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Journal Cover Reactive and Functional Polymers
  [SJR: 0.8]   [H-I: 72]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1381-5148
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Temperature-stable anion-exchange materials from cyclopolymerization of
           quaternary ammonium halides
    • Authors: Claus Vogel; Hartmut Komber; Jochen Meier-Haack
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Claus Vogel, Hartmut Komber, Jochen Meier-Haack
      The preparation of quaternary ammonium salts containing allyl and methallyl groups from dimethylamine and pyrrolidine, and the free-radical initiated cyclopolymerization of these salts is described. It is shown by NMR analysis that poly(ammonium salts) are formed consisting of pyrrolidinium and azoniaspiro[4.4]nonane containing repeating units respectively with one or even two adjacent quaternary carbon centers along the chain. The ability to polymerize decreased from diallyl over allylmethallyl to dimethallyl monomers. Already polymers from diallylammonium salts showed sufficient stability in alkaline medium at 80°C over a period of 168h and for additional 18h at 120°C.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Nanocomposite hydrogel with varying number of repeating oxyethylene units:
           Adjustable pore structure and thermo-responsibility
    • Authors: Pengfei Liu; Zhe Peng; Qingsong Zhang
      Pages: 43 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Pengfei Liu, Zhe Peng, Qingsong Zhang
      To explore the effect of varying number (n) of repeating oxyethylene units upon the structure, pore shape and property of nanocomposite hydrogels, three kinds of lyotropic liquid crystal molecules polyoxyethylene (n) alkyl ether (Brij-52/56/58) with same alkyl chain C16H33 and different number of oxyethylene units (CH2CH2O)n=2,10,20) were severed as novel type of template to prepare Brij/Poly(NIPAm/LMSH) (TNH52/56/58) nanocomposite hydrogels base on monomer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and inorganic nanoclay lithium magnesium silicate hydrate (LMSH). It was found that, as the number values (n) of oxyethylene units are 10 and 20, the transmittance values of pre-polymerization solution decrease significantly to nearly zero at 37 and 33min, while keeps constant at around 5% as n=2. With increasing the values of n from 2 to 10 and 20, the pore structure changes from honeycomb to interconnected and layered pore structure, and pore size decreases from 40 to 60μm to 20–40μm (layer space). As n=10, the maximum swelling ratio (MSR) and water loss rates of prepared TNH56 nanocomposite hydrogel is the largest. The volume phase transition temperature (VPTTs) values still keep at 30–35°C, but linear fitting data and endothermic peak width indicate that, as n is 10, nanocomposite hydrogel presents rapid thermo-responsibility. It has revealed that the adsorption between LMSH sheets and Brij molecules and template-like role play an important role in controlling the pore shape, swelling behaviour and temperature-sensitivity.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 117 (2017)
  • Silk fibroin films for potential applications in controlled release
    • Authors: Yifeng Huang; Kevin Bailey; Sai Wang; Xianshe Feng
      Pages: 57 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yifeng Huang, Kevin Bailey, Sai Wang, Xianshe Feng
      Silk fibroin extracted from Bombyx mori cocoon was processed into regenerated films and examined for potential application in controlled drug release. Instead of using dialysis process, the present study proposed a novel convenient method to remove LiBr from fibroin aqueous solution during film preparation process. The prepared fibroin films were characterized by FTIR and SEM, showing that the films were dense, homogeneous, and partially crystalized. The biocompatibility of fibroin films was initially evaluated by the adsorption of BSA. It was shown that at 10mg/mL of BSA, the BSA sorption reached 0.045mg/cm2, which is indicative of good blood compatibility and biocompatibility of the fibroin. Further, the permeability and diffusivity of four model drugs in the fibroin films were investigated, and they were found to be on the same orders of magnitudes as many other controlled release materials, indicating that the naturally occurring fibroin is a good candidate material for uses in controlled release. The mass transport through the fibroin film pertaining to controlled drug release was also studied.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 116 (2017)
  • Fabrication and characterization of an ion-imprinted membrane via blending
           poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with
           polyvinylidene fluoride for selective adsorption of Ru(III)
    • Authors: Jianxian Zeng; Zhe Zhang; Zhihui Dong; Panfeng Ren; Yuan Li; Xiao Liu
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 115
      Author(s): Jianxian Zeng, Zhe Zhang, Zhihui Dong, Panfeng Ren, Yuan Li, Xiao Liu
      An ion-imprinted blend membrane (Ru(III)-IIM) for selectively adsorbing ruthenium(III) from aqueous solutions was fabricated by blending poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) P(MMA-HEMA) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Firstly, P(MMA-HEMA) was successfully synthesized and characterized. Subsequently, combining with the ion-imprinting technology, a series of Ru(III)-IIMs were fabricated via the non-solvent induced phase inversion method. The results indicated that increasing the polymer concentration and extending the evaporation time led to transform the cross-section of membranes from macrovoid structure to a finger-like or tear-like even sponge structure, and also decreased the water flux. The contact angle tests showed the hydrophilicity of Ru(III)-IIMs were effectively improved by blending with P(MMA-HEMA), compared with the PVDF membrane. The adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption capacity of ruthenium(III) onto the Ru(III)-IIM was pH-dependent, and the maximum adsorption capacity reached 42.31mgg−1 at pH2.0. The adsorption process was well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model. The selective adsorption was studied by using Ni(II) as an interfering ion. Compared with the non-imprinted membrane, the Ru(III)-IIM showed a higher selectivity for Ru(III), with a selectivity coefficient of 6.0 for Ru(III)/Ni(II). In addition, the Ru(III)-IIM had a high reusability and still maintained about 95% of its initial adsorption capacity for Ru(III) after eight cycles.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.018
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
  • Interfacial polycondensation-derived side-chain poly(ethylene
           glycol)-containing water-soluble polysulfide weak-link polymers as
           stabilizer for gold nanoparticles
    • Authors: Ujjal Haldar; Kapil Dev Sayala; Kannan Sivaprakasam; Latha Ramakrishnan; Priyadarsi De
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 115
      Author(s): Ujjal Haldar, Kapil Dev Sayala, Kannan Sivaprakasam, Latha Ramakrishnan, Priyadarsi De
      In the present study, we synthesized water-soluble poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGA)-containing polysulfide polymers by conventional interfacial polycondensation polymerization. Formation of polysulfide polymers was confirmed using gel permeation chromatography, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Thermal behaviors of polysulfide polymers were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Degradation products of the main chain polysulfide polymers were characterized by electron-impact mass spectroscopy. These polysulfide polymers are soluble not only in most of the common organic solvents but also in water, though they contain highly hydrophobic -Sx- (x=1 or 2) moieties in the main chain. In addition, the synthesized PEGA-containing disulfide polymer was employed to stabilize gold nanoparticles in an aqueous medium to prevent self-aggregation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
  • Synthesis and characterization of lignosulfonate-graft-poly (acrylic
           acid)/hydroxyethyl cellulose semi-interpenetrating hydrogels
    • Authors: Jiaojiao Zhao; Kun Zheng; Jingya Nan; Chao Tang; Ying Chen; Yong Hu
      Pages: 28 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 115
      Author(s): Jiaojiao Zhao, Kun Zheng, Jingya Nan, Chao Tang, Ying Chen, Yong Hu
      Maximizing the use of waste is an important part of the strategy for sustainable development. Lignosulfonate, a waste product with sufficient reactive functional groups, can be used as reinforcing materials in polymer composites. In this work, composite hydrogels composed of lignosulfonate-graft-poly (acrylic acid) AA network and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) polymer chains are synthesized through in situ polymerization and cross-linking reaction. The composite hydrogels have semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPNs) structure, which is driven by the hydrogen bond interactions between proton-donating PAA and proton-accepting HEC. The mechanical properties of these composite hydrogels, including fracture stress, critical compression and elastic modulus and elongation are investigated by tensile measurements. These composite hydrogels exhibit higher toughness and extensibility compared to conventional PAA polymer hydrogels. Moreover, full recovery of their original shape after the removal of compression stress indicates their excellent shape-recovery property. Due to their porous structure, these hydrogels show stimuli responsive swelling properties in aqueous solution depending on the pH or ionic strength, which facilitate the repeating absorption and removal of dyes. Therefore, this work may open a new pathway to synthesize functional materials based on lignosulfonate.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.019
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
  • Chiral resolution by polysulfone-based membranes prepared via
           mussel-inspired chemistry
    • Authors: Lei Miao; Yang Yang; Yuanyuan Tu; Shudong Lin; Jiwen Hu; Zhuo Du; Min Zhang; Yue Li
      Pages: 87 - 94
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Lei Miao, Yang Yang, Yuanyuan Tu, Shudong Lin, Jiwen Hu, Zhuo Du, Min Zhang, Yue Li
      Reported herein is a chiral resolution polysulfone membrane prepared via mussel-inspired chemistry. Polysulfone membranes were modified with dopamine, which underwent in situ polymerization on the membrane substrate, and β-cyclodextrin was used as a chiral selector. The preparation conditions were optimized and the resultant membrane obtained under these conditions showed desirable water permeability (~24.0L/(m2·h·bar)) and surface hydrophilicity (contact angle is lower than 37.1±3.4°). The polydopamine layer exhibited desirable stability in a series of aqueous solutions with pH values ranging from 4.0–6.0 or in isopropanol for less than an hour (detachment ratio was lower than 1.2%). Characterization of the surface morphology and XPS elemental analysis revealed that the membrane surface was fully coated by polydopamine and a β-cyclodextrin monolayer formed on the surface of the polydopamine coating. The grafting density of β-cyclodextrin calculated from the XPS results was ~11.5mg/m2. The optimal pH value for the resolution of D- or L-tryptophan feed solution was 5.90 and a low concentration of the feed solution provided a high resolution efficiency. The enantiomeric excess (e.e.) value of the membrane for Trp racemic mixture achieved to ~3.2% with the feed solution of tryptophan racemic mixture was 5×10−5 mol/L and the operating pressure was 0.1MPa. After 3 times of isopropanol-washed regeneration processes, the e.e. value was still stable around to ~3%. The mussel-inspired chemically modified membrane exhibited the same mechanical properties as the purely polysulfone-based membrane. The methods and results provided in this paper may facilitate the large-scale production of chiral resolution membranes or other chiral separation membranes with higher performance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T03:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
  • Proton conductive polymers obtained by in-situ polymerization of a
           mesomorphic benzimidazole monomer in smectic A, nematic and isotropic
    • Authors: Shuai Tan; Ting Liang; Bingzhuo Wei; Siyu Cao; Yong Wu
      Pages: 95 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 115
      Author(s): Shuai Tan, Ting Liang, Bingzhuo Wei, Siyu Cao, Yong Wu
      Side-chain polymers with different microstructures have been prepared by in-situ ultra-violet (UV) photopolymerization of a liquid crystal monomer bearing a terminal benzimidazole moiety. The molecular weights of PBI S , PBI N , and PBI I obtained from the smectic A (SA), nematic and isotropic liquid phases were 1.53, 1.40 and 1.38×104 gmol−1, respectively. In-situ UV polymerization of the monomer aligned by mechanical shearing in the SA phase resulted in a macroscopically layered polymer PBI alS . PBI alS exhibited higher glass transition temperature than PBI S , PBI N , and PBI I . Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements suggested the anhydrous proton conductivity of PBI alS parallel to the aligned layers was more than one order of magnitude higher than those of PBI S , PBI N and PBI I . At the same temperature, proton conductivity of PBI S was higher than those of PBI N and PBI I . The results suggested that the architecture of the benzimidazole polymer, which could be tuned by the mesomorphases of the monomer, had a profound impact on the anhydrous proton conduction.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
  • Synthesis, characterization and chlorination of
           2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid sodium salt-based antibacterial
    • Authors: Ayse Sezer Hicyilmaz; Abdullah Kemal Seckin; Idris Cerkez
      Pages: 109 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ayse Sezer Hicyilmaz, Abdullah Kemal Seckin, Idris Cerkez
      2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid sodium salt-based hydrogels were synthesized by redox polymerization and rendered biocidal by dilute household bleach treatment. The developed hydrogels were characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR, DSC and TGA. The effect of chlorination parameters on the chlorine loadings and water absorption degree was studied. It was found that depending on the halogenation conditions, the oxidative chlorine loadings could be tuned between 0.10 and 2.82wt%, and the water absorption degree could be obtained between 10 and 230g/g. Moreover, the chlorinated hydrogels effectively inactivated about 7logs of the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 115 (2017)
  • Water sorption isotherms of molecularly imprinted polymers. Relation
           between water binding and iprodione binding capacity
    • Authors: Manal Bitar; Gaëlle Roudaut; Jacqueline Maalouly; Stéphane Brandès; Régis D Gougeon; Philippe Cayot; Elias Bou-Maroun
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 114
      Author(s): Manal Bitar, Gaëlle Roudaut, Jacqueline Maalouly, Stéphane Brandès, Régis D Gougeon, Philippe Cayot, Elias Bou-Maroun
      Molecularly imprinted polymers are often used in aqueous medium in order to recognize specifically a target molecule. The molecular recognition is usually based on hydrogen bonding. In this case, water molecule presents a serious competition towards the target molecule. In this study, the water sorption by molecularly imprinted polymers was studied in aqueous medium. The molecularly imprinted polymers were specific for iprodione fungicide and were prepared using a 24 full factorial experimental design. They were synthesized using EGDMA or TRIM as crosslinker, methacrylamide or styrene as functional monomer and using bulk or precipitation polymerization. The water sorption isotherms were established in a range of water activities 0.05–0.90 at 25°C. The kinetics of water sorption by the polymers were modeled using Peleg's equation. This model shows that polymers having the highest water sorption capacities have high values of imprinting factor. The Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer isotherm equations were used to fit the equilibrium data and the corresponding parameters were calculated. This model shows that polymers synthesized with EGDMA have higher water sorption capacities than those synthesized with TRIM due to the higher hydrophobicity of the latter. Peleg and Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer equations satisfactorily modeled the water sorption on the imprinted and non-imprinted polymers. The results obtained from both equations were practically coincident. Principal component analysis was used as a chemometric tool in order to demonstrate that a polymer having a low adsorption energy and a high capacity of water retention could be applied to extract a target molecule from aqueous media.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T08:06:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 114 (2017)
  • In vitro assessment of Ag-TiO2/polyurethane nanocomposites for infection
           control using response surface methodology
    • Authors: Phasinee Khwanmuang; Porpon Rotjanapan; Angsana Phuphuakrat; Sirawat Srichatrapimuk; Chayanisa Chitichotpanya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Phasinee Khwanmuang, Porpon Rotjanapan, Angsana Phuphuakrat, Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Chayanisa Chitichotpanya
      Combining the use of a central composite design (CCD) with a response surface methodology (RSM), Ag-TiO2/Polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites with superior antimicrobial activities and minimal color changes were developed and optimized for self-disinfecting coating. An experimental design was utilized to assess the effects of two independent variables: 1) AgNO3 content and 2) TiO2 content on four measured responses, i.e., the reduction of E. coli and S. aureus, color differences, and the amount of Ag+ release of nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope, and X-ray diffraction. To validate the optimal conditions for real clinical applications for Ramathibodi Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand), the performance evaluations of the coatings such as cytotoxicity test and color differences were conducted, and the antibacterial activities were tested against seven key strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The result suggested that this formulation has high potential for self-disinfecting coating applications.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.012
  • Synthesis and characterization of AN/EGDMA-based adsorbents for phenol
    • Authors: José Alberto Galicia Aguilar; Juana Deisy Santamaría Juárez; Maribel López Badillo; Manuel Sánchez-Cantú; Jenaro Leocadio Varela Caselis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): José Alberto Galicia Aguilar, Juana Deisy Santamaría Juárez, Maribel López Badillo, Manuel Sánchez-Cantú, Jenaro Leocadio Varela Caselis
      In this work, acrylonitrile (AN)/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) cross-linked polymeric adsorbents were synthesized by the suspension polymerization method. The adsorbents were prepared varying the EGDMA cross-linker ratio from 100 to 60%. It was found that the swelling factor and the specific surface area changed inversely with the crosslinking degree. In addition, the thermal characterization indicated that polymers stability increased as the crosslinking degree decreased. The polymers were tested as phenol adsorbents and it was found that the higher uptake level was reached when the acrylonitrile concentration increased in the polymer. Adsorption isotherm was determined fitting the Langmuir model, indicating a homogeneous surface of the adsorbents. Moreover, the kinetic studies indicated that the rate controlling step corresponded to the intraparticle diffusion since adsorption is promoted when the adsorbent is swollen.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.007
  • Surface properties and morphology of selected polymers and their blends
           designed to mucoadhesive dosage forms
    • Authors: A. Bartkowiak; M. Rojewska; A. Biadasz; J. Lulek; K. Prochaska
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): A. Bartkowiak, M. Rojewska, A. Biadasz, J. Lulek, K. Prochaska
      In the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems the controlling mechanism is initiated by the wetting and swelling of the polymer matrix. In view of the above, the aim of our study was to analyze the effect of model saliva and gastric fluids on the wetting properties and sorption of selected mucoadhesive (Carbopol 974P NF, HEC) and film-forming (Kollidon VA 64) polymers as well as their blends. We considered two types of examined materials: individual polymers and their blends in the form of powders as well as in the form of compressed discs (blanc tablets). The contact angle measurements for powders were performed according to the Washburn method, using the capillary rise technique, whereas the sessile drop method was applied to the compressed discs of mucoadhesive polymers. The surface energy was determined by the OWRK method. The influence of composition of the polymer blends and pH of model fluids on the wetting properties and sorption of the polymer formulations was evaluated. Moreover, significant differences in the morphology, surface roughness and surface properties of mucoadhesion polymers considered were discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T12:45:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.011
  • Preparation of mechanically-tough and thermo-responsive
           polyurethane-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels
    • Authors: Kewen Li; Chao Zhou; Shunli Liu; Fang Yao; Guodong Fu; Liqun Xu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Kewen Li, Chao Zhou, Shunli Liu, Fang Yao, Guodong Fu, Liqun Xu
      Hydrogels have been considered as promising materials in tissue engineering and biomedical areas. However, the weak and brittle nature of common synthetic hydrogels largely hinders their potential applications. Therefore, it is challenging to fabricate tough hydrogels for biomedical applications. In this manuscript, well-defined and thermo-responsive polyurethane-poly(ethylene glycol) (PU-PEG) hydrogels were prepared via thermally-induced copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) using azido-pendent PU-PEG and dialkynyl PEG as the gel precursors. The physical properties of the as-formed hydrogels were investigated by swelling ratios and mechanical tests. The PU-PEG hydrogels not only possess thermo-responsive and excellent mechanical properties, but also exhibit good biocompatibility.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T12:30:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.010
  • Curing behaviour and properties of a novel benzoxazine resin via catalysis
           of 2-phenyl-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole
    • Authors: Ya'nan Wang; Xiaoru Niu; Xiaolong Xing; Shujuan Wang; Xinli Jing
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ya'nan Wang, Xiaoru Niu, Xiaolong Xing, Shujuan Wang, Xinli Jing
      In this work, 2-phenyl-1,3,2-benzenediolborane (PBO) with a five-membered cyclic phenylboronate structure was introduced into a benzoxazine resin to improve its processability and thermal resistance. PBO catalysis was beneficial at accelerating the curing reaction of PBO modified BZ (PBOZ), leading to a lower exothermal peak temperature (186 °C) and a shorter gelation time than for BZ (238°C). PBO was successfully incorporated into the network structure of the BZ and phenylboronate structures formed during curing. The TGA and DMA results showed that the cured PBOZs exhibited excellent thermal stability and a higher crosslinking density than cured PR. The char yield and glass transition temperature of the cured PBOZ increased by 12% and 38°C, respectively, relative to the BZ. The interlaminar shear strength of the high silica glass cloth-reinforced PBOZ composites were higher than that of the BZ composite due to the good interfacial adhesion properties between the PBOZ and glass fiber observed in the SEM results. This work provides a new strategy to develop BZs with excellent comprehensive properties.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.004
  • Effect of cellulose and lignocellulose nanofibers on the properties of
           Origanum vulgare ssp. gracile essential oil-loaded chitosan films
    • Authors: Eisa Jahed; Mohammad Alizadeh Khaledabad; Mahmuod Rezazad Bari; Hadi Almasi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Eisa Jahed, Mohammad Alizadeh Khaledabad, Mahmuod Rezazad Bari, Hadi Almasi
      In this study, active biodegradable films from chitosan (CS) containing 5% w/w Origanum vulgare ssp. gracile essential oil (EO) and 4% w/w cellulose nanofibers (CNF) or lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNF) as nanoreinforcement were developed. GC–MS analysis showed that the most components of EO were carvacrol (49.43%) and then γ-terpinene (17.71%). The CS-EO film had high antioxidant activity and was more effective against E. coli and B. cereus bacteria than bionanocomposite films, which shows the release controlling effect of CNF and LCNF on the bioactive compounds from CS films. EO had not significant effect on the mechanical properties of the films (p>0.05), while nanofibers had significant effects (p<0.05) on strain to break (STB) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Incorporation of EO and CNF/LCNF in the CS-film also considerably improved solubility and water vapor barrier properties of the films. Color properties were significantly affected by adding of EO and CNF/LCNF. Formation of new hydrogen bonds between the chitosan chains, the EO and nanofibers were confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy. Morphology of films was viewed using AFM and SEM, suggesting good dispersion of the CNF/LCNF. In general, the properly dispersion state and improving effect of LCNF on properties of CH-EO films was more than CNF.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.008
  • Adapting benzoxazine chemistry for unconventional applications
    • Authors: Baris Kiskan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Baris Kiskan
      Polybenzoxazines, as a kind of phenolics, are high performance thermosets with a range of features and overcoming some drawbacks of resole and novolac type phenolics. Most of the polybenzoxazines exhibit high T g, high char yield, flame resistance, low water absorption, low shrinkage and also limited or no release of by-products during curing, they have good mechanical performance and are effective contender of high performance polymers such as bismaleimide resins. Thus, the interest in polybenzoxazines is continuously increasing in the polymer science as reflected by the number of scientific publications and patents. In this mini review, an overview about polybenzoxazines is reported highlighting the current advances and progress in the synthesis of benzoxazine based materials for unconventional uses that can be considered as smart applications ranging from self-healing materials to electrochromic devices.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.009
  • Oxidized catechol-derived poly (ethylene glycol) for thiol-specific
    • Authors: Longfu Xu; Chun Zhang; Qi Wang; Fangxia Guo; Zenglan Li; Yongdong Liu; Zhiguo Su
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Longfu Xu, Chun Zhang, Qi Wang, Fangxia Guo, Zenglan Li, Yongdong Liu, Zhiguo Su
      Site-specific PEGylation of clinically used protein via free cysteine residue has been widely applied for a homogeneous product. Herein, we described a new thiol-specific PEGylation strategy based on catechol-derived reactive quinone species. Catechol-derived polyethylene glycol (PEG) was synthesized by coupling linear PEG N-hydroxysuccinimide to dopamine and then oxidized to quinone. PEG-dopaquinone (PEG-DAQ) mostly modifying the free cysteines of two model proteins of truncated flagellin (CBLB502) and recombined human ciliary neurotrophic factor (rhCNTF) evidenced its thiol-specificity. The yield of PEG-DAQ-rhCNTF under neutral pH value was 87.5%, compared with PEG-maleimide of 92.3% and PEG-vinylsulfone of 17.6%, respectively. About 95% reactive capacity for PEG-DAQ was maintained after incubation in aqueous solvent for 96h, indicating that the reagent was superiorly hydro-stable. Moreover, it was found that quenching the PEGylation reaction by excess cysteine was necessary to obtain more stable conjugate. The resulted PEG-DAQ-rhCNTF remained about 93.5% of the initial products after storage for 14days. As a comparison, PEG-MAL-rhCNTF was remained to 71.2%. Our results demonstrated that PEG-dopaquinone had properties of high selectivity and reactivity with cysteine thiol, and superior stability for both the reagent itself and its conjugate, showing great promise for developing as an alternative reagent for thiol-selective modification.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.005
  • Functionalized xylans in the production of xylan-coated paper laminates
    • Authors: Ana Ramos; Sónia Sousa; Dmitry V. Evtuguin; José A.F. Gamelas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ana Ramos, Sónia Sousa, Dmitry V. Evtuguin, José A.F. Gamelas
      Two functionalized xylans, namely a carboxymethyl xylan (CMX) and a 2-dodecenyl succinic anhydride-modified xylan (X-2-DSA) were, i) synthesized from beechwood xylan (BX) and characterized for their structural properties, thermal behaviour and molar mass and, ii) used in the production of paper/xylan laminates for food packaging. Films prepared from the functionalized xylans by solvent casting were applied onto paper employing the calendering moulding under pre-selected conditions in order to produce the laminates. The obtained laminates, as well as the starting base paper and xylan-derived films, were characterized for their mechanical and barrier properties. The produced novel type of laminates demonstrated a synergistic effect with respect to its individual constituents, as the Young's modulus, tensile, tear and burst strengths of laminates were significantly improved in comparison to those of the starting paper or the xylan films. The xylan-coated paper laminates showed good moisture barrier properties, reducing up to 30-fold the water vapor permeability of the paper. At the same time, despite of fairly good oxygen barrier properties of the bio-based films from functionalized xylan, their application in paper laminates did not permit maintaining the same order of oxygen transfer rates, which were, however, comparable to those reported for packaging papers coated by polyethylene films.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.006
  • Interpenetrating polymer networks hydrogels of chitosan and
           poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) for controlled release of quetiapine
    • Authors: J. García; E. Ruiz-Durántez; N.E. Valderruten
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): J. García, E. Ruiz-Durántez, N.E. Valderruten
      Polymer networks interpenetrated by chitosan and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) were synthesized. The FTIR spectra confirmed crosslinking of chitosan and polymerization of HEMA. The swelling properties were studied at different pHs and depend particularly on the chitosan content of the material and the pH sensitivity of the network. DSC studies showed two vitreous transitions at approximately 98°C and 155°C, which correspond to the networks of pHEMA and chitosan respectively, demonstrating that the materials obtained are amorphous and interpenetrated. Creep-recovery and stress relaxation studies showed that the materials demonstrate viscoelastic behavior. Quetiapine was used as a pharmacological model for studies of controlled release, and it was found that the process is controlled by diffusion and by relaxation of the polymer network. Finally, the synthesized materials were degraded using lysozyme under simulated physiological conditions. A higher degree of degradation was observed in conjunction with an increase in the chitosan content.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T01:12:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.06.002
  • Editors and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 116

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T08:29:41Z
  • Magnetic field gradient and sample size effect on magnetomechanical
           response for magnetic elastomers
    • Authors: Tsubasa Oguro; Hiroyuki Endo; Takehito Kikuchi; Mika Kawai; Tetsu Mitsumata
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Tsubasa Oguro, Hiroyuki Endo, Takehito Kikuchi, Mika Kawai, Tetsu Mitsumata
      We studied the size effect of disk-shaped magnetic elastomers, which were placed on a permanent magnet, on their magnetomechanical response for the permanent magnet. The diameter of the magnetic elastomers varied from 14 to 40mm, whereas the diameter of the permanent magnet was constant at 30 or 35mm. The smallest magnetic elastomer did not exhibit magnetomechanical response for both 30- and 35-mm-diameter permanent magnets; however, a clear response was observed when the diameter of the magnetic elastomer equaled that of the permanent magnet. Magnetic field distribution revealed a steep gradient of magnetic fields at the fringe of permanent magnets. Image analyses indicated that the bottom of magnetic elastomers was restricted to deform along the horizontal direction under compression. In the vertical direction, the magnetostriction due to the magnetic attractive force from permanent magnets was negligibly small. Therefore, the size-dependent behavior of magnetomechanical response is considered a pinning effect wherein the bottom of magnetic elastomers was restricted by the magnetic field gradient in the horizontal direction. We also analyzed the magnetomechanical response of magnetic elastomers when magnetic fields were applied by square- or ring-shaped permanent magnets.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T08:29:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.009
  • Carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin grafted chitosan nanoparticles as oral
           delivery carrier of protein drugs
    • Authors: Mingming Song; Liangping Li; Yue Zhang; Kuanmin Chen; Hui Wang; Renmin Gong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Mingming Song, Liangping Li, Yue Zhang, Kuanmin Chen, Hui Wang, Renmin Gong
      In this paper, the novel carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin grafted chitosan (CMCD-g-CS) nanoparticles were fabricated and their potential as oral delivery carrier of protein drugs was evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the prepared nanocarriers were characterized by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model protein drug, was loaded in prepared nanocarriers with ideal entrapment efficiency (EE) and loading content (LC). The drug release profiles of BSA loaded nanoparticles were studied in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) and simulated colonic fluid (SCF). It was found that the drug loaded nanovehicles displayed a typical controlled sustained release profiles and the amount of BSA released from the nanocarriers was much higher in SIF and SCF than it in SGF. The research results suggested that the CMCD-g-CS nanoparticles had the potential as promising nanocarriers for oral delivery of protein drugs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T08:04:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.008
  • Compatibility confirmation and refinement of thermal and mechanical
           properties of poly (lactic acid)/poly (ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate)
           blend reinforced by hexagonal boron nitride
    • Authors: Ashish Kumar; T. Venkatappa Rao; S. Ray Chowdhury; S.V.S. RamanaReddy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ashish Kumar, T. Venkatappa Rao, S. Ray Chowdhury, S.V.S. RamanaReddy
      The formation of PLA/PEGM graft copolymers during the melt blending of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and poly (ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (PEGM) act as an interface between two polymer matrices was illustrated by the epoxide ring-opening mechanism. There are two coupling reaction mechanisms of glycidyl methacrylate (GM) unit of PEGM with the terminal groups of PLA. The analysis of FTIR and 1H NMR spectra elucidates the chemical reaction of GM unit of PEGM with carboxylic and hydroxyl terminal groups of PLA. FTIR analysis also confirms that the carboxylic terminal groups of PLA are more likely to react with GM group of PEGM. Hence, PLA grade having carboxyl terminal groups is more compatible with PEGM as compared to the PLA grade having hydroxyl and ester terminal groups. The hexagonal boron nitride(HBN) is incorporated with various labels such that 1phr, 5phr and 10phr to prepare PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The blend-composite with low HBN content i.e. 1phr shows better mechanical and thermal properties than neat PLA, PLA/PEGM blend and other blend-composites. This is attributed to the formation of covalent bond between polymer chains and HBN crystal layers and also due to the intermolecular interaction between the hydrogen atoms of polymer chains with the nitrogen atoms of HBN, which is confirmed by the FTIR and 1H NMR studies. TG/DTG, SEM, XRD analysis and the improvement in the mechanical and thermal properties of the prepared blend also asserts the interfacial compatibility between PLA and PEGM in the blend and chemical interaction of HBN particles with polymer matrix.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-23T08:04:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.005
  • Effective adsorption of hexavalent chromium using biopolymer assisted
           oxyhydroxide materials from aqueous solution
    • Authors: Jayaram Preethi; Subbaiah Muthu Prabhu; Sankaran Meenakshi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Jayaram Preethi, Subbaiah Muthu Prabhu, Sankaran Meenakshi
      The mixed oxyhydroxide and chitosan sustained mixed oxyhydroxide adsorbents were synthesized via eco-friendly one pot hydrothermal method and their efficacy was tested towards the removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic aqueous solution. Aluminium-lanthanum mixed oxyhydroxide (ALMOH) and chitosan/aluminium-lanthanum mixed oxyhydroxide (CSALMOH) were characterized using Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) with mapping, X-ray diffraction analysis, Themogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) onto the sorbents was found to be higher at pH4–5 with the dosage of 2g/L at 200mg/L dichromate solution. The sorption capacities of ALMOH and CSALMOH were 49.80 and 78.90mg/g, respectively. Various isotherm models analysis viz., Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were employed to correlate the experimental data. Thermodynamic studies were carried out to understand the nature of the sorption and feasibility of the reaction. The regeneration studies were also carried out up to 5cycles and to examine the potential of the CSALMOH was examined.

      PubDate: 2017-05-18T07:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.006
  • Editors and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 115

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:31:00Z
  • Itaconic anhydride homopolymerization during radical grafting of
           poly(lactic acid) in melt
    • Authors: František Kučera; Josef Petruš; Jana Matláková; Josef Jančář
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): František Kučera, Josef Petruš, Jana Matláková, Josef Jančář
      This is the first study that focused on the homopolymerization of itaconic anhydride (IAH) during melt radical grafting of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) at 190°C. Although neglected by many authors, in the present study, radical-induced IAH homopolymerization, self-induced IAH homopolymerization, and IAH isomerization to citraconic anhydride were studied. The yield of investigated IAH-based side reactions was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and reaction by-products were extracted from raw PLA-g-IAH and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). It was found that the highest concentration of IAH and L101 favors IAH homopolymerization and affects the PLA grafting reaction mechanism dramatically.

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:31:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.004
  • Dynamic furan/maleimide bond-incorporated cyclic polymer for topology
    • Authors: Ying Li; Yanyan Zhou; Yu Zhou; Qian Yu; Jian Zhu; Nianchen Zhou; Zhengbiao Zhang; Xiulin Zhu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ying Li, Yanyan Zhou, Yu Zhou, Qian Yu, Jian Zhu, Nianchen Zhou, Zhengbiao Zhang, Xiulin Zhu
      The transformation of polymer topological structures by using an external stimulus has gained increasing attention because it is a versatile method to modify the properties of polymeric materials. Herein, cyclic poly(methyl methacrylate) linked by a dynamic covalent furan/maleimide bond was rationally designed and prepared. SEC, FTIR, NMR, and MALDI-TOF characterizations all confirmed the successful preparation of the polymer. By using the (retro)Diels-Alder reaction at a high temperature (110°C), the cyclic polymer was transformed to a linear monopolymer or linear multiblock polymer. In addition, the cyclic topology can also be fixed by eliminating the vinyl double group of furan/maleimide adduct by the photoinduced radical thiol-ene reaction. This work provides a novel and facile approach for cyclic-to-linear topological transformation, and many potentials based on this thermal-responsive polymer are envisioned.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-13T04:31:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.003
  • Dual ionic cross-linked alginate/clinoptilolite composite microbeads with
           improved stability and enhanced sorption properties for methylene blue
    • Authors: Maria Valentina Dinu; Maria Marinela Lazar; Ecaterina Stela Dragan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Maria Valentina Dinu, Maria Marinela Lazar, Ecaterina Stela Dragan
      Environmentally friendly and low-cost composites based on sodium alginate and clinoptilolite (Alg/CPL) were prepared as microbeads and were used as sorbents for removal of methylene blue (MB) from simulated wastewaters. A combination of various characterization techniques pointed out that CPL could also act as ionic cross-linker for Alg chains through the Ca2+ ions adsorbed on its surface, and consequently, leading to dual ionic cross-linked Alg/CPL composites with improved chemical stability. The composite microbeads containing a 1:5 weight ratio between Alg and CPL (Alg1CPL5) showed an enhanced sorption capacity for MB (qm: 452.25mgg−1) compared to Alg microbeads (qm: 151.73mgg−1) and CPL (qm: 48.12mgg−1). Chemisorption was considered the main mechanism governing the MB sorption process as indicated by the better fitting of pseudo-second order equation on the kinetic data. The desorption studies confirmed further the mechanism of dye sorption and showed the possible recovery of MB as well as the reusability of Alg/CPL composites in three consecutive sorption/desorption cycles. The comparison with other Alg-based sorbents highlighted the enhanced sorption capacities, the improved stability during regeneration and high reusability of dual cross-linked Alg/CPL composites, suggesting the promising potential of these materials as efficient sorbents in dye wastewater treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.001
  • Facile preparation of pH/reduction dual-responsive prodrug microspheres
           with high drug content for tumor intracellular triggered release of DOX
    • Authors: Ruinian Zhang; Xu Jia; Mingliang Pei; Peng Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ruinian Zhang, Xu Jia, Mingliang Pei, Peng Liu
      To integrate the two advantages of upregulated stability during blood circulation and site-specific drug release in cancer cells, pH/reduction dual-responsive prodrug microspheres with high drug content were designed by conjugating doxorubicin (DOX) onto aldehyde-functionalized disulfide-crosslinked copolymer microspheres via acid-labile imine linkage, where the copolymer microspheres were synthesized by facile emulsion copolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) and 4-formylphenyl acrylate (FPA) with N,N-bis(acryloyl)cystamine (BACy) as crosslinker. Their particle size and average hydrodynamic diameter were 150nm and 205nm respectively, with high DOX content of 44.4%. The DOX release ratio reached 73% within 60h and the prodrug microspheres decrosslinked into water soluble copolymers within 72h in the simulated tumor microenvironment (pH5.0 with 10mM GSH), while only 16% of DOX was released in physiological medium (pH7.4 with 10μM GSH), demonstrating their good tumor intracellular triggered release performance. Furthermore, the disintegration of the copolymer microspheres into water soluble copolymers in simulated tumor microenvironment would favor the metabolism of drug carriers. The MTT assay demonstrated that the prodrug microspheres exhibited the enhanced inhibitory efficiency against HepG2 cells in comparison with free DOX, while the bare polymer microspheres were cytocompatible.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.05.002
  • Effect of pH and lactose on cross-linking extension and structure of fish
           gelatin films
    • Authors: A. Etxabide; M. Urdanpilleta; I. Gómez-Arriaran; K. de la Caba; P. Guerrero
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): A. Etxabide, M. Urdanpilleta, I. Gómez-Arriaran, K. de la Caba, P. Guerrero
      Lactose-modified gelatin films were prepared at two different pHs and then, films were heated to promote the cross-linking reaction between gelatin and lactose. All films were transparent and homogeneous with hardly any pores (8–12%).The extension of the cross-linking reaction was assessed by means of film colour, solubility, and the formation of a fluorescence compound (pentosidine). It was observed that both pH and lactose affected the extension of the cross-linking reaction between the carbonyl group in lactose and the amino groups in gelatin. Films processed at native pH (5.4) showed higher decolouration and lower solubility, highlighting a further extension of cross-linking at this pH than at pH2.0. Furthermore, the curve fitting of amide I and II profiles indicated that the secondary structure of gelatin films was also affected by lactose and pH.

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.005
  • One-pot solvothermal synthesis of robust ambient-dried polyimide aerogels
           with morphology-enhanced superhydrophobicity for highly efficient
           continuous oil/water separation
    • Authors: Tianli Ning; Guangjie Yang; Wei Zhao; Xikui Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Tianli Ning, Guangjie Yang, Wei Zhao, Xikui Liu
      In this study, using a sequential polyamic acid (PAA) gelation and solvothermal imidization, we demonstrate a scalable one-pot solvothermal approach for the preparation of polyimide (PI) aerogels having a three-dimensional network composed of uniform microspheres. PI aerogels prepared by this approach were mechanically robust can be directly dried in oven without considerable contraction. More importantly, the PI aerogels showed morphology-enhanced water droplet contact angles from 98° to as high as 146°, which makes them nearly superhydrophobic. Such hydrophobic/oleophilic monolithic aerogels could rapidly and continuously separate oil from oil/water mixtures and even from water-in-oil emulsions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-08T04:25:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.017
  • Study the role of poly(diethyl aminoethyl methacrylate) as a modified and
           grafted shell for TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, application in flutamide
    • Authors: Ali A. Ensafi; Elaheh Khoddami; Afshin Nabiyan; B. Rezaei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ali A. Ensafi, Elaheh Khoddami, Afshin Nabiyan, B. Rezaei
      Diethyl aminoethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) was polymerized and cross-linked simultaneously with direct atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of the modified TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles (CH3CHBrCO@ZnO and CH3CHBrCO@TiO2). In the other view, the surface of the TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles were modified and grafted with poly(DEAEMA). During the ATRP of DEAEMA with CH3CHBrCO@ZnO and CH3CHBrCO@TiO2 nanoparticles, different ratios of flutamide, as an anti-cancer drug and the case for the simulation, were added to the polymerization matrix. Meanwhile, the polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) were obtained as a delivering system. Then, the different PNCs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and electrochemical investigations. In this regards, electrochemical investigations reveled the fact that the developed delivering systems have the drug release rates of 31.0 over 1560min and 22.8 in 1200min for the flutamide-loaded PDEAEMA-CH3CHBrCO@TiO2 and flutamide-loaded PDEAEMA-CH3CHBrCO@ZnO, respectively. Also, according to the TEM images, the synthesized delivering systems based on CH3CHBrCO@TiO2 shows the bowl-like arrangements, which likely support the obtained electrochemical and high performance liquid chromatography results. Finally, our study shows that the view of the modifying and grafting of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles by poly(DEAEMA) confirmed the great success for the introduced simulated drug delivery system than the view of the TiO2 and ZnO, as modifiers for poly(DEAEMA).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.016
  • Facile Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling using ferrocene tethered
           N-heterocyclic carbene-Pd complex anchored on cellulose
    • Authors: Dolly Kale; Gajanan Rashinkar; Arjun Kumbhar; Rajashri Salunkhe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Dolly Kale, Gajanan Rashinkar, Arjun Kumbhar, Rajashri Salunkhe
      A novel ferrocene tethered N-heterocyclic carbene-Pd complex anchored on cellulose has been prepared by multi-step synthesis. The complex proved to be robust and efficient heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of biaryls in Suzuki-Miyuara cross coupling reaction.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.010
  • The synthesis of hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres
           and their application for selective removal of bisphenol A from water
    • Authors: Zehu Wang; Teng Qiu; Longhai Guo; Jun Ye; Lifan He; Xiaoyu Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Zehu Wang, Teng Qiu, Longhai Guo, Jun Ye, Lifan He, Xiaoyu Li
      The adsorptive materials which have the function of molecular recognition are becoming important as the fast emerging environmental requirements for the analysis and repair of target contaminants present at low concentrations in aqueous matrices. Here, we demonstrate a Pickering emulsion polymerization strategy to build bisphenol A (BPA) imprinted poly(methacrylic acid) microspheres without the traditional organic surfactant. In the synthesis, the only stabilizer is silica particles derived from Stöber process. The molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres were prepared by radical polymerization in the Pickering oil/water emulsion. Both the solid stabilizers and the molecular templates were conveniently removed from the microspheres. The obtained microspheres are of regularly spherical structures and hydrophilic surfaces. The formation of molecularly imprinted sites on the microspheres was validated by the excellent recognition capability toward BPA in the rebinding and competitive binding experiments.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.015
  • Fluorescent thiol-epoxy thermosets obtained from diglycidylether of
           bisphenol A and carbazole based diepoxy monomer
    • Authors: Oleksandra Korychenska; Dailyn Guzmán; Àngels Serra; Xavier Ramis; Juozas V. Grazulevicius
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Oleksandra Korychenska, Dailyn Guzman, Àngels Serra, Xavier Ramis, Juozas V. Grazulevicius
      A new epoxy resin containing carbazole moieties was synthesized and added in several proportions to diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate) (TTMP) formulations that were thermally cured by thiol-epoxy click reaction. The curing was catalyzed by a latent amine precursor, which after triggering at high temperature liberates the amine that enables the formation of thiolate groups. The curing process of the different formulations was monitored by calorimetric analysis, which allowed to observe that the increase of the proportion of the synthesized epoxy resin with carbazole groups in the formulation decreased the curing rate. However, all these formulations cured quickly after triggering, which make them adequate for the formation of layers in multilayer devices. Thermal characteristics of the obtained thermosets were determined by calorimetric, thermomechanical and thermogravimetric analysis. The obtained thermosets have good thermal stability. Their glass transition temperature increased when the proportion of the carbazole containing resin was increased in the formulation. The photophysical properties of the thermoset films were studied and it was proved that they exhibit fluorescence in the range of 352 to 369°C.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.007
  • Stimuli-responsive and micellar behaviors of star-shaped
           poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]-b-poly[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl
           methacrylate] with a β-cyclodextrin core
    • Authors: Yi Guo; Meng Li; Xinrui Li; Yazhuo Shang; Honglai Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yi Guo, Meng Li, Xinrui Li, Yazhuo Shang, Honglai Liu
      A series of star-shaped block copolymers (CDPDPM) of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate (MEO2MA) with tunable stimuli-responsive behavior are synthesized via sequential atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with the 2-bromoisobutyryl-terminated β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as a core. The properties of these star-shaped copolymers are characterized by FT-IR, NMR and GPC analyses. Meanwhile, the thermo-sensitive behaviors of CDPDPM with different compositions and pH values are investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV–vis measurements. The results have shown that the synthesized polymer CDPDPM exhibits both pH- and thermo-responsive behaviors in aqueous solutions. The star-shaped copolymers with the nearly equal mole fraction of DMAEMA and MEO2MA show two-step thermo-induced aggregation behavior in water at a pH near the isoelectric point (IEP), which corresponds to the formation of branch aggregates and large aggregates consisting of clustered branch aggregates, respectively. The mole fraction of DMAEMA and MEO2MA in polymer affects the thermal-responsive behaviors of polymer itself. Moreover, the micellar behaviors of the synthesized copolymers in aqueous solution are explored. The aggregation process of the copolymer can be generalized into intramolecular aggregation of the hydrophobic chains (corresponding to CI), formation of premicelles, the aggregation and rearrangement of the premicelles (namely CMC), as well as the formation of multicore structures. The CI and CMC values depend on both the MEO2MA molar fraction and the carbon backbone length of polymers. The aggregation number (N) and the sizes of polymer micelles (Dh) vary with the polymer composition, polymer concentration and ambient environment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.013
  • Diverse composites of metal-complexes and PEDOT facilitated by metal-free
           vapour phase polymerization
    • Authors: Shravan S. Acharya; Christopher D. Easton; Thomas M. McCoy; Leone Spiccia; C. André Ohlin; Bjorn Winther-Jensen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Shravan S. Acharya, Christopher D. Easton, Thomas M. McCoy, Leone Spiccia, C. André Ohlin, Bjorn Winther-Jensen
      Oxidative polymerization for the manufacture of conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene) has traditionally employed iron(III) salts. Demonstrated in this study is vapour phase polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedio- xythiophene using a metal-free oxidant, ammonium persulfate, leading to films with an estimated conductivity of 75S/cm. Additionally, a route for embedding active transition metal complexes into these poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/-poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) films via vapour assisted complexation is outlined. Here, the vapour pressure of solid ligands around their melting temperatures was exploited to ensure complexation to metal ions added into the oxidant mixture prior to polymerization of PEDOT. Four composite systems are discussed, viz. PEDOT/PSS embedded with tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)cobalt(III), tris(2,2-bipyridine)cobalt(II), tris(1,10- phenanthroline)cobalt(II) and tris(8-hyd-roxyquinolinato)aluminium(III). Using these composites, electrochemical reduction of nitrite to ammonia with a faradaic efficiency of 61% was reported.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.008
  • Shape memory hyperbranched polyurethanes via thiol-ene click chemistry
    • Authors: Hyo Jin Jeong; Byung Kyu Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Hyo Jin Jeong, Byung Kyu Kim
      Hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) (Hyper-OH) was synthesized from pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (PETTA) and diethanolamine (DEA) by Michael addition reactions. One-to-one stoichiometric reaction between diisocyanatodicyclohexylmethane (H12MDI) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) produced dimmers carrying both NCO and vinyl groups at two chain termini, which were subsequently reacted with Hyper-OH to form hyperbranched polymers (HBP, Hyper-8). Replacing HEA by trimethylolpropane diallyl ether (TMPDE) produced Hyper-16. On the other hand, polyurethane prepolymers were synthesized from H12MDI and polyol, end capped with 1,2-ethanedithiol, and UV cured to synthesize crosslinked polyurethanes via thiol-ene click chemistry. Hyperbranched polymers acted as multifunctional crosslinkers as well as reinforcing fillers and significantly enhanced mechanical, thermal and shape memory properties. Effects were more pronounced with thiol-ene click chemistry than ene-ene curing.

      PubDate: 2017-05-02T04:10:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.009
  • Editors and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 114

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T03:45:02Z
  • Bioelectrocatalytic fructose oxidation with fructose dehydrogenase-bearing
           conducting polymer films for biofuel cell application
    • Authors: Takashi Kuwahara; Mamoru Kameda; Keita Isozaki; Keisuke Toriyama; Mizuki Kondo; Masato Shimomura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Takashi Kuwahara, Mamoru Kameda, Keita Isozaki, Keisuke Toriyama, Mizuki Kondo, Masato Shimomura
      This study presents an enzymatic bioanode fabricated with fructose dehydrogenase and a polyaniline film to construct a single-compartment fructose biofuel cell. The enzymatic bioanode provided fructose oxidation current, which accompanied the electron transfer between the heme c moiety of fructose dehydrogenase and polyaniline. Characterization of the bioanode at a pH of 4.5 indicated an onset potential of −0.1V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with respect to the redox potential corresponding to heme c of fructose dehydrogenase as well as high current densities for fructose oxidation of 1.0±0.1mA/cm2 at +0.50V (vs. Ag/AgCl). A single-compartment fructose biofuel cell was constructed by use of the bioanode together with an enzymatic biocathode fabricated with laccase and polythiophene copolymer film. The fructose biofuel cell possessed an open-circuit potential of 0.55V with an associated short-circuit current of 1.4±0.2mA/cm2. In addition, the maximum power density of the biofuel cell was 0.36±0.04mW/cm2 at a cell voltage of 0.3V.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T03:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.011
  • Uptake and controlled release of a dye from thermo-sensitive polymer
    • Authors: Tomasz Śliwa; Maciej Jarzębski; Ewa Andrzejewska; Mikołaj Szafran; Jacek Gapiński
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Tomasz Śliwa, Maciej Jarzębski, Ewa Andrzejewska, Mikołaj Szafran, Jacek Gapiński
      Copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) are one of the most promising microgel materials for medical applications, especially as a drug carrier. PNIPAMs present unique properties, such as size variation with changing pH and/or temperature. The results of a study on the uptake and release of a dye (Orange II) by microgels of N-isopropylacrylamide copolymer with 1-vinylimidazole (P(NIPAM-co-Vim) are presented. The dye was used as a model low-molecular substance. Hydrodynamic radius (R h ) of P(NIPAM-co-Vim) particles was measured by dynamic light scattering as a function of temperature in two pH environments: acidic and basic. The dye particles contraction was monitored as a function of temperature at pH 4. The measurements of the zeta potential indicated a positive charge of P(NIPAM-co-Vim) particles at pH 4 and a negative one at pH 9. The key experiments were the internalization and the release of the dye. The effectiveness of this process was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy on the supernatant derived from centrifuged P(NIPAM-co-Vim) suspension. At room temperature the efficiency of trapping of the dye by the microgel at pH 4 was 87%. Changing pH of a sample initially saturated with the dye from 4 to 9 led to a complete release of the trapped dye.

      PubDate: 2017-04-25T03:45:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.003
  • Metal nanoclusters stabilized by pH-responsive microgels: Preparation and
           evaluation of their catalytic potential
    • Authors: Gianluca Cera; Andrea Biffis; Patrizia Canton; Alberto Villa; Laura Prati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Gianluca Cera, Andrea Biffis, Patrizia Canton, Alberto Villa, Laura Prati
      Unstabilized, pH-responsive soluble crosslinked polymers (microgels) bearing pendant trialkylamino or pyridyl groups and containing size-controlled Au or Pd nanoclusters have been prepared by radical copolymerization in dilute solution, followed by loading with HAuCl4 or Pd(OAc)2 and chemical reduction. The hydrodynamic volume, the solubility and the partition between immiscible solvents of the microgels and of the resulting microgel-metal nanocomposites have been investigated, together with the variation of these parameters with the solution pH: separation of our microgel-containing metal nanoclusters from aqueous solutions can be accomplished by precipitation or by extraction into an organic solvent phase upon pH change, thus enabling their potential recovery. The catalytic performance of the microgels in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol (Au) and in Sonogashira coupling reactions (Pd) has been determined. The microgel-Au nanocomposites exhibit poor catalytic activity, whereas better results have been obtained in the copper-free Sonogashira reaction with microgel-Pd nanocomposites as precatalysts.

      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:48:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.002
  • Preparation and evaluation of Pb(II)-imprinted fucoidan-based sorbents
    • Authors: Vanessa R.A. Ferreira; Manuel A. Azenha; Carlos M. Pereira; A. Fernando Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Vanessa R.A. Ferreira, Manuel A. Azenha, Carlos M. Pereira, A. Fernando Silva
      Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, was, in the form of a silica composite, studied as a prospective cation imprinting matrix. The preparation of such composites in the presence of cations with a strong interaction with the biopolymer chains was expected to direct them towards arrangements, optimized for the sorption of those cations. As expected, the presence of Cu(II), a weakly fucoidan-binding cation, in the synthesis of the composites did not result in the production of significantly stronger Cu(II)-oriented binding arrangements, and therefore the imprinting was not successful. However, with Pb(II), with much stronger affinity for fucoidan, the materials obtained exhibited stronger (22%) binding as compared to the non-imprinted counterparts, and increased selectivity (1.4–1.6 fold) against Cd(II). Although these imprinting features were close to those observed previously with other sulfated polysaccharides, the fucoidan-based Pb(II) imprints developed here presented superior sorption properties, namely a higher capacity and higher binding strength for Pb(II). These features, demonstrated by the material developed here, may easily be put to work in different areas where Pb(II) sensing, determination, separation or remediation is of the utmost importance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.04.001
  • Effect of reaction conditions on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gels
           synthesized by post-polymerization crosslinking system
    • Authors: Shohei Ida; Akimitsu Katsurada; Ryuichi Yoshida; Yoshitsugu Hirokawa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Shohei Ida, Akimitsu Katsurada, Ryuichi Yoshida, Yoshitsugu Hirokawa
      In this paper, the effect of gelation solvent and temperature on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) gels synthesized by post-polymerization crosslinking (PPC) was discussed in detail. PPC was two-step synthesis performed by (1) radical copolymerization of NIPAAm and activated ester monomer (NHSA) and (2) crosslinking reaction of the obtained prepolymer and diamine crosslinker. In PPC, various solvents could afford gels, while the gelation time was strongly dependent on solvent polarity. The obtained gels showed similar swelling curves in water, indicating that the network structure of PPC gels was dominantly determined by the prepolymer structure. It was quite contrasting to conventional divinyl crosslinking (DVC), by which gelation could be observed only in water and not in organic solvents under the same concentration condition as PPC gelation system. We also examined the effect of gelation temperature in PPC synthesis in water. The PPC-PNIPAAm gel prepared in water at high temperature was consistently white turbid as same as DVC-PNIPAAm gel, suggesting that this turbidity was derived from polymer aggregation and entanglement fixed by chemical crosslinking.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.020
  • Aromatic alkoxysilane based hybrid organogels as sorbent for toxic organic
           compounds, fuels and crude oil
    • Authors: Muslum Durgun; Gulsah Ozan Aydin; Hayal Bulbul Sonmez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Muslum Durgun, Gulsah Ozan Aydin, Hayal Bulbul Sonmez
      Crude oil, fuels and toxic organic solvent leaks into the natural environment can cause long-term ecological and health problems. The use of hydrophobic polymeric organogels, with a three-dimensional cross-linked network, is a promising sorbent for cleaning of organic liquids from the environment. For this paper, we synthesized organogels by condensing a cycloaliphatic glycol (UNOXOL™) and aromatic alkoxysilanes as a cross-linking agent. The synthesized organogels were characterized by solid-state 13C and 29Si cross polarization magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CPMAS NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The use of organogels as sorbent material for various toxic organic solvents, fuels and crude oil was investigated. The oil absorption capacity was found to be 45% for ethanol, 70% for diesel, 133% for acetone, 136% for crude oil, 203% for cyclohexane, 252% for gasoline, 342% for xylene, 366% for methyl tertiary butyl ether, 367% for ethyl benzene, 641% for toluene, 654% for benzene, 747% for tetrahydrofuran and 1120% for dichloromethane for the best sorbent. Synthesized organogels can be used as sorbents for these organic liquids; they have excellent properties, such as high absorption capacity, fast absorption speed, good selectivity and reusability.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.017
  • Synthesis of multifunctional silsesquioxane nanoparticles with hydroxyl
           and polymerizable groups for UV-curable hybrid coating
    • Authors: Hiroshi Takeuchi; Takuki Konno; Hideharu Mori
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Hiroshi Takeuchi, Takuki Konno, Hideharu Mori
      UV-curable multifunctional silsesquioxane-based nanoparticles (SQ-NPs) with hydroxyl and polymerizable groups were synthesized by hydrolytic co-condensation of two hydroxyl group-containing triethoxysilane (HEA-TES) molecules derived from 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate with hydrophobic triethoxysilanes carrying vinyl, methacryloyl, and methyl groups. The co-condensation in methanol in the presence of an acidic catalyst quantitatively produced multifunctional SQ-NPs with relatively narrow size distributions (average particle diameter <5nm) without gelation. The hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, solubility, crosslinkable vinyl content, and thermal stability of the multifunctional SQ-NPs could be manipulated by changing the composition of the two functionalized triethoxysilanes in the feed. The physical properties of the UV-cured products were investigated in terms of Martens hardness, pencil hardness, and abrasion resistance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:38:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.016
  • Application of proteinous nanofibrils to culture retinal pigmented
           epithelium cells: A versatile biomaterial
    • Authors: Behnam Maleki; Fatemeh Tabandeh; Zahra-Soheila Soheili; Dina Morshedi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Behnam Maleki, Fatemeh Tabandeh, Zahra-Soheila Soheili, Dina Morshedi
      Recently, self-assembling polypeptides have been shown as the extracellular matrix mimic materials (ECM-mimics) and are particular candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. We selected Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL) as a model protein that represents the amyloid fibrils' networks (AFNs) with ECM mimic chemistry and Nano-topography. The Retinal Pigmented Epithelium (RPE) cells were cultured on the AFNs with different densities and the viability and growth rate of RPE cells along with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were investigated. The AFNs are able to expedite the attachment of the RPE cells in a concentration dependent manner and provide their long-term survival and also proliferation without significant production of ROS. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential analysis indicated that the prepared AFNs had positive charge with semi-homogenous size. Proteinous base of the AFNs makes them multipurpose materials to be developed for further in situ and animal model experiments as cell culture platforms regarding to retinal tissue engineering.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T02:42:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.011
  • Polysucrose-based hydrogels for loading of small molecules and cell growth
    • Authors: Yeshma Jugdawa; Archana Bhaw-Luximon; Daniel Wesner; Nowsheen Goonoo; Holger Schönherr; Dhanjay Jhurry
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yeshma Jugdawa, Archana Bhaw-Luximon, Daniel Wesner, Nowsheen Goonoo, Holger Schönherr, Dhanjay Jhurry
      Cross-linked polysucrose hydrogels were synthesized for the first time from polysucrose grafted with methacrylic anhydride (MA) and crosslinked with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The addition of sucrose and polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (mPEG5000) as porogens to the cross-linking reaction led to the formation of interconnected pores as well as a shift from a homogeneous non-porous to a heterogeneous porous surface. The potential of this family of hydrogels as biomaterial was assessed through the determination of the loading/release capacity of cationic and anionic dyes as model molecules and biocompatibility test with fibroblast cells. Cationic dyes showed high loading and sustained release over time attributed to the ionic interactions of the dyes with the hydrogels carrying a net negative charge. Anionic dyes on the other hand showed a rapid sinusoidal loading/release pattern. The release of the dyes was found to increase with increasing swelling capacity. NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells proliferated on hydrogels containing a porous structure and avoided the non-porous areas of the hydrogel surface.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T02:42:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.012
  • Developing a potential antibacterial long-term degradable electrospun
           gelatin-based composites mats for wound dressing applications
    • Authors: R. Morsy; M. Hosny; F. Reicha; T. Elnimr
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2017
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): R. Morsy, M. Hosny, F. Reicha, T. Elnimr
      Antibacterial electrospun fibrous membranes are widely applied as dressings for treatment the wounds and burns. However, developing long-term gelatin-based fibrous membrane is still the main challenge inhibiting their uses for long-term treatments. Novel antibacterial electrospun gelatin-based mats were introduced by combining gelatin, glycerol, glucose and silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), which together could exhibit optimal physicochemical characteristics as long-term electrospun fibrous mats. Therefore, Ag NPs were synthesized in-situ within the acidic electrospun solutions during preparing electrospun gelatin-glycerol-Ag NPs (GEL-GLY-Ag) and gelatin-glycerol-glucose-Ag NPs (GEL-GLY-GLU-Ag) mats. Conventional spectroscopic techniques based on XRD, FTIR, SEM, DTA, and water uptake-degradation tests and antibacterial studies were used to characterize the preparations. The results showed that the electrospun gelatin-based composites mats revealed free beads dense fibrous textures, and exhibited a high water uptake and long-term degradation behavior. The Ag NPs could be successfully synthesized in-situ within electrospinning solutions and the results confirmed that the in-situ prepared Ag NPs enhanced the antibacterial activity of electrospun mats against positive and negative bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T08:06:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2017.03.001
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