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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2415 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (206 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (201 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (112 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1273 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (57 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (78 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (96 journals)

ENGINEERING (1273 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 290)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 261)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 201)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
Biomedical Microdevices
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.538
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-8781 - ISSN (Online) 1387-2176
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Correction to: Microtissue size and cell-cell communication modulate cell
           migration in arrayed 3D collagen gels
    • Authors: Jacob A. M. Nuhn; Shenmin Gong; Xiangchen Che; Long Que; Ian C. Schneider
      Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. One line indicating statistical significance was improperly placed in Fig. 5.
      PubDate: 2018-09-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0330-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2018)
  • A simple pyramid-shaped microchamber towards highly efficient isolation of
           circulating tumor cells from breast cancer patients
    • Authors: Feng Liu; Shuibing Wang; Zhigang Lu; Yumei Sun; Chaogang Yang; Qiongwei Zhou; Shaoli Hong; Shengxiang Wang; Bin Xiong; Kan Liu; Nangang Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Isolation and detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has showed a great clinical impact for tumor diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Despite significant progresses of the existing technologies, feasible and cost-effective CTC isolation techniques are more desirable. In this study, a novel method was developed for highly efficient isolation of CTCs from breast cancer patients based on biophysical properties using a pyramid-shaped microchamber. Through optimization tests, the outlet height of 6 μm and the flow rate of 200 μL/min were chosen as the optimal conditions. The capture efficiencies of more than 85% were achieved for cancer cell lines (SKBR3, BGC823, PC3, and H1975) spiked in DMEM and healthy blood samples without clogging issue. In clinic assay, the platform identified CTCs in 13 of 20 breast cancer patients (65%) with an average of 4.25 ± 4.96 CTCs/2 mL, whereas only one cell was recognized as CTC in 1 of 15 healthy blood samples. The statistical analyses results demonstrated that both CTC positive rate and CTC counts were positive correlated with TNM stage (p < 0.001; p = 0.02, respectively). This microfluidic platform successfully demonstrated the clinical feasibility of CTC isolation and would hold great potential of clinical application in predicting and monitoring the prognosis of cancer patients.
      PubDate: 2018-09-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0326-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2018)
  • Bionic 3D spheroids biosensor chips for high-throughput and dynamic drug
    • Authors: Qian Wu; Xinwei Wei; Yuxiang Pan; Yingchang Zou; Ning Hu; Ping Wang
      Abstract: Abstract To perform the drug screening, planar cultured cell models are commonly applied to test efficacy and toxicity of drugs. However, planar cultured cells are different from the human 3D organs or tissues in vivo. To simulate the human 3D organs or tissues, 3D spheroids are developed by culturing a small aggregate of cells which reside around the extracellular matrix and interact with other cells in liquid media. Here we apply lung carcinoma cell lines to engineer the 3D lung cancer spheroid-based biosensor using the interdigitated electrodes for drug efficacy evaluation. The results show 3D spheroid had higher drug resistance than the planar cell model. The anticarcinogen inhibition on different 3D lung cancer spheroid models (A549, H1299, H460) can be quantitatively evaluated by electric impedance sensing. Besides, we delivered combination of anticarcinogens treatments to A549 spheroids which is commonly used in clinic treatment, and found the synergistic effect of cisplatin plus etoposide had higher drug response. To simultaneously test the drug efficacy and side effects on multi-organ model with circulatory system, a connected multiwell interdigitated electrode arraywas applied to culture different organoid spheroids. Overall, the organization of 3D cancer spheroids-based biosensor, which has higher predictive value for drug discovery and personalized medicine screening, is expected to be well applied in the area of pharmacy and clinical medicine.
      PubDate: 2018-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0329-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2018)
  • Elucidating the mechanism governing cell rotation under DEP using the
           volumetric polarization and integration method
    • Authors: Yu Zhao; Jozef Brcka; Jacques Faguet; Guigen Zhang
      Abstract: Abstract Cell rotation can be achieved by utilizing rotating electric fields through which torques are generated due to phase difference between the dipole moment of cells and the external electric field. While reports of cell rotation under non-rotating electrical fields, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP), are abound, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Because of this, contradicting arguments remain regarding if a single cell can rotate under conventional DEP. What’s more, the current prevailing DEP theory is not adequate for identifying the cause for such disagreements. In this work we applied our recently developed Volumetric Polarization and Integration (VPI) method to investigate the possible causes for cell rotation under conventional DEP. Three-dimensional (3D) computer models dealing with a cell in a DEP environment were developed to quantify the force and torque imparted on the cell by the external DEP field using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Modeling results suggest that eccentric inclusions with low conductivity inside the cell will generate torques (either in clockwise or counter-clockwise directions) sufficient to cause cell rotation under DEP. For validation of modeling predictions, experiments with rat adipose stem cells containing large lipid droplets were conducted. Good agreement between our modeling and experimental results suggests that the VPI method is powerful in elucidating the underlying mechanisms governing the complicated DEP phenomena.
      PubDate: 2018-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0327-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Engineered 3D tumour model for study of glioblastoma aggressiveness and
           drug evaluation on a detachably assembled microfluidic device
    • Authors: Jingyun Ma; Na Li; Yachen Wang; Liang Wang; Wenjuan Wei; Liming Shen; Yu Sun; Yang Jiao; Weigong Chen; Jing Liu
      Abstract: Abstract 3D models of tumours have emerged as an advanced technique in pharmacology and tumour cell biology, in particular for studying malignant tumours such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Herein, we developed a 3D GBM model on a detachably assembled microfluidic device, which could be used to study GBM aggressiveness and for anti-GBM drug testing. Fundamental characteristics of the GBM microenvironment in terms of 3D tissue organisation, extracellular matrices and blood flow were reproduced in vitro by serial manipulations in the integrated microfluidic device, including GBM spheroid self-assembly, embedding in a collagen matrix, and continuous perfusion culture, respectively. We could realize multiple spheroids parallel manipulation, whilst, compartmentalized culture, in a highly flexible manner. This method facilitated investigations into the viability, proliferation, invasiveness and phenotype transition of GBM in a 3D microenvironment and under continuous stimulation by drugs. Anti-invasion effect of resveratrol, a naturally isolated polyphenol, was innovatively evaluated using this in vitro 3D GBM model. Temozolomide and the combination of resveratrol and temozolomide were also evaluated as control. This scalable model enables research into GBM in a more physiologically relevant microenvironment, which renders it promising for use in translational or personalised medicine to examine the impact of, or identify combinations of, therapeutic agents.
      PubDate: 2018-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0322-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • A novel combination of quick response code and microfluidic paper-based
           analytical devices for rapid and quantitative detection
    • Authors: Tengfei Wang; Guangning Xu; Wenyuan Wu; Xiaoying Wang; Xueliang Chen; Shumin Zhou; Fan You
      Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, there is great interest in the use of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for low-cost diagnostics. In most cases, the test equipment is needed. Here we report a new type of device-independent detection method based on timer-paper-based analytical devices, which can be tested by smartphone, and its application for cholesterol detection. The Quick Response code was designed as the timer component of this device. Wax printing method was employed to print the pattern on filter paper. The color and enzyme reagents have been immobilized in the hydrophilic channel to complete the colorimetric detection for cholesterol. Under laminar flow conditions of the cellulose network, the liquid volume of detection zone has been quantified by monitoring the fluid residence time on different area of the timer-paper-based devices. The precise monitoring of detection time can promote the accuracy of colorimetric detection. This is very important for the quantitative detection of paper-based analytical devices. One significant outcome of this report is that simple and accurate timer can be used for detection process self-clocking. The factors of total detection time have been investigated. The linear range of the calibration curve was 3.0 ~ 6.0 mmol L−1, with correlation coefficient of 0.9956. With the characteristic of easy to use, low cost and accurate monitoring of detection time, this kind of timer-paper-based devices can be applied to cholesterol or other substances rapid detection.
      PubDate: 2018-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0325-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Impedimetric immunosensor for dengue diagnosis using graphite
           screen-printed electrodes coated with poly(4-aminophenylacetic acid)
    • Authors: Thiago Coimbra Pimenta; Cátia da Cruz Santos; Ronaldo Luís Thomasini; Lucas Franco Ferreira
      Abstract: Dengue is an infectious viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the control of which is complex. In addition, the clinical diagnosis is difficult to perform since it resembles other febrile infections; thus, the development of more effective methods to detect dengue virus (DV) has drawn increasing attention. The present study aimed to develop an impedimetric immunosensor for dengue diagnosis using a screen-printed electrode (SPE) functionalized with polymer films derived from 4-aminophenylacetic acid (4-APA). Data obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the deposition of a uniformly distributed material over the electrode surface. The immunosensor was based on the specific interaction between dengue antigen, NS1 protein, and anti-NS1 antibodies, IgG and IgM. In a characterization study using cyclic voltammetry (CV), the polymer film showed two oxidation peaks at +0.17 and + 0.35 V in 0.50 M sulfuric acid solution, indicating its adsorption and electroactivity at the SPE surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements showed a higher charge transfer resistance (Rct) to the polymer film-modified SPE as compared with the bare SPE, corroborating a previous study. The best rNS1 concentration for immobilization was 1.00 ng/mL, and the immunoreaction time between the antigen (Ag) and the antibody (Ab) was 20 min. Dilutions of positive and negative clinical serum samples were evaluated by EIE, from which it was possible to elucidate, for the positive serum, that the more diluted the serum the greater the Rct. Negative serum also showed an analytical signal, probably due to the presence of non-specific antibodies; however, the generated signal presented values closer to the rNS1 signal, indicating good selectivity of the proposed platform. The experiments were repeated using bare SPE to verify the importance of the polymer film in biosensor construction. No significant difference was observed between these results. Graphical abstract Proposed schematic for the genosensor development
      PubDate: 2018-09-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0324-2
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Low-stress Microfluidic Density-gradient Centrifugation for Blood Cell
    • Authors: Yuxi Sun; Palaniappan Sethu
      Abstract: Abstract Density gradient centrifugation exploits density differences between different blood cells to accomplish separation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from polymorphonuclear (PNM) cells, and erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs). While density gradient centrifugation offers a label-free alternative avoiding the use of harsh lysis buffers for blood cell isolation, it is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process during which blood cells are subject to high-levels of centrifugal force that can artifactually activate cells. To provide a low-stress alternative to this elegant method, we miniaturized and automated this process using microfluidics to ensure continuous PBMCs isolation from whole blood while avoiding the exposure to high-levels of centrifugal stress in a simple flow-through format. Within this device, a density gradient is established by exploiting laminar flow within microfluidic channels to layer a thin stream of blood over a larger stream of Ficoll. Using this approach we demonstrate successful isolation of PBMCs from whole blood with preservation of monocytes and different lymphocyte subpopulations similar to that seen with conventional density gradient centrifugation. Evaluation of activation status of PBMCs isolated using this technique shows that our approach achieves minimal isolation process induced activation of cells in comparison to conventional lysis or density gradient centrifugation. This simple, automated microfluidic density gradient centrifugation technique can potentially serve as tool for rapid and activation-free technique for isolation of PBMCs from whole blood for point-of-care applications.
      PubDate: 2018-08-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0323-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • A marker-based contactless catheter-sensing method to detect surgeons’
           operations for catheterization training systems
    • Authors: Jin Guo; Shuxiang Guo; Maoxun Li; Takashi Tamiya
      Abstract: Abstract It is challenging to position a catheter or a guidewire within a patient’s complicated and delicate vascular structure due to the lack of intuitive visual feedback by only manipulating the proximal part of the surgical instruments. Training is therefore critical before an actual surgery because any mistake due to the surgeon’s inexperience can be fatal for the patient. The catheter manipulation skills of experienced surgeons can be useful as input for training novice surgeons. However, few research groups focused on designs with consideration of the contactless catheter motion measurement, which allows obtaining expert surgeons’ catheter manipulation trajectories whilst still allowing them to employ an actual catheter and apply conventional pull, push and twist of the catheter as used in bedside intravascular interventional surgeries. In this paper, a novel contactless catheter-sensing method is proposed to measure the catheter motions by detecting and tracking a passive marker with four feature-point groups. The passive marker is designed to allow simultaneously sensing the translational and rotational motions of the input catheter. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed contactless catheter-sensing method is validated by conducting a series of comparison experiments. The accuracy and error analysis are quantified based on the absolute error, relative error, mean absolute error, and the success rate of the detection.
      PubDate: 2018-08-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0321-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Clogging-free continuous operation with whole blood in a radial pillar
           device (RAPID)
    • Authors: Ninad Mehendale; Oshin Sharma; Shilpi Pandey; Debjani Paul
      Abstract: Abstract Pillar-based passive microfluidic devices combine the advantages of simple designs, small device footprint, and high selectivity for size-based separation of blood cells. Most of these device designs have been validated with dilute blood samples. Handling whole blood in pillar-based devices is extremely challenging due to clogging. The high proportion of cells (particularly red blood cells) in blood, the varying sizes and stiffness of the different blood cells, and the tendency of the cells to aggregate lead to clogging of the pillars within a short period. We recently reported a ra dial pi llar d evice (RAPID) design for continuous and high throughput separation of multi-sized rigid polystyrene particles in a single experiment. In the current manuscript, we have given detailed guidelines to modify the design of RAPID for any application with deformable objects (e.g. cells). We have adapted RAPID to work with whole blood without any pre-processing steps. We were successful in operating the device with whole blood for almost 6 h, which is difficult to achieve with most pillar-based devices. The availability of multiple parallel paths for the cells and the provision for a self-generating cross flow in the device design were the main reasons behind the minimal clogging in our device. We also observed that a vibrator motor attached to the inlet tubing occasionally disturbed the cell clumps. As an illustration of the improved device design, we demonstrated up to ∼ 60-fold enrichment of platelets.
      PubDate: 2018-08-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0319-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Compensatory force measurement and multimodal force feedback for
           remote-controlled vascular interventional robot
    • Authors: Xianqiang Bao; Shuxiang Guo; Nan Xiao; Youxiang Li; Liwei Shi
      Abstract: Abstract Minimally invasive vascular interventional surgery is widely used and remote-controlled vascular interventional surgery robots (RVIRs) are being developed to reduce the occupational risk of the intervening physician in minimally invasive vascular interventional surgeries. Skilled surgeon performs surgeries mainly depending on the detection of collisions. Inaccurate force feedback will be difficult for surgeons to perform surgeries or even results in medical accidents. In addition, the surgeon cannot quickly and easily distinguish whether the proximal force exceeds the safety threshold of blood vessels or not, and thus it results in damage to the blood vessels. In this paper, we present a novel method comprising compensatory force measurement and multimodal force feedback (MFF). Calibration experiments and performance evaluation experiments were carried out. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method can measure the proximal force of catheter/guidewire accurately and assist surgeons to distinguish the change of proximal force more easily. This novel method is suitable for use in actual surgical operations.
      PubDate: 2018-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0318-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Chip-on-tip endoscope incorporating a soft robotic pneumatic bending
    • Authors: Benjamin Gorissen; Michael De Volder; Dominiek Reynaerts
      Abstract: Abstract In the ever advancing field of minimally invasive surgery, flexible instruments with local degrees of freedom are needed to navigate through the intricate topologies of the human body. Although cable or concentric tube driven solutions have proven their merits in this field, they are inadequate for realizing small bending radii and suffer from friction, which is detrimental when automation is envisioned. Soft robotic actuators with locally actuated degrees of freedom are foreseen to fill in this void, where elastic inflatable actuators are very promising due to their S3-principle, being Small, Soft and Safe. This paper reports on the characterization of a chip-on-tip endoscope, consisting out of a soft robotic pneumatic bending microactuator equipped with a 1.1 × 1.1 mm2 CMOS camera. As such, the total diameter of the endoscope measures 1.66 mm. To show the feasibility of using this system in a surgical environment, a preliminary test on an eye mock-up is conducted.
      PubDate: 2018-08-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0317-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Prediction of Microdroplet Breakup Regime in Asymmetric T-Junction
    • Authors: Way Lee Cheng; Reza Sadr; Jing Dai; Arum Han
      Abstract: Abstract Splitting droplets is becoming a major functional component in increasing number of droplet microfluidic applications, and there is an increasing interest in splitting droplets into two daughter droplets with different volumes. However, designing an asymmetric droplet splitter and predicting how a droplet splits in such designs is not trivial. In this study, numerical simulations were conducted to study droplet breakup in asymmetric T-junctions of square cross-sections having different pressure gradient ratios (i.e. T-junctions with outlet branches of different lengths). The goal of the simulation is to identify the conditions where a parent droplet breaks or does not break into two smaller droplets of different sizes (so called critical condition) and to identify the important fluid and microchannel parameters in this process. Four modes of droplet breakup (primary-, transition-, bubble-, and non-breakups) are identified and an empirical correlation is introduced that can predict the breakup/non-breakup of the droplet based on the parent droplet size and the capillary number. The simulation results are then compared with experimental data to verify its accuracy and the effect of fluids properties on the proposed correlation are studied. Two major asymmetric breakup mechanisms are determined, namely “breakup with permanent obstruction” and “unstable breakup”. The numerical results show that the splitting ratio for the asymmetric breakup mechanisms depends on flow conditions and dwell time of the droplet at the junction prior to splitting. Finally, the results from two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations were compared. It is shown that two-dimensional simulation may not accurately predict the breakup behavior for asymmetric droplet breakup and viscosity ration has a greater effect on the prediction critical condition.
      PubDate: 2018-08-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0310-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Porous silicon-poly(ε-caprolactone) film composites: evaluation of drug
           release and degradation behavior
    • Authors: Nelli K. Bodiford; Steven J. P. McInnes; Nicolas H. Voelcker; Jeffery L. Coffer
      Abstract: Abstract This work focuses on an evaluation of novel composites of porous silicon (pSi) with the biocompatible polymer ε-polycaprolactone (PCL) for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. The degradation behavior of the composites in terms of their morphology along with the effect of pSi on polymer degradation was monitored. PSi particles loaded with the drug camptothecin (CPT) were physically embedded into PCL films formed from electrospun PCL fiber sheets. PSi/PCL composites revealed a release profile of CPT (monitored via fluorescence spectroscopy) in accordance with the Higuchi release model, with significantly lower burst release percentage compared to pSi microparticles alone. Degradation studies of the composites, using gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), carried out in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) under simulated physiological conditions, indicated a modest mass loss (15%) over 5 weeks due to pSi dissolution and minor polymer hydrolysis. DSC results showed that, relative to PCL-only controls, pSi suppressed crystallization of the polymer film during PBS exposure. This suppression affects the evolution of surface morphology during this exposure that, in turn, influences the degradation behavior of the polymer. The implications of the above properties of these composites as a possible therapeutic device are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0313-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Dissociated effect and Chemosensitive enhancement of tumor spheroids
           influenced by an electric field in a microdevice
    • Authors: Chun-Hao Huang; Kin Fong Lei; Ngan-Ming Tsang
      Abstract: Abstract The use of electric field for cancer therapy has been proposed for a novel non-invasive cancer therapeutic approach that provides better quality of life for patients. However, argument of the efficacy hampers the therapeutic development for various cancer diseases. More scientific evidences are necessary to be addressed by basic research. The current in vitro cell culture study reports the responses of tumor spheroids after the application of an alternating electric field. Human hepatocarchinoma cells suspended in soft hydrogel were cultured in a cell culture device embedded with stimulating electrodes. Tumor spheroids gradually formed and alternating electric field was then applied during the culture course. Investigation of cell viability and cell cycle were conducted to optimize the treatment conditions. The results showed that the electric potential of 1.0 Vpp and frequency of 130 kHz was the minimal effective conditions for inhibiting tumor spheroids. Importantly, dissociation of tumor spheroids was observed after the treatment. The effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents was shown to be enhanced while the electric filed was simultaneously applied to the tumor spheroids. These results provided solid foundation for developing the effective therapeutic strategies.
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0316-2
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • A paper-based photothermal array using Parafilm to analyze hyperthermia
           response of tumour cells under local gradient temperature
    • Authors: Lei Zhang; Lihong Sun; Mengmeng Hou; Zhigang Xu; Yuejun Kang; Peng Xue
      Abstract: Abstract Temperature is a critical extrinsic physical parameter that determines cell fate. Hyperthermia therapy has become an efficient treatment for tumor ablation. To understand the response of tumor cells under thermal shocks, we present a paper-based photothermal array that can be conveniently coupled with commercial 96-well cell culture plates. This paper chip device was fabricated in one step using Parafilm® and Kimwipers® based on a heat lamination strategy. Liquid was completely adsorbed and confined within the cellulose fibres of hydrophilic regions. Then, Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB NPs) as the photothermal initiator were introduced into the loading wells, and thermal energy was generated via near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. After assembling the paper device with a 96-well plate, the temperature of each well could be individually controlled by varying the loading amount of PB NPs and laser irradiation time. As a proof-of-concept study, the effects of local thermal shocks on HeLa cells were investigated using MTT cell viability assay and Live/Dead cell staining. The variation of cell viability could be monitored in situ with controllable temperature elevation. The proposed paper photothermal array loaded with thermal initiators represents an enabling tool for investigating the hyperthermia responses of biological cells. Moreover, the facile fabrication technique for paper patterning is advantageous for customizing high-throughput microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) with extremely low cost.
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0311-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Transverse microvibrations-based guide wires drag reduction evaluation for
           endovascular interventional application
    • Authors: Chaonan Zhang; Shuxiang Guo; Nan Xiao; Jiaqing Wu; Youxiang Li; Yuhua Jiang
      Abstract: Abstract When conducting endovascular interventional surgery, doctors usually experience high viscous resistance resulting from direct contact with blood when operating the guide wire in blood vessels, which reduces the operational efficiency. Improper operation can cause vascular injuries and greatly reduce surgical safety, sometimes leading to the death of the patient. This paper presents a new method that applies transverse microvibrations at the proximal end of a conventional passive guide wire to reduce viscous resistance. The effect of the proposed method in reducing the viscous resistance in the fluid is studied. The influences of the tube diameter, medium density, and applied vibration frequency on the viscous force are investigated. Finally, for endovascular therapy, a mathematical model of the viscous force of the guide wire based on the proposed method is established in the environment of human blood vessels to predict the magnitude of the viscous force exerted on the guide wire and analyze the drag reduction effect of the proposed method. The effectiveness of the proposed method in drag reduction and its feasibility in improving surgical safety are experimentally demonstrated. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method can assist the doctor during complicated and variable operation conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0315-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • A microfluidic device for motility and osmolality analysis of zebrafish
    • Authors: Jacob Beckham; Faiz Alam; Victor Omojola; Thomas Scherr; Amy Guitreau; Adam Melvin; Daniel S. Park; Jin-Woo Choi; Terrence R. Tiersch; W. Todd Monroe
      Abstract: Abstract A microfluidic chip is described that facilitates research and quality control analysis of zebrafish sperm which, due to its miniscule (i.e., 2–5 μl) sample volume and short duration of motility (i.e., <1 min), present a challenge for traditional manual assessment methods. A micromixer molded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bonded to a glass substrate was used to activate sperm samples by mixing with water, initiated by the user depressing a transfer pipette connected to the chip. Sample flow in the microfluidic viewing chamber was able to be halted within 1 s, allowing for rapid analysis of the sample using established computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) methods. Zebrafish sperm cell activation was consistent with manual hand mixing and yielded higher values of motility at earlier time points, as well as more subtle time-dependent trends in motility, than those processed by hand. Sperm activation curves, which indicate sample quality by evaluating percentage and duration of motility at various solution osmolalities, were generated with on-chip microfabricated gold floor electrodes interrogated by impedance spectroscopy. The magnitude of admittance was linearly proportional to osmolality and was not affected by the presence of sperm cells in the vicinity of the electrodes. This device represents a pivotal step in streamlining methods for consistent, rapid assessment of sperm quality for aquatic species. The capability to rapidly activate sperm and consistently measure motility with CASA using the microfluidic device described herein will help improve the reproducibility of studies on sperm and assist development of germplasm repositories.
      PubDate: 2018-08-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0308-2
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • Multiplexed microarrays based on optically encoded microbeads
    • Authors: Atieh Vafajoo; Azin Rostami; Sanam Foroutan Parsa; Reza Salarian; Navid Rabiee; Ghazal Rabiee; Mohammad Rabiee; Mohammadreza Tahriri; Daryoosh Vashaee; Lobat Tayebi; Michael R. Hamblin
      Abstract: Abstract In recent years, there has been growing interest in optically-encoded or tagged functionalized microbeads as a solid support platform to capture proteins or nucleotides which may serve as biomarkers of various diseases. Multiplexing technologies (suspension array or planar array) based on optically encoded microspheres have made possible the observation of relatively minor changes in biomarkers related to specific diseases. The ability to identify these changes at an early stage may allow the diagnosis of serious diseases (e.g. cancer) at a time-point when curative treatment may still be possible. As the overall accuracy of current diagnostic methods for some diseases is often disappointing, multiplexed assays based on optically encoded microbeads could play an important role to detect biomarkers of diseases in a non-invasive and accurate manner. However, detection systems based on functionalized encoded microbeads are still an emerging technology, and more research needs to be done in the future. This review paper is a preliminary attempt to summarize the state-of-the-art concerning diagnostic microbeads; including microsphere composition, synthesis, encoding technology, detection systems, and applications.
      PubDate: 2018-08-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0314-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
  • 3D printing for preoperative planning and surgical training: a review
    • Authors: Anurup Ganguli; Gelson J. Pagan-Diaz; Lauren Grant; Caroline Cvetkovic; Mathew Bramlet; John Vozenilek; Thenkurussi Kesavadas; Rashid Bashir
      Abstract: Abstract Surgeons typically rely on their past training and experiences as well as visual aids from medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) for the planning of surgical processes. Often, due to the anatomical complexity of the surgery site, two dimensional or virtual images are not sufficient to successfully convey the structural details. For such scenarios, a 3D printed model of the patient’s anatomy enables personalized preoperative planning. This paper reviews critical aspects of 3D printing for preoperative planning and surgical training, starting with an overview of the process-flow and 3D printing techniques, followed by their applications spanning across multiple organ systems in the human body. State of the art in these technologies are described along with a discussion of current limitations and future opportunities.
      PubDate: 2018-08-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0301-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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