for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2266 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (190 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (183 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (99 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1195 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (391 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (55 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (64 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (89 journals)

ENGINEERING (1195 journals)

The end of the list has been reached or no journals were found for your choice.
Journal Cover Reactive and Functional Polymers
  [SJR: 0.8]   [H-I: 72]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1381-5148
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3030 journals]
  • Fabrication and characterization of an ion-imprinted membrane via blending
           poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with
           polyvinylidene fluoride for selective adsorption of Ru(III)
    • Authors: Jianxian Zeng; Zhe Zhang; Zhihui Dong; Panfeng Ren; Yuan Li; Xiao Liu
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 115
      Author(s): Jianxian Zeng, Zhe Zhang, Zhihui Dong, Panfeng Ren, Yuan Li, Xiao Liu
      An ion-imprinted blend membrane (Ru(III)-IIM) for selectively adsorbing ruthenium(III) from aqueous solutions was fabricated by blending poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) P(MMA-HEMA) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Firstly, P(MMA-HEMA) was successfully synthesized and characterized. Subsequently, combining with the ion-imprinting technology, a series of Ru(III)-IIMs were fabricated via the non-solvent induced phase inversion method. The results indicated that increasing the polymer concentration and extending the evaporation time led to transform the cross-section of membranes from macrovoid structure to a finger-like or tear-like even sponge structure, and also decreased the water flux. The contact angle tests showed the hydrophilicity of Ru(III)-IIMs were effectively improved by blending with P(MMA-HEMA), compared with the PVDF membrane. The adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption capacity of ruthenium(III) onto the Ru(III)-IIM was pH-dependent, and the maximum adsorption capacity reached 42.31mgg−1 at pH2.0. The adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model. The selective adsorption was studied by using Ni(II) as an interfering ion. Compared with the non-imprinted membrane, the Ru(III)-IIM showed a higher selectivity for Ru(III), with a selectivity coefficient of 6.0 for Ru(III)/Ni(II). In addition, the Ru(III)-IIM had a high reusability and still maintained about 95% of its initial adsorption capacity for Ru(III) after eight cycles.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
       
  • Interfacial polycondensation-derived side-chain poly(ethylene
           glycol)-containing water-soluble polysulfide weak-link polymers as
           stabilizer for gold nanoparticles
    • Authors: Ujjal Haldar; Kapil Dev Sayala; Kannan Sivaprakasam; Latha Ramakrishnan; Priyadarsi De
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 115
      Author(s): Ujjal Haldar, Kapil Dev Sayala, Kannan Sivaprakasam, Latha Ramakrishnan, Priyadarsi De
      In the present study, we synthesized water-soluble poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA)-containing polysulfide polymers by conventional interfacial polycondensation polymerization. Formation of polysulfide polymers was confirmed using gel permeation chromatography, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Thermal behaviors of polysulfide polymers were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Degradation products of the main chain polysulfide polymers were characterized by electron-impact mass spectroscopy. These polysulfide polymers are soluble not only in most of the common organic solvents but also in water, though they contain highly hydrophobic -Sx- (x=1 or 2) moieties in the main chain. In addition, the synthesized PEGA-containing disulfide polymer was employed to stabilize gold nanoparticles in an aqueous medium to prevent self-aggregation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
       
  • Synthesis and characterization of lignosulfonate-graft-poly (acrylic
           acid)/hydroxyethyl cellulose semi-interpenetrating hydrogels
    • Authors: Jiaojiao Zhao; Kun Zheng; Jingya Nan; Chao Tang; Ying Chen; Yong Hu
      Pages: 28 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 115
      Author(s): Jiaojiao Zhao, Kun Zheng, Jingya Nan, Chao Tang, Ying Chen, Yong Hu
      Maximizing the use of waste is an important part of the strategy for sustainable development. Lignosulfonate, a waste product with sufficient reactive functional groups, can be used as reinforcing materials in polymer composites. In this work, composite hydrogels composed of lignosulfonate-graft-poly (acrylic acid) AA network and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) polymer chains are synthesized through in situ polymerization and cross-linking reaction. The composite hydrogels have semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPNs) structure, which is driven by the hydrogen bond interactions between proton-donating PAA and proton-accepting HEC. The mechanical properties of these composite hydrogels, including fracture stress, critical compression and elastic modulus and elongation are investigated by tensile measurements. These composite hydrogels exhibit higher toughness and extensibility compared to conventional PAA polymer hydrogels. Moreover, full recovery of their original shape after the removal of compression stress indicates their excellent shape-recovery property. Due to their porous structure, these hydrogels show stimuli responsive swelling properties in aqueous solution depending on the pH or ionic strength, which facilitate the repeating absorption and removal of dyes. Therefore, this work may open a new pathway to synthesize functional materials based on lignosulfonate.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
       
  • Chiral resolution by polysulfone-based membranes prepared via
           mussel-inspired chemistry
    • Authors: Lei Miao; Yang Yang; Yuanyuan Tu; Shudong Lin; Jiwen Hu; Zhuo Du; Min Zhang; Yue Li
      Pages: 87 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Lei Miao, Yang Yang, Yuanyuan Tu, Shudong Lin, Jiwen Hu, Zhuo Du, Min Zhang, Yue Li
      Reported herein is a chiral resolution polysulfone membrane prepared via mussel-inspired chemistry. Polysulfone membranes were modified with dopamine, which underwent in situ polymerization on the membrane substrate, and β-cyclodextrin was used as a chiral selector. The preparation conditions were optimized and the resultant membrane obtained under these conditions showed desirable water permeability (~24.0L/(m2·h·bar)) and surface hydrophilicity (contact angle is lower than 37.1±3.4°). The polydopamine layer exhibited desirable stability in a series of aqueous solutions with pH values ranging from 4.0–6.0 or in isopropanol for less than an hour (detachment ratio was lower than 1.2%). Characterization of the surface morphology and XPS elemental analysis revealed that the membrane surface was fully coated by polydopamine and a β-cyclodextrin monolayer formed on the surface of the polydopamine coating. The grafting density of β-cyclodextrin calculated from the XPS results was ~11.5mg/m2. The optimal pH value for the resolution of D- or L-tryptophan feed solution was 5.90 and a low concentration of the feed solution provided a high resolution efficiency. The enantiomeric excess (e.e.) value of the membrane for Trp racemic mixture achieved to ~3.2% with the feed solution of tryptophan racemic mixture was 5×10−5 mol/L and the operating pressure was 0.1MPa. After 3 times of isopropanol-washed regeneration processes, the e.e. value was still stable around to ~3%. The mussel-inspired chemically modified membrane exhibited the same mechanical properties as the purely polysulfone-based membrane. The methods and results provided in this paper may facilitate the large-scale production of chiral resolution membranes or other chiral separation membranes with higher performance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T03:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
       
  • Water sorption isotherms of molecularly imprinted polymers. Relation
           between water binding and iprodione binding capacity
    • Authors: Manal Bitar; Gaëlle Roudaut; Jacqueline Maalouly; Stéphane Brandès; Régis D Gougeon; Philippe Cayot; Elias Bou-Maroun
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 114
      Author(s): Manal Bitar, Gaëlle Roudaut, Jacqueline Maalouly, Stéphane Brandès, Régis D Gougeon, Philippe Cayot, Elias Bou-Maroun
      Molecularly imprinted polymers are often used in aqueous medium in order to recognize specifically a target molecule. The molecular recognition is usually based on hydrogen bonding. In this case, water molecule presents a serious competition towards the target molecule. In this study, the water sorption by molecularly imprinted polymers was studied in aqueous medium. The molecularly imprinted polymers were specific for iprodione fungicide and were prepared using a 24 full factorial experimental design. They were synthesized using EGDMA or TRIM as crosslinker, methacrylamide or styrene as functional monomer and using bulk or precipitation polymerization. The water sorption isotherms were established in a range of water activities 0.05–0.90 at 25°C. The kinetics of water sorption by the polymers were modeled using Peleg's equation. This model shows that polymers having the highest water sorption capacities have high values of imprinting factor. The Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer isotherm equations were used to fit the equilibrium data and the corresponding parameters were calculated. This model shows that polymers synthesized with EGDMA have higher water sorption capacities than those synthesized with TRIM due to the higher hydrophobicity of the latter. Peleg and Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer equations satisfactorily modeled the water sorption on the imprinted and non-imprinted polymers. The results obtained from both equations were practically coincident. Principal component analysis was used as a chemometric tool in order to demonstrate that a polymer having a low adsorption energy and a high capacity of water retention could be applied to extract a target molecule from aqueous media.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T08:06:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • A novel method of oil encapsulation in core-shell alginate microcapsules
           by dispersion-inverse gelation technique
    • Authors: Evandro Martins; Denis Poncelet; Denis Renard
      Pages: 49 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 114
      Author(s): Evandro Martins, Denis Poncelet, Denis Renard
      Oil-core microcapsules may be produced by dispersing a calcium solution-oil emulsion into an alginate solution. The release of calcium from the emulsion leads to the gelation of alginate around the oil droplet and therefore to the formation of microcapsules. This work aims to propose a new method of microcapsule production by dispersion-inverse gelation technique. Therefore, W/O emulsions were dispersed in alginate solution and led to the formation of capsules with varying diameters depending on the stirring rate of the alginate bath. The membrane thickness varied between 35 and 200μm depending on the type of emulsion destabilization treatment used. Oil was encapsulated at a yield of 100% allowing the extrapolation of this method at pilot scale. In addition, microcapsules released hydrophilic dye in few hours while hydrophobic dye was retained in the core due to interaction with the oil phase. Core-shell alginate microcapsules produced by dispersion-inverse gelation technique displayed interesting property suitable for applications where actives need to be retained during long times or for volatile compounds.

      PubDate: 2017-03-15T17:17:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • Effect of ionic and covalent crosslinking agents on properties of chitosan
           beads and sorption effectiveness of Reactive Black 5 dye
    • Authors: Tomasz Jóźwiak; Urszula Filipkowska; Paula Szymczyk; Joanna Rodziewicz; Artur Mielcarek
      Pages: 58 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 114
      Author(s): Tomasz Jóźwiak, Urszula Filipkowska, Paula Szymczyk, Joanna Rodziewicz, Artur Mielcarek
      This study compared properties of hydrogel chitosan sorbents crosslinked with eight agents, including four ionic ones: sodium citrate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sulfosuccinic acid, and oxalic acid and four covalent ones: glutaraldehyde, epichlorohydrin, trimethylpropane triglycidyl ether, and ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether. The effect of crosslinking process conditions (pH, temperature) and dose of the crosslinking agent on chitosan sorbent stability during sorption and on the effectiveness of Reactive Black 5 dye sorption were examined. The optimal parameters of crosslinking ensuring sorbent stability in acidic solutions and high sorption capability were established for each crosslinking agent tested. The susceptibility of crosslinked sorbents to mechanical damages was analyzed as well. The process of ionic crosslinking was the most effective at the pH value below which hydrogel chitosan sorbent began to dissolve (pH4). The crosslinking temperature ranging from 25 to 60°C had no effect upon sorbent stability. The higher temperature during ionic crosslinking, however, slightly decreased RB5 sorption effectiveness. The ionic crosslinking significantly decrease the susceptibility of chitosan hydrogels to mechanical damages. In the case of covalent crosslinking of chitosan hydrogel beads, the effect of process conditions (pH, temperature) on the properties of the crosslinked sorbent depended on the type of crosslinking agent. The sorbents crosslinked with covalent agents were usually harder but also more fragile, and therefore more susceptible to mechanical damages.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T08:34:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • Polyaniline thermoset blends and composites
    • Authors: F.X. Perrin; C. Oueiny
      Pages: 86 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 114
      Author(s): F.X. Perrin, C. Oueiny
      The blending of polyaniline (PANI) with insulating polymers is an active area of research which has been driven by the possibility to combine the good mechanical properties and processability of the polymer matrix with low electrical resistance. This review will focus on thermosetting polymer matrix composites or blends. A good dispersion of PANI in the thermoset matrix is essential for the enhanced mechanical and electrical properties of the material. Much effort has been exerted in attempts to improve the compatibility of PANI with thermoset matrices. Attention will be given to describe some of the processing parameters that affect the morphology of PANI thermoset blends and composites. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in PANI thermoset composites with the emergence of multifunctional ternary composites. The different approaches for the design of ternary composites will be reviewed. Additionally, promising applications of PANI thermoset composites in different fields will be described such as electromagnetic shielding and microwave absorption, static electricity dissipation, flame-retardant materials, conductive adhesives, coatings for anticorrosion protection, sensor materials and electro-stimulated drug delivery systems.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T02:42:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • Durable hydrophilic surface modification for PTFE hollow fiber membranes
    • Authors: Haiming Song; Hongwei Yu; Lijing Zhu; Lixin Xue; Dichao Wu; Hao Chen
      Pages: 110 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 114
      Author(s): Haiming Song, Hongwei Yu, Lijing Zhu, Lixin Xue, Dichao Wu, Hao Chen
      A facile one-step process was developed to generate hydrophilic coating on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membranes based on co-deposition of polymerized dopamine (PDA) and poly (ethyleneimine) (PEI) from aqueous solutions. For comparison, step-by-step coating of PDA and PEI was also applied to modify PTFE membranes. ATR-FTIR, XPS, SEM, AFM and water contact angle measurements were applied to analyze the surface chemistry and morphology evolution of the modified PTFE membranes at varied grafting yields. PDA and PEI were successfully deposited on PTFE membranes while the hydrophilicity and wettability of the modified membrane were greatly improved. The modified PTFE membranes showed high water permeate fluxes, good long-term stability and durability in strong acidic aqueous solution. Although PTFE hollow fiber membranes samples modified by a step-by-step dip-coating process with PDA and PEI tent to lose their hydrophilicity in strong alkaline solutions, the co-deposited PTFE membranes with PDA and PEI were found to have good durability in aqueous solution at pH13. This work provides a one-step method to improve the hydrophilicity and chemical stability of the PTFE hollow fiber membranes for water treatment applications.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T02:42:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • Novel hybrid formulations based on chitosan and a siloxane compound
           intended for biomedical applications
    • Authors: Irina Elena Bordianu-Antochi; Mihaela Olaru; Corneliu Cotofana
      Pages: 118 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 114
      Author(s): Irina Elena Bordianu-Antochi, Mihaela Olaru, Corneliu Cotofana
      The present study reports on the obtaining of chitosan/siloxane–based microspheres by coacervation/precipitation method and their use as efficient drug delivery vehicles for ciprofloxacin, one antibacterial synthetic drug belonging to fluoroquinolones group. These new hybrid formulations were analyzed in terms of structural characterization (FTIR, SEM, TG, DSC techniques), swelling capacity and in vitro drug release. The release mechanism of the model drug was investigated by means of several kinetic models, i.e., zero order, first order, Higuchi model, Korsmeyer–Peppas model, Hixson–Crowell model, Baker–Lonsdal model, Weibull model and Schott model.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T02:42:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
       
  • Photo-induced reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)
           polymerization of acrylonitrile at ambient temperature: A simple system to
           obtain high-molecular-weight polyacrylonitrile
    • Authors: Jiajia Li; Chunlai Ding; Zhengbiao Zhang; Jian Zhu; Xiulin Zhu
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 113
      Author(s): Jiajia Li, Chunlai Ding, Zhengbiao Zhang, Jian Zhu, Xiulin Zhu
      Photo-induced reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of acrylonitrile was performed in a two-component system using 2-cyano-2-propyl dodecyl trithiocarbonate as the initiation-regulator dual-functional agent. The polymerization was carried out under mild conditions, e.g. under irradiation of blue light-emitting diode light at ambient temperature. Well-controlled polymers with high molecular weight and narrow molecular weight distribution were obtained. The light on and off experiments showed photosensitivity of this polymerization system. The structure of the obtained polymers was characterized by GPC and NMR. Polymers with molecular weight as high as M n =286,300g/mol could be obtained in optimized conditions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T17:32:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Speeding up heterogeneous catalysis with an improved highly reusable
           catalyst for the preparation of enantioenriched secondary alcohols
    • Authors: Esther M. Sánchez-Carnerero; Rafael Sandoval-Torrientes; Javier Urieta-Mora; Florencio Moreno; Beatriz L. Maroto; Santiago de la Moya
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 113
      Author(s): Esther M. Sánchez-Carnerero, Rafael Sandoval-Torrientes, Javier Urieta-Mora, Florencio Moreno, Beatriz L. Maroto, Santiago de la Moya
      A new catalytic heterogeneous system, very efficient and highly reusable, for the preparation of enantioenriched secondary alcohols through the addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde has been developed. This system is based on a chiral bis(hydroxyamide) ligand supported on crosslinked polystyrene. The catalyst has been shown to be very efficient, leading to the corresponding secondary alcohol with an enantiomeric excess of 93% in a time as short as 2h and using just 4% of the heterogeneous catalyst and just 1.5 equivalents of the organozinc reagent. We have demonstrated that the new catalyst is very stable and can be efficiently recycled with no decrease in yield or enantioselectivity. The presented system has an unquestionable interest for the potential transfer of the reaction to the industry by using catalytic fluidized-bed reactors.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T17:58:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 113 (2017)
       
  • Pyrocatechol-modified resins for boron recovery from water: Synthesis,
           adsorption and isotopic separation studies
    • Authors: Jiafei Lyu; Zhouliangzi Zeng; Nan Zhang; Hongxu Liu; Peng Bai; Xianghai Guo
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Jiafei Lyu, Zhouliangzi Zeng, Nan Zhang, Hongxu Liu, Peng Bai, Xianghai Guo
      Two kinds of pyrocatechols, pyrocatechol (CL) and nitropyrocatechol (NCL), were chosen by the conductive value change (Δ) they cause in the boric acid-polyol solutions, and corresponding modified resins (CL-RESIN and NCL-RESIN) were synthesized by new methodology for effective boron removal and isotopic separation. The optimized boron adsorption occurs at pH=9.06 for CL-RESIN, and pH=6.70 for NCL-RESIN, with the maximum adsorption capacity 0.7886mmol·g−1 and 0.7931mmol·g−1, which were comparable to commercial IRA 743. Boron adsorption on prepared resins was saturated within 12h and can be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Freundlich isotherm model fits well at low boron concentration while Langmuir isotherm model fits better at high concentration. Furthermore, the boron isotopic separation factors S on two prepared resins are 1.080 for CL-RESIN and 1.140 for NCL-RESIN, which are far higher than all previous results. Boron removal and isotopic separation capacities make it possible that three problems, boron removal, isotopic separation and boron reusability, can be addressed in single adsorption process.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T10:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2016.12.016
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Properties of native and oxidized corn starch/polystyrene blends under
           conditions of reactive extrusion using zinc octanoate as a catalyst
    • Authors: Tomy J. Gutiérrez; Vera A. Alvarez
      Pages: 33 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 112
      Author(s): Tomy J. Gutiérrez, Vera A. Alvarez
      Native and oxidized corn (Zea mays) starch/polystyrene (PS) blends containing glycerol as a plasticizer were prepared by reactive extrusion in a twin-screw extruder using zinc octanoate (Zn(Oct)2) as a catalyst, followed by compression molding. Blends were characterized in terms of their: average molecular weight, moisture content, infrared (FTIR) spectra, water solubility, thermogravimetric (TGA) properties, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves, X-ray diffraction (XDR) patterns, stability in acidic or alkaline medium, and microstructural, mechanical and antimicrobial properties. The results clearly show that the catalyst used produced cross-linking between the starch and PS, and that the oxidative modification of the starch increased its reactivity. This was demonstrated by the increase in molecular weight, thermal resistance, and hydrophobicity of films prepared from the oxidized starch/PS plus catalyst. This increase in hydrophobicity of the starch modified systems was due to the carboxyl and carbonyl groups introduced into the starch structure. As a result, phase separation was more obvious, despite the increase in the cross-linking rate between the oxidized starch and the PS. Finally, none of the films showed signs of swelling or antimicrobial activity. Nonetheless, the catalyst exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic microorganisms evaluated.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T10:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Morphology control of anisotropic nonspherical functional polymeric
           particles by one-pot dispersion polymerization
    • Authors: Huifang Shen; Xiaolin Du; Xiaolin Ren; Yuhui Xie; Xinxin Sheng; Xinya Zhang
      Pages: 53 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 112
      Author(s): Huifang Shen, Xiaolin Du, Xiaolin Ren, Yuhui Xie, Xinxin Sheng, Xinya Zhang
      A feasible and versatile route for a large-scale synthesis of monodisperse nonspherical functional polymer particles by one-pot dispersion polymerization was demonstrated. The particle morphology could be precisely tuned by varying the divinylbenzene (DVB) concentration, the start feeding time of DVB, the total feeding time of DVB, the styrene (St) mass ratio of stage I/stage II, and the solvent polarity. Sphere-like, polyhedron-like, and red blood cells (RBC)-like particles with dimples or smooth surface were obtained. In addition, the formation mechanism of these nonspherical particles was ascribed to the phase separation induced by the uneven distribution of cross-linked network. Because of the incompatibility between St homopolymer chain and cross-linked network, St homopolymer chain was forced to move to those zones where the blend was allowed. The particle surface was forced to distort, leading to the formation of particles with various morphologies.

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T10:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Temperature responsive copolymer as support for metal nanoparticle
           catalyst: A recyclable catalytic system
    • Authors: Yueyue Dong; Qingfang Wang; Jingtuo Wang; Yanli Ma; Danhong Wang; Zhijie Wu; Munire Abudkremb; Minghui Zhang
      Pages: 60 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 112
      Author(s): Yueyue Dong, Qingfang Wang, Jingtuo Wang, Yanli Ma, Danhong Wang, Zhijie Wu, Munire Abudkremb, Minghui Zhang
      A recyclable catalytic system was developed by using a temperature responsive poly(acrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) (P(AAm-co-AN)) copolymer with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST). Palladium nanoparticles (NPs) immobilized on P(AAm-co-AN) copolymer were synthesized by the chemical reduction method using NaBH4. TEM characterizations showed the highly dispersed and small (~3nm) Pd nanoparticles formed on the surface of the P(AAm-co-AN) copolymer. UV–Vis measurements indicated the increase of UCST of P(AAm-co-AN) from 30 to 35°C after the deposition of Pd metal. P(AAm-co-AN) supported Pd catalyst showed high activity in allyl alcohol hydrogenation and facile separation and recovery via sharp solubility changes of catalyst by cooling below UCST.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T10:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Editors and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 114


      PubDate: 2017-04-25T03:45:02Z
       
  • Bioelectrocatalytic fructose oxidation with fructose dehydrogenase-bearing
           conducting polymer films for biofuel cell application
    • Authors: Takashi Kuwahara; Mamoru Kameda; Keita Isozaki; Keisuke Toriyama; Mizuki Kondo; Masato Shimomura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Takashi Kuwahara, Mamoru Kameda, Keita Isozaki, Keisuke Toriyama, Mizuki Kondo, Masato Shimomura
      This study presents an enzymatic bioanode fabricated with fructose dehydrogenase and a polyaniline film to construct a single-compartment fructose biofuel cell. The enzymatic bioanode provided fructose oxidation current, which accompanied the electron transfer between the heme c moiety of fructose dehydrogenase and polyaniline. Characterization of the bioanode at a pH of 4.5 indicated an onset potential of −0.1V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with respect to the redox potential corresponding to heme c of fructose dehydrogenase as well as high current densities for fructose oxidation of 1.0±0.1mA/cm2 at +0.50V (vs. Ag/AgCl). A single-compartment fructose biofuel cell was constructed by use of the bioanode together with an enzymatic biocathode fabricated with laccase and polythiophene copolymer film. The fructose biofuel cell possessed an open-circuit potential of 0.55V with an associated short-circuit current of 1.4±0.2mA/cm2. In addition, the maximum power density of the biofuel cell was 0.36±0.04mW/cm2 at a cell voltage of 0.3V.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T03:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.011
       
  • Uptake and controlled release of a dye from thermo-sensitive polymer
           P(NIPAM-co-Vim)
    • Authors: Tomasz Śliwa; Maciej Jarzębski; Ewa Andrzejewska; Mikołaj Szafran; Jacek Gapiński
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Tomasz Śliwa, Maciej Jarzębski, Ewa Andrzejewska, Mikołaj Szafran, Jacek Gapiński
      Copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) are one of the most promising microgel materials for medical applications, especially as a drug carrier. PNIPAMs present unique properties, such as size variation with changing pH and/or temperature. The results of a study on the uptake and release of a dye (Orange II) by microgels of N-isopropylacrylamide copolymer with 1-vinylimidazole (P(NIPAM-co-Vim) are presented. The dye was used as a model low-molecular substance. Hydrodynamic radius (R h ) of P(NIPAM-co-Vim) particles was measured by dynamic light scattering as a function of temperature in two pH environments: acidic and basic. The dye particles contraction was monitored as a function of temperature at pH 4. The measurements of the zeta potential indicated a positive charge of P(NIPAM-co-Vim) particles at pH 4 and a negative one at pH 9. The key experiments were the internalization and the release of the dye. The effectiveness of this process was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy on the supernatant derived from centrifuged P(NIPAM-co-Vim) suspension. At room temperature the efficiency of trapping of the dye by the microgel at pH 4 was 87%. Changing pH of a sample initially saturated with the dye from 4 to 9 led to a complete release of the trapped dye.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T03:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.003
       
  • Metal nanoclusters stabilized by pH-responsive microgels: Preparation and
           evaluation of their catalytic potential
    • Authors: Gianluca Cera; Andrea Biffis; Patrizia Canton; Alberto Villa; Laura Prati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Gianluca Cera, Andrea Biffis, Patrizia Canton, Alberto Villa, Laura Prati
      Unstabilized, pH-responsive soluble crosslinked polymers (microgels) bearing pendant trialkylamino or pyridyl groups and containing size-controlled Au or Pd nanoclusters have been prepared by radical copolymerization in dilute solution, followed by loading with HAuCl4 or Pd(OAc)2 and chemical reduction. The hydrodynamic volume, the solubility and the partition between immiscible solvents of the microgels and of the resulting microgel-metal nanocomposites have been investigated, together with the variation of these parameters with the solution pH: separation of our microgel-containing metal nanoclusters from aqueous solutions can be accomplished by precipitation or by extraction into an organic solvent phase upon pH change, thus enabling their potential recovery. The catalytic performance of the microgels in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol (Au) and in Sonogashira coupling reactions (Pd) has been determined. The microgel-Au nanocomposites exhibit poor catalytic activity, whereas better results have been obtained in the copper-free Sonogashira reaction with microgel-Pd nanocomposites as precatalysts.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.002
       
  • Preparation and evaluation of Pb(II)-imprinted fucoidan-based sorbents
    • Authors: Vanessa R.A. Ferreira; Manuel A. Azenha; Carlos M. Pereira; A. Fernando Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Vanessa R.A. Ferreira, Manuel A. Azenha, Carlos M. Pereira, A. Fernando Silva
      Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, was, in the form of a silica composite, studied as a prospective cation imprinting matrix. The preparation of such composites in the presence of cations with a strong interaction with the biopolymer chains was expected to direct them towards arrangements, optimized for the sorption of those cations. As expected, the presence of Cu(II), a weakly fucoidan-binding cation, in the synthesis of the composites did not result in the production of significantly stronger Cu(II)-oriented binding arrangements, and therefore the imprinting was not successful. However, with Pb(II), with much stronger affinity for fucoidan, the materials obtained exhibited stronger (22%) binding as compared to the non-imprinted counterparts, and increased selectivity (1.4–1.6 fold) against Cd(II). Although these imprinting features were close to those observed previously with other sulfated polysaccharides, the fucoidan-based Pb(II) imprints developed here presented superior sorption properties, namely a higher capacity and higher binding strength for Pb(II). These features, demonstrated by the material developed here, may easily be put to work in different areas where Pb(II) sensing, determination, separation or remediation is of the utmost importance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.001
       
  • Effect of reaction conditions on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gels
           synthesized by post-polymerization crosslinking system
    • Authors: Shohei Ida; Akimitsu Katsurada; Ryuichi Yoshida; Yoshitsugu Hirokawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Shohei Ida, Akimitsu Katsurada, Ryuichi Yoshida, Yoshitsugu Hirokawa
      In this paper, the effect of gelation solvent and temperature on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) gels synthesized by post-polymerization crosslinking (PPC) was discussed in detail. PPC was two-step synthesis performed by (1) radical copolymerization of NIPAAm and activated ester monomer (NHSA) and (2) crosslinking reaction of the obtained prepolymer and diamine crosslinker. In PPC, various solvents could afford gels, while the gelation time was strongly dependent on solvent polarity. The obtained gels showed similar swelling curves in water, indicating that the network structure of PPC gels was dominantly determined by the prepolymer structure. It was quite contrasting to conventional divinyl crosslinking (DVC), by which gelation could be observed only in water and not in organic solvents under the same concentration condition as PPC gelation system. We also examined the effect of gelation temperature in PPC synthesis in water. The PPC-PNIPAAm gel prepared in water at high temperature was consistently white turbid as same as DVC-PNIPAAm gel, suggesting that this turbidity was derived from polymer aggregation and entanglement fixed by chemical crosslinking.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.020
       
  • Aromatic alkoxysilane based hybrid organogels as sorbent for toxic organic
           compounds, fuels and crude oil
    • Authors: Muslum Durgun; Gulsah Ozan Aydin; Hayal Bulbul Sonmez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Muslum Durgun, Gulsah Ozan Aydin, Hayal Bulbul Sonmez
      Crude oil, fuels and toxic organic solvent leaks into the natural environment can cause long-term ecological and health problems. The use of hydrophobic polymeric organogels, with a three-dimensional cross-linked network, is a promising sorbent for cleaning of organic liquids from the environment. For this paper, we synthesized organogels by condensing a cycloaliphatic glycol (UNOXOL™) and aromatic alkoxysilanes as a cross-linking agent. The synthesized organogels were characterized by solid-state 13C and 29Si cross polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CPMAS NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The use of organogels as sorbent material for various toxic organic solvents, fuels and crude oil was investigated. The oil absorption capacity was found to be 45% for ethanol, 70% for diesel, 133% for acetone, 136% for crude oil, 203% for cyclohexane, 252% for gasoline, 342% for xylene, 366% for methyl tertiary butyl ether, 367% for ethyl benzene, 641% for toluene, 654% for benzene, 747% for tetrahydrofuran and 1120% for dichloromethane for the best sorbent. Synthesized organogels can be used as sorbents for these organic liquids; they have excellent properties, such as high absorption capacity, fast absorption speed, good selectivity and reusability.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.017
       
  • Synthesis of multifunctional silsesquioxane nanoparticles with hydroxyl
           and polymerizable groups for UV-curable hybrid coating
    • Authors: Hiroshi Takeuchi; Takuki Konno; Hideharu Mori
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Hiroshi Takeuchi, Takuki Konno, Hideharu Mori
      UV-curable multifunctional silsesquioxane-based nanoparticles (SQ-NPs) with hydroxyl and polymerizable groups were synthesized by hydrolytic co-condensation of two hydroxyl group-containing triethoxysilane (HEA-TES) molecules derived from 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate with hydrophobic triethoxysilanes carrying vinyl, methacryloyl, and methyl groups. The co-condensation in methanol in the presence of an acidic catalyst quantitatively produced multifunctional SQ-NPs with relatively narrow size distributions (average particle diameter <5nm) without gelation. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, solubility, crosslinkable vinyl content, and thermal stability of the multifunctional SQ-NPs could be manipulated by changing the composition of the two functionalized triethoxysilanes in the feed. The physical properties of the UV-cured products were investigated in terms of Martens hardness, pencil hardness, and abrasion resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.016
       
  • Monolithic polydimethylsiloxane-modified silica composites prepared by a
           low-temperature sol–gel micromolding technique for controlled drug
           release
    • Authors: Magdalena Prokopowicz; Adrian Szewczyk; Rafał Łunio; Wiesław Sawicki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Magdalena Prokopowicz, Adrian Szewczyk, Rafał Łunio, Wiesław Sawicki
      Sol–gel derived multi-component silica composites are widely accepted as smart materials in orthopedic surgery as bone fillers and bioactive skeleton drug delivery systems. This paper discusses the effect of hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) (10, 20, 30 and 40% (w/w)) on the physicochemical properties of low temperature sol–gel processed polydimethylsiloxane/calcium phosphate/silica (PDMS-modified CaP/SiO2) composites. The micromolding technique was employed to obtain PDMS-modified CaP/SiO2 composites–monolithic granule-type formulations. The effectiveness of PDMS-modified CaP/SiO2 granules as potential skeleton drug delivery systems was studied in vitro using Rhodamine B (ROD) as a model for highly water-soluble molecules. Results indicated that the composites with PDMS contents at 20 and 30% (w/w) showed similar mechanical properties to those of human cancellous bones. The content of PDMS had a significant effect on the release of ROD. These results showed that PDMS-modified CaP/SiO2 granules with 20 and 30% (w/w) PDMS could provide the zero-order release profile of highly water-soluble molecules.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T02:42:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.014
       
  • Application of proteinous nanofibrils to culture retinal pigmented
           epithelium cells: A versatile biomaterial
    • Authors: Behnam Maleki; Fatemeh Tabandeh; Zahra-Soheila Soheili; Dina Morshedi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Behnam Maleki, Fatemeh Tabandeh, Zahra-Soheila Soheili, Dina Morshedi
      Recently, self-assembling polypeptides have been shown as the extracellular matrix mimic materials (ECM-mimics) and are particular candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. We selected Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL) as a model protein that represents the amyloid fibrils' networks (AFNs) with ECM mimic chemistry and Nano-topography. The Retinal Pigmented Epithelium (RPE) cells were cultured on the AFNs with different densities and the viability and growth rate of RPE cells along with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were investigated. The AFNs are able to expedite the attachment of the RPE cells in a concentration dependent manner and provide their long-term survival and also proliferation without significant production of ROS. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential analysis indicated that the prepared AFNs had positive charge with semi-homogenous size. Proteinous base of the AFNs makes them multipurpose materials to be developed for further in situ and animal model experiments as cell culture platforms regarding to retinal tissue engineering.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T02:42:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.011
       
  • Polysucrose-based hydrogels for loading of small molecules and cell growth
    • Authors: Yeshma Jugdawa; Archana Bhaw-Luximon; Daniel Wesner; Nowsheen Goonoo; Holger Schönherr; Dhanjay Jhurry
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yeshma Jugdawa, Archana Bhaw-Luximon, Daniel Wesner, Nowsheen Goonoo, Holger Schönherr, Dhanjay Jhurry
      Cross-linked polysucrose hydrogels were synthesized for the first time from polysucrose grafted with methacrylic anhydride (MA) and crosslinked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The addition of sucrose and polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (mPEG5000) as porogens to the cross-linking reaction led to the formation of interconnected pores as well as a shift from a homogeneous non-porous to a heterogeneous porous surface. The potential of this family of hydrogels as biomaterial was assessed through the determination of the loading/release capacity of cationic and anionic dyes as model molecules and biocompatibility test with fibroblast cells. Cationic dyes showed high loading and sustained release over time attributed to the ionic interactions of the dyes with the hydrogels carrying a net negative charge. Anionic dyes on the other hand showed a rapid sinusoidal loading/release pattern. The release of the dyes was found to increase with increasing swelling capacity. NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells proliferated on hydrogels containing a porous structure and avoided the non-porous areas of the hydrogel surface.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T02:42:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.012
       
  • Fluoride removal from aqueous solution by Zirconium-Chitosan/Graphene
           Oxide Membrane
    • Authors: Jing Zhang; Nan Chen; Miao Li; Panyun Su; Chuanping Feng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Jing Zhang, Nan Chen, Miao Li, Panyun Su, Chuanping Feng
      A Zirconium-Chitosan/Graphene Oxide (Zr-CTS/GO) Membrane adsorbent was applied for fluoride removal from aqueous solution. The effects of different compositions, dose, pH, and initial fluoride concentration were investigated. Results showed that the membrane could effectively remove fluoride within a wide pH range of 3–11. The data fitted the Freundlich isotherm model well, indicating that fluoride adsorption occurred on heterogeneous Zr-CTS/GO membrane surfaces probably in a multilayer form. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption reached equilibrium within 45min, and the maximum adsorption capacity was calculated to be 29.0588mg/g by Two-site Langmuir isotherm model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) were used to elucidate the adsorption mechanism. The results revealed that Zr(IV) species reacted with oxygen functional groups from the CTS/GO complex, and ZrF species formed partly through fluoride ions exchanged with chloride ions and OH and partly through chemical rearrangement. The findings indicate that Zr-CTS/GO is a promising adsorbent for fluoride removal with a quite short contact time and a wide optimum pH range.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T08:34:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.008
       
  • Photo-crosslinked thiol-ene based hybrid polymeric sensor for humidity
           detection
    • Authors: Aslı Beyler Çiğil; Hüsnü Cankurtaran; Memet Vezir Kahraman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Aslı Beyler Çiğil, Hüsnü Cankurtaran, Memet Vezir Kahraman
      This study describes the preparation and characterization of new surface modified carbon nanotube particles (CNT) containing thiol-ene based hybrid polymers by photo-polymerization of pentaerythritol tetrakis, glyoxal bis(diallyl acetal), trimethylol propane triacrylate monomers and their usage for humidity sensing. CNT surface was photografted with polyethylene glycol acrylate (PEGA) to produce hydroxyl groups. Hydroxyl functionalized CNT/PEGAs were acrylated using isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (IEM) in order to improve the dispersion and interfacial interaction in composites. Furthermore, different amounts of gold nanoparticles containing compositions were also prepared. The humidity sensing properties of two samples were investigated by impedance measurements. The effects of CNT/Au modification, the applied potential bias and alternating current frequency on the electrical properties and the humidity sensitivity were determined. FCNT0 and FCNT5Au0.5 exhibit extremely high selectivity against humidity compare to various solvents; ethanol, acetone, methyl acetate and chloroform. FCNT0 has a reasonable good sensor performance for humidity measurements. It has high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, response/recovery and linear response properties in a full range of humidity measurements.

      PubDate: 2017-03-15T17:17:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.002
       
  • Natural based eumelanin nanoparticles functionalization and preliminary
           evaluation as carrier for gentamicin
    • Authors: Antonella De Trizio; Pathomthat Srisuk; Rui R. Costa; Alexandra G. Fraga; Tiziana Modena; Ida Genta; Rossella Dorati; Jorge Pedrosa; Bice Conti; Vitor M. Correlo; Rui L. Reis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Antonella De Trizio, Pathomthat Srisuk, Rui R. Costa, Alexandra G. Fraga, Tiziana Modena, Ida Genta, Rossella Dorati, Jorge Pedrosa, Bice Conti, Vitor M. Correlo, Rui L. Reis
      Purpose of the work was to modified natural based eumelanin nanoparticles surface by dopamine self-polymerization (FEUNp), facilitating conjugation through polydopamine bioactive functional groups and improving nanoparticle surface hydrophilicity. SEM, TEM, and AFM characterization confirmed FEUNp spherical shape (230.04±8.25nm) and their polydopamine coating. Individual indole or indoline structure spectrum at 1600cm−1 and C:N mass 9.08 was highlighted by FTIR and XPS analysis respectively. Quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed successful polydopamine adsorption to eumelanin nanoparticles surface, a weight ratio of eumelanin nanoparticles/dopamine of 1/2.46 in the wet state and 1/0.20 in the dry state; the −36.60±0.45mV negatively surface charges confirms the presence of PD covering. FEUNp were loaded with gentamicin sulfate, for application in infectious diseases therapies, such as osteomyelitis. Nanoparticles drug entrapment efficiency was 32.42±3.21%, and ζ-potential close to neutrality (−1.84±0.58mV). FEUNp-GS antimicrobial effect was tested on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli showing gentamicin 24h sustained release from FEUNp-GS. IC50 and IC90 were 110.60μg/mL and 216.39μg/mL against S. aureus, and 54.13μg/mL and 101.25μg/mL against E. coli. The results are promising for FEUNp-GS as delivery system potentially useful diverse administration routes.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T08:06:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.004
       
  • On the kinetics of block copolymer mediated palladium quantum dot
           synthesis: Application in reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III)
    • Authors: Zarina Ansari; Abhijit Saha; Kamalika Sen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Zarina Ansari, Abhijit Saha, Kamalika Sen
      In this work we have designed a simple, eco-friendly, one-pot method for the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles of quantum dot dimension (PdQDs) using a non-toxic, biocompatible block co polymer which functions as a reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. The entire synthesis is free from any especial experimental set up and reaction conditions. These QDs were characterized by several well know characterization techniques such as UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and ξ potential measurements. The transformation of a yellow solution into dark brown solution was indicative of the formation of the PdQDs. The kinetics of this reaction was monitored using a time scan absorption measurement which reveals a sigmoidal curve, a signature of noble metal nanoparticles. The rate of nucleation and growth were calculated using Finke and Watzky model. The synthesized colloidal PdQDs were employed for the reduction of environmentally toxic Cr(VI) to safer Cr(III). The reaction was catalyzed by the PdQDs in presence of acetic acid and was dependent on the concentration of both. The order and rate constant of the reduction reaction was calculated. A comparatively faster and complete reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) using this catalysis was achieved at room temperature in presence γ irradiation, thus making the method more effective in its approach for bulk remediation of Cr(VI).

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T08:06:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.005
       
  • One-pot synthesis of supported hydrogel membranes via emulsion templating
    • Authors: Qixiang Jiang; Angelika Menner; Alexander Bismarck
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Qixiang Jiang, Angelika Menner, Alexander Bismarck
      Supported hydrogel membranes were produced by one-pot synthesis by the polymerisation of suitable emulsion templates. High internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) with styrene (St), divinylbenzene (DVB) and ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) in the continuous phase and methacrylic acid (MAA) in the internal phase were polymerised to prepare poly(MAA) hydrogel grafted poly(St-co-DVB-co-EHA) poly(merised)HIPEs. By changing the concentration of the crosslinker, N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide, in the internal phase of the emulsion template the crosslinking density of the grafted poly(MAA) was tuned. The presence of the hydrogel was indicated by a change in pore morphology, e.g. coverage of the pore throats and the wrinkled pore wall surface, and the increase in the density of the composite polyHIPEs as compared to control polyHIPEs. Moreover, the increase in foam density and reduction of porosity were related to the crosslinking degree of the hydrogel. The water uptake of the composite polyHIPEs exceeded the pore volume of the polyHIPE scaffold supporting the grafted hydrogel. The permeability and rejection of aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) by the hydrogel grafted polyHIPE membranes were strongly pH dependent, the permeability decreased and the rejection of PEG increased with increasing pH due to the increased swelling of the hydrogel. A 91% rejection of 50kDa PEG for polyHIPE supported hydrogel membranes has been identified, which qualifies such membranes for ultrafiltration applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T08:06:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.003
       
  • Developing a potential antibacterial long-term degradable electrospun
           gelatin-based composites mats for wound dressing applications
    • Authors: R. Morsy; M. Hosny; F. Reicha; T. Elnimr
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): R. Morsy, M. Hosny, F. Reicha, T. Elnimr
      Antibacterial electrospun fibrous membranes are widely applied as dressings for treatment the wounds and burns. However, developing long-term gelatin-based fibrous membrane is still the main challenge inhibiting their uses for long-term treatments. Novel antibacterial electrospun gelatin-based mats were introduced by combining gelatin, glycerol, glucose and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), which together could exhibit optimal physicochemical characteristics as long-term electrospun fibrous mats. Therefore, Ag NPs were synthesized in-situ within the acidic electrospun solutions during preparing electrospun gelatin-glycerol-Ag NPs (GEL-GLY-Ag) and gelatin-glycerol-glucose-Ag NPs (GEL-GLY-GLU-Ag) mats. Conventional spectroscopic techniques based on XRD, FTIR, SEM, DTA, and water uptake-degradation tests and antibacterial studies were used to characterize the preparations. The results showed that the electrospun gelatin-based composites mats revealed free beads dense fibrous textures, and exhibited a high water uptake and long-term degradation behavior. The Ag NPs could be successfully synthesized in-situ within electrospinning solutions and the results confirmed that the in-situ prepared Ag NPs enhanced the antibacterial activity of electrospun mats against positive and negative bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T08:06:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.001
       
  • Polymeric quaternary ammonium salt activity against Fusarium oxysporum f.
           sp. cubense race 4: Synthesis, structure-activity relationship and mode of
           action
    • Authors: Zhenfeng Huang; Runqi Liuyang; Chengyun Dong; Yufeng Lei; Anqiang Zhang; Yaling Lin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Zhenfeng Huang, Runqi Liuyang, Chengyun Dong, Yufeng Lei, Anqiang Zhang, Yaling Lin
      Polymeric quaternary ammonium salts (PQAS) have been widely used to prevent microbial contamination, but little is known about their activity against phytopathogenic fungi. Our previous report described the synthesis of two novel PQAS, namely a homopolymer of (2-methacrylamido) propyltetrabenzyldimethylammonium chloride (PQD-BC) and dimethylaminopropyl benzyl chloride-grafted polysiloxanes (PDMS-g-BC); we demonstrated their structure-activity relationship against phytopathogenic fungi such as R. solani and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 (Foc4). Here, we analyzed the structure-activity relationship and toxicity mechanism of these compounds at the molecular level against Foc4 compared with the low molecular-weight quaternary ammonium salt benzalkonium chloride (BC). The results revealed that PQD-BC and PDMS-g-BC application inhibited the growth of Foc4 in a concentration-dependent manner and that PDMS-g-BC exhibited higher activity than PQD-BC. In addition, these polymers were found to induce cell death in Foc4 by disrupting the cellular structure integrity, such as the loss of the cell wall and plasma membrane integrity and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation), leading to the release of intracellular contents and inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and interference with genomic DNA. The newly elucidated mechanism provides possible applications in which PQAS can be used against phytopathogenic fungi.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T08:06:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.013
       
  • Dispersion of single-walled carbon nanotubes in an aqueous medium by using
           a cyclic copolymer
    • Authors: Ning Zhang; Di Zhou; Nianchen Zhou; Zhengbiao Zhang; Xiulin Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ning Zhang, Di Zhou, Nianchen Zhou, Zhengbiao Zhang, Xiulin Zhu
      A cyclic copolymer, poly(methoxy-PEG acrylate-co-3-(4-benzoylphenoxy) propyl acrylate), was successfully synthesized by Cu(0)-mediated controlled radical polymerization and Cu(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition “click” chemistry. The self-assembly behaviours of the linear and cyclic copolymers were investigated. Subsequently, the linear and cyclic copolymers were used to disperse the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an aqueous medium. The results showed that cyclic copolymers could form uniformly stable, spherical morphologies by self-assembly more easily than their linear counterparts under the same conditions. Cyclic copolymers were also found to better disperse SWCNTs, thereby extending the applications of SWCNTs in an aqueous medium.

      PubDate: 2017-02-28T18:16:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.011
       
  • Performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) in bulk heterojunction solar cells:
           Influence of polymer size and size distribution
    • Authors: Jose Jonathan Rubio Arias; Maria de Fatima Vieira Marques
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Jose Jonathan Rubio Arias, Maria de Fatima Vieira Marques
      Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is a versatile polymer that has been deeply studied as a material for electronic devices and also for organic solar cells. This study is a recompilation of the molar mass and polydispersity dependence studies on its charge carrier mobility, crystallinity and PCBM based solar cells. Through the examination of different works, it has been demonstrated the necessity of increasing annealing temperature along molar mass in order to obtain better values of power conversion efficiency. Due to the probable polymer degradation, thermal analysis must be performed in order to approach the observed trend of increasing charge carrier mobility along with molar mass. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) value reported for P3HT: PCBM device is 4.42% for a P3HT with number average molar mass Mn of 43kDa and polydispersity index (PDI) of 2.1. This latter parameter was found to play an important role in the solar cell performance, and it was observed that a narrow molar mass distribution is not always desirable, especially for polymers with high molar masses.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T17:58:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.009
       
  • Hexa(eugenol)cyclotriphosphazene modified bismaleimide resins with unique
           thermal stability and flame retardancy
    • Authors: Xinfang Zhang; Raheel Akram; Shuangkun Zhang; Hanlin Ma; Zhanpeng Wu; Dezhen Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Xinfang Zhang, Raheel Akram, Shuangkun Zhang, Hanlin Ma, Zhanpeng Wu, Dezhen Wu
      We have successfully synthesized high performance bismaleimide based hexa(eugenol)cyclotriphosphazene (HECTP) resin which possess good mechanical, excellent thermal stability at high temperature and flame retardant properties. Hexa(eugenol)cyclotriphosphazene (HECTP) were obtained by the reaction of sodium, eugenol (EG) and hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP). 1H NMR and 31P NMR were employed to confirm the formation of (HECTP). NMR analysis of the HECTP showed that all chlorine (Cl) atoms of HCCP were successfully substituted by sodium (Na) atom of the sodium eugenol. The 4,4′-bismaleimidodiphenylmethane (BMI) was reacted with EG and HECTP to produce BMI-EG1/1 resin with maleimide/allyl unit ratios of 1/1 and BMI-HECTP resins with maleimide/allyl unit ratios of 1/1, 1.5/1, 2/1, 2.5/1 and 3/1, respectively. The characterization results of TGA showed that HECTP could greatly enhance the thermal stability, the residues of BMI-HECTP 1/1, 1.5/1, 2/1, 2.5/1, 3/1 resins were 61%, 63.9%, 68%, 66.2% and 65% respectively. Besides, their flame retardancy were excellent, and the LOI values of all BMI-HECTP resins were 39%, 48.4%, 50.1%, 49.8% and 48.9% respectively, and the results of all BMI-HECTP resins at UL-94 vertical burning tests reached V-0 level and extinguished at once after removing the flame agitator. The flexural strength (77.77–100.03MPa) of all BMI-HECTP resins was higher than that of BMI-EG1/1 (73.93MPa). Furthermore, the impact strength of BMI-HECTP1/1, BMI-HECTP1.5/1 and BMI-HECTP 2/1 were 12.4, 13.3 and 11.94KJ·m−2, respectively, higher than that of BMI-EG1/1(9.42KJ·m−2), except for BMI-HECTP 2.5/1 (9.19KJ·m−2) and BMI-HECTP3/1 (6.14KJ·m−2).

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T17:58:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.010
       
  • Effect of support properties on preparation process and adsorption
           performances of solvent impregnated resins
    • Authors: Yongping Tang; Shenxu Bao; Yimin Zhang; Liang Liang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yongping Tang, Shenxu Bao, Yimin Zhang, Liang Liang
      The effect of support properties on preparation process and adsorption performances of solvent impregnated resins (SIRs) has been studied. Five SIRs were prepared by impregnating di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) in five macroporous absorbent resins (MARs), respectively and used to extract V(IV) from aqueous solutions. The impregnation equilibrium can be fast achieved for the MARs with bigger pore size and specific surface area, where D2EHPA is preferentially adsorbed in the micropores approximately as wall-spreading to form monolayer films, resulting in the relatively high utilization efficiency of extractant and stability of the SIRs. However, the extractant is more likely to accumulate in the macropores and/or mesopores than in the micropores, which leads to the higher mass ratio of extractant and pore-filling percentage in the SIRs with abundant macropores and/or mesopores. D2EHPA can be adsorbed on XAD-7HP fabricated with poly(methyl methacrylate) by virtue of relatively strong Hydrogen-bond, thus it can exist not only inside the pores but also on the surface of the resin, which causes the high mass ratio of extractant and extremely high pore-filling percentage although it contains the minimum pore volume. The relatively strong hydrogen-bond between XAD-7HP and D2EHPA is also believed to be responsible for its high adsorption capacity for V(IV) and utilization efficiency of the impregnated extractant.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T17:58:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.006
       
  • Evaluation of the temperature and molecular weight dependent migration of
           di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate from isotactic polypropylene composites
    • Authors: Adhimoorthy Prasannan; Jheng-Jun Jhu; Chih-Jen Wu; Shuian-Yin Lin; Hsieh-Chih Tsai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Adhimoorthy Prasannan, Jheng-Jun Jhu, Chih-Jen Wu, Shuian-Yin Lin, Hsieh-Chih Tsai
      The development of a process for the bioremediation of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) blended in various polymers, with a low DEHP release rate, has become an essential mission in the packaging materials industry, especially for blood-component storage materials. Hence, polypropylene and DEHP composites were prepared to evaluate their DEHP release behavior at 90°C and 25°C. The physical and chemical properties of the composites were evaluated with various analytical tools. Polypropylene of three different molecular weights was used to compare the different DEHP releasing rates. The incorporation and migration of DEHP significantly followed the crystalline nature of the polymer matrix. The temperature-dependent migration behavior was evaluated by UV–Vis spectroscopy and LC/MS analyses. Among the three different molecular weight PP/DEHP composites, a significantly lower amount of DEHP was released from the higher molecular weight polymer composite due to its enriched crystalline nature. Moreover, the release behavior of DEHP was affected by the molecular weight and crystalline nature of PP, which can strongly hold the plasticizer, and therefore slow down its release. The high molecular weight iPP/DEHP composite may be suitable for blood-component backing materials because of its lower DEHP migration.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T17:32:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.007
       
  • Aspartic acid grafting on cellulose and chitosan for enhanced Nd(III)
           sorption
    • Authors: Ahmed A. Galhoum; Khalid M. Hassan; Osman A. Desouky; Ahmed M. Masoud; Takaya Akashi; Yuka Sakai; Eric Guibal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ahmed A. Galhoum, Khalid M. Hassan, Osman A. Desouky, Ahmed M. Masoud, Takaya Akashi, Yuka Sakai, Eric Guibal
      Cellulose and chitosan have intrinsic sorption properties for Nd(III); however, their efficiency for metal recovery can be easily improved by a relatively simple chemical modification. The grating of aspartic acid via an intermediary chlorination step of the polysaccharides allows increasing sorption capacities due to the specific reactivity of carboxylate groups. The grafting process is confirmed by elemental analysis, FTIR spectrometry, while the physical properties of the derivatives are characterized by XRD (crystallinity) and TGA (thermogravimetric analysis). The sorption properties are carried out by investigating the effect of the pH, studying the uptake kinetics and the evaluating the thermodynamics (sorption isotherms). The sorption properties of modified sorbents are systematically compared to the performance of raw materials. Sorption capacity is doubled after grafting aspartic acid onto biopolymer backbone. Sorption isotherms are described by the Freundlich and the Langmuir equation and maximum sorption capacities reach up to 77–80mgNdg−1 at pH5. The uptake kinetics are described by the pseudo-first order reaction rate and under selected experimental conditions the equilibrium is reached within 3h of contact. The sorption is spontaneous, endothermic. Metal desorption can be successfully performed with 0.5M nitric acid and the sorbents can be recycled for at least 4 sorption/desorption cycles without significant loss in sorption/desorption performances.

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T17:32:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.001
       
  • Characterization of brominated natural rubber by solution-state 2D NMR
           spectroscopy
    • Authors: Nuorn Choothong; Kenichiro Kosugi; Yoshimasa Yamamoto; Seiichi Kawahara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Nuorn Choothong, Kenichiro Kosugi, Yoshimasa Yamamoto, Seiichi Kawahara
      Bromination of natural rubber was analyzed through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in which small 1H and 13C NMR signals, appearing after bromination of natural rubber, were positively assigned by 1D and 2D NMR measurement. The brominated natural rubber (BrDPNR) was prepared by bromination of deproteinized natural rubber (DPNR) with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) in dichloromethane at 303K for 3h under a nitrogen atmosphere. The 13C NMR signals at 20.5, 22, 29, 29.8, 35.8, 40 and 112.4ppm were assigned to the primary and the secondary carbons of the brominated trans-1,4-isoprene units, whereas the signals at 24.5 and 32.6ppm were assigned to the primary and the secondary carbons of the brominated cis-1,4-isoprene units. During the bromination of DPNR with NBS, the isoprene units undergo cis-trans isomerization.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T17:32:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.004
       
  • Preparation of PPy/cellulose fibre as an effective potassium diclofenac
           adsorbent
    • Authors: Bruna Carneiro Pires; Flávia Viana Avelar Dutra; Tienne Aparecida Nascimento; Keyller Bastos Borges
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Bruna Carneiro Pires, Flávia Viana Avelar Dutra, Tienne Aparecida Nascimento, Keyller Bastos Borges
      Cellulose fibre (CF) has been widely employed as an adsorbent because of its effective capacity for adsorbing toxic components of cigarette smoke. There is a lack of studies of CF adsorbing pharmaceuticals from water. Herein, we evaluated the adsorption of potassium diclofenac (PD) from an aqueous medium by CF. In addition, we developed and prepared CF covered with polypyrrole (PPy) to improve the adsorptive capacity for removal of PD. From the infrared characterization, the main bands related to the functional groups of each component, PPy and CF, were identified; in thermogravimetry it was observed that both the CF and composite support relatively high temperatures and in the scanning electron microscopy it was possible to observe that the composite has a fibrous structure related to CF in which PPy particles are aggregated. In adsorption studies of PD in an aqueous medium, the pH, the contact time between the material and analyte and equilibrium concentration were evaluated. The first study carried out was the influence of pH on the adsorbed amount of PD, the optimum pH chosen for the experiments being 2.0 and 6.0 for CF and PPy/CF, respectively. In the kinetic study, adsorption occurred rapidly and equilibrium times were achieved within 30min (CF) and 15min (PPy/CF). The kinetic data were analysed using four models: pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion and the adsorption kinetics were best described by the pseudo-second-order model with R 2 =0.999 for both materials, indicating that a chemical adsorption occurred. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips, single-site Langmuir–Freundlich and dual-site Langmuir–Freundlich models were used to analyse the adsorption equilibrium data obtained by the variation of the PD concentration in the aqueous solution and the dual-site Langmuir–Freundlich model presented the best fits, CF: R 2 =0.982 and PPy/CF: R 2 =0.997, indicating that there are two types of sites available for adsorption, homogeneous and heterogeneous, in the assessed materials. In addition, the composite had the best maximum adsorptive capacity, Q =210.07mgg−1, while the CF presented Q =50.33mgg−1. Nano impact Herein, we presented the preparation of cellulose fibre (CF) decorated with polypyrrole (PPy) as an efficient adsorbent for removal of potassium diclofenac (PD) from aqueous medium, which can be used in separation process as solid phase extraction and chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques. The kinetics and isotherms studies showed a great potential of this material for this purpose. The PPy/CF were prepared via in situ polymerization and characterized by FTIR, TG and SEM.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-14T17:32:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.002
       
  • Extraction of plutonium using DIPEX immobilized in polystyrene thin films
    • Authors: Hakim Boukhalfa; Dominic S. Peterson; Edward R. Gonzales; Crystal L. Tulley-Cordova; Sowmitri Tarimala; Stuart D. Ware
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Hakim Boukhalfa, Dominic S. Peterson, Edward R. Gonzales, Crystal L. Tulley-Cordova, Sowmitri Tarimala, Stuart D. Ware
      We previously reported the development of thin films functionalized with P,P′-di(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid (DIPEX) applied to the extraction and analysis (by alpha spectrometry) of actinide samples. Here we report the full characterization of the films' ability to extract Pu(III), Pu(IV), Pu(V), Pu(VI), and colloidal Pu(IV) under various chemical conditions. For all oxidation states, plutonium partitioning onto DIPEX-polystyrene thin films was less effective than that onto liquid DIPEX. The weight distribution ratios calculated for the thin film extraction efficiency for the different oxidation states were Pu(IV)>Pu(III)>Pu(VI)≅Pu(V)≅colloidal Pu(IV) and were >103 times lower than the distribution ratios observed for liquid DIPEX. Application of the DIPEX-polystyrene thin films for the qualitative processing of contaminated soil samples was very effective; however, the films were less effective for the processing of large water samples with trace levels of plutonium.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T09:04:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.01.008
       
  • The influence of adding functionality to dispersant and particle core
           compositions in non-aqueous dispersion polymerization
    • Authors: Weiwei Yang; Robin A. Hutchinson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Weiwei Yang, Robin A. Hutchinson
      Nano-sized polyacrylate colloids (<200nm) at high solids level (~60wt%) are prepared via non-aqueous dispersion (NAD) semibatch polymerization using n-butyl methacrylate (BMA)-based macromer dispersants of varying chain lengths and levels of functionality provided by incorporation of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) comonomer. The effect of building the complexity of the core polymer recipe from methyl acrylate homopolymer to a five-monomer composition is systematically studied. While average particle size increased with the introduction of functional comonomers, the resulting NAD systems remained stable for all core compositions using both BMA macromers and a copolymer macromer containing 5mol% HEMA. However, introduction of the HEMA functionality to the dispersant at levels of >5mol% led to destabilization of the dispersion. The polarity differences between the core compositions and dispersant polymers and the mixed continuous medium, as represented by Hansen solubility parameters, are qualitatively used to interpret the nucleation of particles and the effectiveness of the dispersants.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T10:43:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.01.005
       
  • Multi-layer dextran-decorated poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-co-divinyl
           benzene copolymer matrices enabling efficient protein chromatographic
           separation
    • Authors: Kun Zhang; Qiang Li; Hong Fan; Suning Li; Yue Su; Lan Zhao; Yongdong Huang; Dan Wang; Zhigang Zhang; Zhiguo Su; Guanghui Ma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Kun Zhang, Qiang Li, Hong Fan, Suning Li, Yue Su, Lan Zhao, Yongdong Huang, Dan Wang, Zhigang Zhang, Zhiguo Su, Guanghui Ma
      A strategy to prepare natural polysaccharide-decorated pGMA-DVB by grafting dextran groups was proposed for the development of efficient protein chromatographic separation. Prepared pGMA-DVB microspheres were covalently decorated with dextran through a three-step scheme. Firstly, residual vinyl groups on polymer particles were converted to epoxy groups. Secondly, one layer of dextran was covalently coupled on the microspheres by reacting with epoxy groups in solvent. Thirdly, multi-layer dextran was grafted to microspheres in alkali aqueous solutions. The dextran-decorated microspheres named pGMA-DVB-Dextran were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscope, and protein adsorption experiment. Consequently, compared to several commercial hydrophilic beads such as Sepharose® 4FF and POROS® OH, the permeability and hydrophilicity of the modified microspheres were improved, the contact angle decreased from 153° to 0°, and nonspecific adsorption of proteins was decreased to zero. The covalently drafting amount of dextran onto pGMA-DVB was increased to 241.86mg/mL microspheres, and the dextran layers were stable after washing with 1M HCL/NaOH solutions. Functional ligands such as Protein A or DEAE coupled to pGMA-DVB-Dextran can be conveniently used to separation model protein, IgG or BSA, with >99.5% recovery yield and high dynamic binding capacity, respectively.

      PubDate: 2017-01-14T10:36:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.01.003
       
  • Chemically modified natural rubber latex - poly(vinyl alcohol) blend
           membranes for organic dye release
    • Authors: Janisha Jayadevan; Rosamma Alex; Unnikrishnan Gopalakrishnapanicker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Janisha Jayadevan, Rosamma Alex, Unnikrishnan Gopalakrishnapanicker
      Novel blend membranes were prepared from chemically modified natural rubber latex (NRL) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for release application. Chemical modification of NRL was done by grafting (dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (DMAEMA) onto NR particles by using a redox initiator system viz; cumene hydroperoxide/tetraethylenepentamine (CHP/TEPA), followed by dialysis for purification. The grafting was confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The grafted NRL was subsequently blended with PVA to make uniform membranes by solvent casting at 60±2°C. The blend membranes were characterised by FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and thermogravimetry (TGA). Moisture uptake, swelling and water contact angle experiments showed an increased hydrophilicity when the PVA content in the blend membranes was increased. Scanning electron microscopic investigations indicated the formation of pores in the membranes after a leaching cycle. The potential of the membrane for the use in the release application was tested with model organic dyes rhodamine B, methyl orange and fluorescein. Results from the release study indicate that the membranes can be used for the release of cationic dyes.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T10:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.01.001
       
  • Microgels from microfluidic templating and photoinduced crosslinking of
           cinnamylidene acetic acid modified precursors
    • Authors: D. Ceylan Tuncaboylu; C. Wischke; F. Störmann; A. Lendlein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): D. Ceylan Tuncaboylu, C. Wischke, F. Störmann, A. Lendlein
      So far, a number of approaches to synthesize microgel networks have been followed, while only in few cases a detailed control of the network architecture has been possible. Here, the photoinduced [2+2] cycloaddition reaction of cinnamylidene acetic acid (CAA) moieties coupled to four-arm star shaped oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) precursors was explored for the creation of microgels with defined polymer network structures. Based on a rational solvent selection and precursor dispersion in glass-capillary microfluidics, microgels could be successfully prepared by the proposed synthesis approach. Model reactions confirmed a quantitative network formation. Therefore, compared to common radical polymerization for microgel crosslinking, CAA-dimerization may be an alternative approach particularly when well defined network structures are desired.

      PubDate: 2017-01-06T10:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2016.12.015
       
  • Progress on nanocrystalline cellulose biocomposites
    • Authors: Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli; Samira Bagheri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli, Samira Bagheri
      Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) a rigid rod-like nanoscale material, can be produced from cellulosic biomass including wood and non-wood based materials in powder, liquid or gel form by acid and chemical hydrolysis. Owing to its unique and exceptional renewability, biodegradability, mechanical, physicochemical properties and characteristics of abundance, the incorporation of a small amount of NCC to the materials matrix (polymer, ceramic and/or metal) enhances the mechanical strength of the latter by several orders of magnitudes. Besides, NCC as a material derived from natural sources has no serious environmental concerns, providing further impetus for the development and applications of this green and renewable biomaterial to fabricate lightweight and biodegradable composites. Surface functionalization of NCC remains the main focus of NCC research to tailor its properties for dispersion in hydrophilic and hydrophobic media. It is of uttermost importance to develop tools and protocols for imaging of NCC in a complex matrix and quantify its reinforcement, antimicrobial, stability, hydrophilicity and biodegradability effect. This review highlights NCC biocomposites, preparation, modification, and potential applications.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T10:16:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2016.12.013
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.145.81.105
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016