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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2279 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (191 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (185 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (101 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1203 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (390 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1203 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 222)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Applied Network Science     Open Access  
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access  
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 255)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Biomedical Microdevices
  [SJR: 0.805]   [H-I: 66]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-8781 - ISSN (Online) 1387-2176
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Carbon nanotubes embedded in embryoid bodies direct cardiac
           differentiation
    • Authors: Samad Ahadian; Shukuyo Yamada; Mehdi Estili; Xiaobin Liang; Ramin Banan Sadeghian; Ken Nakajima; Hitoshi Shiku; Tomokazu Matsue; Ali Khademhosseini
      Abstract: We embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) for modulating mechanical and electrical cues of the stem cell niche. The CNTs increased the mechanical integrity and electrical conductivity of the EBs. Measured currents for the unmodified EBs (hereafter, EBs) and the EBs-0.25 mg/mL CNTs were 0.79 and 26.3 mA, respectively, at voltage of 5 V. The EBs had a Young’s modulus of 20.9 ± 6.5 kPa, whereas the Young’s modulus of the EB-0.1 mg/mL CNTs was 35.2 ± 5.6 kPa. The EB-CNTs also showed lower proliferation and greater differentiation rates compared with the EBs as determined by the expression of pluripotency genes and the analysis of EB sizes. Interestingly, the cardiac differentiation of the EB-CNTs was significantly greater than that of the EBs, as confirmed by high-throughput gene analysis at day 5 of culture. Applying electrical stimulation to the EB-CNTs specifically enhanced the cardiac differentiation and beating activity of the EBs.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0184-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Role of key genetic mutations on increasing migration of brain cancer
           cells through confinement
    • Authors: Loan Bui; Sayem H. Bhuiyan; Alissa Hendrick; Cheng-Jen Chuong; Young-tae Kim
      Abstract: Uncontrolled invasive cancer cell migration is among the major challenges for the treatment and management of brain cancer. Although the genetic profiles of brain cancer cells have been well characterized, the relationship between the genetic mutations and the cells’ mobility has not been clearly understood. In this study, using microfluidic devices that provide a wide range of physical confinements from 20 × 5 μm2 to 3 × 5 μm2 in cross sections, we studied the effect of physical confinement on the migratory capacity of cell lines with different types of mutations. Human glioblastoma and genetically modified mouse astrocytes were used. Human glioblastoma cells with EGFRvIII mutation were found to exhibit high degree of migratory capacity in narrow confinement. From mouse astrocytes, cells with triple mutations (p53−/− PTEN−/− BRAF) were found to exhibit the highest level of migratory capacity in narrow confinement compared to both double (p53−/− PTEN−/−) and single (p53−/−) mutant cells. Furthermore, when treating the triple mutant astrocytes with AZD-6244, an inhibitor of the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, we found significant reduction in migration through the confined channels when compared to that of controls (83% decrease in 5 × 5 μm2 and 86% in 3 × 5 μm2 channels). Our data correlate genetic mutations from different cell lines to their motility in different degrees of confinement. Our results also suggest a potential therapeutic target such as BRAF oncogene for inhibition of brain cancer invasion.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0197-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cell-laden microgel prepared using a biocompatible aqueous two-phase
           strategy
    • Authors: Yang Liu; Natalia Oshima Nambu; Masahito Taya
      Abstract: Microfluidic methods are frequently used to produce cell-laden microgels for various biomedical purposes. Such microfluidic methods generally employ oil-water systems. The poor distribution of crosslinking reagents in the oil phase limits the available gelation strategies. Extracting the microgel from the oil-phase also reduces its production efficiency. In this study, an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) involving dextran (DEX) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to prepare cell-laden microgel. This avoided the problems associated with an oil phase. The microgel precursor polymers and crosslinking reagents were dispersed in the DEX and PEG phases, respectively. The ultra-low interfacial tension of the ATPS hindered droplet formation. A co-flow microfluidic device was fabricated to overcome this problem. The device incorporated a square-wave-changing injection force, to improve the efficiency of droplet formation. The microgel precursor (including alginate and carboxymethyl cellulose derivatives possessing phenolic hydroxyl moieties) could be dispersed in the DEX solution at various concentrations. Uniform droplets were formed with controllable diameters, and were sequentially converted to microgel by horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed crosslinking. Cells were dispersed in the DEX phase with the microgel precursor polymer, and retained their high viability and proliferation in the resulting microgel. The solubility of gelatin derivatives in the DEX phase was low, but was sufficient to impart cell adhesion properties on the microgel.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0198-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Probing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells anchoring on TNF-alpha
           challenged-vascular endothelia in an in vitro model of the retinal
           microvascular
    • Authors: Yuan Li; Yao Lu; Qiong Chen; Yuejun Kang; Ling Yu
      Abstract: Retinopathy is a complication of diabetes that affects the eyes; it stems from damage to the microvasculature of the retina and eventually compromises vision. The diagnosis of retinopathy is difficult to make because there are no early symptoms or warning signs. Dysfunction of the retina’s microvascular networks is believed to be associated with inflammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). To investigate the effect of these cytokines, such as TNF-α, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/glass hydride microfluidic device reflecting the physiological structure of the retina’s microvasculature was developed. In this model, the bifurcations and tortuosity of branch vessels were based on photographs of the fundus and an endothelial cell layer (EA.hy926 cells) were reconstructed within the microfluidic network. The adhesion, spreading, and growth of cells was ensured by optimizing the conditions for cell seeding and perfusion. Fluorescent staining was used to visualize the cytoskeleton and measurement of the nitric oxide (NO) level proved that the endothelial EA.hy926 cells had spread in the direction of flow perfusion system, forming artificial vascular networks. The endothelial layer was further challenged by TNF-α perfusion. Cytokine treatment increased the anchoring of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) on the endothelial layer. The microfluidic device developed in this study provides a low-cost platform reflecting the physiological structures of the retina’s microvasculature. It is anticipated that this device will be useful in evaluating the diseased retina as well as in drug screening.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0194-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Fabrication of highly modulable fibrous 3D extracellular microenvironments
    • Authors: Xixiang Zhang; Fangfei Han; Ahad Syed; Ebtihaj M. Bukhari; Basil Chew Joo Siang; Shan Yang; Bingpu Zhou; Wei-jia Wen; Dechen Jiang
      Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro scaffolds that mimic the irregular fibrous structures of in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) are critical for many important biological applications. However, structural properties modulation of fibrous 3D scaffolds remains a challenge. Here, we report the first highly modulable 3D fibrous scaffolds self-assembled by high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microfibers. The scaffolds structural properties can be easily tailored to incorporate various physical cues, including geometry, stiffness, heterogeneity and nanotopography. Moreover, the fibrous scaffolds are readily and accurately patterned on desired locations of the substrate. Cell culture exhibits that our scaffolds can elicit strong bidirectional cell-material interactions. Furthermore, a functional disparity between the two-dimensional substrate and our 3D scaffolds is identified by cell spreading and proliferation data. These results prove the potential of the proposed scaffold as a biomimetic extracellular microenvironment for cell study.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0187-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Packaging of implantable accelerometers to monitor epicardial and
           endocardial wall motion
    • Authors: Luigi Brancato; Tristan Weydts; Wouter Oosterlinck; Paul Herijgers; Robert Puers
      Abstract: Acceleration signals, collected from the inner and the outer heart wall, offer a mean of assessing cardiac function during surgery. Accelerometric measurements can also provide detailed insights into myocardial motion during exploratory investigations. Two different implantable accelerometers to respectively record endocardial and epicardial vibrations, have been developed by packaging a commercially available capacitive transducer. The same coating materials have been deposited on the two devices to ensure biocompatibility of the implants: Parylene-C, medical epoxy and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The different position-specific requirements resulted in two very dissimilar sensor assemblies. The endocardial accelerometer, that measures accelerations from the inner surface of the heart during acute animal tests, is a 2 mm-radius hemisphere fixed on a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rod to be inserted through the heart wall. The epicardial accelerometer, that monitors the motion of the outer surface of the heart, is a three-legged structure with a stretchable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) reinforcement. This device can follow the continuous motion of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart) during the cardiac cycle, without hindering its natural movement. Leakage currents lower than 1 μA have been measured during two weeks of continuous operation in saline. Both transducers have been used, during animal tests, to simultaneously record and compare acceleration signals from corresponding locations on the inner and the outer heart wall of a female sheep.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0199-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • On the injectability of free-standing magnetic nanofilms
    • Authors: Silvia Taccola; Virginia Pensabene; Toshinori Fujie; Shinji Takeoka; Nicola M. Pugno; Virgilio Mattoli
      Abstract: Free-standing films with sub-micrometric thickness, composed of soft polymers and functional nanostructures are promising candidates for many potential applications in the biomedical field, such as reduced port abdominal surgery. In this work, freely suspended poly(L-lactic acid) nanofilms with controlled morphology embedding superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by spin-coating deposition. The mechanical properties of magnetic nanofilms were investigated by Strain-Induced Elastic Buckling Instability for Mechanical Measurements (SIEBIMM) test. Our results show that these freely suspended nanocomposite nanofilms are highly flexible and deformable, with Young’s moduli of few GPa. Since they can be handled in liquid with syringes, a quantitative description of the nanofilms behavior during the manipulation with clinically applicable needles has been also provided. These magnetic nanofilms, remotely controllable by external electromagnetic fields, have potential applications in minimally invasive surgery as injectable nanopatches on inner organs wall. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2017-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0192-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • An improved design of optical sensor for long-term measurement of arterial
           blood flow waveform
    • Authors: Biljana Djurić; Slavica Suzić; Bojana Stojadinović; Zorica Nestorović; Marija Ivanović; Jelena Suzić-Lazić; Dejan Nešić; Sanja Mazić; Tamar Tenne; Dragoslav Zikich; Dejan Žikić
      Abstract: We present here the improved design and development of optical sensor for non-invasive measurements of arterial blood flow waveform. The sensor is based on a physical principle of reflective photoplethysmography (PPG). As the light source we used serially connected infrared diodes whereas NPN silicon phototransistors were used as light detectors. The electronic components were molded into square package and poured with silicone. Such preparation produced an elastic superficies that allowed excellent attachment of the sensor on the skin’s surface. Moreover, a serial connection of infrared diodes and phototransistors completely eliminated signal artifacts caused by minor muscle contractions. The sensor recording performances were examined at the photoplethysmographic sites on three different arteries; the commune carotid, femoral and radial and, on each site the sensor demonstrated remarkable capability to make a consistent, reproducible measurements. Because of the advantageous physical and electrical properties, the new sensor is suitable for various cardiovascular diagnostics procedures, especially when long-term measurements of arterial blood flow waveform are required, for monitoring of different parameters in cardiovascular units and for research.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0196-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Nano-Calorimetry based point of care biosensor for metabolic disease
           management
    • Authors: Evan Kazura; Brad R. Lubbers; Elliott Dawson; John A. Phillips; Franz Baudenbacher
      Abstract: Point of care (POC) diagnostics represents one of the fastest growing health care technology segments. Developments in microfabrication have led to the development of highly-sensitive nanocalorimeters ideal for directly measuring heat generated in POC biosensors. Here we present a novel nano-calorimeter-based biosensor design with differential sensing to eliminate common mode noise and capillary microfluidic channels for sample delivery to the thermoelectric sensor. The calorimeter has a resolution of 1.4 ± 0.2 nJ/(Hz)1/2 utilizing a 27 junction bismuth/titanium thermopile, with a total Seebeck coefficient of 2160 μV/K. Sample is wicked to the calorimeter through a capillary channel making it suitable for monitoring blood obtained through a finger prick (<1 μL sample required). We demonstrate device performance in a model assay using catalase, achieving a threshold for hydrogen peroxide quantification of 50 μM. The potential for our device as a POC blood test for metabolic diseases is shown through the quantification of phenylalanine (Phe) in serum, an unmet necessary service in the management of Phenylketonuria (PKU). Pegylated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PEG-PAL) was utilized to react with Phe, but reliable detection was limited to <5 mM due to low enzymatic activity. The POC biosensor concept can be multiplexed and adapted to a large number of metabolic diseases utilizing different immobilized enzymes.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0181-4
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Hybrid intracerebral probe with integrated bare LED chips for optogenetic
           studies
    • Authors: Suleman Ayub; Luc J. Gentet; Richárd Fiáth; Michael Schwaerzle; Mélodie Borel; François David; Péter Barthó; István Ulbert; Oliver Paul; Patrick Ruther
      Abstract: This article reports on the development, i.e., the design, fabrication, and validation of an implantable optical neural probes designed for in vivo experiments relying on optogenetics. The probes comprise an array of ten bare light-emitting diode (LED) chips emitting at a wavelength of 460 nm and integrated along a flexible polyimide-based substrate stiffened using a micromachined ladder-like silicon structure. The resulting mechanical stiffness of the slender, 250-μm-wide, 65-μm-thick, and 5- and 8-mm-long probe shank facilitates its implantation into neural tissue. The LEDs are encapsulated by a fluropolymer coating protecting the implant against the physiological conditions in the brain. The electrical interface to the external control unit is provided by 10-μm-thick, highly flexible polyimide cables making the probes suitable for both acute and chronic in vivo experiments. Optical and electrical properties of the probes are reported, as well as their in vivo validation in acute optogenetic studies in transgenic mice. The depth-dependent optical stimulation of both excitatory and inhibitory neurons is demonstrated by altering the brain activity in the cortex and the thalamus. Local network responses elicited by 20-ms-long light pulses of different optical power (20 μW and 1 mW), as well as local modulation of single unit neuronal activity to 1-s-long light pulses with low optical intensity (17 μW) are presented. The ability to modulate neural activity makes these devices suitable for a broad variety of optogenetic experiments.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0190-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Quantification of microRNAs directly from body fluids using a
           base-stacking isothermal amplification method in a point-of-care device
    • Authors: Maggie R. Williams; Robert D. Stedtfeld; Tiffany M. Stedtfeld; James M. Tiedje; Syed A. Hashsham
      Abstract: MicroRNAs have been proposed to be a class of biomarkers of disease as expression levels are significantly altered in various tissues and body fluids when compared to healthy controls. As such, the detection and quantification of microRNAs is imperative. While many methods have been established for quantification of microRNAs, they typically rely on time consuming handling such as RNA extraction, purification, or ligation. Here we describe a novel method for quantification of microRNAs using direct amplification in body fluids without upstream sample preparation. Tested with a point-of-care device (termed Gene-Z), the presence of microRNA promotes base-stacking hybridization, and subsequent amplification between two universal strands. The base-stacking approach, which was achieved in <60 min, provided a sensitivity of 1.4 fmol per reaction. Tested in various percentages of whole blood, plasma, and faeces, precision (coefficient of variation = 2.6%) was maintained and comparable to amplification in pristine samples. Overall, the developed method represents a significant step towards rapid, one-step detection of microRNAs.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0191-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Accelerated life-test methods and results for implantable electronic
           devices with adhesive encapsulation
    • Authors: Xuechen Huang; Petcharat May Denprasert; Li Zhou; Adriana Nicholson Vest; Sam Kohan; Gerald E. Loeb
      Abstract: We have developed and applied new methods to estimate the functional life of miniature, implantable, wireless electronic devices that rely on non-hermetic, adhesive encapsulants such as epoxy. A comb pattern board with a high density of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) could be used to detect incipient failure from water vapor condensation. Inductive coupling of an RF magnetic field was used to provide DC bias and to detect deterioration of an encapsulated comb pattern. Diodes in the implant converted part of the received energy into DC bias on the comb pattern. The capacitance of the comb pattern forms a resonant circuit with the inductor by which the implant receives power. Any moisture affects both the resonant frequency and the Q-factor of the resonance of the circuitry, which was detected wirelessly by its effects on the coupling between two orthogonal RF coils placed around the device. Various defects were introduced into the comb pattern devices to demonstrate sensitivity to failures and to correlate these signals with visual inspection of failures. Optimized encapsulation procedures were validated in accelerated life tests of both comb patterns and a functional neuromuscular stimulator under development. Strong adhesive bonding between epoxy and electronic circuitry proved to be necessary and sufficient to predict 1 year packaging reliability of 99.97% for the neuromuscular stimulator.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0189-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A 3D microfluidic perfusion system made from glass for multiparametric
           analysis of stimulus-secretioncoupling in pancreatic islets
    • Authors: Torben Schulze; Kai Mattern; Eike Früh; Lars Hecht; Ingo Rustenbeck; Andreas Dietzel
      Abstract: Microfluidic perfusion systems (MPS) are well suited to perform multiparametric measurements with small amounts of tissue to function as an Organ on Chip device (OOC). Such microphysiolgical characterization is particularly valuable in research on the stimulus-secretion-coupling of pancreatic islets. Pancreatic islets are fully functional competent mini-organs, which serve as fuel sensors and transduce metabolic activity into rates of hormone secretion. To enable the simultaneous measurement of fluorescence and oxygen consumption we designed a microfluidic perfusion system from borosilicate glass by 3D femtosecond laser ablation. Retention of islets was accomplished by a plain well design. The characteristics of flow and shear force in the microchannels and wells were simulated and compared with the measured exchange of the perfusion media. Distribution of latex beads, MIN6 cell pseudo islets and isolated mouse islets in the MPS was characterized in dependence of flow rate and well depth. Overall, the observations suggested that a sufficient retention of the islets at low shear stress, together with sufficient exchange of test medium, was achieved at a well depth of 300 μm and perfusion rates between 40 and 240 μl/min. This enabled multiparametric measurement of oxygen consumption, NAD(P)H autofluorescence, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, and insulin secretion by isolated mouse islets. After appropriate correction for different lag times, kinetics of these processes could be compared. Such measurements permit a more precise insight into metabolic changes underlying the regulation of insulin secretion. Thus, rapid prototyping using laser ablation enables flexible adaption of borosilicate MPS designs to different demands of biomedical research.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0186-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Lipid nanoparticles for administration of poorly water soluble neuroactive
           drugs
    • Authors: Elisabetta Esposito; Markus Drechsler; Paolo Mariani; Federica Carducci; Michela Servadio; Francesca Melancia; Patrizia Ratano; Patrizia Campolongo; Viviana Trezza; Rita Cortesi; Claudio Nastruzzi
      Abstract: This study describes the potential of solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers as nano-formulations to administer to the central nervous system poorly water soluble drugs. Different neuroactive drugs, i.e. dimethylfumarate, retinyl palmitate, progesterone and the endocannabinoid hydrolysis inhibitor URB597 have been studied. Lipid nanoparticles constituted of tristearin or tristearin in association with gliceryl monoolein were produced. The nanoencapsulation strategy allowed to obtain biocompatible and non-toxic vehicles, able to increase the solubility of the considered neuroactive drugs. To improve URB597 targeting to the brain, stealth nanoparticles were produced modifying the SLN surface with polysorbate 80. A behavioural study was conducted in rats to test the ability of SLN containing URB597 given by intranasal administration to alter behaviours relevant to psychiatric disorders. URB597 maintained its activity after nanoencapsulation, suggesting the possibility to propose this kind of vehicle as alternative to unphysiological mixtures usually employed for animal and clinical studies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0188-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • A generic label-free microfluidic microobject sorter using a magnetic
           elastic diverter
    • Authors: Jiachen Zhang; Onaizah Onaizah; Amir Sadri; Eric Diller
      Abstract: Cell sorters play important roles in biological and medical applications, such as cellular behavior study and disease diagnosis and therapy. This work presents a label-free microfluidic sorter that has a downstream-pointing magnetic elastic diverter. Different with most existing magnetic sorters, the proposed device does not require the target microobjects to be intrinsically magnetic or coated with magnetic particles, giving users more flexibility in sorting criteria. The diverter is wirelessly deformed by an applied magnetic field, and its deformation induces a fluid vortex that sorts incoming microobjects, e.g., cells, to the collection outlet. The diverter does not touch samples in this process, reducing the sample contamination and damage risks. This sorter uses a magnetic field generated by off-chip electromagnetic coils that are centimeters away from the device. With simple structure and no on-chip circuits or coils, this device can be integrated with other lab-on-a-chip instruments in a sealed chip, ameliorating the safety concerns in handling hazardous samples. The parallel and independent control of two such diverters on a single chip were demonstrated, showing the potential of doubling the overall throughput or forming a two-stage cascaded sorter. The sorter was modeled based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and its reliability was demonstrated by achieving a raw success rate of 96.68% in sorting 1506 registered microbeads. With a simple structure, the sorter is easy and cheap to fabricate. The advantages of the proposed sorter make it a promising multi-purpose sorting tool in both academic and industrial applications.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0183-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Remote magnetic switch off microgate for nanofluidic drug delivery
           implants
    • Authors: Marco Farina; Andrea Ballerini; Gianluca Torchio; Giulia Rizzo; Danilo Demarchi; Usha Thekkedath; Alessandro Grattoni
      Abstract: In numerous pathologies, implantable drug delivery devices provide advantages over conventional oral or parenteral approaches. Based on the site of implantation and release characteristics, implants can afford either systemic delivery or local administration, whereby the drug is delivered at or near the site of intended action. Unfortunately, current implantable drug delivery systems provide limited options for intervention in the case of an adverse reaction to the drug or the need for dosage adjustment. In the event that drug delivery must be terminated, an urgent surgical retrieval may be the only reliable option. This could be a time sensitive and costly effort, requiring access to trained professionals and emergency medical facilities. To address such limitations, here we demonstrate, in vitro and ex vivo, a novel microsystem for the rapid and effective switch off of drug delivery from an implantable nanofluidic system, by applying a safe external electromagnetic field in the FDA approved dose range. This study represents a proof of concept for a technology with potential for broad applicability to reservoir-based delivery implants for both complete interruption or remote titration of drug administration.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0180-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Monoolein aqueous dispersions as a delivery system for quercetin
    • Authors: Rita Cortesi; Enrica Cappellozza; Markus Drechsler; Catia Contado; Anna Baldisserotto; Paolo Mariani; Federica Carducci; Alessandra Pecorelli; Elisabetta Esposito; Giuseppe Valacchi
      Abstract: This study describes the preparation, characterization and in vitro release of monoolein aqueous dispersions (MAD) encapsulating quercetin (QT). As emulsifier, sodium cholate was employed at two different concentrations, namely 0.15% and 0.25% with respect to the total weight of the formulation. Cryogenic Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray analysis indicated that MAD015 are a mixture of vesicles and cubic structures, whilst MAD025 are mainly characterized by unilamellar vesicular structures. Photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF) showed a MAD size higher than 300 nm that over 100 days from analysis reduces up to 200 nm. In vitro Franz cell experiments showed that the two systems had a similar behaviour in the release of QT. Experiments on antioxidant activity of MAD containing QT demonstrated that their activity parallel with the content of encapsulated QT within the MAD formulations produced. Taken together these results allow us to conclude that MAD can be potentially proposed for the delivery of QT.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0185-0
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • A microfluidic diode for sorting and immobilization of Caenorhabditis
           elegans
    • Authors: Lijie Yang; Tao Hong; Yin Zhang; Jose Guillermo Sanchez Arriola; Brian L. Nelms; Richard Mu; Deyu Li
      Abstract: Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a powerful model organism extensively used in studies of human aging and diseases. Despite the numerous advantages of C. elegans as a model system, two biological characteristics may introduce complexity and variability to most studies: 1. it exhibits different biological features, composition and behaviors at different developmental stages; 2. it has very high mobility. Therefore, synchronization and immobilization of worm populations are often required. Conventionally, these processes are implemented through manual and chemical methods, which can be laborious, time-consuming and of low-throughput. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic design capable of simultaneously sorting worms by size at a throughput of 97±4 worms per minute, and allowing for worm collection or immobilization for further investigations. The key component, a microfluidic diode structure, comprises a curved head and a straight tail, which facilitates worms to enter from the curved end but prevents them from translocating from the straight side. This design remarkably enhances the efficiency and accuracy of worm sorting at relatively low flow rates, and hence provides a practical approach to sort worms even with the presence of egg clusters and debris. In addition, we show that well-sorted worms could be immobilized, kept alive and identically orientated, which could facilitate many C. elegans-based studies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0175-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Fabrication of cyclo olefin polymer microfluidic devices for trapping and
           culturing of yeast cells
    • Authors: Sevde Puza; Elif Gencturk; Irem E. Odabasi; Emre Iseri; Senol Mutlu; Kutlu O. Ulgen
      Abstract: A microfluidic platform is designed and fabricated to investigate the role of uncharacterized YOR060C (Sld7) protein in aging in yeast cells for the first time. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells are trapped in the series of C-shaped regions (0.5 nL) of COP (cyclo olefin polymer), PMMA (poly methylmethacrylate), or PS (polystyrene) microbioreactors. The devices are fabricated using hot embossing and thermo-compression bonding methods. Photolithography and electrochemical etching are used to form the steel mold needed for hot embossing. The cell cycle processes are investigated by monitoring green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged Sld7 expressions under normal as well as calorie restricted conditions. The cells are loaded at 1 μL/min flowrate and trapped successfully within each chamber. The medium is continuously fed at 0.1 μL/min throughout the experiments. Fluorescent signals of the low abundant Sld7 proteins could be distinguished only on COP devices. The background fluorescence of COP is found 1.22 and 7.24 times lower than that of PMMA, and PS, respectively. Hence, experiments are continued with COP, and lasted for more than 40 h without any contamination. The doubling time of the yeast cells are found as 72 min and 150 min, and the growth rates as 9.63 × 10−3 min−1 and 4.62 × 10−3 min−1, in 2% glucose containing YPD and YNB medium, respectively. The product concentration (Sld7p:GFP) increased in accordance with cell growth. The dual role of Sld7 protein in both cell cycle and chronological aging needs to be further investigated following the preliminary experimental results.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0182-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Magneto-Hydrodynamic Fractionation (MHF) for continuous and sheathless
           sorting of high-concentration paramagnetic microparticles
    • Authors: Vikash Kumar; Pouya Rezai
      Abstract: Sorting cells, microorganisms and particles from a solution is of paramount importance in many biological applications. An ideal sorting device should work at high throughput, involve simple design, avoid energy consumption, operate without a diluting sheath flow and perform separation with high purity. However, currently available sorting methods such as pinched flow fractionation, hydrodynamic filtration, magnetophoresis and deterministic lateral displacement meet only a few of the above-mentioned characteristics. In this paper, we report a hybrid technique combining magnetic focusing of particles in a thin microchannel and their hydrodynamic fractionation at a downstream expansion region, to devise a sheathless and high-throughput Magneto-Hydrodynamic Fractionation (MHF) method. First, sheathless magnetic focusing of 11 μm microparticles against the wall of the thin microchannel was investigated over a wide range of flow rates (0.5–5 mL h−1). Then, a mixture of 5 μm and 11 μm paramagnetic particles was injected into the device at a flow rate of 5 mL h−1 to demonstrate their sorting. Both of these magnetic particles were aligned along the wall of the channel and hence focused in the device, however their centers were lying on different streamlines due to their different sizes. Therefore, they were separated into distinct streamlines upon entering into the expansion region. Using this device, we achieved a high throughput sorting of more than 104 particles per second with an approximate on-chip fractionation purity of 98%. This technique has a great potential for separation of more than two magnetic particles for application in immunomagnetic affinity-based sorting of multiple biological substances.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0178-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
 
 
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