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Journal Cover Science and Engineering Ethics
  [SJR: 0.372]   [H-I: 31]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1471-5546 - ISSN (Online) 1353-3452
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • Will Life Be Worth Living in a World Without Work? Technological
           Unemployment and the Meaning of Life
    • Authors: John Danaher
      Pages: 41 - 64
      Abstract: Abstract Suppose we are about to enter an era of increasing technological unemployment. What implications does this have for society? Two distinct ethical/social issues would seem to arise. The first is one of distributive justice: how will the (presumed) efficiency gains from automated labour be distributed through society? The second is one of personal fulfillment and meaning: if people no longer have to work, what will they do with their lives? In this article, I set aside the first issue and focus on the second. In doing so, I make three arguments. First, I argue that there are good reasons to embrace non-work and that these reasons become more compelling in an era of technological unemployment. Second, I argue that the technological advances that make widespread technological unemployment possible could still threaten or undermine human flourishing and meaning, especially if (as is to be expected) they do not remain confined to the economic sphere. And third, I argue that this threat could be contained if we adopt an integrative approach to our relationship with technology. In advancing these arguments, I draw on three distinct literatures: (1) the literature on technological unemployment and workplace automation; (2) the antiwork critique—which I argue gives reasons to embrace technological unemployment; and (3) the philosophical debate about the conditions for meaning in life—which I argue gives reasons for concern.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9770-5
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A Mobilising Concept? Unpacking Academic Representations of
           Responsible Research and Innovation
    • Authors: Barbara E. Ribeiro; Robert D. J. Smith; Kate Millar
      Pages: 81 - 103
      Abstract: Abstract This paper makes a plea for more reflexive attempts to develop and anchor the emerging concept of responsible research and innovation (RRI). RRI has recently emerged as a buzzword in science policy, becoming a focus of concerted experimentation in many academic circles. Its performative capacity means that it is able to mobilise resources and spaces despite no common understanding of what it is or should be ‘made of’. In order to support reflection and practice amongst those who are interested in and using the concept, this paper unpacks understandings of RRI across a multi-disciplinary body of peer-reviewed literature. Our analysis focuses on three key dimensions of RRI (motivations, theoretical conceptualisations and translations into practice) that remain particularly opaque. A total of 48 publications were selected through a systematic literature search and their content was qualitatively analysed. Across the literature, RRI is portrayed as a concept that embeds numerous features of existing approaches to govern and assess emerging technologies. Our analysis suggests that its greatest potential may be in its ability to unify and provide political momentum to a wide range of long-articulated ethical and policy issues. At the same time, RRI’s dynamism and resulting complexity may represent its greatest challenge. Further clarification on what RRI has to offer in practice—beyond what has been offered to date—is still needed, as well as more explicit engagement with research and institutional cultures of responsibility. Such work may help to realise the high political expectations that are attached to nascent RRI.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9761-6
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Aware, Yet Ignorant: Exploring the Views of Early Career Researchers About
           Funding and Conflicts of Interests in Science
    • Authors: Meghnaa Tallapragada; Gina M. Eosco; Katherine A. McComas
      Pages: 147 - 164
      Abstract: Abstract This study investigates the level of awareness about funding influences and potential conflicts of interests (COI) among early career researchers. The sample for this study included users of one or more of the 14 U.S. laboratories associated with the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network. To be eligible, respondents must have been either still completing graduate work or <5 years since graduation. In total, 713 early career researchers completed the web survey, with about half still in graduate school. Results indicate that although respondents were aware of potential funding and COI influences on their work, they remained largely ignorant of their role in addressing or managing these issues. Respondents often attributed the responsibility of addressing these issues to their supervisors. Respondents who had received some training around these issues, however, were more likely to assume more personal responsibility. Overall, this study points out that ignorance among early career researchers is less about awareness of funding and COI issues and more about taking personal responsibility for addressing these issues.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9764-3
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Patients’ Awareness About Their Rights: A Study from Coastal South
           India
    • Authors: Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan; Divya Trivedi; Tanuj Kanchan; Thapar Rekha; Prasanna Mithra; Nithin Kumar; Vaman Kulkarni; Ramesh Holla; Mishaal Talish
      Pages: 203 - 214
      Abstract: Abstract Respecting patients’ rights is a fundamental aspect of providing quality healthcare. The present investigation attempts to explore the awareness among patients about their rights in a coastal township in India. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 215 patients admitted to the wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mangalore. Awareness among patients regarding their rights varied for various issues and ranged between 48.4 and 87.4 %. Awareness about patients’ rights was independent of gender, socio-economic and educational status. Doctors were found to be the most common source of information for patient’s about their rights in the study. Doctors must conform to the relevant legislations and involve patients in all aspects of healthcare. There is a need to increase awareness among patients about their rights to ensure informed decisions and better health care services.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9776-z
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Relevant Information and Informed Consent in Research: In Defense of the
           Subjective Standard of Disclosure
    • Authors: Vilius Dranseika; Jan Piasecki; Marcin Waligora
      Pages: 215 - 225
      Abstract: Abstract In this article, we seek to contribute to the debate on the requirement of disclosure in the context of informed consent for research. We defend the subjective standard of disclosure and describe ways to implement this standard in research practice. We claim that the researcher should make an effort to find out what kinds of information are likely to be relevant for those consenting to research. This invites researchers to take empirical survey information seriously, attempt to understand the cultural context, talk to patients to be better able to understand what can be potentially different concerns and interests prevalent in the target population. The subjective standard of disclosure should be seen as a moral ideal that perhaps can never be perfectly implemented but still can and should be used as a normative ideal guiding research practice. In the light of these discussions, we call for more empirical research on what considerations are likely to be perceived as relevant by potential research participants recruited from different socio-economic and cultural groups.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9755-4
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training
    • Authors: Robert T. Pennock; Michael O’Rourke
      Pages: 243 - 262
      Abstract: Abstract Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock’s notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations—theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centered—that we have developed in courses and workshops to introduce students to this scientific virtue-based approach.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9757-2
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Strategies for Teaching Professional Ethics to IT Engineering Degree
           Students and Evaluating the Result
    • Authors: Rafael Miñano; Ángel Uruburu; Ana Moreno-Romero; Diego Pérez-López
      Pages: 263 - 286
      Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an experience in developing professional ethics by an approach that integrates knowledge, teaching methodologies and assessment coherently. It has been implemented for students in both the Software Engineering and Computer Engineering degree programs of the Technical University of Madrid, in which professional ethics is studied as a part of a required course. Our contribution of this paper is a model for formative assessment that clarifies the learning goals, enhances the results, simplifies the scoring and can be replicated in other contexts. A quasi-experimental study that involves many of the students of the required course has been developed. To test the effectiveness of the teaching process, the analysis of ethical dilemmas and the use of deontological codes have been integrated, and a scoring rubric has been designed. Currently, this model is also being used to develop skills related to social responsibility and sustainability for undergraduate and postgraduate students of diverse academic context.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-015-9746-x
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Online-Based Approaches to Identify Real Journals and Publishers from
           Hijacked Ones
    • Authors: Amin Asadi; Nader Rahbar; Meisam Asadi; Fahime Asadi; Kokab Khalili Paji
      Pages: 305 - 308
      Abstract: The aim of the present paper was to introduce some online-based approaches to evaluate scientific journals and publishers and to differentiate them from the hijacked ones, regardless of their disciplines. With the advent of open-access journals, many hijacked journals and publishers have deceitfully assumed the mantle of authenticity in order to take advantage of researchers and students. Although these hijacked journals and publishers can be identified through checking their advertisement techniques and their websites, these ways do not always result in their identification. There exist certain online-based approaches, such as using Master Journal List provided by Thomson Reuters, and Scopus database, and using the
      DOI of a paper, to certify the realness of a journal or publisher. It is indispensable that inexperienced students and researchers know these methods so as to identify hijacked journals and publishers with a higher level of probability.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Responses of Authors Accused of Plagiarism by Journal Editors
    • Authors: Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit
      Pages: 309 - 311
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9752-7
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Time for Revelation: Unmasking the Anonymity of Blind Reviewers
    • Authors: Govindasamy Agoramoorthy
      Pages: 313 - 315
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9778-x
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Chinese and Iranian Scientific Publications: Fast Growth and Poor Ethics
    • Authors: Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani
      Pages: 317 - 319
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9766-1
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Consented Autopsy and the Middle-East
    • Authors: Magdy A. Kharoshah; Syed Ather Hussain; Mohammed Madadin; Ritesh G. Menezes
      Pages: 321 - 322
      Abstract: Abstract Consented autopsy is almost non-existent in the Middle-East where established social and cultural beliefs regarding the procedure might discourage family members from requesting a consented autopsy. Evidence suggests that new information is obtained from consented autopsies. It would not be in the best interest of medicine if social and cultural misconceptions succeed in erasing the existence of consented autopsies entirely.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9760-7
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Print Me an Organ? Ethical and Regulatory Issues Emerging from 3D
           Bioprinting in Medicine
    • Authors: Frederic Gilbert; Cathal D. O’Connell; Tajanka Mladenovska; Susan Dodds
      Abstract: Abstract Recent developments of three-dimensional printing of biomaterials (3D bioprinting) in medicine have been portrayed as demonstrating the potential to transform some medical treatments, including providing new responses to organ damage or organ failure. However, beyond the hype and before 3D bioprinted organs are ready to be transplanted into humans, several important ethical concerns and regulatory questions need to be addressed. This article starts by raising general ethical concerns associated with the use of bioprinting in medicine, then it focuses on more particular ethical issues related to experimental testing on humans, and the lack of current international regulatory directives to guide these experiments. Accordingly, this article (1) considers whether there is a limit as to what should be bioprinted in medicine; (2) examines key risks of significant harm associated with testing 3D bioprinting for humans; (3) investigates the clinical trial paradigm used to test 3D bioprinting; (4) analyses ethical questions of irreversibility, loss of treatment opportunity and replicability; (5) explores the current lack of a specific framework for the regulation and testing of 3D bioprinting treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9874-6
       
  • Publishers: Save Authors’ Time
    • Authors: Khaled Moustafa
      Abstract: Abstract Scientific journals ask authors to put their manuscripts, at the submission stage, sometimes in a complex style and a specific pagination format that are time consuming while it is unclear yet that the submitted manuscripts will be accepted. In the case of rejections, authors need to submit to another journal most likely with a different style and formatting that require additional work and time. To save authors’ time, publishers should allow authors to submit their manuscripts in any format and to comply with the style required by the targeted journal only in revised versions, but not at the submission step when the manuscripts are not yet approved for publication.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9879-1
       
  • Effect of Unprofessional Supervision on Durability of Buildings
    • Authors: Javad Yahaghi
      Abstract: Abstract The durability of buildings which depends on the nature of the supervisory system used in their construction is an important feature of the construction industry. This article tries to draw the readers’ attention to the effect of untrained and unprofessional building supervisors and their unethical performance on the durability of buildings.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9871-9
       
  • Business Ethics for Mobile Network Operators
    • Authors: Shahryar Sorooshian
      Abstract: Abstract The letter is highlighting a case of Business Ethics for Mobile Network Operators based on the recent news.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9878-2
       
  • Should Authors be Requested to Suggest Peer Reviewers?
    • Authors: Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva; Aceil Al-Khatib
      Abstract: As part of a continuous process to explore the factors that might weaken or corrupt traditional peer review, in this paper, we query the ethics, fairness and validity of the request, by editors, of authors to suggest peer reviewers during the submission process. One of the reasons for the current crisis in science pertains to a loss in trust as a result of a flawed peer review which is by nature biased unless it is open peer review. As we indicate, the fact that some editors and journals rely on authors’ suggestions in terms of who should peer review their paper already instills a potential way to abuse the trust of the submission and publishing system. An author-suggested peer reviewer choice might also tempt authors to seek reviewers who might be more receptive or sympathetic to the authors’ message or results, and thus favor the outcome of that paper.
      Authors should thus not be placed in such a potentially ethically compromising situation, especially as a mandatory condition for submission. However, the fact that they do not have an opt-out choice during the submission process—especially when using an online submission system that makes such a suggestion compulsory—may constitute a violation of authors’ rights.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9842-6
       
  • Ethical Implications of User Perceptions of Wearable Devices
    • Authors: L. H. Segura Anaya; Abeer Alsadoon; N. Costadopoulos; P. W. C. Prasad
      Abstract: Abstract Health Wearable Devices enhance the quality of life, promote positive lifestyle changes and save time and money in medical appointments. However, Wearable Devices store large amounts of personal information that is accessed by third parties without user consent. This creates ethical issues regarding privacy, security and informed consent. This paper aims to demonstrate users’ ethical perceptions of the use of Wearable Devices in the health sector. The impact of ethics is determined by an online survey which was conducted from patients and users with random female and male division. Results from this survey demonstrate that Wearable Device users are highly concerned regarding privacy issues and consider informed consent as “very important” when sharing information with third parties. However, users do not appear to relate privacy issues with informed consent. Additionally, users expressed the need for having shorter privacy policies that are easier to read, a more understandable informed consent form that involves regulatory authorities and there should be legal consequences the violation or misuse of health information provided to Wearable Devices. The survey results present an ethical framework that will enhance the ethical development of Wearable Technology.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9872-8
       
  • Gene Editing, Enhancing and Women’s Role
    • Authors: Frida Simonstein
      Abstract: Abstract A recent article on the front page of The Independent (September 18, 2015) reported that the genetic ‘manipulation’ of IVF embryos is to start in Britain, using a new revolutionary gene-editing technique, called Crispr/Cas9. About three weeks later (Saturday 10, October 2015), on the front page of the same newspaper, it was reported that the National Health Service (NHS) faces a one billion pound deficit only 3 months into the new year. The hidden connection between these reports is that gene editing could be used to solve issues related to health care allocation. Improving the health of future generations might coincide with public health goals; it might improve the health of individuals and communities, and, if successful, might be seen as a public good. However, enhancing future generations will require In Vitro Fertilisation and Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis. Remarkably, the necessary involvement of women in an enhancing scenario has not been discussed by its proponents. The present discourse on moral obligations of future generations, although not referring to women, seems to imply that women might be required, morally, if not legally, to reproduce with IVF. Enhancing future generations will be gendered, unless the artificial womb is developed. These are challenging issues that require a wider perspective, of both women and men. Despite the lack of a unified feminist conclusion in the discussions about the merits and risks of human genome modification, there is an urgent need to clarify the role of women in this scenario.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9875-5
       
  • A Meta-analytic Comparison of Face-to-Face and Online Delivery in Ethics
           Instruction: The Case for a Hybrid Approach
    • Authors: E. Michelle Todd; Logan L. Watts; Tyler J. Mulhearn; Brett S. Torrence; Megan R. Turner; Shane Connelly; Michael D. Mumford
      Abstract: Abstract Despite the growing body of literature on training in the responsible conduct of research, few studies have examined the effectiveness of delivery formats used in ethics courses (i.e., face-to-face, online, hybrid). The present effort sought to address this gap in the literature through a meta-analytic review of 66 empirical studies, representing 106 ethics courses and 10,069 participants. The frequency and effectiveness of 67 instructional and process-based content areas were also assessed for each delivery format. Process-based contents were best delivered face-to-face, whereas contents delivered online were most effective when restricted to compliance-based instructional contents. Overall, hybrid courses were found to be most effective, suggesting that ethics courses are best delivered using a blend of formats and content areas. Implications and recommendations for future development of ethics education courses in the sciences are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9869-3
       
 
 
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