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ENGINEERING (1267 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
3D Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
AAPG Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
AASRI Procedia     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aceh International Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 274)
Acta Geotechnica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Polytechnica : Journal of Advanced Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Scientiarum. Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Technical Series     Open Access  
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Adaptive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adıyaman Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Adsorption     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Engineering Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research     Open Access  
Advanced Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Science Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Science, Engineering and Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Synthesis & Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Calculus of Variations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Complex Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Engineering Software     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Geosciences (ADGEO)     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heat Transfer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Magnetic and Optical Resonance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Porous Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Science and Research (ASR)     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Aerobiologia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AIChE Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Ain Shams Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Akademik Platform Mühendislik ve Fen Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Engineering Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta - Seria Chimie     Open Access  
Annals of Combinatorics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Pure and Applied Logic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Antarctic Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applicable Algebra in Engineering, Communication and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applicable Analysis: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Catalysis A: General     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Clay Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Applied Magnetic Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Nanoscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Applied Network Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Numerical Mathematics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Foundry Engineering     Open Access  
Archives of Thermodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Arkiv för Matematik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ASEE Prism     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Asian Engineering Review     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Applied Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Control     Hybrid Journal  
Asian Journal of Current Engineering & Maths     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assembly Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
at - Automatisierungstechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ATZagenda     Hybrid Journal  
ATZextra worldwide     Hybrid Journal  
Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Avances en Ciencias e Ingeniería     Open Access  
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research     Open Access  
Basin Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Batteries     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bautechnik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bell Labs Technical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Beyond : Undergraduate Research Journal     Open Access  
Bhakti Persada : Jurnal Aplikasi IPTEKS     Open Access  
Bharatiya Vaigyanik evam Audyogik Anusandhan Patrika (BVAAP)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research     Open Access  
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biomedical Engineering and Computational Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Biomedical Engineering Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Reviews in     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Biomedical Engineering: Applications, Basis and Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Microdevices     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedizinische Technik - Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biomicrofluidics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioNanoMaterials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Bitlis Eren University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Boletin Cientifico Tecnico INIMET     Open Access  
Botswana Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Boundary Value Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brazilian Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Broadcasting, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory     Hybrid Journal  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
Calphad     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Geotechnical Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysis Today     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
CEAS Space Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Chaos : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chaos, Solitons & Fractals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Science Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencia e Ingenieria Neogranadina     Open Access  
Ciencia en su PC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciencias Holguin     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CienciaUAT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cientifica     Open Access  
CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
City, Culture and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clean Air Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coal Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Coastal Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Coastal Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cogent Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cognitive Computation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Color Research & Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COMBINATORICA     Hybrid Journal  
Combustion Theory and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Communications Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Communications in Numerical Methods in Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Composite Structures     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Composites Part A : Applied Science and Manufacturing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209)
Composites Part B : Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 249)
Composites Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194)
Comptes Rendus Mécanique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Computational Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computational Optimization and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computational Science and Discovery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computer Applications in Engineering Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Computers & Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Computers & Mathematics with Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computers and Geotechnics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computing and Visualization in Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Computing in Science & Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Conciencia Tecnologica     Open Access  
Concurrent Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Last

Journal Cover
Clean Air Journal
Number of Followers: 1  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1561-4417 - ISSN (Online) 1934-0516
Published by Sabinet Online Ltd Homepage  [185 journals]
  • Clean Air Journal's 45th anniversary : editorial
    • Authors: Rebecca M. Garland
      Abstract: The Clean Air Journal celebrates its 45th year in 2016. The first issue started with an article on the problems with the application of the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act in South Africa (Boegman, 1971), and also included an article on Johannesburg's "good fortune" at having 3 000 acres of mine dumps available to revegetate into City Parks (Cook, 1971). Since 1971, the Clean Air Journal has aimed to report authentic scientific articles on the topic of air quality management and monitoring relevant to southern Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • Summary of research paper published in Journal of Energy in Southern
           Africa titled : A perspective of South African coal-fired power station
           emissions (2015) Volume 26 Issue 3 pages 27-40 : highlighted local
    • Authors: I. Pretorius; S.J. Piketh, R.P. Burger H. Neomagus
      Abstract: Emissions from South African coal-fired power plants are significant on a regional and global scale. Globally, South Africa ranks seventh of the top 10 countries that are responsible for more than 85% of global carbon emissions from coal-fired plants (preceded only by China, USA, India, Germany, Russia and Japan and superseded by Australia, Korea and Poland). The carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions intensity (CO2 emissions per economic output) of South Africa was found to be one of the highest in the world and more than triple that of industrialized countries. Regionally, South Africa is the main power generator in Africa and the energy sector (of which around 83% is contributed by coal-fired power plants) is one of the major emitters of criteria (Particulate Matter (PM), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)) pollutants in the country.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • Summary of research paper submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
           titled : Optical and microphysical characterization of aerosol layers over
           South Africa by means of multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar
           measurements : highlighted local research
    • Authors: E. Giannakaki; M. Komppula, P.G. Van Zyl, D. Muller D. Balis
      Abstract: Optical and microphysical properties of different aerosol types over South Africa were measured with a multi-wavelength polarization Raman lidar at Elandsfontein in the Highveld region of South Africa for one year. The observations were performed within the framework of the EUCAARI (European Integrated project on Aerosol, Cloud, Climate, and Air Quality Interactions) campaign of which the aim was to characterize particles in terms of physical, optical and chemical aerosol properties in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with aerosol with 50%. Since limited long-term data of this nature exists for this region, this study could significantly assist in bridging existing gaps relating to aerosol properties over South Africa.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • Obituary : Clive Turner : news
    • Authors: Gregor Feig
      Abstract: It is with great sadness that the National Association for Clean Air and the editorial board of the Clean Air Journal would like to acknowledge the recent death of Clive Turner. We would like to commemorate the immeasurable contribution that he made to the cause of clean air in South Africa. Clive was one of the founders of the discipline of Air Quality in South Africa, and was instrumental in many of the initial studies relating to air quality management and atmospheric chemistry and transport. The findings from that work still influence how we perceive the core issues and concerns of air quality in the country.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • National Association for Clean Air (NACA) Awards : news
    • Abstract: NACA Leadership in Air Quality Award: Mr Peter LukeyGolden Award: Dr Hanlie Liebenberg-EnslinNACA Mining and Industry Award: ArcelorMittal Vanderbijlpark Works
      PubDate: 2016-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • Retraction : New particle formation events in semiclean South African
           Savannah : corrections and amendments
    • Abstract: Ville Vakkari, Heikki Laakso, Markku Kulmala, Ari Laaksonen, Desmond Mabaso, Moses Molefe, Nnenesi Kgabi, John P Beukes, and Lauri Laakso. 2011. New particle formation events in semiclean South African Savannah, Clean Air Journal, 20 (2).This article has been retracted by the Editors and the
      Authors due to redundant publication (Vakkari et al., 2011). This article was originally submitted to the National Association of Clean Air (NACA) 2011 conference as a conference paper. It was mistakenly included in the Clean Air Journal as a peer-reviewed original article.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • Correcting respirable photometric particulate measurements using a
           gravimetric sampling method
    • Authors: Brigitte Language; Stuart J. Piketh Roelof P. Burger
      Abstract: According to the National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act of 2004 people have the right to clean air and a healthy environment. Particulate matter (PM) emissions pose a significant health threat. Both indoor and ambient air pollution contribute to the burden of disease associated with poor air quality. This is particularly true within the South African setting where low income households make use of different solid fuels for heating and cooking purposes resulting in high levels of PM emissions. This paper focuses on the evaluation mass concentration measurements recorded by continuous photometric PM instruments within KwaDela, a low income settlement in Mpumalanga located on the South African Highveld. Thus, obtaining a photometric calibration factor for both the DustTrak Model 8530 and the SidePak AM510. Sampling took place during August 2014 for a period of seven days. The photometric and gravimetric instruments were collocated within the indoor environment of selected households. These instruments were all fitted with 10mm Dorr-Oliver Cyclone inlets to obtain the respirable (PM4) cut-point. The study found that both instruments tend to overestimate the indoor particulate mass concentrations when compared to the reference gravimetric method. The estimated photometric calibration factors for the DustTrak Model 8530 and SidePak AM510 are 0.14 (95%Cl: 0.09, 0.15) and 0.24 (95%Cl: 0.16, 0.30) respectively. The overestimation of the photometric measurements is rather significant. It is therefore important that the correction factors are applied to data collected in indoor environments prone to the combustion of solid fuels. The correction factors obtained from this and other studies vary as a result of the environment (ambient, indoor etc.) as well as the aerosol size fraction and the origin thereof. Thus, it is important to considered site specific calibration factors when implementing these photometric light-scattering instruments.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • Influence of coal-particle size on emissions using the top-lit updraft
           ignition method
    • Authors: Lethukuthula Masondo; Daniel Masekameni, Tafadzwa Makonese, Kenneth Mohapi Harold J. Annegarn
      Abstract: Despite the Government's intervention of an intensive electrification program in South Africa, which has resulted in more than 87% of households being connected to the grid, a majority of low-income households still depend on solid fuel (coal and wood) as a primary source of energy, especially on the central Highveld. In informal settlements, combustion of coal is done in inefficient self-fabricated braziers, colloquially known as imbaulas. Emissions from domestic coal combustion result in elevated household and ambient air pollution levels that often exceed national air quality limits. Continued dependence on coal combustion exposes households to copious amounts of health-damaging pollutants. Despite the health significance of coal-burning emissions from informal braziers, there is still a dearth of emissions data from these devices. Consequently, evaluating the emission characteristics of these devices and to determine the resultant emission factors is needed. The effects of ignition methods and ventilation rates on particulate and gaseous emission from coal-burning braziers are reported in literature. However, to date there are no studies carried out to investigate the influence of the size of coal pieces on brazier emission performance. In this paper, we report on controlled combustion experiments carried out to investigate systematically, influences of coal particle size on gaseous and condensed matter (smoke) emissions from informal residential coal combustion braziers. Results presented are averages of three identical burn-cycles of duration three hours or fuel burn-out, whichever was the soonest.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • Assessment of ambient air pollution in the Waterberg Priority Area
    • Authors: Gregor T. Feig; Seneca Naidoo Nokulunga Ncgukana
      Abstract: The Waterberg Priority Area ambient air quality monitoring network was established in 2012 to monitor the ambient air quality in the Waterberg Air Quality Priority Area. Three monitoring stations were established in Lephalale, Thabazimbi and Mokopane. The monitoring stations measure the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO, O3, BTEX and meteorological parameters. Hourly data for a 31 month period (October 2012-April 2015) was obtained from the South African Air Quality Information System (SAAQIS) and analysed to assess patterns in atmospheric concentrations, including seasonal and diurnal patterns of the ambient concentrations and to assess the impacts that such reported pollution concentration may have. Local source regions for SO2, PM10, PM2.5 and O3 were identified and trends in the recorded concentrations are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • Reflections on the Workshop on International and National Landscape of
           Atmospheric Mercury and the NACA Conference, 1-2 October 2015 : guest
    • Authors: Ian Hedgecock
      Abstract: It was a great privilege to be invited to talk at the 'Workshop on International and National Landscape of Atmospheric Mercury', and to give a presentation at this year's National Association for Clean Air Conference with the conference theme of "Shifting Challenges of Air Quality in South Africa".
      PubDate: 2015-11-01T00:00:00Z
  • ARSAIO overview : Atmospheric Research in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean
           : a South Africa-France bilateral collaborative programme : news
    • Authors: Venkataraman Sivakumar; Hassan Bencherif, Cathy Liousse, Johan Paul Beukes, Pieter Gideon Van Zyl, Stuart Piketh, Paola Formenti, Caradee Yael Wright Caradee Yael Wright
      Abstract: The "Atmospheric Research in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean" (ARSAIO) project is a research consortium of more than 25 researchers and 30 students. It is funded through a bi-lateral research programme between South Africa and France. The first phase was completed in December 2013. Now in its second phase, the project shall be completed by the end of 2017. Here, we provide an overview of the Universities/Institutes involved and French and South African co-ordinators who are investigating the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere by utilising different in-situ, space-borne and model simulation techniques.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01T00:00:00Z
  • Mercury measurements at Cape Point, South Africa - an update on recent
           findings : highlighted local research
    • Authors: E-G. Brunke; C. Walters, T. Mkololo, L. Martin, C. Labuschagne, B. Silwana, F. Slemr, A. Weigelt, R. Ebinghaus V. Somerset
      Abstract: Mercury (Hg) is regarded as a highly toxic, heavy metal and is also considered as a global pollutant due to its long range transport and bio-accumulation in the aquatic nutrition chain, which is not fully understood yet. For this reason and also to initiate international legislation aimed at controlling the use of mercury, a European Union-funded Global Mercury Observing System (GMOS), in which the Cape Point Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station participated, was initiated in 2010. The South African Weather Service (SAWS) as well as the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) have been conducting mercury measurements at the Cape Point GAW station since 1995 and 2007, respectively. While SAWS focussed on the measurement of Gaseous Elemental Mercury (GEM) in air, the CSIR has carried out analyses of Total mercury (TotHg) in precipitation samples. The GEM measuring programme, which is ongoing, has led to several publications dealing with long-term trends, seasonal cycles, depletion events and continental emission estimates for Hg.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01T00:00:00Z
  • Recent papers utilizing Cape Point mercury monitoring data : research
    • Abstract: Mercury is a globally important toxin that has the potential to cause significant adverse impacts to human and environmental health. Mercury that is released from natural or anthropogenic activities has the ability to enter the atmosphere and due to its long atmospheric lifespan it is able to be transported great distances around the world. As part of the biogeochemical cycling of mercury, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) (the most abundant species of atmospheric mercury, accounting for >90% of the total atmospheric mercury) is able to be oxidised and is deposited in water and on land, where it undergoes further biogeochemical cycling to form methylated mercury.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01T00:00:00Z
  • Mercury emissions in South Africa - perspective from the Department of
           Environmental Affairs : commentary
    • Authors: Vincent Gololo
      Abstract: The Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) recognises the need to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions of mercury. In 2003, various governments agreed on the need for global action on mercury based on its adverse health and environmental effects. Later, in 2009, they negotiated a legally-binding instrument on mercury and established the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC). Five INC negotiation sessions were held and in January 2013, the negotiations were finalised. The content of the convention, known as the Minamata convention, was adopted in October 2013 in Minamata, Japan and South Africa was a signatory of the convention.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01T00:00:00Z
  • Perspectives on South African atmospheric mercury scientific research :
    • Authors: Patricia Forbes
      Abstract: On the 30 September 2015, a workshop entitled "International and National Landscape of Atmospheric Mercury" was held in Bloemfontein prior to the start of the annual National Association for Clean Air (NACA) Conference. Dr Ian Hedgecock of the CNRInstitute of Atmospheric Pollution Research in Italy provided a global context to atmospheric mercury levels, impacts and policy and highlighted challenges faced (see his commentary for more information), whilst Dr Vincent Gololo of the Department of Environmental Affairs provided a summary of the status of the development of the South African mercury emissions inventory.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01T00:00:00Z
  • Emission accomplished : formal and informal mercury sources in South
           Africa : commentary
    • Authors: Renee A. Street; Renee A. Street
      Abstract: Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is present in air, water and soil. It exists in three main forms namely elemental mercury, inorganic mercury compounds and organic mercury compounds (WHO, 2007). The atmosphere is the leading transport pathway of mercury emissions, while land and ocean processes maintain a central role in mercury redistribution among terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems (Driscoll et al., 2013). The biogeochemical cycling of mercury is complex, comprising various transport and transformation progressions that define the fate of mercury and the health risks on ecosystem and humans (Liu et al., 2011).
      PubDate: 2015-11-01T00:00:00Z
  • Indoor and outdoor particulate matter concentrations on the Mpumalanga
           highveld - a case study
    • Authors: Bianca Wernecke; Bianca Wernecke, Brigitte Language, Stuart J. Piketh Roelof P. Burger
      Abstract: The household combustion of solid fuels, for the purpose of heating and cooking, is an activity practiced by many people in South Africa. Air pollution caused by the combustion of solid fuels in households has a significant influence on public health. People most affected are those considered to be the poorest, living in low-income settlements, where burning solid fuel is the primary source of energy. Insufficient data has been collected in South Africa to quantify the concentrations of particulate emissions that people are exposed to, especially the respirable fraction, associated with the combustion of solid fuels. The aim of this paper is to gain an understanding of the particulate matter (PM) concentrations a person living in a typical household in a low income settlement in the South African Highveld is exposed to. It also seeks to demonstrate that the use of solid fuels in the household can lead to indoor air pollution concentrations reaching levels very similar to ambient PM concentrations, which could be well in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards, representing a major national public health threat. A mobile monitoring station was used in KwaDela, Mpumalanga to measure both ambient particulate concentrations and meteorological conditions, while a range of dust/particulate monitors were used for indoor and personal particulate concentration measurements. Indoor and personal measurements are limited to the respirable fraction (PM4) as this fraction contributes significantly to the negative health impacts. The sampling for this case study took place from 7-19 August 2014. Highest particulate matter concentrations were evident during the early mornings and the early evenings, when solid fuel burning activities were at their highest. Indoor and personal daily average PM4 concentrations did not exceed the 24h National Ambient PM2.5 Standard of 65 µg/m3 nor did they exceed the 24h National Ambient PM10 Standard of 75 µg/m3. The outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were found to be below the standards for the duration of the sampling period. The outdoor PM10 concentrations exceeded the standards for one day during the sampling period. Results indicate that, although people in KwaDela may be exposed to ambient PM concentrations that can be non-compliant to ambient standards, the exposure to indoor air, where solid fuel is burnt, may be detrimental to their health.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01T00:00:00Z
  • Climate change impacts on mean wind speeds in South Africa
    • Authors: Lynette Herbst; Hannes Rautenbach
      Abstract: Climate change could potentially affect a number of variables that impact the dispersal of and human exposure to air pollutants, as well as climate dependent sectors such as wind energy. This study attempted to quantify the projected changes in seasonal daily mean wind speeds for South Africa around the mid-21st century (2051-2075) under two different atmospheric heat pathways. Seasonal daily mean wind speed increases rarely reach 6% and decreases occur to a maximum of 3% and are variable between different seasons and areas within the country. In all seasons except December-January-February, wind speeds are projected to increase in the Highveld region, suggesting that air pollution dispersing conditions could increase. Wind direction at the 850hPa-level show minor changes, except over the Western and Eastern Cape provinces.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01T00:00:00Z
  • The use of fine water sprays to suppress fume emissions when casting
    • Authors: Sarel J. Gates; Gerrit Kornelius, Steven C. Rencken, Neil M. Fagan, Peter Cowx Luther Els
      Abstract: During the casting of ferromanganese alloys from electric arc furnaces into sand beds at temperatures of up to 1800°C a considerable amount of very brown fumes are generated when the alloy fume is oxidized in the atmosphere. The fume is difficult to capture because of the large flux of gas that is generated. Possible reasons for this flux include the high evaporation rate of Mn at elevated temperatures, the large surface area of the casting beds and the large thermal plumes over the furnace tapholes and casting beds. It has been found that the use of fine water sprays along the edge of the roof that covers the casting bed resulted in a significant reduction in visible emissions. This paper describes research into the kinetics of the fume to improve the design of the capture hoods, as well as the mechanism of suppression by the water sprays by using CFD analysis. It is shown that the oxidation reaction produces less than 20% of the energy content of the plume over the arc furnace taphole, and also that radiation heat transfer may play an important role in increasing the energy content of the taphole plume. The capture of fume particles by fine spray droplets is shown to have limited efficiency, while the heat sink that is caused by evaporation does not materially contribute to the circulation of fume through the spray. It is postulated that the increased moisture content of the air over the casting beds may be instrumental in reducing the oxygen partial pressure or in the formation of an oxide layer, both of which would reduce metal evaporation and, therefore fume formation. The exact mechanism requires further investigation.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01T00:00:00Z
  • Quality Assurance of Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems : a
           practitioner's guide/technical report
    • Authors: Gerald Woollatt
      Abstract: In 2004, the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) and regulations were promulgated and by 2010 were gazetted into law for the first time in South Africa. Under the NEMA, the Air Quality Act 39 of 2004 (AQA) was promulgated and included priority pollutants identified by the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) as having or may have a significant detrimental effect on the environment, including health, social conditions, economic conditions, ecological conditions or cultural heritage. In this context continuous emission monitoring of emissions to air is a requirement under many of the operators as Air Emission Licenses (AEL) issued under section 21 of AQA. The quality of data obtained from continuous emission monitors is ensured by the inclusion of the BS EN14181:2004 (revised standard updated to current BS EN14181:2014) European standard which has been adopted into the South African legislation for this purpose. With this in mind the purpose of this technical paper is to provide an overview of the current status of automated measuring systems (AMS)/continuous emission monitors (CEMs) currently in use by industry to monitor emissions in South Africa, in terms of compliance with relevant emission limit values (ELVs) and the current challenges faced with ensuring the quality and reliability of the data obtained.
      PubDate: 2015-11-01T00:00:00Z
  • Ernst-Güenter Brunke : news
    • Authors: Casper Labuschagne
      Abstract: Ernst Brunke's journey with the Cape Point station began modestly in the late 1970's when he transferred from the Geological survey, where he was working at the time as a geologist in the Northern Cape. He was approached by the late Dr Eric Halliday, who is regarded as the founder of air pollution monitoring in SA, to come and work with him on a carbon monoxide measuring program at Cape Point. These measurements started in collaboration with the Max Planck Institute in Germany, and I'm sure Dr Halliday was also very much interested in Ernst's proficiency of the German language and protocols!
      PubDate: 2015-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • New developments in the Clean Air Journal : letter from the editors
    • Authors: Gregor Feig; Rebecca Garland Caradee Wright
      Abstract: The Clean Air Journal has a reputation for publishing high-quality research that is topical to the southern African region; this includes highlighting key issues to the southern African air quality community.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • Laboratory for Atmospheric Studies launched : news
    • Abstract: The University of Pretoria (UP), with support from Eskom and Sasol, recently launched the Laboratory for Atmospheric Studies (LAS). The laboratory is based at the University of Pretoria and will be a national centre of excellence that provides infrastructure and world-class education for studies and research in the atmospheric sciences.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • Adoption of a publication ethics and malpractice statement : news
    • Authors: Rebecca M. Garland
      Abstract: The Clean Air Journal has adopted a formal Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement. The purpose of this statement is to outline the duties, responsibilities and obligations of the Clean Air Journal authors, reviewers and editors. By adopting this statement, the Editors and Editorial Board of the Clean Air Journal strive to highlight their commitment to adhere to the highest standards of publication ethics.
      PubDate: 2015-05-01T00:00:00Z
  • Ozone in southern Africa : feature
    • Abstract: Ozone is one of the most important pollutants in South Africa. During 2014, all of the monitoring sites in the Vaal Triangle and Highveld priority areas were out of compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone in terms of the number of reported exceedances. In South Africa, the focus of concern relating to ambient ozone has largely been in relation to human health, however, it has long been known that high levels of ambient ozone have a large detrimental effect on agricultural productivity. Recently, a number of articles have been published regarding the impact of ozone on agriculture and two of these are highlighted below.
      Research Brief - Reduction of India's crop yield due to ozone
      Research Brief - Threat to future global food security from climate change and ozone air pollution
      PubDate: 2015-05-01T00:00:00Z
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