song
      Abstract: An ECG-derived respiration (EDR) algorithm based on principal component analysis (PCA) is presented and applied to derive the respiratory signals from single-lead ECG. The respiratory-induced variabilities of ECG features, P-peak amplitude, Q-peak amplitude, R-peak amplitude, S-peak amplitude, T-peak amplitude and RR-interval, are fused by PCA to yield a better surrogate respiratory signal than other methods. The method is evaluated on data from the MIT-BIH polysomnographic database and validated against a “gold standard” respiratory obtained from simultaneously recorded respiration data. The performance of fusion algorithm is assessed by comparing the EDR signals to a reference respiratory signal, using the quantitative evaluation indexes that include true positive (TP), false positive (FP), false negative (FN), sensitivity (SE) and positive predictivity (PP). The statistically difference is significant among the PCA data fusion method and the EDR methods based on the RR intervals and the RS amplitudes, showing that PCA data fusion algorithm outperforms the others in the extraction of respiratory signals from single-lead ECGs.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0612-9
  • Feasibility study for production and quality control of Yb-175 as a
           byproduct of no carrier added Lu-177 preparation for radiolabeling of
    • Authors: Nafise Salek; Simindokht Shirvani Arani; Ali Bahrami Samani; Sara Vosoghi; Mohsen Mehrabi
      Abstract: Skeletal uptake of β− emitters of DOTMP complexes is used for the bone pain palliation. In this study, two moderate energy β− emitters, 177Lu (T1/2 = 6.7 days, Eβmax = 497 keV) and 175Yb (T1/2 = 4.2 days, Eβmax = 480 keV), are considered as potential agents for the development of the bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Since the specific activity of the radiolabelled carrier molecules should be high, the non-carrier-added (NCA) radionuclides have an effective role in nuclear medicine. Many researchers have presented the synthesis of NCA 177Lu. Among these separation techniques, extraction chromatography has been considered more capable than other methods. In this study, a new approach, in addition to production of NCA 177Lu by EXC procedure is using pure 175Yb that was usually considered as a waste material in this method but because of high radionuclidic purity of 175Yb produced by this method we used it for radiolabeling as well as NCA 177Lu. To obtain optimum conditions, some effective factors on separation of Lu/Yb by EXC were investigated. The NCA 177Lu and pure 175Yb were produced with radionuclidic purity of 99.99 and 99.97% respectively by irradiation of enriched 176Yb target in thermal neutron flux of 5 × 1013 n/cm2 s for 14 days. 177Lu-DOTMP and 175Yb-DOTMP were obtained with high radiochemical purities (> 95%) under optimized reaction conditions. Two radiolabeled complexes exhibited excellent stability at room temperature. Biodistribution studies in rats showed favorable selective skeletal uptake with rapid clearance from blood along with insignificant accumulation of activity in other non-target organs for two radiolabelled complexes.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0611-x
  • A novel fully automatic multilevel thresholding technique based on
           optimized intuitionistic fuzzy sets and tsallis entropy for MR brain tumor
           image segmentation
    • Authors: Taranjit Kaur; Barjinder Singh Saini; Savita Gupta
      Abstract: In the present paper, a hybrid multilevel thresholding technique that combines intuitionistic fuzzy sets and tsallis entropy has been proposed for the automatic delineation of the tumor from magnetic resonance images having vague boundaries and poor contrast. This novel technique takes into account both the image histogram and the uncertainty information for the computation of multiple thresholds. The benefit of the methodology is that it provides fast and improved segmentation for the complex tumorous images with imprecise gray levels. To further boost the computational speed, the mutation based particle swarm optimization is used that selects the most optimal threshold combination. The accuracy of the proposed segmentation approach has been validated on simulated, real low-grade glioma tumor volumes taken from MICCAI brain tumor segmentation (BRATS) challenge 2012 dataset and the clinical tumor images, so as to corroborate its generality and novelty. The designed technique achieves an average Dice overlap equal to 0.82010, 0.78610 and 0.94170 for three datasets. Further, a comparative analysis has also been made between the eight existing multilevel thresholding implementations so as to show the superiority of the designed technique. In comparison, the results indicate a mean improvement in Dice by an amount equal to 4.00% (p < 0.005), 9.60% (p < 0.005) and 3.58% (p < 0.005), respectively in contrast to the fuzzy tsallis approach.
      PubDate: 2017-12-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0609-4
  • Development of GATE Monte Carlo simulation for a CsI pixelated gamma
           camera dedicated to high resolution animal SPECT
    • Authors: Payvand Taherparvar; Alireza Sadremomtaz
      Abstract: GATE is currently considered in scintigraphic imaging as a powerful tool to develop, design and optimize nuclear medicine modalities. This paper describes the GATE simulation of a pixelated gamma camera which is dedicated to high resolution of small animals imaging. It consists of a CsI(Na) crystal array coupled to position sensitive photomultiplier tube. The simulation model includes photon tracking through low energy high resolution hexagonal parallel holes collimator, CsI(Na) pixelated crystal, back-compartment, and camera shielding. Simulations were compared with experimental results by some criteria such as energy spectrum, energy resolution, spatial resolution, sensitivity and count profiles obtained from line and point sources imaging. The acquired energy resolution show good agreement with measured spectra. Difference between calculated and experimental values is about 0.3% for absolute sensitivity measurement. The result of the image uniformity is more consistent after implementation of non-uniformity correction. These values were about 1.3 and 1.2% for experimental and simulation study in the central field of view, respectively. Measurements showed that the spatial resolutions differences at the head surface along the long dimensions of gamma camera for simulation and experimental differed by no more than 4%.Differences along the short axis were about 6%. The FWHMs of images of point and line sources show good consistency between experimental images and corresponding simulated ones. The difference between experimental and simulated system parameters was within 11%. Our results demonstrate the ability and flexibility of the Monte Carlo simulation for modeling pixelated gamma camera with position sensitive detector by selecting the appropriate parameters for digitizer chain and collimator position on the detector surface.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0607-6
  • Effects of visual and cognitive interference on joint contributions in
           perturbed standing: a temporal and spectral analysis
    • Authors: Mohammed N. Ashtiani; Mahmood-reza Azghani
      Abstract: Postural balance requires using joint strategies which may be changed from normal conditions by interfering with the sensory information. The goal of the present study was to quantitatively evaluate the role of the joint mechanisms during perturbed stance. Visual and cognitive interference was imposed to sixteen healthy young males under rotational toes-down or up perturbations. Power spectral analysis was employed to distinguish the joint contribution and their in- or out-phase co-works. Results showed that addition of cognitive loads reduce the stability by increasing the center of mass (CoM) power to three times greater. Besides the CoM, the knee and hip powers were also significantly enhanced by the cognitive loads (p < .004), but the ankle was not influenced by cognition involvement (p > .05). Elimination of the vision had lower effect on the time and spectral functions of the knee and hip while the ankle rotations were increased due to the lack of visual feedback (p = .001). The toes-down perturbations resulted in more prominent contribution of the knee while the toes-up evoked the hip joint to keep the balance more than the other joints. Addition of the cognitive loads hindered the reactions of the joint mechanisms and vision caused more conservative responses of the joints.
      PubDate: 2017-12-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0606-7
  • Risks posed by neutron contamination in high energy radiotherapy
    • PubDate: 2017-11-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0603-x
  • Assessment of the relative contribution of volume and concentration
           changes in Yttrium-90 labelled resin microspheres on ionization chamber
    • Authors: Nicholas Forwood; Kathy P. Willowson; Michael Tapner; Dale L. Bailey
      PubDate: 2017-11-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0601-z
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