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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2592 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (220 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (225 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (137 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1355 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (403 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (58 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (90 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (104 journals)

ENGINEERING (1355 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 347)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Nonlinear Analysis     Open Access  
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autocracy : Jurnal Otomasi, Kendali, dan Aplikasi Industri     Open Access  
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Avances en Ciencias e Ingenierías     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioNanoMaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carpathian Journal of Electronic and Computer Engineering     Open Access  
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals : X     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

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Journal Cover
Biomicrofluidics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.592
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 1932-1058
Published by AIP Homepage  [27 journals]
  • Nuclear transplantation between allogeneic cells through topological
           reconnection of plasma membrane in a microfluidic system

    • Authors: Kennedy O. Okeyo
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      Previous studies have demonstrated that somatic cells fused with pluripotent stem cells can be reprogrammed on the basis of reprogramming factors acquired from the latter. However, fusion-reprogrammed cells are deemed unsuitable for therapeutic applications mainly because conventional fusion techniques often yield tetraploid fusants that contain exogenous genes acquired from the fusion partners. Here, we present a novel cell–cell topological reconnection technique and demonstrate its application to nuclear transplantation between a somatic cell and a stem cell without nuclei mixing. As a proof of concept, a microfluidic fusion chip embodied with a microslit (4 μm in width) to prevent nuclei mixing was developed and used to perform one-to-one electrofusion of a target somatic cell (Jurkat cell) with an induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell. To extract its cytoplasm, the target cell was first topologically connected to a sacrificial iPS cell by electrofusion via a microslit, followed by shear flow removal of the latter to obtain a cytoplasm-depleted nucleus of the target cell. Then, to replace the lost cytoplasm, topological reconnection to a second iPS cell was performed similarly by electrofusion, followed by shear flow separation of the target cell to enable it acquire most of the iPS cytoplasm, but without nuclei mixing. Microscopic observation of target cells harvested and cultured post hoc in a microwell confirmed that they manifested cell division. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential application of the cell–cell topological reconnection technique to somatic cell nuclear transplantation for the generation of autologous pluripotent stem cells.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-06-10T02:00:40Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5098829
       
  • Tunable microfluidic standing air bubbles and its application in acoustic
           microstreaming

    • Authors: Jixiao Liu, Bowen Li, Tong Zhu, Yidi Zhou, Shanshan Li, Shijie Guo, Tiejun Li
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      Microbubbles are often used in chemistry, biophysics, and medicine. Properly controlled microbubbles have been proved beneficial for various applications by previous scientific endeavors. However, there is still a plenty of room for further development of efficient microbubble handling methods. Here, this paper introduces a tunable, stable, and robust microbubble interface handling mechanism, named as microfluidic standing air bubbles (μSABs), by studying the multiphysical phenomena behind the gas–liquid interface formation and variation. A basic μSAB system consists specially structured fluidic channels, pneumatic channels, and selectively permeable porous barriers between them. The μSABs originate inside the crevice structures on the fluidic channel walls in a repeatable and robust manner. The volumetric variation of the μSAB is a multiphysical phenomenon that dominated by the air diffusion between the pneumatic channel and the bubble. Theoretical analysis and experimental data illustrate the coupling processes of the repeatable and linear μSAB volumetric variation when operated under common handling conditions (control pneumatic pressure: −90 kPa to 200 kPa). Furthermore, an adjustable acoustic microstreaming is demonstrated as an application using the alterable μSAB gas–liquid interface. Derived equations and microscopic observations elucidate the mechanism of the continuous and linear regulation of the acoustic microstreaming using varying μSAB gas–liquid interfaces. The μSAB system provides a new tool to handle the flexible and controllable gas–liquid interfaces in a repeatable and robust manner, which makes it a promising candidate for innovative biochemical, biophysical, and medical applications.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-06-06T05:46:55Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5086920
       
  • Nanoelectrokinetic bufferchannel-less radial preconcentrator and online
           extractor by tunable ion depletion layer

    • Authors: Sangjun Lee, Sungmin Park, Wonseok Kim, Suhong Moon, Ho-Young Kim, Hyomin Lee, Sung Jae Kim
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      Among various preconcentration strategies using nanofluidic platforms, a nanoscale electrokinetic phenomenon called ion concentration polarization (ICP) has been extensively utilized due to several advantages such as high preconcentration factor and no need of complex buffer exchange process. However, conventional ICP preconcentrator had difficulties in the recovery of preconcentrated sample and complicated buffer channels. To overcome these, bufferchannel-less radial micro/nanofluidic preconcentrator was developed in this work. Radially arranged microchannel can maximize the micro/nano membrane interface so that the samples were preconcentrated from each microchannel. All of preconcentrated plugs moved toward the center pipette tip and can be easily collected by just pulling out the tip installed at the center reservoir. For a simple and cost-effective fabrication, a commercial printer was used to print the nanoporous membrane as “Nafion-junction device.” Various analytes such as polystyrene particle, fluorescent dye, and dsDNA were preconcentrated and extracted with the recovery ratio of 85.5%, 79.0%, and 51.3%, respectively. Furthermore, we used a super inkjet printer to print the silver electrode instead of nanoporous membrane to preconcentrate either type of charged analytes as “printed-electrode device.” A Faradaic reaction was used as the main mechanism, and we successfully demonstrated the preconcentration of either negatively or positively charged analytes. The presented bufferchannel-less radial preconcentrator would be utilized as a practical and handy platform for analyzing low-abundant molecules.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-30T05:37:25Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5092789
       
  • On the transport of particles/cells in high-throughput deterministic
           lateral displacement devices: Implications for circulating tumor cell
           separation

    • Authors: Arian Aghilinejad, Mohammad Aghaamoo, Xiaolin Chen
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD), which takes advantage of the asymmetric bifurcation of laminar flow around the embedded microposts, has shown promising capabilities in separating cells and particles of different sizes. Growing interest in utilizing high-throughput DLD devices for practical applications, such as circulating tumor cell separation, necessitates employing higher flow rates in these devices, leading to operating in moderate to high Reynolds number (Re) regimes. Despite extensive research on DLD devices in the creeping regime, limited research has focused on the physics of flow, critical size of the device, and deformable cell behavior in DLD devices at moderate to high Re. In this study, the transport behavior of particles/cells is investigated in realistic high-throughput DLD devices with hundreds of microposts by utilizing multiphysics modeling. A practical formula is proposed for the prediction of the device critical size, which could serve as a design guideline for high-throughput DLD devices. Then, the complex hydrodynamic interactions between a deformable cell and DLD post arrays are investigated. A dimensionless index is utilized for comparing different post designs to quantify the cell–post interaction. It is shown that the separation performances in high-throughput devices are highly affected by Re as well as the micropost shapes. These findings can be utilized for the design and optimization of high-throughput DLD microfluidic devices.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-24T02:55:25Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5092718
       
  • Smartphone operable centrifugal system (SOCS) for on-site DNA extraction
           from foodborne bacterial pathogen

    • Authors: Soon Woo Jeong, Yoo Min Park, Sung Hee Jo, Seok Jae Lee, Yong Tae Kim, Kyoung G. Lee
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      The on-site recovery of nucleic acid from foodborne bacteria is in high demand to further understand on-site molecular diagnosis, which is especially applicable in developing countries. Here, we first proposed a smartphone operable centrifugal system (SOCS) for nucleic acid extraction with the assistance of a low power consumable motor and hydrogel beads. The SOCS consists of a centrifugal motor, 3D-printed cartridge, a nucleic acid collection column, and a smartphone. The SOCS shows excellent DNA extraction performance within 6 min, and it can operate more than 100 times using a smartphone. The purified effluent DNA was accumulated in the nucleic acid collection column. The performance of the SOCS was confirmed by amplifying the recovered DNA from Escherichia coli O157:H7. Moreover, the artificially inoculated food and blood samples also confirmed the performance of SOCS. The proposed SOCS provides an on-site operable nucleic acid separation platform in terms of simplicity, easy usability, cost-effectiveness, and portability in pathogenic point-of-care diagnostics.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-22T02:04:34Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5093752
       
  • Enhanced blebbing as a marker for metastatic prostate cancer

    • Authors: Zeina S. Khan, Julianna M. Santos, Neil G. Vaz, Fazle Hussain
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      Highly metastatic prostate cancer cells flowing through a microfluidic channel form plasma membrane blebs: they form 27% more than normal cells and have a lower stiffness (about 50%). Hypo-osmotic stress assays (with [math] osmolarity) show 22% more blebbing of highly metastatic than moderately metastatic and 30% more than normal cells. Plasma membrane blebbing is known to provide important metastatic capabilities to cancer cells by aiding cell detachment from the primary tumor site and increasing cell deformability to promote cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Increased blebbing was attributed by others to decreased phosphorylated ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) (p-ERM) protein expression—p-ERMs bind the plasma membrane to the actin cortex and reduced p-ERM expression can weaken membrane-cortex attachment. Myosin II also influences blebbing as myosin’s natural contraction generates tension in the actin cortex. This increases cellular hydrostatic pressure, causes cortex rupture, cytoplasm flow out of the cortex, and hence blebbing. Highly metastatic cells are surprisingly found to express similar ezrin and myosin II levels but higher moesin levels in comparison with lowly metastatic or normal cells—suggesting that their levels, contrary to the literature [G. Charras and E. Paluch, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 9(9), 730–736 (2008); J.-Y. Tinevez, U. Schulze, G. Salbreux, J. Roensch, J.-F. Joanny, and E. Paluch, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(44), 18581–18586 (2009); M. Bergert, S. D. Chandradoss, R. A. Desai, and E. Paluch, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(36), 14434–14439 (2012); E. K. Paluch and E. Raz: Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 25(5), 582–590 (2013)], are not important in metastatic prostate cell blebbing. Our results show that reduced F-actin is primarily responsible for increased blebbing in these metastatic cells. Blebbing can thus serve as a simple prognostic marker for the highly incident and lethal metastatic prostate cancer.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-21T02:49:09Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5085346
       
  • Whole genome amplification of single epithelial cells dissociated from
           snap-frozen tissue samples in microfluidic platform

    • Authors: Yuguang Liu, Janet Yao, Marina Walther-Antonio
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      Single cell sequencing is a technology capable of analyzing the genome of a single cell within a population. This technology is mostly integrated with microfluidics for precise cell manipulation and fluid handling. So far, most of the microfluidic-based single cell genomic studies have been focused on lab-cultured species or cell lines that are relatively easy to handle following standard microfluidic-based protocols without additional adjustments. The major challenges for performing single cell sequencing on clinical samples is the complex nature of the samples which requires additional sample processing steps to obtain intact single cells of interest without using amplification-inhibitive agents. Fluorescent-activated cell sorting is a common option to obtain single cells from clinical samples for single cell applications but requires>100 000 viable cells in suspension and the need for specialized laboratory and personnel. In this work, we present a protocol that can be used to obtain intact epithelial cells from snap-frozen postsurgical human endometrial tissues for single cell whole genome amplification. Our protocol includes sample thawing, cell dissociation, and labeling for genome amplification of targeted cells. Between 80% and 100% of single cell replicates lead to>25 ng of DNA after amplification with no measurable contamination, sufficient for downstream sequencing.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-15T05:37:23Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5090235
       
  • Droplet encapsulation of particles in different regimes and sorting of
           particle-encapsulating-droplets from empty droplets

    • Authors: K. S. Jayaprakash, A. K. Sen
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      Encapsulation of microparticles in droplets has profound applications in biochemical assays. We investigate encapsulation of rigid particles (polystyrene beads) and deformable particles (biological cells) inside aqueous droplets in various droplet generation regimes, namely, squeezing, dripping, and jetting. Our study reveals that the size of the positive (particle-encapsulating) droplets is larger or smaller compared to that of the negative (empty) droplets in the dripping and jetting regimes but no size contrast is observed in the squeezing regime. The size contrast of the positive and negative droplets in the different regimes is characterized in terms of capillary number [math] and stream width ratio [math] (i.e., ratio of stream width at the throat to particle diameter [math]). While for deformable particles, the positive droplets are always larger compared to the negative droplets, for rigid particles, the positive droplets are larger in the dripping and jetting regimes for [math] but smaller in the jetting regime for [math]. We exploit the size contrast of positive and negative droplets for sorting across the fluid–fluid interface based on noninertial lift force (at [math]), which is a strong function of droplet size. We demonstrate sorting of the positive droplets encapsulating polystyrene beads and biological cells from the negative droplets with an efficiency of ∼95% and purity of ∼65%. The proposed study will find relevance in single-cell studies, where positive droplets need to be isolated from the empty droplets prior to downstream processing.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-14T05:28:29Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5096937
       
  • Blood-typing and irregular antibody screening through multi-channel
           microfluidic discs with surface antifouling modification

    • Authors: Yan-Wen Chen, Wen-Tyng Li, Yung Chang, Rong-Ho Lee, Ging-Ho Hsiue
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      A novel surface modification technology for microfluidic disks was developed for multichannel blood-typing detection and irregular antibody screening. The antifouling material, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA), was used to modify the surface of the microfluidic disk for improving its hydrophilicity and blood compatibility. With the modification of PEGMA, the hydrophilicity was sufficiently improved with a 44.5% reduction of water contact angle. The modified microfluidic disk also showed good biocompatibility with a reduction of hemolytic index (from 3.4% to 1.2%) and platelet adhesion (from 4.6 × 104/cm2 to 1.9 × 104/cm2). Furthermore, the PEGMA modification technique conducted on the microfluidic disk achieved successful adjustment of burst frequency for each chamber in the microchannel, allowing a sequential addiction of reagents in the test protocol of manual polybrene (MP) blood typing. Clinical studies showed that the proposed MP microfluidic disk method not only performed at extremely high consistency with the traditional tube method in the identification of ABO/RhD blood types, but also accomplished an effective screening method for detecting irregular antibodies. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the easily mass-produced MP microfluidic disk exhibited good blood-typing sensitivity and was suitable for clinical applications.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-13T05:30:37Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5080463
       
  • A fucosyltransferase inhibition assay using image-analysis and digital
           microfluidics

    • Authors: Laura M. Y. Leclerc, Guy Soffer, David H. Kwan, Steve C. C. Shih
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      Sialyl-LewisX and LewisX are cell-surface glycans that influence cell-cell adhesion behaviors. These glycans are assembled by α(1,3)-fucosyltransferase enzymes. Their increased expression plays a role in inflammatory disease, viral and microbial infections, and cancer. Efficient screens for specific glycan modifications such as those catalyzed by fucosyltransferases are tended toward costly materials and large instrumentation. We demonstrate for the first time a fucosylation inhibition assay on a digital microfluidic system with the integration of image-based techniques. Specifically, we report a novel lab-on-a-chip approach to perform a fluorescence-based inhibition assay for the fucosylation of a labeled synthetic disaccharide, 4-methylumbelliferyl β-N-acetyllactosaminide. As a proof-of-concept, guanosine 5′-diphosphate has been used to inhibit Helicobacter pylori α(1,3)-fucosyltransferase. An electrode shape (termed “skewed wave”) is designed to minimize electrode density and improve droplet movement compared to conventional square-based electrodes. The device is used to generate a 10 000-fold serial dilution of the inhibitor and to perform fucosylation reactions in aqueous droplets surrounded by an oil shell. Using an image-based method of calculating dilutions, referred to as “pixel count,” inhibition curves along with IC50 values are obtained on-device. We propose the combination of integrating image analysis and digital microfluidics is suitable for automating a wide range of enzymatic assays.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-10T04:09:25Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5088517
       
  • Scalable high-throughput acoustophoresis in arrayed plastic microchannels

    • Authors: R. Dubay, C. Lissandrello, P. Swierk, N. Moore, D. Doty, J. Fiering
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      Microfluidic acoustophoresis is a label-free technique that isolates a purified product from a complex mixture of cells. This technique is well-studied but thus far has lacked the throughput and device manufacturability needed for many medical and industrial uses. Scale-up of acoustofluidic devices can be more challenging than in other microfluidic systems because the channel walls are integral to the resonant behavior and coupling to neighboring channels can inhibit performance. Additionally, the increased device area needed for parallel channels becomes less practical in the silicon or glass materials usually used for acoustofluidic devices. Here, we report an acoustic separator with 12 parallel channels made entirely from polystyrene that achieves blood cell separation at a flow rate greater than 1 ml/min. We discuss the design and optimization of the device and the electrical drive parameters and compare the separation performance using channels of two different designs. To demonstrate the utility of the device, we test its ability to purify lymphocytes from apheresis product, a process that is critical to new immunotherapies used to treat blood cancers. We process a leukapheresis sample with a volume greater than 100 ml in less than 2 h in a single pass without interruption, achieving greater than 90% purity of lymphocytes, without any prepurification steps. These advances suggest that acoustophoresis could in the future aid in cell therapy bioprocessing and that further scale-up is possible.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-09T03:55:39Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5096190
       
  • Experimental and numerical study of elasto-inertial focusing in straight
           channels

    • Authors: Mohammad Amin Raoufi, Ali Mashhadian, Hamid Niazmand, Mohsen Asadnia, Amir Razmjou, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      Elasto-inertial microfluidics has drawn significant attention in recent years due to its enhanced capabilities compared to pure inertial systems in control of small microparticles. Previous investigations have focused mainly on the applications of elasto-inertial sorting, rather than studying its fundamentals. This is because of the complexity of simulation and analysis, due to the presence of viscoelastic force. There have been some investigative efforts on the mechanisms of elasto-inertial focusing in straight channels; however, these studies were limited to simple rectangular channels and neglected the effects of geometry and flow rates on focusing positions. Herein, for the first time, we experimentally and numerically explore the effects of elasticity accompanying channel cross-sectional geometry and sample flow rates on the focusing phenomenon in elasto-inertial systems. The results reveal that increasing the aspect ratio weakens the elastic force more than inertial force, causing a transition from one focusing position to two. In addition, they show that increasing the angle of a channel corner causes the elastic force to push the particles more efficiently toward the center over a larger area of the channel cross section. Following on from this, we proposed a new complex straight channel which demonstrates a tighter focusing band compared to other channel geometries. Finally, we focused Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (3–5 μm) in the complex channel to showcase its capability in focusing small-size particles. We believe that this research work improves the understanding of focusing mechanisms in viscoelastic solutions and provides useful insights into the design of elasto-inertial microfluidic devices.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-09T03:55:38Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5093345
       
  • An open-type microdevice to improve the quality of fluorescence labeling
           for axonal transport analysis in neurons

    • Authors: S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Hadano, H. Kimura
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      Abnormal axonal transport of vesicles as well as organelles in a particular set of neurons is implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Although various types of microfluidic multicompartmental devices with closed microchannels have been recently developed and widely used for axonal transport analysis, most of the existing devices are troublesome and time-consuming to handle, such as culture maintenances, sample collections, and immunocytochemistry. In this study, we overcome such inherent shortcomings by developing a novel open-type device that enables easy cell maintenance and sample collections. In our device, microgrooves instead of microchannels were directly fabricated on a glass substrate, thereby making possible a high-resolution optical observation. Compared with the conventional closed-type devices, our newly designed device allowed us to efficiently and precisely label the axonal acidic vesicles by fluorescent dyes, facilitating a high-throughput analysis of axonal vesicular transport. The present novel device, as a user-friendly and powerful tool, can be implemented in molecular and cellular pathogenesis studies on neurological diseases.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-09T03:55:38Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5090968
       
  • A point of care platform based on microfluidic chip for nucleic acid
           extraction in less than 1 minute

    • Authors: Jianzhong Zhang, Xiaosong Su, Jiasu Xu, Jin Wang, Juntian Zeng, Caiyu Li, Wendi Chen, Tingdong Li, Xiaoping Min, Dongxu Zhang, Shiyin Zhang, Shengxiang Ge, Jun Zhang, Ningshao Xia
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      In view of the complex procedure of nucleic acid extraction, there exists a huge challenge for the widespread use of point-of-care diagnostics for nucleic acid testing. To achieve point-of-care applications in a more rapid and cost-efficient manner, we designed a snake pipe-shaped microfluidic chip so as to accomplish reagents-prestored, time-saving, operation-simple nucleic acid extraction. All reagents needed for this process, including lysis buffer, wash buffer, elution buffer, and so on, were preloaded in the snake pipe and securely isolated by membrane valves, without the need for using any specialized equipment. By an integrated chip and a powerful ultrasonic, this device could complete virus nucleic acid extraction from sophisticated serum samples in less than 1 min. We used hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mixed with different sources of serum as samples to be extracted. The coefficient of variation of HBV and HIV extraction on-chip was 1.32% and 2.74%, respectively, and there were no significant differences between on-chip and commercial instrument extraction (P > 0.05, α = 0.05) in different dilution ratios, which showed that the extraction device we established had excellent stability and sensitivity.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-08T04:30:32Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5088552
       
  • Driving complex flow waveforms with a linear voice coil actuator

    • Authors: Dylan C. Young, Jacob M. Brehm, Jan Scrimgeour
      Abstract: Biomicrofluidics, Volume 13, Issue 3, May 2019.
      Oscillatory and pulsatile fluid flows for use in microfluidic applications were generated using a deformable chamber driven by a low cost linear voice coil actuator. Compliance in the fluidic system originating in the deformable chamber and the fluidic tubing produced a strong frequency dependence in the relationship between the system’s input and the output flow rate. The effects of this frequency dependence were overcome by precise system calibration, enabling on-demand generation of sinusoidal oscillations in the fluid flow rate with a controlled amplitude in the range from 0.1 to over 1 ml/min across a frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz. The calibration data further enabled the optimization of a multistage exponential smoothing model of the system that allowed the generation of arbitrary complex waveforms. This was demonstrated by combining flow modulation with a constant background flow generated by a syringe pump to mimic the pulsatile flow found in the human vascular system.
      Citation: Biomicrofluidics
      PubDate: 2019-05-03T03:57:36Z
      DOI: 10.1063/1.5086286
       
 
 
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