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Journal of Visualization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Volcanology and Seismology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed.     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A     Hybrid Journal  
Journal on Chain and Network Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Teknik ITS     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Kerntechnik     Full-text available via subscription  
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Langmuir     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Latin American Journal of Computing     Open Access  
Leadership and Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Lighting Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Logic and Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Logica Universalis     Hybrid Journal  
Lubrication Science     Hybrid Journal  
Machines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Machining Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Magazine of Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Magdeburger Journal zur Sicherheitsforschung     Open Access  
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Management and Production Engineering Review     Open Access  
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Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mathematics of Control, Signals, and Systems (MCSS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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Medical Engineering & Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Membrane Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Memetic Computing     Hybrid Journal  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access  
Metal Powder Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Metallurgist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
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Microelectronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microelectronics International     Hybrid Journal  
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Microelectronics Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Micromachines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
MNASSA : Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of South Africa     Full-text available via subscription  
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular BioSystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Molecular Pharmaceutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
MRS Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
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Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal  
NANO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nano Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Nano Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nano Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
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Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanoscale Systems : Mathematical Modeling, Theory and Applications     Open Access  
Nanoscience and Nanoengineering     Open Access  
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nanotechnologies in Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Nature Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
NDT & E International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Nexo Revista Científica     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nonlinear Engineering : Modeling and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nonlinearity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Nova Scientia     Open Access  
NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nuclear Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nuclear Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
Numerical Algorithms     Hybrid Journal  
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundamentals: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

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Journal Cover   Semiconductors and Semimetals
  [SJR: 0.549]   [H-I: 20]   [0 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0080-8784
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2800 journals]
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 92

      PubDate: 2015-06-29T03:35:41Z
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 92
      Author(s): Gerhard P. Willeke , Eicke R. Weber

      PubDate: 2015-06-29T03:35:41Z
  • Contents of Volumes in this Series
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 92

      PubDate: 2015-06-29T03:35:41Z
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 92

      PubDate: 2015-06-29T03:35:41Z
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 92

      PubDate: 2015-06-29T03:35:41Z
  • Silicon Crystallization Technologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Peter Dold
      More than 90% of all Photovoltaic (PV) installations are based on crystalline silicon, several hundred thousand tons of which are processed by the solar industry each year. During the last few years, we have seen a huge price reduction in the polysilicon market. But still, the raw material contributes significantly to the total costs and further price reductions might be expected. Today, most polysilicon is produced by the Siemens process, but alternative routes like fluidized-bed reactors or upgraded metallurgical silicon might provide a better cost structure and thus might gain market shares. The majority of solar silicon is crystallized by the directional solidification method (also called vertical gradient freeze method). This technique is quite robust, easy to handle, and easily scalable. Block sizes between 500kg and 1ton are the actual standard. The latest development is the small-grain, high-performance multi. Compared to quasi-mono (mono-like) silicon, the better cost structure and the lower process complexity of the high-performance multi are a clear advantage. Some 40% of the silicon is crystallized as mono ingots. Right now, Czochralski (Cz) is the standard technology: 8″ or 9″ ingots of cylindrical shape and a length of 1.5–2m are grown. Since Cz is hardly scalable to larger ingots, the challenge is to reduce cost by accelerating the process, by reducing downtime, and by making a better use of the consumables. Actual trends are multipulling, feeding, continuous pulling, or active crystal cooling to mention just some of them. In particular, for high-efficiency cell technologies like Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) or Heterojunction with Intrinsic Thin layer (HIT), high-quality n-type material is required. Finally, the Float-Zone (FZ) technique will be discussed. FZ ingots have at least two orders of magnitude lower oxygen levels compared to Cz material and the corresponding minority carrier lifetimes are very high. Right now, the process suffers by its complexity and the lack of affordable feed rods. Overcoming these limitations, FZ might be an interesting alternative for high-efficiency applications.

      PubDate: 2015-06-14T12:28:55Z
  • Reliability Issues of CIGS-Based Thin Film Solar Cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Thomas Walter
      Solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) have reached a high degree of maturity as confirmed by conversion efficiencies exceeding 21% on a laboratory scale and module efficiencies approaching 16%. However, maturity of a PV technology also requires reliability and long-term stability. Therefore, upcoming reliability aspects of CIGS-based solar cells are the focus of this chapter. Metastabilities, partial shading, PID, and the impact of the back contact will be presented and discussed regarding their influence on the long-term stability and reliability. It will be pointed out that an understanding of the underlying physics is essential not only to optimize the long-term stability but also to predict the lifetime of solar cells and modules. Especially, high-efficiency devices and the pressure to cut down costs impose an even higher challenge on manufacturers and researchers in the field of reliability. As an outcome, it will be shown that CIGS exhibits distinct beneficial properties with respect to reliability. However, the development of highly efficient modules also involves new reliability issues which have to be investigated in detail in order to assure the stability of this emerging PV technology.

      PubDate: 2015-06-14T12:28:55Z
  • Contents of Volumes in this Series
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 91

      PubDate: 2015-06-10T07:00:51Z
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 91
      Author(s): Lucia Romano , Vittorio Privitera , Chennupati Jagadish

      PubDate: 2015-06-10T07:00:51Z
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 91

      PubDate: 2015-06-10T07:00:51Z
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 91

      PubDate: 2015-06-10T07:00:51Z
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 91

      PubDate: 2015-06-10T07:00:51Z
  • Point Defects in ZnO
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Matthew D. McCluskey
      Zinc oxide (ZnO) has promising properties for a range of optoelectronic applications, including efficient light emission and spintronics. Fundamental knowledge about dopants and defects in ZnO has expanded considerably over the past 15 years. In this chapter, the properties of point defects in this material are reviewed. An emphasis is placed on insights obtained through experimental techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and positron annihilation. Substitutional donors and hydrogen donors are shallow, with binding energies ~50meV, and contribute to the prevailing n-type conductivity of ZnO samples. Acceptor dopants, in contrast, are deep. Substitutional nitrogen, for example, has an acceptor binding energy of 1.4–1.5eV. The oxygen (zinc) vacancy is a deep double donor (acceptor), but the energy level values are not known accurately. While there are intriguing hints of shallow acceptors from PL spectra, p-type doping remains an elusive goal.

      PubDate: 2015-05-10T19:54:41Z
  • Wafering of Silicon
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Hans Joachim Möller
      Semiconductor bulk crystals have to be cut into wafers for further applications. The dominant slicing technique both for microelectronic and photovoltaic applications is the multiwire sawing method. The requirements on the processes and wafer qualities depend on the material and the application. The most advanced techniques have been developed for silicon. Sawing and the subsequent processes such as grinding, lapping, and polishing use abrasive particles for material removal. The fine-tuning and optimization of the wafer processes requires an understanding of the micromechanical interactions between abrasive particles and crystal. The current status of research and development will be described for the major methods and materials. Finally, a brief overview will be given for alternative wafer-processing techniques.

      PubDate: 2015-04-21T03:32:43Z
  • Electron and Proton Irradiation of Silicon
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Arne Nylandsted Larsen , Abdelmadjid Mesli
      This chapter presents a review of defects in silicon produced by irradiation with electrons and protons of MeV energies. The review is confined to simple defects with less than three constituents as they are by far the most common defects found in silicon after such irradiations. The emphasis has been put on newer investigations, and in particular on unresolved issues like the lack of experimental observation of the self-interstitial, the diffusivity of the monovacancy, and the discussion as to whether the di-interstitial has been observed in electron paramagnetic resonance and deep level transient spectroscopy spectra. The branching reactions of the constituents of the Frenkel pair, the vacancy and the self-interstitial, are treated in some detail. It is demonstrated that to describe complex phenomena such as charge-controlled metastability, atomic relaxations leading to the so-called negative-U property of a defect, and many other aspects discussed in this review, at least a qualitative understanding of the various key ingredients involved in defect formation is indeed prerequisite.

      PubDate: 2015-04-09T19:25:38Z
  • Point Defects in Silicon Carbide
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Naoya Iwamoto , Bengt G. Svensson
      In this chapter, we critically review recent progress in the understanding and control of intrinsic point defects, and hydrogen and transition metal impurities in monocrystalline silicon carbide. In particular, the 4H polytype is addressed which currently attracts large technological interest. The carbon vacancy (VC) is shown to be the most abundant electrically active defect in high-purity n-type 4H epitaxial layers, and it exhibits a formation energy of ~5.0eV with a rather high entropy factor (~(5–6)k). Further, VC is a charge carrier lifetime controlling defect and displays negative-U character in its negative charge states. The prominent and so-called Z 1/2 and EH7 deep levels in 4H–SiC are now unambiguously identified as different charge state transitions of VC. In contrast to VC, the silicon vacancy (VSi) exhibits a low abundance. VSi has a high electron spin ground state and is currently explored as a defect with long spin coherence time enabling long-lived qubits at room temperature. Experimental spectroscopic data for interstitials and antisite defects in SiC are scarce in the literature and our understanding relies mainly on results from ab initio modeling. Hydrogen is a prevalent residual impurity in p-type SiC and interacts strongly with acceptor dopants like Al and B leading to passivation of their electrical activity. Transition metal impurities in SiC receive an emerging interest and they are found to diffuse at high temperatures (≥1500°C) and also to form stable complexes with intrinsic defects. Finally, some suggestions for future research tasks are given.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:20:50Z
  • Ion Implantation Defects and Shallow Junctions in Si and Ge
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Enrico Napolitani , Giuliana Impellizzeri
      Defects produced by ion implantation in Si and Ge, their evolution upon post-implantation annealing, and their role in shallow junction formation processes in Si and Ge are reviewed in this chapter. After summarizing the main mechanisms underlying the defect generation and accumulation during the ion implantation processes, the damage evolution during post-implantation annealing will be treated, with emphasis on agglomerates of intrinsic defects in Si. Afterward, anomalous dopant diffusion and electrical activation phenomena occurring in Si and Ge after post-implantation annealing will be treated, with a particular focus on point defect engineering strategies for shallow junction optimization.

      PubDate: 2015-03-06T06:18:49Z
  • Role of Defects in the Dopant Diffusion in Si
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Peter Pichler
      Silicon technology is based on doping with atoms from the groups III and V of the periodic system, which provide free holes or electrons, respectively. During processes at elevated temperature, these dopants may diffuse in the crystal. The basic mechanisms suggested for the diffusion of dopants in literature are reviewed. The most successful ones assume that dopants form mobile pairs with vacancies and self-interstitials. This assumption leads within the methodology of diffusion–reaction equations directly to a system of coupled continuity equations, which is shown to explain a variety of diffusion phenomena. Some of these diffusion phenomena are intrinsic to dopant diffusion particularly at high concentrations. Others are related to nonequilibrium phenomena associated typically to chemical reactions at the surface or in the bulk. At high concentrations, a variety of mechanisms may lead to the deactivation of the dopants. Besides precipitates and small complexes, particularly, the segregation at interfaces is discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-02-25T01:28:55Z
  • Point Defects in GaN
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Michael A. Reshchikov
      In this chapter, a critical analysis of point defects in GaN and their manifestation in such experiments as photoluminescence (PL), deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is presented. Only a few PL bands are attributed to specific defects. The dominant defect-related PL band in GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) or molecular beam epitaxy is the yellow luminescence (YL) band with a maximum at 2.2eV, which is attributed to the CNON complex. In DLTS studies, it is known as a hole trap H1 with the ionization energy of about 0.85eV. In thick GaN layers grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) or in bulk GaN grown by some other techniques, the green luminescence (GL) band with a maximum at 2.4eV is the dominant PL band. The GL band and the YL band in these samples are attributed to two charge states of the CN defect. The blue luminescence band with a maximum at 2.9eV in undoped and Zn-doped GaN grown by HVPE or MOCVD is attributed to the ZnGa acceptor. The GL2 band observed in high-resistivity GaN samples at 2.35eV is caused by an internal transition at the VN defect. The VGaON defect is present with high concentrations in n-type GaN and can be detected by PAS and optical DLTS. Most likely, it is a nonradiative defect and cannot be detected by PL.

      PubDate: 2015-02-25T01:28:55Z
  • Analytical Techniques for Electrically Active Defect Detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): E. Simoen , J. Lauwaert , H. Vrielinck
      This chapter aims to review analytical techniques for the detection of electrically active defects in semiconductor materials. In all cases, the operation principles, the strengths, and the weaknesses will be outlined and illustrated for state-of-the-art examples. Based on the impact of deep level defects on the main semiconductor parameters (resistivity, carrier lifetime, fixed space charge, etc.,) one can define different analysis methods: from simple resistivity measurements to more spectroscopic-like techniques, relying on capacitance or current transients obtained after applying bias or optical pulses to a diode structure. While in the pioneering days, Hall effect versus temperature was the technique of reference for deep level studies in silicon and germanium, nowadays, deep level transient spectroscopy is the standard, with high sensitivity for small relative concentrations of defects. In some cases, complementary information can be gathered from admittance spectroscopy, revealing also details on shallow levels in the band gap. However, it turns out that in many practical cases, the carrier lifetime and related device characteristics (generation and recombination current) are more sensitive than the spectroscopic techniques. The possibility for applying these techniques to nanometric structures will be discussed, eventually resulting in what can be considered as single-defect spectroscopies.

      PubDate: 2015-02-25T01:28:55Z
  • Nanoindentation of Silicon and Germanium
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): M.S.R.N. Kiran , B. Haberl , J.E. Bradby , J.S. Williams
      Nanoindentation of silicon and germanium is of interest not only for the measurement of their mechanical properties but more importantly for the fact that they undergo a series of phase transformations under applied pressure. Indeed, after complete pressure release, the material does not return to the starting diamond cubic phase, but several metastable phases are possible, depending on the indentation conditions. In silicon, both crystalline (diamond cubic) and amorphous phases undergo a phase transformation to a dense metallic phase at around 11GPa, a deformation process that defines the hardness of these materials. On pressure release, either a mixture of a rhombohedral (r8) phase and a body-centered cubic (bc8) phase or a pressure-induced amorphous silicon structure results. The mixed r8/bc8 phase is stable to 200°C and has been shown to have properties of a narrow bandgap semiconductor and can be doped both n- and p-type. In germanium, the deformation processes under indentation are more complex with both plastic deformation by slip and twinning as well as phase transformation observed for diamond cubic germanium, depending on the indentation conditions. Amorphous germanium is easier to phase transform since slip-induced processes are avoided. Both crystalline and amorphous forms of germanium can be transformed to a high-density metallic phase under pressure, but several different transformation pathways are possible on pressure release, with the r8, hexagonal diamond and simple tetragonal end phases obtained under specific conditions. These deformation and phase transformation processes under indentation are reviewed in this chapter and compared with the behavior of these materials under diamond anvil cell pressure.

      PubDate: 2015-02-19T07:29:56Z
  • Surface and Defect States in Semiconductors Investigated by Surface
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Daniela Cavalcoli , Beatrice Fraboni , Anna Cavallini
      The aim of this chapter is a throughout description and discussion of surface photovoltage spectroscopy. The basic physical principles, experimental details, and relevant results of the method are described, and the capability of the method to extract material properties like optical band gap and defect-related states is discussed. The method presents several advantages, as it allows for the identification of conduction versus valence band nature of the defect-related transitions and the defect level positions within the band gap. Moreover, it allows for the detection of relatively low densities of surface defects as well as their cross-sections. The application of the method to different materials and structures is discussed, ranging from bulk semiconductors to low-dimensional systems, to nanostructures.

      PubDate: 2015-02-19T07:29:56Z
  • Defective Solid-Phase Epitaxial Growth of Si
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): N.G. Rudawski , A.G. Lind , T. Martin
      The solid-phase epitaxial growth (SPEG) process of Si (interchangeably referred to as solid-phase epitaxial regrowth, solid-phase epitaxial recrystallization, solid-phase epitaxy, and solid-phase epitaxial crystallization) is the epitaxial crystallization of an amorphous (α) layer of Si in direct contact with a single-crystal Si substrate (wafer). Most commonly, this process is considered within the context of ion-implanting a single-crystal substrate to generate the α-Si layer. Ideally, the SPEG process is perfect in that the initial α-Si layer crystallizes into a perfect single crystal with the same orientation as the substrate. However, the process is often far from ideal and the crystallized layer often contains defects as a result of SPEG. Here, the origins and understanding of the defects associated with the SPEG process are reviewed. Initially, the case of a starting α-Si layer that is infinite along the two in-plane directions of the wafer, but finite along the wafer normal direction is considered. The effects if α/crystalline (growth) interface roughness, “burying” of the α-Si layer below the wafer surface, substrate orientation, impurities, and externally applied stress on defectiveness of the SPEG process are discussed within this context. Subsequently, defects resulting from SPEG in laterally confined structures are considered. Specifically, this includes structures when the initial growth interface terminates at a SiO x -filled region (trench) on one or two sides structures defined by masking. In all cases, transmission electron microscopy is used to analyze the nature of the defects.

      PubDate: 2015-02-19T07:29:56Z
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