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ENGINEERING (1215 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 259)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Acta Geotechnica
  [SJR: 1.818]   [H-I: 22]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1861-1133 - ISSN (Online) 1861-1125
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Soil wettability in ground engineering: fundamentals, methods, and
    • Authors: S. D. N. Lourenço; Y. Saulick; S. Zheng; H. Kang; D. Liu; H. Lin; T. Yao
      Pages: 1 - 14
      Abstract: Wettability is a fundamental property controlling the extent of wetting in flat and granular solids. In natural soils, wettability affects a wide variety of processes including infiltration, preferential flow and surface runoff. In mineral processing, wettability is paramount in enhancing the efficiency of separation of minerals from gangue. The manipulation of surface wettability is equally crucial in many industrial applications. For instance, superhydrophobic surfaces are those on which water drops roll off easily and as such are used for self-cleaning applications. Therefore, while wettability is strongly cross-disciplinary, its evolution has been discipline-specific with a direct extrapolation or transfer of concepts, approaches, and methods to ground engineering unlikely to remain valid. This paper synthesizes relevant aspects from surface chemistry, materials science, mining engineering, and soil science, and discusses their implications within the context of new granular materials that resist wetting, for use in barriers or ground improvement and, in unsaturated soils, where the effects of wettability have been documented.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0570-0
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • From saturated to unsaturated conditions and vice versa
    • Authors: Martí Lloret-Cabot; Simon J. Wheeler; Jubert A. Pineda; Enrique Romero; Daichao Sheng
      Pages: 15 - 37
      Abstract: Representing transitions between saturated and unsaturated conditions, during drying, wetting and loading paths, is a necessary step for a consistent unification between saturated and unsaturated soil mechanics. Transitions from saturated to unsaturated conditions during drying will occur at a nonzero air-entry value of suction, whereas transitions from unsaturated to saturated conditions during wetting or loading will occur at a lower nonzero air-exclusion value of suction. Air-entry and air-exclusion values of suction for a given soil will differ (representing hysteresis in the retention behaviour) and both are affected by changes in the dry density of the soil or by the occurrence of plastic volumetric strains. The paper demonstrates, through model simulations and comparison with experimental data from the literature (covering drying, wetting and loading tests), that the Glasgow Coupled Model (GCM), a coupled elasto-plastic constitutive model covering both mechanical and retention behaviour, represents transitions between unsaturated and saturated behaviour in a consistent fashion. Key aspects of the GCM are the use of Bishop’s stress tensor for mechanical behaviour, the additional influence of degree of saturation on mechanical yielding, inclusion of hysteresis in the retention behaviour, and the role of plastic volumetric strains (and not total volumetric strains) in the description of the water retention response. The success of the GCM in representing consistently transitions between saturated and unsaturated conditions, together with subsequent mechanical and retention responses, demonstrates the potential of this coupled constitutive model for numerical modelling of boundary value problems involving saturated and unsaturated conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0577-6
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Theoretical analysis of desiccation crack spacing of a thin, long soil
    • Authors: Susanga Costa; Jayantha Kodikara; S. L. Barbour; D. G. Fredlund
      Pages: 39 - 49
      Abstract: Soil desiccation cracking is important for a range of engineering applications, but the theoretical advancement of this process is less than satisfactory. In particular, it is not well understood how the crack spacing-to-depth ratio depends on soil material behaviour. In the past, two approaches, namely stress relief and energy balance, have been used to predict the crack spacing-to-depth ratio. The current paper utilises these two approaches to predict the approximate spacing-to-depth ratio of parallel cracks that form in long desiccating soil layers subjected to uniform tensile stress (or suction profile) while resting on a hard base. The theoretical developments have examined the formation of simultaneous and sequential crack patterns and have identified an important relationship between the stress relief and energy approaches. In agreement with experimental observations, it was shown that the spacing-to-depth ratio decreases with layer depth, and crack spacing generally increases with layer depth. The influence of the stiffness at the base interface indicated that decreasing the basal interface stiffness makes the crack spacing to increase in sequential crack formation. The experimental observations also show a decrease in cracking water content with the decrease in layer thickness, and this behaviour was explained on the basis of a critical depth concept.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0602-9
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Global representation of the drying–wetting curves of four engineering
           soils: experiments and correlations
    • Authors: Zhong-Sen Li; Assia Benchouk; Feth-Ellah Mounir Derfouf; Nabil Abou-Bekr; Said Taibi; Hanène Souli; Jean-Marie Fleureau
      Pages: 51 - 71
      Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to examine how different engineering soils react to environmental variations and to provide correlations to characterize their behaviour under null external mechanical stress. Two French and two Algerian soils with liquid limits ranging from 36 to 112 were prepared under both slurry and Proctor compaction conditions, and then subjected to drying–wetting paths with suction controlled from several kPa to several hundreds of MPa. Experimental results are presented in five diagrams to show globally and simultaneously the shrinkage–swelling, saturation–desaturation and water retention characteristics. A reasonable consistency was observed between the oedometric and drying curves of slurry, confirming the equivalence between hydraulic loading (suction) and mechanical loading (consolidation stress) on the volume change behaviour of different soils. As an intrinsic parameter of soil nature, liquid limit was found to have a significant influence on the shrinkage limit, air-entry suction and compressibility of both slurry and compacted samples. For that reason, correlations between these characteristics and liquid limit were set up, providing a good basis for a first estimation of the drying–wetting curves. At the micro-scale, new experimental results were obtained: either on drying or wetting path, the micro-pores were almost unaffected, whereas, when matrix suction increased from 0.1 to 8 MPa, the volume of macro-pores decreased to quasi-closure. At last, the analogy between the compaction and drying–wetting curves, and the comparison of different methods to determine the water retention curve were addressed. Such analogies and comparisons contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of mechanical stress and suction.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0527-3
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Localized failure in unsaturated soils under non-isothermal conditions
    • Authors: Xiaoyu Song; Kaiqi Wang; Ming Ye
      Pages: 73 - 85
      Abstract: Fluctuations of temperature and degree of saturation have considerable influence on the mechanical, hydraulic and retention properties of unsaturated soils. Localized failure is a ubiquitous feature of geomaterials. Major research on localized failure of geomaterials has been focused on geomaterials under the isothermal condition. In this article, we study the localized failure of unsaturated soils under non-isothermal conditions. In particular, we derive the isothermal and adiabatic bifurcation conditions from a homogeneous deformation at the constitutive level under a locally drained condition. A recently proposed meso-scale constitutive model for thermal unsaturated soils is used to derive the isothermal and adiabatic acoustic tensors. We present the spectral form of the consistent tangential elasto-plastic operator from a local material integration algorithm. The numerical simulations at the material level are conducted to study the impact of temperature on localized failure of unsaturated soils under the plane strain condition. The numerical results show that the timing and the critical angle of bifurcation are dependent on temperature.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0534-4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Numerical modelling of a field soil desiccation test using a cohesive
           fracture model with Voronoi tessellations
    • Authors: Y. L. Gui; W. Hu; Z. Y. Zhao; X. Zhu
      Pages: 87 - 102
      Abstract: Numerical modelling of a field soil desiccation test is performed using a hybrid continuum-discrete element method with a mix-mode cohesive fracture model and Voronoi tessellation grain assemblages. The fracture model considers material strength and contact stiffness degradation in both normal and tangential directions of an interface. It is found that the model can reasonably reproduce the special features of the field soil desiccation, such as curling and sub-horizontal crack. In addition, three significant factors controlling field desiccation cracking, fracture energy, grain heterogeneity and grain size are identified.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0558-9
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • On the soil water characteristic curves of poorly graded granular
           materials in aqueous polymer solutions
    • Authors: Junnan Cao; Jongwon Jung; Xiaoyu Song; Bate Bate
      Pages: 103 - 116
      Abstract: Tempe cell with a self-developed horizontal hanging column attachment was used to measure the soil water characteristic curves (SWCCs) of granular materials initially saturated with either water or polymer solutions. For SWCCs of six poorly graded granular materials with d 50 ranging from 0.04 to 0.7 mm in water, it was found that (1) as grain size decreases, air entry value increases, and matric suction (ψ) for the funicular and pendular regimes increases and that (2) steep desaturation curves over narrow ψ range in the funicular regime were observed. Air entry values obtained from the fitting parameter 1/α in van Genuchten SWCC equation fall in the boundaries calculated from the pore throat sizes in both simple cubic and face-centered cubic packings. A toroidal meniscus water model, which incorporates the measured surface tension and contact angle values between aqueous solutions and solid surfaces, was proposed for the SWCC in pendular regime and was compared to well-received numerical methods. This toroid model successfully depicts SWCC of poorly graded granular materials in water. However, SWCCs predicted by this toroid model underestimate the degree of saturation in the pendular regime for Ottawa 20–30 sands in polymer solutions. Herschel–Bulkley fluid, which is a type of non-Newtonian fluids, is postulated to increase the ψ needed to drain the polymer solution due to the nonzero shear stress intercept. In addition, it is also postulated by scanning electron microscopy and optical confocal imaging results that the rough surfaces of Ottawa 20–30 sand, which have many micron-sized “kinks”, together with the possible chemical attractions, help retain the polymer solutions on the solid surfaces, or water film.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0568-7
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Capillary collapse of loose pyroclastic unsaturated sands characterized at
           grain scale
    • Authors: Mariagiovanna Moscariello; Sabatino Cuomo; Simon Salager
      Pages: 117 - 133
      Abstract: The reduction in volume for unsaturated soils wetted at constant total stress is indicated as capillary collapse. Several studies conducted on standard laboratory specimens (macro-scale) outlined the role of initial void ratio, confining pressure and matric suction on collapse onset. Conversely, few observations were made at grain scale, although an important influence of soil structure has been supposed since years. This paper investigated the collapse of coarse and fine sands derived from a pyroclastic soil of Southern Italy. The X-ray computed tomography was used to identify the mechanisms acting at grain scale and to measure the local variations of soil structure. The experimental procedure consisted in preparing remoulded unsaturated specimens and reducing the matric suction until the collapse occurred under self-weight. At different stages of the process, the sample was imaged by X-ray tomography. The experimental results provided original insight into: (1) transformation of soil structure during the wetting tests; (2) variation of porosity, water content and degree of saturation for the whole specimen; and (3) local variations of those variables in several representative sub-volumes. It is worth noting that collapse of coarse sand specimen occurred before saturation. This was also emphasized by the presence of macro-voids at collapse.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0603-8
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Investigation of the change in soil fabric during cone penetration in silt
           using 2D measurements
    • Authors: Priscilla Paniagua; Joana Fonseca; Anders Gylland; Steinar Nordal
      Pages: 135 - 148
      Abstract: Interpretation of CPTU testing in silt is non-trivial because of the partially drained conditions that are likely to occur during penetration. A better understanding of the pore pressure generation/dissipation is needed in order to obtain reliable design parameters. Following a previous study using X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) with volumetric digital image correlation (3D-DIC) that clearly showed the formation of distinct dilation and compression areas around the cone; the present work takes a closer look at those areas in order to link volumetric behavior to changes in soil fabric. High-resolution 2D backscattered electron images of polished thin sections prepared from frozen samples at the end of penetration are used. The images have a spatial resolution of 0.4 µm/pixel that allow a clear identification of grains and pore spaces. Image processing techniques are developed to quantify local porosity and obtain the statistical distribution of the particle orientation for the zones around the cone tip and shaft. It is shown that the formation of compaction regions is related to the ability of the grains to rearrange and align along a well-defined preferred orientation forming a more closed-fabric characterized by high anisotropy values, while zones of dilation are associated with a more open packing with grains randomly oriented and with large voids within. These observations suggested that for a saturated soil, water will move from a compressive zone to a neighboring dilative zone, creating a short drainage path. By shedding light on the link between soil fabric and drainage patterns, this study contributes toward a better understanding of the measured macro-response during CPTU tests on silt.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0559-8
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Tide-induced hydraulic response in a semi-infinite seabed with a
           subaqueous drained tunnel
    • Authors: Hongwei Ying; Chengwei Zhu; Xiaonan Gong
      Pages: 149 - 157
      Abstract: In this study, analytical solutions for tide-induced pore pressure, seepage force and water inflow into a subaqueous drained tunnel are developed. The results are compared with numerical solutions from a commercial software. The effects of the soil permeability, shear modulus, lining thickness and buried depth of the tunnel on tide-induced pore pressure, seepage force and water inflow are discussed. Larger tide-induced pore pressure and seepage force are obtained for smaller tunnel depth and higher soil permeability. The phase lags of the maximal tide-induced pore pressure at different depths are determined and investigated.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0525-5
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Three-dimensional numerical and analytical study of horizontal group of
           square anchor plates in sand
    • Authors: Hicham Mokhbi; Mekki Mellas; Abdelhak Mabrouki; Jean-Michel Pereira
      Pages: 159 - 174
      Abstract: In this paper, numerical and analytical methods are used to evaluate the ultimate pullout capacity of a group of square anchor plates in row or square configurations, installed horizontally in dense sand. The elasto-plastic numerical study of square anchor plates is carried out using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The soil is modeled by an elasto-plastic model with a Mohr–Coulomb yield criterion. An analytical method based on a simplified three-dimensional failure mechanism is developed in this study. The interference effect is evaluated by group efficiency η, defined as the ratio of the ultimate pullout capacity of group of N anchor plates to that of a single isolated plate multiplied by number of plates. The variation of the group efficiency η was computed with respect to change in the spacing between plates. Results of the analyses show that the spacing between the plates, the internal friction angle of soil and the installation depth are the most important parameters influencing the group efficiency. New equations are developed in this study to evaluate the group efficiency of square anchor plates embedded horizontally in sand at shallow depth (H = 4B). The results obtained by numerical and analytical solutions are in excellent agreement.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0557-x
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • A multiscale homogenization model for strength predictions of fully and
           partially frozen soils
    • Authors: Meng-Meng Zhou; Günther Meschke
      Pages: 175 - 193
      Abstract: Soil freezing is often used to provide temporary support of soft soils in geotechnical interventions. During the freezing process, the strength properties of the soil–water–ice mixture change from the original properties of the water-saturated soil to the properties of fully frozen soils. In the paper, a multiscale homogenization model for the upscaling of the macroscopic strength of freezing soil based upon information on three individual material phases—the solid particle phase (S), the crystal ice phase (C) and the liquid water phase (L)—is proposed. The homogenization procedure for the partially frozen soil–water–ice composite is based upon an extension of the linear comparison composite (LCC) method for a two-phase matrix–inclusion composite, using a two-step homogenization procedure. In each step, the LCC methodology is implemented by estimating the strength criterion of a two-phase nonlinear matrix–inclusion composite in terms of an optimally chosen linear elastic comparison composite with a similar underlying microstructure. The solid particle phase (S) and the crystal ice phase (C) are assumed to be characterized by two different Drucker–Prager strength criteria, and the liquid water phase (L) is assumed to have zero strength capacity under drained conditions. For the validation of the proposed upscaling strategy, the predicted strength properties for fully and partially frozen fine sands are compared with experimental results, focussing on the investigation of the influence of the porosity and the degree of ice saturation on the predicted failure envelope.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0538-0
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Study on the freezing temperature of saline soil
    • Authors: Zean Xiao; Yuanming Lai; Mingyi Zhang
      Pages: 195 - 205
      Abstract: Freezing temperature is an important parameter in studying the freezing mechanism of saline soil. An equation for calculating the freezing temperature is proposed based on the phase transition theory in porous medium, including two main influencing factors, the water activity and pore size. In this equation, the effect of the water activity on the freezing temperature of soil is calculated by Pitzer model, while the impact of pore size is replaced by water content. Through comparing the calculated results with the published experimental data, the equation is proved to be competent in predicting the freezing temperature for the saline soil with sodium chloride or calcium chloride. For the saline soil with sodium carbonate, the effect of salt hydrate crystallization should be taken into consideration. With respect to the saline soil with sodium sulfate, it is difficult to determine the freezing temperature, since there is uncertainty of the resultant when freezing (that is, heptahydrate or decahydrate). In addition, the effects of pore size and multi-component solutes on freezing temperature are also discussed. The study would be helpful for revealing the freezing mechanism and also providing a useful theoretical method for engineering design of saline soil in cold regions.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0537-1
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Separate-ice frost heave model for one-dimensional soil freezing process
    • Authors: Guo-qing Zhou; Yang Zhou; Kun Hu; Yi-jiang Wang; Xiang-yu Shang
      Pages: 207 - 217
      Abstract: For one-dimensional soil freezing process, a separate-ice frost heave model is established, and the coupled process of heat transfer, fluid flow and stress development is considered in the model. First, a coupled heat–fluid–stress model describing the growth of a single ice lens is developed by extending the coupled heat–fluid model presented by Zhou and Zhou (Can Geotech J 49(6):686–693, 2012). Second, the mechanism for the formation of a new ice lens in the frozen fringe is studied, and we indicate that if the total vertical disjoining pressure at certain place exceeds the sum of the external pressure and the critical pressure, a new ice lens will emerge. By combining the growth model of a single ice lens and the criterion for the formation of a new ice lens, the separate-ice frost heave model is then established. The difference between the separate-ice model and the rigid-ice model is explained, and the relations for different mathematical models which describe the soil freezing process are also discussed. Numerical analysis of the separate-ice model is conducted using the finite volume method. The freezing tests for Devon silt under no external pressure and Xuzhou silty clay under a constant external pressure are applied to verify the computational results. The consistence between the calculation and the observation validates the separate-ice frost heave model.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0579-4
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Fines adsorption on nanoparticle-coated surface
    • Authors: Xianglei Zheng; François Perreault; Jaewon Jang
      Pages: 219 - 226
      Abstract: Fluid flow through porous media is inherently associated with the detachment and migration of fine particles. The migration of fine particles and ensuing clogging is the main reason of flow rate decrease in porous media. Nanoparticle coating can be a promising method to prevent fines’ detachment and migration by changing electrical surface forces between the pore wall surface and the fine particles. In this study, the attraction and adhesion forces of the nanoparticle-coated surface are measured by atomic force microscope. The effect of the nanoparticle coating on the fines adsorption efficiency is then investigated. The results show that there is an increase in the adhesion force on the nanoparticle-coated surface and the significant improvement of the fines adsorption capacity by the nanoparticle coating. The research results are relevant to other research areas whenever migrating fines cause engineering problems.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0528-2
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2018)
  • Reply to “Discussion of “From saturated to unsaturated conditions and
           vice versa” by M. Lloret-Cabot et al. (DOI 10.1007/s11440-017-0577-6)”
           by S. Qi et al. (DOI 10.1007/s11440-017-0625-2)
    • Authors: Martí Lloret-Cabot; Simon J. Wheeler; Jubert A. Pineda; Enrique Romero; Daichao Sheng
      PubDate: 2018-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0626-1
  • Discussion of “From saturated to unsaturated conditions and vice
           versa” by Martí Lloret-Cabot, Simon J. Wheeler, Jubert A. Pineda,
           Enrique Romero, and Daichao Sheng
    • Authors: Shunchao Qi; Paul Simms; Sai Vanapalli
      Abstract: The authors (Lloret-Cabot et al. in Acta Geotech 1–23, 2017) applied the glasgow coupled model (GCM), originally proposed by Wheeler et al. (Géotechnique 53(1):41–54, 2003), to the simulation of several experimental tests that involve transition between saturated and unsaturated states. The authors show qualitatively, but not quantitatively, predictions of GCM for shrinkage during air drying of normally consolidated samples (Fig. 13) under low mechanical stress conditions, without presenting the material parameters. The discussers, who have worked with GCM to model multilayer deposition of tailings/soft soils (Qi in Numerical investigation for slope stability of expansive soils and large strain consolidation of soft soils. Doctoral dissertation, University of Ottawa, 2017; Qi et al. in J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 143(7):04017018, 2017, Qi et al. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 143(7):04017019, 2017), have made quantitative predictions of similar cases. Satisfactory simulations of such cases using GCM are sensitive to the selection of the coupling parameters k1 and k2. By considering an alternative analytical form of GCM, an analytical procedure can be derived for calibrating the coupling parameters for problems involving virgin drying.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0625-2
  • An adjoint-based optimization method for gas production in shale
    • Authors: Antonio A. Novotny; Márcio A. Murad; Sidarta A. Lima
      Abstract: In this work, we consider a new model for flow in a multiporosity shale gas reservoir constructed within the framework of an upscaling procedure where hydraulic fractures are treated as ( \(n-1\) ) interfaces ( \(n=2,3\) ). Within this framework, the hydrodynamics is governed by a new pressure equation in the shale matrix which is treated as a homogenized porous medium composed of organic matter (kerogen aggregates with nanopores) and inorganic impermeable solid (clay, calcite, quartz) separated from each other by a network of interparticle pores of micrometer size. The solution of the pressure equation is strongly influenced by the constitutive response of the retardation parameter and effective hydraulic conductivity where the former incorporates gas adsorption/desorption in the nanopores of the kerogen. By focusing our analyses on this nonlinear diffusion equation in the domain occupied by the shale matrix, an optimization strategy seated on the adjoint sensitivity method is developed to minimize a cost functional related to gas production and net present value in a single hydraulic fracture. The gradient of the objective functional computed with the adjoint formulation is explored to update the controlled pressure drop aiming to optimize production in a given window of time. The combination of the direct approach and gradient-based optimization using the adjoint formulation leads to the construction of optimal production scenarios under controlled pressure decline in the well. Numerical simulations illustrate the potential of the methodology proposed herein in optimizing gas production.
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0624-3
  • A combined method to predict the long-term settlements of roads on soft
           soil under cyclic traffic loadings
    • Authors: Yuanqiang Cai; Yao Chen; Zhigang Cao; Chao Ren
      Abstract: In order to investigate the mechanism of the long-term settlement of road on the soft soil, an in situ measurement of a highway in southeast China was conducted during both the construction and post-construction stage. In the theoretical analysis, the long-term settlement of the pavement on thick soft soils was divided into three main components: the consolidation settlement, the creep deformation and the traffic load-induced deformation. The equivalent time line model based on the viscous–elastic–plastic theory was adopted to simulate the road settlement caused by the consolidation and creep of the subsoil. A cyclic strain accumulation model, which was obtained from laboratory tests of soil elements, was adopted to consider the road settlement induced by cyclic traffic loadings. A pavement dynamic response model was used to calculate the dynamic stresses in the subsoil generated by moving traffic loads when the road was open to service. It was found that the equivalent time line model combined with the cyclic strain accumulation model could predict the road settlement accurately at both the construction and post-construction stage. Numerical results showed that the traffic speed had limited effect on the post-construction road settlements for the speed range considered. The post-construction settlement of the road, mainly composed of the traffic-induced settlement and soil creep deformation, could be reduced significantly by increasing the embankment surcharge during the construction stage. The creep component accounted for over 10% of the total post-construction settlement, while the percentage of the creep deformation in total post-construction settlement decreased rapidly as the embankment surcharge increased.
      PubDate: 2018-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0616-3
  • Energy distribution during the quasi-static confined comminution of
           granular materials
    • Authors: Pei Wang; Chloé Arson
      Abstract: A method is proposed to calculate the distribution of energy during the quasi-static confined comminution of particulate assemblies. The work input, calculated by integrating the load-displacement curve, is written as the sum of the elastic deformation energy, the breakage energy and the redistribution energy. Experimental results obtained on samples subjected to compression stresses ranging between 0.4 and 92 MPa are used to calibrate the model. The elastic energy stored in the samples is obtained by simulating the compression test on the final particle size distributions (PSDs) with the discrete element method and by extracting the contact forces. A PSD evolution law is proposed to account for particle breakage. The PSD is related to the total particle surface in the sample, which allows calculating the breakage energy. The redistribution energy, which comprises the kinetic energy of particles being rearranged and the friction energy dissipated at contacts, is obtained by subtracting the elastic energy and breakage energy from the work input. Results show that: (1) at least 60% of the work input is dissipated by particle redistribution; (2) the fraction of elastic deformation energy increases, and the fraction of redistribution energy decreases as the compression stress increases; (3) the breakage energy accounts for less than 5% of the total input energy, and this value is independent of the compressive stress; (4) the energy dissipated by redistribution is between 14 and 30 times larger than the breakage energy.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11440-017-0622-5
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