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Journal Cover Science and Engineering Ethics
  [SJR: 0.372]   [H-I: 31]   [9 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1471-5546 - ISSN (Online) 1353-3452
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2340 journals]
  • Can Artificial Intelligences Suffer from Mental Illness' A
           Philosophical Matter to Consider
    • Authors: Hutan Ashrafian
      Pages: 403 - 412
      Abstract: Abstract The potential for artificial intelligences and robotics in achieving the capacity of consciousness, sentience and rationality offers the prospect that these agents have minds. If so, then there may be a potential for these minds to become dysfunctional, or for artificial intelligences and robots to suffer from mental illness. The existence of artificially intelligent psychopathology can be interpreted through the philosophical perspectives of mental illness. This offers new insights into what it means to have either robot or human mental disorders, but may also offer a platform on which to examine the mechanisms of biological or artificially intelligent psychiatric disease. The possibility of mental illnesses occurring in artificially intelligent individuals necessitates the consideration that at some level, they may have achieved a mental capability of consciousness, sentience and rationality such that they can subsequently become dysfunctional. The deeper philosophical understanding of these conditions in mankind and artificial intelligences might therefore offer reciprocal insights into mental health and mechanisms that may lead to the prevention of mental dysfunction.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9783-0
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: The Need for Social Ethics in Interdisciplinary Environmental
           Science Graduate Programs: Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the United
           States
    • Authors: Troy E. Hall; Jesse Engebretson; Michael O’Rourke; Zach Piso; Kyle Whyte; Sean Valles
      Pages: 589 - 589
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9817-7
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Scholarly Black Market
    • Authors: Shahryar Sorooshian
      Pages: 623 - 624
      Abstract: Abstract Fake and unethical publishers’ activities are known by most of the readers of Science and Engineering Ethics. This letter tries to draw the readers’ attention to the hidden side of some of these publishers’ business. Here the black market of scholarly articles, which negatively affects the validity and reliability of research in higher education, as well as science and engineering, will be introduced.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9765-2
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Multiple First Authors as Equal Contributors: Is It Ethical'
    • Authors: Govindasamy Agoramoorthy
      Pages: 625 - 627
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9794-x
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Unethical Postgraduate Supervision
    • Authors: Hossein Yahaghi; Shahryar Sorooshian; Javad Yahaghi
      Pages: 629 - 630
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9789-7
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The Legitimate Name of a Fungal Plant Pathogen and the Ethics of
           Publication in the Era of Traceability
    • Authors: Paolo Gonthier; Ivan Visentin; Danila Valentino; Giacomo Tamietti; Francesca Cardinale
      Pages: 631 - 633
      Abstract: Abstract When more scientists describe independently the same species under different valid Latin names, a case of synonymy occurs. In such a case, the international nomenclature rules stipulate that the first name to appear on a peer-reviewed publication has priority over the others. Based on a recent episode involving priority determination between two competing names of the same fungal plant pathogen, this letter wishes to open a discussion on the ethics of scientific publications and points out the necessity of a correct management of the information provided through personal communications, whose traceability would prevent their fraudulent or accidental manipulation.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9800-3
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Plagiarism in Publications Using the Unpublished Raw Data of Archived
           Research
    • Authors: Javad Yahaghi; Salmia Bnt Beddu; Zakaria Che Muda
      Pages: 635 - 636
      Abstract: Abstract It is obligatory to educate student researchers before they start their work by teaching them about the various types of plagiarism and how to avoid them. It is also vital that research supervisors take into account the sources of data that are explored in their students’ manuscripts. This article tries to draw the reader’s attention to the importance of avoiding all types of plagiarism in their research.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-016-9807-9
      Issue No: Vol. 23, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • A New Science Publishing System for a Budding Science Publishing Crisis
    • Abstract: Abstract The current science publishing system is in need of a positive transformation for the good of scientists and society as a whole. Herein, we propose features that, in our view, will distinguish the science publishing system of the future.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25
       
  • Subsidies to Increase Remote Pollution'
    • Authors: Jana Kliestikova; Anna Krizanova; Tatiana Corejova; Pavol Kral; Erika Spuchlakova
      Abstract: Abstract During the last decade, Central Europe became a cynosure for the world for its unparalleled public support for renewable energy. For instance, the production of electricity from purpose-grown biomass received approximately twice the amount in subsidies as that produced from biowaste. Moreover, the guaranteed purchase price of electricity from solar panels was set approximately five times higher than that from conventional sources. This controversial environmental donation policy led to the devastation of large areas of arable land, a worsening of food availability, unprecedented market distortions, and serious threats to national budgets, among other things. Now, the first proposals to donate the purchase price of electric vehicles (and related infrastructure) from national budgets have appeared for public debate. Advocates of these ideas argue that they can solve the issue of electricity overproduction, and that electric vehicles will reduce emissions in cities. However, our analysis reveals that, as a result of previous scandals, environmental issues have become less significant to local citizens. Given that electric cars are not yet affordable for most people, in terms of local purchasing power, this action would further undermine national budgets. Furthermore, while today’s electromobiles produce zero pollution when operated, their sum of emissions (i.e. global warming potential) remains much higher than that of conventional combustion engines. Therefore, we conclude that the mass usage of electromobiles could result in the unethical improvement of a city environment at the expense of marginal regions.
      PubDate: 2017-04-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9908-0
       
  • From Paper to Practice; Indexing Systems and Ethical Standards
    • Authors: Behrooz Astaneh; Sarah Masoumi
      Abstract: Abstract Currently one of the main goals of editors is to attain a higher visibility for their journals. On the other hand, authors strive to publish their research in journals indexed in eminent databases such as Scopus, Thompson Reuters’ Web of Science (ISI), Medline, etc. Therefore, clarifying the standards of indexing is of great importance. One of the most important issues in publication is the ethical considerations, which are mainly described by organizations, such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the Committee on Publication Ethics. In this study, we examined the ethical requirements of high impact databases for indexing journals to investigate whether they mention or mandate journals to adhere to publication ethics. We found that only Scopus mandated journals to state clear ethical policies on their website as a criterion for being indexed while Medline and Directory of Open Access Journals advised journals to adhere to ethics, not mandated, and Web of Science (ISI) and PubMed Central made no mention of ethics as a required criterion for indexing. Based on this short review, there seems to be a gap between the requirements of indexing systems and international guidelines for publication ethics. Currently, most indexing systems have only partially recommended journals to consider ethical issues. In such an atmosphere, we cannot expect journals or as a result, authors to professionally, completely, and whole heartedly implement ethical guidelines as a mandatory rule in their journals and research, when the indexing systems that most editors want to be indexed in and most authors want to be cited in do not mandate such guidelines.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9899-x
       
  • The Ethical and Academic Implications of the Jeffrey Beall
           (www.scholarlyoa.com) Blog Shutdown
    • Authors: Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
      Abstract: Abstract A very important event took place on January 15, 2017. On that day, the Jeffrey Beall blog (www.scholarlyoa.com) was silently, and suddenly, shut down by Beall himself. A profoundly divisive and controversial site, the Beall blog represented an existential threat to those journals and publishers that were listed there. On the other hand, the Beall blog was a ray of hope to critics of bad publishing practices that a culture of public shaming was perhaps the only way to rout out those journals—and their editors—and publishers who did not respect basic publishing ethical principles and intrinsic academic values. While members of the former group vilified Beall and his blog, members of the latter camp tried to elevate it to the level of policy. Split by extreme polar forces, for reasons still unknown to the public, Beall deliberately shut down his blog, causing some academic chaos among global scholars, including to the open access movement.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9905-3
       
  • A Systematic Literature Review of US Engineering Ethics Interventions
    • Authors: Justin L. Hess; Grant Fore
      Abstract: Abstract Promoting the ethical formation of engineering students through the cultivation of their discipline-specific knowledge, sensitivity, imagination, and reasoning skills has become a goal for many engineering education programs throughout the United States. However, there is neither a consensus throughout the engineering education community regarding which strategies are most effective towards which ends, nor which ends are most important. This study provides an overview of engineering ethics interventions within the U.S. through the systematic analysis of articles that featured ethical interventions in engineering, published in select peer-reviewed journals, and published between 2000 and 2015. As a core criterion, each journal article reviewed must have provided an overview of the course as well as how the authors evaluated course-learning goals. In sum, 26 articles were analyzed with a coding scheme that included 56 binary items. The results indicate that the most common methods for integrating ethics into engineering involved exposing students to codes/standards, utilizing case studies, and discussion activities. Nearly half of the articles had students engage with ethical heuristics or philosophical ethics. Following the presentation of the results, this study describes in detail four articles to highlight less common but intriguing pedagogical methods and evaluation techniques. The findings indicate that there is limited empirical work on ethics education within engineering across the United States. Furthermore, due to the large variation in goals, approaches, and evaluation methods described across interventions, this study does not detail “best” practices for integrating ethics into engineering. The science and engineering education community should continue exploring the relative merits of different approaches to ethics education in engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9910-6
       
  • Improving Student Engagement in the Study of Professional Ethics: Concepts
           and an Example in Cyber Security
    • Authors: John D. Bustard
      Abstract: Abstract In spite of the acknowledged importance of professional ethics, technical students often show little enthusiasm for studying the subject. This paper considers how such engagement might be improved. Four guiding principles for promoting engagement are identified: (1) aligning teaching content with student interests; (2) taking a pragmatic rather than a philosophical approach to issue resolution; (3) addressing the full complexity of real-world case studies; and (4) covering content in a way that students find entertaining. The use of these principles is then discussed with respect to the specific experience of developing and presenting a master’s module in Ethical and Legal Issues in Cyber Security at Queens University Belfast. One significant aspect of the resulting design is that it encourages students to see ethical issues in systemic terms rather than from an individual perspective, with issues emerging from a conflict between different groups with different vested interests. Case studies are used to examine how personal and business priorities create conflicts that can lead to negative press, fines and punitive legal action. The module explores the reasons why organisations may be unaware of the risks associated with their actions and how an inappropriate response to an ethical issue can significantly aggravate a situation. The module has been delivered in three successive years since 2014 and been well received on each occasion. The paper describes the design of the module and the experience of delivering it, concluding with a discussion of the effectiveness of the approach.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9904-4
       
  • On Effectiveness and Legitimacy of ‘Shaming’ as a Strategy for
           Combatting Climate Change
    • Authors: Behnam Taebi; Azar Safari
      Abstract: Abstract While states have agreed to substantial reduction of emissions in the Paris Agreement, the success of the Agreement strongly depends on the cooperation of large Multinational Corporations. Short of legal obligations, we discuss the effectiveness and moral legitimacy of voluntary approaches based on naming and shaming. We argue that effectiveness and legitimacy are closely tied together; as voluntary approaches are the only alternative to legally imposed duties, they are most morally defensible particularly if they would be the most effective in reducing the harmful greenhouse gases. Shaming could be made effective if states could prompt more corporations to accept voluntary cuts with high gains—such as public acknowledgements—and high losses, such as reporting on noncompliance and public exposure (naming), along with some kind of condemnation (shaming). An important challenge of such voluntary approaches is how to ensure compliance with the agreed upon commitments, while avoiding greenwashing or selective disclosure. Certain institutional arrangements are inevitable, including an independent measurement, monitoring and verification mechanism. In this paper, we discuss the potentials and ethical pitfalls of shaming as a strategy when corporations have a direct relationship with consumers, but also when they are in a relationship with governments and other corporations.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9909-z
       
  • Fake/Bogus Conferences: Their Features and Some Subtle Ways to
           Differentiate Them from Real Ones
    • Authors: Amin Asadi; Nader Rahbar; Mohammad Javad Rezvani; Fahime Asadi
      Abstract: Abstract The main objective of the present paper is to introduce some features of fake/bogus conferences and some viable approaches to differentiate them from the real ones. These fake/bogus conferences introduce themselves as international conferences, which are multidisciplinary and indexed in major scientific digital libraries. Furthermore, most of the fake/bogus conference holders offer publishing the accepted papers in ISI journals and use other techniques in their advertisement e-mails.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9906-2
       
  • Academic Information Security Researchers: Hackers or Specialists'
    • Authors: Mehdi Dadkhah; Mohammad Lagzian; Glenn Borchardt
      Abstract: Abstract In this opinion piece, we present a synopsis of our findings from the last 2 years concerning cyber-attacks on web-based academia. We also present some of problems that we have faced and try to resolve any misunderstandings about our work. We are academic information security specialists, not hackers. Finally, we present a brief overview of our methods for detecting cyber fraud in an attempt to present general guidelines for researchers who would like to continue our work. We believe that our work is necessary for protecting the integrity of scholarly publishing against emerging cybercrime.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9907-1
       
  • Detecting Hijacked Journals by Using Classification Algorithms
    • Authors: Mona Andoohgin Shahri; Mohammad Davarpanah Jazi; Glenn Borchardt; Mehdi Dadkhah
      Abstract: Abstract Invalid journals are recent challenges in the academic world and many researchers are unacquainted with the phenomenon. The number of victims appears to be accelerating. Researchers might be suspicious of predatory journals because they have unfamiliar names, but hijacked journals are imitations of well-known, reputable journals whose websites have been hijacked. Hijacked journals issue calls for papers via generally laudatory emails that delude researchers into paying exorbitant page charges for publication in a nonexistent journal. This paper presents a method for detecting hijacked journals by using a classification algorithm. The number of published articles exposing hijacked journals is limited and most of them use simple techniques that are limited to specific journals. Hence we needed to amass Internet addresses and pertinent data for analyzing this type of attack. We inspected the websites of 104 scientific journals by using a classification algorithm that used criteria common to reputable journals. We then prepared a decision tree that we used to test five journals we knew were authentic and five we knew were hijacked.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9914-2
       
  • Bankruptcy Prevention: New Effort to Reflect on Legal and Social Changes
    • Authors: Tomas Kliestik; Maria Misankova; Katarina Valaskova; Lucia Svabova
      Abstract: Abstract Every corporation has an economic and moral responsibility to its stockholders to perform well financially. However, the number of bankruptcies in Slovakia has been growing for several years without an apparent macroeconomic cause. To prevent a rapid denigration and to prevent the outflow of foreign capital, various efforts are being zealously implemented. Robust analysis using conventional bankruptcy prediction tools revealed that the existing models are adaptable to local conditions, particularly local legislation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that most of these outdated tools have sufficient capability to warn of impending financial problems several years in advance. A novel bankruptcy prediction tool that outperforms the conventional models was developed. However, it is increasingly challenging to predict bankruptcy risk as corporations have become more global and more complex and as they have developed sophisticated schemes to hide their actual situations under the guise of “optimization” for tax authorities. Nevertheless, scepticism remains because economic engineers have established bankruptcy as a strategy to limit the liability resulting from court-imposed penalties.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9912-4
       
  • Perceptions of Chinese Biomedical Researchers Towards Academic Misconduct:
           A Comparison Between 2015 and 2010
    • Authors: Qing-Jiao Liao; Yuan-Yuan Zhang; Yu-Chen Fan; Ming-Hua Zheng; Yu Bai; Guy D. Eslick; Xing-Xiang He; Shi-Bing Zhang; Harry Hua-Xiang Xia; Hua He
      Abstract: Abstract Publications by Chinese researchers in scientific journals have dramatically increased over the past decade; however, academic misconduct also becomes more prevalent in the country. The aim of this prospective study was to understand the perceptions of Chinese biomedical researchers towards academic misconduct and the trend from 2010 to 2015. A questionnaire comprising 10 questions was designed and then validated by ten biomedical researchers in China. In the years 2010 and 2015, respectively, the questionnaire was sent as a survey to biomedical researchers at teaching hospitals, universities, and medical institutes in mainland China. Data were analyzed by the Chi squared test, one-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post hoc test, or Spearman’s rank correlation method, where appropriate. The overall response rates in 2010 and 2015 were 4.5% (446/9986) and 5.5% (832/15,127), respectively. Data from 15 participants in 2010 were invalid, and analysis was thus performed for 1263 participants. Among the participants, 54.7% thought that academic misconduct was serious-to-extremely serious, and 71.2% believed that the Chinese authorities paid no or little attention to the academic misconduct. Moreover, 70.2 and 65.2% of participants considered that the punishment for academic misconduct at the authority and institution levels, respectively, was not appropriate or severe enough. Inappropriate authorship and plagiarism were the most common forms of academic misconduct. The most important factor underlying academic misconduct was the academic assessment system, as judged by 50.7% of the participants. Participants estimated that 40.1% (39.8 ± 23.5% in 2010; 40.2 ± 24.5% in 2015) of published scientific articles were associated with some form of academic misconduct. Their perceptions towards academic misconduct had not significantly changed over the 5 years. Reform of the academic assessment system should be the fundamental approach to tackling this problem in China.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9913-3
       
  • Support for the Development of Technological Innovations: Promoting
           Responsible Social Uses
    • Authors: Georges A. Legault; Céline Verchère; Johane Patenaude
      Abstract: Abstract How can technological development, economic development, and the claims from society be reconciled' How should responsible innovation be promoted' The “responsible social uses” approach proposed here was devised with these considerations in view. In this article, a support procedure for promoting responsible social uses (RSU) is set out and presented. First, the context in which this procedure emerged, which incorporates features of both the user-experience approach and that of ethical acceptability in technological development, is specified. Next, the characteristic features of the procedure are presented, that is, its purpose, fundamental orientation, and component parts as experimented by partners. Third, the RSU approach is compared with other support approaches and considered in term of how each approach assumes responsible innovation. Briefly, the RSU procedure is a way of addressing the issue of responsible innovation through an effective integration of social concerns.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11948-017-9911-5
       
 
 
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