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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2526 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1326 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 316)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Nonlinear Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Nonlinear Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Nahrain Journal for Engineering Sciences     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Arid Zone Journal of Engineering, Technology and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
AURUM : Mühendislik Sistemleri ve Mimarlık Dergisi = Aurum Journal of Engineering Systems and Architecture     Open Access  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Automotive Experiences     Open Access  
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioNanoMaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Black Sea Journal of Engineering and Science     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Carbon Resources Conversion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications Faculty of Sciences University of Ankara Series A2-A3 Physical Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Communications in Information Science and Management Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 293)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 271)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
Biomedical Microdevices
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.538
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-8781 - ISSN (Online) 1387-2176
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Biodegradable batteries with immobilized electrolyte for transient MEMS
    • Authors: Didi She; Melissa Tsang; Mark Allen
      Abstract: Biodegradable batteries play an important role in fully degradable biomedical or environmental systems. The development of biodegradable batteries faces many challenges including power content, device compactness, performance stability, shelf and functional lifetime. In particular, a key driver in the lifetime and overall size of microfabricated biodegradable batteries is the liquid electrolyte volume. Harnessing liquid from the environment to serve as the battery electrolyte may, therefore, be desirable; however, for stable operation, maintaining a constant electrochemical environment inside the cell is required even in the presence of changing body or environmental conditions. We report a biodegradable battery featuring a solid electrolyte of sodium chloride and polycaprolactone. This approach harnesses the body fluid that diffuses into the cell as an element of the electrolyte; however, the large excess of sodium chloride suspended in the polycaprolactone holds intracell ionic conditions constant. A constant discharge profile can then be achieved even in the presence of varying external aqueous conditions, enabling compact, stable-performing cells. This design also features easy integration and automatic activation, providing a simplified strategy to fabricate batteries with long shelf life and desirable functional life span. In addition, the polymeric skeleton of the solid electrolyte system acts as an insulating layer between electrodes, preventing the metallic structure from short-circuit during discharge.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-019-0377-x
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • Stable biphasic interfaces for open microfluidic platforms
    • Authors: Ulri N. Lee; Jean Berthier; Jiaquan Yu; Erwin Berthier; Ashleigh B. Theberge
      Abstract: We present an open microfluidic platform that enables stable flow of an organic solvent over an aqueous solution. The device features apertures connecting a lower aqueous channel to an upper solvent compartment that is open to air, enabling easy removal of the solvent for analysis. We have previously shown that related open biphasic systems enable steroid hormone extraction from human cells in microscale culture and secondary metabolite extraction from microbial culture; here we build on our prior work by determining conditions under which the system can be used with extraction solvents of ranging polarities, a critical feature for applying this extraction platform to diverse classes of metabolites. We developed an analytical model that predicts the limits of stable aqueous-organic interfaces based on analysis of Laplace pressure. With this analytical model and experimental testing, we developed generalized design rules for creating stable open microfluidic biphasic systems with solvents of varying densities, aqueous-organic interfacial tensions, and polarities. The stable biphasic interfaces afforded by this device will enable on-chip extraction of diverse metabolite structures and novel applications in microscale biphasic chemical reactions.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-019-0367-z
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • An electromagnetic anglerfish-shaped millirobot with wireless power
    • Authors: Jingyi Wang; Niandong Jiao; Xiaodong Wang; Daojing Lin; Steve Tung; Lianqing Liu
      Abstract: Female anglerfishes have a lantern-shape luminous organ sprouting from the middle of their heads to lure their prey in the dark deep sea. Inspired by the anglerfish, we designed an electromagnetic anglerfish-shaped millirobot that can receive energy and transform it into light to attract algae cells to specific locations. The small wireless powered robot can receive about 658 mW of power from external energy supply coils, and light LEDs (light-emitting diodes). The wireless power generation and moving control of the robot are analyzed systematically. Transmitting electric energy to smaller scale receivers to endow milli or micro robots with wireless power function is an interesting and promising research direction. With this function, the wireless powered robot is expected to be extensively used at the small scale in the near future, such as to provide electricity to drive microdevices (microgrippers, microsensors, etc.), provide light or heat in small-scale space, stimulate/kill pathological cells in minimally invasive treatment and so on.
      PubDate: 2019-02-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-019-0361-5
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • WEDM-LS processing sophisticated and durable Zr-based metallic glass mold
           insert for micro structure injection of polymers
    • Authors: Zhiyuan Huang; Xiong Liang; Chuntao Chang; Jiang Ma
      Abstract: Micro components processed by injection molding still have a defect of bad precision and short life. A Zr- based metallic glass was reported for injection mold insert which can solve the problem well. The microstructure of metallic glass mold insert can be fabricated by wire electrical discharge machining-low speed (WEDM-LS), WEDM-LS has higher machining accuracy than WEDM-high speed, and X-ray diffraction curves show that the processed sample still retained better amorphous characteristic, afterward, time-temperature-transformation diagram shows metallic glass has a long service life in production. Finally, under the observe of scanning electron microscope, it is found that the products after injection molding not only completely replicates the structure on metallic glass but also have a better surface morphology. These experiments show that processing a sophisticated and durable Zr-based metallic glass mold by WEDM-LS is good for getting micro structure injection of polymers. It also provides a good mold material and machining method for injection industry.
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-019-0366-0
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • Co-current crossflow microfiltration in a microchannel
    • Authors: Levy I. Amar; Michael I. Hill; Monica Faria; Daniela Guisado; Cees J. M. van Rijn; Edward F. Leonard
      Abstract: Steady state crossflow microfiltration (CMF) is an important and often necessary means of particle separation and concentration for both industrial and biomedical processes. The factors controlling the performance of CMF have been extensively reviewed. A major factor is transmembrane pressure (TMP). Because microchannels have small height, they tend to have high pressure gradients in the feed-flow direction. In the extreme, these gradients may even reverse the pressure across the membrane (inciting backflow). It is therefore desirable to compensate for the effect of feed-flow on the TMP, aiming at constant transmembrane pressure (cTMP) at a value which maximizes filtrate flux. This is especially critical during filtration of deformable particles (e.g. erythrocytes) through low intrinsic resistance membranes. Filtration flux is generally taken to be directly proportional to TMP, with pressure drop along the channel decreasing in the flow direction. A co-current flow of filtrate in a suitably designed filtrate collecting channel is shown to allow the TMP to remain constant and permit the sieving surface to perform optimally, permitting up to twice as much filtration over that of a naïve configuration. Manipulation of the filtrate channel may be even more beneficial if it prevents backflow that might otherwise occur at the end of a sufficiently long channel. Experiments with erythrocyte suspensions, reported here, validate these concepts.
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-019-0362-4
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • Monitoring drug pharmacokinetics and immunologic biomarkers in dermal
           interstitial fluid using a microneedle patch
    • Authors: Chandana Kolluru; Mikayla Williams; Jihee Stephanie Yeh; Richard K. Noel; Jennifer Knaack; Mark R. Prausnitz
      Abstract: Minimally invasive point-of-care diagnostic devices are of great interest for rapid detection of biomarkers in diverse settings. Although blood is the most common source of biomarkers, interstitial fluid (ISF) is an alternate body fluid that does not clot or contain red blood cells that often complicate analysis. However, ISF is difficult to collect. In this study, we assessed the utility of a microneedle patch to sample microliter volumes of ISF in a simple and minimally invasive manner. We demonstrated the use of ISF collected in this way for therapeutic drug monitoring by showing similar vancomycin pharmacokinetic profiles in ISF and serum from rats. We also measured polio-specific neutralizing antibodies and anti-polio IgG in ISF similar to serum in rats immunized with polio vaccine. These studies demonstrate the potential utility of ISF collected by microneedle patch in therapeutic drug monitoring and immunodiagnostic applications.
      PubDate: 2019-02-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-019-0363-3
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • Fiberoptic microindentation technique for early osteoarthritis diagnosis:
           an in vitro study on human cartilage
    • Authors: G. Marchi; P. Foehr; S. Consalvo; A. Javadzadeh-Kalarhodi; J. Lang; B. Hartmann; P. Alberton; A. Aszodi; R. Burgkart; J. Roths
      Abstract: In this study, the capability of a fiber optic microindenter sensor to discriminate between healthy and slightly degenerated human articular cartilage samples is demonstrated. The purely optical indenter sensor is characterized by extremely reduced dimensions (0.125 mm in diameter and 27 mm in length) in comparison to existing indenter probes offering advantages for endoscopic deployment. The indenter sensor is intended to assist the surgeon in the identification of damaged articular cartilage. From each of seven specimens of human tibia plateau three samples showing different Outerbridge grading were extracted. On each sample stress-relaxation measurements were performed with eight indentation steps, each step being 40 μm and the relaxation of the material was observed for 240 s after each step. A viscoelastic model was used to fit the relaxation and to extract the characteristic parameters according to the model. A highly significant difference in stiffness (p value <0.01) was observed between the native (grade 0) and early diseased (grade 1) human cartilage samples demonstrating the potential of the fiber optic indenter for the diagnosis of cartilage breakdown.
      PubDate: 2019-01-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-019-0359-z
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • Biaxial sensing suture breakage warning system for robotic surgery
    • Authors: Yuan Dai; A. Abiri; J. Pensa; S. Liu; O. Paydar; H. Sohn; S. Sun; P. A. Pellionisz; C. Pensa; E. P. Dutson; W. S. Grundfest; R. N. Candler
      Abstract: The number of procedures performed with robotic surgery may exceed one million globally in 2018. The continual lack of haptic feedback, however, forces surgeons to rely on visual cues in order to avoid breaking sutures due to excessive applied force. To mitigate this problem, the authors developed and validated a novel grasper-integrated system with biaxial shear sensing and haptic feedback to warn the operator prior to anticipated suture breakage. Furthermore, the design enables facile suture manipulation without a degradation in efficacy, as determined via measured tightness of resulting suture knots. Biaxial shear sensors were integrated with a da Vinci robotic surgical system. Novice subjects (n = 17) were instructed to tighten 10 knots, five times with the Haptic Feedback System (HFS) enabled, five times with the system disabled. Seven suture failures occurred in trials with HFS enabled while seventeen occurred in trials without feedback. The biaxial shear sensing system reduced the incidence of suture failure by 59% (p = 0.0371). It also resulted in 25% lower average applied force in comparison to trials without feedback (p = 0.00034), which is relevant because average force was observed to play a role in suture breakage (p = 0.03925). An observed 55% decrease in standard deviation of knot quality when using the HFS also indicates an improvement in consistency when using the feedback system. These results suggest this system may improve outcomes related to knot tying tasks in robotic surgery and reduce instances of suture failure while not degrading the quality of knots produced.
      PubDate: 2019-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0357-6
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • LampPort: a handheld digital microfluidic device for loop-mediated
           isothermal amplification (LAMP)
    • Authors: Liang Wan; Jie Gao; Tianlan Chen; Cheng Dong; Haoran Li; Yan-Zi Wen; Zhao-Rong Lun; Yanwei Jia; Pui-In Mak; Rui P. Martins
      Abstract: A major goal in the development of point-of-care (POC) devices is to build them as portable to provide a rapid and effective determination for disease pathogens. In nucleic acid testing, an optical detection system used to monitor the product of nucleic acid amplification has always been a bulky accessory. In this work, we developed a handheld, automatic and detection system-free thermal digital microfluidic (DMF) device for DNA detection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Droplet manipulation and real-time temperature control systems were integrated into a handheld device. The control software could be installed into any tablet and communicate with the device via Bluetooth. In the experimentation, we loaded 2-μl samples with an electrowetting force into sandwich-structured DMF chips, thereby considerably reducing reagent consumptions. After an on-chip LAMP reaction, we added a highly concentrated SYBR Green I droplet and mixed it with a reaction droplet to enable product detection with the naked eye. This step prevented aerosol contamination by avoiding the exposure of the reaction droplet to the air. Using a blood parasite Trypanosoma brucei as a model system, this system showed similar results as a commercial thermal cycler and could detect 40 copies per reaction of the DNA target. This low-cost, compact device removed the bulky optical system for DNA detection, thus enabling it to be well suited for POC testing.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0354-9
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • Microneedle-Based Delivery of Amphotericin B for Treatment of Cutaneous
    • Authors: Alexander K. Nguyen; Kai-Hung Yang; Kelsey Bryant; Junan Li; April C. Joice; Karl A. Werbovetz; Roger J. Narayan
      Abstract: Current therapeutic options against cutaneous leishmaniasis are plagued by several weaknesses. The effective topical delivery of an antileishmanial drug would be useful in treating some forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Toward this end, a microneedle based delivery approach for the antileishmanial drug amphotericin B was investigated in murine models of both New World (Leishmania mexicana) and Old World (Leishmania major) infection. In the L. mexicana model, ten days of treatment began on day 35 post infection, when the area of nodules averaged 9–15 mm2. By the end of the experiment, a significant difference in nodule area was observed for all groups receiving topical amphotericin B at 25 mg/kg/day after application of microneedle arrays of 500, 750, and 1000 μM in nominal length compared to the group that received this dose of topical amphotericin B alone. In the L. major model, ten days of treatment began on day 21 post infection when nodule area averaged 51–65 mm2 in the groups. By the end of the experiment, there was no difference in nodule area between the group receiving 25 mg/kg of topical amphotericin B after microneedle application and any of the non-AmBisome groups. These results show the promise of topical delivery of amphotericin B via microneedles in treating relatively small nodules caused by L. mexicana. These data also show the limitations of the approach against a disseminated L. major infection. Further optimization of microneedle delivery is needed to fully exploit this strategy for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0355-8
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • Stretchable bio-potential electrode with self-similar serpentine structure
           for continuous, long-term, stable ECG recordings
    • Authors: Wentao Dong; Xiao Cheng; Tao Xiong; Xiaoming Wang
      Abstract: Current stretchable surface electrodes have attracted more and more attentions owing to their potential applications in the fields of biological signal monitoring, wearable human-machine interface (HMI) and Internet of Things (IoT). The paper presents that stretchable bio-potential electrode is designed with the second order self-similar serpentine structure to continuous, long-term, stable ECG signal recordings which is conformal contact with the soft skin surface. FEM and experiments have validated >30% deformability of the surface electrode with second order self-similar structure. The continuous 48 h electrocardiograms (ECG) signal recording experiments have been demonstrated by the stretchable electrodes. Meanwhile, robustness and stability of ECG signal are validated by the stretchable bio-potential electrodes when the external strain is applied to the body surface. The stretchable bio-potential electrode could be integrated to biological signal monitoring and human machine interface capabilities for the future research.
      PubDate: 2019-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0353-x
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • An analytic model of microfluidic system triggered by thermal expansion
    • Authors: Yan Shi; Qian Wu; Dongyang Sun; Cunfa Gao
      Abstract: Microfluidics shows a great importance in fluid control in biomedicine area. Recently, a programmable soft microfluidic system for applications of pharmacology and optogenetics is reported in Cell. Based on the theory of thermal expansion, we established an analytic model to characterize the injection process of the microfluidic systems. Finite element analyses (FEA) were employed to validate this model. The comparison between the analytic model and FEA well demonstrates the practicality of the analytic model. We also make a parametric analysis of sphere radius, central angle and expandable layer thickness on the infusion volume of the system to optimize the design.
      PubDate: 2019-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0351-z
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • Rapid and continuous on-chip loading of trehalose into erythrocytes
    • Authors: Yiren Shen; Kun Du; Lili Zou; Xiaoming Zhou; Rong Lv; Dayong Gao; Bensheng Qiu; Weiping Ding
      Abstract: Freeze-drying is a promising approach for the long-term storage of erythrocytes at room temperature. Studies have shown that trehalose loaded into erythrocytes plays an important role in protecting erythrocytes against freeze-drying damage. Due to the impermeability of the erythrocyte membrane to trehalose, many methods have been developed to load trehalose into erythrocytes. However, these methods usually require multistep manual manipulation and long processing time; the adopted protocols are also diverse and not standardized. Thus, we develop an osmotically-based trehalose-loading microdevice (TLM) to rapidly, continuously, and automatically produce erythrocytes with loaded trehalose. In the TLM, trehalose is loaded through the erythrocyte membrane pores induced by hypotonic shock; then, the trehalose-loaded erythrocytes are rinsed to remove hemoglobin molecules and cell fragments, and the extracellular solution is restored to the isotonic state by integrating a rinsing-recovering design. First, the mixing function and the rinsing-recovering function were confirmed using a fluorescent solution. Then, the performance of the TLM was evaluated under various operating conditions with respect to the loading efficiency of trehalose, the hemolysis rate of erythrocytes (ϕ), the recovery rate of hemoglobin in erythrocytes (φ), and the separation efficiency of the TLM. Finally, the preliminary study of the freeze-drying of erythrocytes with loaded trehalose was accomplished using the TLM. The results showed that under the designated operating conditions, the loading efficiency for human erythrocytes reached ~21 mM in ~2 min with a ϕ value of ~17% and a φ value of ~74%. This study provides insights into the design of the on-chip loading of trehalose into erythrocytes and promotes the automation of life science studies on biochips.
      PubDate: 2019-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0352-y
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • Study of diffusive- and convective-transport mediated microtumor growth in
           a controlled microchamber
    • Authors: Yu-Hsiang Hsu; Wei-Wen Liu; Tung-Han Wu; Carina Jean-Tien Lee; Yu-Hsi Chen; Pai-Chi Li
      Abstract: In this paper, we report on using mass transport to control nutrition supply of colorectal cancer cells for developing a microtumor in a confined microchamber. To mimic the spatial heterogeneity of a tumor, two microfluidic configurations based on resistive circuits are designed. One has a convection-dominated microchamber to simulate the tumor region proximal to leaky blood vessels. The other has a diffusion-dominated microchamber to mimic the tumor core that lacks blood vessels and nutrient supply. Thus, the time for nutrition to fill the microchamber can vary from tens of minutes to several hours. Results show that cells cultured under a diffusive supply of nutrition have a high glycolytic rate and a nearly constant oxygen consumption rate. In contrast, cells cultured under convective supply of nutrition have a gradual increase of oxygen consumption rate with a low glycolytic rate. This suggests that cancer cells have distinct reactions under different mass transport and nutrition supply. Using these two microfluidic platforms to create different rate of nutrition supply, it is found that a continuous microtumor that almost fills the mm-size microchamber can be developed under a low-nutrient supply environment, but not for the convective condition. It also is demonstrated that microchannels can simulate the delivery of anti-cancer drugs to the microtumor under controlled mass-transport. This method provides a means to develop a larger scale microtumor in a lab-on-a-Chip system for post development and stimulations, and microchannels can be applied to control the physical and chemical environment for anti-cancer drug screening.
      PubDate: 2019-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0356-7
      Issue No: Vol. 21, No. 1 (2019)
  • Microfluidic Device for Cell Trapping with Carbon Electrodes Using
    • Authors: Paridhi Puri; Vijay Kumar; S. U. Belgamwar; N. N. Sharma
      Abstract: Dielectrophoresis (DEP) devices have proven to be one of the most promising tools to transport, accumulate and sort various cells and particles. The major challenge in the development of DEP devices is the high cost, low yield using Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). In this paper, we demonstrate a facile, low-cost, and high-throughput method of constructing continuous-flow DEP devices using screen-printing technology. Much literature has concluded that the use of carbon electrodes provides more cost effective and more durable DEP devices than metal electrodes. More efficient devices not only need to be constructed from a low cost material but also from an inexpensive fabrication technique. In this study, we used yeast cells as model cells to perform a comparative study on trapping efficiency of carbon and gold electrode DEP devices. We have proposed, the sealing of carbon DEP device with glass, instead of PDMS, using adhesive bonding technique which not only reduce the leakage problem but also increases the device performance. We also report the biocompatibility analysis of carbon paste and the results indicates its usefulness in eventual studies involving carbon-MEMS devices.
      PubDate: 2018-12-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0350-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2018)
  • Real-time intradermal continuous glucose monitoring using a minimally
           invasive microneedle-based system
    • Authors: Federico Ribet; Göran Stemme; Niclas Roxhed
      Abstract: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has the potential to greatly improve diabetes management. The aim of this work is to show a proof-of-concept CGM device which performs minimally invasive and minimally delayed in-situ glucose sensing in the dermal interstitial fluid, combining the advantages of microneedle-based and commercially available CGM systems. The device is based on the integration of an ultra-miniaturized electrochemical sensing probe in the lumen of a single hollow microneedle, separately realized using standard silicon microfabrication methods. By placing the sensing electrodes inside the lumen facing an opening towards the dermal space, real-time measurement purely can be performed relying on molecular diffusion over a short distance. Furthermore, the device relies only on passive capillary lumen filling without the need for complex fluid extraction mechanisms. Importantly, the transdermal portion of the device is 50 times smaller than that of commercial products. This allows access to the dermis and simultaneously reduces tissue trauma, along with being virtually painless during insertion. The three-electrode enzymatic sensor alone was previously proven to have satisfactory sensitivity (1.5 nA/mM), linearity (up to 14 mM), selectivity, and long-term stability (up to 4 days) in-vitro. In this work we combine this sensor technology with microneedles for reliable insertion in forearm skin. In-vivo human tests showed the possibility to correctly and dynamically track glycaemia over time, with approximately 10 min delay with respect to capillary blood control values, in line with the expected physiological lag time. The proposed device can thus reduce discomfort and potentially enable less invasive real-time CGM in diabetic patients.
      PubDate: 2018-12-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0349-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2018)
  • Effect of dosing regimen and microneedle pretreatment on in vitro skin
           retention of topically applied beta-blockers
    • Authors: Megan N. Kelchen; Nicole K. Brogden
      Abstract: Topical beta-blocker formulations are commonly used to treat infantile hemangiomas (IHs); however, the skin concentrations and drug permeation through the skin have not been quantified. Microneedles (MNs) may increase local skin concentrations, which could further enhance lesion clearance and improve dosing regimens. The objective of this study was to quantify skin concentrations and drug permeation of two beta-blockers, propranolol and timolol, in vitro after application to intact skin and skin pretreated with solid MNs of two lengths. Propranolol skin concentrations and drug permeation were significantly higher than timolol skin concentrations for all study conditions, which is likely due to the lipophilic nature of propranolol compared to the hydrophilicity of timolol. Propranolol skin concentrations were significantly influenced by dosing regimen, as skin concentrations increased with increasing drug application. Pretreatment of the skin with solid 250 μm and 500 μm length MNs increased local skin concentrations of timolol; propranolol skin concentrations did not significantly increase after MN pretreatment. Propranolol and timolol permeation through the skin increased after MN pretreatment with both MN lengths for both compounds. Taken together, solid MN pretreatment prior to application of topical timolol may be beneficial for deep or mixed IHs upon further optimization of the MN treatment paradigm.
      PubDate: 2018-12-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0348-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2018)
  • Multimodal imaging of the tumor microenvironment and biological responses
           to immune therapy
    • Authors: Alexander M. Saucedo; Jorge De La Cerda; Hiroo Suami; Rita E. Serda
      Abstract: Beyond heterogeneous cancer cells, the tumor microenvironment includes stromal and immune cells, blood vessels, extracellular matrix and biologically active molecules. Abnormal signaling, uncontrolled proliferation and high interstitial pressure all contribute to a chaotic, non-hierarchical vascular organization. Using an immune competent 4T1 breast adenocarcinoma murine model, this study fully characterizes the architecture and immunocyte milieu of the tumor microenvironment. Heterogeneous vessel distribution, chaotic connectivity, limited perfusion, cancer cell density, immune phenotype, and biological responses to immune therapy are presented. Cancer cell density mirrored the distribution of large, perfusable vessels, both predominately in the tumor periphery. Intratumoral administration of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12 led to an increase in CD45+ leukocytes, with a specific increase in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and a decrease in the percentage of Gr-llo myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Concomitantly, serum G-CSF, IL-10 and VEGF decreased, while CXCR9 and interferon gamma increased. The distribution pattern of infiltrating monocytes/macrophages, visualized using a fluorescent perfluorocarbon emulsion, indicated that macrophages predominately localize in the vicinity of large blood vessels. Electron microscopy supports the presence of dense tumor cell masses throughout the tumor, with the largest vessels present in the surrounding mammary fat pad. Overall, large vessels in the 4T1 tumor periphery support high, localized vascular perfusion and myeloid accumulation. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12 stimulated a transition towards T helper 1 cytokines in serum, supporting suppression of tumor growth and angiostatic conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-12-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0347-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2018)
  • Flattened fiber-optic ATR sensor enhanced by silver nanoparticles for
           glucose measurement
    • Authors: Wenwen Li; Changyue Sun; Songlin Yu; Zhihua Pu; Penghao Zhang; Kexin Xu; Zhenqiang Song; Dachao Li
      Abstract: This paper proposes a novel fiber attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the flattened structure based on mid-infrared spectroscopy for detecting low concentration of glucose with high precision. The flattened structure was designed to add the effective optical path length to improve the sensitivity. AgNPs were then deposited on the surface of the flattened area of the fiber via chemical silver mirror reaction for further improving the sensitivity by enhancing the infrared absorption. Combining the AgNPs modified flattened fiber ATR sensor with a CO2 laser showed a strong mid-infrared glucose absorption, with an enhancement factor of 4.30. The glucose concentration could be obtained by a five-variable partial least-squares model with a root-mean-square error of 4.42 mg/dL, which satisfies clinical requirements. Moreover, the fiber-based technique provides a pretty good method to fabricate miniaturized ATR sensors that are suitable to be integrated into a microfluidic chip for continuous glucose monitoring with high sensitivity.
      PubDate: 2018-11-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0346-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2018)
  • Preliminary study on alginate/NIPAM hydrogel-based soft microrobot for
           controlled drug delivery using electromagnetic actuation and near-infrared
    • Authors: Hyoryong Lee; Hyunchul Choi; Mikyoung Lee; Sukho Park
      Abstract: Currently, microrobots are receiving attention because of their small size and motility, which can be applied to minimal invasive therapy. Additionally, various microrobots using hydrogel with the characteristics of biocompatibility and biodegradability are also being developed. Among them, microrobots that swell and deswell in response to temperature changes caused by external near infrared (NIR) stimuli, focused ultrasound, and an alternating magnetic field, have been receiving a great amount of interest as drug carriers for therapeutic cell delivery. In this study, we propose a spring type medical microrobot that can be manipulated by an electromagnetic actuation (EMA) system and respond to an external stimulus (NIR). Additionally, we verified its feasibility with regard to targeting and drug delivery. There exist various methods of fabricating a spring type microrobot. In this study, we adopted a simple method that entails using a perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) microtube and a syringe pump. Moreover, we also used a hydrogel mixture composed of natural alginate, N-Isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) for temperature responsiveness, and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for electromagnetic control. Then, we fabricated a spring type alginate/NIPAM hydrogel-based soft microrobot. Additionally, we encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) for tumor therapy in the microrobot. To verify the feasibility of the proposed spring type hydrogel-based soft microrobot’s targeting and drug delivery, we developed an EMA and NIR integrated system. Finally, we observed the swelling and deswelling of the soft microrobot under NIR stimulation and verified the EMA controlled targeting. Moreover, we implemented a control function to release the encapsulated anticancer drug (DOX) through the swelling and deswelling of the soft microrobot by NIR, and evaluated the feasibility of cancer cell therapy by controlling the release of the drug from the soft microrobot.
      PubDate: 2018-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0344-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 4 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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