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Journal Cover
Reactive and Functional Polymers
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.834
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1381-5148
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • ROMP synthesis of benzaldehyde-containing amphiphilic block
           polynorbornenes used to conjugate drugs for pH-responsive release
    • Authors: Guirong Qiu; Li Zhao; Xiong Liu; Qiuxia Zhao; Fangfei Liu; Yue Liu; Yewu Liu; Haibin Gu
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): Guirong Qiu, Li Zhao, Xiong Liu, Qiuxia Zhao, Fangfei Liu, Yue Liu, Yewu Liu, Haibin Gu
      The development of novel polymer carriers, which have well-defined structures and desired conjugative abiltiy to therapeutic agents, is still an urgent requirement in the field of polymer–drug conjugates (PDCs) used for stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems. Herein, we present the controlled synthesis of a novel amphiphilic polynorbornene-based block copolymer, side-chain containing hydrophobic functionalizable benzaldehyde groups and hydrophilic dentritic triethylene glycol (TEG) moieties, by the ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) using the 3rd generation Grubbs catalyst 1 as the initiator. The obtained copolymer can self-assemble into spherical micelles with the average size of 84 nm in water, and its remarkable ability as the polymer carrier to fabricate PDCs was fully confirmed by the efficient covalently Schiff-base linking of its side-chain benzaldehyde groups to amino groups of model drugs including O-benzylhydroxylamine (BHA), 1-hexadecanamine, tryptophan and benzocaine. Notably, torispherical micelles with the average size of 90 nm were also obtained by the self-assembly of the formed polymer-BHA conjugate, and the pH-triggered release of BHA molecules from the micelles was observed at acidic environments (for example, pH 4.0 and 2.5). Therefore, the present polynorbornene block copolymer is expected to find potential applications in the stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems as a promising polymer carrier to form PDCs via acid-responsive Schiff-base linkage with amino-containing drugs such as doxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin and pirarubicin.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2018)
       
  • Ring opening copolymerisation of lactide and mandelide for the development
           of environmentally degradable polyesters with controllable glass
           transition temperatures
    • Authors: Geert-Jan Graulus; Niels Van Herck; Kristof Van Hecke; Gonzalez Van Driessche; Bart Devreese; Hugo Thienpont; Heidi Ottevaere; Sandra Van Vlierberghe; Peter Dubruel
      Pages: 16 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): Geert-Jan Graulus, Niels Van Herck, Kristof Van Hecke, Gonzalez Van Driessche, Bart Devreese, Hugo Thienpont, Heidi Ottevaere, Sandra Van Vlierberghe, Peter Dubruel
      Environmentally degradable polyesters offer an interesting perspective for a vast number of applications. However, current front-runners like poly(lactide), poly(glycolide) and poly(ε-caprolactone) are either semi-crystalline excluding applications for which optical transparency is desired, or exhibit low glass transition temperatures (Tg) resulting in poor dimensional stability at temperatures exceeding the Tg. In the present work, copolymers of lactide and mandelide are explored as a method to obtain amorphous, environmentally degradable polyesters with a glass transition temperature exceeding 50 °C. Mandelide and lactide can be successfully copolymerised and the resulting copolymers revealed rising Tg values upon increasing the mandelide content. The obtained molecular weights were superior to the molecular weights previously obtained via polycondensation, but were limited by the epimerisation of the mandelide monomer, which passes through an enolic intermediate that is able to initiate the polymerisation.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2018)
       
  • Effect of nature and extent of functional group modification on properties
           of thermosets from methacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate
    • Authors: Arvin Z. Yu; Jonas M. Sahouani; Raul A. Setien; Dean C. Webster
      Pages: 29 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): Arvin Z. Yu, Jonas M. Sahouani, Raul A. Setien, Dean C. Webster
      A study was carried out to evaluate the impact of modification of epoxidized sucrose soyate using a combination of methacrylate and inert esters (acetate propionate, butyrate) on the properties of the resins as well as the thermosets. Previous studies have shown that methacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate (MESS) can yield thermosets having high glass transition temperature (T g) and good mechanical properties, but had high resin viscosity due to hydrogen bonding of the hydroxyl groups. Further functionalization to yield dimethacrylated epoxidized sucrose soyate (DMESS) resulted in reduced resin viscosity, but some of the thermosets were brittle. In this study, to maintain low resin viscosity and improve thermoset ductility, replacement of some methacrylate groups with various ester groups was explored. The synthesis of these resins was carried out in a one-pot process involving the sequential slow addition of anhydrides of the acids mixed prior to addition. The synthesized resins were characterized for their viscosity with and without styrene diluent. Formulations were made using varying amounts of styrene and free-radically cured using peroxyesters as initiators. The bio-based resins with 30% styrene gave much lower viscosities compared to commercial resins containing higher amounts of styrene (33% and 45%). The thermosets produced had improved flexibility and toughness with only a slight reduction in the glass transition temperature. The inclusion of the non-functional esters in the resin structure acted as internal plasticizers for the polymer system. The new sets of thermomechanical properties demonstrated the tunability of the bio-based resin system and opens up different avenues for end-use applications.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2018)
       
  • Stable lotus leaf-inspired hierarchical, fluorinated polypropylene
           surfaces for reduced bacterial adhesion
    • Authors: Md Imrul Kayes; Anthony J. Galante; Nicholas A. Stella; Sajad Haghanifar; Robert M.Q. Shanks; Paul W. Leu
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): Md Imrul Kayes, Anthony J. Galante, Nicholas A. Stella, Sajad Haghanifar, Robert M.Q. Shanks, Paul W. Leu
      Polypropylene (PP) is used in a wide variety of medical components, but is susceptible to bacteria surface colonization and biofilm formation, which lead to infections and inflammations. In this study, we report on the micro-/nanostructuring and surface functionalization of PP substrates through various oxygen and fluorine reactive ion etching (RIE) treatments and their effects on wettability and bacteria adhesion. We found that oxygen treatment creates a hydrophilic surface that reduces bacteria adhesion by 68.7% compared to the control, but additional nanostructuring reduces the surface's anti-biofouling properties due to increased microscale roughness and air pockets that reduce the effectiveness of the liquid barrier. We demonstrate that a fluorine etch chemistry may be utilized to create lotus leaf-inspired, low surface energy, hierarchical microstructure/nanofibrils in PP. Due to the low surface energy and hierarchical morphology, the surface exhibits lotus-leaf wetting (high contact angle ~155° and low contact angle hysteresis < 10°) where water droplets easily roll off the surface in contrast to other PP samples. The lotus leaf-inspired hierarchical, fluorinated surfaces exhibit a 99.6% reduction of E. coli cell adhesion compared to untreated PP. These surfaces demonstrate water contact angle stability over a week in contrast to hydrophilic samples, where the contact angle degrades after just a few days. These new surfaces may help reduce the spread of infections from various plastic medical components without the need for the loading of antibacterial agents that eventually deplete from the surface.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2018)
       
  • Cubic polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nano-cross-linked hybrid
           hydrogels: Synthesis, characterization, swelling and dye adsorption
           properties
    • Authors: Bagher Eftekhari-Sis; Vahid Rahimkhoei; Ali Akbari; Hessamaddin Younesi Araghi
      Pages: 47 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): Bagher Eftekhari-Sis, Vahid Rahimkhoei, Ali Akbari, Hessamaddin Younesi Araghi
      In this study, a new series of hybrid hydrogels based on poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) containing octavinyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (OV-POSS) nontoxic cross-linker with different feed ratio were fabricated via free radical copolymerization. The resulted hydrogels were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, XRD and TGA analysis. Various parameters such as time, temperature, pH and salt effects were investigated on the swelling as well as dye removal properties of hybrid hydrogels. The adsorption experiments showed that the maximum adsorption capacity accrued at pH 11 for methylene blue. Adsorption kinetics was elucidated by both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models under different conditions. Also, adsorption isotherm of the adsorption of methylene blue on poly(NIPAM-co-IA)/POSS8 adsorbent was investigated using Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich–Peterson and Sips models, in which the experimental data were fitted well with Langmuir, model.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2018)
       
  • Synthesis of coated solvent impregnated resins by PVA cross-linked with
           vapor-phase glutaraldehyde for adsorption of vanadium (IV)
    • Authors: Shenxu Bao; Bo Chen; Yimin Zhang; Yongping Tang
      Pages: 58 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): Shenxu Bao, Bo Chen, Yimin Zhang, Yongping Tang
      Coated solvent impregnated resins (CSIRs) were prepared by poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) cross-linked with vapor-phase glutaraldehyde (GA) (v-CSIRs) and liquid-phase GA (l-CSIRs) on solvent impregnated resins (SIRs) containing bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) to investigate the effects of different coating methods on the performance of the SIRs. The optimal PVA content and crosslinking time were found to be 3 wt% and 30 min, respectively for producing v-CSIRs with high stability. It is confirmed that the v-CSIRs is more stable and can more effectively prevent the leakage of extractant from SIRs compared with l-CSIRs. The kinetics results demonstrate that the adsorption of V(IV) onto v-CSIRs, l-CSIRs and the uncoated SIRs (UCSIRs) all follow pseudo-second order model, indicating that the presence of the coating films does not change the rate controlling step for the V(IV) adsorption process, but the adsorption rate constant (k 2) implies that the film formed on the surfaces of v-CSIRs has lower resistance to mass transfer of V(IV) comparing to that on l-CSIRs. The study verifies that the method of PVA crosslinking with vapor-phase GA is an highly effective and promising technique for preparing CSIRs with high performance.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2018)
       
  • Supramolecular aggregates of linear and star-shaped polylactides with
           different number of hydroxyl or carboxyl end-groups
    • Authors: Adam Michalski; Marek Brzeziński; Przemysław Kubisa; Tadeusz Biela
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): Adam Michalski, Marek Brzeziński, Przemysław Kubisa, Tadeusz Biela
      In this paper a set of linear and star-shaped polylactides (PLA's) containing a different number of -OH end-groups (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8) were synthesized. To compare the extent of interactions between different end-groups, the OH end-groups were transformed to COOH end-groups. To attain the proper conditions of this transformation, the conditions were optimized for the chosen model and then used for all synthesized polymers. The structure of synthesized polymers were confirmed by SEC-MALS, NMR and ATR FT-IR analyses. It was shown that PLA's architecture and number of OH and COOH groups in a single macromolecule have an influence on a viscosity of their solution due to their self-organization. For star-shaped PLA's containing higher than four number of COOH end-groups, it has been observed for the first time that the effect of intramolecular interactions exceeds intermolecular interactions what strongly affect their properties in diluted and concentrated solutions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2018)
       
  • Synergistic effect of PS and crosslink density on performance properties
           of epoxy coatings cured with cardanol based multifunctional carboxyl
           curing agents
    • Authors: Kunal Wazarkar; Anagha Sabnis
      Pages: 74 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): Kunal Wazarkar, Anagha Sabnis
      In the present study, phosphorus-sulphur containing di and tetra functional carboxyl curing agents were synthesized from renewable resource, cardanol and used in the preparation of high performance epoxy coatings. Structure of the curing agents was analysed by evaluating its acid and iodine number as well as spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. Coatings were formulated by varying the ratio of epoxy adduct to curing agents on equivalent basis such as 1:0.6, 1:0.8 and 1:1. Further, the prepared coatings were characterized for mechanical, chemical, optical, thermal, anticorrosive and flame retardant properties. It was concluded that, with increase in concentration of flame retardant curing agents, anticorrosive as well as flame retardant properties of the coatings improved. This enhancement in the properties could be related to the synergistic effect of phosphorus and sulphur as well as chemical structure of curing agents.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.04.016
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2018)
       
  • Enhanced thermal conductivity of fluorinated epoxy resins by incorporating
           inorganic filler
    • Authors: Tianyi Na; Xue Liu; Hao Jiang; Liang Zhao; Chengji Zhao
      Pages: 84 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): Tianyi Na, Xue Liu, Hao Jiang, Liang Zhao, Chengji Zhao
      Electronic and circuit components become smaller but easier to produce heat nowadays. Finding a kind of materials with high thermal conductivity to dissipate the heat is greatly needed. In this work, a fluorinated epoxy monomer, 3-trifluoromethyl phenylhydroquinone epoxy resin (3-TFMEP) with good mobility was synthesized. The fluorinated epoxy resins also show low dielectric constant and hydrophobic nature. Then a kind of inorganic filler, boron nitride (BN), with high thermal conductivity was chosen to make the hybrid resin mixture. The epoxy resins' mixture both showed the advantages of simple epoxy resins and considerable thermal conductivity. The good mobility of 3-TEMEP allows a larger addition of filler BN by the maximum mass fraction at 70 wt% in the epoxy resin, thus enhancing the thermal conductivity of 3-TEMEP up to 1.2 W/mK, which is about 10 time higher than the pristine 3-TFMEP epoxy resin. These properties ensure these fluorinated hybrid epoxy resins to have great potential in the application of thermal transfer in the area of electronic and circuit components.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2018)
       
  • Biobased transparent polyimides with excellent solubility and mechanical
           properties using myo-inositol derived diamines
    • Authors: Rui Zhang; Tianyun Li; Houbo Zhou; Huahua Huang; Yongming Chen
      Pages: 91 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): Rui Zhang, Tianyun Li, Houbo Zhou, Huahua Huang, Yongming Chen
      Here, we develope a kind of biobased transparent polyimides (PIs) with excellent solubility and mechanical properties by using myo-inositol derived diamines. Two biobased diamines M1 and M2 were synthesized through a protection reaction of –OH units of myo-inositol followed by the substitution and subsequent reduction reactions. Myo-inositol based PIs were prepared via the microwave-assisted polymerization of biobased diamines and commercial dianhydrides. These PIs were soluble in various common solvents even in CH2Cl2 and acetone at room temperature. The biobased PIs also showed good optical transparency with T 450nm values of over 82%. Moreover, all the PI films possessed outstanding mechanical properties with tensile modulus of over 3.5 GPa, which was higher than that of most of petroleum-based PIs. In addition, the PI films containing –OH units were obtained via a simple deprotection reaction of myo-inositol based PIs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2018)
       
  • Curcumin incorporated polyurethane urea elastomers with tunable
           thermo-mechanical properties
    • Authors: Sayyed Asim Ali Shah; Muhammad Imran; Qingsong Lian; Farooq Khurum Shehzad; Naveed Athir; Junying Zhang; Jue Cheng
      Pages: 97 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): Sayyed Asim Ali Shah, Muhammad Imran, Qingsong Lian, Farooq Khurum Shehzad, Naveed Athir, Junying Zhang, Jue Cheng
      Polyurethane urea (PUU) elastomers were synthesized using 1,4-diaminobutane (DAB) as a chain extender, hexamethylene diisocynate (HMDI) as a hard segment and polycaprolactone (PCL) as a soft segment with different concentrations of curcumin (CUR). A series of curcumin polyurethane ureas (CURPUU) containing different mole ratio of: CUR: PCL (0:100, 15:85, 25:75 and 35:65) were synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile strength, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle to study the effect of curcumin on the polymer properties. Thermal analysis revealed that CURPUU with the mole ratio 15:85 of CUR: PCL exhibited better thermal stability. The observed tensile strength, breaking strain and initial modulus were found to be in the range of 7.34 to 19.08 MPa, 213.20 to 925.38% and 2.18 to 23.33 MPa respectively. The hydrophobicity of CURPUU film increased by increasing the ratio of curcumin. The morphological characterizations of PUU were revealed by SEM. UV-Spectrophotometer was employed to investigate the physically entrapped curcumin into CURPUU elastomers. Finally, antimicrobial activity of all the PUU samples was investigated against two bacterial strains (E. coli and S. aureus) which exhibited that these elastomers can be used as potential biomedical materials.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2018)
       
  • Synthesis and evaluation of enantio-selective l-histidine imprinted
           salicylic acid functionalized resin
    • Authors: M. Monier; A. El-Mekabaty; D.A. Abdel-Latif
      Pages: 104 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): M. Monier, A. El-Mekabaty, D.A. Abdel-Latif
      An enantio-selective l-histidine imprinted polymeric resin was fabricated and evaluated for enantiomeric resolution of histidine racemate. The polymerizable chiral salicyloyl-l-histidine amide was first synthesized and anchored onto a polymeric resin network via condensation polymerization with resorcinol and formaldehyde. l-histidine template molecules were then extracted out of the resin texture via alkaline hydrolysis of the amide bond using sodium hydroxide. The synthetic steps were monitored by means of instrumental techniques including elemental analysis; mass spectra along with both Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition, the surface morphologies of both imprinted and non-imprinted resins were visualized using scanning electron microscope and the images indicated a relatively rougher surface in case of the imprinted resin. Also, the complete extraction of the template l-histidine molecules was assured using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which indicated the absence of nitrogen upon alkaline treatment of the synthesized l-histidine containing resin. Selective adsorption experiments indicated that the maximum adsorption was achieved at pH 8 and followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with extracted amounts of 165 ± 1 and 90 ± 1 mg/g with respect to l- and D-histidine, respectively. Moreover, Langmuir model displayed the best fit with the experimentally obtained isotherm data and the maximum adsorption capacities were 195 ± 1 and 102 ± 1 mg/g with respect to l- and d- histidine, respectively. The enantiomeric resolution of d/l-histidine racemate was also carried out utilizing a column backed with the imprinted resin and the outlet collected solution displayed an optical activity related to 36% d-histidine enantiomeric excess.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2018)
       
  • Bio-based phthalonitrile compounds: Synthesis, curing behavior,
           thermomechanical and thermal properties
    • Authors: An-ran Wang; Abdul Qadeer Dayo; Li-wu Zu; Yi-le Xu; Dan Lv; Sha Song; Tao Tang; Wen-bin Liu; Jun Wang; Bao-chang Gao
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 127
      Author(s): An-ran Wang, Abdul Qadeer Dayo, Li-wu Zu, Yi-le Xu, Dan Lv, Sha Song, Tao Tang, Wen-bin Liu, Jun Wang, Bao-chang Gao
      Two bio-based phthalonitrile (PN) monomers, eugenol-based phthalonitrile (EPN) and guaiacol-based phthalonitrile (GPN), were successfully synthesized by the reaction of 4-nitrophthalonitrile with eugenol and guaiacol derived from clove and lignin, respectively, in the presence of potassium carbonate via nucleophilic substitution reaction. Their chemical structures were confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonances (1H and 13C NMR), and elemental analysis. The curing behavior of the blends of the prepared PN monomers with 10 wt% of 4-(4-aminophenoxy)-phthalonitrile (4-APN) as curing agent was evaluated by FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), while rheometer was used to analyze the processability of the blends. Moreover, the thermomechanical and thermal properties of the polymers were studied by dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results confirmed that the bio-based PN monomers and its blends show low melting temperatures, wide processing windows (>186 °C), and low melt viscosity (<0.03 Pa·s). The cured bio-based PN resins exhibited higher glass transition temperature and better thermal stability and toughness than those of typical bisphenol A-based phthalonitrile polymer. Meanwhile, the phthalodinitrile resins form a homogeneous, void-free network structure, which also confirm the excellent thermal and mechanical properties of the polymers.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Thiol-yne photo-clickable electrospun phase change materials for thermal
           energy storage
    • Authors: Burcu Oktay; Emre Baştürk; Memet Vezir Kahraman; Nilhan Kayaman Apohan
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 127
      Author(s): Burcu Oktay, Emre Baştürk, Memet Vezir Kahraman, Nilhan Kayaman Apohan
      Fatty acids, fatty acid esters and fatty acid composites have been widely accepted materials as PCMs. In the present work, nanosilica reinforced nanofiber composite was prepared as PCMs. First, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nanosilica was modified with mercaptopropionic acid and 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane respectively and thiolated-PVA-nanosilica nanofibers were prepared by using electrospinning. Stearic acid was used for long chain fatty acid. Then stearic acid was functionalized with propargyl groups to introduce thiol-yne clickable sites. Finally, various amounts of stearic propargyl ester were reacted with thiolated-PVA-nanosilica nanofibers, following to UV-induced thiol-yne click reaction by UV-irradiation at 365 nm between thiol groups of nanofiber and propargyl groups of stearic propargyl ester. The structural characterization was performed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The morphologies of nanofibers after and before modification were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is said that nanofibers have uniform diameter size. Thermal and phase change behaviors of the electrospun nanofibers were investigated. Thiolated-PVA nanofiber showed no phase change behavior. With the addition of stearic propargyl ester increased phase change enthalpy of the PVA nanofibers from 0 J/g to 37 J/g. The freezing cycle phase change enthalpy was also observed and was found between −13 and − 47 J/g.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Dual conductivity of ionic polyacetylene by the metathesis
           cyclopolymerization of dendronized triazolium-functionalized
           1,6-heptadiyne
    • Authors: Hongfei Li; Junfang Wang; Huijing Han; Jianhua Wu; Meiran Xie
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 127
      Author(s): Hongfei Li, Junfang Wang, Huijing Han, Jianhua Wu, Meiran Xie
      Ionic polyacetylenes (iPAs) with the trans configuration and a five-membered ring structure were synthesized by the metathesis cyclopolymerization of dendronized triazolium-functionalized 1,6-heptadiyne. The iPAs bearing flexible pendants had a low glass transition temperature of −37 °C, a high decomposition temperature of 349 °C, and a relatively high intrinsic ionic conductivity of 7.3 × 10−5 S·cm−1 at room temperature, which further increased to 1.4 × 10−4 S·cm−1 by doping with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. Moreover, the iodine-doped iPAs exhibited dual conductivity, i.e., ionic and electronic conductivities of 7.1 × 10−5 and 5.0 × 10−5 S·cm−1, respectively. Therefore, the conjugated iPAs with a good film-forming property provide a potential for making dual-conductive flexible electronics.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Transport properties of multilayer active PET films with different layers
           configuration
    • Authors: A. Apicella; P. Scarfato; L. Di Maio; L. Incarnato
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 127
      Author(s): A. Apicella, P. Scarfato, L. Di Maio, L. Incarnato
      The integration of active scavengers inside polymeric films is still facing technological difficulties related to material storage and handling, because of the rapid exhaustion of the scavenger due to the reduced thickness involved. Therefore, the development of multilayer active structures and the optimization of active and inert layers configuration represent crucial points to achieve the best performance. In this article, the effect of different layouts on the transport properties of multilayer active PET films is investigated. Symmetrical, “IAI” films were produced by means of cast co-extrusion process, inserting the active layer (A), containing the oxygen scavenger, between two inert layers (I). Four different layouts were obtained, combining two thicknesses for the active layer and two for the inert layers. Oxygen absorption measurements pointed out the effectiveness of the inert layers in prolonging the scavenging activity of the active phase, controlling the oxygen diffusive flux through the core layer. The results highlighted the impact of the multilayer films configuration on the scavenging parameters (initial oxygen scavenging rate, exhaustion time, amount of oxygen absorbed per unit surface and scavenging capacity), the possibility to discriminate the individual contributions of active and inert layers and the good reproducibility of the films scavenging performance. Furthermore, results revealed the effect of the oxygen scavenger phase on PET morphology and functional properties, regarding the crystallization process, the oxygen permeability and tensile parameters.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Microporous frameworks based on adamantane building blocks: Synthesis,
           porosity, selective adsorption and functional application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Xiong Li, Jianwei Guo, Rui Tong, Paul D. Topham, Jiawei Wang
      Two microporous organic frameworks based on adamantane (hereafter denoted as MF-Ads) were fabricated through Sonogashira-Hagihara coupling polycondensation of aryl halides and alkynes. Results show that both types of MF-Ad networks had similar porous properties and exhibited excellent CO2 uptake capacity (72.5 cm3 g−1) and CO2/N2 selectivity (59.1) at 273 K and 1.0 bar. Taking advantage of the superhydrophobic wettability of the resulting MF-Ad networks, wire mesh scaffolds were used to fabricate superhydrophobic films with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) acting as a binder. These films displayed excellent instant hydrocarbon/water separation efficiency (up to 99.6%), which was maintained at a constant level after five repeated cycles. This work provides a novel insight into the fabrication of microporous organic frameworks and extends their applicability to carbon capture and absorption of hazardous organic pollutants.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-22T14:11:17Z
       
  • Semiflexible ring polymers in dilute solutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Daichi Ida
      Our recent theoretical and/or Monte Carlo results for dilute solution properties of semiflexible ring polymers on the basis of the wormlike ring model are briefly summarized. The behavior of the mean-square radius of gyration 〈S 2〉, intrinsic viscosity [η], scattering function P(k) with k the magnitude of the scattering vector, and second virial coefficient A 2, Θ at the Θ state is examined as a function of the reduced contour length λL, where λ −1 and L are the stiffness parameter and contour length of the wormlike ring, respectively. Effects of the topological constraints on 〈S 2〉, [η], P(k), and A 2, Θ of semiflexible rings are also examined by comparing the results for the wormlike rings without the topological constraints with those for the wormlike ring of the trivial or trefoil knot.

      PubDate: 2018-06-22T14:11:17Z
       
  • Polymer inclusion membranes as substrates for controlled in-situ gold
           nanoparticle synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 130
      Author(s): Colin Specht, Robert W. Cattrall, Tony G. Spassov, Maya I. Spassova, Spas D. Kolev
      Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) containing the commercial anionic extractant Aliquat 336 and in some cases also 1-dodecanol as plasticizer were used for the fabrication of PIM surface-confined Au nanoparticles (NPs) by reduction of Au(III), extracted into the membranes as the [AuCl4]− complex. The experimental conditions controlling Au NP size and distribution were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The former technique showed unique NP distributions dependent on the reducing agent used while XRD data were found to be consistent with those obtained by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and revealed that the Au crystallite size decreased when the reduction temperature, reduction time, or reducing agent strength were increased. Conditions for producing PIM supported Au NPs that could be appropriate for chemical sensing or catalytic applications and with an acceptable thermal stability, based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements, were established. Loaded to saturation with Au(III) PVC-based PIMs containing 20 wt% Aliquat 336 and 10 wt% 1-dodecanol were found to be suitable for producing dense Au NP layers which could be appropriate for catalytic applications. Partially loaded with Au(III) PVC-based PIMs without a plasticizer and containing 30 wt% Aliquat 336 allowed the fabrication of discrete disperse Au NPs on the membrane surface which could be expected to be suitable for sensing applications. This study demonstrates that PIMs are attractive low-cost substrates for the synthesis and immobilization of Au NPs of controlled size, density and shape which can potentially be used in catalytic and chemical sensing applications.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Influence of backbone structure, conversion and phenolic co-curing of
           cyanate esters on side relaxations, fracture toughness, flammability
           properties and water uptake and toughening with low molecular weight
           polyethersulphones
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Christoph Uhlig, Monika Bauer, Jörg Bauer, Olaf Kahle, Ambrose C. Taylor, Anthony J. Kinloch
      The effect of backbone structure and conversion of polycyanurate networks on solid state properties has been studied and compared to co-curing with bisphenol-A. Dynamic mechanical behaviour, density, flammability properties, fracture toughness and long-term water uptake were investigated. The intensity of the γ-relaxation increases, room temperature density decreases with increasing conversion, both due to increasing free volume with increasing conversion. A brittle-ductile transition was detected by precise fracture toughness measurements; above a critical conversion the fracture toughness rises suddenly from extremely low values to a plateau or maximum: Networks with higher toughness show a maximum, those with lower toughness a plateau. Bisphenol-A modification causes intrinsic toughness variations. Toughening of two different cyanate esters with polyethersulphones synthesized with various molecular weights between 3000 and 10,500 (Mn) was investigated. Significant toughening effects can be achieved already with intermediate molecular weights lower than those of commercially-available high-Tg amorphous thermoplastics. Long-term water uptake measurements at 28°C, 50°C and 70°C over two years show a non-Fickian part of the water uptake for all cyanate esters even at temperatures as low as 28°C. The effects of backbone structure, conversion and storage temperature are discussed in detail.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Synthesis, polymerization kinetics and thermal properties of para-methylol
           functional benzoxazine
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Kan Zhang, Lu Han, Pablo Froimowicz, Hatsuo Ishida
      Monofunctional benzoxazine with para-methylol functionality has been synthesized via Mannich condensation. The chemical structure of the synthesized monomer is confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Polymerizations are monitored by in situ FT-IR, 1H NMR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Activation energy of the polymerization is also studied by DSC. The apparent activation energy of the polymerization is calculated to be 79.8kJmol−1 and 81.5kJmol−1 according to the Kissinger and Ozawa methods, respectively. In addition, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) result shows that the polybenzoxazine derived from para-methylol functional benzoxazine possesses excellent thermal stability with an initial decomposition temperature of 395°C for a 5% weight loss and a char yield of 60% at 800 °C under N2.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • New chain-extended bismaleimides with aryl-ether-imide and phthalide cardo
           skeleton (I): Synthesis, characterization and properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Xuhai Xiong, Xinghua Ma, Ping Chen, Lu Zhou, Rong Ren, Siyang Liu
      New aryl-ether-imide/phthalide-containing bismaleimide oligomers (MPEIBMI) with different molecular weight were designed and synthesized by adjusting the addition amount of diamine compound derived from o-cresolphthaleine, and dianhydride 4,4′-(4,4′-isopropylidene diphenoxy)-bis(phthalicanhydride) (mole ratio: 1.25/1.5/2.0). The chemical structures of the oligomers and their intermediate compounds were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR) spectroscopy and elementary analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed a blunt diffraction peak, suggesting an amorphous structure. The oligomers exhibited good solubility in a variety of common organic solvents. The heat flow curves of the oligomers measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) displayed a broad curing exothermic peak. The thermal stability and thermal mechanical properties of the cured resins were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results indicated that the introduction of phthalide cardo structure and imide rings into the polybismaleimide network could effectively improve the thermal properties. The glass transition temperature and initial thermal decomposition temperature were above 260°C and 423°C, respectively, and the residual weight percentages at 700°C were all >58%. The mechanical tests revealed that the cured MPEIBMI films had excellent tensile strength and good retention at the temperatures above 200°C.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Network characterization of phenolic-based coatings
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Patrice Roose, Anita Herssens, Thierry Lardot, Peter Ziegler, Oliver Etz, Dirk Bontinck
      Phenolic-based coating systems incorporating typical binding resins such as epoxies or polyesters were prepared along protocols mimicking relevant application conditions and are investigated using methods which are fairly standard in an industrial environment. Following a pragmatic approach, gravimetric analysis along with spectral analysis by FTIR spectroscopy of the insoluble gel fraction and liquid 1H NMR spectroscopy for the soluble fraction were used in a quantitative way to investigate proven binder/crosslinker systems over a range of compositions. Furthermore, a close analysis of the soluble fraction data has been conducted following the statistical mean-field model of Miller-Macosko with proper adjustments to account for the investigated systems where the phenolic resin can crosslink with itself and with the binder, whereas the binder mainly links to the crosslinker in conjunction with chain extending end-end couplings. For the linear precursors considered here, end and side functions were treated as chemically distinct in the model.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Synthesis of benzophenone-center bisphenol-A containing phthalonitrile
           monomer (BBaph) and its copolymerization with P-a benzoxazine
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Abdul Qadeer Dayo, Xin-man Cao, Wan-an Cai, Sha Song, Jun Wang, Abdeldjalil Zegaoui, Mehdi Derradji, Yi-le Xu, An-ran Wang, Wen-bin Liu, Lin-dan Gong
      The benzophenone-center bisphenol-A containing phthalonitrile monomer (BBaph) was successfully produced by a nucleophilic substitution reaction of 4,4′-difluorobenzophenone with 4-nitrophthalonitrile and bisphenol-A in the presence of potassium carbonate. The chemical structure of the synthesized monomer was confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), 13C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The curing study of monomer was evaluated by the FTIR and DSC curves. The poly(BBaph) was subjected to gamma-ray irradiation with 100kGy dose of 60Co gamma radiation. The variation in chemical structure, mechanical, thermomechanical and thermal properties of poly(BBaph) was evaluated by FTIR, flexural, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. All results confirmed very minute deviation in the estimated properties before and after radiation. The BBaph monomer was blended with typical mono-functional benzoxazine (P-a) in different weight ratios. The DSC, DMA, and TGA tests were performed to study the properties of copolymers. The high glass transition temperature (164–227°C), and stiffness values (2.72–3.03GPa) was observed for the copolymers. The thermal stability was also improved after the loading of BBaph in P-a, recorded values were in the range of 367–408°C, and 46.1–58.7% for 5% weight loss temperature and char yield at 800°C, respectively.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Preparation of hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene rubber (H-NBR) with
           controllable molecular weight with heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation
           after degradation via olefin cross metathesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Chunjin Ai, Jiagen Li, Guangbi Gong, Xutao Zhao, Peng Liu
      Liquid hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene rubber (LH-NBR), hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene rubber (H-NBR) with number-averaged molecular weight of <10,000, shows potential application owing to its integrated advantages. In the present work, a two-step strategy was established for the production of H-NBR with controllable molecular weight via the heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of commercial NBR product, after degradation via olefin cross metathesis. The effects of the olefin cross metathesis conditions (solvent, NBR concentration, reaction temperature and time, and catalyst amount) on the molecular weight of the degraded products have been investigated in detail. Then the selectively catalytic hydrogenation of the CC groups instead of the CN ones in the liquid nitrile-butadiene rubber (L-NBR) with narrow molecular weight distribution was conducted with palladium nanoparticles supported on macroporous hollow silica microspheres (Pd/MHS) catalyst, with the hydrogenation degree (HD%) >95% for the 5th reuse.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Effect of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanoparticles on thermal
           decomposition of cyanate ester resin
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Y. Lin, M. Song
      A series of cyanate ester resin (CY)/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanocomposites were prepared successfully. Morphology and thermal stability of the CY and its nanocomposites with POSS were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). With the addition of POSS, the thermal stability of CY is dramatically improved. Under air atmosphere, the full decomposition temperature increased by 146°C, with incorporation of only 1wt% POSS. The heat generated by the thermal degradation of the CY/POSS nanocomposites is around 4 times less than that of the neat CY. Under nitrogen atmosphere, the char yield of the CY increased up to 15wt% with addition of the POSS. Besides, the heat required for the degradation of the CY/POSS nanocomposites was much higher than that of the neat CY. These results reveal that the incorporation of the POSS resulted in change of the degradation mechanism of CY. The breakdown of POSS/CY network retarded the breakdown of the triazine rings of CY hence the thermal stability of POSS/CY nanocomposites were improved comparing to that of pristine CY. Furthermore, the formation of char retarded the degradation of benzene rings as well.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • The first evidence of redox activity of polyimide systems modified with
           azo groups with photo-induced response
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Ion Sava, Mariana-Dana Damaceanu, Paweł Nitschke, Bożena Jarząbek
      Aromatic azo-copolyimides based on hexafluoroisopropylidene dianhydride and a mixture of 2,4-diamino-4′-methylazobenzene and different aromatic diamines in 0.25:0.75M ratio were studied with regard to their photo-optical and electrochemical properties. Absorbance spectra within the UV–Vis range of polymer solutions along with the UV–Vis-NIR transmission and reflectivity of polymer films were measured. Thus, the optical parameters such as energy gap, yellowness and refractive index were obtained for polymer films, while the position of absorption bands was comparatively discussed for polymer solutions in correlation with the structural motif. Trans-cis photo-isomerization of azobenzene moiety was observed and thoroughly analysed for both polymer solutions and thin films through systematic studies of UV–Vis and fluorescence spectral features. On the other hand, the electrochemical activity (i.e., oxidation and reduction capability) of the understudy azo-copolyimides was explored by cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements both in fluid and solid state. Owing to their ability to promote favorable properties, applications in electronic devices with photo-controllable functions are foreseen.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Adapting benzoxazine chemistry for unconventional applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Baris Kiskan
      Polybenzoxazines, as a kind of phenolics, are high performance thermosets with a range of features and overcoming some drawbacks of resole and novolac type phenolics. Most of the polybenzoxazines exhibit high T g, high char yield, flame resistance, low water absorption, low shrinkage and also limited or no release of by-products during curing, they have good mechanical performance and are effective contender of high performance polymers such as bismaleimide resins. Thus, the interest in polybenzoxazines is continuously increasing in the polymer science as reflected by the number of scientific publications and patents. In this mini review, an overview about polybenzoxazines is reported highlighting the current advances and progress in the synthesis of benzoxazine based materials for unconventional uses that can be considered as smart applications ranging from self-healing materials to electrochromic devices.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Large area uniform electrospun polymer nanofibres by balancing of the
           electrostatic field
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Simon G. King, Vlad Stolojan, S. Ravi P. Silva
      As a technique, electrospinning has been increasingly utilised for polymer nanofibre production, which has a growing list of advanced applications to which they are being applied. However, commercially scaling the process is challenging, especially when the uniformity of the nanofibres across the bulk of the material is important for the required application. At present, most commercially-scalable systems tend to rely on a drum or cylindrical-style electrode, where a multitude of electrospinning jets are formed with no specific controlled distribution or uniformity over its surface. These electrospinning systems also have the drawback of possessing a varying electrostatic field across the length of the electrode, resulting in a range of spinning conditions which result in an inconsistency in the produced nanofibres. Due to the high centrifugal stresses exerted on the polymer during electrospinning, controlling the electrostatic field is crucial for consistent nanofibre production, which forms the basis for applications such as cellular scaffolds and smart materials. In the work reported here, we utilise computational simulation to explore a range of electrode designs to achieve a large area electrospinning system with a balanced electrostatic field across its entire active surface. We demonstrate the output by producing a high-throughput of nanofibres with comparable properties to that of a traditional single spinneret system, but at a processing rate two orders of magnitude faster.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Tuning the properties for the self-extinguishing epoxy-amine composites
           containing copper-coordinated curing agent: Flame tests and
           physical–mechanical measurements
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Helen Lavrenyuk, Ian Hamerton, Borys Mykhalichko
      An uncomplicated mode of preparing the fire retardant-hardener labeled DETA-CuSO4 (DETA – diethylenetriamine) with its subsequent incorporation into framework of epoxy resin to obtain self-extinguishing epoxy-amine composites possessing the balanced physical-mechanical properties and fire retardancy has been elaborated. The influence of the DETA-CuSO4 complex formation onto the epoxy resin curing processes has been studied by means of data of the rheological, IR spectroscopic and quantum-chemical analyses of the DGEBA–DETA–CuSO4 system (DGEBA – bisphenol A diglycidyl ether). The flammability of the epoxy-amine composites with different content of the fire retardant (0, 5, 16, and 80 mass parts) has been studied. The rate of burning of the epoxy-amine composites (DGEBA/DETA-CuSO4) containing 16 and 80 mass parts of the fire retardant is intensely depressed (their samples do not propagate flame generally), while r burn. values for samples of DGEBA/DETA and DGEBA/DETA-CuSO4(5) are equal 25.2 and 24.0mm·min−1, respectively. The flammability was evaluated by means of UL94 test method and according to all-Union State Standard 12.1.044-89. The smoke-formation is maximal suppressed by fire retardant (CuSO4) in the largest quantities. Physical-mechanical properties were studied by means of the measurements of surface hardness, tensile strength, water absorption, and chemical resistance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Understanding the curing kinetics and rheological behaviour of a new
           benzoxazine resin for carbon fibre composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): V. García-Martínez, M.R. Gude, A. Ureña
      The curing kinetics and viscoelastic properties of a benzoxazine resin intended for liquid resin infusion and resin transfer moulding processes was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rheological experiments. An autocatalytic kinetic model was proposed and all kinetic parameters including reactions orders and activation energy were determined. The curing kinetic equation obtained by linear model-fitting of non-isothermal experiments matched reasonably well with the experimental results from both non-isothermal and isothermal tests. The evolution of viscoelastic properties, such as storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″) and complex viscosity (IŋI*) was recorded during the curing reaction. Gelation times at several isothermal temperatures between 170 and 210°C were obtained and the activation energies for curing and gelation were calculated. Finally, quasi-isothermal DSC experiments were carried out in order to obtain the vitrification times, using the inflexion point of the reversing heat capacity (Cp-rev).

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Development of vinyl ester resins with improved flame retardant properties
           for structural marine applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Baljinder K. Kandola, John R. Ebdon, Chen Zhou
      This work builds on our previous experience of blending and co-curing an unsaturated polyester resin with other relatively inexpensive, but more flame retardant resins such as chemically modified phenolic resins, and extends this technology to the almost equally flammable vinyl ester resins, commonly used in marine composites. It has been demonstrated that two commercial vinyl ester resins (Scott-Bader, UK), one epoxy based (Crystic VE 676) and the other novolac based (Crystic VE 673), may be blended with two different commercial low molecular weight phenolic resoles (Sumitomo Bakelite Europe NV), one unmodified (Durez 33156) and the other containing allyl groups (Methylon 75108) and the blends cured (crosslinked) to give blended resins with good flame retardance, in several respects better than that of the unblended vinyl ester resins. Compatibility of the vinyl esters with the Methylon resole is however better than with the Durez, which tends to give phase-separated blends, and thus blends having poor physical and mechanical properties. Moreover, the compatibility of the novolac-based VE with both Durez and Methylon is worse than blends of the unsaturated polyester with Methylon and Durez. This compatibility issue and derived flammability properties of different blends are discussed in terms of their chemical structures.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Increasing the resistivity and IFSS of unsized carbon fibre by covalent
           surface modification
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): Kathleen M. Beggs, James D. Randall, Linden Servinis, Andrew Krajewski, Ron Denning, Luke C. Henderson
      Carbon fibre presents many attractive qualities such as high strength to weight ratio and suitability in a variety of light weighting applications. One of the major practical limitation for processing carbon fibres are their electrical conductivity and their ability to short circuit electrical equipment through airborne fibres and other carbon fibre detritus. In this work we investigate the ability to reduce the conductivity of carbon fibres using an electrochemical grafting strategy. In this study unsized carbon fibres were electrochemically functionalised with a variety of small molecules, increasing the resist of carbon fibres by up to 200%. In addition, using this strategy we have also increased the interfacial shear properties of these fibres in epoxy resin systems (+19%) relative to the control fibres.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Prediction of the char formation of polybenzoxazines: The effect of
           heterogeneities in the crosslinked network to the prediction accuracy in
           quantitative structure-properties relationship (QSPR) model
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 129
      Author(s): M. Sairi, B.J. Howlin, D.J. Watson, I. Hamerton
      Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) software has great potential when combined with the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) approach, and was proven to be useful to make good prediction models for series of polybenzoxazines [1–3]. However, the effect of heterogeneities in the crosslinked network to the prediction accuracy is yet to be tested. It was found that polybenzoxazines with polymerisable functional group (e.g. acetylene-based benzoxazines) form up to 40% higher char yield compared to their analogue polybenzoxazines due to the contribution of the polymerisable functional group (e.g. ethynyl triple bond) in the cross-linked network. In order to investigate the effect of the inconsistent cross-linking network, a data set consisting of thirty-three benzoxazines containing various structures of benzoxazines was subdivided into two smaller data sets based on their functional group, either benzoxazines with polymerisable functional group (acetylene-based benzoxazines set (Ace-M)) or non-polymerisable functional group (aniline-based benzoxazines (Ani-M)). Char yield predictions for the polybenzoxazines for these data sets (Ace-M and Ani-M) were compared with the larger thirty-three polybenzoxazines data set (GM) to investigate the effect of the inconsistency in crosslink network on the quality of prediction afforded by the model. Prediction performed by Ace-M and Ani-M were found to be more accurate when compared with the GM with total prediction error of 3.15% from both models compared to the GM (4.81%). Ace-M and Ani-M are each better at predicting the char yields of similar polybenzoxazines (i.e. one model is specific for a polymerisable functional group; the other for non-polymerisable functional group), but GM is more practical as it has greater ‘general’ utility and is applicable to numerous structures. The error shown by GM is considerably small and therefore it is still a good option for prediction and should not be underestimated.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • A new type of sulfonium salt copolymers generating polymeric photoacid:
           Preparation, properties and application
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Qianqian Wang, Chenfeng Yan, Fengjuan You, Liyuan Wang
      Photoacid generators (PAGs) are critical components in chemically amplified (CA) photoresists system, among which small molecular sulfonium salts are commonly used but possess inherent incompatibility with polymer matrixes and acid migration during the post exposure baking (PEB) processes. PAG-bound polymers would be better choices for CA photoresists to acquire excellent lithographic performance. In this work, a new and convenient way is designed to prepare polymeric PAGs which generate polymeric photoacids and with this method the existing small molecular sulfonium salts can be transformed into polymeric compounds with convenience. Poly (sodium p-styrenesulfonate-co-tertiary-butyl methacrylate) (p(SSNa-co-t-BMA)) was prepared through free radical polymerization and then was further reacted with various sulfonium halides to give sulfonium salt copolymers. Different molecular weights of the copolymers can be obtained from M n 5.5 × 103–2.5 × 104 with distribution coefficient between 1.18 and 1.88. The ionic copolymers display good solubilities in common resist solvents. The thermal decomposition temperatures (T d) are around 150–155 °C and the glass transition temperatures (T g) are above 130 °C. After exposed to light, the copolymers can generate polymeric photoacids. The photoacid generation efficiencies are determined around 0.31–0.34. UV spectra show big difference between the polymeric PAGs and the mixture of the corresponding small molecular sulfonium salts and framework polymers and demonstrate much better transparency of polymeric PAGs. Thick film 248-nm CA photoresist can be formed by one of the polymeric PAGs and partly protected poly(4-hydroxystyrene-co- tertiary-butyl methacrylate) (p(4-HS-co-t-BMA)), and display excellent performance with high height/width (H/W) ratio of 5:1 and resolution of 0.35 μm. Making use of this way, various kinds of small molecular sulfonium salt PAGs can be transformed into polymeric PAGs. These polymeric PAGs also have potentiality to be used in CA photoresists for other photolithography technologies such as 193-nm immersion technology.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Molecularly imprinted polymers based on methacrylic acid and
           ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate for l-lysine recognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): O.A. Pisarev, I.V. Polyakova
      The enantiomers separation is a subject of a fundamental importance in various application fields such a pharmaceutical industry, biomedicine, food, etc. New molecularly imprinted sorbents based on methacrylic acid (MMA) as a functional monomer and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinking agent have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated as a selective materials for l-lysine recognition. The conditions for synthesis of optimal control non-imprinted polymer (NIP) have been found. The greatest sorption capacity and the best structural stability have been occurred on polymer containing 88 mol% MMA and 12 mol% EGDMA, which synthesized in medium of 45% water solution of isopropyl alcohol at 20% comonomers concentration. Samples of polymers molecularly imprinted with 3, 6, 9 and 12 mol% of l-lysine template (lysMIPs) were synthesized. The lysMIP-9 and lysMIP-12 possessed low structural stability therefore it was decided that these sorbents are unsuitable for use in preparative sorption processes and they were not studied further. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out as a function of pH (6.6, 8.3 and 11.0), ionic strength (0.1 M, 0.2 M and 0.4 M) and temperature (293 K, 310 K). Examination of distribution coefficients and thermodynamic functions of the l-lysine sorption on the NIP and lysMIPs indicated conversion from ion-ion interactions with non-imprinted sorbents to mainly nonionic interactions with molecularly imprinted sorbents. The sorption isotherms of l-lysine were analyzed using the generalized Langmuir and Freundlich equations. In the case of the lysMIP containing a greater number of imprint sites (lysMIP-6), the sorption of l-lysine occurred on the energetically homogeneous binding centers, forming one monolayer, while the nonspecific sorption of l-lysine on the NIP occurred with energetically heterogeneous binding of the sorbate. The best kinetic sorption properties were obtained on lysMIP-6. This could be due to the distribution of the sorbate in imprint sites, which were easily accessible in a narrow surface layer of sorbent particles. The obtained equilibrium and kinetic sorption data allowed developing an effective method of separation of D and L forms of lysine on molecularly imprinted sorbent lysMIP-6.

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Fabrication of poly (1, 4-dioxa-7, 12-diazacyclotetradecane-8, 11-dione)
           macrocyclic functionalized hydrogel for high selective adsorption of Cr,
           Cu and Ni
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Brian A. Omondi, Hirotaka Okabe, Yoshiki Hidaka, Kazuhiro Hara
      Synthesis of hydrogel adsorbent for high selectivity and strong chelate removal of transition metals Cr, Cu and Ni was accomplished via sol-gel method using ligand monomers maleic acid and (2, 2′ ethylenedioxy) bis (ethylamine) reagent. We obtained a 14-membered macrocyclic functional unit called poly (1, 4-dioxa-7, 12-diazacyclotetradecane-8, 11-dione) as the main active sites for metal adsorption. The new adsorbent's cross-linked polymer chains was clearly visualized using SEM spectroscopy; whereas the FTIR, 13C NMR and EDX techniques demonstrated its structural and functional groups. With an improved chelating power, this macrocyclic hydrogel was able to ignore non-target substrates, instead showing high specificity for only Cu, Cr and Ni from both single and multi-ion competitive aqueous solutions, in the order Cr > Cu > Ni. Pseudo-second order kinetic model aptly described the adsorption process, revealing chemisorption as the main mechanism which proceeded based on the host-guest chelation principle of metal ions onto the gel's macrocyclic active sites. Thus a high performance, high selectivity adsorbent system was achieved using active sites bearing substrate recognition and isolation properties.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-19T14:03:16Z
       
  • Stable cycloaliphatic quaternary ammonium-tethered anion exchange
           membranes for electrodialysis
    • Authors: Yuliang Jiang; Junbin Liao; Shanshan Yang; Jian Li; Yanqing Xu; Huimin Ruan; Arcadio Sotto; Bart Van der Bruggen; Jiangnan Shen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yuliang Jiang, Junbin Liao, Shanshan Yang, Jian Li, Yanqing Xu, Huimin Ruan, Arcadio Sotto, Bart Van der Bruggen, Jiangnan Shen
      In this work, we have investigated a series of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) based on brominated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,6-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) tethered with three saturated heterocyclic quaternary ammonium groups (QAs) of 1-methylpyrrolidine (MPY), N-methylpiperidine (MPRD), and 4-methylmorpholine (MMPH) for electrodialysis (ED) applications, respectively, along with BPPO with trimethylamine (TMA) and Neosepta AMX made for comparison. Our investigations demonstrate that the optimized BPPO-MPRD, having an ion exchange capacity of 1.67 mmol g−1, is highly stable in aqueous KOH (1 mol L−1) with ion exchange capacity retention ratio of 85.1% and hydroxide conductivity retention ratio of 80.3% at 60 °C for over 15 days, relative to other heterocyclic amine decorated AEMs. In ED application process, BPPO-MPRD shows the NaCl removel ratio of 98.8% and energy consumption of 12.58 kWh kg−1, outperforming the Neosepta AMX (97.4% & 15.76 kWh kg−1). The results demonstrate that the as-prepared BPPO-MPRD AEM can be applied in ED.

      PubDate: 2018-06-07T13:26:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.05.014
       
  • Synthesis and characterization of triple-responsive
           PNiPAAm-S-S-P(αN3CL-g-alkyne) copolymers bearing cholesterol and
           fluorescence monitor
    • Authors: Yin-Ku Lin; Jia-You Fang; Shiu-Wei Wang; Ren-Shen Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yin-Ku Lin, Jia-You Fang, Shiu-Wei Wang, Ren-Shen Lee
      Real-time monitoring and controlled release of drugs are key factors in drug delivery. In this study, versatile fluorescence triple-responsive block-graft copolymers PNiPAAm-S-S-P(αN3CL-g-alkyne)n with a disulfide (SS) bond as a junction point between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic chains bearing cholesteryl- and pyrenyl- side groups were synthesized. The polymer was temperature-sensitive with a lower critical solution temperature in the range of 36 °C to 44 °C. When the polymer solution was treated with reducing agents and exposed to ultrasound, significant hydrolysis of the amide bonds was noted. The partial destruction of micelles in the presence of a reducing agent and ultrasound was observed through transmission electron microscopy. The copolymers containing cholesteryl and pyrenyl possessed highly drug loading content and entrapment efficiency. Above the lower critical solution temperature, the release rate could be greatly increased and adjusted remotely under high- intensity focused ultrasound in the presence of dithiothreitol. The nanoparticles exhibited slight toxicity against HeLa cells in the concentration range of 10–300 μg mL−1. Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles facilitated the uptake of DOX by HeLa cells and were predominantly retained in the cytoplasm.

      PubDate: 2018-06-07T13:26:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.05.008
       
  • An effective approach for fast selective separation of Cr(VI) from water
           by ion-imprinted polymer grafted on the electro-spun nanofibrous mat of
           functionalized polyacrylonitrile
    • Authors: Marjan Hassanzadeh; Mousa Ghaemy; S. Mojtaba Amininasab; Zahed Shami
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Marjan Hassanzadeh, Mousa Ghaemy, S. Mojtaba Amininasab, Zahed Shami
      The aim of this study is to prepare Cr(VI) ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) grafted on the surface of functionalized polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous mat (FPANFM), IIP-functionalized-PANFM, for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The prepared materials were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, FESEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Moreover, various operating conditions such as contact time, initial metal ion concentration (5–500 mg L−1), IIP-functionalized-PANFM dosage and FPANFM/IIP weight ratio. The imprinting efficiency was evaluated by comparing the adsorbed amount of Cr(VI) by IIP and IIP-functionalized-PANFM with the adsorption by the non-imprinted polymer (NIP). Cr(III), Cu(II), and Cd(II) were selected as interferences and used individually to study the selectivity factor. The maximum adsorption capacity was <30 mg g−1 for NIP, PANFM, and FPANFM, while for IIP and IIP-functionalized-PANFM was 183 mg g−1 and 398 mg g−1 in a very short time (12 min.), respectively. Moreover, the reusability of the IIP and IIP-functionalized-PANFM was tested for several times and no significant loss in adsorption capacity was observed. Also, isotherm models, kinetic adsorption mechanism and thermodynamic parameters were investigated.

      PubDate: 2018-06-04T13:17:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.05.013
       
  • Adsorption behavior and kinetics for L-valine separation from aqueous
           solution using ion exchange resin
    • Authors: Junwei Zhang; Chengxu Zhu Fang Zhou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Junwei Zhang, Chengxu Zhu, Fang Zhou, Li Ma
      Separation of L-valine (L-val) using ion exchange resins from a aqueous solution was successfully performed. Multifactor equilibrium isotherm, adsorption mechanism and kinetics were systematically studied. A multifactor empirical isotherm model was constructed and could demonstrate the equilibrium experimental data at different pH values well. A theoretical model integrating both ion exchange and proton transfer reactions was developed to describe the adsorption capacity of resin, and the theoretical model allowed us to verify the multilayer adsorption at a higher concentrations. Meanwhile, the results of quantum chemistry confirmed the existence of proton transfer reaction and multilayer adsorption on resin. The adsorption of L-val on resin was a spontaneous and endothermic process. Adsorption amount of L-val on cation exchange resin increased with increasing the L-val solution concentration and the temperature but decreased with increasing the diameter of resin. The rate constant (k 0) and the apparent reaction coefficient (α) of lumping kinetics and the apparent activation energy of reaction (E a) were also determined by analyzing the mass transfer process from the main liquid to the active sites of resin.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T13:11:50Z
       
  • Synthesis and characterization of poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate (PEGA)
           copolymers for application as polymeric phase change materials (PCMs)
    • Authors: Swati Sundararajan; Asit Samui Prashant Kulkarni
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Swati Sundararajan, Asit B. Samui, Prashant S. Kulkarni
      In this study, we have reported the synthesis of copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate (PEGA) with methyl methacrylate (MMA) in various ratios which can be utilized as polymeric phase change materials (PCMs). The monomer reactivity ratio of PEGA copolymers was determined by Fineman-Ross method. The values of r1 (PEGA) and r2 (MMA) were found to be 0.8164 and 0.3371 respectively. The thermal analysis performed by DSC indicated high fusion enthalpy of 168 J·g−1 at 55 °C for the feed ratio of 40:60 of PEGA:MMA (Copolymer mole fraction of 76:24). The crystallization behaviour shows the presence of spherulites but of smaller size compared to PEG and with reduced crystallization ability. The results point out the capabilities of PEGA to function as an effective PCM which can be utilized for numerous thermal energy storage applications.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T13:11:50Z
       
  • Conductometric study of the dissociation behavior of humic and fulvic
           acids
    • Authors: Martina
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 128
      Author(s): Martina Klučáková
      The dissociation behavior of humic and fulvic acids was characterized on the basis of conductometric measurements. It was confirmed that dissociation is strongly affected by the content of humic or fulvic acids in aqueous solution. In the case of fulvic acids, the dilution effect connected with the increase of dissociation degree and the values of activity coefficients was the main factor influencing their dissociation ability. In the case of humic acids, their aqueous leachates were used and characterized as the main fractions functioning actively in natural systems. These fractions can be rich in acidic functional groups and the chemical compositions of these fractions change with their contents in the leachates. The amount of the dissolved humic fraction, its chemical character and its dissociation ability can be considered to result from equilibrium between dissolved and undissolved humic substances. A maximum was observed for the dependence of the dissociation degree on the concentration of humic leachates. In less concentrated leachates, less soluble humic particles with weaker functional groups were able to be dissolved. The increase of humic contents in leachates caused smaller amounts of soluble fractions with the weakest functional groups to remain in an undissolved form, which led to an increase in the degree of dissociation up to a maximum. In the case of fulvic acids, the dissociation degree increases with decreasing concentration as a result of the dilution. Two different values of pK a were determined for each humic and fulvic sample. The first was determined for higher concentrations, where pK a values are practically constant. The second was the value extrapolated to infinite dilution.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
       
  • Particle Dispersibility and sound propagation of ultrasounds for magnetic
           soft composites
    • Authors: Yuri Tsujiei; Shota Akama; Junko Ikeda; Yoshihiro Takeda; Mika Kawai; Tetsu Mitsumata
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yuri Tsujiei, Shota Akama, Junko Ikeda, Yoshihiro Takeda, Mika Kawai, Tetsu Mitsumata
      We measured the sound velocity for magnetic soft composites consisting of a polymeric matrix of polyurethane and a magnetic particle of carbonyl iron or barium ferrite, and investigated the effect of the particle dispersibility on the sound velocity at 10 MHz for the composites. Morphological observations and dynamic viscoelastic measurements at 1 Hz were also carried out, and the results revealed that the carbonyl iron was dispersive particle and the barium ferrite was aggregative particle in the polyurethane matrix. The sound velocity for polyurethane elastomer without magnetic particles was 1444 ± 12 m/s and it decreased with the volume fraction of magnetic particles. The sound velocity of magnetic composites with barium ferrite obeyed the Reuss model at whole volume fractions, however, magnetic composites with carbonyl iron exhibited an under deviation from the Reuss model at volume fractions above ~0.053. It was also found that the longitudinal modulus was insensitive to the creation of the particle network and sensitive to the aggregation of magnetic particles. The threshold seen in the longitudinal modulus was different from that in the nonlinear parameter of viscoelasticity, indicating that the ultrasound of 10 MHz detects microscopic heterogeneity of particle dispersion.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.05.011
       
  • Influence of titania on the morphological and mechanical properties of
           1,3-butanediol dimethacrylate based polyHIPE composites
    • Authors: Elif Yüce; Fatma Nur Parın; Peter Krajnc; H. Hande Mert; E. Hilal Mert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Elif Yüce, Fatma Nur Parın, Peter Krajnc, H. Hande Mert, E. Hilal Mert
      Macroporous polymer/TiO2 composites were synthesized by the polymerisation of 1,3-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,3-BDDMA) based water-in-oil high internal phase emulsions. High internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) having 80 vol% of internal phase were used as templates for inducing porosity in the resulting polymer composites. Apart from the monomer, either methyl methacrylate (MMA) or 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) was used as a co-monomer. In order to investigate the influence of nanoparticle loading on the morphological and mechanical properties of highly porous polymers, 1 to 10 wt% of colloidal TiO2 nanoparticles were introduced into emulsion templates. It was found that increasing the amount of nanoparticle loading from 1 wt% to 10 wt%, average cavity sizes decreased from 14.1 μm to 5.9 μm in the case of MMA co-monomer, and from 18.6 μm to 5.1 μm in the case of EHA co-monomer. Moreover, it was found that introducing 1 wt% of nanoparticle significantly improved the mechanical properties of both MMA and EHA copolymerized polyHIPEs. In order to explain the influence of nanoparticle loading and comonomer type on the physical properties appropriate regression analyses were conducted.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.05.009
       
  • Vapour sorption and permeation behaviour of supported ionic liquid
           membranes: Application for organic solvent/water separation
    • Authors: Kateryna Fatyeyeva; Sergiy Rogalskyy; Oksana Tarasyuk; Corinne Chappey; Stéphane Marais
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Kateryna Fatyeyeva, Sergiy Rogalskyy, Oksana Tarasyuk, Corinne Chappey, Stéphane Marais
      The imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) (1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, where n = 4, 6–8, 12) were synthesized and characterized in terms of their spectral characteristics, thermal stability, and water, ethanol and cyclohexane vapour sorption behaviour. It was found that the highest hydrophilic character had IL with the shortest alkyl chain on the cation. At the same time, the IL thermal stability was decreased with the increase of the cation alkyl chain length. D'Arcy and Watt and NRTL sorption models allowed to well describe the vapour sorption experimental data. The supported ionic liquid membranes (SILMs) were prepared by impregnation of the porous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane with the synthesized ILs. The sorption capacity of PVDF was found to increase after its swelling in IL. An experimental evaluation of the SILMs permeability was carried out for water, ethanol and cyclohexane. The effect of operation parameters such as temperature and concentration of the permeant was studied. It was observed that the presence of the IL strongly influenced the permeability performance of the membrane by reducing the pore sizes and changing the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. It is found from the permeation kinetics curves that the SILMs have high potential for separation of organic solvent/water mixtures.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T13:09:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.05.007
       
 
 
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