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Journal Cover Semiconductors and Semimetals
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   ISSN (Print) 0080-8784
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Synthesis, Properties, and Stacking of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): K. Zhang, Y.-C. Lin, J.A. Robinson
      In 2004, the study about monolayer carbon film, namely graphene, opens a new era of materials science research: Two-dimensional (2D) materials. It attracts the tremendous interests in the unique properties when materials’ dimension is reduced (Novoselov et al., 2004). In the recent 10 years, there has been rapidly increasing study focusing on 2D materials beyond graphene (Bhimanapati et al., 2015). A large family of 2D materials have gradually been revealed including conductors (graphene), semiconductors (transition metal dichalcogenides, TMDs), and insulators (hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)). In this family, TMDs fit the application on transistors and photosensors best due to its appropriate band gap (visible light range). Additionally, the band gap of TMDs can be tuned by alloying or stacking different TMDs (Lin et al., 2014a), defect engineering (Chow et al., 2015), and chemical doping. To realize the application, the preparation of TMDs is the first question to the scientific society. In the first part of this chapter, we review widely used synthesis methods of TMDs (mainly focusing on MoS2) and compare the advantages and disadvantages of different synthesis methods. The properties of TMDs synthesized by different methods are correlated to the synthesis techniques. Stacking 2D TMDs layers with other 2D crystals to create “van der Waals” (vdW) heterostructures has been a common technique to explore new properties out of 2D material-based systems. In the second part of this chapter, the very first examples using graphene and hBN that initiated this field of research would be introduced to help readers build a general knowledge on vdW heterostructures. Subsequently, other vdW heterostructures that utilizes TMDs as a component to create novel optoelectronics would also be briefed. In order to place vdW heterostructures on a practical platform that can synthesize and produce their electronics, many synthetic techniques have been developed to grow different 2D materials together. Some cases of synthetic vdW heterostructures that have been developed are presented at the end of Section 7.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:54:18Z
  • Advances in 2D Materials for Electronic Devices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2016
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): B.M. Nichols, A.L. Mazzoni, M.L. Chin, P.B. Shah, S. Najmaei, R.A. Burke, M. Dubey
      The emergence of graphene as a viable active material for electronic applications has sparked an explosion of research studying the fundamental electrical performance of it and other two-dimensional (2D) materials. As transistors continue to shrink in size, layered 2D materials, such as graphene, phosphorene, and the transition metal dichalcogenides, can fulfill the role as the active channel without the limitations primarily found with silicon. This discussion strives to provide an overview of the emerging research into the electrical behavior of 2D materials from simple field-effect transistors to state-of-the-art integrated circuits and devices. Experimental testing considerations and circuit design issues involving 2D material-based devices are also examined. The potential to harness 2D materials for digital logic circuits, radio frequency applications, and other novice device concepts is explored.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:46:38Z
  • Efficient Multiscale Lattice Simulations of Strained and Disordered
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): N. Leconte, A. Ferreira, J. Jung
      Graphene's electronic and structural properties are often studied using continuum models, such as the Dirac Hamiltonian for its electronic properties or the Born von Karman plate theory for its structural or elastic properties. While long-wavelength continuum approaches generally provide a convenient and accurate theoretical framework to understand graphene, in many scenarios of interest, it is desirable to resort to lattice models accounting for short-range bond transformation effects, eg, induced by defects or chemical substitutions. Here, we present an efficient multiscale methodology that combines information from first-principles calculations and long-range continuum strain fields to inform accurate real-space tight-binding Hamiltonians capturing the effect of both short-range disorder and long-range strains. Efficient numerical algorithms based on Lanczos recursion and kernel polynomial methods are used to extract physical observables of interest in realistic system sizes containing in excess of tens of millions of atoms.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:46:38Z
  • 2D Structures Beyond Graphene: The Brave New World of Layered Materials
           and How Computers Can Help Discover Them
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): T. Gould, S. Lebègue, T. Björkman, J.F. Dobson
      In this chapter we will survey the field of 2D materials beyond graphene to summarize the present state of the art in experimentally and theoretically studied layer structures. Some of the general reasons behind the unusual energetic properties of 2D systems will be discussed, and the accuracy of different ab initio techniques will by surveyed. We will also touch on the future of heterostructured materials and highlight how computers and theory, and especially the theory of van der Waals and related forces, will play a role in producing new, useful materials.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:46:38Z
  • Elemental Group IV Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2016
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): M.E. Dávila, L.C. Lew Yan Voon, J. Zhao, G. Le Lay
      In the last years, “the growth and properties of silicene” has become one of the hottest research front in Physics and the first in Condensed Matter Physics. In this chapter, we describe the discovery of silicene, its outstanding properties, its amazingly fast development, and the birth of its column IV brothers, germanene and stanene. We further present the fascinating perspectives offered in fundamental research and in applications by these novel elemental two-dimensional materials, which have been created by scientists in the laboratory, since, at variance with graphene, which descents from graphite, they have no layered parent crystal in nature.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:46:38Z
  • 2D Boron Nitride: Synthesis and Applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): G.R. Bhimanapati, N.R. Glavin, J.A. Robinson
      Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layered material isostructural to graphite, has similar exotic properties like graphite. With single atom thick and alternating boron and nitrogen atoms in its atomic structure, h-BN is an insulator with band gap ~5.9eV. As monolayer h-BN or boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS) has been studied for over a decade, a brief overview about the structure and stability is provided. In addition, this chapter provides insight into the different forms of h-BN focusing mainly on the synthesis of single layer h-BN or BNNS via different techniques such as mechanical exfoliation, solvent exfoliation, and chemical vapor deposition. Along with BNNS, h-BN nanoribbon synthesis is also presented as it follows a similar approach to BNNS. As h-BN is the insulating isostructure to graphene, use of h-BN in some of the major applications such as coatings, dielectric, and some device applications are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-06-14T16:46:38Z
  • Black Phosphorus-Based Nanodevices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2016
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): J.O. Island, A. Castellanos-Gomez
      Along this chapter, we summarize the recent advances in research on black phosphorus as an introduction to this young yet rapidly growing field. We provide a thorough selection of the relevant references on this topic and thus believe that this chapter is a suitable starting point for young researchers in the field of black phosphorus. The main characteristics of black phosphorus such as a strong thickness-dependent band structure or marked in-plane anisotropy are discussed, and the recent works applying black phosphorus for electronic, optics, and mechanical nanodevices are summarized.

      PubDate: 2016-04-28T19:38:59Z
  • Contents of Volumes in this Series
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 94

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T23:34:57Z
  • Preface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 94

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T23:34:57Z
  • Contributors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 94

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T23:34:57Z
  • Copyright
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 94

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T23:34:57Z
  • Series Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: 2016
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals, Volume 94

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T23:34:57Z
  • Nanowire-Based Visible Light Emitters, Present Status and Outlook
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2015
      Source:Semiconductors and Semimetals
      Author(s): Bo Monemar, B. Jonas Ohlsson, Nathan F. Gardner, Lars Samuelson
      So far, the semiconductor nanowire research area has mainly delivered results on growth procedures and related material properties. As the development lately has been successful in producing novel nanowire-based structures for optical or electronic applications, the time is ripe to review the device work that has been done and in some cases has produced devices ready for the market. In this chapter, we shall review the specific area of nanowire-based LEDs (NW-LEDs) for visible light, including the application area of “solid state lighting” (SSL). A brief review of the progress in the area of visible light LEDs over the last half century is presented, this also mentions some of the progress made in the planar technology so far. The most successful way of producing white light is still based on the use of phosphors, just like in the present compact fluorescence lamps (CFLs). The reason for this is the high efficiency (external quantum efficiency>80%) possible at low currents in the violet planar InGaN-based LEDs used to excite the phosphors. These LEDs are presently mainly produced on foreign substrates, leading to a high dislocation density (DD) and a sizeable droop at high injection currents (25–40%). This droop and the down conversion energy loss in the phosphors (20–25%) has motivated the interest for a phosphor-less white light source based on direct mixing of light of different wavelength (such as red, green, and blue; RGB). To be competitive, this solution must be based on highly efficient LEDs for all RGB (red, green, and blue) colors. Since NW-LED structures can be produced basically free of structural defects (even if grown on a foreign substrate), the idea of using the RGB mixing concept for the production of white light sources with an ultimately higher efficiency than for the phosphor-based lamps is a major technical target for a second generation of light sources in the SSL field. Basic concepts behind the design and optical properties of NW-LED structures are discussed in this chapter, with emphasis on the present developments of III-nitride-based structures. The growth procedure relevant for such NW-LED structures is reported in some detail, specifically the core–shell configuration readily produced with metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The first generation processing technology for NW-LED structures is briefly described; this is naturally quite different from the established routines for planar LED chips. Experimental data for nitride-based NW-LEDs for blue, green, and even longer wavelengths are given in terms of radiative efficiencies, light outcoupling, droop, and long-term reliability. The experience so far is that for these NW-based emitters, efficiencies can be obtained that are close to those for the corresponding planar LEDs. There are still problems with the reproducibility of the radiative output, as well as a significant droop that would not be expected for m-plane emitters. More work is needed to pinpoint the cause of these problems. Finally, we briefly discuss various applications (also other than white lamps) where the NW-LEDs may have a specific advantage.

      PubDate: 2016-01-01T02:09:44Z
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