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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2277 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (191 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (184 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (103 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1203 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (381 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (69 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (91 journals)

ENGINEERING (1203 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 244)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CFD Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CienciaUAT     Open Access  
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 265)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access  
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Control and Dynamic Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Control Engineering Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Control Theory and Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Corrosion Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
CT&F Ciencia, Tecnologia y Futuro     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CTheory     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover Biomedical Microdevices
  [SJR: 0.805]   [H-I: 66]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-8781 - ISSN (Online) 1387-2176
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • A Ra dial Pi llar D evice (RAPID) for continuous and high-throughput
           separation of multi-sized particles
    • Authors: Ninad Mehendale; Oshin Sharma; Claudy D’Costa; Debjani Paul
      Abstract: Pillar-based microfluidic sorting devices are preferred for isolation of rare cells due to their simple designs and passive operation. Dead-end pillar filters can efficiently capture large rare cells, such as, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs), CD4 cells in HIV patients, etc., but they get clogged easily. Cross flow filters are preferred for smaller rare particles (e.g. separating bacteria from blood), but they need additional buffer inlets and a large device footprint for efficient operation. We have designed a new microparticle separation device i.e. Ra dial Pi llar D evice (RAPID) that combines the advantages of dead-end and cross flow filters. RAPID can simultaneously isolate both large and small rare particles from a mixed population, while functioning for several hours without clogging. We have achieved simultaneous separation of 10 μ m and 2 μ m polystyrene particles from a mixture of 2 μ m, 7 μ m and 10 μ m particles. RAPID achieved average separation purity and recovery in excess of ∼90%. The throughput of our device (∼3ml/min) is 10 and 100 times higher compared to cross flow and dead-end filters respectively, thereby justifying the name RAPID.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0246-4
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles
           using of Chelidonium majus extract
    • Authors: Renata Dobrucka; Jolanta Dlugaszewska; Mariusz Kaczmarek
      Abstract: The basic goal of this study was to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles using the Chelidonium majus extract and asses their cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties. The synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with EDS profile, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The aforementioned methods confirmed that the size of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles was at the range of 10 nm. The antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using the Ch. majus extract was tested against standard strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 4163, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCTC 6749, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922), yeast (Candida albicans ATCC 10231), filamentous fungi (molds: Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28188), clinical strains of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus) and yeast (Candida albicans). The study showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles were excellent antimicrobial agents. What is more, biologically synthesized ZnO nanoparticles demonstrate high efficiency in treatment of human non-small cell lung cancer A549.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0233-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A novel fabrication method of carbon electrodes using 3D printing and
           chemical modification process
    • Authors: Pan Tian; Chaoyang Chen; Jie Hu; Jin Qi; Qianghua Wang; Jimmy Ching-Ming Chen; John Cavanaugh; Yinghong Peng; Mark Ming-Cheng Cheng
      Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technique in the field of biomedical engineering and electronics. This paper presents a novel biofabrication method of implantable carbon electrodes with several advantages including fast prototyping, patient-specific and miniaturization without expensive cleanroom. The method combines stereolithography in additive manufacturing and chemical modification processes to fabricate electrically conductive carbon electrodes. The stereolithography allows the structures to be 3D printed with very fine resolution and desired shapes. The resin is then chemically modified to carbon using pyrolysis to enhance electrochemical performance. The electrochemical characteristics of 3D printing carbon electrodes are assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specific capacitance of 3D printing carbon electrodes is much higher than the same sized platinum (Pt) electrode. In-vivo electromyography (EMG) recording, 3D printing carbon electrodes exhibit much higher signal-to-noise ratio (40.63 ± 7.73) than Pt electrodes (14.26 ± 6.83). The proposed biofabrication method is envisioned to enable 3D printing in many emerging applications in biomedical engineering and electronics.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0247-3
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A novel photodynamic therapy-based drug delivery system layered on a stent
           for treating cholangiocarcinoma
    • Authors: Po-Chin Liang; Kai-Wen Huang; Chien-Chih Tung; Ming-Chu Chang; Fuh-Yu Chang; Jau-Min Wong; Yu-Ting Chang
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the drug delivery efficacy and bio-effectiveness of a novel photodynamic therapy (PDT)-matrix drug delivery system for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Metallic stents were coated with polyurethane (PU) as the first layer. A 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA)/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA)/benzoyl peroxide (BPO) layer and a poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (PEVA)/poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA)/polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (K30) layer containing various concentrations of Photofrin were then incorporated onto the stent as the second and third layers. After incubating the layered membranes with cultured CCA cell line, the release of Photofrin, cell viability, the intracellular uptake of Photofrin, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and apoptosis were determined. Using a single-layer diffusion model, the maximum release of Photofrin from the 5 to 10% K30 formulas was 80 and 100%, respectively, after 24 h. When using the multiple-layer diffusion model, the released Photofrin showed an initial burst of the loading dose from the PEVA/PBMA/K30 layer. In the immobilized model, less than 5% of the Photofrin from the 2-HEMA/EGDMA/BPO layer was released over the 24-h period. Cell viability decreased linearly with increasing Photofrin concentrations, and ROS generation and apoptosis were shown to increase significantly with increasing Photofrin concentrations, until the concentration of Photofrin reached a saturation point of 1.5 μg/ml. This new, multiple-layered, PDT-based stent with dual-release mechanisms is a promising treatment for CCA and cancer-related ductal stenosis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0249-1
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Molybdenum coated SU-8 microneedle electrodes for transcutaneous
           electrical nerve stimulation
    • Authors: Ramin Soltanzadeh; Elnaz Afsharipour; Cyrus Shafai; Neda Anssari; Behzad Mansouri; Zahra Moussavi
      Abstract: Electrophysiological devices are connected to the body through electrodes. In some applications, such as nerve stimulation, it is needed to minimally pierce the skin and reach the underneath layers to bypass the impedance of the first layer called stratum corneum. In this study, we have designed and fabricated surface microneedle electrodes for applications such as electrical peripheral nerve stimulation. We used molybdenum for microneedle fabrication, which is a biocompatible metal; it was used for the conductive layer of the needle array. To evaluate the performance of the fabricated electrodes, they were compared with the conventional surface electrodes in nerve conduction velocity experiment. The recorded signals showed a much lower contact resistance and higher bandwidth in low frequencies for the fabricated microneedle electrodes compared to those of the conventional electrodes. These results indicate the electrode-tissue interface capacitance and charge transfer resistance have been increased in our designed electrodes, while the contact resistance decreased. These changes will lead to less harmful Faradaic current passing through the tissue during stimulation in different frequencies. We also compared the designed microneedle electrodes with conventional ones by a 3-dimensional finite element simulation. The results demonstrated that the current density in the deep layers of the skin and the directivity toward a target nerve for microneedle electrodes were much more than those for the conventional ones. Therefore, the designed electrodes are much more efficient than the conventional electrodes for superficial transcutaneous nerve stimulation purposes.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0241-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Full-wafer in-situ fabrication and packaging of microfluidic flow
           cytometer with photo-patternable adhesive polymers
    • Authors: Koen de Wijs; Chengxun Liu; Bivragh Majeed; Karolien Jans; John M. O’Callaghan; Josine Loo; Erik Sohn; Sara Peeters; Ruben Van Roosbroeck; Tomokazu Miyazaki; Kenji Hoshiko; Isao Nishimura; Katsuhiko Hieda; Liesbet Lagae
      Abstract: Integration of microelectronics with microfluidics enables sophisticated lab-on-a-chip devices for sensing and actuation. In this paper, we investigate a novel method for in-situ microfluidics fabrication and packaging on wafer level. Two novel photo-patternable adhesive polymers were tested and compared, PA-S500H and DXL-009. The microfluidics fabrication method employs photo lithographical patterning of spin coated polymer films of PA or DXL and direct bonding of formed microfluidics to a top glass cover using die-to-wafer level bonding. These new adhesive materials remove the need for additional gluing layers. With this approach, we fabricated disposable microfluidic flow cytometers and evaluated the performance of those materials in the context of this application. DXL-009 exhibits lower autofluorescence compared to PA-S500H which improves detection sensitivity of fluorescently stained cells. Results obtained from the cytotoxicity test reveals that both materials are biocompatible. The functionality of these materials was demonstrated by detection of immunostained monocytes in microfluidic flow cytometers. The flexible, fully CMOS compatible fabrication process of these photo-patternable adhesive materials will simplify prototyping and mass manufacturing of sophisticated microfluidic devices with integrated microelectronics.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0243-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Irreversible electroporation of the uterine cervix in a rabbit model
    • Authors: Wei Chai; Wenlong Zhang; Zhentong Wei; Ying Xu; Jian Shi; Xiaomei Luo; Jianying Zeng; Manhua Cui; Jiannan Li; Lizhi Niu
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the uterine cervix in a rabbit model. IRE ablation was performed in the cervices of 48 New Zealand rabbits, with one ablation lesion in each animal. Gross pathology, transmission electron microscopy, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson’s trichrome (MT) stain, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays were performed at pre-set time points (0 h, 12 h, 1 d, 2 d, 4 d, 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d post-IRE). All the rabbits tolerated the IRE ablation without serious complications. IRE caused complete cell death of the ablated cervix via cell apoptosis. However, fast recovery of the cervix was observed from 7 d post-IRE, with the signs of collagen fibers hyperplasia, the disappearance of the necrotic cells and muscle fibers, and regeneration and extension of the cervical epithelium. At 28 d post-IRE, the ablated cervices recovered to almost normal. Our study suggested that IRE might be an efficient and safe technology to treat cervical tumors, without causing serious cervical damage.
      PubDate: 2017-11-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0248-2
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Engineered bone scaffolds with Dielectrophoresis-based patterning using 3D
           printing
    • Authors: Zhijie Huan; Henry K. Chu; Hongbo Liu; Jie Yang; Dong Sun
      Abstract: Patterning of cells into a specific pattern is an important procedure in tissue engineering to facilitate tissue culture and ingrowth. In this paper, a new type of 3D–printed scaffold utilizing dielectrophoresis (DEP) for active cell seeding and patterning was proposed. This scaffold adopted a concentric-ring design that is similar to native bone tissues. The scaffold was fabricated with a commercial three-dimensional (3D) printer. Polylactic Acid (PLA) was selected as the material for the printer and the fabricated scaffold was coated with gold to enhance the conductivity for DEP manipulation. Simulation from COMSOL confirmed that non-uniform electric fields were successfully generated under a voltage input. The properties of the scaffold were first characterized through a series of experiments. Then, preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded onto the coated scaffold and multiple cellular rings were observed under the microscope. The biocompatibility of the material was also examined and mineralized bone nodules were detected using Alizarin Red S Staining after 28 days of culture. The proposed scaffold design can enable formation of multiple ring patterns via DEP and the properties of the scaffold are suitable for bone tissue culture. This new type of 3D–printed scaffold with cell seeding mechanism offers a new and rapid approach for fabricating engineered scaffolds that can arrange cells into different patterns for various tissue engineering applications.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0245-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A microfluidic in-line ELISA for measuring secreted protein under
           perfusion
    • Authors: Qiyue Luan; Stacey Cahoon; Agnes Wu; Shyam Sundhar Bale; Martin Yarmush; Abhinav Bhushan
      Abstract: Recent progress in the development of microfluidic microphysiological systems such as ‘organs-on-chips’ and microfabricated cell culture is geared to simulate organ-level physiology. These tissue models leverage microengineering technologies that provide capabilities of presenting cultured cells with input signals in a more physiologically relevant context such as perfused flow. Proteins that are secreted from cells have important information about the health of the cells. Techniques to quantify cellular proteins include mass spectrometry to ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Although our capability to perturb the cells in the microphysiological systems with varying inputs is well established, we lack the tools to monitor in-line the cellular responses. User intervention for sample collection and off-site is cumbersome, causes delays in obtaining results, and is especially expensive because of collection, storage, and offline processing of the samples, and in many case, technically impractical to carry out because of limitated sample volumes. To address these shortcomings, we report the development of an ELISA that is carried out in-line under perfusion within a microfluidic device. Using this assay, we measured the albumin secreted from perfused hepatocytes without and under stimulation by IL-6. Since the method is based on a sandwich ELISA, we envision broad application of this technology to not just organs-on-chips but also to characterizing the temporal release and measurement of soluble factors and response to drugs.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0244-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Fabrication of flexible thin polyurethane membrane for tissue engineering
           applications
    • Authors: A. Arefin; J-H. Huang; D. Platts; V. D. Hypes; J. F. Harris; R. Iyer; P. Nath
      Abstract: Thin and flexible polymeric membranes play a critical role in tissue engineering applications for example organs-on-a-chip. These flexible membranes can enable mechanical stretch of the engineered tissue to mimic organ-specific biophysical features, such as breathing. In this work, we report the fabrication of thin (<20 μm), stretchable, and biocompatible polyurethane (PU) membranes. The membranes were fabricated using spin coating technique on silicon substrates and were mounted on a frame for ease of device integration and handling. The membranes were characterized for their optical and elastic properties and compatibility with cell/tissue culture. It was possible to apply up to 10 kilopascal (kPa) pressure to perform cyclic stretch on 4 mm-diameter membranes for a period of 2 weeks at 0.2 hertz (Hz) frequency without mechanical failure. Adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells were cultured on the apical side of the PU membrane. The morphology and viability of the cells were comparable to those of cells cultured on standard tissue culture plates. Our experiments suggest that the stretchable PU membrane will be broadly useful for various tissue engineering applications in vitro.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0236-6
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A microfluidic device for quantitative investigation of zebrafish
           larvae’s rheotaxis
    • Authors: Amir Reza Peimani; Georg Zoidl; Pouya Rezai
      Abstract: Zebrafish is a model organism for various sensory-motor biological studies. Rheotaxis, or the ability of zebrafish to orient and swim against the water stream, is a common behavior that involves multiple sensory-motor processes such as their lateral line and visual systems. Due to the lack of a controllable and easy-to-use assay, zebrafish rheotaxis at larval stages is not well-understood. In this paper, we report a microfluidic device that can be used to apply the flow stimulus precisely and repeatedly along the longitudinal axis of individual zebrafish larvae to study their coaxial rheotaxis. We quantified rheotaxis in terms of the response rate and location along the channel at various flow velocities (9.5–38 mm.sec−1). The larvae effectively exhibited a similarly high rheotactic response at low and medium velocities (9.5 and 19 mm.sec−1); however, at high velocity of 38 mm.sec−1, despite sensing the flow, their rheotactic response decreased significantly. The flow velocity also affected the response location along the channel. At 9.5 mm.sec−1, responses were distributed evenly along the channel length while, at 19 and 38 mm.sec−1, the larvae demonstrated higher rheotaxis responses at the anterior and posterior ends of the channel, respectively. This result shows that although the response is similarly high at low and medium flow velocities, zebrafish larvae become more sensitive to the flow at medium velocity, demonstrating a modulated rheotactic behavior. Employing our device, further investigations can be conducted to study the sensory-motor systems involved in rheotaxis of zebrafish larvae and other fish species.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0240-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • 3D gut-liver chip with a PK model for prediction of first-pass metabolism
    • Authors: Dong Wook Lee; Sang Keun Ha; Inwook Choi; Jong Hwan Sung
      Abstract: Accurate prediction of first-pass metabolism is essential for improving the time and cost efficiency of drug development process. Here, we have developed a microfluidic gut-liver co-culture chip that aims to reproduce the first-pass metabolism of oral drugs. This chip consists of two separate layers for gut (Caco-2) and liver (HepG2) cell lines, where cells can be co-cultured in both 2D and 3D forms. Both cell lines were maintained well in the chip, verified by confocal microscopy and measurement of hepatic enzyme activity. We investigated the PK profile of paracetamol in the chip, and corresponding PK model was constructed, which was used to predict PK profiles for different chip design parameters. Simulation results implied that a larger absorption surface area and a higher metabolic capacity are required to reproduce the in vivo PK profile of paracetamol more accurately. Our study suggests the possibility of reproducing the human PK profile on a chip, contributing to accurate prediction of pharmacological effect of drugs.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0242-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Measurement of cell traction force with a thin film PDMS cantilever
    • Authors: Merrel T. Holley; Ashkan YekrangSafakar; Mazvita Maziveyi; Suresh K. Alahari; Kidong Park
      Abstract: Adherent cells produce cellular traction force (CTF) on a substrate to maintain their physical morphologies, sense external environment, and perform essential cellular functions. Precise characterization of the CTF can expand our knowledge of various cellular processes as well as lead to the development of novel mechanical biomarkers. However, current methods that measure CTF require special substrates and fluorescent microscopy, rendering them less suitable in a clinical setting. Here, we demonstrate a rapid and direct approach to measure the combined CTF of a large cell population using thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cantilevers. Cells attached to the top surface of the PDMS cantilever produce CTF, which causes the cantilever to bend. The side view of the cantilever was imaged with a low-cost camera to extract the CTF. We characterized the CTF of fibroblasts and breast cancer cells. In addition, we were able to directly measure the contractile force of a suspended cell sheet, which is similar to the CTF of the confluent cell layer before detachment. The demonstrated technique can provide rapid and real-time measurement of the CTF of a large cell population and can directly characterize its temporal dynamics. The developed thin film PDMS cantilever can be fabricated affordably and the CTF extraction technique does not require expensive equipment. Thus, we believe that the developed method can provide an easy-to-use and affordable platform for CTF characterization in clinical settings and laboratories.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0239-3
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Correction to: Polymer-based interconnection cables to integrate with
           flexible penetrating microelectrode arrays
    • Authors: Keonghwan Oh; Donghak Byun; Sohee Kim
      Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. In Eqs. (1) to (3), the gas constant ‘R’ should be replaced with Boltzmann constant ‘k B.’ This change accompanies the change in the paragraph following Eq. (3) as below:
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0232-x
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Dielectrophoretic microbead sorting using modular electrode design and
           capillary-driven microfluidics
    • Authors: Jaione Tirapu-Azpiroz; Yuksel Temiz; Emmanuel Delamarche
      Abstract: Multiplexing assays using microbeads in microfluidics offers high flexibility and throughput, but requires the ability to sort particles based on their physical properties. In this paper, we present a continuous method for separating microbeads that is compact, modular and adaptive, employing an optimized electrode layout that alternates sorting and concentration of microbeads using dielectrophoresis and a nested design. By simulating the combined effects of the hydrodynamic drag and dielectrophoresis forces on polystyrene beads, the parameters of the electrode layout and voltage configuration are optimized for maximum separation based on particle size with a small number of slanted planar electrodes. Experimental verification confirms the efficient separation of 10 μm and 5 μm beads, with ~98% of all concentrated beads sorted in two separate streams and only ~2% of 5 μm beads leaking into the 10 μm bead stream. In addition, this method is implemented on capillary-driven microfluidic chips for maximum portability and ease of use.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0238-4
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effect of drug-loaded TiO 2 nanotube arrays on osseointegration in an
           orthodontic miniscrew: an in-vivo pilot study
    • Authors: Insan Jang; Dong-Soon Choi; Jae-Kwan Lee; Wan-Tae Kim; Bong-Kuen Cha; Won-Youl Choi
      Abstract: Osseointegration was evaluated for the surface of miniscrews with TiO2 nanotube arrays containing drugs in this in-vivo study. The diameter and length of the TiO2 nanotube arrays were about 70 nm and 5 μm, respectively. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) or ibuprofen was loaded in the TiO2 nanotube arrays with 12 miniscrews. The 12 drug-loaded miniscrews, 6 miniscrews with no drug-loaded TiO2 nanotube arrays and 6 conventional miniscrews, were placed on the tibias of New Zealand white rabbits. Histological osseointegration was assessed 8 weeks after implantation by measuring the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) ratio. Ibuprofen-loaded miniscrews showed a significantly higher BIC of 71.6% over conventional miniscrews of 44.3% on average. The mean BIC ratios of rhBMP-2-loaded miniscrews and no drug-loaded miniscrews was 24.6% and 60.1%, respectively. Our results suggest that TiO2 nanotube arrays on the surface of miniscrews could be used as carriers of drugs, and loading ibuprofen in TiO2 nanotube arrays may improve osseointegration of miniscrews. However, the effect of rhBMP-2 loaded in TiO2 nanotube arrays on osseointegration of miniscrews was questionable in this pilot study.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0237-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Highly efficient isolation and release of circulating tumor cells based on
           size-dependent filtration and degradable ZnO nanorods substrate in a
           wedge-shaped microfluidic chip
    • Authors: Songzhan Li; Yifan Gao; Xiran Chen; Luman Qin; Boran Cheng; Shubin Wang; Shengxiang Wang; Guangxin Zhao; Kan Liu; Nangang Zhang
      Abstract: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been regarded as the major cause of metastasis, holding significant insights for tumor diagnosis and treatment. Although many efforts have been made to develop methods for CTC isolation and release in microfluidic system, it remains significant challenges to realize highly efficient isolation and gentle release of CTCs for further cellular and bio-molecular analyses. In this study, we demonstrate a novel method for CTC isolation and release using a simple wedge-shaped microfluidic chip embedding degradable znic oxide nanorods (ZnNRs) substrate. By integrating size-dependent filtration with degradable nanostructured substrate, the capture efficiencies over 87.5% were achieved for SKBR3, PC3, HepG2 and A549 cancer cells spiked in healthy blood sample with the flow rate of 100 μL min−1. By dissolving ZnNRs substrate with an extremely low concentration of phosphoric acid (12.5 mM), up to 85.6% of the captured SKBR3 cells were released after reverse injection with flow rate of 100 μL min−1 for 15 min, which exhibited around 73.6% cell viability within 1 h after release to around 93.9% after re-cultured for 3 days. It is conceivable that our microfluidic device has great potentials in carrying on cell-based biomedical studies and guiding individualized treatment in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0235-7
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A novel method to understand tumor cell invasion: integrating
           extracellular matrix mimicking layers in microfluidic chips by
           “selective curing”
    • Authors: H. Eslami Amirabadi; S. SahebAli; J. P. Frimat; R. Luttge; J. M. J. den Toonder
      Abstract: A major challenge in studying tumor cell invasion into its surrounding tissue is to identify the contribution of individual factors in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to the process. One of the important elements of the TME is the fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) which is known to influence cancer cell invasion, but exactly how remains unclear. Therefore, there is a need for new models to unravel mechanisms behind the tumor-ECM interaction. In this article, we present a new microfabrication method, called selective curing, to integrate ECM-mimicking layers between two microfluidic channels. This method enables us to study the effect of 3D matrices with controlled architecture, beyond the conventionally used hydrogels, on cancer invasion in a controlled environment. As a proof of principle, we have integrated two electrospun Polycaprolactone (PCL) matrices with different fiber diameters in one chip. We then studied the 3D migration of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into the matrices under the influence of a chemotactic gradient. The results show that neither the invasion distance nor the general cell morphology is affected significantly by the difference in fiber size of these matrices. The cells however do produce longer and more protrusions in the matrix with smaller fiber size. This microfluidic system enables us to study the influence of other factors in the TME on cancer development as well as other biological applications as it provides a controlled compartmentalized environment compatible with cell culturing.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0234-8
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Characterisation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived
           endothelial cells under shear stress using an easy-to-use microfluidic
           cell culture system
    • Authors: Rsituko Ohtani-Kaneko; Kenjiro Sato; Atsuhiro Tsutiya; Yuka Nakagawa; Kazutoshi Hashizume; Hidekatsu Tazawa
      Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs) can contribute to elucidating the pathogenesis of heart and vascular diseases and developing their treatments. Their precise characteristics in fluid flow however remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to characterise these features. We cultured three types of ECs in a microfluidic culture system: commercially available human iPS-ECs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAECs). We then examined the mRNA expression levels of endothelial marker gene cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), fit-related receptor tyrosine kinase (Flk-1), and the smooth muscle marker gene smooth muscle alpha-actin, and investigated changes in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) secretion and intracellular F-actin arrangement following heat stress. We also compared expressions of the arterial and venous marker genes ephrinB2 and EphB4, and the endothelial gap junction genes connexin (Cx) 37, 40, and 43 under fluidic shear stress to determine their arterial or venous characteristics. We found that iPS-ECs had similar endothelial marker gene expressions and exhibited similar increases in PAI-1 secretion under heat stress as HUVECs and HUAECs. In addition, F-actin arrangement in iPSC-ECs also responded to heat stress, as previously reported. However, they had different expression patterns of arterial and venous marker genes and Cx genes under different fluidic shear stress levels, showing that iPSC-ECs exhibit different characteristics from arterial and venous ECs. This microfluidic culture system equipped with variable shear stress control will provide an easy-to-use assay tool to examine characteristics of iPS-ECs generated by different protocols in various laboratories and contribute to basic and applied biomedical researches on iPS-ECs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0229-5
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Irreversible electroporation in the eradication of rabbit VX2 cervical
           tumors
    • Authors: Wei Chai; Ying Xu; Wenlong Zhang; Zhentong Wei; Jiannan Li; Jian Shi; Xiaomei Luo; Jianying Zeng; Manhua Cui; Lizhi Niu
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the eradication of rabbit VX2 cervical tumors. A VX2 cervical cancer model was first made in 20 New Zealand rabbits. IRE ablation was performed for the cervical cancers of 15 rabbits when the diameter of the tumor was about 1.0–1.5 cm. The control group (n = 5) did not receive IRE ablation. The gross pathology, ultrasound, computed tomography, hematoxylin and eosin, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemical staining were performed to evaluate the efficacy of IRE on cervical cancer. All the rabbits tolerated the IRE ablation without serious complications. The tumors treated by IRE slightly increased in size during the first two days, but decreased gradually. IRE caused tumor cell death efficiently, mainly through cell apoptosis; however, it did not induce complete tumor ablation in our study. The results suggested that IRE could eradicate rabbit VX2 cervical tumors efficiently. However, the optimal IRE parameters remain to be determined.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s10544-017-0231-y
      Issue No: Vol. 19, No. 4 (2017)
       
 
 
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