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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2266 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1197 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
AAPG Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access  
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 241)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 174)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access  
CTheory     Open Access  
Current Applied Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Biomedical Microdevices
  [SJR: 0.805]   [H-I: 66]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-8781 - ISSN (Online) 1387-2176
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Unloading of cryoprotectants from cryoprotectant-loaded cells on a
           microfluidic platform
    • Authors: Yufeng Kang; Lili Zou; Bensheng Qiu; Xin Liang; Sijie Sun; Dayong Gao; Weiping Ding
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, a multistep dilution-filtration microdevice (MDFD) is developed for unloading cryoprotectants from cryoprotectant-loaded cells. The MDFD contained a diluent producing region, a dilution-filtration execution region, and a filtrate collection region. It was made of two patterned PMMA stamps with four pieces of sandwiched PVDF membranes. Firstly, the performances of the mixers that were used in the diluent producing region and the dilution-filtration execution region were assessed using fluorescence experiments. Then, the effect of the MDFD structure on the loss of cells was investigated by applying the MDFD to unload glycerin from glycerin-loaded porcine red blood cells. Finally, the effects of the cell density, glycerin concentration, and membrane pore size on the clearance efficiency of glycerin (C G ), the survival rate of cells (S C ) and the recovery rate of cells (R C ) have been studied. Under the designed conditions, C G achieved ~80% and S C reached ~90%. However, R C was only ~40%, mainly resulting from the cells detained on the membrane surface and squeezed through the membrane pores into the filtrate. Increasing the membrane pore size caused high C G and S C , but low R C . For a low glycerin concentration, C G , S C , and R C were all high. For a high cell density, C G was high, but both S C and R C were low. This work is of significance to develop a microfluidic chip for unloading cryoprotectants from a small amount of cryopreserved cell samples.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0155-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Measuring 3D-orthodontic actions to guide clinical treatments involving
           coil springs and miniscrews
    • Authors: Margherita Mencattelli; Elisa Donati; Pasqua Spinelli; Massimo Cultrone; Cesare Luzi; Daniele Cantarella; Cesare Stefanini
      Abstract: Abstract The understanding of the phenomena at the base of tooth movement, due to orthodontic therapy, is an ambitious topic especially with regard to the “optimal forces” able to move teeth without causing irreversible tissue damages. To this aim, a measuring platform for detecting 3D orthodontic actions has been developed. It consists of customized load cells and dedicated acquisition electronics. The force sensors are able to detect, simultaneously and independently of each other, the six orthodontic components which a tooth is affected by. They have been calibrated and then applied on a clinical case that required NiTi closed coil springs and miniscrews for the treatment of upper post-extraction spaces closure. The tests have been conducted on teeth stumps belonging to a plaster cast of the patient’s mouth. The load cells characteristics (sensor linearity and repeatability) have been analyzed (0.97 < R 2 < 1; 6.3*10 −6 % < STD < 8.8 %) and, on the basis of calibration data, the actions exerted on teeth have been determined. The biomechanical behavior of the frontal group and clinical interpretation of the results are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0153-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Investigation of osteogenic activity of primary rabbit periosteal cells
           stimulated by multi-axial tensile strain
    • Authors: Chih-Hao Chiu; Jun-Liang Liu; Chih-Hsuan Chang; Kin Fong Lei; Alvin Chao-Yu Chen
      Abstract: Abstract Periosteum–derived cells was indicated to respond to mechanical force and have stem cell potential capable of differentiating into multiple tissue. Investigation of osteogenic activity under mechanical stimulation is important to understand the therapeutic conditions of fracture healing. In this work, a cell culture platform was developed for respectively providing isotropic and anisotropic axial strain. Primary rabbit periosteal cells were isolated and cultured in the chamber. Multi-axial tensile strain was received and osteogenic activity was investigated by mRNA expressions of CBFA1 and OPN. The highest mRNA expression was found in moderate strain (5-8%) under anisotropic axial strain. These results provided important foundation for further in vivo studies and development of tailor-made stretching rehabilitation equipment.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0154-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A new phosphothreonine lyase electrochemical immunosensor for detecting
           Salmonella based on horseradish peroxidase/GNPs-thionine/chitosan
    • Authors: Dingqiang Lu; Guangchang Pang; Junbo Xie
      Abstract: Abstract In the current study, a novel double-layer gold nanoparticles- electrochemical immunosensor electrode (DGN-EIE) immobilized with Salmonella plasmid virulence C (SpvC) antibody was developed. To increase the fixed quantity of antibodies and electrochemical signal, an electrochemical biosensing signal amplification system was utilized with gold nanoparticles-thionine-chitosan absorbing horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In addition, the SpvC monoclonal antibodies (derived from Balb/c mice) were prepared and screened with a high affinity to SpvC. To evaluate the quality of DGN-EIE, the amperometric I-t curve method was applied to determine Salmonella in PBS. The results showed that the response current had a good linear correlation with the bacterial quantity ranged from 1.0 × 101–5.0 × 104 cfu/mL. The lowest detection limit was found at 5 cfu/mL. Furthermore, the proposed immunosensor has been demonstrated with high sensitivity, good selectivity and reproducibility. Apparently, DGN-EIE may be a very useful tool for monitoring the bacteria.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0149-4
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Yeasts identification in microfluidic devices using peptide nucleic acid
           fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH)
    • Authors: André M. Ferreira; Daniela Cruz-Moreira; Laura Cerqueira; João M. Miranda; Nuno F. Azevedo
      Abstract: Abstract Peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) is a highly specific molecular method widely used for microbial identification. Nonetheless, and due to the detection limit of this technique, a time-consuming pre-enrichment step is typically required before identification. In here we have developed a lab-on-a-chip device to concentrate cell suspensions and speed up the identification process in yeasts. The PNA-FISH protocol was optimized to target Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a common yeast that is very relevant for several types of food industries. Then, several coin-sized microfluidic devices with different geometries were developed. Using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we modeled the hydrodynamics inside the microchannels and selected the most promising options. SU-8 structures were fabricated based on the selected designs and used to produce polydimethylsiloxane-based microchips by soft lithography. As a result, an integrated approach combining microfluidics and PNA-FISH for the rapid identification of S. cerevisiae was achieved. To improve fluid flow inside microchannels and the PNA-FISH labeling, oxygen plasma treatment was applied to the microfluidic devices and a new methodology to introduce the cell suspension and solutions into the microchannels was devised. A strong PNA-FISH signal was observed in cells trapped inside the microchannels, proving that the proposed methodology works as intended. The microfluidic designs and PNA-FISH procedure described in here should be easily adaptable for detection of other microorganisms of similar size.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0150-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Evidence of differential mass change rates between human breast cancer
           cell lines in culture
    • Authors: Elise A. Corbin; Olaoluwa O. Adeniba; Olivia V. Cangellaris; William P. King; Rashid Bashir
      Abstract: Abstract Investigating the growth signatures of single cells will determine how cell growth is regulated and cell size is maintained. The ability to precisely measure such changes and alterations in cell size and cell mass could be important for applications in cancer and drug screening. Here, we measure the mass growth rate of individual benign (MCF-10A), non-invasive (MCF-7), and highly-invasive malignant (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells. A micro-patterning technique was employed to allow for the long-term growth of motile cells. Results show mass growth rates at 4.8%, 1.2%, and 2.8% for MCF-10A, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231, demonstrating that normal cells have a higher mass growth rate than cancerous cells. All the cell lines show an increase in mass change rate indicating that the mass accumulation rate is exponential over a single cell cycle. The growth rates measured with our MEMS sensor are compared with doubling times obtained through conventional bulk analysis techniques, and exhibit excellent agreement.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0151-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Compact SAW aerosol generator
    • Authors: A. Winkler; S. Harazim; D.J. Collins; R. Brünig; H. Schmidt; S.B. Menzel
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, we discuss and demonstrate the principle features of surface acoustic wave (SAW) aerosol generation, based on the properties of the fluid supply, the acoustic wave field and the acoustowetting phenomena. Furthermore, we demonstrate a compact SAW-based aerosol generator amenable to mass production fabricated using simple techniques including photolithography, computerized numerical control (CNC) milling and printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing. Using this device, we present comprehensive experimental results exploring the complexity of the acoustic atomization process and the influence of fluid supply position and geometry, SAW power and fluid flow rate on the device functionality. These factors in turn influence the droplet size distribution, measured here, that is important for applications including liquid chromatography, pulmonary therapies, thin film deposition and olfactory displays.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0152-9
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Laboratory and clinical reliability of conformally coated subretinal
           implants
    • Authors: Renate Daschner; Udo Greppmaier; Martin Kokelmann; Sandra Rudorf; Ralf Rudorf; Sebastian Schleehauf; Walter G. Wrobel
      Abstract: Abstract Despite recent developments and new treatments in ophthalmology there is nothing available to cure retinal degenerations like Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) yet. One of the most advanced approaches to treat people that have gone blind due to RP is to replace the function of the degenerated photoreceptors by a microelectronic neuroprosthetic device. Basically, this subretinal active implant transforms the incoming light into electric pulses to stimulate the remaining cells of the retina. The functional time of such devices is a crucial aspect. In this paper the laboratory and clinical reliability of the two active subretinal implants Alpha IMS and Alpha AMS is presented. Based on clinical data the median operating life of the Alpha AMS is estimated to be 3.3 years with a one-sided lower 75 % confidence level of 2.0 years. This data shows a significant improvement of the device lifetime compared to the previous device Alpha IMS which shows a median lifetime of 0.6 years with a lower confidence bound (75 %) of 0.5 years. The results are in good agreement with laboratory data from accelerated aging tests of the implant components, showing an estimated median lifetime for Alpha IMS components of 0.7 years compared to the improved lifetime of Alpha AMS of 4.7 years.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0147-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Frequency-controlled wireless shape memory polymer microactuator for drug
           delivery application
    • Authors: M. A. Zainal; A. Ahmad; M. S. Mohamed Ali
      Abstract: Abstract This paper reports the wireless Shape-Memory-Polymer actuator operated by external radio frequency magnetic fields and its application in a drug delivery device. The actuator is driven by a frequency-sensitive wireless resonant heater which is bonded directly to the Shape-Memory-Polymer and is activated only when the field frequency is tuned to the resonant frequency of heater. The heater is fabricated using a double-sided Cu-clad Polyimide with much simpler fabrication steps compared to previously reported methods. The actuation range of 140 μm as the tip opening distance is achieved at device temperature 44 °C in 30 s using 0.05 W RF power. A repeatability test shows that the actuator’s average maximum displacement is 110 μm and standard deviation of 12 μm. An experiment is conducted to demonstrate drug release with 5 μL of an acidic solution loaded in the reservoir and the device is immersed in DI water. The actuator is successfully operated in water through wireless activation. The acidic solution is released and diffused in water with an average release rate of 0.172 μL/min.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0148-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Microbubble moving in blood flow in microchannels: effect on the cell-free
           layer and cell local concentration
    • Authors: David Bento; Lúcia Sousa; Tomoko Yaginuma; Valdemar Garcia; Rui Lima; João M. Miranda
      Abstract: Abstract Gas embolisms can hinder blood flow and lead to occlusion of the vessels and ischemia. Bubbles in microvessels circulate as tubular bubbles (Taylor bubbles) and can be trapped, blocking the normal flow of blood. To understand how Taylor bubbles flow in microcirculation, in particular, how bubbles disturb the blood flow at the scale of blood cells, experiments were performed in microchannels at a low Capillary number. Bubbles moving with a stream of in vitro blood were filmed with the help of a high-speed camera. Cell-free layers (CFLs) were observed downstream of the bubble, near the microchannel walls and along the centerline, and their thicknesses were quantified. Upstream to the bubble, the cell concentration is higher and CFLs are less clear. While just upstream of the bubble the maximum RBC concentration happens at positions closest to the wall, downstream the maximum is in an intermediate region between the centerline and the wall. Bubbles within microchannels promote complex spatio-temporal variations of the CFL thickness along the microchannel with significant relevance for local rheology and transport processes. The phenomenon is explained by the flow pattern characteristic of low Capillary number flows. Spatio-temporal variations of blood rheology may have an important role in bubble trapping and dislodging.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-016-0138-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Use of a CD laser pickup head to fabricate microelectrodes in
           polymethylmethacrylate substrates for biosensing applications
    • Authors: Jehú López-Aparicio; Mathieu Hautefeuille; Sara Herrera-Domínguez; Adriana Razo-de-León; Mariel Cano-Jorge; Ixchetl Rojas-Benito; Mariana Centeno-Sierra; Tatiana Fiordelisio-Coll; Catalina Elizabeth Stern-Forgach
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, we report a simple fabrication method for microelectrodes on a polymethylmethacrylate substrate, using a low-cost laser platform based on a CD-DVD unit for direct rapid-prototyping. We used this laser microfabrication technique to etch any desired design on polymethylmethacrylate substrates to produce microchannels with controlled geometry, with a highly repeatable micron-scale resolution. Those shallow microchannels were then filled with a conductive paste of material of our choice that was converted into microelectrodes of desired shapes and geometries after drying. To validate our process, different geometries, sizes and materials were used as electrodes, and then tested for amperometry and impedance measurements. Development of these microelectrodes is motivated by their potential application in sensors and biosensors, such as glucose and cell counting, as demonstrated in this paper.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-016-0145-0
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Microfluidic Gut-liver chip for reproducing the first pass metabolism
    • Authors: Aerim Choe; Sang Keun Ha; Inwook Choi; Nakwon Choi; Jong Hwan Sung
      Abstract: Abstract After oral intake of drugs, drugs go through the first pass metabolism in the gut and the liver, which greatly affects the final outcome of the drugs’ efficacy and side effects. The first pass metabolism is a complex process involving the gut and the liver tissue, with transport and reaction occurring simultaneously at various locations, which makes it difficult to be reproduced in vitro with conventional cell culture systems. In an effort to tackle this challenge, here we have developed a microfluidic gut-liver chip that can reproduce the dynamics of the first pass metabolism. The microfluidic chip consists of two separate layers for gut epithelial cells (Caco-2) and the liver cells (HepG2), and is designed so that drugs go through a sequential absorption in the gut chamber and metabolic reaction in the liver chamber. We fabricated the chip and showed that the two different cell lines can be successfully co-cultured on chip. When the two cells are cultured on chip, changes in the physiological function of Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were noted. The cytochrome P450 metabolic activity of both cells were significantly enhanced, and the absorptive property of Caco-2 cells on chip also changed in response to the presence of flow. Finally, first pass metabolism of a flavonoid, apigenin, was evaluated as a model compound, and co-culture of gut and liver cells on chip resulted in a metabolic profile that is closer to the reported profile than a monoculture of gut cells. This microfluidic gut-liver chip can potentially be a useful platform to study the complex first pass metabolism of drugs in vitro.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-016-0143-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • An ionic liquid based strain sensor for large displacement measurement
    • Authors: Grim Keulemans; Frederik Ceyssens; Robert Puers
      Abstract: Abstract A robust and low cost ionic liquid based strain sensor is fabricated for high strain measurements in biomedical applications (up to 40 % and higher). A tubular 5 mm long silicone microchannel with an inner diameter of 310 µm and an outer diameter of 650 µm is filled with an ionic liquid. Three ionic liquids have been investigated: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, ethylammonium nitrate and cholinium ethanoate. When the channel is axially stretched, geometrical deformations change the electrical impedance of the liquid channel. The sensors display a linear response and low hysteresis with an average gauge factors of 1.99 for strains up to 40 %. Additionally, to fix the sensor by surgical stitching to soft biological tissue, a sensor with tube clamps consisting of photopatternable SU-8 epoxy-based resin is proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-016-0141-4
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Development of a DsRed-expressing HepaRG cell line for real-time
           monitoring of hepatocyte-like cell differentiation by fluorescence
           imaging, with application in screening of novel geometric microstructured
           cell growth substrates
    • Authors: Mihaela Uta; Livia E. Sima; Patrik Hoffmann; Valentina Dinca; Norica Branza-Nichita
      Abstract: Abstract The bipotent nature of the HepaRG cell line is a unique property among human hepatoma-derived cells. Cell treatment with specific differentiation inducers results in a mixture of hepatocyte- and biliary-like cells, accompanied by upregulation of liver-specific proteins, drug metabolizing enzymes, transcription regulators, membrane receptors or innate immune response effectors. These features make the HepaRG cells a suitable and handy replacement for primary hepatocytes, to study hepatic functions in vitro. However, cell differentiation is a long, variable process, requiring special culture conditions, while the resulting mixed cell populations is usually a major drawback. This process can potentially be controlled by interface characteristics, such as substrate topography. To screen for such novel substrates, we have first developed a new HepaRG cell line, designated as HepaRGDsRed, expressing the reporter gene DsRed. The fluorescent protein was expressed in hepatocyte- and not biliary-like cells, in a differentiation dependent-manner. We have further used replicated microstructured gradients of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that allow three-dimensional manipulation in vitro, to monitor HepaRGDsRed differentiation in real time. We demonstrate that this approach enables the controlled assembly of viable hepatocyte-like cells for functional studies, which can be maintained in culture without loss of differentiation. The regulated expression of the DsRed reporter proved a valuable tool not only for rapid screening of novel cell growth substrates favoring cell differentiation, but also, to enrich the hepatocyte-like cell population by fluorescence-activated cell sorting to investigate liver-specific processes in vitro.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-016-0146-z
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Drug-coated microneedles for rapid and painless local anesthesia
    • Authors: Sung-Hyun Baek; Ju-Hyung Shin; Yeu-Chun Kim
      Abstract: Abstract This study showed that drug-coated PLLA (Poly (L-lactide)) microneedle arrays can induce rapid and painless local anesthesia. Microneedle arrays were fabricated using a micro-molding technique, and the needle tips were coated with 290.6 ± 45.9 μg of lidocaine, the most widely used local anesthetic worldwide. A dip-coating device was newly designed for the coating step using an optimized coating formulation. Lidocaine coated on the arrays was released rapidly into PBS within 2 min, and its stability in storage lasted 3 weeks at 4, 25, and 37°C. Furthermore, the microneedle arrays showed consistent in vitro skin penetration and delivered 200.8 ± 43.9, 224.2 ± 39.3, and 244.1 ± 19.6 μg of lidocaine into the skin 1, 2, and 5 min after application with a high delivery efficiency of 69, 77, and 84%. Compared to a commercially available topical anesthetic EMLA® cream, a 22.0, 13.6, and 14.0-fold higher amount of lidocaine was delivered into the skin. Note, in vitro skin permeation of Lidocaine was also notably enhanced by a 2-min-application of the lidocaine-coated microneedle arrays. Altogether, these results suggest that the biocompatible lidocaine-coated PLLA microneedle arrays could provide significantly rapid local anesthesia in a painless manner without any of the issues from topical applications or hypodermic injections of local anesthetics.
      PubDate: 2017-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-016-0144-1
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • An integrated microfluidic PCR system with immunomagnetic nanoparticles
           for the detection of bacterial pathogens
    • Authors: Irisappan Ganesh; Buu Minh Tran; Yonghee Kim; Jaewon Kim; Hua Cheng; Nae Yoon Lee; Sungsu Park
      Abstract: Abstract There is growing interest in rapid microbial pre-concentration methods to lower the detection limit of bacterial pathogens of low abundance in samples. Here, we report an integrated microfluidic PCR system that enables bacterial cells of interest in samples to be concentrated prior to PCR. It consists of two major compartments: a preconcentration chamber for the immunomagnetic separation of bacterial cells, and a PCR chamber for the DNA amplification of the concentrated cells. We demonstrate the feasibility of the system for the detection of microbial pathogens by preconcentrating the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7, and also amplifying its DNA. The detection limit of E. coli O157:H7 in the PCR system is 1 × 103 CFU (colony forming unit)/mL. On-chip processing steps, including preconcentration and PCR steps, take less than two hours. Our system can serve as a rapid, specific, and quantitative platform for the detection of microbial pathogens in samples of large volume.
      PubDate: 2016-12-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-016-0139-y
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Maskless wafer-level microfabrication of optical penetrating neural arrays
           out of soda-lime glass: Utah Optrode Array
    • Authors: Ronald W. Boutte; Steve Blair
      Abstract: Abstract Borrowing from the wafer-level fabrication techniques of the Utah Electrode Array, an optical array capable of delivering light for neural optogenetic studies is presented in this paper: the Utah Optrode Array. Utah Optrode Arrays are micromachined out of sheet soda-lime-silica glass using standard backend processes of the semiconductor and microelectronics packaging industries such as precision diamond grinding and wet etching. 9 × 9 arrays with 1100μ m × 100μ m optrodes and a 500μ m back-plane are repeatably reproduced on 2i n wafers 169 arrays at a time. This paper describes the steps and some of the common errors of optrode fabrication.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-016-0140-5
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Biocompatibility of fluids for multiphase drops-in-drops microfluidics
    • Authors: Aishah Prastowo; Alexander Feuerborn; Peter R. Cook; Edmond J. Walsh
      Abstract: Abstract This paper addresses the biocompatibility of fluids and surfactants in the context of microfluidics and more specifically in a drops-in-drops system for mammalian cell based drug screening. In the drops-in-drops approach, three immiscible fluids are used to manipulate the flow of aqueous microliter-sized drops; it enables merging of drops containing cells with drops containing drugs within a Teflon tube. Preliminary tests showed that a commonly-used fluid and surfactant combination resulted in significant variability in gene expression levels in Jurkat cells after exposure to a drug for four hours. This result led to further investigations of potential fluid and surfactant combinations that can be used in microfluidic systems for medium to long-term drug screening. Results herein identify a fluid combination, HFE-7500 and 5-cSt silicone oil + 0.25% Abil EM180, which enabled the drops-in-drops approach; this combination also allowed gene expression at normal levels comparable with the conventional drug screening in both magnitude and variability.
      PubDate: 2016-12-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-016-0137-0
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • Two-dimensional polyaniline nanostructure to the development of
           microfluidic integrated flexible biosensors for biomarker detection
    • Authors: Pei Liu; Yisi Zhu; Seung Hee Lee; Minhee Yun
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, we report a flexible field-effect-transistor (FET) biosensor design based on two-dimensional (2-D) polyaniline (PANI) nanostructure. The flexible biosensor devices were fabricated through a facile and inexpensive method that combines top-down and bottom-up processes. The chemically synthesized PANI nanostructure showed excellent p-type semiconductor properties as well as good compatibility with flexible design. With the 2-D PANI nanostructure being as thin as 80 nm and its extremely large surface-area-to-volume (SA/V) ratio due to the intrinsic properties of PANI chemical synthesis, the developed flexible biosensor exhibited outstanding sensing performance in detecting B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) biomarkers, and was able to achieve high specificity (averagely 112 folds) with the limit of detection as low as 100 pg/mL. PANI nanostructure under bending condition was also investigated and showed controllable conductance changes being less than 20% with good restorability which may open up the possibility for wearable applications.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-016-0142-3
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
       
  • 3D carbon nanofiber microelectrode arrays fabricated by plasma-assisted
           pyrolysis to enhance sensitivity and stability of real-time dopamine
           detection
    • Authors: Wenwen Yi; Yuanyuan Yang; Parastoo Hashemi; Mark Ming-Cheng Cheng
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we have fabricated 3D carbon nanofiber microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with highly reproducible and rich chemical surface areas for fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Carbon nanofibers are created from negative photoresist by a new process called dual O2 plasma-assisted pyrolysis. The proposed approach significantly improves film adhesion and increases surface reactivity. We showcase our sensor’s compatibility with FSCV analysis by demonstrating highly sensitive and stable FSCV dopamine measurements on a prototype 4-channel array. We envision with proper surface fuctionalization the 3D carbon nanofiber MEA enable sensitive and reliable detection of multiple neurotransmitters simultaneously.
      PubDate: 2016-11-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-016-0136-1
      Issue No: Vol. 18, No. 6 (2016)
       
 
 
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