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    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (154 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1117 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1117 journals)            First | 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 | Last

International Journal of Manufacturing Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Materials and Product Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Mathematics in Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Micro Air Vehicles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Mobile Network Design and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Multiphase Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Nanomanufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanoscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Network Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Nonlinear Sciences and Numerical Simulation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Organisational Design and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Pavement Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Plasticity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Plastics Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Precision Technology     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Production Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Quality and Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Quality Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Quantum Information     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Rapid Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Reliability, Quality and Safety Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Science Engineering and Advance Technology     Open Access  
International Journal of Sediment Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Signal and Imaging Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Social Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Space Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Speech Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Spray and Combustion Dynamics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Surface Engineering and Interdisciplinary Materials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Systems, Control and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Technology Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Thermal Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Turbo & Jet-Engines     Full-text available via subscription  
International Journal of Ultra Wideband Communications and Systems     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Vehicle Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Vehicle Safety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Virtual Technology and Multimedia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Wavelets, Multiresolution and Information Processing     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Nano Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Ionics     Hybrid Journal  
IPTEK The Journal for Technology and Science     Open Access  
IRBM News     Full-text available via subscription  
Irrigation and Drainage Systems     Hybrid Journal  
ISA Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ISRN - International Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
ISRN Nanotechnology     Open Access  
ISRN Signal Processing     Open Access  
ISRN Thermodynamics     Open Access  
IT Professional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Aerosol Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 147)
Journal of Alloys and Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Analytical Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied and Industrial Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Logic     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170)
Journal of Applied Probability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Research and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Applied Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Architectural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)

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Journal Cover Journal of Electronic Imaging
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     ISSN (Print) 1017-9909 - ISSN (Online) 1560-229X
     Published by SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering Homepage  [7 journals]
  • Epilepsy and mental retardation restricted to females: X-linked epileptic
           infantile encephalopathy of unusual inheritance
    • Abstract: Epilepsy in females with mental retardation (EFMR) is a rare early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE), phenotypically resembling Dravet syndrome (DS). It is characterised by a variable degree of intellectual deficits and epilepsy. EFMR is caused by heterozygous mutations in the PCDH19 gene (locus Xq22.1) encoding protocadherin-19, a protein that is highly expressed during brain development. The protein is involved in cell adhesion and probably plays an important role in neuronal migration and formation of synaptic connections. EFMR is considered X-linked of variable mutations’ penetrance. Mutations in the PCDH19 gene mainly arise de novo, but if inherited, they show a unique pattern of transmission. Females with heterozygous mutations are affected, while hemizygous males are not, regardless of mutation carriage. This singular mode might be explained by cell interference as a pathogenic molecular mechanism leading to neuronal dysfunction. Recently, PCDH19-related EIEE turned out to be more frequent than initially thought, contributing to around 16 % of cases (25 % in female groups) in the SCN1A-negative DS-like patients. Therefore, the PCDH19 gene is now estimated to be the second, after SCN1A, most clinically relevant gene in epilepsy.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10
  • Epigenetic structure and the role of polymorphism in the shaping of DNA
           methylation patterns of equine
    • Abstract: DNA methylation patterns and their relation with genetic polymorphisms were determined in the equine OAS1 locus. Genetic variants of OAS1 were previously found to be associated with susceptibility to West Nile virus infections in horses. The subject of the study were white blood cells of 13 juvenile and 13 old horses from AA and HC breed and a set of solid tissues from a single adult horse. The aim was to determine the degree of variation of CpG methylation profiles with concern for tissue type, horse breed and age. Results of direct BSPCR and cloned BSPCR sequencing revealed that all of determined CpG islands (CGIs) were hypermethylated in exception to CGI covering OAS1 promoter and exon 1. One of intragenic CGIs displayed variability of methylation patterns across eight tissue types. The variability of particular sub-types of white blood cells between AA and HC horses were considered as the possible cause of interbreed differences of methylation levels. Comparison of sequence variability between converted and unconverted DNAs of both horse breeds showed polymorphisms of CpG sites to be the source of monoallelic methylation in exception to the polymorphic CpGs located in the OAS1 promoter. Two of them are new polymorphic variants in the OAS1 promoter region. Application of methylation data in conjunction with genetic variation detected at the OAS1 locus might be useful to deepen the knowledge about mechanisms underlying immunity to viral infections in the horse.
      PubDate: 2014-09-07
  • Thermal stress induces changes in gene expression and blood parameters in
           high and low feed efficiency meat quail
    • Abstract: In this study, we analysed markers of stress, plasma creatinine and T3 content, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), growth hormone receptor (GHR), uncoupling protein (UCP), adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III) mRNA expression in the liver and muscle of high (0.22 g/g) and low (0.14 g/g) feed efficiency (FE) meat quail at three different air temperatures, comfortable, heat and cold stress, for 24 h. High FE quail presented higher plasma T3 and lower creatinine levels. IGF-I mRNA expression was higher in the livers of high FE quail than in the livers of low FE quail under both comfortable and cold stress conditions. In the muscle, regardless of the environment, high FE birds showed higher IGF-I mRNA expression. High FE birds also showed higher GHR mRNA expression under comfortable conditions. Regarding the environment, higher expression was observed in birds at comfortable conditions, and lower expression in birds under heat stress. UCP mRNA expression in the liver was lower in high FE birds and higher under heat stress compared with the other conditions. Low and high FE birds showed greater ANT mRNA expression in the muscle under cold stress. Greater mRNA COX III expressions were observed in the liver and muscle of quails under comfortable conditions. Our results suggest that temperature affects the expression of genes related to growth and mitochondrial energy production, and quail with different FEs respond differently to environmental stimuli. In comfortable conditions, high FE animals show higher IGF-I mRNA expression and plasma T3 and lower creatinine content.
      PubDate: 2014-09-05
  • Splice-acceptor site mutation in        class="a-plus-plus">p53 gene of hu888 zebrafish
    • Abstract: The p53 transcription factor is a key tumor suppressor and a central regulator of the stress response, which has been a subject of intense research for over 30 years. Recently, a zebrafish line which carries splice site mutation (G>T) in intron 8 of p53 gene (p53 hu888 ), encoding the p53 paralogue, was developed (The Zebrafish Mutation Project). To uncover molecular effects of the mutation, we raised hu888 zebrafish line to adulthood and analyzed DNA, mRNA data, and protein levels of p53 to assess their potential contribution in molecular mechanisms of the mutant fish. To obtain zebrafish individuals homozygous for the point mutation, p53 hu888 carriers were repeatedly incrossed but only heterozygous mutants (p53 hu888/+ ) or p53-wild type hu888 zebrafish (p53 +/+ ) were identified in their progeny. By evaluation of p53 expression changes in the liver of mutant and wild type hu888 zebrafish as well as of Tübingen reference strain, we demonstrated that two types of splicing occurred in each case: a classical one and the alternative splicing which involves the activation of cryptic splice-acceptor site in the exon 9 of zebrafish p53 pre-mRNA. The alternative splicing event results in a deletion 12 nucleotides in the mature mRNA, and produces a shortened variant of p53 protein. Interestingly, expression of p53 protein in liver of both heterozygous and wild type hu888 zebrafish was highly reduced compared to that in the reference strain.
      PubDate: 2014-09-03
  • Genetic parameters and investigation of genotype × environment
           interactions in Nellore × Hereford crossbred for resistance to cattle
           ticks in different regions of Brazil
    • Abstract: Data from 6,156 Nellore × Hereford crossbred cattle, distributed in 18 herds located in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), São Paulo (SP), Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS), were analysed in order to investigate genetic variation for resistance to the cattle tick through the estimation of variance components and genetic parameters for counting ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) in natural infestation, and also a possible genotype × environment interaction. The tick count data (CC) were transformed to log10(CC + 1) and grouped into two regions, defined by cluster analysis and analysed using the method of restricted maximum likelihood. The statistical model included the additive genetic effect as random and fixed effects of the contemporary group (CG) and genetic group (GG) as classificatory and the age of the animal at the time of counting (linear effect) and individual heterozygosity (linear effect, ranging from 0 to 1) as covariates. In the studied regions, the effect of heterosis found was inversely proportional; in other words, the count of ticks decreased with the increase of heterozygosity. The observed heritability estimation for resistance to tick infestation were 0.12 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.04 for groups A (RS and south PR) and B (MS, SP and north PR), respectively. The results of this study suggest that selection for animals resistant to ticks would be possible using the tick count to estimate the genetic value of animals, but with a slow genetic progress. The genetic correlation for tick count between the two groups (A and B) was 0.84 ± 0.27 and genotype × environment interaction for this trait was not observed in the studied population.
      PubDate: 2014-08-10
  • LINE-1 retrotransposons: from ‘parasite’ sequences to
           functional elements
    • Abstract: Long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1) are the most abundant and active retrotransposons in the mammalian genomes. Traditionally, the occurrence of LINE-1 sequences in the genome of mammals has been explained by the selfish DNA hypothesis. Nevertheless, recently, it has also been argued that these sequences could play important roles in these genomes, as in the regulation of gene expression, genome modelling and X-chromosome inactivation. The non-random chromosomal distribution is a striking feature of these retroelements that somehow reflects its functionality. In the present study, we have isolated and analysed a fraction of the open reading frame 2 (ORF2) LINE-1 sequence from three rodent species, Cricetus cricetus, Peromyscus eremicus and Praomys tullbergi. Physical mapping of the isolated sequences revealed an interspersed longitudinal AT pattern of distribution along all the chromosomes of the complement in the three genomes. A detailed analysis shows that these sequences are preferentially located in the euchromatic regions, although some signals could be detected in the heterochromatin. In addition, a coincidence between the location of imprinted gene regions (as Xist and Tsix gene regions) and the LINE-1 retroelements was also observed. According to these results, we propose an involvement of LINE-1 sequences in different genomic events as gene imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and evolution of repetitive sequences located at the heterochromatic regions (e.g. satellite DNA sequences) of the rodents’ genomes analysed.
      PubDate: 2014-08-09
  • Bayesian GWAS and network analysis revealed new candidate genes for number
           of teats in pigs
    • Abstract: The genetic improvement of reproductive traits such as the number of teats is essential to the success of the pig industry. As opposite to most SNP association studies that consider continuous phenotypes under Gaussian assumptions, this trait is characterized as a discrete variable, which could potentially follow other distributions, such as the Poisson. Therefore, in order to access the complexity of a counting random regression considering all SNPs simultaneously as covariate under a GWAS modeling, the Bayesian inference tools become necessary. Currently, another point that deserves to be highlighted in GWAS is the genetic dissection of complex phenotypes through candidate genes network derived from significant SNPs. We present a full Bayesian treatment of SNP association analysis for number of teats assuming alternatively Gaussian and Poisson distributions for this trait. Under this framework, significant SNP effects were identified by hypothesis tests using 95 % highest posterior density intervals. These SNPs were used to construct associated candidate genes network aiming to explain the genetic mechanism behind this reproductive trait. The Bayesian model comparisons based on deviance posterior distribution indicated the superiority of Gaussian model. In general, our results suggest the presence of 19 significant SNPs, which mapped 13 genes. Besides, we predicted gene interactions through networks that are consistent with the mammals known breast biology (e.g., development of prolactin receptor signaling, and cell proliferation), captured known regulation binding sites, and provided candidate genes for that trait (e.g., TINAGL1 and ICK).
      PubDate: 2014-08-08
  • Characterisation of low molecular weight glutenin subunit genes from
           Pseudoroegneria spicata
           and Pd. strigosa
    • Abstract: We report the characterisation of nine novel low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) genes from two Pseudoroegneria species, Pd. spicata and Pd. strigosa. We found that all nine LMW-GS genes possess the same primary structure shared by other published LMW-GS. Five genes encode LMW-i type subunits, three encode LMW-m type subunits and one encodes a peptide similar to B-3 hordeins of Hordeum chilense. No LMW-s type subunit genes were found in Pseudoroegneria. One subunit, PSt24-LMW-2, contains six conserved cysteine residues, and the other eight subunits all contain eight cysteine residues. We show that one cysteine residue is located in the signal peptide of PSt24-LMW-1, suggesting a mature peptide containing only seven cysteine residues. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the LMW-GS genes from the St genome cluster together and suggests a distant relationship with LMW-GS of the A and B genomes of wheat. Slippage/unequal crossing over and illegitimate recombination are effective mechanisms for enriching variations of seed storage proteins.
      PubDate: 2014-08-07
  • Is black coat color in wolves of Iran an evidence of admixed ancestry with
    • Abstract: Melanism is not considered a typical characteristic in wolves of Iran and dark wolves are believed to have originated from crossbreeding with dogs. Such hybrid individuals can be identified with the combined use of genetic and morphological markers. We analyzed two black wolves using a 544 base pairs (bp) fragment of the mtDNA control region and 15 microsatellite loci in comparison with 28 dogs, 28 wolves, and four known hybrids. The artificial neural networks (ANNs) method was applied to microsatellite data to separate genetically differentiated samples of wolves, dogs, and hybrids, and to determine the correct class for the black specimens. Individual assignments based on ANNs showed that black samples were genetically closer to wolves. Also, in the neighbor-joining network of mtDNA haplotypes, wolves and dogs were separated, with the dark specimens located in the wolf branch as two separate haplotypes. Furthermore, we compared 20 craniometrical characters of the two black individuals with 14 other wolves. The results showed that craniometrical measures of the two black wolves fall within the range of wolf skulls. We found no trace of recent hybridization with free-ranging dogs in the two black wolves. Dark coat color might be the result of a natural combination of alleles in the coat-color-determining gene, mutation in the K locus due to past hybridization with free-ranging dogs, or the effect of ecological factors and adaption to habitat conditions.
      PubDate: 2014-08-02
  • The relation between the genetic architecture of quantitative traits and
           long-term genetic response
    • Abstract: The genetic architecture of a quantitative trait refers to the number of genetic variants, allele frequencies, and effect sizes of variants that affect a trait and their mode of gene action. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of four shapes of allelic frequency distributions (constant, uniform, L-shaped and U-shaped) and different number of trait-affecting loci (50, 100, 200, 500) on allelic frequency changes, long term genetic response, and maintaining genetic variance. To this end, a population of 440 individuals composed of 40 males and 400 females as well as a genome of 200 cM consisting of two chromosomes and with a mutation rate of 2.5 × 10−5 per locus was simulated. Selection of superior animals was done using best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with assumption of infinitesimal model. Selection intensity was constant over 30 generations of selection. The highest genetic progress obtained when the allelic frequency had L-shaped distribution and number of trait-affecting loci was high (500). Although quantitative genetic theories predict the extinction of genetic variance due to artificial selection in long time, our results showed that under L- and U-shapped allelic frequency distributions, the additive genetic variance is persistent after 30 generations of selection. Further, presence or absence of selection limit can be an indication of low (<50) or high (>100) number of trait-affecting loci, respectively. It was concluded that the genetic architecture of complex traits is an important subject which should be considered in studies concerning long-term response to selection.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Spectrum of JAG1 gene
           mutations in Polish patients with Alagille syndrome
    • Abstract: Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental abnormalities in several organs including the liver, heart, eyes, vertebrae, kidneys, and face. The majority (90-94 %) of ALGS cases are caused by mutations in the JAG1 (JAGGED1) gene, and in a small percent of patients (∼1 %) mutations in the NOTCH2 gene have been described. Both genes are involved in the Notch signaling pathway. To date, over 440 different JAG1 gene mutations and ten NOTCH2 mutations have been identified in ALGS patients. The present study was conducted on a group of 35 Polish ALGS patients and revealed JAG1 gene mutations in 26 of them. Twenty-three different mutations were detected including 13 novel point mutations and six large deletions affecting the JAG1 gene. Review of all mutations identified to date in individuals from Poland allowed us to propose an effective diagnostic strategy based on the mutations identified in the reported patients of Polish descent. However, the distribution of mutations seen in this cohort was not substantively different than the mutation distribution in other reported populations.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Potential of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers for DNA fingerprinting of
           newly synthesized tritordeums and their respective parents
    • Abstract: Hexaploid tritordeum (HchHchAABB; 2n = 42) results from the cross between Hordeum chilense (HchHch; 2n = 14) and cultivated durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (AABB; 2n = 28). Morphologically, tritordeum resembles the wheat parent, showing promise for agriculture and wheat breeding. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) polymorphism is a recently developed technique that generates gene-targeted markers. Thus, we considered it interesting to evaluate its potential for the DNA fingerprinting of newly synthesized hexaploid tritordeums and their respective parents. In this study, 60 SCoT primers were tested, and 18 and 19 of them revealed SCoT polymorphisms in the newly synthesized tritordeum lines HT27 and HT22, respectively, and their parents. An analysis of the presence/absence of bands among tritordeums and their parents revealed three types of polymorphic markers: (i) shared by tritordeums and one of their parents, (ii) exclusively amplified in tritordeums, and (iii) exclusively amplified in the parents. No polymorphism was detected among individuals of each parental species. Three SCoT markers were exclusively amplified in tritordeums of lines HT22 and HT27, being considered as polyploidization-induced rearrangements. About 70 % of the SCoT markers of H. chilense origin were not transmitted to the allopolyploids of both lines, and most of the SCoTs scored in the newly synthesized allopolyploids originated from wheat, reinforcing the potential use of tritordeum as an alternative crop.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Development of a sequential multicolor-FISH approach with 13
           chromosome-specific painting probes for the rapid identification of river
           buffalo (Bubalus
    , 2n = 50) chromosomes
    • Abstract: The development of new molecular techniques (array CGH, M-FISH, SKY-FISH, etc.) has led to great advancements in the entire field of molecular cytogenetics. However, the application of these methods is still very limited in farm animals. In the present study, we report, for the first time, the production of 13 river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 2n = 50) chromosome-specific painting probes, generated via chromosome microdissection and the DOP-PCR procedure. A sequential multicolor-FISH approach is also proposed on the same slide for the rapid identification of river buffalo chromosome/arms, namely, 1p-1q, 2p-2q, 3p-3q, 4p-4q, 5p-5q, 18, X, and Y, using both conventional and late-replicating banded chromosome preparations counterstained by DAPI. The provided ‘bank’ of chromosome-specific painting probes is useful for any further cytogenetic investigation not only for the buffalo breeds, but also for other species of the family Bovidae, such as cattle, sheep, and goats, for chromosome abnormality diagnosis, and, more generally, for evolutionary studies.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Five-year monitoring of considerable changes in tyrosine phosphorylation
           motifs of the Helicobacter pylori
    gene in Iran
    • Abstract: CagA is a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori involved in host cell modulation. The C-terminal part of CagA containing the EPIYA motifs is highly variable and is important for the biological activity of the protein. The aim of this study was consideration of the changes in cagA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs) of H. pylori. A set of 302 H. pylori DNA samples from the Iranian population from 2006 to 2011 was selected for the proposed study. The cagA gene and its TPMs were assessed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and specific primers. The prevalence of the cagA gene in our study ranged from 91.43 % to 97.06 % (with an average of 95.03 %). Out of the cagA-positive samples, the prevalence of TPMs A and B increased from 12.5 % and 23.44 % to 71.2 % and 63.63 %, respectively. Also, the prevalence of samples infected with Western and East Asian types of H. pylori ranged from 64.06 % to 5.73 % for the Western type and 17.19 % to 51.59 % for the East Asian type. Overall, our results showed a high prevalence of the cagA gene. Also, it seems that cagA TPMs of H. pylori is undergoing a change from the Western type to the East Asian type in Iran.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Linear and threshold analysis of direct and maternal genetic effects for
           secondary sex ratio in Iranian buffaloes
    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for secondary sex ratio (SSR) in Iranian buffaloes. Calving records from April 1995 to June 2010 comprising 15,207 calving events from the first three lactations of 1066 buffalo herds of Iran were analyzed using linear and threshold animal models to estimate variance components, heritabilities and genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects for SSR. Linear and threshold animal models included direct and maternal genetic effects with covariance between them and maternal permanent environmental effects were implemented by Gibbs sampling methodology. Posterior means of direct and maternal heritabilities and repeatability for SSR obtained from linear animal model were 0.15, 0.10, and 0.17, respectively. Threshold estimates of direct and maternal heritabilities and repeatability for SSR were 0.48, 0.27, and 0.52, respectively. The results showed that the correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects of SSR were negative and high in both models. In addition, the ratios of maternal permanent environmental variance were low. Exploitable genetic variation in SSR can take advantage of sexual dimorphism for economically important traits which may facilitate greater selection intensity and thus greater response to selection, as well as reducing the replacement costs. Threshold animal model may be applied in selection programs where animals are to be genetically ranked for female rate.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Genome-wide detection of selective signatures in Simmental cattle
    • Abstract: Artificial selection has greatly improved the beef production performance and changed its genetic basis. High-density SNP markers provide a way to track these changes and use selective signatures to search for the genes associated with artificial selection. In this study, we performed extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) tests based on Illumina BovineSNP50 (54 K) Chip data from 942 Simmental cattle to identify significant core regions containing selective signatures, then verified the biological significance of these identified regions based on some commonly used bioinformatics analyses. A total of 224 regions over the whole genome in Simmental cattle showing the highest significance and containing some important functional genes, such as GHSR, TG and CANCNA2D1 were chosen. We also observed some significant terms in the enrichment analyses of second GO terms and KEGG pathways, indicating that these genes are associated with economically relevant cattle traits. This is the first detection of selection signature in Simmental cattle. Our findings significantly expand the selection signature map of the cattle genome, and identify functional candidate genes under positive selection for future genetic research.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • The low frequency of recessive disease: insights from ENU mutagenesis,
           severity of disease phenotype, GWAS associations, and demography: an
           analytical review
    • Abstract: A survey of a select panel of 14 genetic diseases with mixed inheritance confirms that, while autosomal recessive (AR) disease genes are more numerous than autosomal dominant (AD) or X-linked (XL) ones, they make a smaller average contribution to disease. Data collected from N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis studies show a similar excess of AR mutations. The smaller AR contribution may partially reflect disease severity, but only in the comparison of AR with AD mutations. On the contrary, XL mutations for the 14 diseases are generally more severe. Genome-wide associations studies (GWAS) data provide fresh insight into the shortage, with a limited negative selection effect mediated by the pleiotropic expression of recessive disease genes in other deleterious phenotypes. Genomic data provide further evidence of purging selection in a past European population bottleneck followed by a dramatic population explosion, now more clearly associated with past climate change. We consider these likely to be the main factors responsible for the low AR to AD/XL inheritance ratio.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Oligonucleotides replacing the roles of repetitive sequences pAs1,
           pSc119.2, pTa-535, pTa71, CCS1, and pAWRC.1 for FISH analysis
    • Abstract: Hybrids derived from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) × rye (Secale cereale L.) have been widely studied because of their important roles in wheat cultivar improvement. Repetitive sequences pAs1, pSc119.2, pTa-535, pTa71, CCS1, and pAWRC.1 are usually used as probes in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of wheat, rye, and hybrids derived from wheat × rye. Usually, some of these repetitive sequences for FISH analysis were needed to be amplified from a bacterial plasmid, extracted from bacterial cells, and labeled by nick translation. Therefore, the conventional procedure of probe preparation using these repetitive sequences is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, some appropriate oligonucleotide probes have been developed which can replace the roles of repetitive sequences pAs1, pSc119.2, pTa-535, pTa71, CCS1, and pAWRC.1 in FISH analysis of wheat, rye, and hybrids derived from wheat × rye. These oligonucleotides can be synthesized easily and cheaply. Therefore, FISH analysis of wheat and hybrids derived from wheat × rye using these oligonucleotide probes becomes easier and more economical.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Exploiting cancer genomics in pet animals to gain advantage for
           personalized medicine decisions
    • PubDate: 2014-08-01
  • Comparison of stem/progenitor cell number and transcriptomic profile in
           the mammary tissue of dairy and beef breed heifers
    • Abstract: Bovine mammary stem cells (MaSC) are a source of ductal and lobulo-alveolar tissue during the development of the mammary gland and its remodeling in repeating lactation cycles. We hypothesize that the number of MaSC, their molecular properties, and interactions with their niche may be essential in order to determine the mammogenic potential in heifers. To verify this hypothesis, we compared the number of MaSC and the transcriptomic profile in the mammary tissue of 20-month-old, non-pregnant dairy (Holstein-Friesian, HF) and beef (Limousin, LM) heifers. For the identification and quantification of putative stem/progenitor cells in mammary tissue sections, scanning cytometry was used with a combination of MaSC molecular markers: stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) and fibronectin type III domain containing 3B (FNDC3B) protein. Cytometric analysis revealed a significantly higher number of Sca-1posFNDC3Bpos cells in HF (2.94 ± 0.35 %) than in LM (1.72 ± 0.20 %) heifers. In HF heifers, a higher expression of intramammary hormones, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and transcription regulators was observed. The model of mammary microenvironment favorable for MaSC was associated with the regulation of genes involved in MaSC maintenance, self-renewal, proliferation, migration, differentiation, mammary tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism, and steroid and insulin signaling. In conclusion, the mammogenic potential in postpubertal dairy heifers is facilitated by a higher number of MaSC and up-regulation of mammary auto- and paracrine factors representing the MaSC niche.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
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