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ENGINEERING (1201 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 247)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 278)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
  [SJR: 0.293]   [H-I: 19]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0158-9938 - ISSN (Online) 1879-5447
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Erratum to: Short tangential arcs in VMAT based breast and chest wall
           radiotherapy lead to conformity of the breast dose with lesser cardiac and
           lung doses: a prospective study of breast conservation and mastectomy
    • Authors: Anusheel Munshi; Biplab Sarkar; Satheeshkumar Anbazhagan; Upendra K. Giri; Harpreet Kaur; Kanan Jassal; Tharmar Ganesh; Bidhu Kalyan Mohanti
      Pages: 737 - 737
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0562-2
      Issue No: Vol. 40, No. 3 (2017)
  • Assessment of the relative contribution of volume and concentration
           changes in Yttrium-90 labelled resin microspheres on ionization chamber
    • Authors: Nicholas Forwood; Kathy P. Willowson; Michael Tapner; Dale L. Bailey
      PubDate: 2017-11-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0601-z
  • Design of an optimum Poincaré plane for extracting meaningful samples
           from eeg signals
    • Authors: Babak Sharif; Amir Homayoun Jafari
      Abstract: Biosignals are considered as important sources of data for diagnosing and detecting abnormalities, and modeling dynamics in the body. These signals are usually analyzed using features taken from time and frequency domain. In theory‚ these dynamics can also be analyzed utilizing Poincaré plane that intersects system’s trajectory. However‚ selecting an appropriate Poincaré plane is a crucial part of extracting best Poincaré samples. There is no unique way to choose a Poincaré plane‚ because it is highly dependent to the system dynamics. In this study, a new algorithm is introduced that automatically selects an optimum Poincaré plane able to transfer maximum information from EEG time series to a set of Poincaré samples. In this algorithm‚ EEG time series are first embedded; then a parametric Poincaré plane is designed and finally the parameters of the plane are optimized using genetic algorithm. The presented algorithm is tested on EEG signals and the optimum Poincaré plane is obtained with more than 99% data information transferred. Results are compared with some typical method of creating Poinare samples and showed that the transferred information using with this method is higher. The generated samples can be used for feature extraction and further analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0599-2
  • Optimization of a shorter variable-acquisition time for legs to achieve
           true whole-body PET/CT images
    • Authors: Takuro Umeda; Kenta Miwa; Taisuke Murata; Noriaki Miyaji; Kei Wagatsuma; Kazuki Motegi; Takashi Terauchi; Mitsuru Koizumi
      Abstract: The present study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate PET images as a function of acquisition time for various leg sizes, and to optimize a shorter variable-acquisition time protocol for legs to achieve better qualitative and quantitative accuracy of true whole-body PET/CT images. The diameters of legs to be modeled as phantoms were defined based on data derived from 53 patients. This study analyzed PET images of a NEMA phantom and three plastic bottle phantoms (diameter, 5.68, 8.54 and 10.7 cm) that simulated the human body and legs, respectively. The phantoms comprised two spheres (diameters, 10 and 17 mm) containing fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose solution with sphere-to-background ratios of 4 at a background radioactivity level of 2.65 kBq/mL. All PET data were reconstructed with acquisition times ranging from 10 to 180, and 1200 s. We visually evaluated image quality and determined the coefficient of variance (CV) of the background, contrast and the quantitative %error of the hot spheres, and then determined two shorter variable-acquisition protocols for legs. Lesion detectability and quantitative accuracy determined based on maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in PET images of a patient using the proposed protocols were also evaluated. A larger phantom and a shorter acquisition time resulted in increased background noise on images and decreased the contrast in hot spheres. A visual score of ≥ 1.5 was obtained when the acquisition time was ≥ 30 s for three leg phantoms, and ≥ 120 s for the NEMA phantom. The quantitative %errors of the 10- and 17-mm spheres in the leg phantoms were ± 15 and ± 10%, respectively, in PET images with a high CV (scan < 30 s). The mean SUVmax of three lesions using the current fixed-acquisition and two proposed variable-acquisition time protocols in the clinical study were 3.1, 3.1 and 3.2, respectively, which did not significantly differ. Leg acquisition time per bed position of even 30–90 s allows axial equalization, uniform image noise and a maximum ± 15% quantitative accuracy for the smallest lesion. The overall acquisition time was reduced by 23–42% using the proposed shorter variable than the current fixed-acquisition time for imaging legs, indicating that this is a useful and practical protocol for routine qualitative and quantitative PET/CT assessment in the clinical setting.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0596-5
  • A model based on the Pennes bioheat transfer equation is valid in normal
           brain tissue but not brain tissue suffering focal ischaemia
    • Authors: Thomas Lillicrap; Murat Tahtalı; Andrew Neely; Xiaofei Wang; Andrew Bivard; Christian Lueck
      Abstract: Ischaemic stroke is a major public health issue in both developed and developing nations. Hypothermia is believed to be neuroprotective in cerebral ischaemia. Conversely, elevated brain temperature is associated with poor outcome after ischaemic stroke. Mechanisms of heat exchange in normally-perfused brain are relatively well understood, but these mechanisms have not been studied as extensively during focal cerebral ischaemia. A finite element model (FEM) of heat exchange during focal ischaemia in the human brain was developed, based on the Pennes bioheat equation. This model incorporated healthy (normally-perfused) brain tissue, tissue that was mildly hypoperfused but not at risk of cell death (referred to as oligaemia), tissue that was hypoperfused and at risk of death but not dead (referred to as penumbra) and tissue that had died as a result of ischaemia (referred to as infarct core). The results of simulations using this model were found to match previous in-vivo temperature data for normally-perfused brain. However, the results did not match what limited data are available for hypoperfused brain tissue, in particular the penumbra, which is the focus of acute neuroprotective treatments such as hypothermia. These results suggest that the assumptions of the Pennes bioheat equation, while valid in the brain under normal circumstances, are not valid during focal ischaemia. Further investigation into the heat exchange profiles that do occur during focal ischaemia may yield results for clinical trials of therapeutic hypothermia.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0595-6
  • Assessment for facial nerve paralysis based on facial asymmetry
    • Authors: Song Anping; Xu Guoliang; Ding Xuehai; Song Jiaxin; Xu Gang; Zhang Wu
      Abstract: Facial nerve paralysis (FNP) is a loss of facial movement due to facial nerve damage, which will lead to significant physical pain and abnormal function in patients. Traditional FNP grading methods are solely based on clinician’s judgment and are time-consuming and subjective. Hence, an accurate, quantitative and objective method of evaluating FNP is proposed for constructing a standard system, which will be an invaluable tool for clinicians who treat the patient with FNP. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for quantitative assessment of FNP which combines an effective facial landmark estimation (FLE) algorithm and facial asymmetrical feature (FAF) by processing facial movement image. The facial landmarks can be detected automatically and accurately using FLE. The FAF is based on the angle of key facial landmark connection and mirror degree of multiple regions on human face. Our method provides significant contribution as it describes the displacement of facial organ and the changes of facial organ exposure during performing facial movements. Experiments show that our method is effective, accurate and convenient in practice, which is beneficial to FNP diagnosis and personalized rehabilitation therapy for each patient.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0597-4
  • Investigating the impact of treatment delivery uncertainties on treatment
           effectiveness for lung SABR
    • Authors: Samuel J Blake; Sankar Arumugam; Lois Holloway; Shalini Vinod; Cesar Ochoa; Penny Phan; Christian Rønn Hansen; David I Thwaites
      Abstract: To quantify the impact of treatment delivery uncertainties on lung stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) plans for step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (ssIMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Baseline ssIMRT and VMAT treatment plans were generated for a cohort of 18 lung SABR patients. Modified plans were generated for each baseline plan by systematically varying gantry and collimator angles between − 5 and + 5 degrees, as well as multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position errors of magnitude between 1 and 5 mm in both directions (i.e. leaf banks shifted either in the same (Type 1) or opposite (Type 2) directions). Planning target volume (PTV), spinal cord and healthy lung dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics were compared between the modified and baseline plans. Collimator and gantry angle uncertainties did not significantly impact any of the PTV DVH metrics considered. MLC shifts of 5 mm resulted in average V95% changes of \(-\,10\%\) (Type 1) and \(-\,33\%\) (Type 2) and average \(\text{V}_{100\%}\) changes of \(-\,17\%\) (Type 1) and \(-\,44\%\) (Type 2) for ssIMRT and VMAT plans. Comparatively, MLC shifts of − 2 mm resulted in average \(\text{V}_{95\%}\) changes of \(-\,1\%\) (Type 1) and \(-\,3.5\%\) (Type 2) and average \(\text{V}_{100\%}\) changes of \(-\,3\%\) (Type 1) and \(-\,12\%\) (Type 2) for ssIMRT and VMAT plans. ssIMRT gantry angle uncertainties impacted spinal cord DVH metrics the most, with increases in \(\text{D} 0.1 \text{cc}\) of \(9\%\) occurring for a 1 degree shift. Type 2 MLC modifications impacted all OAR DVH metrics substantially with differences in spinal cord \(\text{D}_{\text{max}}\) (ssIMRT) and healthy lung \(\text{V} 20 \text{Gy}\) (VMAT) exceeding \(40\%\) for 5 mm shifts. Uncertainties in MLC leaf positions affected target and OAR DVH metrics more than collimator or gantry angle uncertainties for lung SABR plans. Less patient-to-patient variation occurred from delivery uncertainties in VMAT than ssIMRT.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0591-x
  • Grid mapping: a novel method of signal quality evaluation on a single lead
    • Authors: Yanjun Li; Xiaoying Tang
      Abstract: Diagnosis of long-term electrocardiogram (ECG) calls for automatic and accurate methods of ECG signal quality estimation, not only to lighten the burden of the doctors but also to avoid misdiagnoses. In this paper, a novel waveform-based method of phase-space reconstruction for signal quality estimation on a single lead ECG was proposed by projecting the amplitude of the ECG and its first order difference into grid cells. The waveform of a single lead ECG was divided into non-overlapping episodes (Ts = 10, 20, 30 s), and the number of grids in both the width and the height of each map are in the range [20, 100] (NX = NY = 20, 30, 40, … 90, 100). The blank pane ratio (BPR) and the entropy were calculated from the distribution of ECG sampling points which were projected into the grid cells. Signal Quality Indices (SQI) bSQI and eSQI were calculated according to the BPR and the entropy, respectively. The MIT-BIH Noise Stress Test Database was used to test the performance of bSQI and eSQI on ECG signal quality estimation. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) during the noisy segments of the ECG records in the database is 24, 18, 12, 6, 0 and − 6 dB, respectively. For the SQI quantitative analysis, the records were divided into three groups: good quality group (24, 18 dB), moderate group (12, 6 dB) and bad quality group (0, − 6 dB). The classification among good quality group, moderate quality group and bad quality group were made by linear support-vector machine with the combination of the BPR, the entropy, the bSQI and the eSQI. The classification accuracy was 82.4% and the Cohen’s Kappa coefficient was 0.74 on a scale of NX = 40 and Ts = 20 s. In conclusion, the novel grid mapping offers an intuitive and simple approach to achieving signal quality estimation on a single lead ECG.
      PubDate: 2017-10-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0594-7
  • Accuracy of the Garmin 920 XT HRM to perform HRV analysis
    • Authors: Johan Cassirame; Romain Vanhaesebrouck; Simon Chevrolat; Laurent Mourot
      Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is widely used to investigate autonomous cardiac drive. This method requires periodogram measurement, which can be obtained by an electrocardiogram (ECG) or from a heart rate monitor (HRM), e.g. the Garmin 920 XT device. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the accuracy of RR time series measurements from a Garmin 920 XT HRM as compared to a standard ECG, and to verify whether the measurements thus obtained are suitable for HRV analysis. RR time series were collected simultaneously with an ECG (Powerlab system, AD Instruments, Castell Hill, Australia) and a Garmin XT 920 in 11 healthy subjects during three conditions, namely in the supine position, the standing position and during moderate exercise. In a first step, we compared RR time series obtained with both tools using the Bland and Altman method to obtain the limits of agreement in all three conditions. In a second step, we compared the results of HRV analysis between the ECG RR time series and Garmin 920 XT series. Results show that the accuracy of this system is in accordance with the literature in terms of the limits of agreement. In the supine position, bias was 0.01, − 2.24, + 2.26 ms; in the standing position, − 0.01, − 3.12, + 3.11 ms respectively, and during exercise, − 0.01, − 4.43 and + 4.40 ms. Regarding HRV analysis, we did not find any difference for HRV analysis in the supine position, but the standing and exercise conditions both showed small modifications.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0593-8
  • Successful implementation of Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training
           (VERT) in Medical Physics education: The University of Sydney’s initial
           experience and recommendations
    • Authors: Yobelli A. Jimenez; Christian Rønn Hansen; Prabhjot Juneja; David I. Thwaites
      Abstract: This report outlines the University of Sydney’s initial experience with the Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) system in the Master of Medical Physics program. VERT is a commercially available system, simulating linear accelerators, patient computed tomography (CT) sets, plans and treatment delivery. It was purpose built for radiation therapy (RT) education and offers learners the opportunity to gain knowledge and skills within an interactive, risk-free environment. The integration of VERT into the RT physics module of the Master of Medical Physics program was intended to enhance student knowledge and skills relevant to the curriculum’s learning objectives, and to alleviate some of the burden associated with student access to clinical equipment. Three VERT practical sessions were implemented: “RT treatment planning systems”, “(CT) Anatomy for physicists” and “Linear accelerator measurements”. Our experience and student evaluations were positive and demonstrated the viability of VERT for medical physics (MP) student education. We anticipate that integration of VERT into MP teaching is a valuable addition to traditional methods and can aid MP students’ understanding and readiness for practice. Additional evaluations should be conducted to ascertain VERT’s role in delivering efficient quantity and quality of MP education, and its potential in alleviating burdens placed on clinical departments.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0592-9
  • A survey of modulated radiotherapy use in Australia &amp; New Zealand
           in 2015
    • Authors: Jeffrey Barber; Philip Vial; Paul White; Nick Menzies; Shrikant Deshpande; Regina Bromley; Nick Bennie; Shan Yau; Kristie Harrison
      Abstract: A survey of radiation oncology medical physics departments across Australia and New Zealand was conducted to assess the usage, commissioning and quality assurance of modulated radiotherapy techniques such as IMRT and VMAT. Survey responses were collected in April–May 2015 to snapshot current practice and historical implementation. The survey asked 142 questions, and is the most detailed survey of its kind published to date. Analysis of results at overall department level, as well as sub-analysis for different equipment and techniques in use, was performed. Results show a high prevalence of IMRT and VMAT in use, and demonstrate the large heterogeneity in clinical practice and experience across the region.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0590-y
  • Proposed patient motion monitoring system using feature point tracking
           with a web camera
    • Authors: Hideharu Miura; Shuichi Ozawa; Takaaki Matsuura; Kiyoshi Yamada; Yasushi Nagata
      Abstract: Patient motion monitoring systems play an important role in providing accurate treatment dose delivery. We propose a system that utilizes a web camera (frame rate up to 30 fps, maximum resolution of 640 × 480 pixels) and an in-house image processing software (developed using Microsoft Visual C++ and OpenCV). This system is simple to use and convenient to set up. The pyramidal Lucas–Kanade method was applied to calculate motions for each feature point by analysing two consecutive frames. The image processing software employs a color scheme where the defined feature points are blue under stable (no movement) conditions and turn red along with a warning message and an audio signal (beeping alarm) for large patient movements. The initial position of the marker was used by the program to determine the marker positions in all the frames. The software generates a text file that contains the calculated motion for each frame and saves it as a compressed audio video interleave (AVI) file. We proposed a patient motion monitoring system using a web camera, which is simple and convenient to set up, to increase the safety of treatment delivery.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0589-4
  • Shielding of medical imaging X-ray facilities: a simple and practical
    • Authors: Giovanni Bibbo
      Abstract: The most widely accepted method for shielding design of X-ray facilities is that contained in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report 147 whereby the computation of the barrier thickness for primary, secondary and leakage radiations is based on the knowledge of the distances from the radiation sources, the assumptions of the clinical workload, and usage and occupancy of adjacent areas. The shielding methodology used in this report is complex. With this methodology, the shielding designers need to make assumptions regarding the use of the X-ray room and the adjoining areas. Different shielding designers may make different assumptions resulting in different shielding requirements for a particular X-ray room. A more simple and practical method is to base the shielding design on the shielding principle used to shield X-ray tube housing to limit the leakage radiation from the X-ray tube. In this case, the shielding requirements of the X-ray room would depend only on the maximum radiation output of the X-ray equipment regardless of workload, usage or occupancy of the adjacent areas of the room. This shielding methodology, which has been used in South Australia since 1985, has proven to be practical and, to my knowledge, has not led to excess shielding of X-ray installations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0586-7
  • The effect of beam interruption during FFF-VMAT plans for SBRT
    • Authors: Seongjong Oh; Benjamin Lewis; Amy Watson; Siyong Kim; Taeho Kim
      Abstract: To investigate the dosimetric effect of intended beam interruption during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with flattening filter free (FFF) beam for exploring the possibility of deep inspiration breath hold stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A total of ten SBRT plans with 6 and 10 MV FFF beams were retrospectively selected. All plans consisted of four partial arcs, except one plan with six partial arcs. We delivered the plans using a Varian Truebeam™ with three different scenarios; without interruption (0int), with one intentional interruption (1int), or with two intentional interruptions (2int), per each partial arc. The treatment log files were exported from the treatment console, and the variations in delivered MU were evaluated at the beam interruption angles. The dose distributions were also measured using a 3D cylindrical diode array detector, ArcCHECK™. The 2D global gamma evaluations were performed, compared to the planned dose distribution, with 3%/3 and 4%/2 mm passing criterion. The dose difference (DD) was also determined between uninterrupted and interrupted data with 3, 2, 1, and 0.5% of global maximum dose. The interruption caused a total increase of 0.14 ± 0.05% and 0.25 ± 0.08% of the total planned MU, ranging from 1746 to 3261 MU, at the interrupted angles in 1int and 2int, respectively. All global gamma passing rates satisfied our clinical threshold of 90%, and the differences of passing rates were less than 0.3% on average with both criterions. All measured 1int and 2int data were within 3% DD from 0int measured data. For 6 MV FFF beams, the average passing rate with 2, 1, and 0.5% DD were 99.9 ± 0.2%, 92.3 ± 12.0%, and 81.9 ± 24.9%, respectively, between 0int and 1int, and 99.8 ± 0.4%, 92.1%12.4%, and 80.7 ± 26.5%, respectively, between 0int and 2int. For 10 MV FFF beams, the average passing rate with 2, 1, and 0.5% DD were 100.0 ± 0.2%, 95.4 ± 9.4% and 87.0 ± 19.8%, respectively, between 0int and 1int, and 99.9 ± 0.3%, 95.4 ± 9.7%, and 87.2 ± 21.3% between 0int and 2int. The dosimetric impact of beam interruption was investigated with small field and high dose rate FFF-VMAT SBRT plans. The delivered dose distributions with up to 12 interruptions per plan were still clinically acceptable. Only minimal changes were observed in Gamma, DD, and log file analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0588-5
  • Validating an image segmentation program devised for staging lymphoma
    • Authors: Anthony Slattery
      Abstract: Hybrid positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET–CT) imaging systems are an important tool for assessing the progression of lymphoma. PET–CT systems offer the ability to quantitatively assess lymphocytic bone involvement throughout the body. There is no standard methodology for staging lymphoma patients using PET–CT images. Automatic image segmentation algorithms could offer medical specialists a means to evaluate bone involvement from PET–CT images in a consistent manner. To devise and validate an image segmentation program that may assist staging lymphoma by determining the degree of bone involvement based from PET–CT studies. A custom-made program was developed to segment regions-of-interest from images by utilising an enhanced fuzzy clustering technique that incorporates spatial information. The program was subsequently tested on digital and physical phantoms using four different performance metrics before being employed to extract the bony regions of clinical PET–CT images acquired from 248 patients staged for lymphoma. The algorithm was satisfactorily able to delineate regions-of-interest within all phantoms. When applied to the clinical PET–CT images, the algorithm was capable of accurately segmenting bony regions in less than half of the subjects (n = 103). The performance of the algorithm was adversely affected by the presence of oral contrast, metal implants and the poor image quality afforded by low dose CT images in general. Significant changes are necessary before the algorithm can be employed clinically in an unsupervised fashion. However, with further work performed, the algorithm could potentially prove useful for medical specialists staging lymphoma in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-10-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0587-6
  • Heartbeat detection in multimodal physiological signals using signal
           quality assessment based on sample entropy
    • Abstract: This paper presents a novel technique to identify heartbeats in multimodal data using electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals. Multiple physiological signals such as ECG, ABP, and Respiration are often recorded in parallel from the activity of heart. These signals generally possess related information as they are generated by the same physical system. The ECG and ABP correspond to the same phenomenon of contraction and relaxation activity of heart. Multiple signals acquired from various sensors are generally processed independently, thus discarding the information from other measurements. In the estimation of heart rate and heart rate variability, the R peaks are generally identified from ECG signal. Efficient detection of R-peaks in electrocardiogram (ECG) is a key component in the estimation of clinically relevant parameters from ECG. However, when the signal is severely affected by undesired artifacts, this becomes a challenging task. Sometimes in clinical environment, other physiological signals reflecting the cardiac activity such as ABP signal are also acquired simultaneously. Under the availability of such multimodal signals, the accuracy of R peak detection methods can be improved using sensor-fusion techniques. In the proposed method, the sample entropy (SampEn) is used as a metric for assessing the noise content in the physiological signal and the R peaks in ECG and the systolic peaks in ABP signals are fused together to enhance the efficiency of heartbeat detection. The proposed method was evaluated on the 100 records from the computing in cardiology challenge 2014 training data set. The performance parameters are: sensitivity (Se) and positive predictivity (PPV). The unimodal R peaks detector achieved: Se gross = 99.40%, PPV gross = 99.29%, Se average = 99.37%, PPV average = 99.29%. Similarly unimodal BP delineator achieved Se gross = 99.93%, PPV gross = 99.99%, Se average = 99.93%, PPV average = 99.99% whereas, the proposed multimodal beat detector achieved: Se gross = 99.65%, PPV gross = 99.91%, Se average = 99.68%, PPV average = 99.91%.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0585-8
  • Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis from EEG signals using nonlinear methods
    • Abstract: EEG signals have essential and important information about the brain and neural diseases. The main purpose of this study is classifying two groups of healthy volunteers and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients using nonlinear features of EEG signals while performing cognitive tasks. EEG signals were recorded when users were doing two different attentional tasks. One of the tasks was based on detecting a desired change in color luminance and the other task was based on detecting a desired change in direction of motion. EEG signals were analyzed in two ways: EEG signals analysis without rhythms decomposition and EEG sub-bands analysis. After recording and preprocessing, time delay embedding method was used for state space reconstruction; embedding parameters were determined for original signals and their sub-bands. Afterwards nonlinear methods were used in feature extraction phase. To reduce the feature dimension, scalar feature selections were done by using T-test and Bhattacharyya criteria. Then, the data were classified using linear support vector machines (SVM) and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) method. The best combination of the criteria and classifiers was determined for each task by comparing performances. For both tasks, the best results were achieved by using T-test criterion and SVM classifier. For the direction-based and the color-luminance-based tasks, maximum classification performances were 93.08 and 79.79% respectively which were reached by using optimal set of features. Our results show that the nonlinear dynamic features of EEG signals seem to be useful and effective in MS diseases diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0584-9
  • Winning images from the Photography in Medical Physics (PiMP) competition
    • PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0581-z
  • A comprehensive dose assessment of irradiated hand by iridium-192 source
           in industrial radiography
    • Authors: S. M. Hosseini Pooya; M. R. Dashtipour; R. Paydar; F. Mianji; B. Pourshahab
      Abstract: Among the various incidents in industrial radiography, inadvertent handling of sources by hands is one of the most frequent incidents in which some parts of the hands may be locally exposed to high doses. An accurate assessment of extremity dose assists medical doctors in selecting appropriate treatments, preventing the injury expansion in the region. In this study, a phantom was designed to simulate a fisted hand of a radiographer when the worker holds a radioactive source in their hands. The local doses were measured using implanted TLDs in the phantom at different distances from a source. Furthermore, skin dose distribution was measured by Gaf-chromic films in the palm region of the phantom. The reliability of the measurements has been studied via analytical as well as Monte-Carlo simulation methods. The results showed that the new phantom design can be used reliably in extremity dose assessments, particularly at the points next to the source.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0568-9
  • Differences in grip force control between young and late middle-aged
    • Authors: Lianrong Zheng; Kunyang Li; Qian Wang; Wenhui Chen; Rong Song; Guanzheng Liu
      Abstract: Grip force control is a crucial function for human to guarantee the quality of life. To examine the effects of age on grip force control, 10 young adults and 11 late middle-aged adults participated in visually guided tracking tasks using different target force levels (25, 50, and 75% of the subject’s maximal grip force). Multiple measures were used to evaluate the tracking performance during force rising phase and force maintenance phase. The measurements include the rise time, fuzzy entropy, mean force percentage, coefficient of variation, and target deviation ratio. The results show that the maximal grip force was significantly lower in the late middle-aged adults than in the young adults. The time of rising phase was systematically longer among late middle-aged adults. The fuzzy entropy is a useful indicator for quantitating the force variability of the grip force signal at higher force levels. These results suggest that the late middle-aged adults applied a compensatory strategy that allow allows for sufficient time to reach the required grip force and reduce the impact of the early and subtle degenerative changes in hand motor function.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13246-017-0567-x
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