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ENGINEERING (1203 journals)

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Journal Cover Science and Engineering Ethics
  [SJR: 0.372]   [H-I: 31]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1471-5546 - ISSN (Online) 1353-3452
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2345 journals]
  • Limited Awareness of the Essences of Certification or Compliance Markings
           on Medical Devices
    • Authors: Jong Yong Abdiel Foo; Xin Ji Alan Tan
      Pages: 653 - 661
      Abstract: Medical devices have been long used for odiagnostic, therapeutic or rehabilitation purposes. Currently, they can range from a low-cost portable device that is often used for personal health monitoring to high-end sophisticated equipment that can only be operated by trained professionals. Depending on the functional purposes, there are different certification or compliance markings on the device when it is sold. One common certification marking is the Conformité Européenne affixation but this has a range of certification mark numbering for a variety of functional purposes. While the regulators and medical device manufacturers understand the associated significance and clinical implications, these may not be apparent to the professionals (using or maintaining the device) and the general public. With portable healthcare devices and mobile applications gaining popularity, better awareness of certification marking will be needed. Particularly, there are differences in the allowed functional purposes and the associated cost derivations of devices with a seemingly similar nature. A preferred approach such as an easy-to-understand notation next to any certification marking on a device can aid in differentiation without the need to digest mountainous regulatory details.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9836-4
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Smart-Glasses: Exposing and Elucidating the Ethical Issues
    • Authors: Bjørn Hofmann; Dušan Haustein; Laurens Landeweerd
      Pages: 701 - 721
      Abstract: The objective of this study is to provide an overview over the ethical issues relevant to the assessment, implementation, and use of smart-glasses. The purpose of the overview is to facilitate deliberation, decision making, and the formation of knowledge and norms for this emerging technology. An axiological question-based method for human cognitive enhancement including an extensive literature search on smart-glasses is used to identify relevant ethical issues. The search is supplemented with relevant ethical issues identified in the literature on human cognitive enhancement (in general) and in the study of the technical aspects of smart-glasses. Identified papers were subject to traditional content analysis: 739 references were identified of which 247 were regarded as relevant for full text examinations, and 155 were included in the study. A wide variety of ethical issues with smart-glasses have been identified, such as issues related to privacy, safety, justice, change in human agency, accountability, responsibility, social interaction, power and ideology. Smart-glasses are envisioned to change individual human identity and behavior as well as social interaction. Taking these issues into account appears to be relevant when developing, deliberating, deciding on, implementing, and using smart-glasses.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9792-z
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The Application of Standards and Recommendations to Clinical Ethics
           Consultation in Practice: An Evaluation at German Hospitals
    • Authors: Maximilian Schochow; Giovanni Rubeis; Florian Steger
      Pages: 793 - 799
      Abstract: The executive board of the Academy for Ethics in Medicine (AEM) and two AEM working groups formulated standards and recommendations for clinical ethics consultation in 2010, 2011, and 2013. These guidelines comply with the international standards like those set by the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities. There is no empirical data available yet that could indicate whether these standards and recommendations have been implemented in German hospitals. This desideratum is addressed in the present study. We contacted 1.858 German hospitals between September 2013 and January 2014. A follow-up survey was conducted between October 2014 and January 2015. The data of the initial survey and the follow-up survey were merged and evaluated. The statements of the participants were compared with the standards and recommendations. The standards of the AEM concerning the tasks of clinical ethics consultation (including ethics consultation, ethics training and the establishment of policy guidelines) are employed by a majority of participants of the study. Almost all of these participants document their consultation activities by means of protocols or entries in the patient file. There are deviations from the recommendations of the AEM working groups regarding the drafting of statutes, activity reports, and financial support. The activities of clinical ethics consultation predominantly comply with the standards of the AEM and recommendations for the documentation. The recommendations for evaluation should be improved in practice. This applies particularly for activity reports in order to evaluate the activities. Internal evaluation could take place accordingly.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9805-y
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Teledildonics and New Ways of “Being in Touch”: A Phenomenological
           Analysis of the Use of Haptic Devices for Intimate Relations
    • Authors: Nicola Liberati
      Pages: 801 - 823
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse teledildonics from a phenomenological perspective in order to show the possible effects they will have on ourselves and on our society. The new way of using digital technologies is to merge digital activities with our everyday praxes, and there are already devices which enable subjects to be digitally connected in every moment of their lives. Even the most intimate ones are becoming mediated by devices such as teledildonics which digitally provide a tactual stimulation allowing users to have sexual intercourse through them. The efforts made in order to provide such an intertwinement of our everyday lives and digital technologies are evident, but the effects produced by them are not clear at all. This paper will analyse these technologies from a phenomenological perspective in order to understand their effects on the constitution of the subjects and on our society at the intimate level.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9827-5
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Science Outside the Lab: Helping Graduate Students in Science and
           Engineering Understand the Complexities of Science Policy
    • Authors: Michael J. Bernstein; Kiera Reifschneider; Ira Bennett; Jameson M. Wetmore
      Pages: 861 - 882
      Abstract: Helping scientists and engineers challenge received assumptions about how science, engineering, and society relate is a critical cornerstone for macroethics education. Scientific and engineering research are frequently framed as first steps of a value-free linear model that inexorably leads to societal benefit. Social studies of science and assessments of scientific and engineering research speak to the need for a more critical approach to the noble intentions underlying these assumptions. “Science Outside the Lab” is a program designed to help early-career scientists and engineers understand the complexities of science and engineering policy. Assessment of the program entailed a pre-, post-, and 1 year follow up survey to gauge student perspectives on relationships between science and society, as well as a pre–post concept map exercise to elicit student conceptualizations of science policy. Students leave Science Outside the Lab with greater humility about the role of scientific expertise in science and engineering policy; greater skepticism toward linear notions of scientific advances benefiting society; a deeper, more nuanced understanding of the actors involved in shaping science policy; and a continued appreciation of the contributions of science and engineering to society. The study presents an efficacious program that helps scientists and engineers make inroads into macroethical debates, reframe the ways in which they think about values of science and engineering in society, and more thoughtfully engage with critical mediators of science and society relationships: policy makers and policy processes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9818-6
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Fake Graduates
    • Authors: Shahryar Sorooshian
      Pages: 941 - 942
      Abstract: There is growing concern regarding the erosion of industries’ trust in the reliability and validity of university graduates. Fake graduates are described in this letter. This article endeavors to warn of a new version of the scholarly black market, in which theses and dissertations are sold to students seeking to graduate under false pretenses.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9784-z
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Copy-Paste: 2-Click Step to Success and Productivity that Underlies
           Self-Plagiarism
    • Authors: Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
      Pages: 943 - 944
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9804-z
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Viva Delay
    • Authors: Hossein Yahaghi; Shahryar Sorooshian; Javad Yahaghi
      Pages: 945 - 946
      Abstract: The time delay between submission of a thesis and Viva Voce is intolerable for students. This letter tries to draw the readers’ attention to the effect of choosing the right examiner, in order to reduce the Viva Voce delay.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9795-9
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • What Rights Do Authors Have'
    • Authors: Aceil Al-Khatib; Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
      Pages: 947 - 949
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9808-8
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Keeping Disability in Mind: A Case Study in Implantable
           Brain–Computer Interface Research
    • Authors: Laura Specker Sullivan; Eran Klein; Tim Brown; Matthew Sample; Michelle Pham; Paul Tubig; Raney Folland; Anjali Truitt; Sara Goering
      Abstract: Brain–Computer Interface (BCI) research is an interdisciplinary area of study within Neural Engineering. Recent interest in end-user perspectives has led to an intersection with user-centered design (UCD). The goal of user-centered design is to reduce the translational gap between researchers and potential end users. However, while qualitative studies have been conducted with end users of BCI technology, little is known about individual BCI researchers’ experience with and attitudes towards UCD. Given the scientific, financial, and ethical imperatives of UCD, we sought to gain a better understanding of practical and principled considerations for researchers who engage with end users. We conducted a qualitative interview case study with neural engineering researchers at a center dedicated to the creation of BCIs. Our analysis generated five themes common across interviews. The thematic analysis shows that participants identify multiple beneficiaries of their work, including other researchers, clinicians working with devices, device end users, and families and caregivers of device users. Participants value experience with device end users, and personal experience is the most meaningful type of interaction. They welcome (or even encourage) end-user input, but are skeptical of limited focus groups and case studies. They also recognize a tension between creating sophisticated devices and developing technology that will meet user needs. Finally, interviewees espouse functional, assistive goals for their technology, but describe uncertainty in what degree of function is “good enough” for individual end users. Based on these results, we offer preliminary recommendations for conducting future UCD studies in BCI and neural engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9928-9
       
  • End of 2016: Can We Save Research from Predators in 2017'
    • Authors: Aamir Raoof Memon
      Abstract: At the beginning of every year, we expect to see worthwhile improvements on the past. The end of 2016 showcased many important issues in the scientific world, ranging from criticisms of research misconduct and fraud to the introduction of new scientometrics. Despite the scientific community’s continuing efforts, predatory journals and publishers are still on the rise, and the Beall’s list calls attention to the need to take a firm action across the board. This short opinion piece highlights research conducted by the scholarly community on research publication predators during 2016, and offers suggestions as to how to bring about future improvements.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9915-1
       
  • Continuous Evaluation in Ethics Education: A Case Study
    • Authors: Tristan McIntosh; Cory Higgs; Michael Mumford; Shane Connelly; James DuBois
      Abstract: A great need for systematic evaluation of ethics training programs exists. Those tasked with developing an ethics training program may be quick to dismiss the value of training evaluation in continuous process improvement. In the present effort, we use a case study approach to delineate how to leverage formative and summative evaluation measures to create a high-quality ethics education program. With regard to formative evaluation, information bearing on trainee reactions, qualitative data from the comments of trainees, in addition to empirical findings, can ensure that the training program operates smoothly. Regarding summative evaluation, measures examining trainee cognition, behavior, and organization-level results provide information about how much trainees have changed as a result of taking the ethics training. The implications of effective training program evaluation are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9927-x
       
  • Abortion of Fetus with Down’s Syndrome: India Joins the Worldwide
           Controversy Surrounding Abortion Laws
    • Authors: Alankrita Taneja; Sharath Burugina Nagaraja; Jagadish Rao Padubidri; Mohammed Madadin; Ritesh G. Menezes
      Abstract: Abortion continues to be a moral and ethical dilemma in medicine. While abortions in general have always faced social stigmas, the abortion of fetuses with Down’s syndrome in particular remains the subject of debate across the globe. In India, under the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, abortion is legal under prescribed circumstances only till 20 weeks of gestation. Laws for abortion after 20 week of gestation are ill defined. In a recent ruling of the Supreme Court in India, a woman was denied the right to abortion of her 26 week old fetus. With this ruling, India has joined the rest of the world in the debate surrounding abortion laws and the ethics of abortion.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9926-y
       
  • Intervention to Promote Responsible Conduct of Research Mentoring
    • Authors: Michael W. Kalichman; Dena K. Plemmons
      Abstract: Although much of the focus on responsible conduct in research has been defined by courses or online training, it is generally understood that this is less important than what happens in the research environment. On the assumption that providing faculty with tools and resources to address the ethical dimensions of the practice of research would be useful, a new workshop was convened ten times across seven academic institutions and at the annual meeting of a professional society. Workshops were attended by 91 faculty, 71 (78% response rate) of whom completed evaluations strongly supportive of the value of the workshop. Surveys of trainees identified by the faculty allowed for invitations to complete an online survey before and 6 months after the workshops, respectively resulting in response rates of 43 and 51%. Faculty and trainees were highly supportive of the feasibility, relevance, and effectiveness of the implementation by the faculty of one or more of the five strategies featured in the workshop. However, surprisingly over 70% of the trainees reported use of one or more of those strategies prior to faculty participation in the workshops. In sum, the workshops for faculty were successful, and the proposed strategies were deemed of value, but it is likely that the faculty voluntarily choosing to participate in these workshops were perhaps not surprisingly faculty who are already engaging in some of these strategies. This model is likely a useful adjunct to encouraging a culture of ethics, but it is not by itself sufficient to do so.
      PubDate: 2017-06-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9929-8
       
  • Uncovering a New Moral Dilemma of Economic Optimization in
           Biotechnological Processing
    • Authors: Marek Vochozka; Vojtěch Stehel; Anna Maroušková
      Abstract: The trend of emerging biorefineries is to process the harvest as efficiently as possible and without any waste. From the most valuable phytomass, refined medicines, enzymes, dyes and other special reactants are created. Functional foods, food ingredients, oils, alcohol, solvents, plastics, fillers and a wide variety of other chemical products follow. After being treated with nutrient recovery techniques (for fertilizer production), biofuels or soil improvers are produced from the leftovers. Economic optimization algorithms have confirmed that such complex biorefineries can be financially viable only when a high degree of feedstock concentration is included. Because the plant material is extremely voluminous before processing, the farming intensity of special plants increases in the nearest vicinity of agglomerations where the biorefineries are built for logistical reasons. Interdisciplinary analyses revealed that these optimization measures lead to significantly increased pollen levels in neighbouring urban areas and subsequently an increased risk of allergies, respectively costs to the national health system. A new moral dilemma between the shareholder’s profit and public interest was uncovered and subjected to disputation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9925-z
       
  • Editorial Board Self-Publishing Rates in Czech Economic Journals
    • Authors: Radek Zdeněk
      Abstract: This article investigates whether editorial board members of selected economic journals publish their research papers in their ‘own’ journal. Journals were selected from the Journal Citation Report® from the categories Business; Business, Finance; and Economics. Only research articles published between 2012 and 2015 were included in the analysis. We recorded ratios concerning the share of articles authored by editorial board members, the share of editorial board members publishing in their own journals and ratios representing their publication output. The average share of articles authored by editorial board members ranges from 0.6 to 17.5%. The average share of editorial board members publishing in their own journals ranges from 5.6 to 24.4%. Considering only editorial board members publishing in their own journals, the share of their articles in their journals ranges from 8.2 to 71.4%. While the share of board members publishing only in their own journals, to the number of board members publishing in their own journals, the ratio in a quarter of journals is equal to zero, with a maximum reach of 85.7%. All observed ratios are significantly positively correlated with the gap between impact factor and impact factor without Journal Self Cites; and negatively correlated with the Article Influence Score. A cluster of journals in which a high proportion of editorial board members publish and simultaneously these members publish in their own journal at a high rate was identified.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9922-2
       
  • Development and Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Values in
           Scientific Work
    • Authors: Tammy English; Alison L. Antes; Kari A. Baldwin; James M. DuBois
      Abstract: In this paper we describe the development and initial psychometric evaluation of a new measure, the values in scientific work (VSW). This scale assesses the level of importance that investigators attach to different VSW. It taps a broad range of intrinsic, extrinsic, and social values that motivate the work of scientists, including values specific to scientific work (e.g., truth and integrity) and more classic work values (e.g., security and prestige) in the context of science. Notably, the values represented in this scale are relevant to scientists regardless of their career stage and research focus. We administered the VSW and a measure of global values to 203 NIH-funded investigators. Exploratory factor analyses suggest the delineation of eight VSW, including autonomy, research ethics, social impact, income, collaboration, innovation and growth, conserving relationships, and job security. These VSW showed predictable and distinct associations with global values. Implications of these findings for work on research integrity and scientific misconduct are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9896-0
       
  • Advocacy Science: Explaining the Term with Case Studies from Biotechnology
    • Authors: Ksenia Gerasimova
      Abstract: The paper discusses the use of term ‘advocacy science’ which is communication of science which goes beyond simple reporting of scientific findings, using the case study of biotechnology. It argues that advocacy science should be used to distinguish the engagement of modern civil society organizations to interpret scientific knowledge for their lobbying. It illustrates how this new communicative process has changed political discourse in science and general perception of the role of science in contemporary society.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9916-0
       
  • The Irrelevance of the Risk-Uncertainty Distinction
    • Authors: Dominic Roser
      Abstract: Precautionary Principles are often said to be appropriate for decision-making in contexts of uncertainty such as climate policy. Contexts of uncertainty are contrasted to contexts of risk depending on whether we have probabilities or not. Against this view, I argue that the risk-uncertainty distinction is practically irrelevant. I start by noting that the history of the distinction between risk and uncertainty is more varied than is sometimes assumed. In order to examine the distinction, I unpack the idea of having probabilities, in particular by distinguishing three interpretations of probability: objective, epistemic, and subjective probability. I then claim that if we are concerned with whether we have probabilities at all—regardless of how low their epistemic credentials are—then we almost always have probabilities for policy-making. The reason is that subjective and epistemic probability are the relevant interpretations of probability and we almost always have subjective and epistemic probabilities. In contrast, if we are only concerned with probabilities that have sufficiently high epistemic credentials, then we obviously do not always have probabilities. Climate policy, for example, would then be a case of decision-making under uncertainty. But, so I argue, we should not dismiss probabilities with low epistemic credentials. Rather, when they are the best available probabilities our decision principles should make use of them. And, since they are almost always available, the risk-uncertainty distinction remains irrelevant.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9919-x
       
  • The Value of Darkness: A Moral Framework for Urban Nighttime Lighting
    • Authors: Taylor Stone
      Abstract: The adverse effects of artificial nighttime lighting, known as light pollution, are emerging as an important environmental issue. To address these effects, current scientific research focuses mainly on identifying what is bad or undesirable about certain types and uses of lighting at night. This paper adopts a value-sensitive approach, focusing instead on what is good about darkness at night. In doing so, it offers a first comprehensive analysis of the environmental value of darkness at night from within applied ethics. A design for values orientation is utilized to conceptualize, define, and categorize the ways in which value is derived from darkness. Nine values are identified and categorized via their type of good, temporal outlook, and spatial characteristics. Furthermore, these nine values are translated into prima facie moral obligations that should be incorporated into future design choices, policy-making, and innovations to nighttime lighting. Thus, the value of darkness is analyzed with the practical goal of informing future decision-making about urban nighttime lighting.
      PubDate: 2017-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9924-0
       
 
 
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