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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2096 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (176 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (161 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (88 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1157 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (330 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (53 journals)
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    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (79 journals)

ENGINEERING (1157 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Langmuir     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Leadership and Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Lighting Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Logic and Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Logica Universalis     Hybrid Journal  
Lubrication Science     Hybrid Journal  
Machines     Open Access  
Machining Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Magazine of Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Magdeburger Journal zur Sicherheitsforschung     Open Access  
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Management and Production Engineering Review     Open Access  
Management Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Manufacturing Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
MATEC Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Matériaux & Techniques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mathematics of Control, Signals, and Systems (MCSS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Measurement Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meccanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mechatronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Engineering & Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Membrane Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Membrane Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Memetic Computing     Hybrid Journal  
Metal Powder Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Metallurgist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Metaphysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metascience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metrologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Microelectronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Microelectronics International     Hybrid Journal  
Microelectronics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Micromachines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MNASSA : Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular BioSystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Molecular Pharmaceutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
MRS Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
MRS Online Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Multiagent and Grid Systems     Hybrid Journal  
Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal  
NANO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nano Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Nano Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nano Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Nanopages     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanoscale Systems : Mathematical Modeling, Theory and Applications     Open Access  
Nanoscience and Nanoengineering     Open Access  
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nanotechnologies in Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Nanotechnology Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 310)
Nature Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
NDT & E International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Nexo Revista Científica     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Technological Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
NIR news     Full-text available via subscription  
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nonlinear Engineering : Modeling and Application     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nonlinearity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Nova Scientia     Open Access  
NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nuclear Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Numerical Algorithms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundamentals: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ocean Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Oil and Gas Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Online Journal for Global Engineering Education     Open Access  
Open Journal of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access  
Open Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Operations Research Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Optical Communications and Networking, IEEE/OSA Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Optimization and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Opto-Electronics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover   Semiconductors and Semimetals
  [SJR: 0.549]   [H-I: 20]   Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0080-8784
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2588 journals]
  • Ion Implantation Defects and Shallow Junctions in Si and Ge
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Enrico Napolitani , Giuliana Impellizzeri
      Defects produced by ion implantation in Si and Ge, their evolution upon post-implantation annealing, and their role in shallow junction formation processes in Si and Ge are reviewed in this chapter. After summarizing the main mechanisms underlying the defect generation and accumulation during the ion implantation processes, the damage evolution during post-implantation annealing will be treated, with emphasis on agglomerates of intrinsic defects in Si. Afterward, anomalous dopant diffusion and electrical activation phenomena occurring in Si and Ge after post-implantation annealing will be treated, with a particular focus on point defect engineering strategies for shallow junction optimization.


      PubDate: 2015-03-06T06:18:49Z
       
  • Role of Defects in the Dopant Diffusion in Si
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Peter Pichler
      Silicon technology is based on doping with atoms from the groups III and V of the periodic system, which provide free holes or electrons, respectively. During processes at elevated temperature, these dopants may diffuse in the crystal. The basic mechanisms suggested for the diffusion of dopants in literature are reviewed. The most successful ones assume that dopants form mobile pairs with vacancies and self-interstitials. This assumption leads within the methodology of diffusion–reaction equations directly to a system of coupled continuity equations, which is shown to explain a variety of diffusion phenomena. Some of these diffusion phenomena are intrinsic to dopant diffusion particularly at high concentrations. Others are related to nonequilibrium phenomena associated typically to chemical reactions at the surface or in the bulk. At high concentrations, a variety of mechanisms may lead to the deactivation of the dopants. Besides precipitates and small complexes, particularly, the segregation at interfaces is discussed.


      PubDate: 2015-02-25T01:28:55Z
       
  • Point Defects in GaN
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Michael A. Reshchikov
      In this chapter, a critical analysis of point defects in GaN and their manifestation in such experiments as photoluminescence (PL), deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is presented. Only a few PL bands are attributed to specific defects. The dominant defect-related PL band in GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) or molecular beam epitaxy is the yellow luminescence (YL) band with a maximum at 2.2eV, which is attributed to the CNON complex. In DLTS studies, it is known as a hole trap H1 with the ionization energy of about 0.85eV. In thick GaN layers grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) or in bulk GaN grown by some other techniques, the green luminescence (GL) band with a maximum at 2.4eV is the dominant PL band. The GL band and the YL band in these samples are attributed to two charge states of the CN defect. The blue luminescence band with a maximum at 2.9eV in undoped and Zn-doped GaN grown by HVPE or MOCVD is attributed to the ZnGa acceptor. The GL2 band observed in high-resistivity GaN samples at 2.35eV is caused by an internal transition at the VN defect. The VGaON defect is present with high concentrations in n-type GaN and can be detected by PAS and optical DLTS. Most likely, it is a nonradiative defect and cannot be detected by PL.


      PubDate: 2015-02-25T01:28:55Z
       
  • Analytical Techniques for Electrically Active Defect Detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): E. Simoen , J. Lauwaert , H. Vrielinck
      This chapter aims to review analytical techniques for the detection of electrically active defects in semiconductor materials. In all cases, the operation principles, the strengths, and the weaknesses will be outlined and illustrated for state-of-the-art examples. Based on the impact of deep level defects on the main semiconductor parameters (resistivity, carrier lifetime, fixed space charge, etc.,) one can define different analysis methods: from simple resistivity measurements to more spectroscopic-like techniques, relying on capacitance or current transients obtained after applying bias or optical pulses to a diode structure. While in the pioneering days, Hall effect versus temperature was the technique of reference for deep level studies in silicon and germanium, nowadays, deep level transient spectroscopy is the standard, with high sensitivity for small relative concentrations of defects. In some cases, complementary information can be gathered from admittance spectroscopy, revealing also details on shallow levels in the band gap. However, it turns out that in many practical cases, the carrier lifetime and related device characteristics (generation and recombination current) are more sensitive than the spectroscopic techniques. The possibility for applying these techniques to nanometric structures will be discussed, eventually resulting in what can be considered as single-defect spectroscopies.


      PubDate: 2015-02-25T01:28:55Z
       
  • Nanoindentation of Silicon and Germanium
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): M.S.R.N. Kiran , B. Haberl , J.E. Bradby , J.S. Williams
      Nanoindentation of silicon and germanium is of interest not only for the measurement of their mechanical properties but more importantly for the fact that they undergo a series of phase transformations under applied pressure. Indeed, after complete pressure release, the material does not return to the starting diamond cubic phase, but several metastable phases are possible, depending on the indentation conditions. In silicon, both crystalline (diamond cubic) and amorphous phases undergo a phase transformation to a dense metallic phase at around 11GPa, a deformation process that defines the hardness of these materials. On pressure release, either a mixture of a rhombohedral (r8) phase and a body-centered cubic (bc8) phase or a pressure-induced amorphous silicon structure results. The mixed r8/bc8 phase is stable to 200°C and has been shown to have properties of a narrow bandgap semiconductor and can be doped both n- and p-type. In germanium, the deformation processes under indentation are more complex with both plastic deformation by slip and twinning as well as phase transformation observed for diamond cubic germanium, depending on the indentation conditions. Amorphous germanium is easier to phase transform since slip-induced processes are avoided. Both crystalline and amorphous forms of germanium can be transformed to a high-density metallic phase under pressure, but several different transformation pathways are possible on pressure release, with the r8, hexagonal diamond and simple tetragonal end phases obtained under specific conditions. These deformation and phase transformation processes under indentation are reviewed in this chapter and compared with the behavior of these materials under diamond anvil cell pressure.


      PubDate: 2015-02-19T07:29:56Z
       
  • Surface and Defect States in Semiconductors Investigated by Surface
           Photovoltage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Daniela Cavalcoli , Beatrice Fraboni , Anna Cavallini
      The aim of this chapter is a throughout description and discussion of surface photovoltage spectroscopy. The basic physical principles, experimental details, and relevant results of the method are described, and the capability of the method to extract material properties like optical band gap and defect-related states is discussed. The method presents several advantages, as it allows for the identification of conduction versus valence band nature of the defect-related transitions and the defect level positions within the band gap. Moreover, it allows for the detection of relatively low densities of surface defects as well as their cross-sections. The application of the method to different materials and structures is discussed, ranging from bulk semiconductors to low-dimensional systems, to nanostructures.


      PubDate: 2015-02-19T07:29:56Z
       
  • Defective Solid-Phase Epitaxial Growth of Si
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): N.G. Rudawski , A.G. Lind , T. Martin
      The solid-phase epitaxial growth (SPEG) process of Si (interchangeably referred to as solid-phase epitaxial regrowth, solid-phase epitaxial recrystallization, solid-phase epitaxy, and solid-phase epitaxial crystallization) is the epitaxial crystallization of an amorphous (α) layer of Si in direct contact with a single-crystal Si substrate (wafer). Most commonly, this process is considered within the context of ion-implanting a single-crystal substrate to generate the α-Si layer. Ideally, the SPEG process is perfect in that the initial α-Si layer crystallizes into a perfect single crystal with the same orientation as the substrate. However, the process is often far from ideal and the crystallized layer often contains defects as a result of SPEG. Here, the origins and understanding of the defects associated with the SPEG process are reviewed. Initially, the case of a starting α-Si layer that is infinite along the two in-plane directions of the wafer, but finite along the wafer normal direction is considered. The effects if α/crystalline (growth) interface roughness, “burying” of the α-Si layer below the wafer surface, substrate orientation, impurities, and externally applied stress on defectiveness of the SPEG process are discussed within this context. Subsequently, defects resulting from SPEG in laterally confined structures are considered. Specifically, this includes structures when the initial growth interface terminates at a SiO x -filled region (trench) on one or two sides structures defined by masking. In all cases, transmission electron microscopy is used to analyze the nature of the defects.


      PubDate: 2015-02-19T07:29:56Z
       
  • Contents of Volumes in this Series
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 90




      PubDate: 2014-12-05T19:29:04Z
       
  • Chapter Three Overview of Thin-Film Solar Cell Technologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 90
      Author(s): Bernhard Dimmler
      After 35 years of continuous research and development, thin-film photovoltaic materials like amorphous silicon in various combinations and the compound polycrystalline semiconductors Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) and CdTe have shown continuous progress and all of them have started major industrial activities since the beginning of this century. Fundamental R&D has shown exciting progress in recent years for CIGS and CdTe, whereas amorphous silicon laboratory solar cell efficiencies are still below 15%, despite 10 years of intensive research activities worldwide. CIGS champion efficiencies approaching 21% have been shown by several groups and CdTe recently also showed champion cell efficiencies in the same range. Both materials have already shown cost leadership in few large volume production lines and have the ability to reach production costs well below 0.4US$/W in medium term.


      PubDate: 2014-12-05T19:29:04Z
       
  • Chapter Two Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar
           Cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 90
      Author(s): Christophe Ballif , Stefaan De Wolf , Antoine Descoeudres , Zachary C. Holman
      Silicon heterojunction solar cells are crystalline silicon-based devices in which thin amorphous silicon layers deposited on the wafer surfaces serve as passivated, carrier-selective contacts. The success of this technology is attributable to the ability of amorphous silicon to passivate dangling bonds—thereby removing surface recombination sites—without blocking charge carrier transport. This unique combination allows the recombination-active metal contacts to be displaced from the wafer surfaces, enabling record-high open-circuit voltages of up to 750mV and efficiencies of up to 25.6%. This chapter introduces the silicon heterojunction concept and discusses device fabrication, operation, and manufacturing. Active areas of research and likely future developments are identified throughout.


      PubDate: 2014-12-05T19:29:04Z
       
  • Chapter One State-of-the-Art Industrial Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 90
      Author(s): Giso Hahn , Sebastian Joos
      The very dynamic growth of the photovoltaic (PV) market over the past decades is mainly based on fabrication of crystalline Si solar cells in industrial mass production. In this contribution, the fabrication process as currently used for most of the industrially produced solar cells is described and discussed. Emphasis is laid on the development and optimization of different processing steps being part of the so-called industrial standard process based on p-type crystalline Si and a firing through SiN x :H process using screen-printing metallization technology. Although excellent review articles on industrial processing of crystalline Si solar cells already exist, a more complete overview is provided, with latest developments added. Over the past 10–20 years the standard industrial solar cell process followed in general an evolutionary route, allowing for higher conversion efficiency and lower costs per generated Watt peak, reducing levelized costs of electricity for PV.


      PubDate: 2014-12-05T19:29:04Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 90
      Author(s): Gerhard P. Willeke , Eicke R. Weber



      PubDate: 2014-12-05T19:29:04Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 90




      PubDate: 2014-12-05T19:29:04Z
       
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 90




      PubDate: 2014-12-05T19:29:04Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2014
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 90




      PubDate: 2014-12-05T19:29:04Z
       
  • Contents of Volumes in this Series
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89




      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Chapter Five Quantitative Luminescence Characterization of Crystalline
           Silicon Solar Cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89
      Author(s): Karsten Bothe , David Hinken
      Luminescence imaging has become a standard tool for solar cell analysis within the last decade. In order to understand the potential, as well as the limitations of the numerous luminescence characterization approaches, this work provides both the physical background for modeling the luminescence emission from silicon solar cells as well as a review of series resistance imaging, one of the most prominent applications of luminescence imaging. The first part addresses the measurement setup. A specific focus lies on the suitability of different cameras and the optical filters necessary to prevent the detection of reflected excitation light as well as stray light. Detection conditions with respect to capture time and averaging of images are also discussed. In the second part, we derive a general mathematical description of the spectral luminescence emission. We show that the integral over the product of the depth-dependent minority charge carrier profile and the luminescence photon detection profile fully determines the spectral luminescence emission. Moreover, we show that the luminescence photon detection profile can be obtained from the generation profile of minority charge carriers under illumination, for which well-tested expressions can be found in the literature. Based on the mathematical description, we derive a short- and a long-wavelength approximation corresponding to the spectral sensitivity of silicon and indium–gallium–arsenide detectors, widely used for luminescence measurements. While from the short-wavelength approach the local voltage of a solar cell can be determined, the long-wavelength approach yields the local collection length of the device under test. The final part describes the most prominent application of luminescence imaging: the determination of the local series resistance of wafer-based crystalline silicon solar cells. We review a variety of different approaches introduced in the past. We show that all approaches are based on the same general equation, which is a consequence of the underlying independent diode model. Based on numerical circuit simulations, we study the range of applicability of this simple model. Moreover, the most promising series resistance approaches are applied to various silicon solar cells. Resulting local series resistance and local recombination current images are compared among different methods, as well as to global values extracted from the current–voltage characteristics of the solar cell.


      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Chapter One The Physics of Industrial Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89
      Author(s): Otwin Breitenstein
      Solar cells made from multi- or monocrystalline silicon wafers are large-area semiconductor p–n junctions. Technically, solar cells have a relatively simple structure, and the theory of p–n junctions was already established decades ago. The generally accepted model for describing them is the so-called two-diode model. However, the current–voltage characteristics of industrial solar cells, particularly of those made from multicrystalline silicon material, show significant deviations from the established diode theory. These deviations regard the forward and the reverse dark characteristics as well as the relation between the illuminated characteristics and the dark ones. In the last few years, it has been found that the characteristics of industrial solar cells can only be understood by taking into account local inhomogeneities of the dark current flow. Such inhomogeneities can be investigated by applying local imaging techniques like lock-in thermography and luminescence imaging. Meanwhile, based on these and other investigations, the basic properties of industrial silicon solar cells are well understood. This contribution first summarizes the established theory of the operation of solar cells, which generally assumes homogeneous current flow. Then the predictions according to this theory are compared to the experimentally measured characteristics of industrial solar cells, which largely deviate from these predictions. In the following sections, the most important experimental and theoretical results explaining these deviations are introduced, leading to the present state of physical understanding of the dark and illuminated characteristics of multicrystalline industrial solar cells.


      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89
      Author(s): Gerhard P. Willeke , Eicke R. Weber



      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89




      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89




      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Chapter Three Crystalline Silicon PV Module Technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89
      Author(s): Harry Wirth
      Crystalline silicon module technology aims to turn solar cells into safe and reliable products, while maximizing efficiency. The chapter highlights fundamental challenges comprising cell interconnection and cell encapsulation. Interconnection controls electrical losses from current collection and transfer, and impacts active conversion area as a side effect. Encapsulation is mainly responsible for overall optical performance, reliability, and safety. The chapter discusses efficiency loss and gain mechanisms from cell to module, typically totaling 10–15%. Module efficiency suffers from an increase in inactive area, from serial resistance losses, and from absorption losses. Gains from reduced reflection losses at interfaces often arise after encapsulation. Best results are obtained by carefully matching cell and module design. While the process steps of mainstream module manufacturing have hardly changed over the last decades, new materials have been introduced and full automation with comprehensive quality assurance is now widely adopted. The chapter closes with a presentation on alternative module concepts that hold promise to increase electrical and optical efficiency, and to reduce module manufacturing cost.


      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Chapter Four Glass and Other Encapsulation Materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89
      Author(s): Ulf Blieske , Gunther Stollwerck
      This chapter gives a summary of encapsulation materials for solar modules. The state-of-the-art technology for solar glass melting, glass formation, and glass processing is presented. Major advances of the past years are the use of an antireflective layer on the majority of solar glasses and thinner glasses (2.1mm or below) for solar modules. Further, the physics and technology of light trapping glasses for solar modules are presented. Up to the year 2005, backsheets were predominantly a three-layer laminate of PVF–PET–PVF. The backsheets have since then evolved to a large variety of backsheet constructions and materials. Some backsheets still contain fluoropolymers as weathering stable outer layers, but there are also backsheets with a stabilized polyester, polyamide outer layer or a completely polyolefin-based backsheet. The encapsulant market is dominated by ethylene vinyl acetate. However, other materials like silicones, PVB, or TPOs are used as well. All polymer materials were evaluated with respect to their performance in solar modules and their long-term stability.


      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Chapter Two Metallurgical Grade and Metallurgically Refined Silicon for
           Photovoltaics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89
      Author(s): Matthias Heuer
      The chapter intends to give a summary on the production of metallurgical grade silicon and the status of research and development on solar silicon, which is obtained by the metallurgical route. In a first section, the carbothermic reduction of SiO2 in the submerged arc furnace is explained briefly. Metallurgical processes to refine silicon for photovoltaics are explained and summarized in the second section. Details for the following approaches are given: – Acid leaching – Slag treatment of the silicon melt – Vacuum degassing of the silicon melt – Purification of liquid silicon using gases or water vapor – Plasma treatment of the silicon melt – Segregation during solidification – Refining silicon from Si–Al melt solutions – Particle removal from liquid silicon Finally, the characteristics of the obtained solar silicon are discussed and summarized.


      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 89




      PubDate: 2013-10-17T14:04:33Z
       
  • Title Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88




      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88




      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88




      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88




      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter One Theory and Modeling of Oxide Semiconductors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): John L. Lyons , Anderson Janotti , Chris G. Van de Walle
      Modeling plays a central role in analyzing and predicting the properties of materials, and first-principles calculations have made major contributions to unraveling the behavior of oxide semiconductors. We review recent progress in the understanding of electronic structure, optical properties, and conductivity of oxides. The discussion is illustrated with the specific examples of ZnO, Ga2O3, In2O3, SnO2, and TiO2; this set of materials allows an analysis of similarities and differences across a range of metal–oxygen coordination, crystal structure, and orbital character of the conduction band. We address the causes of unintentional n-type conductivity, intentional doping with impurities, and the prospects of obtaining p-type doping. Particular attention is devoted to hydrogen impurity, which is often unintentionally incorporated and greatly affects the electronic properties. A unifying picture is drawn, based on the position of the band structures on an absolute energy scale.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Two Open Volume Defects Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Filip Tuomisto
      Positron annihilation spectroscopy is an experimental technique that allows the selective detection of vacancy defects in semiconductors, providing a means to both identify and quantify them. In ZnO, elementary vacancy defects can exist in both sublattices, those in the Zn sublattice (called Zn vacancies) being more likely to be observed by positrons due to their larger size and generally nonpositive charge states. This chapter shows how VZn and LiZn (that have vacancy character) can be identified with positron methods. The instrumental role of the Zn sublattice vacancy defects in determining the radiation response of ZnO is reviewed and discussed.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Three Bulk Growth and Impurities
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Lasse Vines , Andrej Kuznetsov
      The renewed interest in oxide semiconductors has resulted in a considerable progress in the material development and in understanding the nature of intrinsic and impurity related defects and dopants in oxides over the past decade. In this chapter, we have reviewed selected aspects of bulk single crystal growth of ZnO, including growth from the melt, hydrothermal, and chemical vapor transport methods. The present status of knowledge related to impurities is discussed, both with respect to their incorporation during growth and electrical activity. Finally, impurity manipulation using ion beams has been discussed in more detail, where it is shown that the interaction between impurities and intrinsic defects must be taken into account when considering the response from defects and dopants.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Four Surfaces and Interfaces of Zinc Oxide
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Leonard J. Brillson
      This chapter addresses the extensive research on ZnO surfaces and interfaces over more than 60 years and reviews the most recent results that highlight this field’s continued progress. The first section of the chapter reviews ZnO surfaces in terms of adsorption, diffusion, and polarity, followed by electronically active surface states, surface structure, and surface cleaning. The next section reviews ZnO interfaces: Schottky barriers in terms of intrinsic mechanisms, barrier inhomogeneity and analysis, barrier trends and models, and polarity effects; extrinsic mechanisms involving adsorption and surface preparation, defects and impurities near interfaces; native point defects in terms of defect thermodynamics, energy level transitions, and optical signatures of interface defects; chemical mechanisms including chemically induced defects; and finally, ohmic contacts. The subsequent sections discuss surfaces and interfaces of ZnO nanostructures, heterojunctions, and emerging opportunities. This chapter aims to capture the major advances in the understanding of ZnO surfaces and interfaces over the last 50 years, and reflects on new directions in this area.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Five Transparent Conductive Oxides for Transparent Electrode
           Applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Tadatsugu Minami
      Transparent and conductive oxide (TCO) thin films are used practically for various application fields; in particular, the market for transparent electrodes used in touch panels, flat panel displays or lamps, and thin-film solar cells has been expanding recently. Many TCO materials composed of n-type metal oxide semiconductors have been investigated for more than 40 years. Various obtainable properties in TCO thin films can be controlled by the choice of host (matrix) material as well as the kind and content of doped impurity. TCO thin-film materials such as impurity-doped ZnO, In2O3, and SnO2 as well as multicomponent oxides composed of combinations of these binary compounds are the best candidates for practical use as transparent electrodes. The carrier transport and optical properties in polycrystalline TCO thin films with a carrier concentration on the order of 1020–1021 cm−3, that is, degenerated n-type semiconductors, have been explained by combining experimental results with theoretical analyses.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Six The Physics of Copper Oxide (Cu2O)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Bruno K. Meyer , Angelika Polity , Daniel Reppin , Martin Becker , Philipp Hering , Benedikt Kramm , Peter J. Klar , Thomas Sander , Christian Reindl , Christian Heiliger , Markus Heinemann , Christian Müller , Carsten Ronning
      The physics of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is reviewed with respect to structural, optical, and electrical properties. New experimental findings are included especially in the context of theoretical band-structure calculations. Intrinsic defects related to nonstoichiometry are made responsible for the p-type conduction. First preliminary experiments on the alloying of Cu2O by sulfur are reported.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Seven Transition Metal-Doped Magnetic Oxides
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Cheng Song , Feng Pan
      Over the past decade, diluted magnetic oxides (DMOs) have become seminal materials in the emerging field of spintronics. This chapter first presents an overview of our understanding and the experimental state-of-the-art concerning the magnetic properties of (DMOs. Although it is still unclear whether magnetic dopants directly evolve into the magnetic ordering, it is unambiguously confirmed that room-temperature ferromagnetism in DMOs is strongly dependent on defects, dramatically different from the carrier-mediated mechanism in (Ga,Mn)As-type ferromagnets. The next part focuses on recent progress in DMOs-based prototype spintronics and discusses these materials as a model to explore new physics and to design proof-of-concept devices.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Eight Semiconducting Metal Oxides Based Gas Sensors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): Katharina Grossmann , Udo Weimar , Nicolae Barsan
      This chapter provides an overview of the working principle of n- and p-type metal oxide gas sensors. Moreover, it gives an insight into the state of the art operando approaches and why it is necessary to combine several techniques to get as much information about the sensing process as possible. The last part covers the different doping types and how the foreign atoms influence the material properties.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Nine Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Device Physics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88
      Author(s): John F. Wager , Bao Yeh
      An oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) is the foundational device of oxide electronics. Thus, acquiring a deep understanding of the device physics operation of an oxide TFT is a worthwhile endeavor. To this end, basic static and dynamic oxide TFT models are derived within the framework of appropriate equivalent circuits. The static model is then extended to account for more complicated, nonideal phenomena often encountered in the electrical assessment of a real oxide TFT. Finally, oxide TFT modeling via technology computer-aided design simulation is discussed.


      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Contents of Previous Volumes
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2013
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 88




      PubDate: 2013-05-24T08:04:06Z
       
  • Chapter Four Overview of Photovoltaic Production, Markets, and
           Perspectives
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87

      As an industry is made up of the actions and reactions of its participant's over time, understanding the behavior of an industry and its participant's is crucial. This chapter describes photovoltaic (PV) industry manufacturer capacity, production, and shipment statistics along with trends in its pricing, applications, and module sizes from a behavioral perspective over 35 years. These statistics provide an understanding and perspective of PV industry volume growth, competitive position, technical progress, and trends over the next several years. It is unwise to describe the PV industry on the basis of one or even two metrics. Macroeconomic metrics such as GDP, employment or unemployment, country debt levels and the health of a country's banks, and poverty statistics along with the availability of substitutes and incentives are also observed to bring the PV industry into context within the economic world in which it operates.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter Five PV Learning Curves and Cost Dynamics
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87

      The cost of photovoltaics (PV) has declined by a factor of 100 over the past four decades, more than any other energy technology. This cost trajectory appears to very closely fit a learning curve, in which a power law is used to related costs to cumulative experience in production. However, the cost-reducing mechanism behind the learning curve, learning by doing, does not account for all of the observed cost reductions. Efficiency improvements, economies of scale, market structure, and spillovers from other industries have also affected the costs of PV. Analysis of patents for PV shows that the most important ones do not only emerge from experience in production. Important policy implications emerge from the finding that factors other than increasing demand affect costs. Analytical models are being developed that aim to inform policy decisions related to PV by taking into account this broader set of factors, eliciting expert judgments, and addressing uncertainty in outcomes.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter One Foreword
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter Two Introduction
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Chapter Three On The History of Terrestrial PV Development With a Focus on
           Germany
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87

      Crystalline silicon photovoltaics together with its thin-film competitors have experienced a tremendous development in the past more than 30 years of terrestrial deployment. German politics played a particularly decisive role in establishing support measures that successfully stimulated an open lead market which in turn led to the desired economy-of-scale effects in PV production and to the present close-to economic viability situation for most global applications. A brief description of the most important historical developments—at least in the eyes of the authors—is presented, with a focus on Germany, whereby the authors have drawn from their wealth of personal experiences acquired in the past 35 years.


      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: 2012
      Publication year: 2012
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 87




      PubDate: 2012-12-15T09:50:50Z
       
 
 
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