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Journal Cover
Science and Engineering Ethics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.466
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1471-5546 - ISSN (Online) 1353-3452
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Emerging ICT for Citizens’ Veillance: Theoretical and Practical
    • Authors: Philip Boucher; Susana Nascimento; Mariachiara Tallacchini
      Pages: 821 - 830
      Abstract: In ubiquitous surveillance societies, individuals are subjected to observation and control by authorities, institutions, and corporations. Sometimes, citizens contribute their own knowledge and other resources to their own surveillance. In addition, some of “the watched” observe “the watchers” “through” sous‐veillant activities, and various forms of self-surveillance for different purposes. However, information and communication technologies are also increasingly used for social initiatives with a bottom up structure where citizens themselves define the goals, shape the outcomes and profit from the benefits of watching activities. This model, which we define as citizens’ veillance and explore in this special issue, may present opportunities for individuals and collectives to be more prepared to meet the challenges they face in various domains including environment, health, planning and emergency response.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0039-z
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2018)
  • Respecting Context to Protect Privacy: Why Meaning Matters
    • Authors: Helen Nissenbaum
      Pages: 831 - 852
      Abstract: In February 2012, the Obama White House endorsed a Privacy Bill of Rights, comprising seven principles. The third, “Respect for Context,” is explained as the expectation that “companies will collect, use, and disclose personal data in ways that are consistent with the context in which consumers provide the data.” One can anticipate the contested interpretations of this principle as parties representing diverse interests vie to make theirs the authoritative one. In the paper I will discuss three possibilities and explain why each does not take us far beyond the status quo, which, regulators in the United States, Europe, and beyond have found problematic. I will argue that contextual integrity offers the best way forward for protecting privacy in a world where information increasingly mediates our significant activities and relationships. Although an important goal is to influence policy, this paper aims less to stipulate explicit rules than to present an underlying justificatory, or normative rationale. Along the way, it will review key ideas in the theory of contextual integrity, its differences from existing approaches, and its harmony with basic intuition about information sharing practices and norms.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-015-9674-9
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2018)
  • Surveillance, Self and Smartphones: Tracking Practices in the Nightlife
    • Authors: Tjerk Timan; Anders Albrechtslund
      Pages: 853 - 870
      Abstract: This paper is the result of the EMERGING ICT FOR CITIZEN VEILLANCE-workshop organized by the JRC, Ispra, Italy, March 2014. The aim of this paper is to explore how the subject participates in surveillance situations with a particular focus on how users experience everyday tracking technologies and practices. Its theoretical points of departure stem from Surveillance Studies in general and notions of participatory surveillance (Albrechtslund 2008) and empowering exhibitionism (Koskela in Surveill Soc 2(2/3):199–215, 2004) in particular. We apply these theoretical notions on smartphones and its users to investigate the combination of participation and surveillance. Empirically, the paper uses interviews held with urban nightlife visitors to uncover practices of smartphone use. This qualitative and explorative study contributes to the concept of participatory surveillance by discussing to what extent smartphone-users’ actions and motivations can be seen as forms of surveillance and how that influences these actors in a (nightly) public space. We finish by setting out directions for studying mobile technologies of the self.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-015-9691-8
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2018)
  • Information and Communication Technologies, Genes, and Peer-Production of
           Knowledge to Empower Citizens’ Health
    • Authors: Annibale Biggeri; Mariachiara Tallacchini
      Pages: 871 - 885
      Abstract: The different and seemingly unrelated practices of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) used to collect and share personal and scientific data within networked communities, and the organized storage of human genetic samples and information—namely biobanking—have merged with another recent epistemic and social phenomenon, namely scientists and citizens collaborating as “peers” in creating knowledge (or peer-production of knowledge). These different dimensions can be found in joint initiatives where scientists-and-citizens use genetic information and ICT as powerful ways to gain more control over their health and the environment. While this kind of initiative usually takes place only after rights have been infringed (or are put at risk)—as the two cases presented in the paper show—collaborative scientists-and-citizens’ knowledge should be institutionally allowed to complement and corroborate official knowledge-supporting policies.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-015-9686-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2018)
  • ‘Do-It-Yourself’ Healthcare' Quality of Health and Healthcare
           Through Wearable Sensors
    • Authors: Lucia Vesnic-Alujevic; Melina Breitegger; Ângela Guimarães Pereira
      Pages: 887 - 904
      Abstract: Wearable sensors are an integral part of the new telemedicine concept supporting the idea that Information Technologies will improve the quality and efficiency of healthcare. The use of sensors in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients not only potentially changes medical practice but also one’s relationship with one’s body and mind, as well as the role and responsibilities of patients and healthcare professionals. In this paper, we focus on knowledge assessment of the online communities of Fitbit (a commercial wearable device) and the Quantified Self movement. Through their online forums, we investigate how users’ knowledge claims, shared experiences and imaginations about wearable sensors interrogate or confirm the narratives through which they are introduced to the publics. Citizen initiatives like the Quantified Self movement claim the right to ‘own’ the sensor generated data. But how these data can be used through traditional healthcare systems is an open question. More importantly, wearable sensors trigger a social function that is transformative of the current idea of care and healthcare, focused on sharing, socialising and collectively reflecting about individual problems. Whether this is aligned with current policy making about healthcare, whose central narrative is focused on efficiency and productivity, is to be seen.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9771-4
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2018)
  • Ethical Design in the Internet of Things
    • Authors: Gianmarco Baldini; Maarten Botterman; Ricardo Neisse; Mariachiara Tallacchini
      Pages: 905 - 925
      Abstract: Even though public awareness about privacy risks in the Internet is increasing, in the evolution of the Internet to the Internet of Things (IoT) these risks are likely to become more relevant due to the large amount of data collected and processed by the “Things”. The business drivers for exploring ways to monetize such data are one of the challenges identified in this paper for the protection of Privacy in the IoT. Beyond the protection of privacy, this paper highlights the need for new approaches, which grant a more active role to the users of the IoT and which address other potential issues such as the Digital Divide or safety risks. A key facet in ethical design is the transparency of the technology and services in how that technology handles data, as well as providing choice for the user. This paper presents a new approach for users’ interaction with the IoT, which is based on the concept of Ethical Design implemented through a policy-based framework. In the proposed framework, users are provided with wider controls over personal data or the IoT services by selecting specific sets of policies, which can be tailored according to users’ capabilities and to the contexts where they operate. The potential deployment of the framework in a typical IoT context is described with the identification of the main stakeholders and the processes that should be put in place.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9754-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2018)
  • Maker Cultures and the Prospects for Technological Action
    • Authors: Susana Nascimento; Alexandre Pólvora
      Pages: 927 - 946
      Abstract: Supported by easier and cheaper access to tools and expanding communities, maker cultures are pointing towards the ideas of (almost) everyone designing, creating, producing and distributing renewed, new and improved products, machines, things or artefacts. A careful analysis of the assumptions and challenges of maker cultures emphasizes the relevance of what may be called technological action, that is, active and critical interventions regarding the purposes and applications of technologies within ordinary lives, thus countering the deterministic trends of current directions of technology. In such transformative potential, we will explore a set of elements what is and could be technological action through snapshots of maker cultures based on the empirical research conducted in three particular contexts: the Fab Lab Network, Maker Media core outputs and initiatives such as Maker Faires, and the Open Source Hardware Association (OSHWA). Elements such as control and empowerment through material engagement, openness and sharing, and social, cultural, political and ethical values of the common good in topics such as diversity, sustainability and transparency, are critically analysed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9796-8
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2018)
  • Appropriating Video Surveillance for Art and Environmental Awareness:
           Experiences from ARTiVIS
    • Authors: Mónica Mendes; Pedro Ângelo; Nuno Correia; Valentina Nisi
      Pages: 947 - 970
      Abstract: Arts, Real-Time Video and Interactivity for Sustainability (ARTiVIS) is an ongoing collaborative research project investigating how real-time video, DIY surveillance technologies and sensor data can be used as a tool for environmental awareness, activism and artistic explorations. The project consists of a series of digital contexts for aesthetic contemplation of nature and civic engagement, aiming to foster awareness and empowerment of local populations through DIY surveillance. At the core of the ARTIVIS efforts are a series of interactive installations (namely B-Wind!, Hug@tree and Play with Fire), that make use of surveillance technologies and real-time video as raw material to promote environmental awareness through the emotion generated by real-time connections with nature. Throughout the project development, the surveillance concept has been shifting from the use of surveillance technology in a centralized platform, to the idea of veillance with distributed peer-to-peer networks that can be used for science and environmental monitoring. In this paper we present the history of the ARTiVIS project, related and inspiring work, describe ongoing research work and explore the present and future challenges of appropriating surveillance technology for artistic, educational and civic engagement purposes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9762-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2018)
  • Self-Tracking: Reflections from the BodyTrack Project
    • Authors: Anne Wright
      Pages: 999 - 1021
      Abstract: Based on the author’s experiences the practice of self-tracking can empower individuals to explore and address issues in their lives. This work is inspired by examples of people who have reclaimed their wellness through an iterative process of noticing patterns of ups and downs, trying out new ideas and strategies, and observing the results. In some cases, individuals have realized that certain foods, environmental exposures, or practices have unexpected effects for them, and that adopting custom strategies can greatly improve quality of life, overcoming chronic problems. Importantly, adopting the role of investigator of their own situation appears to be transformative: people who embarked on this path changed their relationship to their health situation even before making discoveries that helped lead to symptom improvement. The author co-founded the BodyTrack project in 2010 with the goal of empowering a broader set of people to embrace this investigator role in their own lives and better address their health and wellness concerns, particularly those with complex environmental or behavioral components. The core of the BodyTrack system is an open source web service called Fluxtream ( that allows users to aggregate, visualize, and reflect on data from myriad sources on a common timeline. The project is also working to develop and spread peer coaching practices to help transfer the culture and skills of self-tracking while mentoring individuals in how to self-assess their own situation and guide the process for themselves.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9801-2
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 3 (2018)
  • Scientific Ethics: A New Approach
    • Authors: Marcello Menapace
      Abstract: Science is an activity of the human intellect and as such has ethical implications that should be reviewed and taken into account. Although science and ethics have conventionally been considered different, it is herewith proposed that they are essentially similar. The proposal set henceforth is to create a new ethics rooted in science: scientific ethics. Science has firm axiological foundations and searches for truth (as a value, axiology) and knowledge (epistemology). Hence, science cannot be value neutral. Looking at standard scientific principles, it is possible to construct a scientific ethic (that is, an ethical framework based on scientific methods and rules), which can be applied to all sciences. These intellectual standards include the search for truth (honesty and its derivatives), human dignity (and by reflection the dignity of all animals) and respect for life. Through these it is thence achievable to draft a foundation of a ethics based purely on science and applicable beyond the confines of science. A few applications of these will be presented. Scientific ethics can have vast applications in other fields even in non scientific ones.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0050-4
  • Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for Research Performing
           Organisations: The Bonn PRINTEGER Statement
    • Abstract: This document presents the Bonn PRINTEGER Consensus Statement: Working with Research Integrity—Guidance for research performing organisations. The aim of the statement is to complement existing instruments by focusing specifically on institutional responsibilities for strengthening integrity. It takes into account the daily challenges and organisational contexts of most researchers. The statement intends to make research integrity challenges recognisable from the work-floor perspective, providing concrete advice on organisational measures to strengthen integrity. The statement, which was concluded February 7th 2018, provides guidance on the following key issues: Providing information about research integrity Providing education, training and mentoring Strengthening a research integrity culture Facilitating open dialogue Wise incentive management Implementing quality assurance procedures Improving the work environment and work satisfaction Increasing transparency of misconduct cases Opening up research Implementing safe and effective whistle-blowing channels Protecting the alleged perpetrators Establishing a research integrity committee and appointing an ombudsperson Making explicit the applicable standards for research integrity
      PubDate: 2018-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0034-4
  • Public Lab: Community-Based Approaches to Urban and Environmental Health
           and Justice
    • Authors: Pablo Rey-Mazón; Hagit Keysar; Shannon Dosemagen; Catherine D’Ignazio; Don Blair
      Abstract: This paper explores three cases of Do-It-Yourself, open-source technologies developed within the diverse array of topics and themes in the communities around the Public Laboratory for Open Technology and Science (Public Lab). These cases focus on aerial mapping, water quality monitoring and civic science practices. The techniques discussed have in common the use of accessible, community-built technologies for acquiring data. They are also concerned with embedding collaborative and open source principles into the objects, tools, social formations and data sharing practices that emerge from these inquiries. The focus is on developing processes of collaborative design and experimentation through material engagement with technology and issues of concern. Problem-solving, here, is a tactic, while the strategy is an ongoing engagement with the problem of participation in its technological, social and political dimensions especially considering the increasing centralization and specialization of scientific and technological expertise. The authors also discuss and reflect on the Public Lab’s approach to civic science in light of ideas and practices of citizen/civic veillance, or “sousveillance”, by emphasizing people before data, and by investigating the new ways of seeing and doing that this shift in perspective might provide.
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0059-8
  • Medicines Information and the Regulation of the Promotion of
    • Authors: Teresa Leonardo Alves; Joel Lexchin; Barbara Mintzes
      Abstract: Many factors contribute to the inappropriate use of medicines, including not only a lack of information but also inaccurate and misleading promotional information. This review examines how the promotion of pharmaceuticals directly affects the prescribing and use of medicines. We define promotion broadly as all actions taken directly by pharmaceutical companies with the aim of enhancing product sales. We look in greater detail at promotion techniques aimed at prescribers, such as sales representatives, pharmaceutical advertisements in medical journals and use of key opinion leaders, along with the quality of information provided and the effects thereof. We also discuss promotion to the public, through direct-to-consumer advertising, and its effects. Finally, we consider initiatives to regulate promotion that come from industry, government and nongovernmental organizations.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0041-5
  • Integrity in Biomedical Research: A Systematic Review of Studies in China
    • Authors: Nannan Yi; Benoit Nemery; Kris Dierickx
      Abstract: Recent empirical evidence has demonstrated that research misconduct occurs to a substantial degree in biomedical research. It has been suggested that scientific integrity is also of concern in China, but this seems to be based largely on anecdotal evidence. We, therefore, sought to explore the Chinese situation, by making a systematic review of published empirical studies on biomedical research integrity in China. One of our purposes was also to summarize the existing body of research published in Chinese. We searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, PubMed and Web of Science for potentially relevant studies, and included studies meeting our inclusion criteria, i.e. mainly those presenting empirically obtained data about the practice of research in China. All the data was extracted and synthesized using an inductive approach. Twenty-one studies were included for review. Two studies used qualitative methods (interviews) and nineteen studies used quantitative methods (questionnaires). Studies involved mainly medical postgraduates and nurses and they investigated awareness, attitudes, perceptions and experiences of research integrity and misconduct. Most of the participants in these 21 studies reported that research integrity is of great importance and that they obey academic norms during their research. Nevertheless, the occurrence of research misbehaviors, such as fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, improper authorship and duplicate submission was also reported. Strengthening research integrity training, developing the governance system and improving the scientific evaluation system were areas of particular attention in several studies. Our review demonstrates that a substantial number of articles have been devoted to research integrity in China, but only a few studies provide empirical evidence. With more safeguard measures of research integrity being taken in China, it would be crucial to conduct more research to explore researchers’ in-depth perceptions and evaluate the changes.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0057-x
  • Demographic Variables of Corruption in the Chinese Construction Industry:
           Association Rule Analysis of Conviction Records
    • Authors: Yao Yu; Igor Martek; M. Reza Hosseini; Chuan Chen
      Abstract: Corruption in the construction industry is a serious problem in China. As such, fighting this corruption has become a priority target of the Chinese government, with the main effort being to discover and prosecute its perpetrators. This study profiles the demographic characteristics of major incidences of corruption in construction. It draws on the database of the 83 complete recorded cases of construction related corruption held by the Chinese National Bureau of Corruption Prevention. Categorical variables were drawn from the database, and ‘association rule mining analysis’ was used to identify associations between variables as a means of profiling perpetrators. Such profiling may be used as predictors of future incidences of corruption, and consequently to inform policy makers in their fight against corruption. The results signal corruption within the Chinese construction industry to be correlated with age, with incidences rising as managers’ approach retirement age. Moreover, a majority of perpetrators operate within government agencies, are department deputies in direct contact with projects, and extort the greatest amounts per case from second tier cities. The relatively lengthy average 6.4-year period before cases come to public attention corroborates the view that current efforts at fighting corruption remain inadequate.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0024-6
  • It is the Quality of the Review that Matters
    • Authors: Bor Luen Tang
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0056-y
  • ATM Card Cloning and Ethical Considerations
    • Authors: Paramjit Kaur; Kewal Krishan; Suresh K. Sharma; Tanuj Kanchan
      Abstract: With the advent of modern technology, the way society handles and performs monetary transactions has changed tremendously. The world is moving swiftly towards the digital arena. The use of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) cards (credit and debit) has led to a “cash-less society” and has fostered digital payments and purchases. In addition to this, the trust and reliance of the society upon these small pieces of plastic, having numbers engraved upon them, has increased immensely over the last two decades. In the past few years, the number of ATM fraud cases has increased exponentially. With the money of the people shifting towards the digital platform, ATM skimming has become a problem that has eventually led to a global outcry. The present review discusses the serious repercussions of ATM card cloning and the associated privacy, ethical and legal concerns. The preventive measures which need to be taken and adopted by the government authorities to mitigate the problem have also been discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0049-x
  • Balancing for an Effective Communication in Organizations
    • Authors: Islam A. S. M. Touhidul; Shahryar Sorooshian
      Abstract: Communication is an essential part of all activities of organizations. However, it is affected by technology. Today, email and social media are popular methods of communication in organizations. Each of the listed methods has advantages and disadvantages which will be discussed in this letter which tries to drive the attention of organizations to the need for a standard and balanced approach toward communication.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0055-z
  • Research Ethics: Researchers Consider How Best to Prevent Misconduct in
           Research in Malaysian Higher Learning Institutions Through Ethics
    • Authors: Angelina Patrick Olesen; Latifah Amin; Zurina Mahadi
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to encourage and highlight discussion on how to improve the teaching of research ethics in institutions of higher education in Malaysia. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 21 academics in a research-intensive university in Malaysia, interviewees agreed on the importance of emphasizing the subject of research ethics among students, as well as academics or researchers. This study reveals that participants felt that there is an urgent need to improve the current awareness and knowledge of issues related to misconduct in research among students and academics. The results of this study indicate a need for better teaching on the subject of research ethics in order to prevent misconduct in research. Finally, it concludes with suggestions that there should be a clear definition of research misconduct, to include consequences when engaging in misconduct; a separate research ethics syllabus for pure and social sciences should be conducted; research ethics should be implemented as a core subject, and there should be an early intervention and continuous learning of research ethics, with an emphasis on ethics training.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0054-0
  • The Distinction Between Curative and Assistive Technology
    • Authors: Joseph A. Stramondo
      Abstract: Disability activists have sometimes claimed their disability has actually increased their well-being. Some even say they would reject a cure to keep these gains. Yet, these same activists often simultaneously propose improvements to the quality and accessibility of assistive technology. However, for any argument favoring assistive over curative technology (or vice versa) to work, there must be a coherent distinction between the two. This line is already vague and will become even less clear with the emergence of novel technologies. This paper asks and tries to answer the question: what is it about the paradigmatic examples of curative and assistive technologies that make them paradigmatic and how can these defining features help us clarify the hard cases' This analysis will begin with an argument that, while the common views of this distinction adequately explain the paradigmatic cases, they fail to accurately pick out the relevant features of those technologies that make them paradigmatic and to provide adequate guidance for parsing the hard cases. Instead, it will be claimed that these categories of curative or assistive technologies are defined by the role the technologies play in establishing a person’s relational narrative identity as a member of one of two social groups: disabled people or non-disabled people.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-018-0058-9
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