for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2191 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (185 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (173 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (96 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1180 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (58 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (82 journals)

ENGINEERING (1180 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Urban Planning and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Urban Regeneration & Renewal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Vibration and Acoustics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Journal of Visualization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Volcanology and Seismology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed.     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A     Hybrid Journal  
Journal on Chain and Network Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Teknik ITS     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Kerntechnik     Full-text available via subscription  
KKU Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Langmuir     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Latin American Journal of Computing     Open Access  
Leadership and Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Lighting Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Logic and Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Logica Universalis     Hybrid Journal  
Lubrication Science     Hybrid Journal  
Machines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Machining Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Magazine of Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Management and Production Engineering Review     Open Access  
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Manufacturing Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Marine Technology Society Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
MATEC Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Matériaux & Techniques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mathematics of Control, Signals, and Systems (MCSS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Measurement Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meccanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mechatronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Engineering & Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Membrane Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Membrane Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Memetic Computing     Hybrid Journal  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metal Powder Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Metallurgist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Metaphysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metascience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metrologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Microelectronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microelectronics International     Hybrid Journal  
Microelectronics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Micromachines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Information Technologies in the Sphere of Security and Defence     Open Access  
Molecular BioSystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Molecular Pharmaceutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
MRS Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
MRS Online Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal  
NANO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nano Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
Nano Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nano Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Nano-Micro Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nanopages     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanoscale Systems : Mathematical Modeling, Theory and Applications     Open Access  
Nanoscience and Nanoengineering     Open Access  
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nanotechnologies in Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 162)
Nature Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
NDT & E International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Nexo Revista Científica     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Technological Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
NIR news     Full-text available via subscription  
Noise Mapping     Open Access  
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nonlinear Engineering : Modeling and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nonlinearity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Nova Scientia     Open Access  
NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nuclear Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover   Reactive and Functional Polymers
  [SJR: 0.879]   [H-I: 62]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1381-5148
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Hepatocyte targeting and sustained release activity of water-soluble
           anti-HBV prodrug: Lactobionic acid grafted chitosan-lamivudine conjugate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Changguo Du, Ling Li, Hongran Wang, Jin Zhang, Xinchao Yang, Chao Li, Renzhong Qiao
      Lamivudine (3TC), a contemporary anti-HBV drug, has limit clinical application due to its non-specific biodistribution and side effects on normal cells. A new hepatocyte-targeting prodrug LA-CS-3TC is synthesized based on covalently linking 3TC and lactobionic acid with chitosan. Lactobionic acid can specifically bind to the asialoglycoprotein receptor on the hepatocyte surface. In our study, the degrees of substitution of 3TC on chitosan polymer are 14.9%, while lactobionic acid moiety increases the intracellular accumulation of prodrug in HepG2.215 cells. LA-CS-3TC shows superior sustained release ability at pH7.4 compared with CS-3TC and the major release product isopropyl-5′-O-lamivudine monophosphate (3TC-P-H) can enhance the therapeutic effects. Also, LA-CS-3TC demonstrates lower cytotoxicity and higher water-solubility than the parent compound. Hence, it is depicted that the chitosan modified with lactobionic acid could be applied as a potential anti-HBV drugs vector with water-soluble, hepatocyte targeted, lowly cytotoxic and sustained release.

      PubDate: 2015-11-22T16:49:16Z
  • Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of polyaniline tin
           (IV) molybdophosphate composite with nanocrystalline domains
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Bamlaku Semagne, Isabel Diaz, Tesfahun Kebede, Abi M. Taddesse
      Polyaniline-tin(IV)molybdophosphate nanocomposite has been synthesized by incorporating polyaniline into inorganic exchanger tin(IV)molybdophosphate. Simultaneous TGA-DTG, FTIR, XRD, HRTEM and EDS have been used to characterize this composite material. The polyaniline- tin(IV)molybdophosphate (PATMP) behaves as bifunctional and strong acid cation exchanger with IEC of 1.79meqg−1 for Na+ ions. Thermal analysis of the material shows that the material retains 75% of its ion-exchange capacity up to 600°C. Adsorption behavior of metal ions in different solvents with varying concentration has also been explored. The sorption studies revealed that the material is selective for Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions. The analytical utility of the material has been explored by achieving some binary separations of metal ions on its column based on the distribution coefficients. Pb(II) and Cu(II) have been selectively removed from synthetic mixtures of Pb(II)-Mn(II), Pb(II)-Ni(II), Cu(II)-Mn(II) and Cu(II)-Ni(II).

      PubDate: 2015-11-22T16:49:16Z
  • Hybrid drug carriers with temperature-controlled on–off release: A
           simple and reliable synthesis of PNIPAM-functionalized mesoporous silica
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Valentina Brunella, Sushilkumar A. Jadhav, Ivana Miletto, Gloria Berlier, Elena Ugazio, Simona Sapino, Dominique Scalarone
      MCM-41-like mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) grafted with a thermoresponsive copolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide were synthesized, fully characterized and tested to assess their efficiency as drug delivery systems. The hybrid nanoparticles were prepared by carrying out the optimized copolymer synthesis within the mesopores of MSNs after infiltration of monomers and initiator. Polymerization and grafting of the thermoresponsive copolymer occurred simultaneously by exploiting the reactive sites of the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane comonomer which carries a polymerizable group and alkoxysilane groups prone to condensation with surface silanols on silica. The grafted copolymer through its coil-to-globule transition acts as a gatekeeper for the temperature-controlled release of ibuprofen molecules loaded inside the pores. Significant difference in the quantitative release of ibuprofen was observed at 25 and 40°C, which are below and above the lower critical solution temperature of the thermoresponsive copolymer. Importantly, the ordered mesoporous structure of the MSNs remained intact in all synthetic steps, loading of drug and during the in vitro release tests.

      PubDate: 2015-11-18T16:41:44Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 97

      PubDate: 2015-11-18T16:41:44Z
  • Application of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers in the detection of
           malachite green in fish samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Zheng-zhong Lin, Hong-yuan Zhang, Lu Li, Zhi-yong Huang
      Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) synthesized through suspension polymerization were used as the adsorbent for the detection of malachite green (MG) in fish samples. The morphological, thermal and magnetic properties of the MMIPs were characterized. The influence of polymerization condition on the absorption capacity of the MMIPs for MG was explored. The results gave the optimum polymerization condition as follows: using MG (0.25mmol) as template, methacrylic acid (1mmol) as monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate (5mmol) as cross linker, 2,2′-Azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (100mg) as initiator, Fe3O4 (100mg) as magnetic nuclei, PVA (1%) as dispersant. Under the optimum condition the apparent maximum adsorption capacity of MMIPs is 5693μg·g−1 with dissociation constant being 23.5mg·L−1. The MMIPs also have strong magnetic responses to an external magnet, which enable the rapid separation from the sample solution. The MMIPs were employed for the detection of MG residue in fish samples combined with HPLC. The recoveries of spiked MG in fish samples ranged from 82.7% to 111% with RSD in the range of 2.0%~12.8%. The MMIPs can remain 90% of the original adsorption capacity even used for 5 times. Thus, the prepared MMIPs can be applied to the sample pretreatment for separation and enrichment of MG residue in fish samples.

      PubDate: 2015-11-18T16:41:44Z
  • Covalent attachment of an influenza hemagglutinin-derived peptide to
           urethane-based cationic polymers affects their transfection efficiency in
           DNA delivery and their course in cell entry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Jong Yuh Cherng, Chin Hua Lin
      In this study, an influenza hemagglutinin-derived peptide (HAP) was covalently linked to urethane-based cationic polymers (polyurethanes; PUs) to further improve their transfection efficiency. N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridylditio)propionate (SPDP) was used as a coupling agent. The peptide-conjugated PUs (with 2–4 peptides conjugated per polymer chain) resulted in conjugated PU/DNA complexes with greatly increased transfection efficiency in comparison with PU/DNA complexes made with PUs without HAP. This increased transfection efficiency came from the assistance of the cationic PUs in overcoming the cell membrane barrier and the ability of the conjugated viral peptide to destabilize the endolysosome membrane before degradation of the complexes. Furthermore, the modification of the cationic PUs through the introduction of poly-L-arginine (PA) into their side chains increased their capability for condensation with DNA, resulting in the smaller-sized complexes observed and contributing to their passage of DNA delivery. In vitro transfection and cytotoxicity data showed that the PU grafted with 1° amine, PA, and HAP (i.e., PU-PA-1-HAP) exhibited substantially higher transfection activity than the PUs grafted without HAP, without PA or without HAP/PA (i.e., PU-PA-1, PU-1-HAP PU-1). Most of the cells were viable (90% cell survival) after transfection with cationic-PUs and HAP-conjugated PUs below a polymer/DNA ratio of 400/1 (w/w). Moreover, the results of the present study demonstrated that the effectiveness of PU-PA-1-HAP in DNA delivery is due to the HAP conjugation, which not only helps the formed complexes to escape from endolysosomes, but also opens an alternative pathway (via clathrin as opposed to via caveolae) in transfection. Therefore, the increased capability of the complexes to gain cellular entry causes their increased transfection efficiency. In contrast, PU without HAP (i.e. PU-PA-1) can only deliver DNA into cells through the caveolae-mediated pathway.

      PubDate: 2015-11-18T16:41:44Z
  • Effect of silane coupling agents with different non-hydrolytic groups on
           tensile modulus of composite PDMS crosslinked membranes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Xing Su, Baoli Shi
      In this paper, four silane coupling agents with different non-hydrolytic groups were used to treat a kind of hydrophilic fumed nanosilica to investigate the influence of different silane coupling agents on the mechanical properties of PDMS composite matrix. The four coupling agents were ethyl triethoxysilane (ETES), octyl triethoxysilane (OTES), phenyl triethoxysilane (PTES), and 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) which exhibited the same hydrolytic groups. For each coupling agent/nanosilica system, six modified nanosilica samples were prepared at different addition contents of the coupling agent; six corresponding PDMS composite crosslinked membranes were also prepared. It was found that compared with pure PDMS membrane, the addition of modified nanosilica to PDMS increased the tensile modulus of the composite membranes. The miscibility strongly influenced the tensile modulus of the composite membranes when the HSP (Hansen solubility parameter) difference R a was adopted to characterize the miscibility between the non-hydrolytic groups of the four coupling agents and the solvent (n-hexane). A better miscibility induced a larger tensile modulus. When the length of the non-hydrolytic groups was larger than the distance between two adjacent hydroxyl groups, the sheltered hydroxyl groups by the non-hydrolytic groups would be prevented to couple with other coupling agent molecules, thereby reducing the available hydroxyl groups. When all of the potentially available hydroxyl groups at the nanosilica surface reacted with the coupling agent molecules, the tensile modulus of the composite membranes would reach a maximum value. In addition, according to the results of equilibrium swelling in ethanol and water, it was found that a membrane with large tensile modulus possessed strong resistant capability to swelling. From the results of ethanol and water pervaporation experiments, connection between ideal ethanol/water permeation selectivity or ideal ethanol/water diffusion selectivity and the tensile modulus was also observed.

      PubDate: 2015-11-14T16:36:05Z
  • Bio-based thermosetting bismaleimide resins using cardany linolenate and
           allyl cardanyl ether
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yoshiki Hannoda, Yuki Akasaka, Mitsuhiro Shibata
      Cardanyl linolenate (CDLN) and allyl cardanyl ether (ACDE) were synthesized from cardanol (CD) which is one of inexpensive natural resources. Prepolymerized compounds of CDLN/4,4′-bismaleimidodiphenylmethane (BMI) and ACDE/BMI with the molar ratios of 1/2, 1/2.5 and 1/3 at 200°C were compression-molded at 250°C to produce cured CDLN/BMI and ACDE/BMI resins (cCDLN/BMI and cACDE/BMI), respectively. The thermal and mechanical properties of cCDLN/BMI and cACDE/BMI were investigated in relation to the difference of reactivity between the linolenate group of CDLN and the allyl group of ACDE. The 1H-NMR and mass spectral analyses of the reaction product of methyl linolenate and N-phenylmaleimide (PMI) revealed that PMI-rich oligomer was produced by the addition copolymerization. FT-IR analyses of cCDLN/BMI and cACDE/BMI revealed that the terminal olefins have a higher reactivity toward the addition copolymerization or ene reaction with maleimide groups than the internal olefins. Although some components which were not incorporated into the polymer networks for cCDLN/BMIs caused a little reduction of storage modulus (E’) before the glass transition starts, E's of cACDE/BMIs did not decrease until the glass transition starts at ~300°C. The 5% weight loss temperatures (444-453°C) of cACDE/BMIs were higher than those (327-426°C) of cCDLN/BMIs. Also, cACDE/BMIs displayed much better flexural properties than cCDLN/BMIs. The fact that cACDE/BMIs showed better thermal and mechanical properties was attributed to a higher functionality (1.41) of terminal olefins for ACDE than that (0.41) for CDLN.

      PubDate: 2015-10-29T13:19:14Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 96

      PubDate: 2015-10-25T13:04:56Z
  • A facile one-step synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles in DMSO using
           poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) block copolymers
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 96
      Author(s): César Saldías, Ángel Leiva, Sebastián Bonardd, Caterina Quezada, Soledad Saldías, Maximiliano Pino, Deodato Radic’
      Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of Au and Ag nanoparticles prepared by direct reaction between poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG–PCL) block copolymers and metal precursors in DMSO at 343K. Special attention is devoted to the structural and molecular weight effects on nanoparticle synthesis to establish general correlations between the experimental parameters and the characteristics of the obtained nanoparticles. The noble metal nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV–visible spectroscopy, zeta potential (ZP) and FT-IR techniques. The shape and size of the obtained nanoparticles primarily depend mainly on the chemical structure and composition (PEG–PCL) of the copolymers used in the synthesis. From density functional theory (DFT), the chemical groups responsible for metal salt reduction and stabilization of the nanoparticles have been represented using simple models. The possible solvent effects were also considered by incorporation of a polarizable continuum model (PCM) into the calculations.

      PubDate: 2015-10-25T13:04:56Z
  • The effect of chitosan nanoparticles onto Lactobacillus cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 97
      Author(s): Tijana Ristić, Samo Lasič, Ivan Kosalec, Matej Bračič, Lidija Fras-Zemljič
      Chitosan (CS) and trimethyl chitosan (TMC) solutions, as well as nanoparticles synthesized by ionic gelation method are studied. Their characterization is focused on determining the charge and antimicrobial properties against common pathogenic microorganisms and Lactobacillus spp., usually found in resident microbiota of vaginal and gastrointestinal tract. Special emphasis is given to the evaluation of antimicrobial activity in relation to the available cationic charge and the presence of nano-sized chitosan in comparison with chitosan macromolecules. In order to investigate the chitosan's antimicrobial mode of action diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (D-NMR) is used as a novel approach. This technique enables the monitoring of chitosan nanoparticles (CSNP) effects onto healthy Lactobacillus cells. D-NMR results indicate that CSNP interact with the membrane of Lactobacillus cells, causing the perturbation of the membrane wall and lead to the death of the cells, suggesting the mechanism of Lactobacillus inhibition caused by CSNP. Lactobacillus inhibition is also reflected in low minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC).

      PubDate: 2015-10-25T13:04:56Z
  • O-carboxymethyl functionalization of chitosan: Complexation and adsorption
           of Cd (II) and Cr (VI) as heavy metal pollutant ions
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 97
      Author(s): Fernanda G.L. Medeiros Borsagli, Alexandra A.P. Mansur, Poliane Chagas, Luiz C.A. Oliveira, Herman S. Mansur

      PubDate: 2015-10-25T13:04:56Z
  • Influence of anion induced proton abstraction on Cu(II) adsorption by
           alginic acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 97
      Author(s): Upma Vaid, Sunil Mittal, J. Nagendra Babu
      Alginic acid (AA) synthesized by acidification of commercial sodium alginate was investigated for its Cu(II) adsorption efficiency in the presence of different counter ions. The results of batch adsorption studies indicated an adsorption of 169.86mg/g of Cu(II) by AA in the presence of acetate ions, however, it significantly decreased in the presence of chloride (126.36mg/g), sulphate (115.24mg/g) and nitrate (113.28mg/g) as counter ions. This can be accounted to the tendency of conjugate base (anion) to abstract proton from AA, which determines the extent of deprotonation of carboxylic acid. The FTIR and TGA/DTA studies support the difference in the coordination of carboxylate to Cu(II) in the presence of various counter anions. Acetate showed strong chelate coordination between Cu(II) and AA, whereas in the presence of Cl−, NO3 − and SO4 2−, Cu(II) was complexed by weak bridging coordination with AA.

      PubDate: 2015-10-25T13:04:56Z
  • Preparation of PANI coated polymer microspheres and their use as Michael
           acceptor for direct immobilization of amines and amino acids
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Hasan Onur Erdem, Niyazi Bicak
      A new and convenient protocol is presented for creating thick Emeraldine Green layers on crosslinked PS–DVB microspheres. This was performed by persulfate oxidation of anilinium salt of sulfonated linear poly (styrene) brushes tethered to the cross-linked poly (styrene–divinyl benzene) (PS–DVB) micro spheres. The carrier polymer was prepared by surface initiated ATRP of styrene from PS–DVB micro beads (210–420μm) and followed sulfonation by Vink process. Sulfonic acid groups (4.2 and 4.8mmolg−1) on the surface brushes were then neutralized with aniline. Oxidation of the anilinium salts so formed on the microspheres proceeded solely on the polymer microbeads to give thick PANI layers. The red-brown Pernigraline generated by further oxidation of the PANI layer was demonstrated to act as an efficient Michael acceptor in covalent immobilization of amines, amino acids and polyamines in good to excellent yields (i.e. 1.7mmolg−1) as inferred from FT-IR spectra and wet chemical analyses.

      PubDate: 2015-10-25T13:04:56Z
  • Efficient separation of O/W and W/O micro-emulsion by thermally responsive
           superantiwetting PVDF membrane
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yanhui Xiang, Yunze Wang, Haibo Lin, Yi Wang, Zhu Xiong, Fu Liu
      Efficient separation of both oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) micro-emulsion was accomplished by a novel thermally responsive PVDF membrane. PNIPAAm-PVP-VTES micro-hydrogel was elaborately synthesized and incorporated into PVDF membrane, which was validated by transmission election microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection flourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), laser confocal microscopy and thermogravimetric respectively. The thermally responsive mechanism of the engineered PVDF membrane was proposed from aspects of molecules structure, micro-hydrogel, membrane topology and membrane performance. The permeability and separation efficiency for pure water, both O/W and W/O micro-emulsions were modulated by temperature. The engineered PVDF membrane exhibited superantiwetting, outstanding permeability, high separation efficiency (>99.90%), excellent antifouling property and reliability for long-term application. Moreover, multistage separation of oil-in-water micro-emulsion was achieved at nano-scale. Dispersed micro-emulsion droplets bigger than 20nm and 40nm were completely removed by manipulating the temperature below and above LCST, respectively. The engineered PVDF membrane highlights its great potential in micro-emulsion separation.

      PubDate: 2015-10-25T13:04:56Z
  • Effect of functional groups on physicochemical and mechanical behavior of
           biocompatible macroporous hydrogels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Rebeca E. Rivero, Fabrisio Alustiza, Nancy Rodríguez, Pablo Bosch, María C. Miras, Claudia R. Rivarola, Cesar A. Barbero
      The increasing interest in studying the properties of biocompatible hydrogels is due to their possible applications in bioengineering. Properties of hydrogels based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and the effect caused by copolymerization with 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) or N-acryloyl-tris-(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (HMA) were investigated. Hydrogels were synthesized by free radical polymerization at room temperature or by cryogelation at −18°C. The presence of different functional groups (isopropyl, −SO3 −, and –OH) and thermal conditions of polymerization affected the morphology and physicochemical and mechanical properties of hydrogels. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of macropores created by cryogelation with the morphology of the pores dependent on chemical composition of the copolymer. Poly(NIPAM-co-HMA) has spherical and isolated pores, whereas PNIPAM and Poly(NIPAM-co-AMPS) showed ellipsoidal interconnected pores. Three different water states were detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), indicating the presence of nano- and macropores. Elastic modulus (E) was measured to be around 3–6.5kPa by uniaxial compression. However, higher E values (20–30kPa) and an anisotropic mechanical response were observed for PNIPAM and PNIPAM-co-AMPS hydrogels with ellipsoidal pores, a behavior that is almost similar to that of cartilage and bone tissues. Cytocompatibility studies using bovine fibroblasts (BFs) indicated good cell attachment and proliferation on PNIPAM-based hydrogel surfaces, although initially the cell adhesion varied depending on the composition of the surface. These hydrogels could be an interesting choice for the development of scaffolds in tissue engineering.

      PubDate: 2015-10-20T12:58:30Z
  • Bio-based thermosetting resins composed of aliphatic polyol-derived
           polymaleimides and allyleugenol
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Mitsuhiro Shibata, Toshiaki Shimasaki, Hiroyuki Satoh, Misaki Iwai, Makiyo Neda
      Bio-based bismaleimide (2MPD), trismaleimide (3MGC) and tetramaleimide (4MDG) were synthesized by reactions of 4-isocyanatophenylmaleimide with 1,3-propanediol, glycerol and α,α’-diglycerol, respectively. Although 2MPD did not melt until the temperature where thermal decomposition starts, 3MGC and 4MDG exhibited broad melting temperatures with onset points at 165°C and 124°C, respectively. 3MGC and 4MDG were homogeneously prepolymerized at 170°C with 2,4-diallyl-6-methoxyphenol (rAEG) which was prepared by the Claisen rearrangement of allyl-etherified eugenol (AEG). The prepolymers were compression-molded at 250°C to produce cured rAEG/3MGC (A3Mxy) and rAEG/4MDG (A4Mxy) with the allyl/maleimide ratio of x/y=1/1, 1/2 or 1/3. The FT-IR analysis revealed that the ene reaction of allyl and maleimide groups and subsequent addition copolymerization occurred for the cured resins. The thermal and mechanical properties of the cured resins were compared with those of the cured rAEG/4,4′-bismaleimidodiphenylmethane (BMI) (ABMxy) with the same allyl/maleimide ratio. A3M13 and A4M13 showed no inflection point of thermal expansion due to glass transition until 300°C, which is a little lower than the thermo-degradation temperature. Flexural strengths and flexural strains at break for A3Ms and A4Ms increased with the polymaleimide contents, and those of A3M13 and A4M13 were much higher than those of ABM13

      PubDate: 2015-10-20T12:58:30Z
  • Multilayer electrochromic surfaces derived from conventional conducting
           polymers: Optical and surface properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Gülizar Elif Demir, Mehmet Yıldırım, Uğur Cengiz, İsmet Kaya

      PubDate: 2015-10-20T12:58:30Z
  • L-ascorbic acid modified poly(ester urethane)s as a suitable candidates
           for soft tissue engineering applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): J. Kucinska-Lipka, I. Gubanska, H. Janik, M. Pokrywczynska, T. Drewa
      In this paper we created novel poly(ester urethane)s (PESUs) designed specifically for tissue engineering. The PESUs were derived from oligomeric α,ω-dihydroxy(ethylene-butylene adipate) (dHEBA), 1,4-butanediol (BDO) and aliphatic 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and modified with L-ascorbic acid to improve their biocompatibility. In addition, we determined their mechanical properties (such as tensile strength, elongation at break and hardness). To determine how these materials may potentially behave after implementation in tissue, we estimated the degradation behavior of obtained PESUs in various chemical environments, which were exemplified by canola oil, saline solution, distilled water and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Finally, the PESUs biocompatibility and hemocompatibility tests were carried out. Biocompatibility was determined with a MTT assay and it was performed with 3T3 cell line. The results showed satisfactory mechanical properties, good hemocompatibility and improved biocompatibility, which let us to conclude that PESUs modified with ascorbic acid might find an application in biomedical field of soft tissues engineering.

      PubDate: 2015-10-20T12:58:30Z
  • Synthesis of unsaturated polyesters based on renewable monomers:
           Structure/properties relationship and crosslinking with 2-hydroxyethyl
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ana C. Fonseca, Inês M. Lopes, Jorge F.J. Coelho, Arménio C. Serra

      PubDate: 2015-10-12T12:24:59Z
  • Laccase functionalized cellulose acetate for the removal of toxic
           combustion products
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Endry Nugroho Prasetyo, Stefan Semlitsch, Gibson S. Nyanhongo, Yahia Lemmouchi, Georg M. Guebitz
      The ability of Trametes villosa laccase immobilized on cellulose acetate to reduce/eliminate combustions toxicants was investigated using a model enzyme filter design. In the initial stages, various strategies of grafting laccase onto cellulose acetate polymers including partial deacetylated cellulose acetate followed by generation of reactive groups using either periodate or 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy radical (TEMPO) and the use of different spacer arms [1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC); 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE)] and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was investigated. The best process for effective immobilization of laccase onto both cellulose acetate powders and tows were those involving partial deacetylation, TEMPO activation to generate carboxylic groups, treatment with EDAC as a spacer arm followed by adding the enzyme. This procedure resulted in 45 units/mg laccase activity (28% increase in activity of immobilized enzyme) measured using ABTS as substrate as compared to the other strategies used to immobilize laccase. Further, the immobilized enzyme was able to oxidize >60% of toxicants resorcinol, hydroquinone and methylcatechol passing through the model enzyme filter. This study therefore demonstrates the great possibility of immobilizing laccase onto modified cellulose acetate and the great potential application of immobilized laccase to remove toxicants during combustion.

      PubDate: 2015-10-12T12:24:59Z
  • A method for coating a polymer inclusion membrane with palladium
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ya Ya N. Bonggotgetsakul, Robert W. Cattrall, Spas D. Kolev
      The preparation of palladium nanoparticles on the surface of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) is described. The optimum PIM composition consisted of 30wt% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and 70wt% poly(vinyl chloride). The Pd(II) ion was firstly extracted into the membrane via cation-exchange and then subsequently reduced to form clusters of palladium nanoparticles on the membrane surface. The reducing agents investigated were NaBH4, trisodium citrate, sodium formate, and l-ascorbic acid. Best results were obtained with l-ascorbic acid which at pH2.0 formed a uniform layer of palladium nanoparticle clusters on the surface of the PIM with an average nanoparticle size of 38nm. Factors such as pH, temperature and intensity of mixing of the l-ascorbic acid solution, reduction time and Pd(II) loading of the PIM were found to have a significant influence on the surface coverage and size of the palladium nanoparticles.

      PubDate: 2015-10-12T12:24:59Z
  • Enhanced PVDF membrane performance via surface modification by functional
           polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) to control protein adsorption and
           bacteria adhesion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Guili Zhao, Wei-Ning Chen
      The aim of this work is to prepare antifouling membrane with low-biofouling property by grafted functional polymer. Surface modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane was carried out via a modified and simple process by grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm). The grafting density of PNIPAAm was significantly improved, up to 0.90±0.38mg/cm2, thereby improving the properties and performance of membrane. The chemical composition, thermal stability and surface morphology of pristine and modified membranes had been characterized by attenuated total reflectance fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. After modification, the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane was dramatically enhanced due to incorporation of PNIPAAm chains. The results of protein adsorption, microfiltration experiments and bacterial adhesion test demonstrated that modified membrane exhibited obvious thermo-sensitive property and good antifouling capability. The maximum of flux recovery ratio (FRR), 91.59%, was obtained for modified membrane. It is evidently believed that protein foulants was removed easily from the modified membrane surface after water washing. In addition, bacteria adhesion test revealed that the attachment of Escherichia coli on the modified membrane was reduced by 75% compared to original membrane.

      PubDate: 2015-10-12T12:24:59Z
  • Inkjet printing of 3d nano-composites formed by photopolymerization of an
           acrylate monomer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Casey Check, Richard Chartoff, Sean Chang
      This paper considers inkjet printing of optical quality 3D nano-composites from diethylene-glycol diacrylate monomer (DEGDA) containing ZrO2 nanoparticles at varying concentrations. One application for the composites is for gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses. The process involves printing of a nanoparticle loaded monomer “ink” onto a substrate and then photopolymerizing the monomer layer by layer using UV light. The results of the study confirm that the presence of nanoparticles favorably affects the reaction kinetics. The reaction rate and chemical conversion are enhanced considerably by the nanoparticles. A seamless interface between the layers, which are 20μm thick, may be achieved if the conversion level of the layer onto which ink is deposited is limited at 60 to 80%. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) data indicate that both the glass transition and sub Tg viscoelastic properties are influenced by the nanoparticles. When nanoparticles are introduced the Tg relaxation shifts to lower temperatures and a sub Tg relaxation appears whose intensity increases with particle concentration. These results are consistent with a molecular confinement model involving a lower crosslink density rubbery layer at the polymer-particle interfaces.

      PubDate: 2015-10-04T15:33:02Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 95

      PubDate: 2015-09-30T17:53:49Z
  • Triphenylphosphine-grafted, RAFT-synthesised, porous monoliths as
           catalysts for Michael addition in flow synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Kristine J. Barlow, Victor Bernabeu, Xiaojuan Hao, Timothy C. Hughes, Oliver E. Hutt, Anastasios Polyzos, Kathleen A. Turner, Graeme Moad
      We describe the preparation and application of triphenylphosphine functional polystyrene-based porous monolithic catalysts for use as flow reactors. RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer)-crosslinking polymerisation of styrene and divinylbenzene provided monoliths which were then functionalized by RAFT “grafting from” polymerisation of 4-styryldiphenylphosphine mediated by the retained thiocarbonylthio functionality. Under the chosen conditions, the retention of the RAFT functionality was proved by chain extension experiments in which the monoliths were five times re-subjected to the grafting conditions. Importantly, the bound triphenylphosphine-functionality was demonstrated to be catalytically active when the monoliths were used as flow reactors in performing Michael addition of 1-hexanethiol to tert-butyl acrylate and of acetyl acetone to diethyl azodicarboxylate. Conversions from reagent to product of up to 77% were achieved. The monoliths were susceptible to oxidation of the phosphine groups most likely caused by adventitious oxygen in the non-degassed reaction medium, but were successfully regenerated by trichlorosilane reduction and reused.

      PubDate: 2015-09-30T17:53:49Z
  • Preparation and characterization of novel side-chain azobenzene polymers
           containing tetrazole group
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Xiaoqiang Xue, Jing Yang, Wenyan Huang, Hongjun Yang, Bibiao Jiang
      A novel methacrylate monomer containing azobenzene chromophore and tetrazole moiety, 4′-(2-methacryloxyethyl)methylamino-4-(5-chlorotetrazol-1-yl)azobenzene (MACA), was synthesized and polymerized to form homopolymer (PMACA) via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as the RAFT agent and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator in dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution. Meanwhile, block copolymers (PMMA-b-PMACAs) were successfully obtained by RAFT polymerization of MACA using PMMA as the macro-RAFT agent and AIBN as an initiator. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) characterization indicated that polymers with well-controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions (M w/M ns<1.30) were obtained. The structures of these polymers were characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR spectra. Thermal and photoisomerization behaviors of the polymers indicated that these polymers were amorphous state with good heat stability and photoisomeriztion performance. Relationship between the electrochemical behavior of block copolymer (PMMA-b-PMACA) and the photoisomerization of azobenzene was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in chloroform solution, which showed that the oxidation peak of copolymer shifted from 1.0V to 0.6V during azobenzene isomerization from trans to cis form. Furthermore, surface relief gratings (SRGs) formed on the films of PMMA-b-PMACAs were also investigated with illumination of a linearly polarized Kr+ laser beam. The diffraction efficiency of the SRGs was 1.22 (PMMA-b-PMACA1), 2.38 (PMMA-b-PMACA2) and 3.02 (PMMA-b-PMACA3), respectively, which increased with the azobenzene contain for the copolymers.

      PubDate: 2015-09-30T17:53:49Z
  • Porous polymeric antimicrobial resin containing N-halamine functional
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Shulan Yan, Xiufang Yan, Xuexiang Shao, Jie Liang
      An effective and easily recovered porous divinylbenzene (DVB) cross-linked antimicrobial polymeric resin containing N-halamine functional groups, poly (styrene-co-N-(t-Bu)-N-chloro-acryl amide) (PSA-N-Cl) resin, has been synthesized by a suspension copolymerization of styrene and acrylic acid and DVB, an amination with tert-butylamine and triethylenediamine (TEDA), and then a facile chlorination in diluted NaOCl solution. The as-prepared porous DVB cross-linked PSA-N-Cl resin was characterized by Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). BET analysis indicated that PSA-N-Cl resin has a very large surface area (124.9 m2/g) which is favorable for the quick water disinfection. Antibacterial tests showed that the as-prepared PSA-N-Cl resin possesses powerful antibacterial efficacies against both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The as-prepared PSA-N-Cl resin was capable of about 7.95-log and 7.81-log reductions of E. coli and S. aureus within 1 and 3min of contact times, respectively. Also, the regenerability and preliminary storage stability of the as-prepared PSA-N-Cl resin were investigated.

      PubDate: 2015-09-22T14:42:56Z
  • HSA immobilized novel polymeric matrix as an alternative sorbent in
           hemoperfusion columns for bilirubin removal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Mahdi Kavoshchian, Recep Üzek, Sadık Ahmet Uyanık, Serap Şenel, Adil Denizli
      HSA immobilized poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate), HSA-P[HEMA], cryogel monolith was examined as an alternative sorbent to be used in hemoperfusion columns for bilirubin removal from serum. The cryogel monolith synthesis was performed by free radical polymerization using MBAA as crosslinker, APS and TEMED as redox pair. Cyanogen bromide (CNBr) was used as a matrix-activating agent for the preparation of immobilized cryogels. Control cryogel monolith, P[HEMA], and HSA-P[HEMA] were characterized by swelling test, SEM images, porosity and surface area measurements, and blood compatibility tests. Activation and immobilization processes were optimized. The removal of bilirubin from plasma samples overloaded with bilirubin was performed using P[HEMA] cryogel monoliths containing different amounts of immobilized HSA in continuous mode. Several factors such as pH, temperature, concentration, flow rate, effecting adsorption capacity of the matrix were analyzed. The maximum bilirubin removal from plasma was 25.4 mg/g at 37.5 °C. The desorption agent was 0.1 M NaOH and 1.0 M NaCl containing solution. The reusability was tested for 10 consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. The adsorption isotherm models and kinetics of process were also studied.

      PubDate: 2015-09-18T14:34:56Z
  • Preparation and characterization of 3-chloropropyl polysiloxane-based
           heat-curable silicone rubber using polyamidoamine dendrimers as
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Fuying Dong, Shen Diao, Depeng Ma, Shengyou Zhang, Shengyu Feng
      A series of high-temperature vulcanization (HTV) silicone rubber was prepared with polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as concentrative cross-linkers and polysiloxane containing 3-chloropropyl groups (CPPS) as gums in a novel curing system. The curing, mechanical, and thermal properties of this novel HTV silicone rubber (MCSR) were studied through rheometry, mechanical testing, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The curing process was analyzed on the basis of the cure curves obtained by rheometry. The optimal conditions to prepare MCSR were determined by changing curing conditions, including cross-linker concentration, curing temperature, and postcuring temperature. MCSR exhibited a tensile strength of 9.34MPa and a tear strength of 47.71kN/m when the molar ratio of [3-chloropropyl]/[N–H] was 1:1.5. These excellent mechanical properties were attributed to the concentrative cross-linking effect from PAMAM dendrimers. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties slightly changed as the generation of PAMAM dendrimers increased because of steric hindrance. In addition, TGA results indicated that MCSR was thermally stable in a nitrogen atmosphere even at high degradation temperatures, such as T5 wt.% loss (MCSR-3)=451.7°C and T50 wt.% loss (MCSR-3)=659.0°C. DSC analysis revealed that a glass transition peak followed by a melt was identified for MCSR at −160°C to 30°C. The experimental results showed that using PAMAM dendrimers as cross-linkers is a practical way to obtain silicone rubber with excellent properties.

      PubDate: 2015-09-18T14:34:56Z
  • Poly(maleic acid-co-propane-1,2-diol-co-adipic acid) for pH-triggered drug
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Abu Mahmud, M. Abu Bakr
      Poly(maleic acid-co-propane-1,2-diol-co-adipic acid) was synthesized using xylene as the reaction medium in Dean–Stark apparatus. The synthesized co-polyester was characterized by its FTIR-spectrum, elemental analysis, molecular weights, solubility in common organic solvents and hydrolytic degradation test. From the hydrolytic degradation study it was found that the polyester sample remained almost intact in the acid medium but gradually degraded in basic medium. Because of such pH-responsive degradation nature, this polyester was tried as an enteric coating material for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Drug release from the polymer coated specimen in simulated physiological environments was investigated and British Pharmacopoeia standard enteric coating properties of the polymer were observed.

      PubDate: 2015-09-18T14:34:56Z
  • Encapsulation of ionic liquid BMIm[PF6] within polyurea microspheres
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ester Weiss, Diana Gertopski, Maneesh Kumar Gupta, Raed Abu-Reziq
      The encapsulation of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIm[PF6]) in polyurea microspheres is demonstrated. This method is based on the encapsulation of ionic liquid within a polyurea shell by emulsification and interfacial polymerization of amine and isocyanate monomers. Emulsification of BMIm[PF6] was performed in water or oil, enabling formation of two different BMIm[PF6] polyurea microcapsules with different chemical features. While the BMIm[PF6]-in-water emulsion enables the formation of BMIm[PF6] polyurea microcapsules with regular aliphatic diamines, the BMIm[PF6]-in-oil emulsion requires the utilization of a specific diamine functionalized with ionic liquid groups. The microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, infrared and solid NMR.

      PubDate: 2015-09-18T14:34:56Z
  • Functionalized bicomponent polymer membranes as supports for covalent
           immobilization of enzymes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Teodor Sandu, Andrei Sarbu, Celina Maria Damian, Delia Patroi, Tanta Verona Iordache, Temenuzhka Budinova, Boyko Tsyntsarski, M. Ferhat Yardim, Ahmet Sirkecioglu
      The present work was aimed at developing new reactive polymer materials suitable to be used as supports for enzyme covalent immobilization. Thus, new bicomponent polymer membranes were developed using poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) (PAN-co-PVAc) in mixture with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). First of all, PAN-co-PVAc/PVA blends were dissolved in DMSO, until a homogenous polymer solution was obtained. To prepare membranes, these solutions were cast on a glass plate followed by the immersion of this plate in a coagulation bath containing a 50%–50% (volume %) water–isopropyl alcohol mixture. In this way membranes containing OH functional groups were obtained. Before tyrosinase immobilization, membranes were functionalized with glutardialdehyde; hence CHO binding sites were inserted and membrane became reactive for the enzyme. In order to prove that both, functionalization and immobilization reactions, were successful, the modifications produced by these reactions were investigated by various techniques i.e. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Atomic Force Microscopy. The occurrence of important changes in membrane features confirmed the success of both reactions. Furthermore, the activity of bonded enzyme was determined by pyrocatechol method and compared to the activity of the free enzyme.

      PubDate: 2015-09-10T14:17:58Z
  • Chiral polymeric nanoparticles for aldol reaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Shira R. Adler, Yitzhak Mastai
      In this paper, we report on the preparation and use of chiral polymeric nanoparticles, based on proline, as nanocatalysts for the asymmetric aldol reaction. The chiral polymeric nanoparticles were synthesized using a novel technique based on miniemulsion polymerization of chiral N-oleoyl-D/L-proline monomers. This method led to the formation of chiral polymeric nanoparticles with average size of 160nm. Moreover, the polymeric chiral nanoparticles prepared by miniemulsion polymerization are of high surface area, and the entire particle, not just the surface, is chiral. The efficiency of the polymeric chiral nanoparticles for asymmetric aldol reaction in organic solvents and water is demonstrated. Although the chiral selectivity of the polymeric nanoparticles is low compared to free amino acid still they have the advantage of the low catalyst loading that is required and the opportunity to recycle the polymeric nanoparticle catalysts.

      PubDate: 2015-09-10T14:17:58Z
  • Switchable and reversible superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces by
           redox response using covalent S-S bond
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Guilhem Godeau, Thierry Darmanin, Frédéric Guittard
      Here we report for the first time the use of dithiolane as platform for reversible surface functionalization with switchable water and oil-wettability. That platform allows to prepare switchable superhydrophobic/hydrophilic surfaces and oleophobic/oleophilic surfaces. Based on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) surface bearing dithiolane groups, this strategy allows to obtain reversible functionalization of surfaces with various thiol compounds. Interestingly, the use of fluorinated thiols also highly changes the surface morphology and porosity leading to superhydrophobic properties and highly oleophobic properties with water and oil reversibility. Dithiolane surfaces are key platform in order to prepare switchable surfaces for a large range of applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-09-10T14:17:58Z
  • Effect of HNTs modification in nanocomposite membrane enhancement for
           bacterial removal by cross-flow ultrafiltration system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): A. Moslehyani, M. Mobaraki, A.F. Ismail, T. Matsuura, S.A. Hashemifard, M.H.D. Othman, A. Mayahi, M. Rezaei DashtArzhandi, M. Soheilmoghaddam, E. Shamsaei
      This study investigated the potential of silver lactate (SL)-holloysite nanotube clay (HNTs) nano-filler embedded into the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer matrix as a antibacterial separator. Three different nanocomposite membranes were fabricated via phase inversion technique aimed to enhance the permeation flux and fouling resistance with complete bacterial rejection. HNT has been modified by N-β-(aminoethyl)-ɣ-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane (AEAPTMS) aiming for immobilization of SL on the surface HNT during dope preparation. Salmonella and Enterobacter aerogenes (E.aerogenes)were considered as two types of bacteria to be removed from contaminated water in this experimental work. Nanocomposite membranes were characterized and analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and tensile strength. Potential silver ion loss was assessed by measuring the silver content in the coagulation bath and in the UF permeate using inductive-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Moreover, antibacterial effect of the membrane was examined in terms of removal of microorganisms by filtration, Log Reduction Value (LRV) and thickness of inhibition zone. From the experimental results, the prepared nanocomposite membranes have shown more than 99% bacterial rejection, LRV of more than 3 and broad inhibition zones in the agar plate. In particular, the nanocomposite membrane consisting M-HNTs/SL/PVDF showed significant improvement in permeation flux and flux declination among all the tested membranes. It was also found that modification of HNTs resulted in reduction of silver leaching by uniform distributing of SL. which contributed significant inhibition for both types of growth bacteria within 24 h incubation.

      PubDate: 2015-09-05T14:03:23Z
  • Use of magnetic and fluorescent polystyrene/tetraphenylporphyrin/maghemite
           nanocomposites for the photoinactivation of pathogenic bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): A.E. Chávez-Guajardo, L. Maqueira, J.C. Medina-Llamas, J.J. Alcaraz-Espinoza, T.L. Araújo, G.M. Vinhas, A.R. Rodrigues, K.G.B. Alves, C.P. de Melo
      In this work, we initially describe the preparation of magnetic and fluorescent nanocomposites (MF NCs) based on polystyrene/tetraphenylporphyrin/maghemite (PS/TPP/γ-Fe2O3). After carrying a series of exploratory experiments, we have found that the composite that presented the highest values of fluorescence intensity and magnetization (S1 samples) was obtained when we employed 1mL of TPP and 1 % of PS. When tested as photosensitizer agents for the inactivation of the pathogenic bacteria E. coli, these MF NCs presented excellent antibacterial activity, indicating that they can be promising candidates to inactivate microorganisms dispersed in aqueous solutions. Taking into account this peculiar combination of outstanding properties and simple and low cost synthesis, we suggest that this kind of NC could find widespread use in environmental and biomedical applications.

      PubDate: 2015-09-05T14:03:23Z
  • Kinetic studies and grafting mechanism for methyl aniline derivatives onto
           chitosan: Highly adsorptive copolymers for dye removal from aqueous
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): S.M. Sayyah, Amr A. Essawy, A.M. El-Nggar
      A polysaccharide, chitosan is received vast attention because of their non-toxic, low cost and biodegradable properties. In this study, three promise grafted chitosan copolymers using methyl polyaniline conducting polymeric isomers were successfully synthesized through oxidative-radical copolymerization using ammonium persulphate as initiator in acidic medium. The kinetic behaviors of graft copolymerization were extensively studied under various parameters. Moreover, the rate of grafting copolymerization is affected by concentrations of monomer, initiator, HCl in addition to temperature. The activation energy (Ea), enthalpy of activation (∆H*) and negative value of entropy (∆S*) support the progress of copolymerization. Environmental impacts of the grafted polymers in water detoxification were manifested. A comparison study for adsorption of remazol red dye from aqueous solutions onto Ch-g-PMeANIs was investigated.

      PubDate: 2015-09-05T14:03:23Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 94

      PubDate: 2015-08-31T13:32:06Z
  • Synthesis and characterization of dual-stimuli-responsive micelles based
           on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and polycarbonate with photocleavable
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Jia-You Fang, Yin-Ku Lin, Shiu-Wei Wang, You-Chen Li, Ren-Shen Lee
      Dual-sensitive block copolymers, PNiPAAm-b-PNBTMC, were synthesized via the ring-opening polymerization of 3-methyl-3-nitrobenzyl-trimethylene carbonate (NBTMC) bearing numerous 2-nitro-benzoxycarbonyl photolabile groups with a PNiPAAm macroinitiator in the presence of an organocatalyst, 1,5,7-triazobicyclo-[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD). When the polymer solutions were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, we observed significant changes in the structure and morphology of the particles. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies revealed that the copolymers underwent micellization or dissociation transitions in water in response to temperature changes and UV irradiation. No significant toxicity of these nanoparticles was found at concentrations up to 300μgmL−1.

      PubDate: 2015-08-27T13:23:06Z
  • Effective regeneration of an adsorbent for the removal of organic
           contaminants developed based on UV radiation and toxicity evaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Soonjae Lee, Jae-Sang Lee, Mi-Kyung Song, Jae-Chun Ryu, Byungryul An, Chang-Gu Lee, Chanhyuk Park, Sang-Hyup Lee, Jae-Woo Choi
      Composites of powdered activated carbon and/or titanium dioxide were investigated as a photo-regenerable adsorbent for use in the removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from aqueous solution. Seven types of adsorbents were prepared for organic contaminant adsorption tests. Lab-scale tests were conducted to investigate the removal efficiencies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and the potential for regenerating the adsorbents using UV irradiation. Among these adsorbents, the ultrasonic irradiated alginate bead-impregnated powdered activated carbon and titanium dioxide-dry type 1 (PTAB-D-Sonic 1) exhibited the greatest adsorption capacity for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (12.38mgg−1); in addition, the removal efficiency was consistent approximately 11mgg−1, notwithstanding repetitive regeneration by UV irradiation. The characteristics of each adsorbent were confirmed using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. In addition, a cytotoxicity experiment was conducted on the developed material, and the results showed that all seven materials had low cytotoxic effects on human cells. This research provides promising results for the application of a photo-regenerable adsorbent, e.g., PTAB-D-Sonic 1, for the removal of various organic contaminants from sewage and wastewater.

      PubDate: 2015-08-27T13:23:06Z
  • Plasma treatment of the surface of poly(hydroxybutyrate) foil and
           non-woven fabric and assessment of the biological properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): P. Slepička, Z. Malá, S. Rimpelová, N. Slepičková Kasálková, V. Švorčík
      This paper deals with the poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB, foil and fabric) surface modification, characterization and the view of its possible application. The influence of Ar plasma treatment on surface polarity was studied. The changes of the surface parameters were determined immediately after treatment and after annealing related to plasma power, treatment time and heating. These surface-induced differences were studied by different analytic methods: polarity (wettability) was studied by contact angle measurement and surface energy calculation, the surface morphology analysis was done by atomic force microscopy and for determination of chemical composition of surface layer, the XPS analysis was used. It was found that after plasma treatment the surface energy of both PHB foil and non-woven fabric significantly increased. PHB non-woven fabric exhibited almost immeasurable contact angle after the plasma treatment. The wettability of both types of PHB substrates after heating was completely inversed. The significant change in roughness of PHB foil was found. After the plasma treatment, the material ablation was determined, which was also connected with surface chemical changes, thus the surface was found to be corrugated. The heating procedure induced “little” crystallites on the surface. Positive effect of PHB foil modifications on surface biocompatibility was confirmed. The biocompatibility was also preserved when thermal stress was applied. Silver nanolayer sputtered on PHB fabric surface induced strong anti-microbial properties.

      PubDate: 2015-08-23T09:21:12Z
  • Polymeric Corrosion Inhibitors for the Oil &amp; Gas Industry: Design
           Principles and Mechanism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Brylee David B. Tiu, Rigoberto C. Advincula
      This work aims to provide an overview of the most common functional groups of polymeric corrosion inhibitors for the oil and gas industry. Exploration, production and transportation of petroleum and natural gas products constantly deal with highly corrosive environment due to oxygen, acid stimulation, CO2 and H2S contamination so versatile materials are required in order to keep corrosion rates in control. Unlike small molecule corrosion inhibitors, polymers have the advantage of better film-forming capabilities and multi-functional chemistries, which could significantly improve protective barrier properties. In line with this, only structures tested in relevant oil and gas media are included in order to highlight certain moieties capable of complex formation with the metal surface or chelation on corrosive agents resulting to better inhibiting performance.

      PubDate: 2015-08-23T09:21:12Z
  • Creation of a new material stream from Japanese cedar resources to
           cellulose nanofibrils
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Zhuqun Shi, Quanling Yang, Yuko Ono, Ryunosuke Funahashi, Tsuguyuki Saito, Akira Isogai
      Japanese cedar is one of the most abundant plantation softwood in Japan, although it is not effectively utilized as wood resources. Japanese cedar cellulose was isolated and subjected to one-pot catalytic oxidation and reduction with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and NaBH4, respectively. The TEMPO-oxidized and NaBH4-reduced Japanese cedar celluloses (TOCs-NaBH4) had carboxylate contents of up to 1.4mmol/g and viscosity-average degrees of polymerization from 2000 to 3000. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the TOCs-NaBH4 showed that the crystal widths were ~3nm, indicating that the C6-OH groups present on the crystalline cellulose microfibril surfaces were selectively oxidized to C6-carboxylate groups. When the TOCs-NaBH4 with carboxylate contents of 0.9–1.4mmol/g were mechanically disintegrated in water, transparent TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibril (TOCN) dispersions were obtained. The lengths of the TOCNs, determined from their atomic force microscopy images, varied from 800 to 1500nm, depending on the oxidation conditions. The TOCNs prepared from Japanese cedar cellulose have the average of high aspect ratios (>300), which are greater than those (~150) prepared from wood pulps and thus advantageous.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-08-19T09:05:20Z
  • Cationic Polymer Chain Tethered on the Pore-wall of 3-D Ordered
           Macroporous Resin for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Xiaomei Wang, Cuihong Wu, Lei Tian, Guohui Li, Xu Zhang, Feng Lei, Jiayan Qu, Pange Liu
      A novel 3-D ordered macroporous (3DOM) adsorbent with a cationic polymer chain (poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate), PDMAEMA)) tethered on the pore wall was prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) for the removal of toxic Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution. In comparison with recently reported adsorbents, the adsorbent remarkably stands out owing to large adsorption capacity, relatively fast kinetics, and high stability in the regeneration process. The adsorption capacity significantly depended on the solution pH and there was a wide working pH range that is much convenience in practical application. Kinetics of Cr(VI) adsorption by the 3DOM adsorbent were studied in batch experiments, in the temperature range 298-318K. The equilibriums were arrived within 120–130min and a pseudo-second order model can be described well. In the adsorption isotherm study, experimental data followed the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity increased with the increase of temperature, and reached the high value of 431.0mg/g at 308K. Thermodynamic parameters revealed spontaneous and endothermic adsorption processes. Furthermore, the 3DOM adsorbent remained high adsorption capacity (above 90% of the original Cr(VI) loading capacity) after 15 adsorption-desorption cycles by simply using sodium hydroxide solution as the desorption liquid, which ensured the reusability of 3DOM adsorbent.

      PubDate: 2015-08-19T09:05:20Z
  • Enhanced electrokinetic, dielectric and electrorheological properties of
           covalently bonded nanosphere-TiO2/polypyrrole nanocomposite
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Seyda Cabuk, Halil Ibrahim Unal
      Nanosphere-TiO2 was synthesized, surface functionalized with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) and then covalently bonded with polypyrrole (PPy) with buttom-up surface engineering strategy to obtain nanosphere-TiO2/PPy core/shell hybrit nanocomposite. All the materials were subjected to full chemical and morphological characterizations by using various techniques. The presence of NaCl, AlCl3, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecylsulfate observed to cause high colloidal stabilities of the nanocomposite dispersions by reaching to zeta(ζ)-potential values of ζ>+30mV and ζ<−30mV. A series of suspensions were prepared by dispersing nanosphere-TiO2 and nanosphere-TiO2/PPy particles in insulating silicone oil (SO) and dielectric properties were determined using an LCR meter. Antisedimentation stabilities of these suspensions were determined against gravitational forces and 54% colloidal stability was achieved with the nanocomposite after 30days. Polarizabilities of the suspended particles were observed using an optical microscope under externally applied electric field strength. Then the suspensions were subjected to electrorheological measurements by investigating the effects of shear rate, particle volume fraction, shear stress, and electric field strength. Non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviors were observed for the samples. Further, vibration damping characteristics of the materials were determined with shear stress and frequency oscillation measurements. Enhanced reversible viscoelastic deformations were observed for the dispersions from creep-recovery tests and 64% creep-recovery was obtained for nanosphere-TiO2/PPy/SO system under E=3.5kV/mm.

      PubDate: 2015-08-10T03:36:31Z
  • The separation of the pyrethroid insecticide Fastac 10 EC by cationic
           pullulan derivatives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Luminita Ghimici, Marieta Constantin
      Pullulan derivatives with different content of tertiary amine groups have been evaluated, as flocculants, for the separation of pesticide Fastac 10 EC from model emulsions. The flocculation performance of the cationic polysaccharide samples at different conditions (Polycation dose, pH and pesticide concentration) was followed by UV–vis spectroscopy measurements. The results show similar values for the maximum removal efficiency (around 90%), irrespective of the ionic groups content and an increase (from 80% to more than 90%) with initial pesticide concentration increase (from 0.02% to 0.04%). The optimum polycation dose decreased with increasing substitution degree and decreasing the emulsion pH. The supernatant zeta potential dependence on the cationic polysaccharide dose indicated a charge neutralization mechanism for the flocculation of pesticide particles, that was supported by particle aggregates size measurements.

      PubDate: 2015-08-10T03:36:31Z
  • Experimental design approach in the synthesis of molecularly imprinted
           polymers specific for iprodione fungicide
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 94
      Author(s): Manal Bitar, Jacqueline Maalouly, Hanna Chebib, Adrien Lerbret, Philippe Cayot, Elias Bou-Maroun
      An experimental design (ED) approach was applied to study the weight of three factors in the synthesis of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) specific for iprodione fungicide. The objective was to obtain a high specific polymer with the best performance of iprodione binding. Thirteen iprodione-imprinted polymers and 13 non-imprinted polymers (NIP) were synthesized according to ED having 3 influencing factors: the polymerization method, the crosslinker nature and the functional monomer type. For each factor, two levels were studied: bulk and precipitation polymerization for the first factor, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) for the second factor, and methacrylamide (MAM) alone or with styrene for the third factor. The ED responses were: the imprinting factor, the site number and the apparent affinity constant. They were determined after studying the interactions between iprodione and each MIP and NIP in hydro-alcoholic medium. The best polymer of the ED was synthesized using MAM as functional monomer, EGDMA as crosslinker and precipitation polymerization. It has an imprinting factor of 2.4, a site number of 1172 and an affinity constant of 19.36. The best MIP was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Nitrogen sorption isotherms. The best MIP has a mesoporous structure with a high specific surface area of 407m2·g−1. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) was successfully applied, using the best MIP, to preconcentrate iprodione from a white wine containing two competing fungicides.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-16T21:28:29Z
  • Synthesis of novel temperature responsive PEG-b-[PCL
           -g-P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA)]-b-PEG (tBG) triblock-graft copolymers and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yue-Ming An , Teng Liu , Rong Tian , Shou-Xin Liu , Ya-Nan Han , Qin-Qin Wang , Wei-Juan Sheng
      Novel triblock-graft copolymers, poly ethylene glycol-b-[poly(ε-caprolactone)-g- poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate-co-oligo (ethylene glycol) methacrylate)]-b-poly ethylene glycol (PEG-b-[PCL-g-P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA)] -b-PEG) (tBG), were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). In the synthesis process, temperature responsive P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA) chains were grafted onto the PCL block of triblock copolymer PEG-b-PCL-b-PEG to improve its hydrophilicity. This method succeeded in increasing the solubility of PEG-b-PCL-b-PEG in water, and more importantly, endowing PEG-b-PCL-b-PEG with temperature sensitivity. By adjusting the feed ratio of 2-(2-methoxy ethoxy) ethyl methacrylate (MEO2MA) and oligo (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA) monomers, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the tBG can be realized at about 37°C. Taking advantage of the excellent mechanical property of graphene sheets, alkyne-functionalized graphene oxide (alkyne-GO) was introduced to cross-link tBGs and prepare tBG/GO composite hydrogel through click reaction between tBG-N3 and alkyne-GO. Different from traditional cross-linker, alkyne-GO acts as reinforcing fillers in the composite hydrogel. Benefited from superior properties of PCL, PEG, P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA) and GO, the as-prepared temperature responsive tBG/GO hydrogel exhibits excellent mechanical strength and toughness, demonstrating a future potential applications in tissue engineering and biotechnology fields.

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T15:51:57Z
  • Polymer-lipid interactions: biomimetic self-assembly behaviour and surface
           properties of poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid) with
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Virginia Saez-Martinez , Patchara Punyamoonwongsa , Brian J. Tighe
      Various lubricating body fluids at tissue interfaces are composed mainly of combinations of phospholipids and amphipathic apoproteins. The challenge in producing synthetic replacements for them is not replacing the phospholipid, which is readily available in synthetic form, but replacing the apoprotein component, more specifically, its unique biophysical properties rather than its chemistry. The potential of amphiphilic reactive hypercoiling behaviour of poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) was studied in combination with two diacylphosphatidylcholines (PC) of different chain lengths in aqueous solution. The surface properties of the mixtures were characterized by conventional Langmuir–Wilhelmy balance (surface pressure under compression) and the du Noüy tensiometer (surface tension of the non-compressed mixtures). Surface tension values and 31P-NMR demonstrated that self-assembly of polymer-phospholipid mixtures were pH and concentration-dependent. Finally, the particle size and zeta potential measurements of this self-assembly showed that it can form negatively charged nanosized structures that might find use as drug or lipids release systems on interfaces such as the tear film or lung interfacial layers. The structural reorganization was sensitive to the alkyl chain length of the PC.

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T15:51:57Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2015