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ENGINEERING (1111 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Measurement Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meccanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mechatronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Engineering & Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Membrane Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Membrane Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Memetic Computing     Hybrid Journal  
Metal Powder Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Metallurgist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Metaphysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metascience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metrologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Microelectronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microelectronics International     Hybrid Journal  
Microelectronics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Microelectronics Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Micromachines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
MNASSA : Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular BioSystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Molecular Pharmaceutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
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Multiagent and Grid Systems     Hybrid Journal  
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NANO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
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Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanoscale Systems : Mathematical Modeling, Theory and Applications     Open Access  
Nanotechnologies in Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
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Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204)
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Numerical Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundamentals: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
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Online Journal for Global Engineering Education     Open Access  
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Operations Research Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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Papers In Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Particle & Particle Systems Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
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Phase Transitions: A Multinational Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Physica B: Condensed Matter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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Polar Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Polymer International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
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Polymer Science Series B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Polymer Science Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Polymers for Advanced Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover Semiconductors and Semimetals
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero Follow    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 0080-8784
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [SJR: 0.147]   [H-I: 19]
  • Index
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88




      PubDate: 2014-04-29T08:44:23Z
       
  • Index
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89




      PubDate: 2014-04-29T08:44:23Z
       
  • Index
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2014-04-29T08:44:23Z
       
  • Contents of Volumes in this Series
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89




      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Chapter Five Quantitative Luminescence Characterization of Crystalline
           Silicon Solar Cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89
      Author(s): Karsten Bothe , David Hinken
      Luminescence imaging has become a standard tool for solar cell analysis within the last decade. In order to understand the potential, as well as the limitations of the numerous luminescence characterization approaches, this work provides both the physical background for modeling the luminescence emission from silicon solar cells as well as a review of series resistance imaging, one of the most prominent applications of luminescence imaging. The first part addresses the measurement setup. A specific focus lies on the suitability of different cameras and the optical filters necessary to prevent the detection of reflected excitation light as well as stray light. Detection conditions with respect to capture time and averaging of images are also discussed. In the second part, we derive a general mathematical description of the spectral luminescence emission. We show that the integral over the product of the depth-dependent minority charge carrier profile and the luminescence photon detection profile fully determines the spectral luminescence emission. Moreover, we show that the luminescence photon detection profile can be obtained from the generation profile of minority charge carriers under illumination, for which well-tested expressions can be found in the literature. Based on the mathematical description, we derive a short- and a long-wavelength approximation corresponding to the spectral sensitivity of silicon and indium–gallium–arsenide detectors, widely used for luminescence measurements. While from the short-wavelength approach the local voltage of a solar cell can be determined, the long-wavelength approach yields the local collection length of the device under test. The final part describes the most prominent application of luminescence imaging: the determination of the local series resistance of wafer-based crystalline silicon solar cells. We review a variety of different approaches introduced in the past. We show that all approaches are based on the same general equation, which is a consequence of the underlying independent diode model. Based on numerical circuit simulations, we study the range of applicability of this simple model. Moreover, the most promising series resistance approaches are applied to various silicon solar cells. Resulting local series resistance and local recombination current images are compared among different methods, as well as to global values extracted from the current–voltage characteristics of the solar cell.


      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Chapter One The Physics of Industrial Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89
      Author(s): Otwin Breitenstein
      Solar cells made from multi- or monocrystalline silicon wafers are large-area semiconductor p–n junctions. Technically, solar cells have a relatively simple structure, and the theory of p–n junctions was already established decades ago. The generally accepted model for describing them is the so-called two-diode model. However, the current–voltage characteristics of industrial solar cells, particularly of those made from multicrystalline silicon material, show significant deviations from the established diode theory. These deviations regard the forward and the reverse dark characteristics as well as the relation between the illuminated characteristics and the dark ones. In the last few years, it has been found that the characteristics of industrial solar cells can only be understood by taking into account local inhomogeneities of the dark current flow. Such inhomogeneities can be investigated by applying local imaging techniques like lock-in thermography and luminescence imaging. Meanwhile, based on these and other investigations, the basic properties of industrial silicon solar cells are well understood. This contribution first summarizes the established theory of the operation of solar cells, which generally assumes homogeneous current flow. Then the predictions according to this theory are compared to the experimentally measured characteristics of industrial solar cells, which largely deviate from these predictions. In the following sections, the most important experimental and theoretical results explaining these deviations are introduced, leading to the present state of physical understanding of the dark and illuminated characteristics of multicrystalline industrial solar cells.


      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89
      Author(s): Gerhard P. Willeke , Eicke R. Weber



      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89




      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89




      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Chapter Three Crystalline Silicon PV Module Technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89
      Author(s): Harry Wirth
      Crystalline silicon module technology aims to turn solar cells into safe and reliable products, while maximizing efficiency. The chapter highlights fundamental challenges comprising cell interconnection and cell encapsulation. Interconnection controls electrical losses from current collection and transfer, and impacts active conversion area as a side effect. Encapsulation is mainly responsible for overall optical performance, reliability, and safety. The chapter discusses efficiency loss and gain mechanisms from cell to module, typically totaling 10–15%. Module efficiency suffers from an increase in inactive area, from serial resistance losses, and from absorption losses. Gains from reduced reflection losses at interfaces often arise after encapsulation. Best results are obtained by carefully matching cell and module design. While the process steps of mainstream module manufacturing have hardly changed over the last decades, new materials have been introduced and full automation with comprehensive quality assurance is now widely adopted. The chapter closes with a presentation on alternative module concepts that hold promise to increase electrical and optical efficiency, and to reduce module manufacturing cost.


      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Chapter Four Glass and Other Encapsulation Materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89
      Author(s): Ulf Blieske , Gunther Stollwerck
      This chapter gives a summary of encapsulation materials for solar modules. The state-of-the-art technology for solar glass melting, glass formation, and glass processing is presented. Major advances of the past years are the use of an antireflective layer on the majority of solar glasses and thinner glasses (2.1mm or below) for solar modules. Further, the physics and technology of light trapping glasses for solar modules are presented. Up to the year 2005, backsheets were predominantly a three-layer laminate of PVF–PET–PVF. The backsheets have since then evolved to a large variety of backsheet constructions and materials. Some backsheets still contain fluoropolymers as weathering stable outer layers, but there are also backsheets with a stabilized polyester, polyamide outer layer or a completely polyolefin-based backsheet. The encapsulant market is dominated by ethylene vinyl acetate. However, other materials like silicones, PVB, or TPOs are used as well. All polymer materials were evaluated with respect to their performance in solar modules and their long-term stability.


      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Chapter Two Metallurgical Grade and Metallurgically Refined Silicon for
           Photovoltaics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89
      Author(s): Matthias Heuer
      The chapter intends to give a summary on the production of metallurgical grade silicon and the status of research and development on solar silicon, which is obtained by the metallurgical route. In a first section, the carbothermic reduction of SiO2 in the submerged arc furnace is explained briefly. Metallurgical processes to refine silicon for photovoltaics are explained and summarized in the second section. Details for the following approaches are given: – Acid leaching – Slag treatment of the silicon melt – Vacuum degassing of the silicon melt – Purification of liquid silicon using gases or water vapor – Plasma treatment of the silicon melt – Segregation during solidification – Refining silicon from Si–Al melt solutions – Particle removal from liquid silicon Finally, the characteristics of the obtained solar silicon are discussed and summarized.


      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89




      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Title Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88




      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88




      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88




      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88




      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter One Theory and Modeling of Oxide Semiconductors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): John L. Lyons , Anderson Janotti , Chris G. Van de Walle
      Modeling plays a central role in analyzing and predicting the properties of materials, and first-principles calculations have made major contributions to unraveling the behavior of oxide semiconductors. We review recent progress in the understanding of electronic structure, optical properties, and conductivity of oxides. The discussion is illustrated with the specific examples of ZnO, Ga2O3, In2O3, SnO2, and TiO2; this set of materials allows an analysis of similarities and differences across a range of metal–oxygen coordination, crystal structure, and orbital character of the conduction band. We address the causes of unintentional n-type conductivity, intentional doping with impurities, and the prospects of obtaining p-type doping. Particular attention is devoted to hydrogen impurity, which is often unintentionally incorporated and greatly affects the electronic properties. A unifying picture is drawn, based on the position of the band structures on an absolute energy scale.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Two Open Volume Defects Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Filip Tuomisto
      Positron annihilation spectroscopy is an experimental technique that allows the selective detection of vacancy defects in semiconductors, providing a means to both identify and quantify them. In ZnO, elementary vacancy defects can exist in both sublattices, those in the Zn sublattice (called Zn vacancies) being more likely to be observed by positrons due to their larger size and generally nonpositive charge states. This chapter shows how VZn and LiZn (that have vacancy character) can be identified with positron methods. The instrumental role of the Zn sublattice vacancy defects in determining the radiation response of ZnO is reviewed and discussed.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Three Bulk Growth and Impurities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Lasse Vines , Andrej Kuznetsov
      The renewed interest in oxide semiconductors has resulted in a considerable progress in the material development and in understanding the nature of intrinsic and impurity related defects and dopants in oxides over the past decade. In this chapter, we have reviewed selected aspects of bulk single crystal growth of ZnO, including growth from the melt, hydrothermal, and chemical vapor transport methods. The present status of knowledge related to impurities is discussed, both with respect to their incorporation during growth and electrical activity. Finally, impurity manipulation using ion beams has been discussed in more detail, where it is shown that the interaction between impurities and intrinsic defects must be taken into account when considering the response from defects and dopants.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Four Surfaces and Interfaces of Zinc Oxide
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Leonard J. Brillson
      This chapter addresses the extensive research on ZnO surfaces and interfaces over more than 60 years and reviews the most recent results that highlight this field’s continued progress. The first section of the chapter reviews ZnO surfaces in terms of adsorption, diffusion, and polarity, followed by electronically active surface states, surface structure, and surface cleaning. The next section reviews ZnO interfaces: Schottky barriers in terms of intrinsic mechanisms, barrier inhomogeneity and analysis, barrier trends and models, and polarity effects; extrinsic mechanisms involving adsorption and surface preparation, defects and impurities near interfaces; native point defects in terms of defect thermodynamics, energy level transitions, and optical signatures of interface defects; chemical mechanisms including chemically induced defects; and finally, ohmic contacts. The subsequent sections discuss surfaces and interfaces of ZnO nanostructures, heterojunctions, and emerging opportunities. This chapter aims to capture the major advances in the understanding of ZnO surfaces and interfaces over the last 50 years, and reflects on new directions in this area.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Five Transparent Conductive Oxides for Transparent Electrode
           Applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Tadatsugu Minami
      Transparent and conductive oxide (TCO) thin films are used practically for various application fields; in particular, the market for transparent electrodes used in touch panels, flat panel displays or lamps, and thin-film solar cells has been expanding recently. Many TCO materials composed of n-type metal oxide semiconductors have been investigated for more than 40 years. Various obtainable properties in TCO thin films can be controlled by the choice of host (matrix) material as well as the kind and content of doped impurity. TCO thin-film materials such as impurity-doped ZnO, In2O3, and SnO2 as well as multicomponent oxides composed of combinations of these binary compounds are the best candidates for practical use as transparent electrodes. The carrier transport and optical properties in polycrystalline TCO thin films with a carrier concentration on the order of 1020–1021 cm−3, that is, degenerated n-type semiconductors, have been explained by combining experimental results with theoretical analyses.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Six The Physics of Copper Oxide (Cu2O)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Bruno K. Meyer , Angelika Polity , Daniel Reppin , Martin Becker , Philipp Hering , Benedikt Kramm , Peter J. Klar , Thomas Sander , Christian Reindl , Christian Heiliger , Markus Heinemann , Christian Müller , Carsten Ronning
      The physics of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is reviewed with respect to structural, optical, and electrical properties. New experimental findings are included especially in the context of theoretical band-structure calculations. Intrinsic defects related to nonstoichiometry are made responsible for the p-type conduction. First preliminary experiments on the alloying of Cu2O by sulfur are reported.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Seven Transition Metal-Doped Magnetic Oxides
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Cheng Song , Feng Pan
      Over the past decade, diluted magnetic oxides (DMOs) have become seminal materials in the emerging field of spintronics. This chapter first presents an overview of our understanding and the experimental state-of-the-art concerning the magnetic properties of (DMOs. Although it is still unclear whether magnetic dopants directly evolve into the magnetic ordering, it is unambiguously confirmed that room-temperature ferromagnetism in DMOs is strongly dependent on defects, dramatically different from the carrier-mediated mechanism in (Ga,Mn)As-type ferromagnets. The next part focuses on recent progress in DMOs-based prototype spintronics and discusses these materials as a model to explore new physics and to design proof-of-concept devices.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Eight Semiconducting Metal Oxides Based Gas Sensors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Katharina Grossmann , Udo Weimar , Nicolae Barsan
      This chapter provides an overview of the working principle of n- and p-type metal oxide gas sensors. Moreover, it gives an insight into the state of the art operando approaches and why it is necessary to combine several techniques to get as much information about the sensing process as possible. The last part covers the different doping types and how the foreign atoms influence the material properties.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Nine Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Device Physics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): John F. Wager , Bao Yeh
      An oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) is the foundational device of oxide electronics. Thus, acquiring a deep understanding of the device physics operation of an oxide TFT is a worthwhile endeavor. To this end, basic static and dynamic oxide TFT models are derived within the framework of appropriate equivalent circuits. The static model is then extended to account for more complicated, nonideal phenomena often encountered in the electrical assessment of a real oxide TFT. Finally, oxide TFT modeling via technology computer-aided design simulation is discussed.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Contents of Previous Volumes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88




      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter 8 Photonic Crystal Lasers
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 86

      The size of the smallest possible laser has been steadily approaching the physical limit of ∼(λ/2n)3. We have witnessed the series of evolution of the small lasers over a few decades, from the 1D VCSEL to the 2D photonic crystal laser and back to the 1D ladder-type nanobeam laser. Throughout these developments, the photonic crystal helped us greatly by providing the conceptual platform of effective photon confinement. The smallest mode volume achievable from the 1D photonic crystal laser is ∼10(λ/n)3. The mode volume of the 2D photonic crystal is ∼1(λ/n)3, about an order of magnitude smaller. The size of the 1D nanobeam laser is found to be slightly smaller than those of 2D photonic crystal lasers. For the “practical” nanolaser, however, critical issues related to electrical pumping still need to be answered in a more convincing manner.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter 7 Ultrafast Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting
           Semiconductor Lasers
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 86

      We describe recent advances in the development of optically pumped passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers; ultrashort pulse sources that begin to offer levels of pulse duration, beam quality, and average power that formerly belonged only to diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) based on impurity-doped dielectric gain media. Unlike dielectric gain media, however, III–V semiconductors exhibit immense spectral versatility, with alloy compositions allowing emission wavelengths spanning the spectrum from visible through to the mid-infrared. Within the past few years, it has been shown that strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum well lasers operating around 1μm are capable of generating transform-limited pulse durations of 100fs or less; and moreover, that sub-400-fs pulses with >300W peak power, and 1.5-ps pulses with ∼500W peak power can be generated. Very recently, material systems other than InGaAs quantum wells have been used to demonstrate femtosecond mode locking, with results reported for a self-assembled quantum dot laser, a 2-μm antimonide laser and a 1.5-μm indium phosphide device. The vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser, or VECSEL, mode-locked under the influence of a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror in the external cavity, is thus capable of bridging the gap in performance between mode-locked edge-emitting diodes and DPSSLs. A particular advantage of VECSELs is that they operate easily at repetition frequencies in the 1–20GHz range, where dielectric lasers tend toward Q-switching instability, whereas monolithic diodes become inconveniently large – the range addressed both by electronics, and by the optical resolution of simple grating devices.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter 6 Coherent Coupling of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser
           Arrays
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 86

      Some of the most significant and challenging goals in the advancement of surface-emitting semiconductor lasers include realizing high-brightness sources. A promising method for increasing the optical power is to combine or optical couple the light output of multiple lasers into a single coherent beam. There have been a variety of methods used to achieve optical coupling in two-dimensional vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), which include injection locking, evanescent coupling, diffractive coupling, and anti-guiding or leaky-mode laser coupling. This chapter will focus on the physical principles of these different coupling mechanisms and how they are incorporated into two-dimensional VCSEL arrays. First, a review of beam-combining methods and the metrics used to quantify their performance is presented. The advantages of coherent beam combining over incoherent beam combining is shown as well as the necessity of optical coupling for establishing coherence across a laser array. The general discussion of the optical-coupling physics for each method will be supplemented by specific examples of two-dimensional VCSEL array coupling.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Contents of Volumes in this Series
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 86




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 86




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • List of Contributors
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 86




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 86




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter 1 High-Power Slab-Coupled Optical Waveguide Lasers and Amplifiers
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 86

      The development of a high-brightness semiconductor diode laser/amplifier concept, which utilizes a slab-coupled optical waveguide (SCOW) region to achieve several important advances in performance, is presented. SCOW devices are capable of single-spatial-mode operation with a single-lobed, large-area, low-aspect-ratio beam. The SCOW concept is applicable to a wide variety of semiconductor material systems and wavelengths of interest. To date, SCOW devices have been demonstrated in the InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs, InGaAsP/InP, and AlGaAsSb/GaAs. High-power lasers and optical amplifiers have been developed for numerous applications, including arrays for wavelength and coherent beam combining, narrow-linewidth external cavity lasers, and mode-locked lasers.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter 2 High-Power, High-Efficiency Monolithic Edge-Emitting GaAs-Based
           Lasers with Narrow Spectral Widths
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 86

      GaAs-based edge-emitting diode lasers in the 600–1100nm range efficiently deliver high-optical powers with long lifetimes and are in wide commercial use. However, if no special measures are taken, the spectral width is too large (4–5nm, with 95% power content) for use in many applications. In recent years, technological and design advances have enabled monolithic devices to deliver >1W optical output power with spectral widths of
      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter 3 Advances in Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 86

      The chapter reviews the recent advances and the state of the art in the area of mode-locked semiconductor lasers. Starting with the principles and theoretical foundations of mode-locked semiconductor laser operation, the chapter reviews the recent advances in, and the modern state of, the mode-locked semiconductor theory, summarizing the main theoretical predictions and discussing the effects of the operating point and the main laser parameters on the laser performance. We proceed with reviewing recent experimental advances, showing how physical reasoning and theoretical predictions inform the strategies of improving the laser performance as regards output and peak power, pulse duration, repetition rate range, and jitter. The chapter discusses the recent novel paradigms of mode locking (ML) in semiconductor lasers, such as the use of low-dimensional materials, coherent saturable absorption effects, and self ML without a saturable absorber. The chapter concludes with a brief overview of prospective applications.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter 4 GaN Laser Diodes on Nonpolar and Semipolar Planes
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 86

      GaN and its alloys with InN and AlN have already revolutionized the solid-state lighting market for their ability to emit a wide range of wavelengths in the visible spectrum. The past several years have seen remarkable progress in the GaN material system for visible laser diode (LD) applications. The market for direct-emission green LDs is expected to reach $500million by the year 2016 (Semiconductor Today, 2010), driven by high interest in portable, laser-based projector systems and other full-color display technologies. However, development of GaN LDs on the standard basal plane is challenged by the polar nature of the GaN wurtzite crystal structure, particularly for emission wavelengths beyond 500nm. Alternate crystal orientations of GaN with reduced or no polarization are referred to as semipolar and nonpolar planes, respectively, and offer several benefits that may make them a superior candidate over the polar basal-plane GaN, especially for high-wavelength applications. These alternate planes are not without their own challenges related to crystal growth and device design. This chapter outlines some of the material properties, growth issues, and waveguide considerations for GaN-based LDs on nonpolar and semipolar planes for visible wavelength applications.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter 5 Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Lasers A Review
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 86

      The mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength range of the electromagnetic spectrum offers a number of applications of growing importance such as photonic sensors for environment, industry or health monitoring, or defense and homeland security. This has driven over the last couple of decades the development of MIR semiconductor lasers at a rapid pace. This chapter aims at reviewing the progress in this field. Although II–VI or IV–VI compound semiconductors exhibit bandgaps in the MIR, other properties limit their use in semiconductor lasers. In contrast, the so-called antimonides, that is, III–V compound semiconductors based on GaSb, InAs, AlSb, InSb, and their alloys, appear to be well suited for developing a variety of lasers covering the whole MIR range. Laser diodes operating under continuous wave at room temperature have been demonstrated in the spectral range from 2 up to 3.5μm. On the other hand, quantum cascade lasers emitting from 15 down to 2.6μm have also been realized. Although further progress is possible for antimonide devices, they undoubtedly open the way to exploit the whole MIR wavelength range.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter Seven Crystalline Silicon Feedstock Preparation and Analysis
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87

      We review and evaluate historical, present, and future trends in high-volume manufacturing (HVM) processes for polysilicon solar feedstock. Witnessing expanding HVM closed-loop capacities based on the purification of metallurgical silicon on the gaseous phase and chemical vapor phase deposition of chlorosilane precursors according to the Siemens process, we provide an interpretation of this trend. Analytical methods for quality assurance and quality assessment are also presented.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter Four Overview of Photovoltaic Production, Markets, and
           Perspectives
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87

      As an industry is made up of the actions and reactions of its participant's over time, understanding the behavior of an industry and its participant's is crucial. This chapter describes photovoltaic (PV) industry manufacturer capacity, production, and shipment statistics along with trends in its pricing, applications, and module sizes from a behavioral perspective over 35 years. These statistics provide an understanding and perspective of PV industry volume growth, competitive position, technical progress, and trends over the next several years. It is unwise to describe the PV industry on the basis of one or even two metrics. Macroeconomic metrics such as GDP, employment or unemployment, country debt levels and the health of a country's banks, and poverty statistics along with the availability of substitutes and incentives are also observed to bring the PV industry into context within the economic world in which it operates.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter Five PV Learning Curves and Cost Dynamics
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87

      The cost of photovoltaics (PV) has declined by a factor of 100 over the past four decades, more than any other energy technology. This cost trajectory appears to very closely fit a learning curve, in which a power law is used to related costs to cumulative experience in production. However, the cost-reducing mechanism behind the learning curve, learning by doing, does not account for all of the observed cost reductions. Efficiency improvements, economies of scale, market structure, and spillovers from other industries have also affected the costs of PV. Analysis of patents for PV shows that the most important ones do not only emerge from experience in production. Important policy implications emerge from the finding that factors other than increasing demand affect costs. Analytical models are being developed that aim to inform policy decisions related to PV by taking into account this broader set of factors, eliciting expert judgments, and addressing uncertainty in outcomes.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter Six Photovoltaic Material Resources
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87

      For photovoltaic technologies dependent on rare elements, such as Te, In, or Ga, previous studies have come to widely different views as to whether or not the availability of these materials poses an issue for large-scale deployment. The present study reviews past work and takes a fresh look at the associated issues, identifying the differences noted above as arising largely from varying projections of future photovoltaic market size, the projected rates of technological evolution, and the neglect of economic issues in determining resource availability.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter One Foreword
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter Two Introduction
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter Three On The History of Terrestrial PV Development With a Focus on
           Germany
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87

      Crystalline silicon photovoltaics together with its thin-film competitors have experienced a tremendous development in the past more than 30 years of terrestrial deployment. German politics played a particularly decisive role in establishing support measures that successfully stimulated an open lead market which in turn led to the desired economy-of-scale effects in PV production and to the present close-to economic viability situation for most global applications. A brief description of the most important historical developments—at least in the eyes of the authors—is presented, with a focus on Germany, whereby the authors have drawn from their wealth of personal experiences acquired in the past 35 years.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
 
 
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