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Journal Cover Reactive and Functional Polymers
  [SJR: 0.8]   [H-I: 72]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1381-5148
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Bio-based phthalonitrile compounds: Synthesis, curing behavior,
           thermomechanical and thermal properties
    • Authors: An-ran Wang; Abdul Qadeer Dayo; Li-wu Zu; Yi-le Xu; Dan Lv; Sha Song; Tao Tang; Wen-bin Liu; Jun Wang; Bao-chang Gao
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 127
      Author(s): An-ran Wang, Abdul Qadeer Dayo, Li-wu Zu, Yi-le Xu, Dan Lv, Sha Song, Tao Tang, Wen-bin Liu, Jun Wang, Bao-chang Gao
      Two bio-based phthalonitrile (PN) monomers, eugenol-based phthalonitrile (EPN) and guaiacol-based phthalonitrile (GPN), were successfully synthesized by the reaction of 4-nitrophthalonitrile with eugenol and guaiacol derived from clove and lignin, respectively, in the presence of potassium carbonate via nucleophilic substitution reaction. Their chemical structures were confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonances (1H and 13C NMR), and elemental analysis. The curing behavior of the blends of the prepared PN monomers with 10 wt% of 4-(4-aminophenoxy)-phthalonitrile (4-APN) as curing agent was evaluated by FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), while rheometer was used to analyze the processability of the blends. Moreover, the thermomechanical and thermal properties of the polymers were studied by dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results confirmed that the bio-based PN monomers and its blends show low melting temperatures, wide processing windows (>186 °C), and low melt viscosity (<0.03 Pa·s). The cured bio-based PN resins exhibited higher glass transition temperature and better thermal stability and toughness than those of typical bisphenol A-based phthalonitrile polymer. Meanwhile, the phthalodinitrile resins form a homogeneous, void-free network structure, which also confirm the excellent thermal and mechanical properties of the polymers.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.017
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Thiol-yne photo-clickable electrospun phase change materials for thermal
           energy storage
    • Authors: Burcu Oktay; Emre Baştürk; Memet Vezir Kahraman; Nilhan Kayaman Apohan
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 127
      Author(s): Burcu Oktay, Emre Baştürk, Memet Vezir Kahraman, Nilhan Kayaman Apohan
      Fatty acids, fatty acid esters and fatty acid composites have been widely accepted materials as PCMs. In the present work, nanosilica reinforced nanofiber composite was prepared as PCMs. First, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nanosilica was modified with mercaptopropionic acid and 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane respectively and thiolated-PVA-nanosilica nanofibers were prepared by using electrospinning. Stearic acid was used for long chain fatty acid. Then stearic acid was functionalized with propargyl groups to introduce thiol-yne clickable sites. Finally, various amounts of stearic propargyl ester were reacted with thiolated-PVA-nanosilica nanofibers, following to UV-induced thiol-yne click reaction by UV-irradiation at 365 nm between thiol groups of nanofiber and propargyl groups of stearic propargyl ester. The structural characterization was performed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The morphologies of nanofibers after and before modification were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is said that nanofibers have uniform diameter size. Thermal and phase change behaviors of the electrospun nanofibers were investigated. Thiolated-PVA nanofiber showed no phase change behavior. With the addition of stearic propargyl ester increased phase change enthalpy of the PVA nanofibers from 0 J/g to 37 J/g. The freezing cycle phase change enthalpy was also observed and was found between −13 and − 47 J/g.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Dual conductivity of ionic polyacetylene by the metathesis
           cyclopolymerization of dendronized triazolium-functionalized
           1,6-heptadiyne
    • Authors: Hongfei Li; Junfang Wang; Huijing Han; Jianhua Wu; Meiran Xie
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 127
      Author(s): Hongfei Li, Junfang Wang, Huijing Han, Jianhua Wu, Meiran Xie
      Ionic polyacetylenes (iPAs) with the trans configuration and a five-membered ring structure were synthesized by the metathesis cyclopolymerization of dendronized triazolium-functionalized 1,6-heptadiyne. The iPAs bearing flexible pendants had a low glass transition temperature of −37 °C, a high decomposition temperature of 349 °C, and a relatively high intrinsic ionic conductivity of 7.3 × 10−5 S·cm−1 at room temperature, which further increased to 1.4 × 10−4 S·cm−1 by doping with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. Moreover, the iodine-doped iPAs exhibited dual conductivity, i.e., ionic and electronic conductivities of 7.1 × 10−5 and 5.0 × 10−5 S·cm−1, respectively. Therefore, the conjugated iPAs with a good film-forming property provide a potential for making dual-conductive flexible electronics.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Transport properties of multilayer active PET films with different layers
           configuration
    • Authors: A. Apicella; P. Scarfato; L. Di Maio; L. Incarnato
      Pages: 29 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 127
      Author(s): A. Apicella, P. Scarfato, L. Di Maio, L. Incarnato
      The integration of active scavengers inside polymeric films is still facing technological difficulties related to material storage and handling, because of the rapid exhaustion of the scavenger due to the reduced thickness involved. Therefore, the development of multilayer active structures and the optimization of active and inert layers configuration represent crucial points to achieve the best performance. In this article, the effect of different layouts on the transport properties of multilayer active PET films is investigated. Symmetrical, “IAI” films were produced by means of cast co-extrusion process, inserting the active layer (A), containing the oxygen scavenger, between two inert layers (I). Four different layouts were obtained, combining two thicknesses for the active layer and two for the inert layers. Oxygen absorption measurements pointed out the effectiveness of the inert layers in prolonging the scavenging activity of the active phase, controlling the oxygen diffusive flux through the core layer. The results highlighted the impact of the multilayer films configuration on the scavenging parameters (initial oxygen scavenging rate, exhaustion time, amount of oxygen absorbed per unit surface and scavenging capacity), the possibility to discriminate the individual contributions of active and inert layers and the good reproducibility of the films scavenging performance. Furthermore, results revealed the effect of the oxygen scavenger phase on PET morphology and functional properties, regarding the crystallization process, the oxygen permeability and tensile parameters.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Thermally rearranged polybenzoxazoles made from poly(ortho-hydroxyamide)s.
           Characterization and evaluation as gas separation membranes
    • Authors: Blanca Díez; Purificación Cuadrado; Ángel Marcos-Fernández; José G. de la Campa; Alberto Tena; Pedro Prádanos; Laura Palacio; Young Moo Lee; Cristina Alvarez; Ángel E. Lozano; Antonio Hernández
      Pages: 38 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 127
      Author(s): Blanca Díez, Purificación Cuadrado, Ángel Marcos-Fernández, José G. de la Campa, Alberto Tena, Pedro Prádanos, Laura Palacio, Young Moo Lee, Cristina Alvarez, Ángel E. Lozano, Antonio Hernández
      Two series of aromatic poly(ortho-hydroxyamide)s (poly(o-hydroxyamide)s, HPAs) were prepared by reaction of two diamines, 2,2-bis(3-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl) propane (APA) and 2,2-bis(3-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane (APAF), with four aromatic diacid chlorides; terephthaloyl dichloride (TPC), isophthaloyl dichloride (IPC), 2,2-bis[4-chlorocarbonylphenyl)hexafluoropropane (6FC) and 4,4′-sulfonyldibenzoyl dichloride (DBSC). Amorphous HPAs with high molecular weights (inherent viscosities higher than 0.5 dL/g) and relatively high glass transition temperatures (220–280 °C) were obtained. Dense membranes of HPAs were able to undergo a thermal rearrangement (TR) process to polybenzoxazoles (β-TR-PBOs) heating at moderate temperatures (between 250 and 375 °C), and their complete conversion was reached at a temperature below 375 °C, depending on the o-hydroxy diamine moiety, APA and APAF. The β-TR-PBOs films derived from APAF showed a higher thermal stability and higher Tg than those from APA. Gas separation properties of TR-PBOs membranes were superior to those of their poly(o-hydroxyamide) precursors, particularly for the following gas pairs: O2/N2, CO2/CH4, He/CH4 and He/CO2.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Design of experiments as tools to tailor impregnated polymers specific for
           radionuclides separation in microsystems
    • Authors: Marion Losno; Ivan Ferrante; René Brennetot; Stéphanie Descroix; Clarisse Mariet
      Pages: 48 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 127
      Author(s): Marion Losno, Ivan Ferrante, René Brennetot, Stéphanie Descroix, Clarisse Mariet
      An experimental design is described for optimization of the microscopic morphology of a methacrylate monolith that was elaborated for chromatographic separation of radionuclides in nitric acid media. This paper presents a systematic study of the synthesis of the polymeric porous monolith poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-co-allyl methacrylate) used as solid-phase support and a post-functionalization of the monolith in microsystem with tributyl phosphate extractant. Polymerization time and chemical composition of the polymerizable mixture that comprises water, 1,4-butanediol, 1-propanol, monomers were chosen as the most relevant experimental factors of the photochemical process. Using the globules area as a significant response of an experimental design, the monolith morphology can be predicted. A new versatile and robust impregnation process was developed in microsystem. The designed micro chromatographic system showed a good resistance in concentrated nitric acid and a great loading capacity compared to commercially available solution (150 mg U versus 75 mgU/g resin).

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Novel chitosan grafted zinc containing nanoclay polymer biocomposite
           (CZNCPBC): Controlled release formulation (CRF) of Zn2+
    • Authors: Nintu Mandal; S.C. Datta; K.M. Manjaiah; B.S. Dwivedi; Lata Nain; R. Kumar; P. Aggarwal
      Pages: 55 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 127
      Author(s): Nintu Mandal, S.C. Datta, K.M. Manjaiah, B.S. Dwivedi, Lata Nain, R. Kumar, P. Aggarwal
      Series of chitosan grafted zinc containing nanoclay polymer bio-composites (CZNCPBCs) with variable percentage (8%, 10% and 12%) of clay and nanoclay were synthesized by a novel method. Clays as well as CZNCPBCs were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Release study of Zn2+ from CZNCPBCs in Zn deficient soils revealed that combination having 12% nanoclay showed slowest release rate. Olsen-P content was found maximum in 8% clay containing composite. However, combination containing 8% clay recorded highest equilibrium water absorbency as well as moisture content at a particular tension. Inoculation with fungal species revealed that Aspergillus spp. was more effective as compared with Trichoderma spp. in evolution of cumulative CO2-C, indirectly indicating biodegradability. CZNCPBCs were found to be promising as controlled release (CR) Zn2+ fertilizer formulation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) for removing chromium (VI)
           through polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration technique
    • Authors: Julio Sánchez; Carolina Espinosa; Fabian Pooch; Heikki Tenhu; Guadalupe del C. Pizarro; Diego P. Oyarzún
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 127
      Author(s): Julio Sánchez, Carolina Espinosa, Fabian Pooch, Heikki Tenhu, Guadalupe del C. Pizarro, Diego P. Oyarzún
      This work is focused on the removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution using polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF) techniques with water-soluble poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate), PDMAEMA, used as sorbent. The polymer was prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization at different reaction times, characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The sorption of Cr(VI) was studied by PEUF as a function of pH, the polymer:Cr(VI) molar ratio, and the presence of interfering ions. The PEUF-enrichment mode was used to saturate the polymer and further determine the release of Cr(VI) and regeneration of the polymer using sorption-desorption process. The RAFT polymerization showed a yield in the range 46% to 79% (determined by 1H NMR) for polymers with molecular weight (Mn) between 28 and 195 kg mol−1. The polydispersity estimated by SEC was between 1.1 and 1.8. The capacity of PDMAEMA as sorbent of Cr(VI), by the PEUF technique showed an efficient removal of Cr(VI) (100%, 25 mg L−1 in the feed) at pH 4 using polymer:Cr molar ratio of 40:1. The presence of interfering ions does not significantly decrease the retention capacity of PDMAEMA. Finally the results indicated that PDMAEMA can release Cr(VI) and be regenerated.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • Urease catalytic behaviors induced by both urea and salt concentrations in
           ion-exchange hydrogels as dialysis membranes
    • Authors: K.B. Goh; Hua Li; K.Y. Lam
      Pages: 74 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): K.B. Goh, Hua Li, K.Y. Lam
      This paper provides an insight into the urease catalytic responsive behaviors in ion-exchange hydrogels, subjected to variation of environmental concentrations of urea and sodium chloride with different urease enzymatic properties, including catalytic and Michaelis constants. Herein, a multiphysics model is formulated to quantify the catalytic activity of the immobilized urease, accounting for the multiphysics interaction between the environmental solution and the functional components of the urease-loaded charged hydrogel, including the immobilized urease, fixed charge group, the polymeric network chains. The effects of both the urease inactivation and denaturation are also incorporated into the model to capture the pH- coupled with temperature-induced urease catalytic behaviors. It is found that the urease catalytic activity patterns differ in anionic and cationic urease-loaded hydrogels, when subjected to the increase in environmental concentration of sodium chloride at a relatively higher environmental concentration of urea. It is also observed that the urease catalytic activity remains almost unchanged, when the environmental pH increases above the acid-base dissociation constant pK of the present charged hydrogel. Consequently, these findings would facilitate the development of a high-performance hydrogel-based dialysis membrane for highly efficient removal of the toxic urea and separation of the ionic metabolites in an wearable artificial kidney system.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 127 (2018)
       
  • The synthesis of molecular recognition polymer particles via miniemulsion
           polymerization
    • Authors: Zehu Wang; Teng Qiu; Longhai Guo; Jun Ye; Lifan He; Xiaoyu Li
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 126
      Author(s): Zehu Wang, Teng Qiu, Longhai Guo, Jun Ye, Lifan He, Xiaoyu Li
      In this work, we demonstrate a miniemulsion polymerization strategy to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) submicron particles. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupting chemical, is chosen as the template molecule. The template was dissolved in the mixture of the functional monomer and crosslinking agent. The monomer mixture was emulsified into miniemulsion with the droplet diameter of about 100 nm via sonication. The specific sites were immobilized into polymer particles through the radical polymerization in the droplets. After the extraction of the template, MIP particles were obtained with an average diameter of 138 nm. The formation of recognition sites on the particles was validated by the excellent binding capability towards BPA in the selective and competitive binding experiments. Benefited from the small particle sizes and large surface areas, the MIP particles exhibit accelerated adsorption kinetics. The particles with submicron sizes, excellent BPA recognition accuracy and rebinding efficiency would be attractive in environmental and analytic fields for BPA decontamination.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Molecularly imprinted ultrafiltration polysulfone membrane with specific
           nano-cavities for selective separation and enrichment of paclitaxel from
           plant extract
    • Authors: Sahar Ghasemi; Ali Nematollahzadeh
      Pages: 9 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 126
      Author(s): Sahar Ghasemi, Ali Nematollahzadeh
      Molecular imprinting technology (MIT) was employed to fabricate polysulfone (PSf) membranes with specific nano-cavities for selective separation and enrichment of paclitaxel from a neat solution and also from yew tree extract. Polymer/template ratio, feed concentration, and the template extractor solvent were optimized. In accordance with the paclitaxel molecular dimension, the specific nano-cavities size was predicted to be 2.18 × 1.16 nm. The membranes were characterized in terms of pure water flux, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), adsorption and diffusion, porosity, contact angle, and fouling. The results revealed that water flux through the molecularly imprinted membrane (MiM) is slightly less than that for the non-imprinted membrane (NiM), although the other properties relatively enhanced. For an in-depth understanding of the separation performance, the optimized membrane was analyzed by Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). ATR-FTIR spectra and SEM images showed no significant difference between the imprinted and non-imprinted membranes, while DRS spectra revealed a spatial orientation in the polymer chain. At the optimum condition (paclitaxel concentration in the dope solution =0.5 wt%, feed initial concentration = 20 ppm, and ethanol/water ratio = 50:50 v/v) the MiM exhibited relatively high ability to recognize and separate paclitaxel with imprinting factor of 2.28. The reuse of the MiM up to 3 repeated cycles showed no obvious deterioration in the performance. Furthermore, in a single pass MiM could enrich paclitaxel from a crude yew tree extract, a real or complex solution, up to 48%, which could be quite encouraging from industrial and pharmaceutical points of view.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • A water-insoluble viologen-based β-cyclodextrin polymer for selective
           adsorption toward anionic dyes
    • Authors: Xuemei Li; Mingjuan Zhou; Jiaxin Jia; Qiong Jia
      Pages: 20 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 126
      Author(s): Xuemei Li, Mingjuan Zhou, Jiaxin Jia, Qiong Jia
      The viologen-based β-cyclodextrin polymer (V-CDP) was successfully prepared via a Menshutkin reaction for the first time, and its organic dyes uptake capacities were investigated. The synthesized polymer showed BET surface area of 22 m2 g−1 and exhibited highly charge-selective adsorption of anionic dyes, i.e. congo red and methyl orange. Remarkably, the polymer could efficiently absorb anionic dyes from binary cationic-anionic dye mixtures in a 1:1 mass ratio. The adsorption process of the two anionic dyes on the polymer both followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation and the Langmuir adsorption model. According to the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity of V-CDP for congo red and methyl orange was calculated to be 323 mg g−1 and 370 mg g−1, respectively. Additionally, the polymer can be easily regenerated and reused at least 5 times with no loss of adsorption efficiency, demonstrating its potential application in dye removal.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Adsorption of phenolic compounds onto calix[4]arene-bonded silica gels
           from aqueous solutions
    • Authors: Yasemin Ekin Dolaksiz; Farabi Temel; Mustafa Tabakci
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 126
      Author(s): Yasemin Ekin Dolaksiz, Farabi Temel, Mustafa Tabakci
      This article describes the preparation of calix[4]arene-bonded silica gels (C[4]BS and DMC[4]BS), and their application to the removal of some selected phenolic compounds such as phenol (PHE), p-chlorophenol (PCP), m-nitrophenol (MNP) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) from aqueous solutions by adsorption method. In initial adsorption experiments appeared that C[4]BS was much more effective in adsorption of PNP rather than PHE, PCP and MNP, whereas DMC[4]BS exhibited too little adsorption ability towards all phenols. Herein, it was concluded that the hydrogen bonding capacities of both phenols and calix[4]arene based adsorbents played a predominant role in the interactions between adsorbate and adsorbent within the adsorption mechanism. Thus, in subsequent studies, the C[4]BS was employed as an adsorbent in the adsorption of PNP, and adsorption conditions were optimized. Furthermore, isotherm and kinetic studies were performed to clarify the phenomena of PNP adsorption onto C[4]BS.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Adsorption and flame retardant properties of potassium diphenyl sulfonate
           on nylon 6 fabric
    • Authors: Wen Zhang; Ren-Cheng Tang
      Pages: 36 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 126
      Author(s): Wen Zhang, Ren-Cheng Tang
      Flame retardant (FR) functionalization is widely recognized as one of the most difficult problems in the chemical processing of nylon 6 and 6.6 textiles. In the present work, potassium diphenyl sulfonate (KSS) originally used as an effective additive of FR polycarbonate was employed to improve the FR ability of nylon 6 fabric for the first time. A dipping adsorption process similar to acid dyeing was applied, and the adsorption and FR properties of KSS on nylon fabric were studied. The adsorption quantity of KSS depended greatly on the pH of its solution. The adsorption isotherm of KSS on nylon at pH 2 fitted a dual adsorption mechanism consisting of Langmuir and Nernst type models. The adsorption kinetic process of KSS followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The limiting oxygen index and vertical burning tests demonstrated that a low dosage of KSS could impart good FR performance to nylon fabric. However, such FR nylon fabric suffered from poor washing resistance due to the good water solubility of KSS. The syntan originally designed for improving the wash color fastness of acid dyes on nylon could be employed to greatly enhance the washing durability of the FR nylon fabric.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Photo-crosslinked mechanically strong PCL4-PDMAEM hydrogels
    • Authors: Deniz Ceylan Tuncaboylu
      Pages: 44 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 126
      Author(s): Deniz Ceylan Tuncaboylu
      In this study, a series of thermo-responsive hydrogels based on N′N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEM) and methacrylate functionalized poly(caprolactone) (PCL4-IEMA) were prepared by bulk photo-polymerization method. Poly(caprolactone) (PCL) was modified with 2-isocyanatoethylmethacrylate (IEMA) to form a macro-crosslinker due to its excellent biocompatibility to generate high-strength smart hydrogels with pH and temperature responsivity. The synthesized macro-crosslinker and PCL4-PDMAEM hydrogel were characterized by 1H NMR, GPC and FT-IR analyses. Sol-gel transitions were examined by oscillatory measurements in Rheometer under UV light. Swelling kinetics as a function of time, swelling ratios at different pH values and temperatures were studied. pH responsive swelling behavior of PCL4-PDMEAM hydrogels was demonstrated with a highest swelling value at pH = 2. Temperature responsivity was also proved with a LCST around 40 °C between the shrunken and swollen state. Young modulus of the sample was also calculated around 0.3 MPa. The results indicated that using PCL4-IEMA as a macro-crosslinker is an effective way to obtain mechanically strong - tough - hydrogels by means of dissipating the applied energy through flexible crosslink units. In addition, swelling and mechanical properties of the hydrogels could be tailored by varying the amount of the crosslinker.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Hydroxyl-functionalized amphiphilic triblock copolyesters made of tartaric
           and lactic acids: Synthesis and nanoparticle formation
    • Authors: Elena Zakharova; Antxon Martínez de Ilarduya; Salvador León; Sebastián Muñoz-Guerra
      Pages: 52 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 126
      Author(s): Elena Zakharova, Antxon Martínez de Ilarduya, Salvador León, Sebastián Muñoz-Guerra
      Bio-based triblock copolyesters were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide in solution using a hydroxyl-ended polytartrate as di-functional macroinitiator. This telechelic polyester with a M n about 3000 g·mol−1 was obtained by non-stoichiometric melt polycondensation of dimethyl 2,3-di-O-isopropylidene-l-tartrate and 1,4-butanediol. Two symmetrical triblock copolyesters with M n in the 5000–7000 g·mol−1 range and differing in the length of the polylactide blocks were prepared. The protecting isopropylidene group was removed in trifluoracetic acid to generate amphiphilic triblock copolyesters bearing free hydroxyl groups in the central block. All copolyesters started to decompose approximately at 260–280 °C, were semicrystalline, and readily degraded by hydrolysis of the main chain under both acid and basic conditions. The acetalized copolyesters had a single T g, whereas free-hydroxyl bearing copolyesters showed two T g indicative of blocks phase separation. All copolyesters were able to form nanoparticles with average diameters within the ~200–450 nm range. The influence of the block lengths and protection/deprotection of the hydroxyl groups on size and ζ-potential of the nanoparticles was evaluated.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Imidazole end-functionalized polycyclooctenes from chain-transfer
           ring-opening metathesis polymerization and aminolysis reactions
    • Authors: Bengi Özgün Öztürk; Gülşah Çalışgan; Halenur Özer; Solmaz Karabulut Şehitoğlu
      Pages: 63 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 126
      Author(s): Bengi Özgün Öztürk, Gülşah Çalışgan, Halenur Özer, Solmaz Karabulut Şehitoğlu
      Imidazole end-functionalized polycyclooctene derivatives were synthesized using a two-step procedure; combining ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP)/cross-metathesis (CM) and aminolysis reaction. ROMP/CM of cyclooctene (COE) in the presence of methyl-10-undecenoate (MU) as a chain transfer agent in the presence of Grubbs first generation catalyst (G1) at 40 °C afforded mono ester end-functionalized (MF) as the major and bis ester end-functionalized (DF) polycyclooctene as the minor product. No isomerized mono ester end-functionalized (IMF) polycyclooctene was formed during G1 catalyzed ROMP/CM reactions. The post-polymerization modification of MF in the presence of 1-(3-aminopropyl) imidazole and different catalysts (Sn(Oct)2, Ti(OiPr)4 and triazabicyclodecene (TBD) in THF at 70 °C afforded imidazole end-functionalized polyolefins in excellent yields. All polymers were characterized by means of MALDI ToF-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry and Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) analyses. The solvent selectivity and catalyst screening experiments were carried out for both ROMP/CM and aminolysis reactions to determine the optimum reaction conditions.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Graft copolymerization by ionization radiation, characterization, and
           enzymatic activity of temperature-responsive SR-g-PNVCL loaded with
           lysozyme
    • Authors: Victor H. Pino-Ramos; Guadalupe G. Flores-Rojas; Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo; Angel Concheiro; Emilio Bucio
      Pages: 74 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 126
      Author(s): Victor H. Pino-Ramos, Guadalupe G. Flores-Rojas, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo, Angel Concheiro, Emilio Bucio
      Advanced polymeric materials suitable as components of implantable or insertable medical devices and endowed with the ability to host safe antimicrobial enzymes are attracting much attention. The aim of this work was to surface-modify silicone rubber (SR) films with N-vinylcaprolactam (NVCL) to reversibly load and release lysozyme. NVCL was first grafted onto SR film applying a direct gamma-ray irradiation method in order to provide SR with temperature-responsive hydrophilic nanobrushes coating. The effect of absorbed dose and monomer concentration on the grafting yield was studied in detail. Temperature-sensitive SR-g-NVCL films were characterized by FTIR-ATR, CP/MAS 13C NMR, DSC, TGA, and SEM. Elasticity properties of grafted films were recorded. The hydrophilicity of modified films was analyzed through swelling degree and water contact angle. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of SR-g-NVCL was studied in aqueous media. Lysozyme (Lyz) was successfully loaded onto graft copolymer surface via weak electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Antimicrobial activity of SR-g-PNVCL-Lyz films was demonstrated in vitro against Micrococcus lysodeikticus.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Transesterification of triolein with ethanol using lipase-entrapped
           NIPA-co-PEGMEA gel beads
    • Authors: Hideaki Tokuyama; Ayaka Naito; Gakuto Kato
      Pages: 83 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 126
      Author(s): Hideaki Tokuyama, Ayaka Naito, Gakuto Kato
      Monodisperse, millimeter-sized, lipase-entrapped NIPA-co-PEGMEA (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate) gel beads were prepared by sedimentation polymerization. The feasibility of the lipase-entrapped gel for use in biodiesel fuel (BDF) production was evaluated by studying its catalytic performance in transesterification of triolein with ethanol as the model. The reaction rate was expressed by the ping-pong bi-bi mechanism with ethanol inhibition; the parameters for the immobilized lipase were as follows; the maximum reaction rate, V max, was 0.405 mol/(min kg − Lipase PS); the Michaelis constants for triolein and ethanol, K m,T and K m,EtOH, were 481 and 1770 mol/m3, respectively; the ethanol inhibition constant, K i, was 394 mol/m3. The NIPA-co-PEGMEA gel support improved the stability of the immobilized lipase. We developed a water-washing process wherein the by-product glycerol, which is absorbed and accumulated in the NIPA-co-PEGMEA gel, is removed, so that the lipase-entrapped gel could be reused for multiple cycles (10 cycles were confirmed). The glycerol absorbability of the NIPA-co-PEGMEA gel makes it promising for use in facile BDF production, as it allows for the simultaneous enzymatic reaction and glycerol removal.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Novel fluorescent hyperbranched aliphatic polyestertriazole as efficient
           probe for detecting Hg2+ in water
    • Authors: Hui-Juan Li; Sheng-Qi Chen; Peng-Yun Li; Abdul Haleem; Chuan-Shan Hu; Xi-Chuan Li; Wei-Xiang Xie; Wei-Dong He
      Pages: 87 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 126
      Author(s): Hui-Juan Li, Sheng-Qi Chen, Peng-Yun Li, Abdul Haleem, Chuan-Shan Hu, Xi-Chuan Li, Wei-Xiang Xie, Wei-Dong He
      Photo-luminescent polymers as a kind of talent functional polymer, have been applied in various field such as bioanalysis, detection and materials. Herein we report a novel fluorescent hyperbranched aliphatic polyestertriazole via one-pot azidation and azide-alkynyl cycloaddition of propargyl (2,2-bismethylsulfinyloxymethyl)propionate, an AB2 pre-monomer, by heat promotion at 110 °C. Under such reaction condition, the methylsulfinyloxy groups were converted into azido groups by NaN3, then azide-alkynyl cycloaddition simultaneously happened to give hyperbranched polyestertriazole (hb-PETA). By the analysis of reaction kinetics monitored with proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the results clarifies that the whole synthesis was achieved efficiently. The obtained hb-PETA exhibited the blue fluorescence in both bulk and solution upon the exposure of UV light although it had no conventional fluorescent group. The emission wavelength and intensity of hb-PETA in solution were dependent on the solvent and the addition of metal ions. Among various metal ions, hb-PETA was particularly sensitive to Hg2+, Cu2+ and Fe3+ in water, and showed the excellent quenching efficiency for Hg2+. Moreover, the Hg2+ detecting in water could be achieved highly rapidly and sensitively. We believe this kind of functional polymer could be used in other biological and material area.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 126 (2018)
       
  • Poly (1, 4-diazocane-5, 8-dione) macrocyclic-functionalized hydrogel for
           high selectivity transition metal ion adsorption
    • Authors: Brian A. Omondi; Hirotaka Okabe; Yoshiki Hidaka; Kazuhiro Hara
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 125
      Author(s): Brian A. Omondi, Hirotaka Okabe, Yoshiki Hidaka, Kazuhiro Hara
      We present a method of synthesizing macrocyclic hydrogel systems using sol-gel polymerization and for high selectivity adsorption works. The hydrogel was fabricated using maleic acid and ethylene diamine ligand and characterized using FTIR, Raman, SEM/EDX, 13C NMR and SAXS techniques. It was revealed that 1, 4-diazocane-5, 8-dione were the principal active sites of this adsorbent. These macrocyclic sites provided defined zones which limited capture and chelation of transition metal ions such that from single ion solutions, only ion substrates of between 1.23 and 1.29 Å ionic size were mainly adsorbed; whereas in case of metal-metal competitive solutions, then only 1.29 Å sized substrates would be adsorbed. This adsorption specificity required that aqua metals of these sizes be of octahedral configurations for more optimum host-gest chelation with the gel active sites. Since Fe (aq) effectively met these criteria, the gel adsorbent displayed outstanding specificity for Fe (aq) adsorption from different levels of competitive environments. Present adsorbent showed that macrocyclic chelate sites can be infused directly into the hydrogel network without any grafting, and facilitates a shape-based, size-limited adsorption. This hydrogel is a promising candidate for applications in heavy metal pollution remediation, drug development and fuel cell catalysts, where high specificity adsorptions are desirable.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • Surface instability on polyethersulfone induced by dual laser treatment
           for husk nanostructure construction
    • Authors: Dominik Fajstavr; Iva Michaljaničová; Petr Slepička; Oldrich Neděla; Petr Sajdl; Zdeňka Kolská; Václav Švorčík
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 125
      Author(s): Dominik Fajstavr, Iva Michaljaničová, Petr Slepička, Oldrich Neděla, Petr Sajdl, Zdeňka Kolská, Václav Švorčík
      Multilevel structured polymers can be useful materials for applications in highly specialized industries, i.e. tissue engineering. This paper deals with multilevel lamellar structures production on polyethersulfone (PES) by dual excimer laser treatment. The modification was carried out by polarized KrF laser beam. The first step was laser modification of sample, subsequently the sample was rotated about 90° and modified again with laser beam. The best results according to a structure were received by modification with polarized beam of laser fluence of 8 mJ cm−2 and 6000 pulses, and after sample rotation 90°, followed by a secondary modification at the same laser parameters. The surface morphology of treated samples was studied with atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical changes of the atomic composition of the surface area. Our research was aimed on roughness, zeta potential and wettability determination. Prepared structures on PES seem to be unique according to multilevel lamellar morphology, which may be highly suitable material for cell cultivation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • Bioactive Ti-base biomaterial with sustained anti-bacterial response for
           endosseous applications
    • Authors: Violeta Paşcalău; George Dindelegan; Noemi Dirzu; Ana-Maria Salantiu; Codruta Pavel; Mircea Cristian Dudescu; Florin Popa; Gheorghe Borodi; Flaviu Tabaran; Cristina Adela Iuga; Catalin Popa
      Pages: 37 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 125
      Author(s): Violeta Paşcalău, George Dindelegan, Noemi Dirzu, Ana-Maria Salantiu, Codruta Pavel, Mircea Cristian Dudescu, Florin Popa, Gheorghe Borodi, Flaviu Tabaran, Cristina Adela Iuga, Catalin Popa
      This paper aims to develop a bioactive biomaterial based on porous titanium coated with chitosan (Chi) hydrogel film (Chihf), which releases antibiotic, for tissue engineering of bone. The chosen antibiotic was Tetracycline (Tet); as a carrier, we used core-shell microcapsules of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) gel with k-carrageenan/chitosan polyelectrolite complex multilayer shell (ms). The structures of both Chihf and Tet-loaded microcapsules (Tet-ms) were characterized by: FTIR, XRD, SEM, CLSM, Fluorescence spectroscopy, and Fluorescence optical microscopy. The Tet release in pH 7.4 PBS is much slower from Tet-ms embedded in Chihf than simply from Tet-ms. The values of mechanical properties of Chi films reveal significant adhesiveness to the “skin model” film, a good premise for implant anchorage and osseointegration. The in vitro biological study of the film that releases the antibiotic indicates a good biocompatibility and the assessment of antibacterial activity shows a prolonged release of Tet, avoiding the biofilm formation and its adhesion.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • Preparation of a surface-grafted protein-selective polymer film by
           combined use of controlled/living radical photopolymerization and
           microcontact imprinting
    • Authors: Anna Kidakova; Jekaterina Reut; Jörg Rappich; Andres Öpik; Vitali Syritski
      Pages: 47 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 125
      Author(s): Anna Kidakova, Jekaterina Reut, Jörg Rappich, Andres Öpik, Vitali Syritski
      In this study, we describe a strategy for the formation of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) capable of selective rebinding of protein-sized molecules and interfaced with a planar sensing surface. The strategy is based on the synergistic use of the surface-initiated controlled/living radical (C/LR) photopolymerization and microcontact imprinting approach aiming at design of a protein-responsive polymer for biosensing application. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate, bis-acrylamide were used as a model protein, a functional monomer and a cross-linker, respectively, to prepare the BSA-MIP film. The optimal parameters of C/LR photopolymerization such as the method for photoinitiator attachment to the sensor surface, monomer:cross-linker molar ratio, polymerization time, were determined. The BSA-MIP film were studied in terms of their recognition capability and selectivity towards the target protein (BSA) through the analysis of the responses of the BSA-MIP modified SPR sensors upon interaction with BSA and interfering proteins, human serum albumin (HSA) and Fc-fragment of immunoglobulin G (Fc). It was found that BSA-MIP adsorbed BSA with the dissociation constant (KD) in the nanomolar range (68 nM) and shows more than two times higher adsorption capacity as compared to HSA and Fc, even though their molecular sizes were similar. Also, BSA-MIP could be perfectly regenerated in the alkaline solution showing nearly reversible responses (loss of 2.4%) even after the 25th regeneration cycle. The presented simple synthesis strategy could be potentially employed for the preparation of protein-MIP films on a planar sensor transducer allowing to develop sensing systems for detection of clinically relevant proteins.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • Optimized formulation of NiFe2O4@Ca-alginate composite as a selective and
           magnetic adsorbent for cationic dyes: Experimental and modeling study
    • Authors: Corneliu Cojocaru; Andra Cristina Humelnicu; Petrisor Samoila; Petronela Pascariu; Valeria Harabagiu
      Pages: 57 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 125
      Author(s): Corneliu Cojocaru, Andra Cristina Humelnicu, Petrisor Samoila, Petronela Pascariu, Valeria Harabagiu
      This paper reports a data-driven modeling methodology undertaken to establish the optimal formulation of NiFe2O4@Ca-alginate composite designed for adsorption applications. Adsorbents were produced as anisotropic plate-like particles that were applied for removal of Rhodamine-6G (Rh6G) and Methylene Blue (MB) cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. Data-driven models were developed to establish the composition-performance relationships and to optimize the formulation of the composite adsorbent. The optimal formulation of NiFe2O4@Ca-alginate composite implied a content of 16% (w/w) NiFe2O4 nanoparticles into the alginate matrix. Likewise, kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics studies were carried out and reported in this paper. The optimal adsorbent (NiFe2O4@Ca-alginate) yielded a remarkable maximal sorption capacity equal to 1243 mg/g (for MB uptake) and 845 mg/g (for Rh6G) at the room temperature (298 K). Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms revealed the mean free energy of sorption ranging from 7.23 to 9.26 (kJ/mol) suggesting that the mechanism of adsorption was based on both physical interactions and ion exchange. This evidence was also corroborated by the molecular docking simulations that highlighted valuable insights regarding the intermolecular interactions between alginate chains and cationic dyes.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • Synthesis of linear polymer of intrinsic microporosity from
           5,5′,6,6′-tetrahydroxy-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylspirobisindane and
           decafluorobiphenyl
    • Authors: Hiromasa Sato; Shiduko Nakajo; Yoshiyuki Oishi; Yuji Shibasaki
      Pages: 70 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 125
      Author(s): Hiromasa Sato, Shiduko Nakajo, Yoshiyuki Oishi, Yuji Shibasaki
      A linear ladder polymer having a high molecular weight (M n > 13,000) and reasonable molecular weight distribution (M w/M n = 4.4) is successfully prepared by the solution polycondensation of 5,5′,6,6′-tetrahydroxy-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethyl-1,1′-spirobisindane (TTSBI) with decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) under reaction conditions that are determined using the model reaction of catechol (CC) with DFBP. Further, we observe an undesired intermolecular reaction of the condensed intermediate (CC*-DFBP) with another molecule of DFBP in the model reaction. Thus, polymerization is conducted in two steps under dilute conditions (0.17 mol/L) to suppress the formation of undesired byproducts. Finally, we successfully obtain an approximately linearly connected desired polymer in a good yield (ca. 80%). This controlled linear polymer has better thermal stability (glass transition (T g) = 125 °C, 5 wt% loss temperature (T d5) = 490 °C, N2) than the related uncontrolled branched gel polymer.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • Catalytic synthesis of graphene-like polyaniline derivative - MFe2O4 (M;
           Cu, Mn) nanohybrid as multifunctionality water decontaminant
    • Authors: Mostafa Hossein Beyki; Farzaneh Shemirani; Javad Malakootikhah; Sara Minaeian; Rouhollah Khani
      Pages: 108 - 117
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 125
      Author(s): Mostafa Hossein Beyki, Farzaneh Shemirani, Javad Malakootikhah, Sara Minaeian, Rouhollah Khani
      Magnetic MnFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 - 2- aminobenzoic acid – phenylenediamine nanocomposite was prepared using the catalytic activity of the magnetic ferrites as an efficient oxidizer. Antimicrobial activity of nanocomposite has been studied by capturing of Bacillus subtilis as sample pathogenic contaminant. Moreover, the nanocomposite was applied for selective adsorption of copper ions as well as methylene blue removal from aqueous solution. Dye and metal adsorption equilibrium time were 1 and 5 min and adsorption followed the second-order model. Moreover, the sorbent can be considered as dye super – adsorbent with a capacity of 7089 mg of methylene blue per gram of adsorbent.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 125 (2018)
       
  • Block copolymer mediated generation of bimetallic Ni-Pd nanoparticles:
           Raman sensors of ethyl paraben and ciprofloxacin
    • Authors: Zarina Ansari; Tara Shankar Bhattacharya; Abhijit Saha; Kamalika Sen
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 124
      Author(s): Zarina Ansari, Tara Shankar Bhattacharya, Abhijit Saha, Kamalika Sen
      In this research article, a highly simplified approach for the synthesis of nickel palladium bimetallic nanoparticles (Ni-PdNPs) is discussed. The synthesis method is of high novelty as it excludes involvement of any hazardous chemical and complicated laboratory set up. It is well known that generating a bimetallic nanoparticle involving nickel and palladium is a challenging task due to the difference in the reduction potential of the two metals E0 (V vs. SHE) for Ni2+ is −0.25V and Pd2+ is 0.95V respectively. One pot synthesis method of this material with a biocompatible polymer (PEG-PPG-PEG) which is mediated at room temperature is reported here for the first time. The synthesized particles are of size<5nm i.e., quantum dot dimension and were characterized by various analytical techniques such as absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, powdered X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The elemental composition was investigated using the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurement. In this work we report the Raman spectral feature of such a novel material. Also, its utilization as a sensor for pharmaceutically important materials like ciprofloxacin and ethyl paraben is reported here.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Hybrid polymers containing brochantite/tenorite obtained using gel type
           anion exchanger
    • Authors: Elżbieta Kociołek-Balawejder; Ewa Stanisławska; Irena Jacukowicz-Sobala
      Pages: 12 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 124
      Author(s): Elżbieta Kociołek-Balawejder, Ewa Stanisławska, Irena Jacukowicz-Sobala
      A gel type polystyrene/divinylbenzene anion exchanger containing quaternary ammonium groups was used as the macromolecular support for copper(II) compounds deposition, whereby novel hybrid anion exchangers were obtained. The anion exchanger in the OH− form was subjected to two-step transformation. In the first step, after reaction of supporting material with 0.1mol dm−3 CuSO4 solution load of Cu4(OH)6SO4 was introduced into the skeleton of the polymeric beads amounting to 60.0mg Cu g−1. In the second step, brochantite was converted into CuO using 0.1mol dm−3 NaOH solution. The final product contained about 29.0mg Cu g−1. Relatively high degree of transformation of brochantite into tenorite was achieved when the wet semi-finished product was introduced into the NaOH solution at ambient temperature. The presence of brochantite and tenorite was confirmed by FTIR and XRD analyses. In the present studies we have shown that gel type matrix of polymeric beads was crucial to the pathway of cupric compounds deposition. Evaluation of sorptive, photocatalytic and biocidic properties of these novel materials will be presented and discussed in separate works.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • PDMS tri-block copolymers bearing quaternary ammonium salts for epidermal
           antimicrobial agents: Synthesis, surface adsorption and
           non-skin-penetration
    • Authors: Yufeng Lei; Shengwen Zhou; Chenyun Dong; Anqiang Zhang; Yaling Lin
      Pages: 20 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 124
      Author(s): Yufeng Lei, Shengwen Zhou, Chenyun Dong, Anqiang Zhang, Yaling Lin
      Quaternary ammonium salts are widely used as epidermal and topical antimicrobial agents in medical treatments due to their broad activity, excellent performance and ready availability. However, their epidermal application has revealed many noticeable disadvantages, including short-term functionality, environmental toxicity, rapid antimicrobial resistance and skin penetration. Here, a series of tri-block copolymers grafted with dimethylaminopropyl benzyl chloride and based on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) backbone, referred to as PDMS-b-(PDMS-g-BC)-g-PDMS, were prepared with well-controlled chain length and cationic grafting content. The quaternary ammonium salt-containing polymers were effective antimicrobial agents against epidermal pathogenic microbes, such as E. coli, S. albus and C. albicans. By incorporating hydrophilic and antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salt groups into the hydrophobic PDMS backbones, the amphiphilic tri-block copolymers were water-soluble but capable of assembling onto different surfaces, driven by electrostatic attraction or hydrophobic repulsion, which yielded long-term functionality on the surface. Moreover, the enlarged molecular size prevented penetration though full-thickness rat skins. These findings suggest a promising application of polymeric quaternary ammonium salts with hydrophobic moieties as epidermal antimicrobial agents.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Soft hydrazone crosslinked hyaluronan- and alginate-based hydrogels as 3D
           supportive matrices for human pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal cells
           
    • Authors: Jennika Karvinen; Tiina Joki; Laura Ylä-Outinen; Janne T. Koivisto; Susanna Narkilahti; Minna Kellomäki
      Pages: 29 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 124
      Author(s): Jennika Karvinen, Tiina Joki, Laura Ylä-Outinen, Janne T. Koivisto, Susanna Narkilahti, Minna Kellomäki
      Regenerative medicine, especially cell therapy combined with a supportive biomaterial scaffold, is considered to be a potential treatment for various deficits in humans. Here, we have produced and investigated the detailed properties of injectable hydrazone crosslinked hyaluronan-polyvinyl alcohol (HA-PVA) and alginate-polyvinyl alcohol (AL-PVA) hydrogels to be used as a supportive biomaterial for 3D neural cell cultures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the polymerization and properties of hydrazone crosslinked AL-PVA hydrogel have been reported. The effect of the degree of substitution and molecular weight of the polymer components as well as the polymer concentration of the hydrogel on the swelling, degradation and mechanical properties of the hydrogels is reported. Furthermore, we studied the effect of the above parameters on the growth of human pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal cells. The most neural cell supportive HA-PVA hydrogel was composed of high molecular weight HA component with brain-mimicking mechanical properties and decreased polymer concentration. AL-PVA hydrogel, with stiffness quite similar to brain tissue, was also shown to be similarly supportive. Neuronal spreading and 3D network formation was enhanced inside the softest hydrogels.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.12.019
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Formulation and evaluation of epinephrine-loaded poly(acrylic
           
    • Authors: Adhimoorthy Prasannan; Hsieh-Chih Tsai; Ging-Ho Hsiue
      Pages: 40 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 124
      Author(s): Adhimoorthy Prasannan, Hsieh-Chih Tsai, Ging-Ho Hsiue
      Conventional eyedrops commonly used to deliver ophthalmologic treatments do not provide a sustained delivery of the drug, since a large portion of the intended dose is lost through eye drainage immediately following application. Micrometric sized crosslink gel based on copolymers incorporating thermal-sensitive copolymers were proposed for use in ophthalmic drug delivery. Eyedrops based on a thermoresponsive polymer were developed by mixing poly(acrylic acid-graft-N-isopropylacrylamide) (PAAc-graft-PNIPAAm) with PAAc-co-PNIPAAm gel and incorporating [3H]-epinephrine for in vitro evaluation of ophthalmic drug release. Polymeric eyedrops are clear solutions at room temperature but undergo partial solidification to a soft thin film on coming into contact with the corneal surface. On evaluation of the in vitro release kinetics of the embedded [3H]-epinephrine, PAAc-graft-PNIPAAm was found to exhibit faster drug release, while the mixture of PAAc-graft-PNIPAAm and PAAc-co-PNIPAAm gel showed a more sustained release profile and identifying the anomalous transport mechanism as a key factor. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored by administration of epinephrine in polymeric eyedrops effectively reduced IOP for 36h, which is a considerable prolongation of the effect compared to the 8-h IOP decrease observed following administration via traditional eyedrops. Overall, our results indicate that the kinetics of drug release from the polymeric eyedrops are determined by crosslinking density, which affects the formation of capillary networks in the polymer matrix and thereby regulates drug diffusion into the polymeric network, hence considered as feasible approach to controlled drug release in ophthalmic drug delivery.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Significantly enhanced CH4 permeability base on
           poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene)-poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-methylhydrosiloxane)
           crosslinked membranes
    • Authors: Xing Yang; Tengyang Zhu; Zongxiang Xu; Haiquan Shan; Jujie Luo
      Pages: 48 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 124
      Author(s): Xing Yang, Tengyang Zhu, Zongxiang Xu, Haiquan Shan, Jujie Luo
      Poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) triblock copolymer (SBS) crosslinked membranes containing poly(dimethylsiloxane-co-methylhydrosiloxane) (PDMS-co-PMHS) were prepared by hydrosilylation reaction toward CH4/N2 separation. The effect of an additive amount of PDMS-co-PMHS on the structure, morphology, and thermodynamic stability of crosslinked membranes were investigated by using FT-IR, SEM and TGA. Soxhlet extraction experiments were also performed to explore the crosslinking degree of membranes. In this work, the single-gas permeability of CH4 and N2 was measured using the constant volume–variable pressure method. Our experimental results showed that crosslinked membranes can significantly enhance CH4 permeability with increasing PDMS-co-PMHS content, whereas the CH4/N2 selectivity remains unchanged. Among these crosslinked membranes, the SBS-c-PDMS-co-PMHS-70 membrane exhibited optimal CH4 permeability at room temperature and the pressure of 1bar. Specifically, the CH4 permeability was >10-folds higher than that of the SBS membranes (37.6 barrer versus 443.6 barrer). Moreover, investigation of the effect of test temperature on the gas permeation of crosslinked membranes revealed a preferable CH4 permeability at 55°C and 1bar, at which the CH4 permeability reaches 679.2 barrer without a substantial compromise in selectivity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Design of porous strong base anion exchangers bearing N,N-dialkyl
           2-hydroxyethyl ammonium groups with enhanced retention of Cr(VI) ions from
           aqueous solution
    • Authors: Ecaterina Stela Dragan; Doina Humelnicu; Maria Valentina Dinu
      Pages: 55 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 124
      Author(s): Ecaterina Stela Dragan, Doina Humelnicu, Maria Valentina Dinu


      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Synthesis and characterization of poly (ionic liquid) derivatives of
           N-alkyl quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine)
    • Authors: Ximena Briones O.; Ricardo A. Tapia; Paola R. Campodónico; Marcela Urzúa; Ángel Leiva; Renato Contreras; Javier González-Navarrete
      Pages: 64 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 124
      Author(s): Ximena Briones O., Ricardo A. Tapia, Paola R. Campodónico, Marcela Urzúa, Ángel Leiva, Renato Contreras, Javier González-Navarrete
      The main motivation of this work is to obtain poly (ionic liquids) (PILs) derived from poly (4-vinyl pyridine) of different hydrophobic character containing BF4 −, PF6 −, (CF3SO2)2 N− and CF3SO3 − as counterions. PILs were synthesized from N-alkyl quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) P-4VP+-CnBr− with different alkyl chain length, n =2, 4, 5 and different molecular weights (60.000 and 160.000g/mol). The systems obtained were compared with the polyelectrolyte of origin, i.e., the N-alkyl quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine). The molecular characterization of PILs was obtained by FT-IR, 1H NMR and 19F NMR. Moreover, the thermal analysis of these systems was by carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA) techniques. Thermal degradation profiles obtained from TGA measurements, varied according to the alkyl chain length, which in turn influenced the obtained values of glass transition temperature (Tg), due to greater or lesser segmental movement of the alkyl chain. The results obtained for the PILs studied were analysed according to alkyl chain length, molecular weight and counter-anion effects. Additionally, P-4VP+-C4 BF4 − was used in a preliminary study of chromium (VI) removal from aqueous solution, showing a 72.2% removal of Cr (VI).

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Size-tunable protein–polymer hybrid carrier for cell internalization
    • Authors: Chaeyeon Lee; Ji Eun Choi; Gil Yong Park; Taeheon Lee; Jinku Kim; Seong Soo A. An; Jae Kwang Song; Hyun-jong Paik
      Pages: 72 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 124
      Author(s): Chaeyeon Lee, Ji Eun Choi, Gil Yong Park, Taeheon Lee, Jinku Kim, Seong Soo A. An, Jae Kwang Song, Hyun-jong Paik
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 124 (2018)
       
  • Structure-property relationships in peroxide-assisted blends of
           poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)
    • Authors: Marta Przybysz; Łukasz Zedler; Mohammad Reza Saeb; Krzysztof Formela
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Marta Przybysz, Łukasz Zedler, Mohammad Reza Saeb, Krzysztof Formela
      Poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PCL/PHB) blends in two weight ratios (75/25 and 50/50) were reactively compatibilized in the presence of di-(2-tert-butyl-peroxyisopropyl)-benzene and dicumyl peroxide as free radical initiators. Rheological, mechanical, thermal properties and morphological features, as well as the chemical structure of PCL/PHB blends were investigated. It was found that regardless of PCL/PHB blend ratio, the viscosity of reactively compatibilized blends increased, approximately 4-fold for dicumyl peroxide and 7-fold for di-(2-tert-butyl-peroxyisopropyl)-benzene, which confirmed their partial branching/cross-linking. The results showed that studied peroxides are effective compatibilizers for PCL/PHB (75/25) blends. However, di-(tert-butylperoxyisopropyl)benzene peroxide was more efficient and its application in PCL/PHB (75/25) blends resulted in significant increase of the tensile yield strength and elongation at break of 38% and 144%, respectively. On the other hand, the compatibilization effects of peroxides on tensile properties of PCL/PHB (50/50) blends were negligible. This is due to free-radical induced degradation of PHB and formulation of low molecular weight compounds. These degradation products can act as plasticizers and reduce the interfacial tension in the phase boundary, which corresponded to changes in morphology and chemical structure of studied PCL/PHB blends.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.04.006
       
  • Corrigendum to “Bioactive Ti-base biomaterial with sustained
           anti-bacterial response for endosseous applications” [React. Funct.
           Polym. 125(2018) 37–46]
    • Authors: Violeta Paşcalău; George Dindelegan; Noemi Dirzu; Ana-Maria Salantiu; Codruta Pavel; Mircea Cristian Dudescu; Florin Popa; Gheorghe Borodi; Flaviu Tabaran; Cristina Adela Iuga; Catalin Popa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Violeta Paşcalău, George Dindelegan, Noemi Dirzu, Ana-Maria Salantiu, Codruta Pavel, Mircea Cristian Dudescu, Florin Popa, Gheorghe Borodi, Flaviu Tabaran, Cristina Adela Iuga, Catalin Popa


      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.016
       
  • Synthesis of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene bearing pendant carboxyl
           groups by combination of anionic polymerization and blue light
           photocatalytic thiol-Ene reaction and its pH-triggered self-assemble
           behavior
    • Authors: Wanbin Zhang; Guanghua Zhang; Lun Du; Ce Zhang; Lu Li; Junfeng Zhu; Jing Pei; Jiang Wu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Wanbin Zhang, Guanghua Zhang, Lun Du, Ce Zhang, Lu Li, Junfeng Zhu, Jing Pei, Jiang Wu
      Polybutadiene with the simultaneous presence of hydroxyl end-groups and pendent carboxyl side groups was successfully synthesized by combination of living anionic polymerization and blue light photocatalytic thiol-ene “click” reaction. Firstly, hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) with high content of 1,4-butadiene unit was synthesized by living anionic polymerization using hydroxy-protected initiator, and followed by de-protection. Then, double bonds in backbone of HTPB were modified into pendant carboxyl side groups by blue light photocatalytic thiol-ene “click” reaction using Ru(bpy)3Cl2 and p-toluidine as photoredox catalysts. The blue light photocatalytic thiol-ene reaction exhibit high-efficiency, and all the unsaturated bonds were modified after reacting for 5 h, in spite of that in-chain double bonds in 1,4-butadiene units are much less reactive than vinyl groups in 1,2-butadiene units. When all the double bonds were modified, the structure of resulting polymer can be deemed as carboxyl functionalized hydroxyl-terminated polyethylene. Furthermore, the solution properties of resulting polymer have been investigated by various technologies. The results showed carboxyl functionalized hydroxyl-terminated polyethylene experience a dissolution-assembly-aggregation transition process with pH value of solution decreased from 12.0 to 2.0. The mechanism of this pH-triggered phase transition behavior was supposed to depend on the ionization of carboxyl side groups at varying pH values.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.04.003
       
  • Developing new synthetic biomimetic nanocomposite adhesives: Synthesis and
           evaluation of bond strength and solubilization
    • Authors: Zahra Basiri; Ali Hossein Rezayan; Babak Akbari; Rouhollah Mehdinavaz Aghdam; Hossein Ahmadi Tafti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Zahra Basiri, Ali Hossein Rezayan, Babak Akbari, Rouhollah Mehdinavaz Aghdam, Hossein Ahmadi Tafti
      Complex coacervate adhesive analog of the glue secreted by a marine polychaete (Phragmatopoma California) was studied for gluing a wet bone. The aim of this in-vitro study is to investigate bond strength and solubilization of a complex, coacervate adhesive. A complex coacervate adhesive was synthesized by mixing aminated gelatin and polyphosphodopamid. Polyphosphodopamide (Poly (DMA-co-MOEP)) was synthesized by free radical polymerization of 2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl phosphate (MOEP) and dopamine methacrylamide (DMA) (in the three ratios of MOEP to DMA: 11, 7, and 3) initiated with Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) in MeOH at 60 °C for 24 h. The structure of polymers was characterized by IR and 1H NMR spectra. The surface charges of aminated gelatin were positive, and its average zeta potential was about 31.08 mV: this shows gelatin was slightly aminated. For obtaining the optimum condition of adhesive, at first we changed the amount of the cross-linkable groups, dopamine (DOPA) sidechains in DMA, and then we investigated bond strength and solubilization behaviors. After obtaining the optimal amount of DOPA sidechains in the adhesive, we added 10% Wt human bone nanopowder (HBN) to the adhesive as filler and surveyed that behavior again. Results showed that with increase in DOPA sidechains in the adhesive, bond strength increased and solubilization rate decreased. Also, by adding bone nanopowder to the adhesive, bond strength and solubilization rate increased. The SEM images of this complex coacervate adhesive show a porous structure where in most of the porosities are in the range of 10–50 μm. Cytotoxicity effect of the adhesive and the nanocomposite adhesive were investigated on bone marrow mesenchymal primer cells: the results demonstrated cell growth and proliferation. This study shows that complex coacervate nanocomposite adhesive is a good candidate to act as a bone adhesive for sternal closure.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.04.004
       
  • Living anionic polymerization of 1,4-divinylbenzene and its derivatives
    • Authors: Raita Goseki; Shunsuke Tanaka; Takashi Ishizone; Akira Hirao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Raita Goseki, Shunsuke Tanaka, Takashi Ishizone, Akira Hirao
      The living anionic polymerization of 1,4-divinylbenzene and its derivatives was reviewed. With the use of a specially-designed initiator system prepared from oligo(α-methylstyryl) lithium and potassium tert-butoxide, the living anionic polymerization of 1,4-divinylbenzene was successfully realized for the first time. During this polymerization, one of the two vinyl groups was selectively polymerized in a living manner, while the other vinyl group remained completely intact in the main chain. Soluble linear polymers with well-controlled molecular weights up to 60.5 kg mol−1 and narrow molecular weight distributions (M w/M n < 1.05) were obtained under such conditions. The success of the living polymerization may possibly result from the formation of the less reactive by less dissociation and bulkier anionic species and the reactivity differentiation between the two vinyl groups before and after the polymerization. It was also demonstrated that a variety of divinylbenzene derivatives, such as 1,2-divinylbenzene, 1,4-divinylnaphthalene, 2-methoxy-1,4-divinylbenzene, 4-methoxy-1,2-divinylbenzene, 4-methoxy-1,3-divinylbenzene, 1,4-diisopropenylbenzene, 4-(α-methylethenyl)styrene, 4-(α-ethylethenyl)styrene, 4-(α-butylethenyl)styrene, 4-(α-isopropylethenyl)styrene, and 4-(α-tert-butylethenyl)styrene, underwent the living anionic polymerization with the same designed initiator system under similar conditions. New well-defined block polymers and star-branched polymers with reactive poly(1,4-divinylbenzene) segment(s) could be successfully synthesized by using the living anionic poly(1,4-divinylbenzene). Throughout the block copolymerization study, it was found that the reactivities of 1,4-divinylbenzene and the generated chain-end anion were comparable to those of 2-vinylpyridine. Although 1,4-divinylbenzene is a styrene derivative, it was higher in monomer reactivity than styrene, but its chain-end anion was less reactive than that generated from styrene.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T13:46:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.03.011
       
  • Preparation of 3D reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanospheres/polyaniline
           ternary nanocomposites as supercapacitor electrode
    • Authors: Ruijun Li; Hui Xu; Renjun Fu; Wensheng Tan; Yong Qin; Yongxin Tao; Yong Kong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ruijun Li, Hui Xu, Renjun Fu, Wensheng Tan, Yong Qin, Yongxin Tao, Yong Kong
      Rational design and synthesis of high performance active materials is one of the most challenging tasks in supercapacitors. Herein, a new three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanospheres (CNS)/polyaniline (PANI) ternary nanocomposites were prepared facilely and applied as supercapacitor electrode materials. The as-prepared RGO/CNS/PANI ternary nanocomposites were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), respectively. An enhanced specific capacitance was demonstrated compared with other binary nanocomposites RGO/PANI, RGO/CNS and pure RGO or PANI. The RGO/CNS/PANI exhibited a high specific capacitance of 583 F g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1 and excellent cyclic stability with 86% of its initial capacitance at a large current density of 10 A g−1 after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. In addition, high rate capability (72% capacity retention from 1 to 10 A g−1) was obtained due to the synergistic effects of RGO/CNS and PANI. The results indicated that the ternary nanocomposites of RGO/CNS/PANI could be a promising material for supercapacitor electrodes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.011
       
  • Layer-by-layer coated imidazolium – Styrene copolymers fibers for
           improved headspace-solid phase microextraction analysis of aromatic
           compounds
    • Authors: David J.S. Patinha; N. Pothanagandhi; K. Vijayakrishna; Armando J.D. Silvestre; Isabel M. Marrucho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): David J.S. Patinha, N. Pothanagandhi, K. Vijayakrishna, Armando J.D. Silvestre, Isabel M. Marrucho
      The design of poly(ionic liquids) (PILs) and their application as solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers has been attracting enormous attention mainly due to the need for new SPME coating materials with improved analytical sensitivity. In this work, the tunability of PILs is explored by preparing different imidazolium monomers bearing benzyl, naphtylmethyl or pentyl pending groups that were subsequently co-polymerized, by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization with styrene. The obtained co-polymers showed excellent thermal stability up to 275 °C, with no melting point up to 250 °C. SPME fibers were prepared by an innovative approach based on layer-by-layer spray coating. The thin (<10 μm) SPME coatings were tested in GC-FID for the detection of volatile aromatic compounds such as benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E) and xylene (X) present in aqueous samples and the extraction parameters optimized. Superior results were obtained when comparing these LbL PILS-based SPME fibers with a commercial fiber composed of poly(dimethylsiloxane), with an increase in the detectable areas of 83%, 69%, 57% and 58% for B, T, E and X, respectively. Low relative standard deviations were obtained for the same fiber (< 5.6%) and also for different fibers (< 9.8%). Furthermore, a spiked soil sample was used to mimic a real contaminated soil sample and excellent recovery results, ranging from 67.0% to 102.2%, were obtained.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.010
       
  • Facile preparation of a cellulose-based bioadsorbent modified by hPEI in
           heterogeneous system for high-efficiency removal of multiple types of dyes
           
    • Authors: Xuan Chen; Lin Liu; Zihan Luo; Junyan Shen; Qingqing Ni; Juming Yao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Xuan Chen, Lin Liu, Zihan Luo, Junyan Shen, Qingqing Ni, Juming Yao
      This work presents a facile and practical preparation method of cellulose-based bioadsorbent modified by hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (hPEI) using glutaraldehyde cross-linking in heterogeneous system for various dyes removal. The grafting of hPEI with a large molecular structure was achieved efficiently according to the FTIR and XPS analysis. The adsorption properties of the cellulose-based bioadsorbent for anionic reactive yellow X-RG (XRG), cationic bright yellow M-7G (M7G), nonionic disperse brown S-3RL (DB 3) were explored. The kinetics curve was well fitted with pseudo-second-order model, and the equilibrium data well suited Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 571.43 mg g−1 for M7G, 581.40 mg g−1 for DB 3 and 970.87 mg g−1 for XRG. Compared with other bioadsorbents reported previously, the cellulose-based bioadsorbent could be facilely prepared and simultaneously exhibited enhanced removal for dyes. Therefore, this work will help accelerate the study of scale production of bioadsorbent for treatment of textile effluents.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.009
       
  • Fluorescent hybrid materials: A versatile platform for gas sensing, pH
           sensing, and cell imaging
    • Authors: Lei Lei; Hengchang Ma; Jiawei Lv; Tao Wang; Yuan Yang; Pei Yin; Ziqiang Lei; Yanfang Qin; Yucheng Ma; Wenhuan Yao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Lei Lei, Hengchang Ma, Jiawei Lv, Tao Wang, Yuan Yang, Pei Yin, Ziqiang Lei, Yanfang Qin, Yucheng Ma, Wenhuan Yao
      Materials hybrided by organic and inorganic partners via chemical bonds formation are able to display stable and multi-functional behaviors. Then, the versatile sensing platform could be established depending on their specific chemical and physical properties. In this research paper, we prepared the fluorescence materials (POSS-PDB and POSS-NTB) by a simple method. Among of them, POSS-NTB was verified as a mesoporous material with a narrowed pore diameter around 17 nm and the large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 227 m2/g. Then, the solid powder of POSS-NTB was selected and evidenced as effective gas sensor toward CO2, N2 and O2 at 273 K under 1 atm pressure. Additionally, these fluorescence materials could be successfully applied as a pH sensor in the solution phase. Through combining biocompatible POSS and fluorescent molecules, POSS-NTB could enter into the cells and aggregate in the cytoplasm successfully.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:13:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.002
       
  • Barrier properties and mechanical strength of bio-renewable, heat-sealable
           films based on gelatin, glycerol and soybean oil for sustainable food
           packaging
    • Authors: Emiliano M. Ciannamea; Luciana A. Castillo; Silvia E. Barbosa; María Grazia De Angelis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Emiliano M. Ciannamea, Luciana A. Castillo, Silvia E. Barbosa, María Grazia De Angelis
      In this work we studied the mass transfer of renewable films based on gelatin (Ge), glycerol (Gly) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) for application in food packaging. Films were tested for water vapor absorption and diffusion at various water activities (aw), oxygen and water vapor permeability. The absorbed vapor mass increased with aw, as expected, to 0.25–0.3 g/gpol (aw = 0.8). The isotherms were fitted by five different mathematical models. The apparent diffusion coefficient showed an increasing tendency with humidity, up to aw = 0.6–0.7, where a maximum was reached. Oil addition caused a reduction in the diffusion coefficient of Ge based films, associated to a greater amount of dispersed hydrophobic phase. Moreover, heat seal and tear of Ge based films were studied. All films were able to be thermosealed. The partial replacement of Gly by 20% ESO increased significantly the heat seal strength, reaching values higher than those reported for synthetic polymers. Gelatin sample containing 20% Gly and 20% ESO presented an appropriate balance between gas barrier properties as well as the resistance of the heat sealing and the tearing.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.02.001
       
  • Anti-Rhizoctonia solani activity by polymeric quaternary ammonium salt and
           its mechanism of action
    • Authors: Chenyun Dong; Wanling You; Ruqi Liuyang; Yufeng Lei; Anqiang Zhang; Yaling Lin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Chenyun Dong, Wanling You, Ruqi Liuyang, Yufeng Lei, Anqiang Zhang, Yaling Lin
      Polymeric quaternary ammonium salts (PQASs) exhibit antibacterial action and are less toxic, less stimulatory to the human body and have easier-to-modify functionalities than small molecular antibacterial agents. However, few studies on the structure-activity relationship and toxicity mechanism of PQASs against fungi have been reported. We previously described the synthesis of a novel PQAS, namely, a homopolymer of (2-methacrylamido)propyltetrabenzyldimethylammonium chloride (PQD-BC), and discovered that the polymer exhibits antifungal activities not only against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense tropical race 4 (Foc 4), the pathogen of banana wilt, but also against Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani), the pathogen of rice sheath blight (RShB). Furthermore, we studied the mechanism of action of PQD-BC against Foc 4, which is markedly different from R. solani in morphology and life cycle. Therefore, the structure-antifungal activity relationship and toxicity mechanism of PQD-BC against R. solani were extensively studied in this work and compared with those of the low-molecular-weight quaternary ammonium salt benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride (BC), and the results play an important role in identifying long-term and low-toxicity fungicides that can suppress the sclerotia of R. solani. The results showed that PQD-BC and BC can destroy the structural integrity and morphology of a cell, such as by loss of the cell wall and plasma membrane integrity, leading to the release of intracellular contents and can induce mitochondrial dysfunction and interference with genomic DNA and inhibit the formation of sclerotia. However, PQD-BC showed a special mechanism for causing the lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane; this mechanism was not observed with BC. The newly elucidated mechanism accounts for differences between polymers and small-molecule compounds and provides a theoretical basis for further application of PQAS against fungi and sclerotia.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T14:40:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.01.020
       
 
 
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