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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2383 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1248 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 275)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 188)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Biomedical Microdevices
  [SJR: 0.805]   [H-I: 66]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-8781 - ISSN (Online) 1387-2176
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Solid-state nanopore fabrication in LiCl by controlled dielectric
    • Authors: Julian Bello; Jiwook Shim
      Abstract: Nanopore fabrication via the controlled dielectric breakdown (CDB) method offers an opportunity to create solid-state nanopores directly in salt solution with sub-nanometer precision. Driven by trap assisted current tunneling, the method uses localized defects, or traps, in the dielectric material to isolate a breakdown point and fabricate a single pore in less than 10 minutes. Here we present an approach to controlled dielectric breakdown of SiNx in which the nanopore is fabricated in LiCl buffer instead of the traditional KCl buffer. Direct fabrication in LiCl buffer promotes a uniform, symmetric, cylindrical nanopore structure that is fully wet and can be used for experiments in situ. We have shown that fabrication in LiCl reduces the necessity for overnight pore stabilization and allows for the desired analyte to be added in significantly less time than it would take if fabrication was performed in KCl. Pores created by this approach can be used for biosensing applications, including the detection of double-stranded DNA. DNA translocation experiments were conducted in both LiCl and KCl buffer. Experiments conducted in LiCl buffer resulted in about a 2-fold increase in dsDNA transport duration when compared to experiments conducted in KCl buffer of the same concentration. An increase in transport duration of over 10-fold in comparison to KCl was observed when the concentration of the LiCl buffer was increased by a factor of 3.
      PubDate: 2018-04-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0281-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Study on real-time force feedback for a master–slave interventional
           surgical robotic system
    • Authors: Shuxiang Guo; Yuan Wang; Nan Xiao; Youxiang Li; Yuhua Jiang
      Abstract: In robot-assisted catheterization, haptic feedback is important, but is currently lacking. In addition, conventional interventional surgical robotic systems typically employ a master–slave architecture with an open-loop force feedback, which results in inaccurate control. We develop herein a novel real-time master–slave (RTMS) interventional surgical robotic system with a closed-loop force feedback that allows a surgeon to sense the true force during remote operation, provide adequate haptic feedback, and improve control accuracy in robot-assisted catheterization. As part of this system, we also design a unique master control handle that measures the true force felt by a surgeon, providing the basis for the closed-loop control of the entire system. We use theoretical and empirical methods to demonstrate that the proposed RTMS system provides a surgeon (using the master control handle) with a more accurate and realistic force sensation, which subsequently improves the precision of the master–slave manipulation. The experimental results show a substantial increase in the control accuracy of the force feedback and an increase in operational efficiency during surgery.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0278-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • The evaluation of E. faecalis colonies dissolution ability of sodium
           hypochlorite in microenvironment by a novel device
    • Authors: Xiaoqiang Sun; Shaorong Li; Shujing Wang; Chunxiong Luo; Benxiang Hou
      Abstract: Enterococcus faecalis(E. faecalis) is a common microorganism could be isolated from the infected canals, especially in the case of refractory apical periodontitis. Due to its ability to invade the dentinal tubules and highly resistant to antimicrobial strategies, the thorough debridement of E.faecalis is hard to achieve. And that may be one of the reasons to cause reinfection and therapeutic failure. According to the anatomy of dentinal tubules published before and the results of our team previous work, we designed six types of microtubes with different sizes. By using the method of centrifugation and incubation, a standard infected model mimicking dentinal tubules was established. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is the most popular irrigant applied in root canal treatment. We used three different concentrations with four distinct irrigation duration to observe the antibacterial process of E. faecalis colonies within microtubes dynamically. We concluded that the role of NaClO in the microtubes is concentration dependent and duration dependent. And the interpretation of the results has a certain reference value for clinicians.
      PubDate: 2018-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0279-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • A paperfluidic platform to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical
    • Authors: Audrey L. Horst; Justin M. Rosenbohm; Nikunja Kolluri; Justin Hardick; Charlotte A. Gaydos; Mario Cabodi; Catherine M. Klapperich; Jacqueline C. Linnes
      Abstract: ABSTRACT Globally, the microbe Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) causes 106 million newly documented sexually transmitted infections each year. Once appropriately diagnosed, NG infections can be readily treated with antibiotics, but high-risk patients often do not return to the clinic for treatment if results are not provided at the point of care. A rapid, sensitive molecular diagnostic would help increase NG treatment and reduce the prevalence of this sexually transmitted disease. Here, we report on the design and development of a rapid, highly sensitive, paperfluidic device for point-of-care diagnosis of NG. The device integrates patient swab sample lysis, nucleic acid extraction, thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification (tHDA), an internal amplification control (NGIC), and visual lateral flow detection within an 80 min run time. Limits of NG detection for the NG/NGIC multiplex tHDA assay were determined within the device, and clinical performance was validated retroactively against qPCR-quantified patient samples in a proof-of-concept study. This paperfluidic diagnostic has a clinically relevant limit of detection of 500 NG cells per device with analytical sensitivity down to 10 NG cells per device. In triplicate testing of 40 total urethral and vaginal swab samples, the device had 95% overall sensitivity and 100% specificity, approaching current laboratory-based molecular NG diagnostics. This diagnostic platform could increase access to accurate NG diagnoses to those most in need.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0280-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Operation evaluation in-human of a novel remote-controlled vascular
           interventional robot
    • Authors: Xianqiang Bao; Shuxiang Guo; Nan Xiao; Youxiang Li; Cheng Yang; Rui Shen; Jinxin Cui; Yuhua Jiang; Xinke Liu; Keyun Liu
      Abstract: Remote-controlled vascular interventional robots (RVIRs) are being developed to increase the accuracy of surgical operations and reduce the number of occupational risks sustained by intervening physicians, such as radiation exposure and chronic neck/back pain. However, complex control of the RVIRs improves the doctor’s operation difficulty and reduces the operation efficiency. Furthermore, incomplete sterilization of the RVIRs will increase the risk of infection, or even cause medical accidents. In this study, we introduced a novel method that provides higher operation efficiency than a previous prototype and allows for complete robot sterilization. A prototype was fabricated and validated through laboratory setting experiments and an in-human experiment. The results illustrated that the proposed RVIR has better performance compared with the previous prototype, and preliminarily demonstrated that the proposed RVIR has good safety and reliability and can be used in clinical surgeries.
      PubDate: 2018-04-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0277-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Operating force information on-line acquisition of a novel slave
           manipulator for vascular interventional surgery
    • Authors: Yan Zhao; Shuxiang Guo; Nan Xiao; Yuxin Wang; Youxiang Li; Yuhua Jiang
      Abstract: Vascular interventional surgery has its advantages compared to traditional operation. Master-slave robotic technology can further improve the operation accuracy, efficiency and safety of this complicated and high risk surgery. However, on-line acquisition of operating force information of catheter and guidewire remains to be a significant obstacle on the path to enhancing robotic surgery safety. Thus, a novel slave manipulator is proposed in this paper to realize on-line sensing of guidewire torsional operating torque and axial operation force during robotic assisted operations. A strain sensor is specially designed to detect the small scale torsional operation torque with low rotational frequency. Additionally, the axial operating force is detected via a load cell, which is incorporated into a sliding mechanism to eliminate the influence of friction. For validation, calibration and performance evaluation experiments are conducted. The results indicate that the proposed operation torque and force detection device is effective. Thus, it can provide the foundation for enabling accurate haptic feedback to the surgeon to improve surgical safety.
      PubDate: 2018-04-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0275-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • A sample-to-answer droplet magnetofluidic assay platform for quantitative
           methylation-specific PCR
    • Authors: Alejandro Stark; Dong Jin Shin; Tza-Huei Wang
      Abstract: Dysregulation of DNA methylation has been identified as an epigenetic biomarker for numerous cancer types. Gene-specific identification techniques relying on methylation-specific PCR (MSP) require a lengthy manual benchtop process that is susceptible to human-error and contamination. This MSP assay requires a series of discrete sample processing steps including genomic DNA extraction, bisulfite conversion and readout via PCR. In this work, we present a streamlined assay platform utilizing droplet magnetofluidic principles for integration of all sample processing steps required to obtain quantitative MSP signal from raw biological samples. We present a streamlined protocol for solid-phase extraction and bisulfite conversion of genomic DNA, which minimizes reagent use and simplifies the sample preparation protocol for implementation on a compact assay platform. Furthermore, we present a thermally robust assay chip that enables DNA extraction, bisulfite conversion and quantitative PCR from biological samples on a single device. Technical improvements to facilitate DNA extraction and PCR on a single chip in addition to chip performance characterization data are presented.
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0276-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Bioprinted gelatin hydrogel platform promotes smooth muscle cell
           contractile phenotype maintenance
    • Authors: Ajay Tijore; Jean-Marc Behr; Scott Alexander Irvine; Vrushali Baisane; Subbu Venkatraman
      Abstract: Three dimensional (3D) bioprinting has been proposed as a method for fabricating tissue engineered small diameter vascular prostheses. This technique not only involves constructing the structural features to obtain a desired pattern but the morphology of the pattern may also be used to influence the behavior of seeded cells. Herein, we 3D bioprinted a gelatin hydrogel microchannel construct to promote and preserve the contractile phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs), which is crucial for vasoresponsiveness. The microchanneled surface of a gelatin hydrogel facilitated vSMC attachment and an elongated alignment along the microchannel direction. The cells displayed distinct F-actin anisotropy in the direction of the channel. The vSMC contractile phenotype was confirmed by the positive detection of contractile marker gene proteins (α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC)). Having demonstrated the effectiveness of the hydrogel channels bioprinted on a film, the bioprinting was applied radially to the surface of a 3D tubular construct by integrating a rotating mandrel into the 3D bioprinter. The hydrogel microchannels printed on the 3D tubular vascular construct also orientated the vSMCs and strongly promoted the contractile phenotype. Together, our study demonstrated that microchannels bioprinted using a transglutaminase crosslinked gelatin hydrogel, could successfully promote and preserve vSMC contractile phenotype. Furthermore, the hydrogel bioink could be retained on the surface of a rotating polymer tube to print radial cell guiding channels onto a vascular graft construct.
      PubDate: 2018-03-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0274-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • A stretchable conductive Polypyrrole Polydimethylsiloxane device
           fabricated by simple soft lithography and oxygen plasma treatment
    • Authors: Xu-Cheng Guo; Wei-Wen Hu; Say Hwa Tan; Chia-Wen Tsao
      Abstract: This paper reports a simple method used to fabricate a stretchable conductive polypyrrole (PPy) rough pore-shape polydimethylsiloxane (p-PDMS) device. An abrasive paper is first used to imprint rough micro-structures on the SU-8 micromold. The p-PDMS microchannel is then fabricated using a standard soft-lithography process. An oxygen plasma treatment is then applied to form an irreversible sealing between the microchannel and a blank cover PDMS. The conductive layer is formed by injecting the PPy mixture into the microchannel which polymerizes in the rough pore-shape micro-structures; The PPy/p-PDMS hybrid device shows good electrical property and stretchability. The electrical properties of different geometrical designs of the PPy/p-PDMS microchannel under stretching were investigated, including straight, curved, and serpentine. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3 T3) were also cultured inside the PPy/p-PDMS device to demonstrate good biocompatibility and feasibility using the conductive and stretchable microchannel in cell culture microfluidics applications. Finally, cyclic stretching and bending tests were performed to evaluate the reliability of PPy/p-PDMS microchannel.
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0273-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Pre-clinical evaluation of OxyChip for long-term EPR oximetry
    • Authors: Huagang Hou; Nadeem Khan; Sangeeta Gohain; M. Lakshmi Kuppusamy; Periannan Kuppusamy
      Abstract: Tissue oxygenation is a critical parameter in various pathophysiological situations including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Hypoxia can significantly influence the prognosis of solid malignancies and the efficacy of their treatment by radiation or chemotherapy. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry is a reliable method for repeatedly assessing and monitoring oxygen levels in tissues. Lithium octa-n-butoxynaphthalocyanine (LiNc-BuO) has been developed as a probe for biological EPR oximetry, especially for clinical use. However, clinical applicability of LiNc-BuO crystals is hampered by potential limitations associated with biocompatibility, biodegradation, or migration of individual bare crystals in tissue. To overcome these limitations, we have embedded LiNc-BuO crystals in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), an oxygen-permeable biocompatible polymer and developed an implantable/retrievable form of chip, called OxyChip. The chip was optimized for maximum spin density (40% w/w of LiNc-BuO in PDMS) and fabricated in a form suitable for implantation using an 18-G syringe needle. In vitro evaluation of the OxyChip showed that it is robust and highly oxygen sensitive. The dependence of its EPR linewidth to oxygen was linear and highly reproducible. In vivo efficacy of the OxyChip was evaluated by implanting it in rat femoris muscle and following its response to tissue oxygenation for up to 12 months. The results revealed preservation of the integrity (size and shape) and calibration (oxygen sensitivity) of the OxyChip throughout the implantation period. Further, no inflammatory or adverse reaction around the implantation area was observed thereby establishing its biocompatibility and safety. Overall, the results demonstrated that the newly-fabricated high-sensitive OxyChip is capable of providing long-term measurements of oxygen concentration in a reliable and repeated manner under clinical conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-03-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0272-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Closed loop control of microscopic particles incorporating steady
           streaming and visual feedback
    • Authors: Avi Abadi; Gabor Kosa
      Abstract: Automatic manipulation of microscopic particles is very important in biology, especially in new lab-on-chip systems for automatic testing and DNA manipulation. We suggest a particle manipulation system (PMS) based on vibrating piezoelectric beams creating steady streaming flow in a viscous liquid. The flow is nearly unidirectional and it is used to control the position and velocity of the particles in the workspace of the PMS. The particles position in the PMS are controlled by visual feedback. This study presents the manipulation method, the system’s model describing its behavior and characterizes experimentally its performance. The PMS is capable moving a 2-200 μm particle in a workspace of 8x8 mm2 with an absolute accuracy of 0.2 μm. The characteristic velocity in 500 cP Si oil, is 20 μm/s using an actuation voltage amplitude of 5 V and can reach 250 μm/s using 15 V respectively. We can also move a constellation of several particles in various sizes without changing the distance between them. The accuracy of the manipulation can be increased by enhancing the amplification of the microscope on the expanse of a smaller workspace field of view.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0271-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • A novel approach to producing uniform 3-D tumor spheroid constructs using
           ultrasound treatment
    • Authors: Solmaz Karamikamkar; Ehsan Behzadfar; Karen C. Cheung
      Abstract: Producing three-dimensional (3-D) multicellular tumor spheroids (TSs) is valuable for characterizing anticancer drugs since they provide a more representative model of the 3-D in vivo tumor than conventional two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer culture. The interaction of tumor cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM) in a 3-D culture environment is more similar to a tumor in vivo than in a 2-D environment; cell-cell and cell-ECM interaction can influence cell behaviour, such as in response to drug treatment. In vitro tumor spheroid models have been developed using microfluidic systems to generate 3-D hydrogel beads containing components of alginate and ECM protein, such as collagen, with high uniformity and throughput. Cell-laden hydrogel droplets are formed using a flow focusing process wherein the hydrogel precursors should be a homogeneous mixture. During gelation of the droplets into beads, the alginate acts as a fast gelling component helping to maintain the spherical shape of beads and preventing coalescence as the temperature-sensitive collagen I component gels more slowly. To produce uniform hydrogel droplets using the microfluidic flow focusing system, the mixtures must be homogeneous. However, collagen’s sensitivity to temperature can lead to formation of chunks of collagen gel inside of the mixture, causing the mixture to become non-uniform and risking chip clogging. In order to overcome this limitation, previous approaches have used a cooling system during bead encapsulation while tumor cells were also present in the mixture, but this procedure can contribute to a delay in cell proliferation. Here a novel yet simple method is developed to prepare homogeneous pre-bead-encapsulation-mixtures containing collagen type I through ultrasonication. This method allows the cultivation of homogenous TS cultures with high uniformity and compact structure, and not only maintains cell viability but also the proliferation of cells in alginate/collagen hydrogel bead cultures. Depending on the sonication parameters, time and temperature, collagen can form small sized fibrils to thick fibers. Here, the mixtures containing collagen are assessed for morphology of collagen fibers/fibrils, cell viability, and proliferation. Human source Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells are successfully incorporated into alginate/collagen mixtures, followed by sonication, and then bead production. After bead gelation, the encapsulated MCF-7 cells remained viable and proliferated to form uniform TSs when the beads contained alginate and collagen. Results indicate that ultrasound treatment (UST) provides a powerful technique to change the structure of collagen from fiber to fibril, and to disperse collagen fibers in the mixture homogeneously for an application to generate uniform hydrogel beads and spheroids while not inhibiting cell proliferation.
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0260-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells on Nitinol thin films with
           varying hole sizes
    • Authors: Ming Lun Wu; Mohanchandra K. Panduranga; Gregory P. Carman
      Abstract: In this paper, we present the effect of micron size holes on proliferation and growth of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Square shaped micron size holes (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μm) separated by 10 μm wide struts are fabricated on 5 μm thick sputter deposited Nitinol films. HAECs are seeded onto these micropatterned films and analyzed after 30 days with fluorescence microscopy. Captured images are used to quantify the nucleus packing density, size, and aspect ratio. The films with holes ranging from 10 to 20 μm produce the highest cell packing densities with cell nucleus contained within the hole. This produces a geometrically regular grid like cellular distribution pattern. The cell nucleus aspect ratio on the 10–20 μm holes is more circular in shape when compared to aspect ratio on the continuous film or larger size holes. Finally, the 25 μm size holes prevented the formation of a continuous cell monolayer, suggesting the critical length that cells cannot bridge is between 20 to 25 μm.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0267-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Development of 3D printed fibrillar collagen scaffold for tissue
    • Authors: Aden Díaz Nocera; Romina Comín; Nancy Alicia Salvatierra; Mariana Paula Cid
      Abstract: Collagen is widely used in tissue engineering because it can be extracted in large quantities, and has excellent biocompatibility, good biodegradability, and weak antigenicity. In the present study, we isolated printable collagen from bovine Achilles tendon and examined the purity of the isolated collagen using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The bands obtained corresponded to α1, α2 and β chains with little contamination from other small proteins. Furthermore, rheological measurements of collagen dispersions (60 mg per ml of PBS) at pH 7 revealed values of viscosity of 35.62 ± 1.42 Pa s at shear rate of 10 s − 1 and a shear thinning behavior. Collagen gels and solutions can be used for building scaffolds by three-dimensional (3D) printing. After designing and fabricating a low-cost 3D printer we assayed the collagen printing and obtaining 3D printed scaffolds of collagen at pH 7. The porosity of the scaffold was 90.22% ± 0.88% and the swelling ratio was 1437% ± 146%. The microstructure of the scaffolds was studied using scanning electron microscopy, and a porous mesh of fibrillar collagen was observed. In addition, the 3D printed collagen scaffold was not cytotoxic with cell viability higher than 70% using Vero and NIH 3 T3 cells. In vitro evaluation using both cells lines demonstrated that the collagen scaffolds had the ability to support cell attachment and proliferation. Also a fibrillar collagen mesh was observed after two weeks of culture at 37 °C. Overall, these results are promising since they show the capability of the presented protocol to obtain printable fibrillar collagen at pH 7 and the potential of the printing technique for building low-cost biocompatible 3D plotted structures which maintained the fibrillar collagen structure after incubation in culture media without using additional strategies as crosslinking.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0270-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • A practical approach for the optimization of channel integrity in the
           sealing of shallow microfluidic devices made from cyclic olefin polymer
    • Authors: Philipp Ganser; Christoph Baum; David Chargin; Alexis F. Sauer-Budge; Andre Sharon
      Abstract: A reduced channel height in microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices enables a reduction in the required volume of sample and reagents. LOC devices are most often manufactured by microstructuring a planar substrate and subsequently sealing it with a cover film. However, shallow chip designs, made from polymers, are sensitive to channel deformation during the sealing of the microfluidic device. Inappropriate bonding conditions often result in the loss of the microfluidic functionality. A systematic and practical approach for the identification of suitable bonding process parameters is missing. In this article, a straightforward approach for the optimization of channel integrity in the sealing of shallow microfluidic devices made from Cyclic Olefin Polymer (COP) is presented. Two COP materials were tested: COP Zeonex 690R (Glass transition temperature Tg = 135 °C) both as a cover film and substrate material, and COP ZF14 (Tg = 135 °C) as a film material. A mechanical analysis using microstructured Zeonex 690R substrates was performed to generate a matrix of low-distortion bonding parameters, including temperature, pressure and time. The well-established method of solvent-assisted bonding was used to enhance the characteristically low bond strengths of the native COP material. In addition, plasma-assisted bonding was tested and compared. The optimization approach was validated by the manufacture of a microfluidic test device, the demonstration of its microfluidic functionality, and the quantitative evaluation of the achieved channel integrity.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0265-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Enhanced particle self-ordering in a double-layer channel
    • Authors: Sheng Yan; Yuxing Li; Qianbin Zhao; Dan Yuan; Guolin Yun; Shi-Yang Tang; Weihua Li
      Abstract: In this work, a novel double-layer microfluidic device for enhancing particle focusing was presented. The double-layer device consists of a channel with expansion-contraction array and periodical slanted grooves. The secondary flows induced by the grooves modulate the flow patterns in the expansion-contraction-array (ECA) channel, further affecting the particle migration. Compared with the single ECA channel, the double-layer channel can focus the particles over a wider range of flow rate. Due to the differentiation of lateral migration, the double-layer channel is able to distinguish the particles with different sizes. Furthermore, the equilibrium positions could be modulated by the orientation of grooves. This work demonstrates the possibility to enhance and adjust the inertial focusing in an ECA channel with the assistance of grooves, which may provide a simple and portable platform for downstream filtration, separation, and detection.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0269-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Design and performance evaluation of collision protection-based safety
           operation for a haptic robot-assisted catheter operating system
    • Authors: Linshuai Zhang; Shuxiang Guo; Huadong Yu; Yu Song; Takashi Tamiya; Hideyuki Hirata; Hidenori Ishihara
      Abstract: The robot-assisted catheter system can increase operating distance thus preventing the exposure radiation of the surgeon to X-ray for endovascular catheterization. However, few designs have considered the collision protection between the catheter tip and the vessel wall. This paper presents a novel catheter operating system based on tissue protection to prevent vessel puncture caused by collision. The integrated haptic interface not only allows the operator to feel the real force feedback, but also combines with the newly proposed collision protection mechanism (CPM) to mitigate the collision trauma. The CPM can release the catheter quickly when the measured force exceeds a certain threshold, so as to avoid the vessel puncture. A significant advantage is that the proposed mechanism can adjust the protection threshold in real time by the current according to the actual characteristics of the blood vessel. To verify the effectiveness of the tissue protection by the system, the evaluation experiments in vitro were carried out. The results show that the further collision damage can be effectively prevented by the CPM, which implies the realization of relative safe catheterization. This research provides some insights into the functional improvements of safe and reliable robot-assisted catheter systems.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0266-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
  • Flexible 3D carbon nanotubes cuff electrodes as a peripheral nerve
    • Authors: Pan Tian; Wenwen Yi; Chaoyang Chen; Jie Hu; Jin Qi; Boshen Zhang; Mark Ming-Cheng Cheng
      Abstract: The cuff electrode provides a stable interface with peripheral nerves, which has been widely used in basic research and clinical practice. Currently, the cuff electrodes are limited by the planar processing of microfabrication. This paper presents a novel cuff electrode using high-aspect ratio carbon nanotubes (CNTs) integrated on a flexible biocompatible parylene. The microfabrication process unites the high quality vertical CNTs grown at high temperature with the heat sensitive parylene substrate in a highly controllable manner. The fabricated cuff electrodes have been utilized for extracellular nerve stimulation in rats. The experimental results demonstrate the proposed CNT electrode has a better performance than Pt electrode in nerve stimulation. Moreover, the effect of electrode position and stimulation frequency is demonstrated in this paper. This preliminary data indicates that flexible 3D CNTs cuff electrode provides an excellent platform for functional electrical stimulation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0268-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
  • A cooperation of catheters and guidewires-based novel remote-controlled
           vascular interventional robot
    • Authors: Xianqiang Bao; Shuxiang Guo; Nan Xiao; Youxiang Li; Cheng Yang; Yuhua Jiang
      Abstract: Remote-controlled vascular interventional robots (RVIRs) are being developed to increase the overall accuracy of surgical operations and reduce the occupational risks of intervening physicians, such as radiation exposure and chronic neck/back pain. Several RVIRs have been used to operate catheters or guidewires accurately. However, a lack of cooperation between the catheters and guidewires results in the surgeon being unable to complete complex surgery by propelling the catheter/guidewire to the target position. Furthermore, it is a significant challenge to operate the catheter/guidewire accurately and detect their proximal force without damaging their surfaces. In this study, we introduce a novel method that allows catheters and guidewires to be operated simultaneously in complex surgery. Our method accurately captures force measurements and enables precisely controlled catheter and guidewire operation. A prototype is validated through various experiments. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed RVIR to operate a catheter and guidewire accurately, detect the resistance forces, and complete complex surgical operations in a cooperative manner.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0261-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
  • Finite element analysis of hollow out-of-plane HfO 2 microneedles for
           transdermal drug delivery applications
    • Authors: Yong-hua Zhang; Stephen A. Campbell; Sreejith Karthikeyan
      Abstract: Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) based on microneedles is an excellent approach due to its advantages of both traditional transdermal patch and hypodermic syringes. In this paper, the fabrication method of hollow out-of-layer hafnium oxide (HfO2) microneedles mainly based on deep reactive ion etching of silicon and atomic layer deposition of HfO2 is described, and the finite element analysis of the microneedles based on ANSYS software is also presented. The fabrication process is simplified by using a single mask. The finite element analysis of a single microneedle shows that the flexibility of the microneedles can be easily adjusted for various applications. The finite element analysis of a 3 × 3 HfO2 microneedle array applied on the skin well explains the “bed of nail” effect, i.e., the skin is not liable to be pierced when the density of microneedles in array increases. The presented research work here provides useful information for design optimization of HfO2 microneedles used for TDD applications.
      PubDate: 2018-02-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0262-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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