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ENGINEERING (1194 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access  
Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Thermal Stresses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Transportation Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Tribology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Journal of Tropical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Turbomachinery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Turbulence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban Planning and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Urban Regeneration & Renewal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Vibration and Acoustics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Journal of Visualization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Volcanology and Seismology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed.     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A     Hybrid Journal  
Journal on Chain and Network Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Teknik ITS     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Kerntechnik     Full-text available via subscription  
KKU Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Langmuir     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Latin American Journal of Computing     Open Access  
Leadership and Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Lighting Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Logic and Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Logica Universalis     Hybrid Journal  
Lubrication Science     Hybrid Journal  
Machines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Machining Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Magazine of Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Management and Production Engineering Review     Open Access  
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Manufacturing Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Marine Technology Society Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
MATEC Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Matériaux & Techniques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Mathematics of Control, Signals, and Systems (MCSS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Measurement Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meccanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mechatronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Engineering & Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Membrane Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Membrane Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Memetic Computing     Hybrid Journal  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Metal Powder Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Metallurgist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Metaphysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metascience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metrologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Microelectronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microelectronics International     Hybrid Journal  
Microelectronics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Micromachines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Modern Information Technologies in the Sphere of Security and Defence     Open Access  
Molecular BioSystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Molecular Pharmaceutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
MRS Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
MRS Online Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal  
NANO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Nano Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Nano Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nano Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Nano-Micro Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nanopages     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanoscale Systems : Mathematical Modeling, Theory and Applications     Open Access  
Nanoscience and Nanoengineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanotechnologies in Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Nature Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
NDT & E International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

  First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal Cover Reactive and Functional Polymers
  [SJR: 0.879]   [H-I: 62]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1381-5148
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Self-assembled spin-labeled nanoparticles based on poly(amino acids)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): A.V. Hubina, A.A. Pogodaev, V.V. Sharoyko, E.G. Vlakh, T.B. Tennikova
      The development of detectable nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery systems has tremendous practical importance regarding the monitoring of drug pathway in organism. Self-assembly amphiphilic block-copolymer poly(l-glutamic acid)-b-poly(l-phenylalanine) (pGlu-b-pPhe) was chosen for the preparation of discussed nanoparticles. The synthesis of blocks was carried out using ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of N-carboxyanhydrides of mentioned amino acids. To introduce the spin label at C-terminal position of hydrophilic block, (4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (4-amino-TEMPO) was applied as ROP initiator and the polymerization of hydrophobic block was carried out with previously synthesized macroinitiator. The results obtained by transmission electron microscopy clearly showed that TEMPO-pGlu-b-pPhe polymer was really capable to self-assembling in aqueous solutions followed by polymersome formation. The mean size of nanoparticles was increased in a range of TEMPO-pGlu 43 -b-pPhe 12 <TEMPO-pGlu 43 -b-pPhe 29 <TEMPO-pGlu43-b-pPhe 49 as 60<200<280nm, respectively. EPR spectroscopy of the solutions of spin-labeled homopolymer TEMPO-p-γ-Glu(Bzl), block copolymers TEMPO-p-γ-Glu(Bzl)-b-pPhe and suspension of polymersomes formed from TEMPO-p-Glu-b-pPhe was performed and the results were compared. It was proved that in the case of nanoparticles EPR detectable spin labels are located on polymersome surface. The experiments in cell culture demonstrated the absence of cytotoxicity of labeled nanoparticles. Additionally, it was shown that TEMPO-label can be detected inside the cell by EPR method.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-02-01T13:35:44Z
  • Chemical modifications of poly(vinyl chloride) to poly(vinyl azide) and
           “clicked” triazoles bearing groups for application in metal
           cation extraction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Abid Ouerghui, Hichem Elamari, Mokthar Dardouri, Sana Ncib, Faouzi Meganem, Christian Girard
      Chemical modification of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) by the replacement of chlorine atom present a considerable interest in this work. In the first phase, PVC was partially azided with a sodium azide. Click-chemistry based on Copper (I)-catalyzed Huisgen's reaction (CuAAC) was then used to form polymer-grafted 1,4-triazoles using some synthesized substituted alkynes. In the second phase, the new synthesized polymers were used in extraction studies of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb). The obtained polymer-supported triazoles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DSC). Evaluation of metallic cations extraction was done by atomic absorption of the remaining solutions. Three polymers efficiently removed Ni Cu and Pb with extraction yields between 50 and 90%. Two of the polymers studied had a high selectivity of extraction for Cadmium with a good efficiency (around 80%).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-02-01T13:35:44Z
  • Dissolution and resourcfulization of biopolymers in ionic liquids
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Xiaodeng Yang, Congde Qiao, Yan Li, Tianduo Li
      Cellulose, starch, chitosan, β-cyclodextrin, lignin and proteins are the most abundant elements in the universe with excellent properties, such as good biodegradability and biocompatibility, thus have gained tremendous interest in many fields. Unfortunately, these biopolymers suffer greatly from the solubility in neutral or basic solutions, insufficient mechanical properties, brittleness, and also have other drawbacks. Ionic liquids (ILs) are a kind of greener solvents for biopolymers, owning to their excellent physical–chemical properties. ILs also provide a premise condition for the homogeneous reaction of biopolymers; improve the utilization value of biopolymer. In this paper, the dissolution, regeneration and modification of cellulose, starch, chitosan, lignin and protein in ionic liquids are reviewed.

      PubDate: 2016-02-01T13:35:44Z
  • Crosslinking of chitosan fiber by a water-soluble diepoxy crosslinker for
           enhanced acid resistance and its impact on fiber structures and properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Xiao-Qiong Li, Ren-Cheng Tang
      Chitosan fiber for functional textile applications has drawn great attention due to its naturally occurring antibacterial activity, moisture-retaining and no allergenic reaction. However chitosan fiber has the weight loss defect under acidic processing conditions and during peroxide bleaching, which restricts its application and decreases its functionalities. In the present work, chitosan fiber was crosslinked by a water-soluble diepoxy compound with the aim of enhancing its acid resistance. The effects of crosslinking conditions (sodium carbonate dosage, crosslinker dosage and temperature) on the weight loss of crosslinked chitosan fiber in acid solution were studied. Additionally, the effects of crosslinking on the structures, resistance to peroxide bleaching, tensile strength, thermal stability and dye adsorption properties of chitosan fiber were also discussed. The results showed that the crosslinking by the diepoxy crosslinker was able to greatly reduce the weight loss of chitosan fiber in acid solution, and slightly reduce the weight loss during hydrogen peroxide bleaching. Crosslinking treatment slightly improved the thermal stability of chitosan fiber, and had no impact on the crystalline structure and dye adsorptions of chitosan fiber. However, the dry tensile strength of chitosan fiber decreased linearly with increasing diepoxy crosslinker dosage.

      PubDate: 2016-01-28T13:29:59Z
  • Thermal stability, solubility, and fluorescence property of poly(arylene
           vinylene ketone)s bearing 1,1′-binaphthylene units
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Tadashi Tsukamoto, Katsuya Maeyama, Shuhei Higashibayashi, Hidehiro Sakurai
      Mizoroki–Heck coupling polymerization of diiodonated 1,1′-binaphthyls (BINTL1/BINTL2) with 1,4-divinylbenzenes (DVB-H/DVB-Me/DVB-OMe) proceeded to afford poly(arylene vinylene ketone)s (PAVK1–6). Upon photoexcitation, PAVKs in solutions exhibit fluorescence behavior with large Stokes shifts, and the maximum emission wavelength (λem) depends on the nature of the solvent. PAVK1 analogs, in which the ketone carbonyl units of PAVK1 are replaced by sulfone, methylene, and ketal ones, were synthesized. Fluorescence spectra of PAVK1 analogs clearly exhibit a blue shift from that of original PAVK1. The difference in behavior between PAVKs and PAVK1 analogs suggests that the fluorescence of PAVKs originates from donor–acceptor interaction between 1,4-distryrylbenzene skeletons and ketone carbonyl units, respectively.

      PubDate: 2016-01-28T13:29:59Z
  • Surface modification of a polyethylene film for anticoagulant and
           anti-microbial catheter
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yingying Zheng, Jianjun Miao, Fuming Zhang, Chao Cai, Amanda Koh, Trevor J. Simmons, Shaker A. Mousa, Robert J. Linhardt
      A functional anticoagulant and anti-bacterial coating for polyethylene (PE) films is described. The stepwise preparation of this nanocomposite surface coating involves O2 plasma etching of PE film, carbodiimide coupling of cysteamine to the etched PE film, binding of Ag to sulfhydryl groups of cysteamine, and assembly of heparin capped AgNPs on the PE film. The nanocomposite film and its components were characterized by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and field emission-scanning electron microscopy. The resulting PE films demonstrate anticoagulant activity using a hemoglobin whole blood clotting assay, and anti-bacterial activity against Bacillus cereus 3551 (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli BL21 (Gram-negative) bacteria. The hydrophilicity of the heparin coated PE was determined by contact angle measurements; and the stability of the nanocomposite film, with respect to Ag leaching, was assessed by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

      PubDate: 2016-01-22T13:16:30Z
  • Characterization of an acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesive blended with
           hydrophilic monomer exposed to hygrothermal aging: Assigning cloud point
           resistance as an optically clear adhesive for a touch screen panel
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Cho-Hee Park, Seong-Ju Lee, Tae-Hyung Lee, Hyun-Joong Kim
      Optically clear adhesive (OCA) is a key material for assembling a touch screen panels (TSP). TSPs are now applied to many devices; therefore, their preparation and adhesion performance examination including durability can be beneficial work. Cloud point resistance means that a material does not have a hazy appearance under any environment, especially under sudden temperature and humidity changes. It is a critical property for an OCA because it is directly related to image display on a TSP. A hydrophilic component needs to be incorporated to the OCA, and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) was selected as the monomeric hydrophilic component. The change in adhesion performance under hygrothermal aging conditions was investigated. The aging behavior was also monitored using infrared (IR) and Raman spectra and chemiluminescence (CL) analysis. The HEA-containing pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) exhibited a good cloud point resistance and adhesion performance along with stable adhesion properties during aging. This consequence is considered suitable behavior for the prepared PSA as an OCA.

      PubDate: 2016-01-22T13:16:30Z
  • Synthesis and characterization of PEDOT aqueous dispersions with
           sulfonated polyfluorene as a template and doping agent
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Jiahuan Gu, Shan Gao, Yanmin Xue, Jian Li, Chenyi Wang, Qiang Ren, Gang Sheng
      In this study, a sulfonated polyfluorene, poly-[9,9-bis(3-propylamide-2-methylpropyl sulfonic acid) fluorene]-co-(4,4′-diphenyl) (PFDBSO3H), was synthesized and characterized. The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) water dispersions with PFDBSO3H as a template were synthesized and investigated. Results showed that conductivity increment of PEDOT film was observed when the semiconductor, PFDBSO3H, was used as the template and doping agent, and square resistance of the PEDOT film decreased as the amount of PFDBSO3H increased in the template. This increase of conductivity of the PEDOT film was mainly attributed to the semiconductive nature of PFDBSO3H template and better phase separation between PFDBSO3H and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The PEDOT film with PFDBSO3H template showed good transparency in the 400–800-nm wavelength region and good electrochemical stability. However, a slight decrease in thermal stability was observed.

      PubDate: 2016-01-14T12:48:02Z
  • Synthesis and characterization of CuO-loaded macroreticular anion exchange
           hybrid polymer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Elżbieta Kociołek-Balawejder, Ewa Stanisławska, Irena Jacukowicz-Sobala
      The aim of this work was the study on the synthesis of hybrid polymers containing cupric hydroxide and oxide using as the supporting material macroreticular strong base anion exchanger. The first step of inorganic deposit introduction within the polymer matrix was precipitation of Cu(OH)2 under different conditions (Cu(II) salt, temperature, duration). This stable product containing even 60mg Cu(II) g−1 was obtained by contacting anion exchanger in the OH− form with CuSO4 solution. In the second step Cu(OH)2 deposited in the polymer structure was converted into CuO under different conditions of which treatment with alkaline solution at a temperature of 50°C occurred with the highest efficiency. Hybrid polymers with CuO deposit after two-steps synthesis contained 54mg Cu(II) g−1. Simultaneously, by repeating the synthesis cycle twice it was possible to increase Cu(II) load to 119mgg−1. The presence of cupric oxide was confirmed by XRD diffraction and FTIR analyses. SEM analyses showed that deposition of inorganic load occurred within the polymer matrix but in the outer parts of anion exchanger beads. Simultaneously, both obtained products containing Cu(OH)2 and CuO had almost the same porous characteristics in comparison to host polymer (determined BET surface area reached values: 20.71, 21.04, 18.90m2 g−1 respectively).

      PubDate: 2016-01-14T12:48:02Z
  • Anionic ring-opening polymerization of cyclic 1,3-dithiocarbonate and
           thermal depolymerization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Su Jin Jeon, Min-young Jung, Jung Yun Do
      A new anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) was used to synthesize polydithiocarbonates from cyclic dithiocarbonates. The polymerization was optimized in the presence of dibenzo-18-C-6 and NaH/EtOH, and carried out at 50°C to suppress any retropolymerization. Six- and seven-membered cyclic dithiocarbonates underwent ROP to afford the corresponding polymers. Thermal depolymerization of the prepared polymers generated a dimer, which was found to be a back-biting mechanism according to 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The characteristic structure of the linear polymer was defined by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and compared with the monomer. The ROP at 80°C exhibited the formation of a polymer contaminated by a dimer. Thermal analysis of the polymers by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis revealed a melting process at 85–110°C and thermal instability accompanying a 5% weight loss at 150–230°C.

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T12:36:38Z
  • Dendronization of chitosan films: Surface characterization and biological
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): A.A. Aldana, B. Barrios, M. Strumia, S. Correa, M. Martinelli
      An advanced modified chitosan film was designed and one-side-dendronized chitosan was obtained (ChPW). Undendronized chitosan films ChP and ChPW were characterized in terms of their chemical structure, morphology, and biological properties. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy analysis were used to corroborate the topological changes of the modified dendronized side of the ChPW film. Both macrophages (RAW) and fibroblasts (NIH) were cultured and observed on three different extracellular matrices: ChP, ChPW, and cell culture plastic (control groups). ChP and ChPW showed noncytotoxicity toward RAW and NIH cells in contact with these films. The increased arginase activity with ChPW and ChP films suggests an alternative profile of l-arginine metabolism in RAW, which favors cell proliferation and wound healing. The results indicate that the ChPW scaffold is favorable for wound dressing in skin tissue engineering.

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T12:36:38Z
  • In vitro studies of biocompatible thermo-responsive hydrogels with
           controlled-release basic fibroblast growth factor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ning Yang, Hao Zhang, Lu Shi, Xiaoting Hu, Yang He, Li Chen, Qingsong Zhang, Kongyin Zhao
      In this study, poly (γ-glutamic acid) with 72% sulfonated carboxyl groups and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (γ-PGA-S72/PNIPAAm) semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogels were developed and used as a soft−wet platform for cell harvesting and controlled release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The physical and chemical properties of the γ-PGA-S72/PNIPAAm semi-IPN hydrogels were systemically investigated. Furthermore, the specific binding and controlled release of growth factor were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the released bFGF shown to promote NIH-3T3 cells proliferation in 7days. Cells could spontaneously detach from γ-PGA-S72/PNIPAAm semi-IPN hydrogels without enzyme treatment. This work demonstrates that the γ-PGA-S72/PNIPAAm semi-IPN08 hydrogel may be an excellent carrier for avoiding the sudden release and low bioactivity of growth factors in culture systems.

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T12:36:38Z
  • Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) as a tunable platform of modifiers for
           microfluidic devices
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Isabel Álvarez-Martos, Rebeca Alonso-Bartolomé, Verónica Mulas Hernández, Adela Anillo, Agustín Costa-García, Francisco Javier García Alonso, María Teresa Fernández-Abedul
      In this paper, we report the synthesis of different types of water soluble poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) derivatives containing alcohol, sulfonate, piperidyl, and dibencyl pendant groups. Their structures were characterized by infrared (IR), 1H NMR, 13C NMR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that the on-surface modification with PGMA produces a high density of covalently attached island structures, which can be further functionalized. To obtain an insight of the applicability, the synthesized PGMA-derivatives were used as dynamic modifiers of SU-8/Pyrex® microfluidic chips. Their potential was proven by the separation of three model analytes with closely related structures (dopamine, DA, norepinephrine, NE, and epinephrine, E). Under the optimum conditions, baseline separation (Rs values of 1.3±0.1 and 1.58±0.03 for DA–NE and NE–E respectively) was achieved within 3min. The fact that the PGMA-based polymers reported in this work are water soluble opens the possibility of their application in microchannel surface modification, but also in many other research fields such as materials science and biochemistry.

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T12:36:38Z
  • A novel method for drop in drop edible oils encapsulation with chitosan
           using a coaxial technique
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Robert Tylingo, Szymon Mania, Jakub Szwacki
      Presented work concerns a novel one step method for oil encapsulation. In this coaxial system the oil constitutes the core of the capsule, while the chitosan solution is the polymer shell surrounding the core to provide separation of the core from the external environment. The paper contains a diagram of the encapsulation equipment and explains the principle of its operation. The experimental results showed the impact of the media flow rate on the size, shape, mechanical properties and the amount of oil in the capsules. conditions of the core solution were determined to be: 2.00 g/h, shell solution: 4.45 g/h. Maximal oil content obtained under these condition was: 45.2 %. The diameters of the capsules collected gravitationally in the nitrogen stream were from 3.7 to 4.4 mm and from 2.8 to 4.3 mm, respectively. The force needed to obtain 50% compression strain of all tested samples was in the range from 0.11 to 0.19 N. In comparison to other encapsulation methods, presented technique is much simpler and can be performed under mild conditions. Moreover, the use of natural polymers as a coating matrix enables the use of the described technique in many branches of industry.

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T12:36:38Z
  • Study on the cross-linked molecularly imprinted poly(methacrylic acid) and
           poly(acrylic acid) towards selective adsorption of diuron
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ademar Wong, Fernanda Midori de Oliveira, César Ricardo Teixeira Tarley, Maria Del Pilar Taboada Sotomayor
      In the present study new molecularly imprinted adsorbents based on poly(methacrylic acid) and poly(acrylic acid) have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated as selective materials for the adsorption of diuron. Morphological, textural data and the presence of functional groups in the polymer have been evaluated by means of SEM, nitrogen adsorption–desorption assays and FT-IR, respectively. Two functional monomers were evaluated for the MIP synthesis, methacrylic acid (MIPMAA) and acrylic acid (MIPAA), and the first one showed higher selectivity and better adsorption towards diuron in the presence of competitor molecules, carbofuran and 2,4-D. The experimental adsorption isotherm of diuron has been obtained at pH7.0 in phosphate buffer (0.05molL−1):acetonitrile (1:2, v/v) medium and equilibrium time of 180min. The respective maximum adsorption capacities (MAC) of MIPMAA and MIPAA were found to be 14.58 and 7.32mgg−1. One should note that MAC of MIPAA and its respective blank polymer (NIPAA) was very similar each other, while for the MIPMAA its MAC was significantly higher (14.58mgg−1) than the MAC of NIPMAA (6.12mgg−1). Such result demonstrates the great influence of monomer on the adsorption and selectivity of MIP. Adsorption kinetic data were well fitted to pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion models, while the adsorption isotherms showed good fit to the isotherm of Langmuir–Freundlich for two sites (LF-2) and one site (LF-1), but the former one allowed insight into the adsorption mechanism with more details.

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T12:36:38Z
  • Preparation of PANI coated polymer microspheres and their use as Michael
           acceptor for direct immobilization of amines and amino acids
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 99
      Author(s): Hasan Onur Erdem, Niyazi Bicak
      A new and convenient protocol is presented for creating thick Emeraldine Green layers on crosslinked PS–DVB microspheres. This was performed by persulfate oxidation of anilinium salt of sulfonated linear poly (styrene) brushes tethered to the cross-linked poly (styrene–divinyl benzene) (PS–DVB) micro spheres. The carrier polymer was prepared by surface initiated ATRP of styrene from PS–DVB micro beads (210–420μm) and followed sulfonation by Vink process. Sulfonic acid groups (4.2 and 4.8mmolg−1) on the surface brushes were then neutralized with aniline. Oxidation of the anilinium salts so formed on the microspheres proceeded solely on the polymer microbeads to give thick PANI layers. The red-brown Pernigraline generated by further oxidation of the PANI layer was demonstrated to act as an efficient Michael acceptor in covalent immobilization of amines, amino acids and polyamines in good to excellent yields (i.e. 1.7mmolg−1) as inferred from FT-IR spectra and wet chemical analyses.

      PubDate: 2016-01-10T12:36:38Z
  • Functionalized polyethylene naphthalate for cytocompatibility improvement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): O. Neděla, P. Slepička, Z. Kolská, N. Slepičková Kasálková, P. Sajdl, M. Veselý, V. Švorčík
      This work is focused on the characterization of functionalized polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) with Ar plasma treatment. The changes of the surface contact angle and the surface free energy, the surface morphology and roughness were studied using electrokinetic analysis, goniometry, AFM and XPS method. Ablation of PEN surface layers was determined by gravimetry. Plasma treated samples were consequently metallized, the surface morphology and cross-section of polymer/metal was studied with SEM and FIB-SEM analysis. The plasma treatment induced globular surface morphology connected with significant mass loss and wettability (contact angle) changes. Electrokinetic analysis confirmed dramatic changes in surface chemistry after plasma treatment depending on plasma power and exposure time. Also the ablated polymer mass increased with the increasing power and time. The plasma treatment increases oxygen concentration on the PEN surface. Consequently deposited gold layer and its FIB-SEM analysis confirmed homogeneous electrically continuous layer formation for wide interval of plasma power and time used for the pretreatment. Plasma treatment was applied for significant enhancement of vascular smooth muscle growth cell adhesion and proliferation on PEN.

      PubDate: 2016-01-06T11:27:33Z
  • Preparation and Characteristics of Cross-linked Cellulose Acetate
           Ultrafiltration Membranes with High Chemical Resistance and Mechanical
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ju Sung Lee, Sung Ah. Heo, Hyung Jun Jo, Byoung Ryul Min

      PubDate: 2016-01-02T11:00:12Z
  • Synthesis of functional conjugated microporous polymers containing
           pyridine units with high BET surface area for reversible CO2 storage
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Jiake Zang, Zhaoqi Zhu, Hanxue Sun, Weidong Liang, An Li
      Novel and functional conjugated microporous polymers (PCMPs) with pyridine units in networks were synthesized from arylethynylenes and 2,6-bis(bromomethy) pyridine by palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira–Hagihara crosscoupling chemistry. The resulting PCMPs exhibit good chemical and thermal stability with decomposition temperature above 400°C. The choice of ethynyl monomer has an obvious influence on the specific surface areas of the resulting CMPs. A high BET surface area of 1136m2 g−1 was achieved. Taking advantages of the good physicochemical stability and excellent porosity, the functional CMPs networks show superior adsorption performance for CO2 with uptake up to 109.0mgg−1. Given the excellent porosity and gas uptake as well as good physiochemical stability, the as-synthesized PCMPs show great potentials in CO2 uptake. Our study may provide fundamental guidance in designing new CMPs-based materials for the application in CO2 capture and storage.

      PubDate: 2016-01-02T11:00:12Z
  • In-situ preparation and characterization of pyrrole and tert-butyl
           1-pyrrole-carboxylate on barium
           titanate/poly(acrylonitrile-co-methylacrylate) nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): F.Z. Engin Sagirli, C. Unsal, E.S. Kayali, A.S. Sarac
      In this study, barium titanate BaTiO3–poly(acrylonitrile-co-methylacrylate) [P(ANco-MA)]–polypyrrole (PPy) (BaTiO3–[P(AN-co-MA)]–PPy) and BaTiO3–[P(AN-co-MA)]–poly(tert-butyl 1-pyrrole-carboxylate) (TBPy) (BaTiO3–[P(AN-co-MA)]–TBPy) nanocomposites were synthesized separately by in-situ emulsion polymerization in the presence of surfactant dopant dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA). Particle size, yield, crystallinity, chemical structure and morphology were fully characterized and systematically studied. Uniform particle size distributions of the nanocomposites were obtained. The size of the nanocomposites decreased with the addition of PPy and TBPy. The spectroscopic characterizations during the formation of (BaTiO3–[P(AN-co-MA)]–PPy) and (BaTiO3–[P(AN-co-MA)]–TBPy) nanocomposites were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR–ATR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible (Uv–Vis) spectrophotometry, and X-ray diffraction(XRD) spectroscopy. Analyses demonstrated that there is a strong interaction between the [P(AN-co-MA)]–PPy and BaTiO3 and also [P(AN-co-MA)]–TBPy and the BaTiO3. The morphological characterizations of the nanocomposites were examined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Efficient coverage was observed for BaTiO3 nanoparticles with polymer shell.

      PubDate: 2016-01-02T11:00:12Z
  • Amphiphiles with polyethyleneoxide–polyethylenecarbonate chains for
           hydrophilic coating of iron oxide cores, loading by Gd(III) ions and
           tuning R2/R1 ratio
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Alexey Stepanov, Asiya Mustafina, Svetlana Soloveva, Sonia Kleshnina, Igor Antipin, Ildar Rizvanov, Irek Nizameev, Rafael G. Mendes, Mark H. Rümmeli, Lars Giebeler, Rustem Amirov, Alexander Konovalov
      The present work is aimed at the synthesis of hydrophilic colloids with convenient transverse and longitudinal NMR-relaxation times. Core-shell morphology with iron oxide cores and hydrophilic shell enriched by Gd(III) ions is the basis for the colloids with dual-mode relaxivities. Polyethyleneoxide–polyethylenecarbonate derivatives of p-tert-butylphenols are introduced as amphiphiles for efficient hydrophilization of oleate-stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles. The obtained results reveal the easy variation of the synthetic conditions as the route to switch from the recoating to the dissolution of the oleate-stabilized iron-oxide nanoparticles. The length of ethylenecarbonate chains is highlighted as the factor affecting the transverse relaxivity (R2) and the colloid properties of the synthesized colloids, evaluated from DLS data. The complex ability of ethylenecarbonate chains is the reason for loading of the synthesized colloids by Gd(III) ions in aqueous dispersions at specific conditions. These conditions are introduced herein as a route of gaining in longitudinal relaxivity (R1) and tuning R2/R1 ratio.

      PubDate: 2016-01-02T11:00:12Z
  • Phenyl-methyl phosphazene derivatives for preparation and modification of
           hydrophobic properties of polymeric nonwoven textiles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Radka Bačovská, Patty Wissian-Neilson, Milan Alberti, Jiří Příhoda, Lucie Zárybnická, Zbyněk Voráč

      PubDate: 2016-01-02T11:00:12Z
  • Electroconductive nanocomposite hydrogel for pulsatile drug release
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): C.J. Pérez-Martínez, Sergio Daniel Morales Chávez, T. del Castillo-Castro, Tania Ernestina Lara Ceniceros, M.M. Castillo-Ortega, D.E. Rodríguez-Félix, Juan Carlos Gálvez Ruiz
      Polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel containing nanofibers of polyaniline (PANI) have been prepared in order to evaluate it as electric stimuli-responsive material. Amoxicillin was loaded onto chemically synthesized PANI nanofibers of large-aspect-ratio. Composite hydrogel was obtained by the in situ incorporation of amoxicillin-loaded PANI during polymerization and reticulation of acrylamide. TEM images of cross sections of PAAm/amoxicillin-loaded PANI composite revealed a continuous 3D nanofiber network of PANI supported by the hydrogel matrix. The antibiotic molecules were accurately released (or sustained) from composite hydrogel in response to application (or removal) of cathodic electrical stimulation. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of composite hydrogel extract on mouse subcutaneous connective tissue has shown cell viability higher than 80%. The tuning release profile and minimal toxicity of the material evidenced its potential for electrically controlled drug delivery applications such as implantable devices and transdermal drug delivery systems.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-01-02T11:00:12Z
  • Photocatalytic degradation of nonylphenol using co-extruded dual-layer
           hollow fibre membranes incorporated with a different ratio of TiO2/PVDF
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Hazlini Dzinun, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, A.F. Ismail, Mohd Hafiz Puteh, Mukhlis A. Rahman, Juhana Jaafar
      A photocatalytic reactor based on novel dual-layer hollow fibre membranes with immobilized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles was proposed in this study and tested for the degradation of highly recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compound of nonylphenol (NP). The presence of TiO2 on the outer surface of dual-layer hollow fibres was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion of X-ray (EDAX), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of TiO2 loading, where the mass fraction TiO2/PVDF was varied from 0 to 1, on the degradation of toxic NP was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The addition of TiO2 nanoparticles showed a significant effect on the membrane pore size and NP degradation rate. The presence of TiO2 on the outer layer of dual-layer hollow fibre membranes actively functioned as a photocatalyst, with the hollow fibre of TiO2/PVDF ratio of 1 possessed the highest NP degradation rate.

      PubDate: 2016-01-02T11:00:12Z
  • Parameters affecting monolayer organisation of substituted polysaccharides
           on solid substrates upon Langmuir–Schaefer deposition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Elina Niinivaara, Benjamin P. Wilson, Alistair W.T. King, Eero Kontturi
      Cellulose esters with varying ester and residual hydroxyl group contents represent a cheap and pliable bio-based polysaccharide to examine. In this work, the molecular organization of cellulose acetate, cellulose acetate propionate and cellulose acetate butyrate as a response to a variety of external parameters are investigated. The morphology of ultrathin films of the cellulose esters, transferred by means of Langmuir–Schaefer (LS) deposition from the air/water interface to the surface of solid substrates, are shown to be induced by the total surface free energy of each substrate. Additionally, the spreading capability of the esters is investigated — the spread of each polymer is directly linked to its chemical composition, namely the proportion of unsubstituted hydroxyl groups remaining on the glucose backbone. Monomer arrangement at the air/water interface has a distinct dependency on the rate at which their monolayers are compressed. The study provides a systematic approach to the investigations of LS deposition of cellulose esters.

      PubDate: 2015-12-29T10:45:07Z
  • Electrospun nanofiber Mats for ultrafast release of ondansetron
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Parameswara Rao Vuddanda, Aji P. Mathew, Sitaram Velaga
      Nanofiber mats or films are promising platforms that can offer unique opportunities in oromucosoal drug delivery. However, the conventional film forming technologies are unable to produce mats with unique internal microstructure and properties. Thus, the present study was aimed to develop electrospun nanofiber mats of a model drug -ondansetron hydrochloride (OND) for ultrafast drug release. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), a water soluble synthetic polymer was used in the preparation of nanofiber mats and casting film. The OND nanofiber mats and conventional films were prepared by electrospinning and casting methods, respectively. Different electrospinning process variables (feed rate, electric voltage and tip to collector distance) were investigated. Nanofiber mats and casted films were characterized using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and Attenuated total reflection – Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The folding endurance, drug content, wetting behaviour and disintegration properties and in-vitro drug release studies were also performed. The SEM and AFM had revealed that the nanofiber mats were formed with smooth uniform texture. Solid state studies indicated that the OND was in amorphous state and uniformly dispersed in PVA mats and a film. The electrospun nanofiber mat and casted film of OND showed sufficient mechanical properties. Wet sponge method suggested that OND nanofiber mats were simultaneously wetted and disintegrated within 10s, which is ultrafast compared to casted films. The total amount of OND was released in 90s (1.5min) and 1800s (30min) from OND-PVA electrospun nanofiber mats and casted film, respectively. OND nanofiber mats can be promising alternatives to existing solid dosage forms for ultrafast release of drugs.

      PubDate: 2015-12-21T09:23:59Z
  • Rhodamine B-loaded star polystyrenes and their luminescent
           honeycomb-patterned porous films
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Li-Ping Wang, Ke-Yang Yin, Guang Li, Qian Liu, Ai-Xia Deng, Hui-Yan Ma
      Two types of star polystyrene (SPS) were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization: three-arm star polystyrene (TSPS) and five-arm star polystyrene (FSPS). Honeycomb-structured porous films were fabricated by drop-casting of the SPS solutions on glass substrates. The regular honeycomb-patterned porous films were successfully constructed from the SPS solution casting process, and the pore diameter increased with the molecular weight of the SPS enhanced at appropriate molecular weight range. Furthermore, rhodamine B (RhB) was loaded into SPS to endow the microporous film with fluorescence. The RhB-loaded SPS film exhibits a strong and uniform red emission image.

      PubDate: 2015-12-17T09:04:02Z
  • A facile method for the preparation of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes
           filled with cross-linked sulfonated polystyrene
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Naeun Kang, Junhwa Shin, Taek Sung Hwang, Youn-Sik Lee
      Pores of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were filled with tetrabutylammonium 4-vinylbenzene sulfonate (TVS), a cross-linking agent, and a radical initiator in dimethyl sulfoxide, followed by radical polymerization and subsequent replacement of tetrabutylammonium ions by protons. This pore-filling method using an organic-soluble sulfonate monomer was very efficient and convenient, as it avoids the highly acidic sulfonation step. The dimensional changes in the length of the PVDF membranes filled with cross-linked sulfonated polystyrene were similar to Nafion 212, but their water uptakes were higher and they exhibited greatly improved mechanical moduli and elongations. Proton conductivities of the modified membranes were also higher than Nafion 212 under identical conditions.

      PubDate: 2015-12-17T09:04:02Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 98

      PubDate: 2015-12-17T09:04:02Z
  • Bioinspired stability improvement of layer-by-layer microcapsules using a
           bioadhesive for enzyme encapsulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Lei Zhang, Yingqiao Wang, Na Tang, Penggao Cheng, Jun Xiang, Wei Du, Xuekui Wang

      PubDate: 2015-12-11T17:08:16Z
  • Solvent-dependent self-assembly behaviour of block copolymers having
           side-chain amino acid and fatty acid block segments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Sudhansu Sekhar Jena, Saswati Ghosh Roy, Venkanna Azmeera, Priyadarsi De
      Reversible addition–fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization has been used for the controlled synthesis of block copolymers containing side-chain fatty acid and amino acid block segments and poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl stearate)-block-poly(tert-butyloxycarbonyl phenylalanine methacryloyloxyethyl ester) (PSAMA-b-P(Boc-Phe-HEMA)) with fixed PSAMA block length and variable block lengths of P(Boc-Phe-HEMA). Because of different solubilities of PSAMA and P(Boc-Phe-HEMA) segments in various organic solvents, PSAMA-b-P(Boc-Phe-HEMA) formed a micellar morphology with PSAMA core and P(Boc-Phe-HEMA) coronas in N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulphoxide and acetonitrile. Upon deprotection of Boc groups, the block copolymers can undergo transformation to amphiphilic block copolymers, which showed interesting self-assembly in methanol and water.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-12-11T17:08:16Z
  • Heterobifunctional poly(ε-caprolactone): Synthesis of
           α-cholesterol-ω-pyrene PCL via combination of ring-opening
           polymerization and “click” chemistry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Sevinc Ilkar Erdagi, Erdinc Doganci, Cavit Uyanik, Faruk Yilmaz
      A well-defined novel α-cholesterol and ω-pyrene heterobifunctional poly(ε-caprolactone) (Chol-PCL-Pyr) was synthesized by a combination of ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and “click” chemistry techniques. A cholesterol compound with hydroxyl functional group was used as the initiator in the ROP of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) to prepare α-cholesterol-ω-hydroxy PCL polymer (Chol-PCL-OH). ω-Hydroxy functionality of Chol-PCL-OH was then successfully converted into bromide and azide. Further end-group modification of ω-azide poly(ε-caprolactone) (Chol-PCL-N3) was achieved quantitatively by copper (I)-catalyzed cycloaddition of azide functional group and 1-ethynyl pyrene, which led to the desired PCL with α-cholesterol and ω-pyrene groups (Chol-PCL-Pyr). The effect of molar ratio of ε-CL to the initiator on the molecular weight of the obtained Chol-PCL-Pyr was also investigated.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-12-11T17:08:16Z
  • Multifunctional allyl-terminated hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) as
           component of new thiol-ene/thiol-epoxy materials
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Cristina Acebo, Xavier Fernández-Francos, Xavier Ramis, Àngels Serra
      A new allyl terminated hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) was synthesized and characterized and then used in different proportions as multifunctional macromonomer in tetrathiol-diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A formulations. The curing process had a two-stage character and was composed by two click reactions: a first photoinduced thiol-ene addition followed by a thermal thiol-epoxy reaction. The thiol-ene reaction was catalyzed by a radical initiator and the thiol-epoxy curing by tertiary amines. The evolution of the first part of the curing was studied by photo-DSC and FTIR and the results compared with those obtained in a photoirradiation chamber, which was used to prepare samples for thermomechanical tests. These studies showed that the thermal thiol-epoxy process prematurely began during the photoirradiation because the presence of amines in the PEI structure accelerated this process. The thiol-epoxy reaction was more extensively produced when the proportion of the poly(ethyleneimine) increased in the formulation. The overlapping between both processes was greater in the photoirradiation chamber than in the photo-DSC. The intermediate material was completely cured by thermal treatment in an oven. The need of adding 1-methylimidazole as catalyst to complete the thiol-epoxy reaction was derived from the calorimetric studies. The materials prepared were characterized by thermogravimetry and thermomechanical analysis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-12-11T17:08:16Z
  • Polysilsesquioxanes with mixed self-assembled organic tethers: Alkyl
           chains and alkanoate–aminopropyl pairs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Hideaki Yoshitake, Taiyo Kodate, Teppei Takagi, Izuru Kawamura, Akira Naito
      In order to increase the adsorption rate and to improve the endurance of the structure in the adsorption of transition metal pollutants on the lamellar polysilsesquioxane adsorbent RCOOH-NH2C3H6SiO1.5, we substituted a part of the RCOOH-NH2C3H6– with a simple alkyl chain, CnH2n+2–. We prepared the polysilsesquioxane whose organic chains are 3-aminopropyl (NH2C3H6–) and linear alkyl (C16H33–, C18H37–, C20H42– and C22H46–) groups from 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and alkyltrialkoxysilane/alkyltrichlorosilane, respectively, without degradation of the good lamellar structure. The silanes were condensed with alkaonate (C11H23COOH (LAS), C13H27COOH (MAS), C15H31COOH (PAS), C17H35COOH (SAS)) with the same amount as APTMS. The adsorption of Cu(II) from an aqueous solution was carried out for lamellar solids prepared from C18H37Si(OCH3)3, APTMS and MAS varying the C18H37Si(OCH3)3/APTMS ratio from 0/10 to 5/5. The adsorption rate increased by up to a factor of 91 due to the presence of alkyl chains from alkylsilane, while the capacity did not change significantly except for the ratio 5/5. The mechanism for inhibition of the degradation of the self-assembling structure by the presence of C18H37-chains is discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-12-11T17:08:16Z
  • Synthesis and electrochemical polymerization of a novel
           2-(thiophen-2-yl)-4-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)oxazol-5(4H)-one monomer for
           supercapacitor applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Evrim Hür, Andaç Arslan, Deniz Hür
      In this study, the organic synthesis, electrochemical polymerization and electrochemical characterization of a novel 2-(thiophen-2-yl)-4-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)oxazol-5(4H)-one, 3, monomer have been reported for supercapacitor applications. Electrode active material was formed electrochemically coating of poly(2-(thiophen-2-yl)-4-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)oxazol-5(4H)-one) (PTTMO) on pencil graphite electrode (PGE). Electrochemical polymerization was carried out by chronoamperometric (CA) technique in an acetonitrile (ACN) solution containing 0.01M monomer and 0.10M tetrabuthylammonium perchlorate (TBAP). The prepared PGE/PTTMO electrode has been monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical properties of the electrode have been investigated by CV, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), galvanostatic charge–discharge and repeating chronopotentiometry (RCP) techniques with two or three electrode systems. PGE/PTTMO has exhibited a capacitive performance with highest specific capacitances of 193.00Fg−1 at a scan rate of 10mVs−1. On the other hand, the electrode has shown good charge–discharge cycling stability with the retained ratio about 90.83%.

      PubDate: 2015-12-11T17:08:16Z
  • Remarkable performance of magnetized chitosan-decorated lignocellulose
           fiber toward biosorptive removal of acidic azo colorant from aqueous
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Cheng–Gang Zhou, Qiang Gao, Shi Wang, Yan–Sheng Gong, Kai–Sheng Xia, Bo Han, Meng Li, Yuan Lin
      Numerous low-cost adsorbents have been used for removal of harmful azo colorants from aqueous environment, but they frequently suffer from either low/limited adsorption capacity or slow adsorption kinetics; moreover, almost all of them become problematic on the regard of recycling and reuse. This research explores the possibility of using a novel low-cost biocomposite, i.e., magnetized chitosan-coated lignocellulose fiber, for biosorptive removal of acidic azo colorant from aqueous solution. This chitosan-decorated lignocellulose fiber (CS/LCF) was prepared for the first time via a facile “surface deposition–crosslinking” method, exhibiting a well-defined coating structure. Interestingly, the CS/LCF could be easily magnetized by simply blending it with magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) in an aqueous solution because of the spontaneous adherence of MNP to CS/LCF surface. More importantly, the magnetized CS/LCF was found to be exceptionally effective and efficient in biosorptive removal of acidic azo compound (i.e., acid red 18), e.g., ultrahigh adsorption capacity (up to 1184mg∙g−1), rapid adsorption rate, excellent reusability (with removal efficiency up to 99.48% in tenth cycle), and convenience in manipulation (magnetic separation). The inherent advantages of the magnetically retrievable CS/LCF may pave a new, inexpensive, efficient, and sustainable way towards removal of acidic azo colorants from Earth's water environments.

      PubDate: 2015-12-06T17:05:23Z
  • Synthesis of polysiloxane-based quaternized imidazolium salts with a
           hydroxy group at the end of alkyl groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Tsukasa Ichikawa, Tsuyoshi Wako, Nobukatsu Nemoto
      A series of polysiloxane derivatives having quaternized imidazolium moieties with hydroxyalkyl groups ([HPImnOH]Xs) (where n is the number of methylene group and X is counter anion) were prepared by quaternization of poly(3-chloropropylmethylsiloxane) (P1) using 1-(ω-hydroxyalkyl)imidazole derivatives (ImnOHs) and anion-exchange reaction using lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. Polysiloxane-based quaternized imidazolium salts having hydroxyalkyl groups with chloride anion ([HPImnOH]Cls) were obtained with high quaternization ratio of approximately 100 mol%. The glass transition temperatures (T gs) of [HPImnOH]Xs were reduced by introducing a hydroxy group at the end of alkyl groups; however, no significant reduction in T gs was observed by anion exchange from chloride anion to bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide one (Tf2N−).

      PubDate: 2015-12-01T16:58:11Z
  • Efficiency of chitosan-algal biomass composite microbeads at heavy metal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): İdris Sargın, Gulsin Arslan, Murat Kaya
      A new chitosan/algal (Cladophora sp.) composite microbead was produced and used in removal of heavy metal ions. Bleached algal biomass was incorporated into the chitosan matrix through cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that bleached algal biomass consisted of mainly cellulosic residues. Scanning electron microscopy images exhibited that algal particles were immobilised in the polymeric matrix. Sorption capacity of the microbeads were determined; Cd(II): 0.240, Cr(III): 1.128, Cu(II): 1.059, Ni(II): 0.239 and Zn (II): 0.310mmolg−1. The microbeads with bleached algal biomass exhibited higher sorption capacity for Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions than the plain glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan microbeads, demonstrating that the contribution of the algal biomass to the sorption. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic evaluation of the experimental data was performed. The findings revealed that chitosan-algal composite microbeads can be used in heavy metal removal.

      PubDate: 2015-12-01T16:58:11Z
  • In vitro dual-modality chemo-photodynamic therapy via stimuli-triggered
           polymeric micelles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ching-Yi Chen, Yun-Chu Wang, Chi-Chiuan Hung
      Combination therapies for cancer have attracted great attention recently due to their synergistic effects to improve the therapeutic efficacy. In order to concurrently deliver dual or multiple drugs within solid tumor and exert their therapeutic effect, developing an intelligent and safe drug delivery system is highly expected. In this work, we synthesized a series of dual thermo- and pH-responsive copolymers containing hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and hydrophilic thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) that was copolymerized with a β-alanine-functionalized monomer. Both thermo and pH-response in a suitable window for physiological environment can be achieved via adjusting the ratios of NIPAAm and acidic moieties. The chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) and photosensitizer (meso-tetraphenylchlorin, m-TPC) have been simultaneously encapsulated in PCL-b-P(NIPAAm-co-βA) polymeric micelles with hydrodynamic diameters around 231–269nm. The in vitro release studies demonstrated the increased drug release at acidic pH6. The cell viability treated with dual drug-loaded micelles showed improved therapeutic efficiency under light irradiation, indicating combined effect of DOX and m-TPC has potential as dual-modality for cancer treatment.

      PubDate: 2015-12-01T16:58:11Z
  • Hepatocyte targeting and sustained release activity of water-soluble
           anti-HBV prodrug: Lactobionic acid grafted chitosan-lamivudine conjugate
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Changguo Du, Ling Li, Hongran Wang, Jin Zhang, Xinchao Yang, Chao Li, Renzhong Qiao
      Lamivudine (3TC), a contemporary anti-HBV drug, has limit clinical application due to its non-specific biodistribution and side effects on normal cells. A new hepatocyte-targeting prodrug LA-CS-3TC is synthesized based on covalently linking 3TC and lactobionic acid with chitosan. Lactobionic acid can specifically bind to the asialoglycoprotein receptor on the hepatocyte surface. In our study, the degrees of substitution of 3TC on chitosan polymer are 14.9%, while lactobionic acid moiety increases the intracellular accumulation of prodrug in HepG2.215 cells. LA-CS-3TC shows superior sustained release ability at pH7.4 compared with CS-3TC and the major release product isopropyl-5′-O-lamivudine monophosphate (3TC-P-H) can enhance the therapeutic effects. Also, LA-CS-3TC demonstrates lower cytotoxicity and higher water-solubility than the parent compound. Hence, it is depicted that the chitosan modified with lactobionic acid could be applied as a potential anti-HBV drugs vector with water-soluble, hepatocyte targeted, lowly cytotoxic and sustained release.

      PubDate: 2015-11-22T16:49:16Z
  • Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of polyaniline tin
           (IV) molybdophosphate composite with nanocrystalline domains
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Bamlaku Semagne, Isabel Diaz, Tesfahun Kebede, Abi M. Taddesse
      Polyaniline-tin(IV)molybdophosphate nanocomposite has been synthesized by incorporating polyaniline into inorganic exchanger tin(IV)molybdophosphate. Simultaneous TGA-DTG, FTIR, XRD, HRTEM and EDS have been used to characterize this composite material. The polyaniline- tin(IV)molybdophosphate (PATMP) behaves as bifunctional and strong acid cation exchanger with IEC of 1.79meqg−1 for Na+ ions. Thermal analysis of the material shows that the material retains 75% of its ion-exchange capacity up to 600°C. Adsorption behavior of metal ions in different solvents with varying concentration has also been explored. The sorption studies revealed that the material is selective for Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions. The analytical utility of the material has been explored by achieving some binary separations of metal ions on its column based on the distribution coefficients. Pb(II) and Cu(II) have been selectively removed from synthetic mixtures of Pb(II)-Mn(II), Pb(II)-Ni(II), Cu(II)-Mn(II) and Cu(II)-Ni(II).

      PubDate: 2015-11-22T16:49:16Z
  • Hybrid drug carriers with temperature-controlled on–off release: A
           simple and reliable synthesis of PNIPAM-functionalized mesoporous silica
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Valentina Brunella, Sushilkumar A. Jadhav, Ivana Miletto, Gloria Berlier, Elena Ugazio, Simona Sapino, Dominique Scalarone
      MCM-41-like mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) grafted with a thermoresponsive copolymer of N-isopropylacrylamide were synthesized, fully characterized and tested to assess their efficiency as drug delivery systems. The hybrid nanoparticles were prepared by carrying out the optimized copolymer synthesis within the mesopores of MSNs after infiltration of monomers and initiator. Polymerization and grafting of the thermoresponsive copolymer occurred simultaneously by exploiting the reactive sites of the 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane comonomer which carries a polymerizable group and alkoxysilane groups prone to condensation with surface silanols on silica. The grafted copolymer through its coil-to-globule transition acts as a gatekeeper for the temperature-controlled release of ibuprofen molecules loaded inside the pores. Significant difference in the quantitative release of ibuprofen was observed at 25 and 40°C, which are below and above the lower critical solution temperature of the thermoresponsive copolymer. Importantly, the ordered mesoporous structure of the MSNs remained intact in all synthetic steps, loading of drug and during the in vitro release tests.

      PubDate: 2015-11-18T16:41:44Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 97

      PubDate: 2015-11-18T16:41:44Z
  • Application of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers in the detection of
           malachite green in fish samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Zheng-zhong Lin, Hong-yuan Zhang, Lu Li, Zhi-yong Huang
      Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) synthesized through suspension polymerization were used as the adsorbent for the detection of malachite green (MG) in fish samples. The morphological, thermal and magnetic properties of the MMIPs were characterized. The influence of polymerization condition on the absorption capacity of the MMIPs for MG was explored. The results gave the optimum polymerization condition as follows: using MG (0.25mmol) as template, methacrylic acid (1mmol) as monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate (5mmol) as cross linker, 2,2′-Azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (100mg) as initiator, Fe3O4 (100mg) as magnetic nuclei, PVA (1%) as dispersant. Under the optimum condition the apparent maximum adsorption capacity of MMIPs is 5693μg·g−1 with dissociation constant being 23.5mg·L−1. The MMIPs also have strong magnetic responses to an external magnet, which enable the rapid separation from the sample solution. The MMIPs were employed for the detection of MG residue in fish samples combined with HPLC. The recoveries of spiked MG in fish samples ranged from 82.7% to 111% with RSD in the range of 2.0%~12.8%. The MMIPs can remain 90% of the original adsorption capacity even used for 5 times. Thus, the prepared MMIPs can be applied to the sample pretreatment for separation and enrichment of MG residue in fish samples.

      PubDate: 2015-11-18T16:41:44Z
  • Covalent attachment of an influenza hemagglutinin-derived peptide to
           urethane-based cationic polymers affects their transfection efficiency in
           DNA delivery and their course in cell entry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Jong Yuh Cherng, Chin Hua Lin
      In this study, an influenza hemagglutinin-derived peptide (HAP) was covalently linked to urethane-based cationic polymers (polyurethanes; PUs) to further improve their transfection efficiency. N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridylditio)propionate (SPDP) was used as a coupling agent. The peptide-conjugated PUs (with 2–4 peptides conjugated per polymer chain) resulted in conjugated PU/DNA complexes with greatly increased transfection efficiency in comparison with PU/DNA complexes made with PUs without HAP. This increased transfection efficiency came from the assistance of the cationic PUs in overcoming the cell membrane barrier and the ability of the conjugated viral peptide to destabilize the endolysosome membrane before degradation of the complexes. Furthermore, the modification of the cationic PUs through the introduction of poly-L-arginine (PA) into their side chains increased their capability for condensation with DNA, resulting in the smaller-sized complexes observed and contributing to their passage of DNA delivery. In vitro transfection and cytotoxicity data showed that the PU grafted with 1° amine, PA, and HAP (i.e., PU-PA-1-HAP) exhibited substantially higher transfection activity than the PUs grafted without HAP, without PA or without HAP/PA (i.e., PU-PA-1, PU-1-HAP PU-1). Most of the cells were viable (90% cell survival) after transfection with cationic-PUs and HAP-conjugated PUs below a polymer/DNA ratio of 400/1 (w/w). Moreover, the results of the present study demonstrated that the effectiveness of PU-PA-1-HAP in DNA delivery is due to the HAP conjugation, which not only helps the formed complexes to escape from endolysosomes, but also opens an alternative pathway (via clathrin as opposed to via caveolae) in transfection. Therefore, the increased capability of the complexes to gain cellular entry causes their increased transfection efficiency. In contrast, PU without HAP (i.e. PU-PA-1) can only deliver DNA into cells through the caveolae-mediated pathway.

      PubDate: 2015-11-18T16:41:44Z
  • Effect of silane coupling agents with different non-hydrolytic groups on
           tensile modulus of composite PDMS crosslinked membranes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Xing Su, Baoli Shi
      In this paper, four silane coupling agents with different non-hydrolytic groups were used to treat a kind of hydrophilic fumed nanosilica to investigate the influence of different silane coupling agents on the mechanical properties of PDMS composite matrix. The four coupling agents were ethyl triethoxysilane (ETES), octyl triethoxysilane (OTES), phenyl triethoxysilane (PTES), and 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) which exhibited the same hydrolytic groups. For each coupling agent/nanosilica system, six modified nanosilica samples were prepared at different addition contents of the coupling agent; six corresponding PDMS composite crosslinked membranes were also prepared. It was found that compared with pure PDMS membrane, the addition of modified nanosilica to PDMS increased the tensile modulus of the composite membranes. The miscibility strongly influenced the tensile modulus of the composite membranes when the HSP (Hansen solubility parameter) difference R a was adopted to characterize the miscibility between the non-hydrolytic groups of the four coupling agents and the solvent (n-hexane). A better miscibility induced a larger tensile modulus. When the length of the non-hydrolytic groups was larger than the distance between two adjacent hydroxyl groups, the sheltered hydroxyl groups by the non-hydrolytic groups would be prevented to couple with other coupling agent molecules, thereby reducing the available hydroxyl groups. When all of the potentially available hydroxyl groups at the nanosilica surface reacted with the coupling agent molecules, the tensile modulus of the composite membranes would reach a maximum value. In addition, according to the results of equilibrium swelling in ethanol and water, it was found that a membrane with large tensile modulus possessed strong resistant capability to swelling. From the results of ethanol and water pervaporation experiments, connection between ideal ethanol/water permeation selectivity or ideal ethanol/water diffusion selectivity and the tensile modulus was also observed.

      PubDate: 2015-11-14T16:36:05Z
  • Synthesis of unsaturated polyesters based on renewable monomers:
           Structure/properties relationship and crosslinking with 2-hydroxyethyl
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ana C. Fonseca, Inês M. Lopes, Jorge F.J. Coelho, Arménio C. Serra

      PubDate: 2015-10-12T12:24:59Z
  • Laccase functionalized cellulose acetate for the removal of toxic
           combustion products
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Endry Nugroho Prasetyo, Stefan Semlitsch, Gibson S. Nyanhongo, Yahia Lemmouchi, Georg M. Guebitz
      The ability of Trametes villosa laccase immobilized on cellulose acetate to reduce/eliminate combustions toxicants was investigated using a model enzyme filter design. In the initial stages, various strategies of grafting laccase onto cellulose acetate polymers including partial deacetylated cellulose acetate followed by generation of reactive groups using either periodate or 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy radical (TEMPO) and the use of different spacer arms [1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC); 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE)] and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was investigated. The best process for effective immobilization of laccase onto both cellulose acetate powders and tows were those involving partial deacetylation, TEMPO activation to generate carboxylic groups, treatment with EDAC as a spacer arm followed by adding the enzyme. This procedure resulted in 45 units/mg laccase activity (28% increase in activity of immobilized enzyme) measured using ABTS as substrate as compared to the other strategies used to immobilize laccase. Further, the immobilized enzyme was able to oxidize >60% of toxicants resorcinol, hydroquinone and methylcatechol passing through the model enzyme filter. This study therefore demonstrates the great possibility of immobilizing laccase onto modified cellulose acetate and the great potential application of immobilized laccase to remove toxicants during combustion.

      PubDate: 2015-10-12T12:24:59Z
  • A method for coating a polymer inclusion membrane with palladium
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ya Ya N. Bonggotgetsakul, Robert W. Cattrall, Spas D. Kolev
      The preparation of palladium nanoparticles on the surface of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) is described. The optimum PIM composition consisted of 30wt% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and 70wt% poly(vinyl chloride). The Pd(II) ion was firstly extracted into the membrane via cation-exchange and then subsequently reduced to form clusters of palladium nanoparticles on the membrane surface. The reducing agents investigated were NaBH4, trisodium citrate, sodium formate, and l-ascorbic acid. Best results were obtained with l-ascorbic acid which at pH2.0 formed a uniform layer of palladium nanoparticle clusters on the surface of the PIM with an average nanoparticle size of 38nm. Factors such as pH, temperature and intensity of mixing of the l-ascorbic acid solution, reduction time and Pd(II) loading of the PIM were found to have a significant influence on the surface coverage and size of the palladium nanoparticles.

      PubDate: 2015-10-12T12:24:59Z
  • Enhanced PVDF membrane performance via surface modification by functional
           polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) to control protein adsorption and
           bacteria adhesion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Guili Zhao, Wei-Ning Chen
      The aim of this work is to prepare antifouling membrane with low-biofouling property by grafted functional polymer. Surface modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane was carried out via a modified and simple process by grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm). The grafting density of PNIPAAm was significantly improved, up to 0.90±0.38mg/cm2, thereby improving the properties and performance of membrane. The chemical composition, thermal stability and surface morphology of pristine and modified membranes had been characterized by attenuated total reflectance fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. After modification, the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane was dramatically enhanced due to incorporation of PNIPAAm chains. The results of protein adsorption, microfiltration experiments and bacterial adhesion test demonstrated that modified membrane exhibited obvious thermo-sensitive property and good antifouling capability. The maximum of flux recovery ratio (FRR), 91.59%, was obtained for modified membrane. It is evidently believed that protein foulants was removed easily from the modified membrane surface after water washing. In addition, bacteria adhesion test revealed that the attachment of Escherichia coli on the modified membrane was reduced by 75% compared to original membrane.

      PubDate: 2015-10-12T12:24:59Z
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