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Journal Cover Science and Engineering Ethics
  [SJR: 0.372]   [H-I: 31]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1471-5546 - ISSN (Online) 1353-3452
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Moral Polemics of Far-Reaching Economic Consequences of Antibiotics
           Overuse
    • Authors: Marek Vochozka; Anna Maroušková; Petr Šuleř
      Pages: 1035 - 1040
      Abstract: Abstract The unethical overuse of antibiotics to seek to achieve a shortening of the treatment period raises the cost of health services and poses a threat to humanity due to the gradual development of antibiotic resistance. Other consequences of our modern passion for antibiotics have appeared. Small concentrations of antibiotic residues in sewage waters slow down the metabolism of anaerobic microorganism thereby reducing the overall performance of the anaerobic fermentation used to detoxify and digest sewage and other collected organic wastes. Reduced biogas yields represents a serious threat to the energy self-sufficiency of some waste-water treatment plants, so it might change them from energy producers into energy consumers. Morally justifiable production of renewable energy from bio-waste is also threatened by antibiotic residues that remain in the bio-waste.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9834-6
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Engineering Student’s Ethical Awareness and Behavior: A New
           Motivational Model
    • Authors: Diana Bairaktarova; Anna Woodcock
      Pages: 1129 - 1157
      Abstract: Abstract Professional communities are experiencing scandals involving unethical and illegal practices daily. Yet it should not take a national major structure failure to highlight the importance of ethical awareness and behavior, or the need for the development and practice of ethical behavior in engineering students. Development of ethical behavior skills in future engineers is a key competency for engineering schools as ethical behavior is a part of the professional identity and practice of engineers. While engineering educators have somewhat established instructional methods to teach engineering ethics, they still rely heavily on teaching ethical awareness, and pay little attention to how well ethical awareness predicts ethical behavior. However the ability to exercise ethical judgement does not mean that students are ethically educated or likely to behave in an ethical manner. This paper argues measuring ethical judgment is insufficient for evaluating the teaching of engineering ethics, because ethical awareness has not been demonstrated to translate into ethical behavior. The focus of this paper is to propose a model that correlates with both, ethical awareness and ethical behavior. This model integrates the theory of planned behavior, person and thing orientation, and spheres of control. Applying this model will allow educators to build confidence and trust in their students’ ability to build a professional identity and be prepared for the engineering profession and practice.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9814-x
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Institutional Responsibility and the Flawed Genomic Biomarkers at Duke
           University: A Missed Opportunity for Transparency and Accountability
    • Authors: David L. DeMets; Thomas R. Fleming; Gail Geller; David F. Ransohoff
      Pages: 1199 - 1205
      Abstract: Abstract When there have been substantial failures by institutional leadership in their oversight responsibility to protect research integrity, the public should demand that these be recognized and addressed by the institution itself, or the funding bodies. This commentary discusses a case of research failures in developing genomic predictors for cancer risk assessment and treatment at a leading university. In its review of this case, the Office of Research Integrity, an agency within the US Department of Health and Human Services, focused their report entirely on one individual faculty member and made no comment on the institution’s responsibility and its failure to provide adequate oversight and investigation. These actions missed an important opportunity to emphasize the institution’s critical responsibilities in oversight of research integrity and the importance of institutional transparency and accountability.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9844-4
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Personalized Medicine in a New Genomic Era: Ethical and Legal Aspects
    • Authors: Maria Shoaib; Mansoor Ali Merchant Rameez; Syed Ather Hussain; Mohammed Madadin; Ritesh G. Menezes
      Pages: 1207 - 1212
      Abstract: Abstract The genome of two completely unrelated individuals is quite similar apart from minor variations called single nucleotide polymorphisms which contribute to the uniqueness of each and every person. These single nucleotide polymorphisms are of great interest clinically as they are useful in figuring out the susceptibility of certain individuals to particular diseases and for recognizing varied responses to pharmacological interventions. This gives rise to the idea of ‘personalized medicine’ as an exciting new therapeutic science in this genomic era. Personalized medicine suggests a unique treatment strategy based on an individual’s genetic make-up. Its key principles revolve around applied pharmaco-genomics, pharmaco-kinetics and pharmaco-proteomics. Herein, the ethical and legal aspects of personalized medicine in a new genomic era are briefly addressed. The ultimate goal is to comprehensively recognize all relevant forms of genetic variation in each individual and be able to interpret this information in a clinically meaningful manner within the ambit of ethical and legal considerations. The authors of this article firmly believe that personalized medicine has the potential to revolutionize the current landscape of medicine as it makes its way into clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9828-4
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Do You Ignore Information Security in Your Journal Website'
    • Authors: Mehdi Dadkhah; Glenn Borchardt; Mohammad Lagzian
      Pages: 1227 - 1231
      Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, web-based applications extend to all businesses due to their advantages and easy usability. The most important issue in web-based applications is security. Due to their advantages, most academic journals are now using these applications, with papers being submitted and published through their websites. As these websites are resources for knowledge, information security is primary for maintaining their integrity. In this opinion piece, we point out vulnerabilities in certain websites and introduce the potential for future threats. We intend to present how some journals are vulnerable and what will happen if a journal can be infected by attackers. This opinion is not a technical manual in information security, it is a short inspection that we did to improve the security of academic journals.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9849-z
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Why Tu Youyou Makes Less Money Than Zhang Ziyi'
    • Authors: Qinghui Suo; Yang Liu; Daming Zhang
      Pages: 1233 - 1235
      Abstract: Abstract Scientists normally earn less money than many other professions which require a similar amount of training and qualification. The economic theory of marginal utility and cost-benefit analysis can be applied to explain this phenomenon. Although scientists make less money than entertainment stars, the scientists do research work out of their interest and they also enjoy a much higher reputation and social status in some countries.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9837-3
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Unethical Admissions: Academic Integrity in Question
    • Authors: Richard Hannis Ansah; Daniel O. Aikhuele; Liu Yao
      Pages: 1237 - 1239
      Abstract: Abstract The increasing unethical practices of graduates’ admissions have heightened concerns about the integrity of the academy. This article informs this important subject that affects the students, admission systems, and the entire scientific community, thus, representing an approach against scholarly black market activities including falsified documents and unethical practices by consultants and students’ recruitment agencies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9815-9
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • How can Ethics be Considered as a Criterion for Universities Ranking'
    • Authors: Zohrehsadat Naji; Payman Salamati
      Pages: 1241 - 1242
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9819-5
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Plagiarism in Student Research: Responsibility of the Supervisors and
           Suggestions to Ensure Plagiarism Free Research
    • Authors: Kewal Krishan; Tanuj Kanchan; Neha Baryah; Richa Mukhra
      Pages: 1243 - 1246
      Abstract: Abstract Plagiarism is a serious threat plaguing the research in publication of science globally. There is an increasing need to address the issue of plagiarism especially among young researchers in the developing part of the world. Plagiarism needs to be earnestly discouraged to ensure a plagiarism free research environment. We provide further suggestions to combat student plagiarism at Master’s level and the regulations/guidelines regarding plagiarism in India.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9822-x
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Developing a System for Processing Health Data of Children Using
           Digitalized Toys: Ethical and Privacy Concerns for the Internet of Things
           Paradigm
    • Authors: María Luisa Martín-Ruíz; Celia Fernández-Aller; Eloy Portillo; Javier Malagón; Cristina del Barrio
      Abstract: Abstract EDUCERE (Ubiquitous Detection Ecosystem to Care and Early Stimulation for Children with Developmental Disorders) is a government funded research and development project. EDUCERE objectives are to investigate, develop, and evaluate innovative solutions for society to detect changes in psychomotor development through the natural interaction of children with toys and everyday objects, and perform stimulation and early attention activities in real environments such as home and school. In the EDUCERE project, an ethical impact assessment is carried out linked to a minors’ data protection rights. Using a specific methodology, the project has achieved some promising results. These include use of a prototype of smart toys to detect development difficulties in children. In addition, privacy protection measures which take into account the security concerns of health data, have been proposed and applied. This latter security framework could be useful in other Internet of Things related projects. It consists of legal and technical measures. Special attention has been placed in the transformation of bulk data such as acceleration and jitter of toys into health data when patterns of atypical development are found. The article describes the different security profiles in which users are classified.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9951-x
       
  • Predatory Journals Spamming for Publications: What Should Researchers
           Do'
    • Authors: Aamir Raoof Memon
      Abstract: Abstract In the internet era spam has become a big problem. Researchers are troubled with unsolicited or bulk spam emails inviting them to publish. However, this strategy has helped predatory journals hunt their prey and earn money. These journals have grown tremendously during the past few years despite serious efforts by researchers and scholarly organizations to hinder their growth. Predatory journals and publishers are often based in developing countries, and they potentially target researchers from these counties by using different tactics identified in previous research. In response to the spread of predatory publishing, scientists are trying to develop criteria and guidelines to help avoid them—for example, the recently reported “predatory rate”. This article attempts to (a) highlight the strategies used by predatory journals to convince researchers to publish with them, (b) report their article processing charges, (c) note their presence in Jeffrey Beall’s List of Predatory Publishers, (d) rank them based on the predatory rate, and (e) put forward suggestions for junior researchers (especially in developing counties), who are the most likely targets of predatory journals.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9955-6
       
  • A Method for Improving the Integrity of Peer Review
    • Authors: Mehdi Dadkhah; Mohsen Kahani; Glenn Borchardt
      Abstract: Abstract Peer review is the most important aspect of reputable journals. Without it, we would be unsure about whether the material published was as valid and reliable as is possible. However, with the advent of the Internet, scientific literature has now become subject to a relatively new phenomenon: fake peer reviews. Some dishonest researchers have been manipulating the peer review process to publish what are often inferior papers. There are even papers that explain how to do it. This paper discusses one of those methods and how editors can defeat it by using a special review ID. This method is easy to understand and can be added to current peer review systems easily.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9960-9
       
  • E-commerce Review System to Detect False Reviews
    • Authors: Manjur Kolhar
      Abstract: Abstract E-commerce sites have been doing profitable business since their induction in high-speed and secured networks. Moreover, they continue to influence consumers through various methods. One of the most effective methods is the e-commerce review rating system, in which consumers provide review ratings for the products used. However, almost all e-commerce review rating systems are unable to provide cumulative review ratings. Furthermore, review ratings are influenced by positive and negative malicious feedback ratings, collectively called false reviews. In this paper, we proposed an e-commerce review system framework developed using the cumulative sum method to detect and remove malicious review ratings.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9959-2
       
  • Ethics and Phishing Experiments
    • Authors: David B. Resnik; Peter R. Finn
      Abstract: Abstract Phishing is a fraudulent form of email that solicits personal or financial information from the recipient, such as a password, username, or social security or bank account number. The scammer may use the illicitly obtained information to steal the victim’s money or identity or sell the information to another party. The direct costs of phishing on consumers are exceptionally high and have risen substantially over the past 12 years. Phishing experiments that simulate real world conditions can provide cybersecurity experts with valuable knowledge they can use to develop effective countermeasures and prevent people from being duped by phishing emails. Although these experiments contravene widely accepted informed consent requirements and involve deception, we argue that they can be conducted ethically if risks are minimized, confidentiality and privacy are protected, potential participants have an opportunity to opt out of the research before it begins, and human subjects are debriefed after their participation ends.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9952-9
       
  • Patent Ethics: The Misalignment of Views Between the Patent System and the
           Wider Society
    • Authors: Ellen-Marie Forsberg; Anders Braarud Hanssen; Hanne Marie Nielsen; Ingrid Olesen
      Abstract: Abstract Concerns have been voiced about the ethical implications of patenting practices in the field of biotechnology. Some of these have also been incorporated into regulation, such as the European Commission Directive 98/44 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. However, the incorporation of ethically based restrictions into patent legislation has not had the effect of satisfying all concerns. In this article, we will systematically compare the richness of ethical concerns surrounding biotech patenting, with the limited scope of ethical concerns actually addressed in the patent system. As sources of our analyses we will use literature and document studies and a survey with important stakeholders and experts related to Norwegian patenting in the aquacultural biotechnology sector. We will structure the analyses with an ethical matrix, developed for this purpose. Showing the misalignment of the discussions within and outside the patent system, we suggest that an important reason for the ethical controversy still surrounding patenting is that ethical questions keep being framed in a narrow way within the system. Until a richer set of ethical considerations is addressed head-on within the patent system, the patent system will continue to evoke academic and interest group criticism, potentially contributing to a legitimacy crisis of the whole system.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9956-5
       
  • Values in Time Discounting
    • Authors: Conrad Heilmann
      Abstract: Abstract Controversies about time discounting loom large in decisions about climate change. Prominently, a particularly controversial debate about time discounting in climate change decision-making has been conducted within climate economics, between the authors of Stern et al. (Stern review on the economics of climate change, 2006) and their critics (most prominently Dasgupta in Comments on the Stern review’s economics of climate change, 2006; Tol in Energy Environ 17(6):977–981, 2006; Weitzman in J Econ Lit XLV:703–724, 2007; Nordhaus in J Econ Lit XLV:686–702, 2007). The article examines the role of values in this debate. Firstly, it is shown that time discounting is a case in which values are key because it is at heart an ethical problem. Secondly, it is argued that time discounting in climate economics is a case of economists making frequent and routine references to ethical values and indeed conduct ethical debates with each other. Thirdly, it is argued that there is evidence for deep and pervasive entanglement between facts and values in the prevalent methodologies for time discounting. Finally, it is argued that this means that economists have given up the ‘value-free ideal’ concerning time discounting, and discussed how the current methodology of time discounting in economics can be improved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9950-y
       
  • Technology Games: Using Wittgenstein for Understanding and Evaluating
           Technology
    • Authors: Mark Coeckelbergh
      Abstract: Abstract In the philosophy of technology after the empirical turn, little attention has been paid to language and its relation to technology. In this programmatic and explorative paper, it is proposed to use the later Wittgenstein, not only to pay more attention to language use in philosophy of technology, but also to rethink technology itself—at least technology in its aspect of tool, technology-in-use. This is done by outlining a working account of Wittgenstein’s view of language (as articulated mainly in the Investigations) and by then applying that account to technology—turning around Wittgenstein’s metaphor of the toolbox. Using Wittgenstein’s concepts of language games and form of life and coining the term ‘technology games’, the paper proposes and argues for a use-oriented, holistic, transcendental, social, and historical approach to technology which is empirically but also normatively sensitive, and which takes into account implicit knowledge and know-how. It gives examples of interaction with social robots to support the relevance of this project for understanding and evaluating today’s technologies, makes comparisons with authors in philosophy of technology such as Winner and Ihde, and sketches the contours of a phenomenology and hermeneutics of technology use that may help us to understand but also to gain a more critical relation to specific uses of concrete technologies in everyday contexts. Ultimately, given the holism argued for, it also promises a more critical relation to the games and forms of life technologies are embedded in—to the ways we do things.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9953-8
       
  • Author Productivity Index: Without Distortions
    • Authors: Marton Demeter
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9954-7
       
  • A Proposal to Detect the Double Submission of a Manuscript Sent for Review
    • Authors: Manjur Kolhar; Abdalla Alameen; Safar Bin Bkhit AlMudara
      Abstract: Abstract Along with the rapid growth of editorial systems and publishers, the number of research articles is increasing, which creates a need for an effective dissemination strategy. Researchers commonly use editorial systems in a candid manner. However, when researchers concurrently submit the same contribution in more than one editorial system, it is considered unethical. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called DeMSum for detecting such duplicate submissions. DeMSum verifies a manuscript (MS) by processing the MS attributes that are accessed through the editorial system. To the best of our knowledge, DeMSum is the first system to address the double submission issue, thus enabling the use of diverse editorial systems for MS review. We implemented a prototype, and our evaluation of the prototype produced excellent results.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9958-3
       
  • Establishing Sensible and Practical Guidelines for Desk Rejections
    • Authors: Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva; Aceil Al-Khatib; Vedran Katavić; Helmar Bornemann-Cimenti
      Abstract: Abstract Publishing has become, in several respects, more challenging in recent years. Academics are faced with evolving ethics that appear to be more stringent in a bid to reduce scientific fraud, the emergence of science watchdogs that are now scrutinizing the published literature with critical eyes to hold academics, editors and publishers more accountable, and a barrage of checks and balances that are required between when a paper is submitted and eventually accepted, to ensure quality control. Scientists are often under increasing pressure to produce papers in an increasingly stringent publishing environment. In such a climate, timing is everything, as is the efficiency of the process. Academics appreciate that rejections are part of the fabric of attempting to get a paper published, but they expect the reason to be clear, based on careful evaluation of their work, and not on superficial or unsubstantiated excuses. A desk rejection occurs when a paper gets rejected even before it has entered the peer review process. This paper examines the features of some desk rejections and offers some guidelines that would make desk rejections valid, fair and ethical. Academics who publish are under constant pressure to do so quickly, but effectively. They are dependent on the editors’ good judgment and the publisher’s procedures. Unfair, unsubstantiated, or tardy desk rejections disadvantage academics, and editors and publishers must be held accountable for wasting their time, resources, and patience.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9921-3
       
 
 
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