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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2291 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (192 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (187 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (105 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1209 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (385 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (68 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (90 journals)

ENGINEERING (1209 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 401 - 600 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
IET Renewable Power Generation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
IET Science, Measurement & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IET Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
IETE Journal of Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IETE Technical Review     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
IIE Transactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IIUM Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Industrial Data     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrie et Technologies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Informatik-Spektrum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniare : Revista Chilena de Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria de Recursos Naturales y del Ambiente     Open Access  
Ingeniería Energética     Open Access  
Ingenieria Industrial. Actualidad y Nuevas Tendencias     Open Access  
Ingeniería Investigación y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ingeniería solidaria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenieria y Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería y Desarrollo     Open Access  
Ingenieria y Universidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingeniería, Investigación y Tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenio Magno     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ingenius : Revista de Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Innovare : Revista de ciencia y tecnología     Open Access  
Instrumentation Science & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Integration, the VLSI Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Intelligent Control and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Interface Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Intermetallics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Archives of Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED ORGANIZATION     Open Access  
International Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
International Journal for Simulation and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal for the History of Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Abrasive Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science IJAERS     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Advanced engineering, Management and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advancements in Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Aerodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Applied Power Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Architectural Computing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Automation and Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Autonomic Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Cast Metals Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Coal Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Collaborative Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Complexity in Applied Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Computer Aided Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Crashworthiness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Design Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Education and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Education Economics and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Embedded Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Energy Optimization and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Engine Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering and Future Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering and Manufacturing     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering and Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Engineering Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Practical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Engineering Systems Modelling and Simulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Engineering, Social Justice, and Peace     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environmental Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Experimental Design and Process Optimisation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Fatigue     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
International Journal of Foresight and Innovation Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Fracture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Geo-Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Impact Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Information Acquisition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Innovation Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Integrated Engineering     Open Access  
International Journal of Intelligent Engineering Informatics     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Lifecycle Performance Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Marine Engineering Innovation and Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Quality Assurance in Engineering and Technology Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Recent Contributions from Engineering, Science & IT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Systems and Service-Oriented Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Technoethics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Turbomachinery, Propulsion and Power     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Forschung im Ingenieurwesen
  [SJR: 0.188]   [H-I: 14]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1434-0860 - ISSN (Online) 0015-7899
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Foreword
    • Authors: Karsten Stahl
      Pages: 57 - 58
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0248-7
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of gear noise behaviour with application force level
    • Authors: T. Utakapan; B. Kohn; M. Fromberger; M. Otto; K. Stahl
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: Abstract Reducing excessive vibration and undesired noise is one of the most important goals throughout the whole development phases of gearboxes. Among different development stages, different technical measurements are available to estimate the excitation behaviour of gear meshes. However, the comparison of the result of these measurement types among the development stages may be inconsistent due to different dimensions. In order to ensure the best comparability as well as comprehensive interpretation of the vibration characteristics of gear meshes, an application force level was developed. This characteristic value allows noise behaviour evaluation by means of different measurement types. Moreover, the evaluation boundary of this characteristic value is customizable to encourage the flexibility for further specific evaluations. In this article, the formulation of application force level is derived and its usage is shown. Although the application force level was intentionally developed for the gear design, it can also be applied to other kinds of application fields. The application force level is the result of the research project funded by the German research association for drive technology (FVA).
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0228-y
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Experimental studies and simulation of hypoid gear lapping
    • Authors: Berthold Schlecht; Felix Rudolph; Stefan Schumann
      Pages: 95 - 100
      Abstract: Abstract Gear lapping is a highly productive method of hard finishing hypoid gears for appliances with high demands regarding transmission noise. However, there is a major disadvantage compared to competing processes. The flank topology after lapping is not completely predictable, making the definition of process variables a matter of personal experience and empirical efforts. This paper presents a method to simulate the local surface wear produced by lapping bevel and hypoid gears, based on a widely used wear approach and a fast and accurate tooth contact simulation. High-resolution experimental investigations of lapped tooth flanks are used to evaluate the accuracy of the current simulation method and deduce possible improvements.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0214-4
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Geometric modeling and torque analysis of the magnetic nutation gear drive
    • Authors: Ding-jian Huang; Li-gang Yao; Wen-jian Li; Jun Zhang
      Pages: 101 - 108
      Abstract: Abstract This paper proposes a novel magnetic nutation gear drive (MA-ND) which offers several advantages compared to the traditional mechanical one in terms of contact-free, low noise and vibration, inherent overload protection, no need of lubrication and low-loss energy. Firstly, the working principle of the proposed MA-ND is introduced. The structure design of the MA-ND is developed and the three-dimensional model of the MA-ND is further accomplished. Based on the coordinate transformation and the geometric analysis, the geometric properties and the meshing characteristics are revealed. Furthermore, the force and torque are deduced based on equivalent magnetic charge method, a prototype of this MA-ND is developed and the transmission ratio experiment under variable load is carried out to indicate that the proposed MA-ND can meet the requirement.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0246-9
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Influence analysis of system parameters on characteristics of the nutation
           drive with double circular arc spiral bevel gears
    • Authors: Yongwu Cai; Ligang Yao; Zhiyu Xie; Jun Zhang; Chen Peng
      Pages: 125 - 133
      Abstract: Abstract Gear transmission systems are one of the most frequently used systems for power transmission. The characteristics of a gear transmission system have important guiding significance in the design, manufacture and application of transmissions. This paper focuses on the influence of system parameters on the characteristics of a specific type of gear transmission, the nutation drive with double circular arc spiral bevel gears. Based on the transmission ratio analysis of single-stage and two-stage nutation drive systems, the system parameters, including nutation angle, gear spiral angle, pitch angle and cone distance, were defined. An analysis of the influence of system parameters on transmission efficiency was performed. Furthermore, the influence of system parameters on axial misalignment and cone displacement error was investigated. Finally, by changing the input frequency, input load, nutation angle, and spiral angle, variation regularity of the dynamic meshing force was obtained. A transmission performance analysis based on the influence of system parameters was achieved and provides the theoretical basis for better design of the nutation drive with double circular arc spiral bevel gear.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0245-x
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Thrust cone bearings provide increased efficiency for helical gear units
           at moderate speed levels
    • Authors: Marcel Heß; Armin Lohrengel
      Pages: 135 - 143
      Abstract: Abstract Thrust cone bearings are an elegant option to handle the axial forces generated by the torque transmission in helical-toothed gear stages. They have proven as an efficient and reliable bearing concept for integrally geared compressors but are nearly unknown in other fields of gearbox engineering. The presented investigations consider three aspects which appear relevant to extend the field of possible applications for thrust cones towards gearboxes constructed with roller bearings. Based on simulations and experiments design parameters were identified, which enable a significant reduction of the necessary velocity for full film lubrication. For a single stage test gearbox noticeable increases in efficiency were achieved by replacing tapered roller bearings with a combination of thrust cone and ball bearings, especially during partially loaded operation. The resistance to wear and the determination of limits for the bearable loads under mixed friction conditions for various thrust cone design configurations are investigated in a third test series. It appears that the few limit values known so far might be exceeded significantly for future applications.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0229-x
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • A new standard of epicyclic efficiency – a practical comparison of
           planetary and orbitless gear-heads
    • Authors: L. J. Stocco; R. Gloeckner
      Pages: 153 - 161
      Abstract: Abstract An Orbitlesspat.pend. gear-head is a novel fixed-ratio Epicyclic gear-head with crank-shaft planet pinions and two carriers but no ring gear. It provides half the reduction ratio of a Planetary gear-head with similar pinions and shares many characteristics such as torque splitting and co-axial drive shafts that spin in a common direction. Three prototype Orbitless gear-heads are constructed, each with a different planet support mechanism. It is shown that load capacity is marginally improved by using ball instead of plain bearings, and greatly improved by mounting the bearings to the planets rather than the carriers. In comparison to an off-the-shelf Planetary gear-head, friction losses are reduced by up to 59% and total input power is reduced by up to 33% over the operating range of the motor and gear-head.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0235-z
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Influence of surface layer properties on tooth root bending strength of
           cylindrical gears
    • Authors: C. Brecher; C. Löpenhaus; J. Pollaschek
      Pages: 191 - 197
      Abstract: Abstract The trend of resource-efficient machine elements confronts design engineers with new challenges. Reduced component weight and ever increasing power densities require a gear design that enters the border area of material capacity. To embrace the potential offered by modern construction materials, calculation methods for component strength must rely on a deeper understanding of fracture and material mechanics in contrast to empirical-analytical approaches. The aim of lightweight designs in drive technology – particularly in relation to E‑mobility – can lead conventional design methods towards larger dimensioned and therefore heavier gears. Calculation methods that empower an accurate depiction of local load and material properties are able to safely push the boundary of gear design into areas that are closer to the ultimate fatigue limit of the material and help to conserve resources that way. For this reason, the aim of the report is to prove a general applicability of the higher-order calculation approach developed by Henser for all gear geometries and material properties. This method will make for more cost- and weight-effective gear design in the future. A two step approach shows the accuracy of the Inclusion-Based Weakest Link Model by validation on a small module helical gear and a parameter study proves the effectiveness of the Inclusion-Based Weakest Link Model by showing the influences of different sized gear geometries and material properties on calculated bending strength. In addition, the main influence parameters on the model and material properties that have different effects depending on gear size are identified.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0239-8
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Method for the pre-dimensioning of beveloid gears
    • Authors: Timon Schöler; Hansgeorg Binz; Matthias Bachmann
      Pages: 199 - 206
      Abstract: Abstract Conical involute gears – also referred to as beveloid gears – are based on cylindrical involute gears, as both gear geometries are based on a basic rack. They differ from cylindrical gears in that the beveloid gears’ addendum modification along the face width is not constant, but linearly variable. This allows beveloid gears to transfer mechanical power with parallel, intersecting or even skewed axes up to shaft angles of approximately 20°, whereas bevel or hypoid gears are applied with larger shaft angles. Compared with both cylindrical and bevel gears, there is less knowledge available concerning the design of beveloid gears. Existing tools for contact analysis are based on predetermined main gearing data. Therefore a method to pre-dimension main beveloid gearing data based on application requirements was developed. Initially, equivalent cylindrical gears are dimensioned and then transformed into beveloid gears with the required mounting positions. The method involves pre-optimizing of beveloid gears with several targets. Firstly, to comply with selected boundaries of the addendum modification coefficient, as well as to minimize ease-off between the tooth flanks achieved by a centric contact pattern and ensure adequate tip clearance by reducing tip circles. The method was implemented in a software environment for tooth contact analysis and applied to a wide range of data sets. The evaluation demonstrated the efficient design of the main data of beveloid gears including pre-optimization to achieve the objectives mentioned previously. In further optimizations, the microgeometry of beveloid gears must be adapted regarding the gap that occurs between the flanks.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0237-x
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Investigation on the flank surface durability of gears with increased
           pressure angle
    • Authors: Christian Weber; Thomas Tobie; Karsten Stahl
      Pages: 207 - 213
      Abstract: Abstract Within a funded research project (reference number 0325244C, BMWi – Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy of Germany), the load-carrying capacity of alternative involute gears was investigated. To find qualified variations for use in gear drives, increased pressure angles (αn > 20°) and/or asymmetric tooth shapes (αn < 20° and αn > 20°) have been examined experimentally. Optimization goals were the power to weight ratio of the transmission and the power density in the drive train. In this report gears with reference tooth shape (αn = 20°) as well as gears with modified tooth shape (αn = 28°) are discussed with focus on the load carrying capacity of the tooth flank with special regard to the damage mechanisms pitting, micro-pitting and scuffing. The results of experimental and test accompanying studies are shown. They allow a direct comparison between standard and special gears as well as a classification in context of the actual state of knowledge.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0221-5
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Elastic deformation of a hypoid gearbox
    • Authors: Markus Daffner; Michael Otto; Karsten Stahl
      Pages: 215 - 220
      Abstract: Abstract High load carrying capacity in the gear mesh can be achieved when the contact load is well distributed. Designing an adequate tooth flank geometry requires a thorough calculation approach. This is particularly important for automotive hypoid gearboxes with aluminum housing. In this paper, the deformation analysis of housing, bearings and shafts for a hypoid gearbox is validated by measurements at a static test rig. The challenge of compensating friction effects to get high-quality measurement results is successfully met by the presented approach. There are several computer programs to calculate the elastic deformation behavior of the system shaft-bearing-housing. Most of the calculation programs use analytical approaches. The advantage of these programs, in comparison to a full FEM approach, is an efficient parameterization of gears and a very short calculation time, while delivering high precision results. The deformation behavior of housings can be considered in different ways. The deformation behavior of a bearing seat can be modelled by its stiffnesses. For housings with lower stiffnesses (for example aluminum housings), crossover influences become more and more important. The deformation behavior of a housing can be taken into account by a stiffness matrix. The stiffness matrix of a housing can be determined by using the finite elements method. Therefore, the complex elastic deformation behavior of housings can be considered in analytical calculation approaches. Within the scope of a research project, investigations have been made to validate the calculated elastic deformations of the shaft-bearing-housing system. For this purpose, deformation measurements of a test gearbox were taken by using a 3D coordinate measuring machine. The test gearbox is static and consists of a hypoid gearbox for automotive applications. The input torque is provided by a lever mechanism. The elastic deformation of the test gear box has been measured and compared to calculation results. Therefore, different approaches of modelling the elastic deformation behavior of the housing can be validated and compared to each other.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0216-2
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Development and investigation of austempered ductile iron (ADI) for
           thick-walled gear components
    • Authors: Jochen Lohmiller; Jürgen Hoffmeister; Jörg Hermes; Michel Ansorg; Hans Dhonau
      Pages: 253 - 263
      Abstract: Abstract Austempered ductile irons (ADI) are attractive for thick-walled and highly stressed gear components due to the possibility to design complex structures requiring a combination of high strength and moderate ductility. In this study, ADI was developed and optimized for industrial planetary carriers with shaft diameters ranging from 120 to 460 mm. The material was characterized by correlating fatigue properties to microstructural parameters using samples prepared from cast and heat treated carriers. The optimized castings exhibit a tension-compression fatigue strength enhanced by 25% compared with castings of the same size of nominally the same material grade. A scaling behavior was developed in order to estimate fatigue strength on the basis of the maximum defect size in the tested volume. The maximum defect can be either a graphite nodule or a micropore. By optimizing the microstructure of a thick-walled casting according to the typical loading conditions, a structurally graded component with a uniform degree of utilization can be obtained. This allows efficient castings and heat treatment of thick-walled ADI parts.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0238-9
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Test method for time-scaled fatigue tests of gear transmission systems
    • Authors: Michael Hein; Thomas Tobie; Karsten Stahl
      Pages: 291 - 297
      Abstract: Abstract Under real operating conditions, gear transmissions usually suffer a wide spectrum of loads. The required runtimes, which have to be reached without any damage may cover long periods of time. Tests with the load spectrum in its whole extension are both time and money consuming. The use of shortened test methods can reduce the required testing time and lead to cost savings. In this paper, an extensive test methodology for time-scaled fatigue tests of transmission systems under variable load is presented. The method in general is divided in two steps. In a first step, a load spectrum truncation is performed based on a detailed system analysis of the gearbox. Exemplary the gearing itself is investigated regarding the main damage mechanisms pitting and tooth breakage as well as micropitting and sliding wear. Nevertheless the shown method is also applicable for further components in the transmission. The observed damage mechanisms are investigated locally and analyzed by means of a local damage accumulation. Based on the evaluated (local) Miner sums both the decisive damage mechanism and the damage location can be identified. This approach allows a truncation of the load spectrum without change of the main damage mechanism. An increase of load-levels on the one hand and omission of low loads on the other hand result in a reduced test time. A further reduction of test time is possible by performing and evaluating shortened test runs with the truncated load spectrum without reaching any failure criteria in a second step. The described evaluation is mainly based on destructive and non-destructive examination methods on gears as well as statistical methods which help to estimate the remaining service life of pre-damaged parts. With the described method, a realistic truncation by factor 5 to 20 is possible depending on the original load spectrum and transmission design.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0226-0
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Theoretical investigations of the load distribution of small sized crown
           gear sets different material pairings
    • Authors: Markus Baar; Peter Oster; Thomas Tobie; Karsten Stahl
      Pages: 337 - 347
      Abstract: Abstract An analytical approach for the calculation of the load distribution on the flank of crown gears, based on the theory according Placzek, is proposed. The teeth of the face gear and the pinion are divided into equidistant slices perpendicular to the normal plane, where the local forces, resulting from the acting torque, are calculated under consideration of the local deformation behavior of the gear system. By considering the geometrical conditions like radii of curvature, etc., the local Hertian stresses can be determined. Based on these considerations, the impact of the stiffness, the helix angle and the offset on the local force or load distribution is illustrated. Finally the lubricant film thickness is calculated by using the EHD-theory.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0233-1
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Bending strength of oil-lubricated cylindrical plastic gears
    • Authors: C. Hasl; P. Oster; T. Tobie; K. Stahl
      Pages: 349 - 355
      Abstract: Abstract Oil-lubricated plastic gears enable significantly higher power transmission compared to dry-running gears. One of the most relevant damage mechanisms herein is tooth root breakage. Due to the high elasticity of thermoplastics, load-induced deflections strongly affect the tooth root stresses. In this work, a modified method for calculating the tooth root stresses is used to increase the accuracy of the bending strength calculation of plastic gears. Experimental results with steel-plastic spur gear pairings prove that load-induced deflections and dynamic tooth forces are not yet adequately considered in VDI 2736. In doing so, it was to some extent possible to validate and confirm the POM fatigue strength data in accordance with VDI 2736.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0224-2
      Issue No: Vol. 81, No. 2-3 (2017)
       
  • Überhöhungsfaktor für erzwungene Konvektion auf kleinen
           Heizelementen
    • Authors: Erwin Kaiser
      Abstract: Zusammenfassung Der konvektive Wärmeübergang auf kleinen, flach montierten Heizelementen interessiert für Mikroelektronik und thermische Sensoren. Der maximale Wärmeübergang liegt im Anfangsbereich des überströmten Heizelements mit der Länge l*. Der über die Heizelementlänge l* gemittelte Wärmeübergangskoeffizient h* ist größer als der Wärmeübergangskoeffizient h am gleichen Ort, wenn z. B. die ganze Platte oder der Zylinderumfang beheizt ist. Zur Charakterisierung dieses Sachverhalts wird der Überhöhungsfaktor K = h*/h eingeführt. Gegenübergestellt werden K‑Werte aus Grenzschichtrechnungen, Wärmeübergangsmessungen, Kalibrierung von thermischen Wandschubspannungssensoren und numerischen Modellen (im Bereich von l* = 0,01 bis 4 mm). Der Überhöhungsfaktor K ist abhängig von der Überströmlänge l*, dem Wärmeübergangskoeffizienten h und der thermischen Isolation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0255-8
       
  • Zeiteffiziente Methodik zur Ermittlung des Reibungsverhaltens
           nasslaufender Lamellenkupplungen mit Carbon-Reibbelag
    • Authors: U. Stockinger; H. Pflaum; K. Stahl
      Abstract: Zusammenfassung Das tribologische System aus Reibpaarung, Schmierstoff und Beanspruchungen bestimmt die Reibcharakteristik von nasslaufenden Lamellenkupplungen. Aufgrund zahlreicher Einflussparameter und deren Wechselwirkungen ist das Reibungsverhalten nicht theoretisch vorherbestimmbar. Die Abstimmung von Reibpaarung und Schmierstoff erfordert somit experimentelle Untersuchungen. Im Rahmen eines Forschungsvorhabens der Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik e. V. (FVA) wurde eine zweistufige Testmethodik zur reproduzierbaren Beschreibung des Reibungsverhaltens von Lamellenkupplungen mit Carbon-Reibbelägen entwickelt. Nach einem Einlauf werden Laststufen mit unterschiedlichen Pressungs-Gleitgeschwindigkeits-Kombinationen (p-v-Variationen) durchlaufen. Das Konditionierungsverhalten des Reibsystems wird mithilfe eines Dauerschaltversuchs und nachfolgenden p-v-Variationen bewertet. Anhand dieser Testmethodik wird der Schmierstoffeinfluss auf das Reibungsverhalten beschrieben.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0253-x
       
  • Overall optimization of electrodynamic shifting systems
    • Authors: A. Reul; R. König; S. Rinderknecht
      Abstract: Abstract The internal shifting system of a transmission has a significant influence on the dynamics, costs and comfort of the transmission. A comprehensive study of the shifting system makes it possible to show optimization potentials on the control, the mechanical and the electrical path of electrodynamic shifting systems. Therefore, various simulation and optimization models are used. Especially through a new optimization approach, it is possible to use optimization procedures at an early stage of the design process and to use them for design and modeling. By a detailed consideration of the synchronization process, it is also possible to further significantly improve the dynamics. This is supported by a modular and cost-efficient test rig concept, which makes it easy to compare the results and the models. In addition, the test rig provides the possibility to carry out investigations of dog clutches.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0252-y
       
  • Ein Konzept zur Wirkungsgradoptimierung von Einzylinder-Dieselgeneratoren
           mittels Optimalsteuerung und Extremum-Seeking
    • Authors: Johannes Popp; Joachim Deutscher
      Abstract: Zusammenfassung In diesem Beitrag wird ein Konzept zur Wirkungsgradoptimierung hybrider Energiesysteme vorgestellt, welches insbesondere eine hochdynamisch vorgebbare Trajektorie des momentenbildenden Generatorstroms sowie während der Systemdimensionierung wählbare Konstruktionsparameter als Optimierungsfreiheitsgrade berücksichtigt. Das zweistufige Vorgehen wird anhand des Versuchssystems eines Einzylinder-Dieselgenerators veranschaulicht. Zuerst erfolgt die Ableitung eines modellbasierten Optimalsteuerungsproblems und dessen numerische Lösung. Dieser Ansatz dient zur Bestimmung einer optimalen Betriebsstrategie sowie Maschinendimensionierung und ermöglicht die Analyse der hochdynamisch vorgebbaren Stromtrajektorie. Im zweiten Schritt folgt die Diskussion der Probleme, welche bei der Übertragung der Steuerung auf eine reale Maschine auftreten. Diesbezüglich wird ein modellfreies Echtzeitoptimierungskonzept basierend auf Extremum-Seeking vorgestellt. Die Wirksamkeit sowohl des modellbasierten als auch des modellfreien Ansatzes wird anhand von Simulations- und Messergebnissen demonstriert.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0251-z
       
  • Characterization of TEHL contacts of thermoplastic gears
    • Authors: Enzo Maier; Andreas Ziegltrum; Thomas Lohner; Karsten Stahl
      Abstract: Abstract Thermoplastic materials generally show low specific weight, low coefficients of friction, noise damping behavior and demonstrate low-cost manufacturing by injection molding. This qualifies thermoplastics for the use in lightweight gear design and more generally for an increase in resource efficiency. However, moderate thermo-mechanical material properties and detrimental accumulation of contact heat limit its applications to lowly loaded machine elements. Lubrication allows pushing these boundaries. In this work, the thermo-elastohydrodynamically lubricated (TEHL) contact of steel-thermoplastic material pairings (hybrids) is analyzed by tribosimulation and at the FZG twin-disk test rig for representative thermoplastic gear operating conditions. After a comparison to plain steel TEHL contacts, the focus is on friction, film thickness and heat management. Results show that high surface conformity leads to low hydrodynamic pressures and thus very low friction. Furthermore, local contact temperatures affect tribological performance. The considered steel-thermoplastic TEHL contact operates in the transition region between hard TEHL and soft EHL.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10010-017-0230-4
       
 
 
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