Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2838 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (247 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (248 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (175 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1443 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (451 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (62 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (97 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (115 journals)

ENGINEERING (1443 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     

Showing 1201 - 1205 of 1205 Journals sorted alphabetically
Quality and Reliability Engineering International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Quality Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Quantum Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
R&D Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Radiochimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Rare Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Reactive and Functional Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Recent Patents on Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Recent Patents on Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Recherche Transports Sécurité     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Redes de Ingeniería     Open Access  
Regional Maritime University Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Regular and Chaotic Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Rem : Revista Escola de Minas     Open Access  
Remote Sensing     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Remote Sensing Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Requirements Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Research Ideas and Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research in Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Research Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Resonance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Respuestas     Open Access  
Results in Engineering     Open Access  
Review of Symbolic Logic     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Reviews in Advanced Sciences and Engineering     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Revista AIDIS de Ingeniería y Ciencias Ambientales. Investigación, desarrollo y práctica     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Brasileira de Inovação     Open Access  
Revista Campus     Open Access  
Revista Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Ciencia y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Ciencia y Tecnología El Higo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Científica de la UCSA     Open Access  
Revista Colombiana fe Technologias de Avanzada (RCTA)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista Cubana de Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Exatas Aplicadas e Tecnológicas da Universidade de Passo Fundo : CIATEC-UPF     Open Access  
Revista de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista de Ingenieria Sismica     Open Access  
Revista de Investigación     Open Access  
Revista de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación     Open Access  
Revista de Investigaciones en Energía, Medio Ambiente y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista de la Universidad del Zulia     Open Access  
Revista EIA     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingenieria - Universidad de Tarapaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de Antioquia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Fatec Zona Sul : REFAS     Open Access  
Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial RIAI     Open Access  
Revista Informador Técnico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Ingenieria de Construcción     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Interdisciplinar de Pesquisa em Engenharia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Internacional de Métodos Numéricos para Cálculo y Diseño en Ingeniería     Open Access  
Revista Logos Ciencia & Tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Técnica de la Facultad de Ingeniería : Universidad del Zulia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Tecnología en Marcha     Open Access  
Revista Tecnológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista UIS Ingenierías     Open Access  
Revue de Métallurgie     Full-text available via subscription  
RUDN Journal of Engineering Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Russian Engineering Research     Hybrid Journal  
Russian Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Russian Microelectronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sadhana     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Safety Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Scholedge International Journal of Multidisciplinary & Allied Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science & Technique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science and Education : Scientific Publication of BMSTU     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science and Engineering Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Science and Technology Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Science China Technological Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science in Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Science Journal of Volgograd State University. Technology and innovations     Open Access  
Science Progress     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Sciences & Technologie B : Sciences de l'ingénieur     Open Access  
Scientia cum Industria     Open Access  
Scientific Drilling     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Scientific Journal of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University     Open Access  
Scientific Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SCITECH Nepal     Open Access  
Sealing Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Securitas Vialis     Hybrid Journal  
Security and Communication Networks     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Selcuk University Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Semiconductors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Semiconductors and Semimetals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sensing and Imaging : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Sensor Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Sensors     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Separation and Purification Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Shock and Vibration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SIAM Journal on Optimization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
SIAM Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
SILICON     Hybrid Journal  
SINERGI     Open Access  
Sistemas & Telemática     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Sleep and Biological Rhythms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Small     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Smart Grid     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
SN Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Sociología y Tecnociencia     Open Access  
Soft Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Solar RRL     Hybrid Journal  
Soldagem & Inspeção     Open Access  
SourceOCDE Developpement urbain, rural et regional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
SourceOCDE Energie     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Energy     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Science and Technology Statistics - SourceOCDE Base de donnees des sciences et de la technologie     Full-text available via subscription  
SourceOECD Transport     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
SourceOECD Urban, Rural and Regional Development     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Computer Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Journal of Agricultural Extension     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
South African Journal of Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Sports Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stahlbau     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Steel in Translation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Steel Research International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Stochastic Analysis and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Stochastic Processes and their Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Stochastics and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal  
Strain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studies in Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
Studies in Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Logic and Practical Reasoning     Full-text available via subscription  
Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sud-Sciences et Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Superconductor Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Surface Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Surface Review and Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Surface Science Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Surfaces and Interfaces     Hybrid Journal  
Survey Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Surveying and Land Information Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Surveys in Operations Research and Management Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Sustainability Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Sustainability Science and Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Sustainable Management of Sediment Resources     Full-text available via subscription  
Swiss Journal of Geosciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Symmetry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Algorithms and Software in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Synthesis Lectures on Antennas     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Synthesis Lectures on Biomedical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Computational Electromagnetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Synthesis Lectures on Energy and the Environment: Technology, Science, and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Synthesis Lectures on Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Global Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
Synthesis Lectures on Professionalism and Career Advancement for Scientists and Engineers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Synthetic Metals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Systems Engineering - Theory & Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Systems Engineering Procedia     Open Access  
Systems Research Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Systems Science & Control Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Tableros     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tapuya : Latin American Science, Technology and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technical Tips Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Technological Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
TECHNOLOGY     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Technology and Economics of Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy     Hybrid Journal  
Technology and Innovation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Technology in Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Technometrics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Tecnología y Ciencia     Open Access  
Tecnología y Sociedad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tecnologia, Ciencia, Educacion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TecnoLógicas     Open Access  
Tecnura     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tekhné     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tekniikan Waiheita     Open Access  
Teknologi dan Kejuruan : Jurnal Teknologi, Kejuruan, dan Pengajarannya     Open Access  
Telecommunications Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Textile Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Thalassas : An International Journal of Marine Sciences     Hybrid Journal  
The Engineer     Partially Free  
The Journal of Supercomputing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
The Scientific World Journal     Open Access  
Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Thermal Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Tikrit Journal of Engineering Science     Open Access  
tm - Technisches Messen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Topics in Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Traffic Injury Prevention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Transactions of the Indian National Academy of Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transactions of the VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, Safety Engineering Series     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Transactions of Tianjin University     Full-text available via subscription  
Transport and Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Transport and Telecommunication     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Transport World Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Transportation Research Record : Journal of the Transportation Research Board     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Requirements Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.568
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-010X - ISSN (Online) 0947-3602
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Understanding what is important in iStar extension proposals: the
           viewpoint of researchers
    • Abstract: iStar is a goal-based requirements modelling language, being used in both industrial and academic projects of different domains. Often the language is extended to incorporate new constructs related to a particular application domain or to adjust it to practical situations during requirements modelling. Currently, the language is undergoing standardisation, and several studies have focused on the analysis of iStar variations to identify similarities and to define a core. This does not imply or constrain the need for iStar to continue to be extended. This paper contributes to the understanding of how iStar is extended by analysing how iStar researchers perform iStar extensions. To address this question, we followed a qualitative approach based on interviews involving 20 researchers from different research groups that proposed iStar extensions. The analysis revealed a good understanding about what extending a modelling language means and pointed out differences about how extensions are proposed. We discovered categories that impact positively on iStar extensions (such as reusing existing extensions, proposing extensions in abstract and concrete syntaxes, and creating new modelling tools), and other categories that impact negatively (such as modifying representations of the original constructs, proposing extensions in an ad hoc fashion and not carefully choosing graphical representations). We also evaluated the findings of interviews through an online survey answered by 30 iStar researchers. Finally, we proposed a set of guidelines to support the proposal for better future iStar extensions.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • The QDAcity-RE method for structural domain modeling using qualitative
           data analysis
    • Abstract: The creation of domain models from qualitative input relies heavily on experience. An uncodified ad-hoc modeling process is still common and leads to poor documentation of the analysis. In this article we present a new method for domain analysis based on qualitative data analysis. The method helps identify inconsistencies, ensures a high degree of completeness, and inherently provides traceability from analysis results back to stakeholder input. These traces do not have to be documented after the fact. We evaluate our approach using four exploratory studies.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • RSL-IL4Privacy: a domain-specific language for the rigorous specification
           of privacy policies
    • Abstract: Mobile and web applications that manage users’ personal information require developers to align their software design with privacy requirements commonly described in privacy policies. These policies are often the sole means to enforce accountability on that data protection. We propose the RSL-IL4Privacy, a domain-specific language for specifying privacy policies that can be simultaneously manipulated by computers and authored and analyzed by humans. In addition, RSL-IL4Privacy can be used as an intermediate language to support model-to-model transformations from and into other related languages. RSL-IL4Privacy provides policy authors with means to define a privacy policy as a set of declarative statements with explicit relationships to services, data recipients, private data types and enforcement mechanisms. The RSL-IL4Privacy is defined with different technologies for supporting distinct levels of formality, namely support for multiple modes of presenting privacy requirements, including tabular, graphical and textual representations, to increase integration with a wider variety of authoring and analyzing practices. We apply this language to support the analysis and comparison of policies from Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Dropbox and IMDb. We discuss with further detail the application of this approach to the Twitter policy by presenting several examples with multiple representations. Finally, we discuss how RSL-IL4Privacy can improve the quality of privacy policies and also identifies threats to validity.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • An empirical study on the use of i * by non-technical stakeholders: the
           case of strategic dependency diagrams
    • Abstract: Early phases of information systems engineering include the understanding of the enterprise’s context and the construction of models at different levels of decomposition, required to design the system architecture. These time-consuming activities are usually conducted by relatively large teams, composed of groups of non-technical stakeholders playing mostly an informative role (i.e. not involved in documentation and even less in modelling), led by few experienced technical consultants performing most of the documenting and modelling effort. This paper evaluates the ability of non-technical stakeholders to create strategic dependency diagrams written with the i* language in the design of the context model of a system architecture, and find out which difficulties they may encounter and what the quality of the models they build is. A case study involving non-technical stakeholders from 11 organizational areas in an Ecuadorian university held under the supervision and coordination of the two authors acting as consultants. The non-technical stakeholders identified the majority of the dependencies that should appear in the case study’s context model, although they experienced some difficulties in declaring the type of dependency, representing such dependencies graphically and applying the description guidelines provided in the training. Managers were observed to make more mistakes than other more operational roles. From the observations of these results, a set of methodological advices were compiled for their use in future, similar endeavours. It is concluded that non-technical stakeholders can take an active role in the construction of the context model. This conclusion is relevant for both researchers and practitioners involved in technology transfer actions with use of i*.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • A multifactor approach for elicitation of Information requirements of data
           warehouses
    • Abstract: Whereas requirements engineering for transactional systems aims to discover the functionality of the system-to-be, data warehouse requirements engineering aims to discover the Information contents of the data-warehouse-to-be. Though notions of goals, Decisions, business processes, business events have been used to set the context for Information discovery, the move from these to obtain the relevant Information is largely ad hoc, unguided, and does not provide traceability of Information. We propose four elicitation techniques that are inferred from manager concerns during Decision making and that provide guidance and traceability. These form a suite such that each augments the set of already discovered Information. Consequently, the possibility of missing requirements is reduced, thereby making for more effective requirements engineering.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • Automatic test cases generation from business process models
    • Abstract: Traditional test case generation approaches focus on design and implementation models while a large percentage of software errors are caused by the lack of understanding in the early phases. One of the most important models in the early phases of software development is business process model which closely resembles the real world and captures the requirements precisely. The aim of this paper is to present a model-based approach to automatically generate test cases from business process models. We first model business processes and convert them to state graphs. Then, the graphs are traversed and transformed to the input format of the “Spec explorer” tool that generates the test cases. Furthermore, we conduct a study to evaluate the impact of process characterizations on the performance of the proposed method.
      PubDate: 2019-03-01
       
  • From event logs to goals: a systematic literature review of goal-oriented
           process mining
    • Abstract: Process mining helps infer valuable insights about business processes using event logs, whereas goal modeling focuses on the representation and analysis of competing goals of stakeholders and systems. Although there are clear benefits in mining the goals of existing processes, goal-oriented approaches that consider logs during model construction are still rare. Process mining techniques, when generalizing large instance-level data into process models, can be considered as a data-driven complement to use case/scenario elicitation. Requirements engineers can exploit process mining techniques to find new system or process requirements in order to align current practices and desired ones. This paper provides a systemic literature review, based on 24 papers rigorously selected from four popular search engines in 2018, to assess the state of goal-oriented process mining. Through two research questions, the review highlights that the use of process mining in association with goals does not yet have a coherent line of research, whereas intention mining (where goal models are mined) shows a meaningful trace of research. Research about performance indicators measuring goals associated with process mining is also sparse. Although the number of publications in process mining and goal modeling is trending up, goal mining and goal-oriented process mining remain modest research areas. Yet, synergetic effects achievable by combining goals and process mining can potentially augment the precision, rationality and interpretability of mined models and eventually improve opportunities to satisfy system stakeholders.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
       
  • Extracting core requirements for software product lines
    • Abstract: Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) is a promising paradigm for reusing knowledge and artifacts among similar software products. However, SPLE methods and techniques require a high up-front investment and hence are profitable if several similar software products are developed. Thus in practice adoption of SPLE commonly takes a bottom-up approach, in which analyzing the commonality and variability of existing products and transforming them into reusable ones (termed core assets) are needed. These time-consuming and error-prone tasks call for automation. The literature partially deals with solutions for early software development stages, mainly in the form of variability analysis. We aim for further creation of core requirements—reusable requirements that can be adapted for different software products. To this end, we introduce an automated extractive method, named CoreReq, to generate core requirements from product requirements written in a natural language. The approach clusters similar requirements, captures variable parts utilizing natural language processing techniques, and generates core requirements following an ontological variability framework. Focusing on cloning scenarios, we evaluated CoreReq through examples and a controlled experiment. Based on the results, we claim that core requirements generation with CoreReq is feasible and usable for specifying requirements of new similar products in cloning scenarios.
      PubDate: 2019-01-01
       
  • Collaborative traceability management: a multiple case study from the
           perspectives of organization, process, and culture
    • Abstract: Traceability is crucial for many activities in software and systems engineering including monitoring the development progress, and proving compliance with standards. In practice, the use and maintenance of trace links are challenging as artifacts undergo constant change, and development takes place in distributed scenarios with multiple collaborating stakeholders. Although traceability management in general has been addressed in previous studies, there is a need for empirical insights into the collaborative aspects of traceability management and how it is situated in existing development contexts. The study reported in this paper aims to close this gap by investigating the relation of collaboration and traceability management, based on an understanding of characteristics of the development effort. In our multiple exploratory case study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 individuals from 15 industrial projects. We explored which challenges arise, how traceability management can support collaboration, how collaboration relates to traceability management approaches, and what characteristics of the development effort influence traceability management and collaboration. We found that practitioners struggle with the following challenges: (1) collaboration across team and tool boundaries, (2) conveying the benefits of traceability, and (3) traceability maintenance. If these challenges are addressed, we found that traceability can facilitate communication and knowledge management in distributed contexts. Moreover, there exist multiple approaches to traceability management with diverse collaboration approaches, i.e., requirements-centered, developer-driven, and mixed approaches. While traceability can be leveraged in software development with both agile and plan-driven paradigms, a certain level of rigor is needed to realize its benefits and overcome challenges. To support practitioners, we provide principles of collaborative traceability management. The main contribution of this paper is empirical evidence of how culture, processes, and organization impact traceability management and collaboration, and principles to support practitioners with collaborative traceability management. We show that collaboration and traceability management have the potential to be mutually beneficial—when investing in one, also the other one is positively affected.
      PubDate: 2018-11-21
       
  • Value-based requirements engineering: method and experience
    • Abstract: ‘Socio-political’ issues, such as emotions, values and people’s feelings, are often cited as problems in the RE process. A method is described for analysing such issues. The method consists of a taxonomy of stakeholders’ values, motivations and emotions (VME), with process guidance for eliciting and analysing these issues for the RE process and design implications. Values are personal attitudes or long-term beliefs which may influence stakeholder functional and non-functional requirements. Motivations are psychological constructs related to personality traits which may be viewed as stakeholders’ long-term goals in RE. Emotions are cues to stakeholders’ reactions arising from value/motivation conflicts. The method is supported by a website which illustrates the taxonomy with explanations and scenarios describing problems arising from value conflicts, and from poor understanding of stakeholder values. Two method validation studies were undertaken: first, an evaluation of the website and method by novices and RE experts; and second, case study applications of RE value analysis in real-world industrial practice. The method was used by all practitioners, although in different ways, some used it to create an agenda of issues for analysis while others employed the VMEs to interpret stakeholders’ views and manage stakeholder negotiations. The validation studies provide evidence for the acceptability of the method for industrial practitioners, illustrating how value-related problems are identified and analysed effectively by the method. The utility of analysing VMEs is compared to other ‘socio-political issues’-oriented methods in RE and methods which focus on monetized values in product requirements.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • A method of requirements change analysis
    • Abstract: Software requirements are often not set in concrete at the start of a software development project; and requirement changes become necessary and sometimes inevitable due to changes in customer requirements and changes in business rules and operating environment; hence, requirements development, which includes requirements changes, is a part of a software process. Previous research reports that correcting requirements errors late costs many times more than correcting them during the requirements development phase. There is, hence, a need to manage them well and to analyse them in order to identify the impacts, difficulties and potential conflicts with existing requirements. Most studies on requirements change analysis are done at the source code level while paying less attention to the initiation of changes at a higher level. In this paper, we present a method of requirements change analysis based on the changes themselves which are initiated at higher levels. This method consists of three steps: namely (1) analysing the change using functions, (2) identifying the change difficulty and (3) identifying the dependencies using a matrix. We illustrate the usefulness of our method by applying it to a course management system of a university.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Mending the patchwork of requirements from multiple standards using
           participative goal modelling: a case in the food industry
    • Abstract: An increasing number of concurrent standards and regulations is being imposed on organizations operating in various domains. From healthcare to automotive to food, demands from national legislation, directives of each target market, and edicts from specific clients are creating a patchwork of requirements for compliance and audit. Managing these disconnected frameworks involves considerable overhead, duplications, and conflicts. But integrating and harmonizing these requirements needs the collaboration of varied stakeholders, with different trainings and backgrounds, capable of translating the impacts of the various norms in the different sectors of the organization. We propose a participative goal-oriented approach, consisting of four steps, to assist in this process. It brings together the requirements from the various regulations, the organizational goals, and measurement indicators. We describe its use in a company operating in the food industry, one of the most regulated in the world, where audits are very frequent, to integrate ISO 22000, IFS Food, and BRC Global Standards. Our findings show that an effective integration of the multiple regulations was possible and that the resulting goal diagrams are an effective tool for communicating with various stakeholders, such as employees, clients, auditors, consultants, and representatives of industry initiatives.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Improving the representation of roles in conceptual modeling: theory,
           method, and evidence
    • Abstract: Conceptual models represent the Organizational domain for which an information system is developed. These models are important tools in defining the requirements for the system. When describing an Organization or part of it, a key concept is the notion of roles played by actors in the domain. Actors in an Organization act in various roles, hence, showing that roles in a conceptual model can promote understanding of how the Organization works. However, despite the importance of roles in understanding Organizations and their prevalence in various aspects of information systems development, no consensus exists on what roles are, or how to represent them in conceptual models. In this paper, we formally define role as a conceptual modeling construct based on literature analysis, ontological concepts, and principles of classification. Using this definition, we derive guidelines for representing roles in conceptual models and suggest rules for modeling roles with the widely used extended entity-relationship grammar. Finally, we test the effectiveness of the modeling rules by conducting an experimental study to compare the domain understanding of readers using two types of conceptual modeling scripts. One script was obtained by violating the rules and the other by not violating the rules. We obtained data on domain understanding (using problem-solving questions) and on the process of understanding (using eye tracking). The results indicate that the role-based rules are not only useful for understanding the models but also provide direct clues as to why this is so.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Goal model analysis of autonomy requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems
    • Abstract: Designing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) for optimal autonomy while meeting user requirements is quite challenging. Researchers have focused on improving autonomy algorithms and verification methods to ensure safe and reliable autonomous behavior in UASs, but little research has been conducted on requirements engineering for UASs to answer design questions and explore the trade space for using autonomy to satisfy user requirements. This paper introduces a method to determine an optimal set of autonomous capabilities that satisfies UAS user requirements in the early stages of conceptual design. The method uses a modified Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) process that applies quantitative measures and statistical analysis to Goal-Oriented Requirements Engineering (GORE). We demonstrate this method in a case study of a “disaster robot,” i.e., a hazard response UAS for which the autonomy requirements were optimized using a goal model developed in the Goal-oriented Requirement Language (GRL), as implemented in the modeling tool jUCMNav. The high-level goals of the hazard response UAS—system performance, cost, and safety—were evaluated using the formula-based GRL strategy evaluation algorithm resident in jUCMNav version 6.0. An autonomy trade space study was conducted through a Design and Analysis of Simulation Experiments (DASE). Our designed simulation experiment inserted the number of trials (evaluation strategies) and inputs into the goal model, and evaluation data were analyzed to optimize design factors based on user weightings of the response variables. This paper presents a structured method of ARE for UASs, which could be adopted more broadly across other domains, demonstrating how to optimize autonomous capabilities for different design conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Using the AMAN-DA method to generate security requirements: a case study
           in the maritime domain
    • Abstract: Security requirements are known to be “the most difficult of requirements types” and potentially the ones causing the greatest risk if they are not correct. One approach to requirements elicitation is based on the reuse of explicit knowledge. AMAN-DA is a requirement elicitation method that reuses encapsulated knowledge in security and domain ontologies to produce security requirements specifications. The main research question addressed in this paper is to what extent is AMAN-DA able to generate domain-specific security requirements' Following a well-documented process, a case study related to the maritime domain was undertaken with the goal to demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of AMAN-DA for the elicitation and analysis of domain-specific security requirements. The usefulness of the method was also evaluated with a group of 12 experts. The paper demonstrates the elicitation of domain-specific security requirements by presenting the AMAN-DA method and its application. It describes the evaluation and reports some significant results and their implications for practice and future research, especially for the field of knowledge reuse in requirements engineering.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
       
  • Improving the identification of hedonic quality in user requirements: a
           second controlled experiment
    • Authors: Andreas Maier; Daniel M. Berry
      Abstract: Systematically engineering a good user experience (UX) into a computer-based system under development demands that the user requirements of the system reflect all needs, including emotional, of all stakeholders. User requirements address two different types of qualities: pragmatic qualities (PQs), that address system functionality and usability, and hedonic qualities (HQs) that address the stakeholder’s psychological well-being. Studies show that users tend to describe such satisfying UXes mainly with PQs and that some users seem to believe that they are describing an HQ when they are actually describing a PQ. The problem is to see if classification of any user requirement as PQ-related or HQ-related is difficult, and if so, why. We conducted two controlled experiments involving the same twelve requirements-engineering and UX professionals, hereinafter called “analysts.” The first experiment, which had the twelve analysts classifying each of 105 user requirements as PQ-related or HQ-related, shows that neither (1) an analyst’s involvement in the project from which the requirements came nor (2) the analyst’s use of a detailed model of the qualities in addition to the standard definitions of “PQ” and “HQ” has a positive effect on the consistency of the analyst’s classification with that of others. The second experiment, which had the twelve analysts classifying each of a set of 50 user requirements, derived from the 105 of the first experiment, showed that difficulties seem to be caused both by the analyst’s lacking skill in applying the definitions of “PQ” and “HQ” and by poorly written user requirement specifications. The first experiment revealed that classification of user requirements is a lot harder than initially assumed. The second experiment provided evidence that the difficulties can be mitigated by the combination of (1) training analysts in applying the definitions of “PQ” and “HQ” and (2) casting user requirement specifications in a new template that forces provision of the information needed for reliable classification. The experiment shows also that neither training analysts nor casting user requirement specifications in the new template, by itself, mitigates the difficulty in classifying user requirements.
      PubDate: 2018-05-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00766-018-0290-5
       
  • Customer support ticket escalation prediction using feature engineering
    • Authors: Lloyd Montgomery; Daniela Damian; Tyson Bulmer; Shaikh Quader
      Abstract: Understanding and keeping the customer happy is a central tenet of requirements engineering. Strategies to gather, analyze, and negotiate requirements are complemented by efforts to manage customer input after products have been deployed. For the latter, support tickets are key in allowing customers to submit their issues, bug reports, and feature requests. If insufficient attention is given to support issues, however, their escalation to management becomes time-consuming and expensive, especially for large organizations managing hundreds of customers and thousands of support tickets. Our work provides a step toward simplifying the job of support analysts and managers, particularly in predicting the risk of escalating support tickets. In a field study at our large industrial partner, IBM, we used a design science research methodology to characterize the support process and data available to IBM analysts in managing escalations. In a design science methodology, we used feature engineering to translate our understanding of support analysts’ expert knowledge of their customers into features of a support ticket model. We then implemented these features into a machine learning model to predict support ticket escalations. We trained and evaluated our machine learning model on over 2.5 million support tickets and 10,000 escalations, obtaining a recall of 87.36% and an 88.23% reduction in the workload for support analysts looking to identify support tickets at risk of escalation. Further on-site evaluations, through a prototype tool we developed to implement our machine learning techniques in practice, showed more efficient weekly support ticket management meetings. Finally, in addition to these research evaluation activities, we compared the performance of our support ticket model with that of a model developed with no feature engineering; the support ticket model features outperformed the non-engineered model. The artifacts created in this research are designed to serve as a starting place for organizations interested in predicting support ticket escalations, and for future researchers to build on to advance research in escalation prediction.
      PubDate: 2018-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00766-018-0292-3
       
  • On user rationale in software engineering
    • Authors: Zijad Kurtanović; Walid Maalej
      Abstract: Rationale refers to the reasoning and justification behind human decisions, opinions, and beliefs. In software engineering, rationale management focuses on capturing design and requirements decisions and on organizing and reusing project knowledge. This paper takes a different view on rationale written by users in online reviews. We studied 32,414 reviews for 52 software applications in the Amazon Store. Through a grounded theory approach and peer content analysis, we investigated how users argue and justify their decisions, e.g., about upgrading, installing, or switching software applications. We also studied the occurrence frequency of rationale concepts such as issues encountered or alternatives considered in the reviews and found that assessment criteria like performance, compatibility, and usability represent the most pervasive concept. We identified a moderate positive correlation between issues and criteria and furthermore assessed the distribution of rationale concepts with respect to rating and verbosity. We found that issues tend to appear more in lower star rated reviews, while criteria, alternatives, and justifications seem to appear more in three star rated reviews. Also, reviews reporting alternatives seem to be more verbose than reviews reporting criteria. A follow-up qualitative study of sub-concepts revealed, that users also report other alternatives (e.g., alternative software provider), criteria (e.g., cost), and decisions (e.g., on rating software). We then used the truth set of manually labeled review sentences to explore how accurately we can mine rationale concepts from the reviews. We evaluated the classification algorithms Naive Bayes, Support Vector Machine, Logistic Regression, Decision Tree, Gaussian Process, Random Forest, and Multilayer Perceptron Classifier using a baseline and random configuration. Support Vector Classifier, Naive Bayes, and Logistic Regression, trained on the review metadata, syntax tree of the review text, and influential terms, achieved a precision around 80% for predicting sentences with alternatives and decisions, with top recall values of 98%. On the review level, precision was up to 13% higher with recall values reaching 99%. Using only word features, we achieved in most cases the highest precision and highest recall respectively using the Random Forest and Naive Bayes algorithm. We discuss the findings and the rationale importance for supporting deliberation in user communities and synthesizing the reviews for developers.
      PubDate: 2018-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00766-018-0293-2
       
  • Editorial special issue RE 2017
    • Authors: Jane Hayes; Barbara Paech
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00766-018-0295-0
       
  • Discovering undocumented knowledge through visualization of agile software
           development activities
    • Authors: Shinobu Saito; Yukako Iimura; Aaron K. Massey; Annie I. Antón
      Abstract: In agile software development projects, software engineers prioritize implementation over documentation. Is the cost of missing documentation greater than the cost of producing unnecessary or unused documentation' Agile software engineers must still maintain other software artifacts, such as tickets in an issue tracking system or source code committed to a version control system (VCS). Do these artifacts contain useful knowledge' In this paper, we examine undocumented knowledge in a multi-case exploratory case study of industrial agile software development projects. The first is an internal project with 159 source code commits and roughly 8000 lines of code. The second is an external project with 760 source code commits and roughly 50,000 lines of code. We introduce a ticket-commit network chart (TCC) that visually represents time-series commit activities along with filed issue tickets. We also implement a tool to generate the TCC using both commit log and ticket data. Our case study revealed that software engineers committed source code to the VCS without a corresponding issue ticket in a non-trivial minority of instances. If these commits were based on and linked to individual issue tickets, then these “unissued” tickets would have accounted for a non-trivial minority (5–21%) of the knowledge needed for future software modification and operations. End users and requirements engineers also evaluated the contents of these commits. They found that the omission of links to individual tickets had an important impact on future software modification or operation with between 22 and 49% of these instances resulting in undocumented knowledge.
      PubDate: 2018-04-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00766-018-0291-4
       
 
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