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Journal Cover Reactive and Functional Polymers
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1381-5148
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Rapid fabrication of electrohydrodynamic micro-/nanostructures with high
           aspect ratio using a leaky dielectric photoresist
    • Authors: Guowei Lv; Shihu Zhang; Jinyou Shao; Guolong Wang; Hongmiao Tian; Demei Yu
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 118
      Author(s): Guowei Lv, Shihu Zhang, Jinyou Shao, Guolong Wang, Hongmiao Tian, Demei Yu
      A leaky dielectric photoresist was designed and prepared for rapid fabrication of high-aspect-ratio micro-/nanostructures via electrohydrodynamic patterning (EHDP). The rheological behavior and electrical properties of the photoresists were systematically investigated, since the structure formation in EHDP essentially originates from the flow and deformation of the polymeric film actuated by an applied electric field. It is found that the photoresists exhibit the suitable rheological behavior with a low viscosity of 2.4–157.7mPas, controllable electrical conductivity of 5.0×10−6 −7.2×10−4 Sm−1, as well as high homogeneity, minor surface tension of about 30 mN·m−1, favorable wettability and film-forming property on substrate and an extremely large reduction in the contact angle (down to 1.64°) of electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD). The EHDP results have shown that a higher electrical conductivity of the photoresists can lead to a higher filling height, a smaller characteristic wavelength and a shorter patterning time, while a lower viscosity can also lead to a shorter patterning time, which is accordance with the theoretical prediction. In addition, the patterning time of the photoresists cannot be too short because the following rapid ripening and coalescence of the formed microstructure will damage the high fidelity of the final pillar arrays.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T13:50:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.014
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Fabrication of block copolymer templates by using dually responsive
           photoresist bottom layers
    • Authors: Kyoungok Jung; Chang Hong Bak; Se Jin Ku; Jin-Baek Kim
      Pages: 20 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 118
      Author(s): Kyoungok Jung, Chang Hong Bak, Se Jin Ku, Jin-Baek Kim
      A simple and novel method was developed to fabricate a nanoporous template by using a bilayer system composed of a silicon-containing block copolymer top layer and a dually responsive photoresist bottom layer. The dually responsive bottom layer became cross-linked by heating. The cross-linked polymer was mechanically hard and insoluble in common solvents. The block copolymer pattern was transferred to the bottom layer by oxygen reactive ion etching. High-aspect-ratio nanopore arrays were generated. The cross-linked bottom layer became soluble again by chain scission upon exposure to UV light. Therefore, the template with a highly orientated array of cylindrical nanopores could be easily removed by dipping in an aqueous base solution. This versatile template of nanoporous structures could be used to create freestanding 1D nanostructures of a variety of functional materials.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T15:34:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Applications of zwitterionic polymers
    • Authors: Liuchun Zheng; Harihara S. Sundaram; Zhiyong Wei; Chuncheng Li; Zhefan Yuan
      Pages: 51 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 118
      Author(s): Liuchun Zheng, Harihara S. Sundaram, Zhiyong Wei, Chuncheng Li, Zhefan Yuan
      Zwitterionic polymers are characterized with equal anion and cation groups on the molecular chains, which make them highly hydrophilic and antifouling. They can resist nonspecific protein adsorption, bacterial adhesion, and biofilm formation. Therefore, they have great potential to be applied in a wide range of biological and medical related fields, such as antifouling coatings of biomedical implants, blood contacted sensor and drug delivery in vivo, separation membrane and marine coatings. The review mainly focuses on the progress of those applications of zwitterionic polymers on the molecular level. Problems existed in these applications are also discussed and the development of in future is prospected.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 118 (2017)
  • Temperature-stable anion-exchange materials from cyclopolymerization of
           quaternary ammonium halides
    • Authors: Claus Vogel; Hartmut Komber; Jochen Meier-Haack
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Claus Vogel, Hartmut Komber, Jochen Meier-Haack
      The preparation of quaternary ammonium salts containing allyl and methallyl groups from dimethylamine and pyrrolidine, and the free-radical initiated cyclopolymerization of these salts is described. It is shown by NMR analysis that poly(ammonium salts) are formed consisting of pyrrolidinium and azoniaspiro[4.4]nonane containing repeating units respectively with one or even two adjacent quaternary carbon centers along the chain. The ability to polymerize decreased from diallyl over allylmethallyl to dimethallyl monomers. Already polymers from diallylammonium salts showed sufficient stability in alkaline medium at 80°C over a period of 168h and for additional 18h at 120°C.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Nanocomposite hydrogel with varying number of repeating oxyethylene units:
           Adjustable pore structure and thermo-responsibility
    • Authors: Pengfei Liu; Zhe Peng; Qingsong Zhang
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Pengfei Liu, Zhe Peng, Qingsong Zhang
      To explore the effect of varying number (n) of repeating oxyethylene units upon the structure, pore shape and property of nanocomposite hydrogels, three kinds of lyotropic liquid crystal molecules polyoxyethylene (n) alkyl ether (Brij-52/56/58) with same alkyl chain C16H33 and different number of oxyethylene units (CH2CH2O)n=2,10,20) were severed as novel type of template to prepare Brij/Poly(NIPAm/LMSH) (TNH52/56/58) nanocomposite hydrogels base on monomer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and inorganic nanoclay lithium magnesium silicate hydrate (LMSH). It was found that, as the number values (n) of oxyethylene units are 10 and 20, the transmittance values of pre-polymerization solution decrease significantly to nearly zero at 37 and 33min, while keeps constant at around 5% as n=2. With increasing the values of n from 2 to 10 and 20, the pore structure changes from honeycomb to interconnected and layered pore structure, and pore size decreases from 40 to 60μm to 20–40μm (layer space). As n=10, the maximum swelling ratio (MSR) and water loss rates of prepared TNH56 nanocomposite hydrogel is the largest. The volume phase transition temperature (VPTTs) values still keep at 30–35°C, but linear fitting data and endothermic peak width indicate that, as n is 10, nanocomposite hydrogel presents rapid thermo-responsibility. It has revealed that the adsorption between LMSH sheets and Brij molecules and template-like role play an important role in controlling the pore shape, swelling behaviour and temperature-sensitivity.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Electrospinning of polylactic acid fibres containing tea tree and manuka
    • Authors: Wanwei Zhang; Chao Huang; Olga Kusmartseva; Noreen L. Thomas; Elisa Mele
      Pages: 106 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 117
      Author(s): Wanwei Zhang, Chao Huang, Olga Kusmartseva, Noreen L. Thomas, Elisa Mele
      Here the effect of tea tree and manuka essential oils (EOs) on the mechanical properties and antibacterial activity of electrospun polylactic acid (PLA) fibres is investigated. It is found that the essential oils work as plasticisers for PLA, lowering the glass transition temperature of the resulting composite fibres up to 60% and increasing elongation-at-break and tensile strength up to 12 times. Manuka EO is particularly successful in blocking the formation of biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis that is typically involved in nosocomial infections associated with implanted devices. The results demonstrate that natural extracts can be used to control the mechanical behaviour of PLA fibres and to confer antibacterial activity.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T13:50:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.013
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Studies on the effect of functional monomer and porogen on the properties
           of ion imprinted polymers based on Cr(III)-1,10-phenanthroline complex
           designed for selective removal of Cr(III) ions
    • Authors: Laura Trzonkowska; Barbara Leśniewska; Beata Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz
      Pages: 131 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 117
      Author(s): Laura Trzonkowska, Barbara Leśniewska, Beata Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz
      New chromium(III) ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) intended for selective removal of Cr(III) ions from aqueous media were prepared using Cr(III)-1,10-phenanthroline complex as a template by bulk polymerization. The properties of IIPs synthesized using different functional monomers, including acidic (methacrylic acid) and neutral (styrene) agents, polar protic and aprotic porogens (ethanol, acetonitrile) and initiators (2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile, lauroyl peroxide), were studied in terms of their morphology, sorption properties towards Cr(III) ions, selectivity and reusability. The polymer's particles were characterized using FT-IR, nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The analytes, Cr(III) ions, were quantitatively retained on the IIPs at pH4.5 and eluted with 0.1molL−1 EDTA solution. Our studies showed that the neutral functional monomer, aprotic solvent and azo initiator provided the best selectivity and sorption properties of IIP. Under optimal conditions, Cr(III)-IIP prepared using ST and AIBN showed good selectivity, reusability and stability. The selectivity coefficient was 16.7, 9.6 and 4.4 for Cr(III)/Cu(II), Cr(III)/Fe(III) and Cr(III)/Mn(II), respectively. Good reproducibility of the results, obtained even after a hundred cycles, testifies to the long-term stability of the sorbents. IIP(4)ST-AIBN can successfully be used as a sorbent in solid phase extraction to selective chromium separation from the water solution.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T15:34:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Effect of pH and lactose on cross-linking extension and structure of fish
           gelatin films
    • Authors: A. Etxabide; M. Urdanpilleta; I. Gómez-Arriaran; K. de la Caba; P. Guerrero
      Pages: 140 - 146
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 117
      Author(s): A. Etxabide, M. Urdanpilleta, I. Gómez-Arriaran, K. de la Caba, P. Guerrero
      Lactose-modified gelatin films were prepared at two different pHs and then, films were heated to promote the cross-linking reaction between gelatin and lactose. All films were transparent and homogeneous with hardly any pores (8–12%).The extension of the cross-linking reaction was assessed by means of film colour, solubility, and the formation of a fluorescence compound (pentosidine). It was observed that both pH and lactose affected the extension of the cross-linking reaction between the carbonyl group in lactose and the amino groups in gelatin. Films processed at native pH (5.4) showed higher decolouration and lower solubility, highlighting a further extension of cross-linking at this pH than at pH2.0. Furthermore, the curve fitting of amide I and II profiles indicated that the secondary structure of gelatin films was also affected by lactose and pH.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T15:34:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Silk fibroin films for potential applications in controlled release
    • Authors: Yifeng Huang; Kevin Bailey; Sai Wang; Xianshe Feng
      Pages: 57 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yifeng Huang, Kevin Bailey, Sai Wang, Xianshe Feng
      Silk fibroin extracted from Bombyx mori cocoon was processed into regenerated films and examined for potential application in controlled drug release. Instead of using dialysis process, the present study proposed a novel convenient method to remove LiBr from fibroin aqueous solution during film preparation process. The prepared fibroin films were characterized by FTIR and SEM, showing that the films were dense, homogeneous, and partially crystalized. The biocompatibility of fibroin films was initially evaluated by the adsorption of BSA. It was shown that at 10mg/mL of BSA, the BSA sorption reached 0.045mg/cm2, which is indicative of good blood compatibility and biocompatibility of the fibroin. Further, the permeability and diffusivity of four model drugs in the fibroin films were investigated, and they were found to be on the same orders of magnitudes as many other controlled release materials, indicating that the naturally occurring fibroin is a good candidate material for uses in controlled release. The mass transport through the fibroin film pertaining to controlled drug release was also studied.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Network characterization of phenolic-based coatings
    • Authors: Patrice Roose; Anita Herssens; Thierry Lardot; Peter Ziegler; Oliver Etz; Dirk Bontinck
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Patrice Roose, Anita Herssens, Thierry Lardot, Peter Ziegler, Oliver Etz, Dirk Bontinck
      Phenolic-based coating systems incorporating typical binding resins such as epoxies or polyesters were prepared along protocols mimicking relevant application conditions and are investigated using methods which are fairly standard in an industrial environment. Following a pragmatic approach, gravimetric analysis along with spectral analysis by FTIR spectroscopy of the insoluble gel fraction and liquid 1H NMR spectroscopy for the soluble fraction were used in a quantitative way to investigate proven binder/crosslinker systems over a range of compositions. Furthermore, a close analysis of the soluble fraction data has been conducted following the statistical mean-field model of Miller-Macosko with proper adjustments to account for the investigated systems where the phenolic resin can crosslink with itself and with the binder, whereas the binder mainly links to the crosslinker in conjunction with chain extending end-end couplings. For the linear precursors considered here, end and side functions were treated as chemically distinct in the model.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.07.012
  • Glutathione and endosomal pH-responsive hybrid vesicles fabricated by
           zwitterionic polymer block poly(l-aspartic acid) as a smart anticancer
           delivery platform
    • Authors: Renjith P. Johnson; Saji Uthaman; Rimesh Augustine; Yu Zhang; Hwa Jin; Chang In Choi; In-Kyu Park; Il Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Renjith P. Johnson, Saji Uthaman, Rimesh Augustine, Yu Zhang, Hwa Jin, Chang In Choi, In-Kyu Park, Il Kim
      Zwitterionic hybrid block copolymer based nanocarriers are ideal candidates for drug delivery applications due the higher resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption in complex media compared to nonionic polymers. Especially, zwitterionic poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) p(MPC) based nanocarriers can maintain its stability during circulation in complex media, such as serum. Thus, a series of bioreducible and pH-responsive zwitterionic/amphiphilic block copolymers, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)50-block-poly(l-aspartic acid)n (p(MPC)50–b–p(AA)n) (n =10, 25, 50, 75), bearing a degradable disulfide linker have been synthesized and exploited as dual-stimuli-responsive drug delivery vehicle of the chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (Dox). Dox was successfully loaded into uniform vesicles (∼100nm) fabricated from p(MPC)50–b–p(AA)n and the release performance was investigated under different pH conditions and with a range of concentrations of the reducing agent, 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT). At physiological conditions, increasing concentrations of DTT resulted in faster Dox release from vesicles. Dox release at elevated DTT concentrations was more effective at pH5.5 than at pH7.5. Blank vesicles were non-toxic over a wide concentration range when tested in normal cell lines (0.01–100μg/mL). Vesicles efficiently encapsulated Dox and the dual stimuli-responsive disassembly results demonstrated controlled and sustained release of Dox tin 4T1 cancer cells to confer dose-dependent cytotoxicity. Thus, the bioreducible and pH sensitive vesicles appear to be a promising theranostic platform for drug delivery applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.07.010
  • Chitosan–silica anion exchange membrane for the vanadium redox flow
           energy storage battery applications
    • Authors: Shu-Ling Huang; Mei-Ling Chen; Yung-Sheng Lin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Shu-Ling Huang, Mei-Ling Chen, Yung-Sheng Lin
      In this study, chitosan–silica anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a sol-gel process and nucleophilic substitution reaction. The basic properties of the synthesized ion exchange membranes were assessed, including water uptake, contact angle, ion exchange capacity, vanadium ion permeability, impedance, and conductivity. Furthermore, we used the chitosan–silica membranes as a separator in a single all‑vanadium redox flow battery system to investigate their charge–discharge characteristics. We then compared the performance of the chitosan–silica membranes with that of commercially available membranes in terms of impedance as a function of thickness and efficiency. In addition, we studied the relationships between the basic properties and the charge–discharge efficiency of the membranes by varying the concentration of (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS). The results demonstrate that the mechanical strength and chemical stability of the synthesized chitosan–silica membranes were enhanced with the increase in GPTMS concentration. The chitosan–silica anion exchange membranes exhibited lower vanadium ion permeability and higher coulombic efficiency, and have a lower cost than their commercial counterparts. The highest measured coulombic efficiency reached 91%.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.07.011
  • Cast polyurethanes obtained from reactive recovered polyol intermediates
           via crude glycerine decomposition process
    • Authors: Patrycja Jutrzenka Trzebiatowska; Ilona Deuter; Janusz Datta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Patrycja Jutrzenka Trzebiatowska, Ilona Deuter, Janusz Datta
      In this work, the possibility of applying intermediates from polyurethane waste recycling in polyurethane synthesis was presented. Polyurethanes were synthesised in a two-step method using a mixture of petrochemical polyol and glycerolysate as a reactive component and 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). Glycerolysates were produced during decomposition of polyurethane elastomer by crude glycerine from biodiesel production. The glycerolysates were incorporated into polyurethane structure and co-created a soft segment with their functional groups. Chemical structure and properties of the cast polyurethanes were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and mechanical tests. Results showed that higher incorporation of glycerolysates shifts the glass transition to higher temperatures and the mechanical properties indicates that material exhibits more stiff structure. Prepared polyurethanes which contained glycerolysates have good and similar (in a small amount of glycerolysate) properties to the reference polyurethane which indicates the possibility of glycerolysate application as a polyol in the polyurethane synthesis.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.07.009
  • Functional polylactide by cationic ring-opening copolymerization of
           lactide with epoxides
    • Authors: Melania Bednarek; Malgorzata Basko; Przemysław Kubisa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Melania Bednarek, Malgorzata Basko, Przemysław Kubisa
      Sequential and simultaneous cationic copolymerizations of lactide with commercial functional epoxides, allyl glycidyl ether, glycidyl propargyl ether, and epichlorohydrin, catalyzed by a protic acid in a one-pot process were studied. Block and gradient polylactide-based medium-molecular-weight copolymers with several alkene, alkyne, or chloromethyl groups at one chain end or with gradient distribution along the polymer chain were successfully synthesized, as proven by 1H NMR, SEC, and MALDI TOF analyses. Functional polylactides were further subjected to thiol-yne addition, cycloaddition of azide, or reaction with tertiary amine, respectively, to demonstrate the reactivity of the introduced functional groups.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.07.008
  • Tuning properties of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(simvastatin)
           copolymers synthesized via triazabicyclodecene
    • Authors: Theodora A. Asafo-Adjei; Thomas D. Dziubla; David A. Puleo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Theodora A. Asafo-Adjei, Thomas D. Dziubla, David A. Puleo
      Simvastatin was polymerized into copolymers to better control drug loading and release for therapeutic delivery. When using the conventional stannous octoate catalyst in ring-opening polymerization (ROP), reaction temperatures ≥200°C were required, which promoted uncontrollable and undesirable side reactions. Triazabicyclodecene (TBD), a highly reactive guanidine base organocatalyst, was used as an alternative to polymerize simvastatin. Polymerization was achieved at 150°C using 5kDa methyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) as the initiator. ROP reactions with 2kDa or 550Da mPEG initiators were also successful using TBD at 150°C instead of stannous octoate, which required a higher reaction temperature. Biodegradability of the poly(simvastatin) copolymer in phosphate-buffered saline was also improved, losing twice as much mass than the copolymer synthesized via stannous octoate. The three copolymers exhibited modified rates of simvastatin release, demonstrating tunability for drug delivery applications.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.07.004
  • Slide-ring shape memory polymers with movable cross-links
    • Authors: Xingjian Li; Yaru Wang; Ruiqing Wu; Yi Pan; Zhaohui Zheng; Xiaobin Ding
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Xingjian Li, Yaru Wang, Ruiqing Wu, Yi Pan, Zhaohui Zheng, Xiaobin Ding
      The development of shape memory materials to achieve recoverable high-strain capacities at high concentration of the crosslinker is still a great challenge due to their mutual exclusiveness. Here, slide-ring shape memory polymers (SMPs) with movable cross-links were prepared by varying the amount of the polyrotaxane cross-linkers. The slide-ring SMPs not only exhibit a combination of high strength and toughness, but also outstanding recoverable high-strain capacities and fast shape recovery. The elongation of the slide-ring SMPs at 1mol% crosslinker was as high as 881%, closer to physically cross-linked SMPs. As the growing deformation strain from 100% to 800%, the slide-ring SMPs still showed excellent shape memory performance with >90% shape fixity and shape recovery. The comparative analysis among movable cross-linking, chemical cross-linking and physical cross-linking SMPs in a different way revealed that the sliding effect of the polyrotaxane cross-linking is responsible for outstanding recoverable high-strain capacities of slide-ring SMPs. This design may provide a promising strategy for brittle shape memory materials to obtain high-strain capacities, such as epoxy resin and polylactic acid.

      PubDate: 2017-08-03T16:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.07.002
  • Synthesis of sugar alcohol-derived water-soluble polyamines by the
           thiol-ene reaction and their utilization as hardeners of water-soluble
           bio-based epoxy resins
    • Authors: Mitsuhiro Shibata; Naomasa Ishigami; Ayaka Shibita
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Mitsuhiro Shibata, Naomasa Ishigami, Ayaka Shibita
      The allylation reactions of α,α′-diglycerol and d-sorbitol as sugar alcohols, and subsequent thiol-ene reactions with cysteamine hydrochloride produced a new water-soluble tetramine (N4DG) and hexamine (N6SB), respectively. The N4DG and N6SB were used as polyamine-type epoxy hardeners for water-soluble sugar alcohol-based epoxy resins, polyglycerol polyglycidyl ether (PGPE) and sorbitol polyglycidyl ether (SPE). The thermal and mechanical properties of the cured resins (PGPE-N4DG, PGPE-N6SB, SPE-N4DG, SPE-N6SB) were compared with those of the epoxy resins cured with a conventional water-soluble polyetheramine (PEA). Although 5% weight loss temperatures of the epoxy resins cured with N4DG and N6SB were lower than those of the PEA-cured resins, glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli of the former resins were much higher than those of the latter resins. Especially, SPE-N6SB exhibited the highest T g (22.8°C), tensile strength (43.6MPa) and modulus (990MPa) among all the cured resins.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T16:16:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.07.003
  • Effect of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanoparticles on thermal
           decomposition of cyanate ester resin
    • Authors: Lin Song
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Y. Lin, M. Song
      A series of cyanate ester resin (CY)/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanocomposites were prepared successfully. Morphology and thermal stability of the CY and its nanocomposites with POSS were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). With the addition of POSS, the thermal stability of CY is dramatically improved. Under air atmosphere, the full decomposition temperature increased by 146°C, with incorporation of only 1wt% POSS. The heat generated by the thermal degradation of the CY/POSS nanocomposites is around 4 times less than that of the neat CY. Under nitrogen atmosphere, the char yield of the CY increased up to 15wt% with addition of the POSS. Besides, the heat required for the degradation of the CY/POSS nanocomposites was much higher than that of the neat CY. These results reveal that the incorporation of the POSS resulted in change of the degradation mechanism of CY. The breakdown of POSS/CY network retarded the breakdown of the triazine rings of CY hence the thermal stability of POSS/CY nanocomposites were improved comparing to that of pristine CY. Furthermore, the formation of char retarded the degradation of benzene rings as well.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T16:16:04Z
  • Adsorption of heavy metal ions by iminodiacetic acid functionalized D301
           resin: Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics
    • Authors: Fu-Qiang An; Rui-Yan Wu; Min Li; Tuo-Ping Hu; Jian-Feng Gao; Zhi-Guo Yuan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Fu-Qiang An, Rui-Yan Wu, Min Li, Tuo-Ping Hu, Jian-Feng Gao, Zhi-Guo Yuan
      High adsorption capacity, fast adsorption rate, easy regeneration and good reusability were very important for qualified adsorbents used in removing toxic heavy metals from wastewater. Based on this, a novel adsorbent was well designed and synthesized by functionalizing D301 resin with iminodiacetic acid (IDA). The physicochemical characteristics of IDA-functionalized D301 (ID301) were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis. The adsorption performances of ID301 towards toxic heavy metal ions were systematically performed from kinetics to isotherms and thermodynamics by batch technique. The effects of contact time, initial metal concentration, pH, temperature and adsorbent dosage on adsorption performance were investigated. ID301 possesses strong adsorption ability for Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II). pH and temperature has a great influence on the adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacities of ID301 towards Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) could reach 4.48, 2.99 and 2.26mmol·g−1 at 293K and pH of 5, respectively. Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order equation could satisfactorily describe the experimental data. The adsorption thermodynamic experiment indicated that adsorption of ID301 towards Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) was an endothermic and spontaneous chemisorption process drived by entropy. In addition, ID301 could be reused without losing adsorption capacity significantly.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T16:16:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.07.005
  • Editors and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 117

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T15:34:41Z
  • Chemical modification of PET surface and subsequent graft copolymerization
           with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)
    • Authors: Parisa Golshaei; Olgun Güven
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Parisa Golshaei, Olgun Güven
      Thermo-sensitivity has been introduced onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) surfaces by graft copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAAm). The PET surface was first photo-oxidized in the presence of H2O2, to have enriched concentration of COOH groups which were later reacted with allylamine (AlAm) to introduce vinyl end groups at the surface. These groups were used as active sites for thermally initiated graft copolymerization of NiPAAm. The influence of solvent, monomer concentration and time on grafting has been investigated. Spectroscopic analysis confirmed the presence of (AlAm) linked to treated surfaces as well as poly(NiPAAm) grown from them. The thickness of grafted layer can be adjusted between 10 and 18μm via grafting degree by controlling of grafting reaction parameters. Imaging in water environment revealed the reversible modification of surface morphology below and above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNiPAAm. The grafted surfaces were analyzed by colorimetric assay, ATR-FTIR, Raman, and XPS spectroscopies and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T13:50:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.015
  • Synthesis, polymerization kinetics and thermal properties of para-methylol
           functional benzoxazine
    • Authors: Kan Zhang; Lu Han; Pablo Froimowicz; Hatsuo Ishida
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Kan Zhang, Lu Han, Pablo Froimowicz, Hatsuo Ishida
      Monofunctional benzoxazine with para-methylol functionality has been synthesized via Mannich condensation. The chemical structure of the synthesized monomer is confirmed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Polymerizations are monitored by in situ FT-IR, 1H NMR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Activation energy of the polymerization is also studied by DSC. The apparent activation energy of the polymerization is calculated to be 79.8kJmol−1 and 81.5kJmol−1 according to the Kissinger and Ozawa methods, respectively. In addition, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) result shows that the polybenzoxazine derived from para-methylol functional benzoxazine possesses excellent thermal stability with an initial decomposition temperature of 395°C for a 5% weight loss and a char yield of 60% at 800 °C under N2.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T13:50:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.017
  • Increasing the resistivity and IFSS of unsized carbon fibre by covalent
           surface modification
    • Authors: Kathleen M. Beggs; James D. Randall; Linden Servinis; Andrew Krajewski; Ron Denning; Luke C. Henderson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Kathleen M. Beggs, James D. Randall, Linden Servinis, Andrew Krajewski, Ron Denning, Luke C. Henderson
      Carbon fibre presents many attractive qualities such as high strength to weight ratio and suitability in a variety of light weighting applications. One of the major practical limitation for processing carbon fibres are their electrical conductivity and their ability to short circuit electrical equipment through airborne fibres and other carbon fibre detritus. In this work we investigate the ability to reduce the conductivity of carbon fibres using an electrochemical grafting strategy. In this study unsized carbon fibres were electrochemically functionalised with a variety of small molecules, increasing the resist of carbon fibres by up to 200%. In addition, using this strategy we have also increased the interfacial shear properties of these fibres in epoxy resin systems (+19%) relative to the control fibres.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T13:50:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.016
  • In vitro assessment of Ag-TiO2/polyurethane nanocomposites for infection
           control using response surface methodology
    • Authors: Phasinee Khwanmuang; Porpon Rotjanapan; Angsana Phuphuakrat; Sirawat Srichatrapimuk; Chayanisa Chitichotpanya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Phasinee Khwanmuang, Porpon Rotjanapan, Angsana Phuphuakrat, Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Chayanisa Chitichotpanya
      Combining the use of a central composite design (CCD) with a response surface methodology (RSM), Ag-TiO2/Polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites with superior antimicrobial activities and minimal color changes were developed and optimized for self-disinfecting coating. An experimental design was utilized to assess the effects of two independent variables: 1) AgNO3 content and 2) TiO2 content on four measured responses, i.e., the reduction of E. coli and S. aureus, color differences, and the amount of Ag+ release of nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope, and X-ray diffraction. To validate the optimal conditions for real clinical applications for Ramathibodi Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand), the performance evaluations of the coatings such as cytotoxicity test and color differences were conducted, and the antibacterial activities were tested against seven key strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The result suggested that this formulation has high potential for self-disinfecting coating applications.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.012
  • Synthesis and characterization of AN/EGDMA-based adsorbents for phenol
    • Authors: José Alberto Galicia Aguilar; Juana Deisy Santamaría Juárez; Maribel López Badillo; Manuel Sánchez-Cantú; Jenaro Leocadio Varela Caselis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): José Alberto Galicia Aguilar, Juana Deisy Santamaría Juárez, Maribel López Badillo, Manuel Sánchez-Cantú, Jenaro Leocadio Varela Caselis
      In this work, acrylonitrile (AN)/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) cross-linked polymeric adsorbents were synthesized by the suspension polymerization method. The adsorbents were prepared varying the EGDMA cross-linker ratio from 100 to 60%. It was found that the swelling factor and the specific surface area changed inversely with the crosslinking degree. In addition, the thermal characterization indicated that polymers stability increased as the crosslinking degree decreased. The polymers were tested as phenol adsorbents and it was found that the higher uptake level was reached when the acrylonitrile concentration increased in the polymer. Adsorption isotherm was determined fitting the Langmuir model, indicating a homogeneous surface of the adsorbents. Moreover, the kinetic studies indicated that the rate controlling step corresponded to the intraparticle diffusion since adsorption is promoted when the adsorbent is swollen.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.007
  • Surface properties and morphology of selected polymers and their blends
           designed to mucoadhesive dosage forms
    • Authors: A. Bartkowiak; M. Rojewska; A. Biadasz; J. Lulek; K. Prochaska
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): A. Bartkowiak, M. Rojewska, A. Biadasz, J. Lulek, K. Prochaska
      In the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems the controlling mechanism is initiated by the wetting and swelling of the polymer matrix. In view of the above, the aim of our study was to analyze the effect of model saliva and gastric fluids on the wetting properties and sorption of selected mucoadhesive (Carbopol 974P NF, HEC) and film-forming (Kollidon VA 64) polymers as well as their blends. We considered two types of examined materials: individual polymers and their blends in the form of powders as well as in the form of compressed discs (blanc tablets). The contact angle measurements for powders were performed according to the Washburn method, using the capillary rise technique, whereas the sessile drop method was applied to the compressed discs of mucoadhesive polymers. The surface energy was determined by the OWRK method. The influence of composition of the polymer blends and pH of model fluids on the wetting properties and sorption of the polymer formulations was evaluated. Moreover, significant differences in the morphology, surface roughness and surface properties of mucoadhesion polymers considered were discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.011
  • Preparation of mechanically-tough and thermo-responsive
           polyurethane-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels
    • Authors: Kewen Li; Chao Zhou; Shunli Liu; Fang Yao; Guodong Fu; Liqun Xu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Kewen Li, Chao Zhou, Shunli Liu, Fang Yao, Guodong Fu, Liqun Xu
      Hydrogels have been considered as promising materials in tissue engineering and biomedical areas. However, the weak and brittle nature of common synthetic hydrogels largely hinders their potential applications. Therefore, it is challenging to fabricate tough hydrogels for biomedical applications. In this manuscript, well-defined and thermo-responsive polyurethane-poly(ethylene glycol) (PU-PEG) hydrogels were prepared via thermally-induced copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) using azido-pendent PU-PEG and dialkynyl PEG as the gel precursors. The physical properties of the as-formed hydrogels were investigated by swelling ratios and mechanical tests. The PU-PEG hydrogels not only possess thermo-responsive and excellent mechanical properties, but also exhibit good biocompatibility.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T12:30:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.010
  • Curing behaviour and properties of a novel benzoxazine resin via catalysis
           of 2-phenyl-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole
    • Authors: Ya'nan Wang; Xiaoru Niu; Xiaolong Xing; Shujuan Wang; Xinli Jing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ya'nan Wang, Xiaoru Niu, Xiaolong Xing, Shujuan Wang, Xinli Jing
      In this work, 2-phenyl-1,3,2-benzenediolborane (PBO) with a five-membered cyclic phenylboronate structure was introduced into a benzoxazine resin to improve its processability and thermal resistance. PBO catalysis was beneficial at accelerating the curing reaction of PBO modified BZ (PBOZ), leading to a lower exothermal peak temperature (186 °C) and a shorter gelation time than for BZ (238°C). PBO was successfully incorporated into the network structure of the BZ and phenylboronate structures formed during curing. The TGA and DMA results showed that the cured PBOZs exhibited excellent thermal stability and a higher crosslinking density than cured PR. The char yield and glass transition temperature of the cured PBOZ increased by 12% and 38°C, respectively, relative to the BZ. The interlaminar shear strength of the high silica glass cloth-reinforced PBOZ composites were higher than that of the BZ composite due to the good interfacial adhesion properties between the PBOZ and glass fiber observed in the SEM results. This work provides a new strategy to develop BZs with excellent comprehensive properties.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.004
  • Effect of cellulose and lignocellulose nanofibers on the properties of
           Origanum vulgare ssp. gracile essential oil-loaded chitosan films
    • Authors: Eisa Jahed; Mohammad Alizadeh Khaledabad; Mahmuod Rezazad Bari; Hadi Almasi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Eisa Jahed, Mohammad Alizadeh Khaledabad, Mahmuod Rezazad Bari, Hadi Almasi
      In this study, active biodegradable films from chitosan (CS) containing 5% w/w Origanum vulgare ssp. gracile essential oil (EO) and 4% w/w cellulose nanofibers (CNF) or lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF) as nanoreinforcement were developed. GC–MS analysis showed that the most components of EO were carvacrol (49.43%) and then γ-terpinene (17.71%). The CS-EO film had high antioxidant activity and was more effective against E. coli and B. cereus bacteria than bionanocomposite films, which shows the release controlling effect of CNF and LCNF on the bioactive compounds from CS films. EO had not significant effect on the mechanical properties of the films (p>0.05), while nanofibers had significant effects (p<0.05) on strain to break (STB) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Incorporation of EO and CNF/LCNF in the CS-film also considerably improved solubility and water vapor barrier properties of the films. Color properties were significantly affected by adding of EO and CNF/LCNF. Formation of new hydrogen bonds between the chitosan chains, the EO and nanofibers were confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy. Morphology of films was viewed using AFM and SEM, suggesting good dispersion of the CNF/LCNF. In general, the properly dispersion state and improving effect of LCNF on properties of CH-EO films was more than CNF.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.008
  • Oxidized catechol-derived poly (ethylene glycol) for thiol-specific
    • Authors: Longfu Xu; Chun Zhang; Qi Wang; Fangxia Guo; Zenglan Li; Yongdong Liu; Zhiguo Su
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Longfu Xu, Chun Zhang, Qi Wang, Fangxia Guo, Zenglan Li, Yongdong Liu, Zhiguo Su
      Site-specific PEGylation of clinically used protein via free cysteine residue has been widely applied for a homogeneous product. Herein, we described a new thiol-specific PEGylation strategy based on catechol-derived reactive quinone species. Catechol-derived polyethylene glycol (PEG) was synthesized by coupling linear PEG N-hydroxysuccinimide to dopamine and then oxidized to quinone. PEG-dopaquinone (PEG-DAQ) mostly modifying the free cysteines of two model proteins of truncated flagellin (CBLB502) and recombined human ciliary neurotrophic factor (rhCNTF) evidenced its thiol-specificity. The yield of PEG-DAQ-rhCNTF under neutral pH value was 87.5%, compared with PEG-maleimide of 92.3% and PEG-vinylsulfone of 17.6%, respectively. About 95% reactive capacity for PEG-DAQ was maintained after incubation in aqueous solvent for 96h, indicating that the reagent was superiorly hydro-stable. Moreover, it was found that quenching the PEGylation reaction by excess cysteine was necessary to obtain more stable conjugate. The resulted PEG-DAQ-rhCNTF remained about 93.5% of the initial products after storage for 14days. As a comparison, PEG-MAL-rhCNTF was remained to 71.2%. Our results demonstrated that PEG-dopaquinone had properties of high selectivity and reactivity with cysteine thiol, and superior stability for both the reagent itself and its conjugate, showing great promise for developing as an alternative reagent for thiol-selective modification.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.005
  • Functionalized xylans in the production of xylan-coated paper laminates
    • Authors: Ana Ramos; Sónia Sousa; Dmitry V. Evtuguin; José A.F. Gamelas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ana Ramos, Sónia Sousa, Dmitry V. Evtuguin, José A.F. Gamelas
      Two functionalized xylans, namely a carboxymethyl xylan (CMX) and a 2-dodecenyl succinic anhydride-modified xylan (X-2-DSA) were, i) synthesized from beechwood xylan (BX) and characterized for their structural properties, thermal behaviour and molar mass and, ii) used in the production of paper/xylan laminates for food packaging. Films prepared from the functionalized xylans by solvent casting were applied onto paper employing the calendering moulding under pre-selected conditions in order to produce the laminates. The obtained laminates, as well as the starting base paper and xylan-derived films, were characterized for their mechanical and barrier properties. The produced novel type of laminates demonstrated a synergistic effect with respect to its individual constituents, as the Young's modulus, tensile, tear and burst strengths of laminates were significantly improved in comparison to those of the starting paper or the xylan films. The xylan-coated paper laminates showed good moisture barrier properties, reducing up to 30-fold the water vapor permeability of the paper. At the same time, despite of fairly good oxygen barrier properties of the bio-based films from functionalized xylan, their application in paper laminates did not permit maintaining the same order of oxygen transfer rates, which were, however, comparable to those reported for packaging papers coated by polyethylene films.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.006
  • Interpenetrating polymer networks hydrogels of chitosan and
           poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) for controlled release of quetiapine
    • Authors: J. García; E. Ruiz-Durántez; N.E. Valderruten
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): J. García, E. Ruiz-Durántez, N.E. Valderruten
      Polymer networks interpenetrated by chitosan and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) were synthesized. The FTIR spectra confirmed crosslinking of chitosan and polymerization of HEMA. The swelling properties were studied at different pHs and depend particularly on the chitosan content of the material and the pH sensitivity of the network. DSC studies showed two vitreous transitions at approximately 98°C and 155°C, which correspond to the networks of pHEMA and chitosan respectively, demonstrating that the materials obtained are amorphous and interpenetrated. Creep-recovery and stress relaxation studies showed that the materials demonstrate viscoelastic behavior. Quetiapine was used as a pharmacological model for studies of controlled release, and it was found that the process is controlled by diffusion and by relaxation of the polymer network. Finally, the synthesized materials were degraded using lysozyme under simulated physiological conditions. A higher degree of degradation was observed in conjunction with an increase in the chitosan content.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.002
  • Editors and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 116

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T08:29:41Z
  • Magnetic field gradient and sample size effect on magnetomechanical
           response for magnetic elastomers
    • Authors: Tsubasa Oguro; Hiroyuki Endo; Takehito Kikuchi; Mika Kawai; Tetsu Mitsumata
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Tsubasa Oguro, Hiroyuki Endo, Takehito Kikuchi, Mika Kawai, Tetsu Mitsumata
      We studied the size effect of disk-shaped magnetic elastomers, which were placed on a permanent magnet, on their magnetomechanical response for the permanent magnet. The diameter of the magnetic elastomers varied from 14 to 40mm, whereas the diameter of the permanent magnet was constant at 30 or 35mm. The smallest magnetic elastomer did not exhibit magnetomechanical response for both 30- and 35-mm-diameter permanent magnets; however, a clear response was observed when the diameter of the magnetic elastomer equaled that of the permanent magnet. Magnetic field distribution revealed a steep gradient of magnetic fields at the fringe of permanent magnets. Image analyses indicated that the bottom of magnetic elastomers was restricted to deform along the horizontal direction under compression. In the vertical direction, the magnetostriction due to the magnetic attractive force from permanent magnets was negligibly small. Therefore, the size-dependent behavior of magnetomechanical response is considered a pinning effect wherein the bottom of magnetic elastomers was restricted by the magnetic field gradient in the horizontal direction. We also analyzed the magnetomechanical response of magnetic elastomers when magnetic fields were applied by square- or ring-shaped permanent magnets.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T08:29:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.009
  • Carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin grafted chitosan nanoparticles as oral
           delivery carrier of protein drugs
    • Authors: Mingming Song; Liangping Li; Yue Zhang; Kuanmin Chen; Hui Wang; Renmin Gong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Mingming Song, Liangping Li, Yue Zhang, Kuanmin Chen, Hui Wang, Renmin Gong
      In this paper, the novel carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin grafted chitosan (CMCD-g-CS) nanoparticles were fabricated and their potential as oral delivery carrier of protein drugs was evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the prepared nanocarriers were characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model protein drug, was loaded in prepared nanocarriers with ideal entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading content (LC). The drug release profiles of BSA loaded nanoparticles were studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) and simulated colonic fluid (SCF). It was found that the drug loaded nanovehicles displayed a typical controlled sustained release profiles and the amount of BSA released from the nanocarriers was much higher in SIF and SCF than it in SGF. The research results suggested that the CMCD-g-CS nanoparticles had the potential as promising nanocarriers for oral delivery of protein drugs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T08:04:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.008
  • Compatibility confirmation and refinement of thermal and mechanical
           properties of poly (lactic acid)/poly (ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate)
           blend reinforced by hexagonal boron nitride
    • Authors: Ashish Kumar; T. Venkatappa Rao; S. Ray Chowdhury; S.V.S. RamanaReddy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ashish Kumar, T. Venkatappa Rao, S. Ray Chowdhury, S.V.S. RamanaReddy
      The formation of PLA/PEGM graft copolymers during the melt blending of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and poly (ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (PEGM) act as an interface between two polymer matrices was illustrated by the epoxide ring-opening mechanism. There are two coupling reaction mechanisms of glycidyl methacrylate (GM) unit of PEGM with the terminal groups of PLA. The analysis of FTIR and 1H NMR spectra elucidates the chemical reaction of GM unit of PEGM with carboxylic and hydroxyl terminal groups of PLA. FTIR analysis also confirms that the carboxylic terminal groups of PLA are more likely to react with GM group of PEGM. Hence, PLA grade having carboxyl terminal groups is more compatible with PEGM as compared to the PLA grade having hydroxyl and ester terminal groups. The hexagonal boron nitride(HBN) is incorporated with various labels such that 1phr, 5phr and 10phr to prepare PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The blend-composite with low HBN content i.e. 1phr shows better mechanical and thermal properties than neat PLA, PLA/PEGM blend and other blend-composites. This is attributed to the formation of covalent bond between polymer chains and HBN crystal layers and also due to the intermolecular interaction between the hydrogen atoms of polymer chains with the nitrogen atoms of HBN, which is confirmed by the FTIR and 1H NMR studies. TG/DTG, SEM, XRD analysis and the improvement in the mechanical and thermal properties of the prepared blend also asserts the interfacial compatibility between PLA and PEGM in the blend and chemical interaction of HBN particles with polymer matrix.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T08:04:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.005
  • Effective adsorption of hexavalent chromium using biopolymer assisted
           oxyhydroxide materials from aqueous solution
    • Authors: Jayaram Preethi; Subbaiah Muthu Prabhu; Sankaran Meenakshi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Jayaram Preethi, Subbaiah Muthu Prabhu, Sankaran Meenakshi
      The mixed oxyhydroxide and chitosan sustained mixed oxyhydroxide adsorbents were synthesized via eco-friendly one pot hydrothermal method and their efficacy was tested towards the removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic aqueous solution. Aluminium-lanthanum mixed oxyhydroxide (ALMOH) and chitosan/aluminium-lanthanum mixed oxyhydroxide (CSALMOH) were characterized using Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) with mapping, X-ray diffraction analysis, Themogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) onto the sorbents was found to be higher at pH4–5 with the dosage of 2g/L at 200mg/L dichromate solution. The sorption capacities of ALMOH and CSALMOH were 49.80 and 78.90mg/g, respectively. Various isotherm models analysis viz., Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were employed to correlate the experimental data. Thermodynamic studies were carried out to understand the nature of the sorption and feasibility of the reaction. The regeneration studies were also carried out up to 5cycles and to examine the potential of the CSALMOH was examined.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.006
  • Itaconic anhydride homopolymerization during radical grafting of
           poly(lactic acid) in melt
    • Authors: František Kučera; Josef Petruš; Jana Matláková; Josef Jančář
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): František Kučera, Josef Petruš, Jana Matláková, Josef Jančář
      This is the first study that focused on the homopolymerization of itaconic anhydride (IAH) during melt radical grafting of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) at 190°C. Although neglected by many authors, in the present study, radical-induced IAH homopolymerization, self-induced IAH homopolymerization, and IAH isomerization to citraconic anhydride were studied. The yield of investigated IAH-based side reactions was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and reaction by-products were extracted from raw PLA-g-IAH and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). It was found that the highest concentration of IAH and L101 favors IAH homopolymerization and affects the PLA grafting reaction mechanism dramatically.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:31:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.004
  • Dynamic furan/maleimide bond-incorporated cyclic polymer for topology
    • Authors: Ying Li; Yanyan Zhou; Yu Zhou; Qian Yu; Jian Zhu; Nianchen Zhou; Zhengbiao Zhang; Xiulin Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ying Li, Yanyan Zhou, Yu Zhou, Qian Yu, Jian Zhu, Nianchen Zhou, Zhengbiao Zhang, Xiulin Zhu
      The transformation of polymer topological structures by using an external stimulus has gained increasing attention because it is a versatile method to modify the properties of polymeric materials. Herein, cyclic poly(methyl methacrylate) linked by a dynamic covalent furan/maleimide bond was rationally designed and prepared. SEC, FTIR, NMR, and MALDI-TOF characterizations all confirmed the successful preparation of the polymer. By using the (retro)Diels-Alder reaction at a high temperature (110°C), the cyclic polymer was transformed to a linear monopolymer or linear multiblock polymer. In addition, the cyclic topology can also be fixed by eliminating the vinyl double group of furan/maleimide adduct by the photoinduced radical thiol-ene reaction. This work provides a novel and facile approach for cyclic-to-linear topological transformation, and many potentials based on this thermal-responsive polymer are envisioned.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:31:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.003
  • Dual ionic cross-linked alginate/clinoptilolite composite microbeads with
           improved stability and enhanced sorption properties for methylene blue
    • Authors: Maria Valentina Dinu; Maria Marinela Lazar; Ecaterina Stela Dragan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Maria Valentina Dinu, Maria Marinela Lazar, Ecaterina Stela Dragan
      Environmentally friendly and low-cost composites based on sodium alginate and clinoptilolite (Alg/CPL) were prepared as microbeads and were used as sorbents for removal of methylene blue (MB) from simulated wastewaters. A combination of various characterization techniques pointed out that CPL could also act as ionic cross-linker for Alg chains through the Ca2+ ions adsorbed on its surface, and consequently, leading to dual ionic cross-linked Alg/CPL composites with improved chemical stability. The composite microbeads containing a 1:5 weight ratio between Alg and CPL (Alg1CPL5) showed an enhanced sorption capacity for MB (qm: 452.25mgg−1) compared to Alg microbeads (qm: 151.73mgg−1) and CPL (qm: 48.12mgg−1). Chemisorption was considered the main mechanism governing the MB sorption process as indicated by the better fitting of pseudo-second order equation on the kinetic data. The desorption studies confirmed further the mechanism of dye sorption and showed the possible recovery of MB as well as the reusability of Alg/CPL composites in three consecutive sorption/desorption cycles. The comparison with other Alg-based sorbents highlighted the enhanced sorption capacities, the improved stability during regeneration and high reusability of dual cross-linked Alg/CPL composites, suggesting the promising potential of these materials as efficient sorbents in dye wastewater treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.001
  • Facile preparation of pH/reduction dual-responsive prodrug microspheres
           with high drug content for tumor intracellular triggered release of DOX
    • Authors: Ruinian Zhang; Xu Jia; Mingliang Pei; Peng Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ruinian Zhang, Xu Jia, Mingliang Pei, Peng Liu
      To integrate the two advantages of upregulated stability during blood circulation and site-specific drug release in cancer cells, pH/reduction dual-responsive prodrug microspheres with high drug content were designed by conjugating doxorubicin (DOX) onto aldehyde-functionalized disulfide-crosslinked copolymer microspheres via acid-labile imine linkage, where the copolymer microspheres were synthesized by facile emulsion copolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) and 4-formylphenyl acrylate (FPA) with N,N-bis(acryloyl)cystamine (BACy) as crosslinker. Their particle size and average hydrodynamic diameter were 150nm and 205nm respectively, with high DOX content of 44.4%. The DOX release ratio reached 73% within 60h and the prodrug microspheres decrosslinked into water soluble copolymers within 72h in the simulated tumor microenvironment (pH5.0 with 10mM GSH), while only 16% of DOX was released in physiological medium (pH7.4 with 10μM GSH), demonstrating their good tumor intracellular triggered release performance. Furthermore, the disintegration of the copolymer microspheres into water soluble copolymers in simulated tumor microenvironment would favor the metabolism of drug carriers. The MTT assay demonstrated that the prodrug microspheres exhibited the enhanced inhibitory efficiency against HepG2 cells in comparison with free DOX, while the bare polymer microspheres were cytocompatible.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.002
  • One-pot solvothermal synthesis of robust ambient-dried polyimide aerogels
           with morphology-enhanced superhydrophobicity for highly efficient
           continuous oil/water separation
    • Authors: Tianli Ning; Guangjie Yang; Wei Zhao; Xikui Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Tianli Ning, Guangjie Yang, Wei Zhao, Xikui Liu
      In this study, using a sequential polyamic acid (PAA) gelation and solvothermal imidization, we demonstrate a scalable one-pot solvothermal approach for the preparation of polyimide (PI) aerogels having a three-dimensional network composed of uniform microspheres. PI aerogels prepared by this approach were mechanically robust can be directly dried in oven without considerable contraction. More importantly, the PI aerogels showed morphology-enhanced water droplet contact angles from 98° to as high as 146°, which makes them nearly superhydrophobic. Such hydrophobic/oleophilic monolithic aerogels could rapidly and continuously separate oil from oil/water mixtures and even from water-in-oil emulsions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.017
  • Study the role of poly(diethyl aminoethyl methacrylate) as a modified and
           grafted shell for TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, application in flutamide
    • Authors: Ali A. Ensafi; Elaheh Khoddami; Afshin Nabiyan; B. Rezaei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ali A. Ensafi, Elaheh Khoddami, Afshin Nabiyan, B. Rezaei
      Diethyl aminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) was polymerized and cross-linked simultaneously with direct atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of the modified TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles (CH3CHBrCO@ZnO and CH3CHBrCO@TiO2). In the other view, the surface of the TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles were modified and grafted with poly(DEAEMA). During the ATRP of DEAEMA with CH3CHBrCO@ZnO and CH3CHBrCO@TiO2 nanoparticles, different ratios of flutamide, as an anti-cancer drug and the case for the simulation, were added to the polymerization matrix. Meanwhile, the polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) were obtained as a delivering system. Then, the different PNCs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and electrochemical investigations. In this regards, electrochemical investigations reveled the fact that the developed delivering systems have the drug release rates of 31.0 over 1560min and 22.8 in 1200min for the flutamide-loaded PDEAEMA-CH3CHBrCO@TiO2 and flutamide-loaded PDEAEMA-CH3CHBrCO@ZnO, respectively. Also, according to the TEM images, the synthesized delivering systems based on CH3CHBrCO@TiO2 shows the bowl-like arrangements, which likely support the obtained electrochemical and high performance liquid chromatography results. Finally, our study shows that the view of the modifying and grafting of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles by poly(DEAEMA) confirmed the great success for the introduced simulated drug delivery system than the view of the TiO2 and ZnO, as modifiers for poly(DEAEMA).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.016
  • Facile Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling using ferrocene tethered
           N-heterocyclic carbene-Pd complex anchored on cellulose
    • Authors: Dolly Kale; Gajanan Rashinkar; Arjun Kumbhar; Rajashri Salunkhe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Dolly Kale, Gajanan Rashinkar, Arjun Kumbhar, Rajashri Salunkhe
      A novel ferrocene tethered N-heterocyclic carbene-Pd complex anchored on cellulose has been prepared by multi-step synthesis. The complex proved to be robust and efficient heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of biaryls in Suzuki-Miyuara cross coupling reaction.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.010
  • The synthesis of hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres
           and their application for selective removal of bisphenol A from water
    • Authors: Zehu Wang; Teng Qiu; Longhai Guo; Jun Ye; Lifan He; Xiaoyu Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Zehu Wang, Teng Qiu, Longhai Guo, Jun Ye, Lifan He, Xiaoyu Li
      The adsorptive materials which have the function of molecular recognition are becoming important as the fast emerging environmental requirements for the analysis and repair of target contaminants present at low concentrations in aqueous matrices. Here, we demonstrate a Pickering emulsion polymerization strategy to build bisphenol A (BPA) imprinted poly(methacrylic acid) microspheres without the traditional organic surfactant. In the synthesis, the only stabilizer is silica particles derived from Stöber process. The molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres were prepared by radical polymerization in the Pickering oil/water emulsion. Both the solid stabilizers and the molecular templates were conveniently removed from the microspheres. The obtained microspheres are of regularly spherical structures and hydrophilic surfaces. The formation of molecularly imprinted sites on the microspheres was validated by the excellent recognition capability toward BPA in the rebinding and competitive binding experiments.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.015
  • Fluorescent thiol-epoxy thermosets obtained from diglycidylether of
           bisphenol A and carbazole based diepoxy monomer
    • Authors: Oleksandra Korychenska; Dailyn Guzmán; Àngels Serra; Xavier Ramis; Juozas V. Grazulevicius
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Oleksandra Korychenska, Dailyn Guzman, Àngels Serra, Xavier Ramis, Juozas V. Grazulevicius
      A new epoxy resin containing carbazole moieties was synthesized and added in several proportions to diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate) (TTMP) formulations that were thermally cured by thiol-epoxy click reaction. The curing was catalyzed by a latent amine precursor, which after triggering at high temperature liberates the amine that enables the formation of thiolate groups. The curing process of the different formulations was monitored by calorimetric analysis, which allowed to observe that the increase of the proportion of the synthesized epoxy resin with carbazole groups in the formulation decreased the curing rate. However, all these formulations cured quickly after triggering, which make them adequate for the formation of layers in multilayer devices. Thermal characteristics of the obtained thermosets were determined by calorimetric, thermomechanical and thermogravimetric analysis. The obtained thermosets have good thermal stability. Their glass transition temperature increased when the proportion of the carbazole containing resin was increased in the formulation. The photophysical properties of the thermoset films were studied and it was proved that they exhibit fluorescence in the range of 352 to 369°C.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.007
  • Stimuli-responsive and micellar behaviors of star-shaped
           poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]-b-poly[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl
           methacrylate] with a β-cyclodextrin core
    • Authors: Yi Guo; Meng Li; Xinrui Li; Yazhuo Shang; Honglai Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yi Guo, Meng Li, Xinrui Li, Yazhuo Shang, Honglai Liu
      A series of star-shaped block copolymers (CDPDPM) of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate (MEO2MA) with tunable stimuli-responsive behavior are synthesized via sequential atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with the 2-bromoisobutyryl-terminated β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as a core. The properties of these star-shaped copolymers are characterized by FT-IR, NMR and GPC analyses. Meanwhile, the thermo-sensitive behaviors of CDPDPM with different compositions and pH values are investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV–vis measurements. The results have shown that the synthesized polymer CDPDPM exhibits both pH- and thermo-responsive behaviors in aqueous solutions. The star-shaped copolymers with the nearly equal mole fraction of DMAEMA and MEO2MA show two-step thermo-induced aggregation behavior in water at a pH near the isoelectric point (IEP), which corresponds to the formation of branch aggregates and large aggregates consisting of clustered branch aggregates, respectively. The mole fraction of DMAEMA and MEO2MA in polymer affects the thermal-responsive behaviors of polymer itself. Moreover, the micellar behaviors of the synthesized copolymers in aqueous solution are explored. The aggregation process of the copolymer can be generalized into intramolecular aggregation of the hydrophobic chains (corresponding to CI), formation of premicelles, the aggregation and rearrangement of the premicelles (namely CMC), as well as the formation of multicore structures. The CI and CMC values depend on both the MEO2MA molar fraction and the carbon backbone length of polymers. The aggregation number (N) and the sizes of polymer micelles (Dh) vary with the polymer composition, polymer concentration and ambient environment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.013
  • Diverse composites of metal-complexes and PEDOT facilitated by metal-free
           vapour phase polymerization
    • Authors: Shravan S. Acharya; Christopher D. Easton; Thomas M. McCoy; Leone Spiccia; C. André Ohlin; Bjorn Winther-Jensen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Shravan S. Acharya, Christopher D. Easton, Thomas M. McCoy, Leone Spiccia, C. André Ohlin, Bjorn Winther-Jensen
      Oxidative polymerization for the manufacture of conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene) has traditionally employed iron(III) salts. Demonstrated in this study is vapour phase polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedio- xythiophene using a metal-free oxidant, ammonium persulfate, leading to films with an estimated conductivity of 75S/cm. Additionally, a route for embedding active transition metal complexes into these poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/-poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) films via vapour assisted complexation is outlined. Here, the vapour pressure of solid ligands around their melting temperatures was exploited to ensure complexation to metal ions added into the oxidant mixture prior to polymerization of PEDOT. Four composite systems are discussed, viz. PEDOT/PSS embedded with tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)cobalt(III), tris(2,2-bipyridine)cobalt(II), tris(1,10- phenanthroline)cobalt(II) and tris(8-hyd-roxyquinolinato)aluminium(III). Using these composites, electrochemical reduction of nitrite to ammonia with a faradaic efficiency of 61% was reported.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.008
  • Shape memory hyperbranched polyurethanes via thiol-ene click chemistry
    • Authors: Hyo Jin Jeong; Byung Kyu Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Hyo Jin Jeong, Byung Kyu Kim
      Hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) (Hyper-OH) was synthesized from pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (PETTA) and diethanolamine (DEA) by Michael addition reactions. One-to-one stoichiometric reaction between diisocyanatodicyclohexylmethane (H12MDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) produced dimmers carrying both NCO and vinyl groups at two chain termini, which were subsequently reacted with Hyper-OH to form hyperbranched polymers (HBP, Hyper-8). Replacing HEA by trimethylolpropane diallyl ether (TMPDE) produced Hyper-16. On the other hand, polyurethane prepolymers were synthesized from H12MDI and polyol, end capped with 1,2-ethanedithiol, and UV cured to synthesize crosslinked polyurethanes via thiol-ene click chemistry. Hyperbranched polymers acted as multifunctional crosslinkers as well as reinforcing fillers and significantly enhanced mechanical, thermal and shape memory properties. Effects were more pronounced with thiol-ene click chemistry than ene-ene curing.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.009
  • Bioelectrocatalytic fructose oxidation with fructose dehydrogenase-bearing
           conducting polymer films for biofuel cell application
    • Authors: Takashi Kuwahara; Mamoru Kameda; Keita Isozaki; Keisuke Toriyama; Mizuki Kondo; Masato Shimomura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Takashi Kuwahara, Mamoru Kameda, Keita Isozaki, Keisuke Toriyama, Mizuki Kondo, Masato Shimomura
      This study presents an enzymatic bioanode fabricated with fructose dehydrogenase and a polyaniline film to construct a single-compartment fructose biofuel cell. The enzymatic bioanode provided fructose oxidation current, which accompanied the electron transfer between the heme c moiety of fructose dehydrogenase and polyaniline. Characterization of the bioanode at a pH of 4.5 indicated an onset potential of −0.1V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with respect to the redox potential corresponding to heme c of fructose dehydrogenase as well as high current densities for fructose oxidation of 1.0±0.1mA/cm2 at +0.50V (vs. Ag/AgCl). A single-compartment fructose biofuel cell was constructed by use of the bioanode together with an enzymatic biocathode fabricated with laccase and polythiophene copolymer film. The fructose biofuel cell possessed an open-circuit potential of 0.55V with an associated short-circuit current of 1.4±0.2mA/cm2. In addition, the maximum power density of the biofuel cell was 0.36±0.04mW/cm2 at a cell voltage of 0.3V.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T03:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.011
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