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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2428 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (208 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (202 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (112 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1271 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (402 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (57 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (77 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)

ENGINEERING (1271 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 278)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 211)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 251)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
Biomedical Microdevices
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.538
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-8781 - ISSN (Online) 1387-2176
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • A magnetic beads-based portable flow cytometry immunosensor for in-situ
           detection of marine biotoxin
    • Authors: Yuxiang Pan; Xinwei Wei; Tao Liang; Jie Zhou; Hao Wan; Ning Hu; Ping Wang
      Abstract: Okadaic acid (OA), a representative diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin, mainly produced by toxigenic dinoflagellates, has significant hazard to public health. Traditional methods for detection of OA can not give the consideration to the need of rapid, high sensitive, quantitative and in-situ detection at the same time. Herein, a new effective detection method of OA was developed based on fluorescence immunosensor and flow cytometry (FCM). In this assay, Streptavidin-coated magnetic beads (MBs) were used as the supporter to immobilize the biotinylated OA. Modified MBs competed with the free OA in the sample solution to bind with the anti-OA monoclonal antibody (OA-MAb). The R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) dye labeled IgG was served as a secondary antibody to perform fluorescence detection. A portable flow cytometry was applied for the in-situ fluorescence quantification. The results showed that the OA concentration was inversely proportional to the R-PE fluorescence intensity. The detection method took within 50 min with a limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05 μg/L and range from 0.2 to 20 μg/L for OA detection. Moreover, the matrix effect and the recovery rate were assessed during real sample measurement, showing a high recovery. Performance features such as high sensitivity, low LOD, speediness and simplicity of the analysis protocol, shows this biosensing-systems as a promising tool for routine use.
      PubDate: 2018-07-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0304-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A cell culture device equipped with a micro-needle electrode array
           fabricated using backside exposure mold and resin casting
    • Authors: Takeshi Hatsuzawa; Mikiya Kurosaka
      Abstract: A cell culture device equipped with a micro-needle electrode array was fabricated for the signal analysis of cell spheroids, cell masses, and cell sheets. For the analysis, sharp needle electrodes with a high aspect ratio for facilitating easy penetration into the cell mass and a small pitch for fine spatial resolution were required. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology is one of the common solutions for the fabrication of devices. However, an additional process, such as anisotropic etching or electro-polishing, is required for fabricating sharp needles. Tapered needles were fabricated using backside exposure for coating a layer of thick resist film on a glass substrate. The incident beam from mask apertures were diffracted and attenuated in the medium, resulting in tapered intensity distribution. A needle-like shape was obtained after performing resist development without using additional MEMS process. In this study, the theoretical analysis of optical intensity distribution and design and fabrication process of the device were described. Finally, the effectiveness of the device was evaluated by adding cultured cell mass on the needle array. Signals with spikes and fluctuations were observed in the electrode covered with cell mass, whereas only noise was observed on the non-covered electrode, demonstrating the signal pick-up ability of the device during cell culture.
      PubDate: 2018-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0303-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Micelle-like nanoparticles as siRNA and miRNA carriers for cancer therapy
    • Authors: Daniel F. Costa; Vladimir P. Torchilin
      Abstract: Gene therapy has emerged as an alternative in the treatment of cancer, particularly in cases of resistance to chemo and radiotherapy. Different approaches to deliver genetic material to tumor tissues have been proposed, including the use of small non-coding RNAs due to their multiple mechanisms of action. However, such promise has shown limits in in vivo application related to RNA’s biological instability and stimulation of immunity, urging the development of systems able to overcome those barriers. In this review, we discuss the use of RNA interference in cancer therapy with special attention to the role of siRNA and miRNA and to the challenges of their delivery in vivo. We introduce a promising class of drug delivery system known as micelle-like nanoparticles and explore their synthesis and advantages for gene therapy as well as the recent findings in in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies.
      PubDate: 2018-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0298-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A low cost PS based microfluidic platform to investigate cell cycle
           towards developing a therapeutic strategy for cancer
    • Authors: Irem Ezgi Odabasi; Elif Gencturk; Sevde Puza; Senol Mutlu; Kutlu O. Ulgen
      Abstract: Inhibition of DNA damage response pathway in combination with DNA alkylating agents may enhance the selective killing of cancer cells leading to better therapeutic effects. MDM2 binding protein (MTBP) in human has a role in G1 phase (interphase of cell cycle) and its overexpression leads to breast and ovarian cancers. Sld7 is an uncharacterized protein in budding yeast and a potential functional homologue of MTBP. To investigate the role of Sld7 as a therapeutic target, the behavior of the wild-type cells and sld7∆ mutants were monitored in 0.5 nL microbioreactors. The brightfield microscopy images were used to analyze the change in the cell size and to determine the durations of G1 and S/G2/M phases of wild type cells and mutants. With the administration of the alkylating agent, the cell size decreased and the duration of cell cycle increased. The replacement of the medium with the fresh one enabled the cells to repair their DNA. The application of calorie restriction together with DNA alkylating agent to mutant cells resulted in smaller cell size and longer G1 phase compared to those in control environment. For therapeutic purposes, the potential of MTBP in humans or Sld7 in yeast as a drug target deserves further exploration. The fabrication simplicity, robustness and low-cost of this microfluidic bioreactor made of polystyrene allowed us to perform yeast culturing experiments and show a potential for further cell culturing studies. The device can successfully be used for therapeutic applications including the discovery of new anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer drugs.
      PubDate: 2018-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0302-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • On chip quadruplex priming amplification for quantitative isothermal
           diagnostics
    • Authors: C. Pease; G. E. Plum; B. Kankia; J. J. Kwiek; R. Sooryakumar
      Abstract: Nucleic acid testing is a common technique for medical diagnostics. For example, it is used to detect HIV treatment failure by monitoring viral load levels. Quadruplex Priming Amplification (QPA) is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification technique that requires little power and few chemical reagents per assay, all features that make QPA well suited for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. The QPA assay can be further optimized by integrating it with microfluidic devices that can automate and combine multiple reaction steps and reduce the quantity and cost of reagents per test. In this study, a real-time, exponential QPA reaction is demonstrated for the first time in a microfluidic chip, where the reaction was not inhibited and supported performance levels comparable to a commercially-available, non-microfluidics setup.
      PubDate: 2018-07-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0305-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Erythrocyte fouling on micro-engineered membranes
    • Authors: Levy I. Amar; Daniela Guisado; Monica Faria; James P. Jones; Cees J. M. van Rijn; Michael I. Hill; Edward F. Leonard
      Abstract: Crossflow microfiltration of plasma from blood through microsieves in a microchannel is potentially useful in many biomedical applications, including clinically as a wearable water removal device under development by the authors. We report experiments that correlate filtration rates, transmembrane pressures (TMP) and shear rates during filtration through a microscopically high channel bounded by a low intrinsic resistance photolithographically-produced porous semiconductor membrane. These experiments allowed observation of erythrocyte behavior at the filtering surface and showed how their unique deformability properties dominated filtration resistance. At low filtration rates (corresponding to low TMP), they rolled along the filter surface, but at higher filtration rates (corresponding to higher TMP), they anchored themselves to the filter membrane, forming a self-assembled, incomplete monolayer. The incompleteness of the layer was an essential feature of the monolayer’s ability to support sustainable filtration. Maximum steady-state filtration flux was a function of wall shear rate, as predicted by conventional crossflow filtration theory, but, contrary to theories based on convective diffusion, showed weak dependence of filtration on erythrocyte concentration. Post-filtration scanning electron micrographs revealed significant capture and deformation of erythrocytes in all filter pores in the range 0.25 to 2 μm diameter. We report filtration rates through these filters and describe a largely unrecognized mechanism that allows stable filtration in the presence of substantial cell layers.
      PubDate: 2018-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0297-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Systematic approach for the formulation and optimization of atorvastatin
           loaded solid lipid NANOAPARTICLES using response surface methodology
    • Authors: Babita Sarangi; Utpal Jana; Jyotirmaya Sahoo; Guru Prasad Mohanta; Prabal Kumar Manna
      Abstract: Atorvastatin is a lipid lowering agent with poor oral bioavailability (12%) because of poor solubility and extensive first pass hepatic metabolism. In order to overcome these issues, atorvastatin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (ATOR-SLNs) were prepared by using glyceryl tripalmitate as lipid carrier, poloxamer 407 as surfactant and soya lecithin as emulsifier. The purpose of this work was to optimize the formulation with the application of response surface methodology to improve the physicochemical properties. The central composite rotatable design consisting of three factored factorial design with three levels was used for the optimization of the formulations. The optimized formulation was composed of drug/lipid ratio of 1:3.64, surfactant concentration of 1.5% with 5 min time for sonication. Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies confirmed the compatibility of drug and lipid in the formulation. The optimized ATOR- SLNs showed almost spherical shape with a mean particle size of 338.5 nm, zeta potential of -24.7mV, DL of 17.7% and EE of 81.06% respectively. The in vitro drug release study showed a burst release at the initial stage followed by the prolongation of drug release from lipid matrix. Stability study revealed that ATOR-SLNs were more stable at 4±2˚C when compared with storage at 25±2˚C/60±5% RH during the six months storage period. These results indicated that the developed ATOR-SLNs is a promising approach for increment of bioavailability by improving the physicochemical properties.
      PubDate: 2018-06-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0285-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Study of melatonin-mediated effects on various hepatic inflammatory
           responses stimulated by IL-6 in a new HepG2-on-a-chip platform
    • Authors: Mi Jang; Andreas Manz; Thomas Volk; Astrid Kleber
      Abstract: Hepatocytes exhibit diverse reactions upon stimulation with the interleukin IL-6, mainly in the context of inflammation and energy metabolism. Melatonin has been shown to exert pleiotropic protective actions, such as anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative stress on many cell- and organ-types. The key role of the liver to maintain homeostasis and metabolic regulation prompted us to evaluate the direct modification of IL-6-induced alterations in HepG2 cells in a chip by melatonin. IL-6 administration was followed by the reduced expression and activity of MRP2, a loss of CYP1A activity, and the decline of PXR expression. Other effects were the induction of acute phase responses (reduced albumin production as well as increased CRP and hepcidin expression) and lowered expression of CREB3L3. IL-6 affected also the mitochondrial membrane potential together with elevated mitochondrial superoxide generation, and glycogen deposition was reduced. Melatonin counteracted all observed IL-6-induced alterations except the rise in CRP release and CYP1A activity. Altogether, this new in vitro model can be applied to investigate hepatic inflammatory responses stimulated by IL-6, and these results indicate that hepatocellular inflammatory responses to IL-6 are mitigated by melatonin.
      PubDate: 2018-06-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0300-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Functional cargo delivery into mouse and human fibroblasts using a
           versatile microfluidic device
    • Authors: Kevin H. Lam; Antonio Fernandez-Perez; David W. Schmidtke; Nikhil V. Munshi
      Abstract: Efficient intracellular cargo delivery is a key hurdle for the translation of many emerging stem cell and cellular reprogramming therapies. Recently, a microfluidic-based device constructed from silicon was shown to transduce macromolecules into cells via shear-induced formation of plasma membrane pores. However, the scalability and widespread application of the current platform is limited since physical deformation-mediated delivery must be optimized for each therapeutic application. Therefore, we sought to create a low-cost, versatile device that could facilitate rapid prototyping and application-specific optimization in most academic research labs. Here we describe the design and implementation of a microfluidic device constructed from Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that we call Cyto-PDMS (Cytoplasmic PDMS-based Delivery and Modification System). Using a systematic Cyto-PDMS workflow, we demonstrate intracellular cargo delivery with minimal effects on cellular viability. We identify specific flow rates at which a wide range of cargo sizes (1–70 kDa) can be delivered to the cell interior. As a proof-of-principle for the biological utility of Cyto-PDMS, we show (i) F-actin labeling in live human fibroblasts and (ii) intracellular delivery of recombinant Cre protein with appropriate genomic recombination in recipient fibroblasts. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Cyto-PDMS can deliver small-molecules to the cytoplasm and biologically active cargo to the nucleus without major effects on viability. We anticipate that the cost and versatility of PDMS can be leveraged to optimize delivery to a broad array of possible cell types and thus expand the potential impact of cellular therapies.
      PubDate: 2018-06-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0292-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • An efficient method for CTCs screening with excellent operability by
           integrating Parsortix™-like cell separation chip and selective size
           amplification
    • Authors: Xin Jin; Rui Chen; Shikun Zhao; Peiyong Li; Bai Xue; Xiang Chen; Xinyuan Zhu
      Abstract: In this article, an attempt for efficient screening of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with excellent operability on microfluidic chips was reported. A Parsortix™-like cell separation chip was manufactured in our lab. This chip allowed lateral flow of fluid which increased the flow rate of blood. And, an air valve controlled injection pump was manufactured which allowed eight chips working simultaneously. This greatly facilitated the blood treatment process and saved time. As for the mechanism of screening circulating tumor cells, selective size amplification was utilized. By size amplification of cancer cells, both the hardness and the size of CTCs increased which differentiated them from blood cells. And the modification procedure of beads used for size amplification of cancer cells was optimized. Finally, by integrating the commercialized Parsortix™-like cell separation chip and selective size amplification, a practical method for screening circulating tumor cells was established.
      PubDate: 2018-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0293-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Performance evaluation of a robot-assisted catheter operating system with
           haptic feedback
    • Authors: Yu Song; Shuxiang Guo; Xuanchun Yin; Linshuai Zhang; Hideyuki Hirata; Hidenori Ishihara; Takashi Tamiya
      Abstract: In this paper, a novel robot-assisted catheter operating system (RCOS) has been proposed as a method to reduce physical stress and X-ray exposure time to physicians during endovascular procedures. The unique design of this system allows the physician to apply conventional bedside catheterization skills (advance, retreat and rotate) to an input catheter, which is placed at the master side to control another patient catheter placed at the slave side. For this purpose, a magnetorheological (MR) fluids-based master haptic interface has been developed to measure the axial and radial motions of an input catheter, as well as to provide the haptic feedback to the physician during the operation. In order to achieve a quick response of the haptic force in the master haptic interface, a hall sensor-based closed-loop control strategy is employed. In slave side, a catheter manipulator is presented to deliver the patient catheter, according to position commands received from the master haptic interface. The contact forces between the patient catheter and blood vessel system can be measured by designed force sensor unit of catheter manipulator. Four levels of haptic force are provided to make the operator aware of the resistance encountered by the patient catheter during the insertion procedure. The catheter manipulator was evaluated for precision positioning. The time lag from the sensed motion to replicated motion is tested. To verify the efficacy of the proposed haptic feedback method, the evaluation experiments in vitro are carried out. The results demonstrate that the proposed system has the ability to enable decreasing the contact forces between the catheter and vasculature.
      PubDate: 2018-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0294-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Efficacy of sustained delivery of GC-1 from a Nanofluidic system in a
           spontaneously obese non-human primate: a case study
    • Authors: Carly S. Filgueira; Giacomo Bruno; Zachary W. Smith; Corrine Ying Xuan Chua; Andrea Ballerini; Marco Folci; April L. Gilbert; Priya Jain; Jagannadha K. Sastry; Pramod N. Nehete; Kathryn A. Shelton; Lori R. Hill; Areeba Ali; Keith A. Youker; Alessandro Grattoni
      Abstract: With nearly 40% of U.S. adults obese, and childhood and adolescent rates rising, obesity and associated comorbidities are serious public health concerns with massive societal costs. Often, lifestyle interventions do not offer sufficient weight loss to improve health, requiring surgery and medications as adjunct management strategies. Here, we present a 4-month case study in which the sustained, low-dose, and constant administration of the thyroid receptor β selective agonist GC-1 (sobetirome) from a novel nanochannel membrane implant was assessed in an obese, pre-diabetic rhesus macaque. Dramatic loss of white adipose tissue in the abdomen from 36 to 18% was observed via magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with normalized serum insulin and glycemia, with no signs of cardiotoxicity shown. The non-human primate study highlights sustained low-dose delivery of GC-1 from our minimally invasive subcutaneous implant as a valuable approach to induce weight loss and manage obesity and comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0296-2
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A patterned polystyrene-based microelectrode array for in vitro neuronal
           recordings
    • Authors: Audrey Hammack; Rashed T. Rihani; Bryan J. Black; Joseph J. Pancrazio; Bruce E. Gnade
      Abstract: Substrate-integrated microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are non-invasive platforms for recording supra-threshold signals, i.e. action potentials or spikes, from a variety of cultured electrically active cells, and are useful for pharmacological and toxicological studies. However, the MEA substrate, which is often fabricated using semiconductor processing technology, presents some challenges to the user. Specifically, the electrode encapsulation, which may consist of a variety of inorganic and organic materials, requires a specific substrate preparation protocol to optimize cell adhesion to the surface. Often, these protocols differ from and are more complex than traditional protocols for in vitro cell culture in polystyrene petri dishes. Here, we describe the fabrication of an MEA with indium tin oxide microelectrodes and a patterned polystyrene electrode encapsulation. We demonstrate the electrochemical stability of the electrodes and encapsulation, and show viable cell culture and in vitro recordings.
      PubDate: 2018-06-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0295-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • In-vitro perforation of the round window membrane via direct 3-D printed
           microneedles
    • Authors: Aykut Aksit; Daniel N. Arteaga; Miguel Arriaga; Xun Wang; Hirobumi Watanabe; Karen E. Kasza; Anil K. Lalwani; Jeffrey W. Kysar
      Abstract: The cochlea, or inner ear, is a space fully enclosed within the temporal bone of the skull, except for two membrane-covered portals connecting it to the middle ear space. One of these portals is the round window, which is covered by the Round Window Membrane (RWM). A longstanding clinical goal is to reliably and precisely deliver therapeutics into the cochlea to treat a plethora of auditory and vestibular disorders. Standard of care for several difficult-to-treat diseases calls for injection of a therapeutic substance through the tympanic membrane into the middle ear space, after which a portion of the substance diffuses across the RWM into the cochlea. The efficacy of this technique is limited by an inconsistent rate of molecular transport across the RWM. A solution to this problem involves the introduction of one or more microscopic perforations through the RWM to enhance the rate and reliability of diffusive transport. This paper reports the use of direct 3D printing via Two-Photon Polymerization (2PP) lithography to fabricate ultra-sharp polymer microneedles specifically designed to perforate the RWM. The microneedle has tip radius of 500 nm and shank radius of 50 μ m, and perforates the guinea pig RWM with a mean force of 1.19 mN. The resulting perforations performed in vitro are lens-shaped with major axis equal to the microneedle shank diameter and minor axis about 25% of the major axis, with mean area 1670 μ m2. The major axis is aligned with the direction of the connective fibers within the RWM. The fibers were separated along their axes without ripping or tearing of the RWM suggesting the main failure mechanism to be fiber-to-fiber decohesion. The small perforation area along with fiber-to-fiber decohesion are promising indicators that the perforations would heal readily following in vivo experiments. These results establish a foundation for the use of Two-Photon Polymerization lithography as a means to fabricate microneedles to perforate the RWM and other similar membranes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0287-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A novel electrochemical immunosensor based on Au nanoparticles and
           horseradish peroxidase signal amplification for ultrasensitive detection
           of α-fetoprotein
    • Authors: Dingqiang Lu; Qiuda Xu; Guangchang Pang; Fuping Lu
      Abstract: An electrochemical double-layer Au nanoparticle membrane immunosensor was developed using an electrochemical biosensing signal amplification system with Au nanoparticles, thionine, chitosan, and horseradish peroxidase, which was fabricated using double self-adsorption of Au nanoparticle sol followed by anti-α-fetoprotein Balb/c mouse monoclonal antibody adsorption. The AuNPs sol was characterized by spectrum scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The immunosensor was characterized by atomic force microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and alternating-current impedance during each stage of adsorption and assembly. The amperometric I-t curve method was used to measure α-fetoprotein (AFP) diluted in phosphate buffered saline. The result indicated a wide linear range, and the change rate of steady-current before and after immune response had linear correlation within the range 0.1–104 pg/mL AFP. The current change rate equation was △I = 5.82334 lgC + 37.01195 (R2 = 0.9922). The lowest limit of detection was 0.03 pg/mL (S/N = 3), and the reproducibility of the sensor was good. Additionally, the sensor could be stably stored above phosphate buffered saline at 4 °C for more than 24 days. More importantly, the sensor is label-free, reagentless and low fouling, making it capable of assaying AFP in real serum samples without suffering from significant interference or biofouling.
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0291-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Robust label-free microRNA detection using one million ISFET array
    • Authors: Anurup Ganguli; Yoshihiko Watanabe; Michael T. Hwang; Jui-Cheng Huang; Rashid Bashir
      Abstract: Detection of nucleic acid molecules is one of the most pervasive assays in biology, medicine, and agriculture applications. Currently, most comely used DNA/RNA detection platforms use fluorescence labeling and require lab-scale setting for performing the assay. There is a need for developing less expensive, label-free, and rapid detection of biomolecules with minimal utilization of resources. Use of electrical approaches for detection of biomolecules by utilizing their inherent charge is a promising direction for biosensing assays. Here, we report a 1024 × 1024 array of Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFET) as label free sensors for detection of nucleic acid molecules. Using PNA probe functionalized on these ISFET array, we robustly detected miRNA Let-7b by measuring changes in drain current after hybridization of target molecules with concentration as low as 1 nM. We demonstrate that mismatched or non-complementary target molecules resulted in statistically smaller changes. Most importantly, the high-density sensor array shows unprecedented reliability and robustness with P values <0.0001 for all experiments. Practical implementation of this platform could have a wide range of applications in high-throughput nucleic acid genotyping, detection of amplified pathogenic nucleic acid, detection of cell-free DNA, and electrical readouts for current hybridization-based DNA biomolecular assays.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0290-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A vacuum-actuated microtissue stretcher for long-term exposure to
           oscillatory strain within a 3D matrix
    • Authors: Matthew Walker; Michel Godin; Andrew E. Pelling
      Abstract: Although our understanding of cellular behavior in response to extracellular biological and mechanical stimuli has greatly advanced using conventional 2D cell culture methods, these techniques lack physiological relevance. To a cell, the extracellular environment of a 2D plastic petri dish is artificially flat, extremely rigid, static and void of matrix protein. In contrast, we developed the microtissue vacuum-actuated stretcher (MVAS) to probe cellular behavior within a 3D multicellular environment composed of innate matrix protein, and in response to continuous uniaxial stretch. An array format, compatibility with live imaging and high-throughput fabrication techniques make the MVAS highly suited for biomedical research and pharmaceutical discovery. We validated our approach by characterizing the bulk microtissue strain, the microtissue strain field and single cell strain, and by assessing F-actin expression in response to chronic cyclic strain of 10%. The MVAS was shown to be capable of delivering reproducible dynamic bulk strain amplitudes up to 13%. The strain at the single cell level was found to be 10.4% less than the microtissue axial strain due to cellular rotation. Chronic cyclic strain produced a 35% increase in F-actin expression consistent with cytoskeletal reinforcement previously observed in 2D cell culture. The MVAS may further our understanding of the reciprocity shared between cells and their environment, which is critical to meaningful biomedical research and successful therapeutic approaches.
      PubDate: 2018-05-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0286-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • An ultrasonically controlled switching system for power management in
           implantable devices
    • Authors: Jiawei Zhou; Albert Kim; Babak Ziaie
      Abstract: In this paper, we present an ultrasonically controlled switching system that can save the battery power for implantable devices by turning the system on and off, on-demand. Ultrasonic control is employed to reduce the device size, increase the penetration depth, and reduce misalignment sensitivity associated with alternative techniques using permanent magnet and RF signal. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, a 665 kHz ultrasonic signal is used to activate a piezoelectric receiver which in turn switches a battery-powered RF system on-and-off. In-vitro tests show a reliable switching functionality at distances of up to 8 cm while consuming 43.5 nW (14.5 nA current consumption with 3 V power supply) when the system is in off-state, a factor of 10–100 times lower than the sleep-mode power consumption of typical RF SoC systems. The dimension of fabricated prototype is 6.3 × 16.7 × 2‍ mm3 allowing it to be easily incorporated into many existing implantable devices.
      PubDate: 2018-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0288-2
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A bead-based immunogold-silver staining assay on capillary-driven
           microfluidics
    • Authors: Ngoc M. Pham; Sebastian Rusch; Yuksel Temiz; Robert D. Lovchik; Hans-Peter Beck; Walter Karlen; Emmanuel Delamarche
      Abstract: Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are critically needed for the detection of infectious diseases, particularly in remote settings where accurate and appropriate diagnosis can save lives. However, it is difficult to implement immunoassays, and specifically immunoassays relying on signal amplification using silver staining, into POC diagnostic devices. Effective immobilization of antibodies in such devices is another challenge. Here, we present strategies for immobilizing capture antibodies (cAbs) in capillary-driven microfluidic chips and implementing a gold-catalyzed silver staining reaction. We illustrate these strategies using a species/anti-species immunoassay and the capillary assembly of fluorescent microbeads functionalized with cAbs in “bead lanes”, which are engraved in microfluidic chips. The microfluidic chips are fabricated in silicon (Si) and sealed with a dry film resist. Rabbit IgG antibodies in samples are captured on the beads and bound by detection antibodies (dAbs) conjugated to gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles catalyze the formation of a metallic film of silver, which attenuates fluorescence from the beads in an analyte-concentration dependent manner. The performance of these immunoassays was found comparable to that of assays performed in 96 well microtiter plates using “classical” enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proof-of-concept method developed here can detect 24.6 ng mL−1 of rabbit IgG antibodies in PBS within 20 min, in comparison to 17.1 ng mL−1 of the same antibodies using a ~140-min-long ELISA protocol. Furthermore, the concept presented here is flexible and necessitate volumes of samples and reagents in the range of just a few microliters.
      PubDate: 2018-05-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0284-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Self-powered infusion microfluidic pump for ex vivo drug delivery
    • Abstract: In this work, we present a new iSIMPLE concept (infusion Self-powered Imbibing Microfluidic Pump by Liquid Encapsulation), which requires no external power for activation nor liquid manipulation, it is easy to use while its fabrication method is extremely simple, inexpensive and suited for mass replication. The pump consists of a working liquid, which is - after finger activation - absorbed in a porous material (e.g. filter paper). The air expelled from the porous material increases the pressure in the downstream outlet channel and propels the outlet liquid (i.e. the sample) through the channel or ejects it. Here we investigated the influence of different filter papers on the iSIMPLE flow rates, achieving a wide range from 30 down to 0.07 μL/min. We also demonstrated the versatility of the iSIMPLE in terms of the liquid volume that can be manipulated (from 0.5 μL up to 150 μL) and the working pressure reaching 64 kPa, unprecedented high for a self-powered microfluidics pump. In addition, using a 34 G microneedle mounted on the iSIMPLE, we successfully injected liquids with different viscosities (from 0.93 up to 55.88 cP) both into an agarose matrix and a skin-like biological ex vivo substrate (i.e. chicken breast tissue). This work validated the compatibility of the iSIMPLE with drug delivery in a controlled way into a skin-like matrix, envisioning a whole new scenario for intradermal injections using self-contained skin patch. In addition, due to the extreme flexibility of the design and manufacturing, the iSIMPLE concept offers enormous opportunities for completely autonomous, portable and cost effective LOC devices.
      PubDate: 2018-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0289-1
       
 
 
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