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ENGINEERING (1172 journals)            First | 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 | Last

Journal of Visualization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Volcanology and Seismology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed.     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A     Hybrid Journal  
Journal on Chain and Network Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Teknik ITS     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Kerntechnik     Full-text available via subscription  
KKU Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Langmuir     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Latin American Journal of Computing     Open Access  
Leadership and Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Lighting Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Logic and Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Logica Universalis     Hybrid Journal  
Lubrication Science     Hybrid Journal  
Machines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Machining Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Magazine of Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Magnetics Letters, IEEE     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Management and Production Engineering Review     Open Access  
Manufacturing Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Manufacturing Research and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Marine Technology Society Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
MATEC Web of Conferences     Open Access  
Matériaux & Techniques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Mathematical Problems in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Mathematics of Control, Signals, and Systems (MCSS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Mauerwerk     Hybrid Journal  
Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Measurement Science Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Meccanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mechatronics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Medical Engineering & Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Membrane Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Membrane Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Memetic Computing     Hybrid Journal  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Metal Powder Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Metallurgist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Metaphysica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metascience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Metrologia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Microelectronic Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microelectronics International     Hybrid Journal  
Microelectronics Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microelectronics Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Micromachines     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Modelling and Simulation in Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular BioSystems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Molecular Pharmaceutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
MRS Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
MRS Online Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Multidimensional Systems and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal  
NANO     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Nano Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Nano Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nano Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Nanopages     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanoscale Systems : Mathematical Modeling, Theory and Applications     Open Access  
Nanoscience and Nanoengineering     Open Access  
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nanotechnologies in Russia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nanotechnology Magazine, IEEE     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Natural Hazards     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123)
Nature Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Naval Engineers Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
NDT & E International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Nexo Revista Científica     Open Access  
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nigerian Journal of Technological Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Nigerian Journal of Technology     Full-text available via subscription  
NIR news     Full-text available via subscription  
Noise Mapping     Open Access  
Nonlinear Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nonlinear Engineering : Modeling and Application     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Nonlinearity     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Nordic Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Nova Scientia     Open Access  
NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nuclear Engineering and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Nuclear Engineering and Technology     Open Access  
Numerical Algorithms     Hybrid Journal  
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part B: Fundamentals: An International Journal of Computation and Methodology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Ocean Science Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover   Reactive and Functional Polymers
  [SJR: 0.879]   [H-I: 62]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1381-5148
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2799 journals]
  • Inkjet printing of 3d nano-composites formed by photopolymerization of an
           acrylate monomer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Casey Check, Richard Chartoff, Sean Chang
      This paper considers inkjet printing of optical quality 3D nano-composites from diethylene-glycol diacrylate monomer (DEGDA) containing ZrO2 nanoparticles at varying concentrations. One application for the composites is for gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses. The process involves printing of a nanoparticle loaded monomer “ink” onto a substrate and then photopolymerizing the monomer layer by layer using UV light. The results of the study confirm that the presence of nanoparticles favorably affects the reaction kinetics. The reaction rate and chemical conversion are enhanced considerably by the nanoparticles. A seamless interface between the layers, which are 20μm thick, may be achieved if the conversion level of the layer onto which ink is deposited is limited at 60 to 80%. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) data indicate that both the glass transition and sub Tg viscoelastic properties are influenced by the nanoparticles. When nanoparticles are introduced the Tg relaxation shifts to lower temperatures and a sub Tg relaxation appears whose intensity increases with particle concentration. These results are consistent with a molecular confinement model involving a lower crosslink density rubbery layer at the polymer-particle interfaces.

      PubDate: 2015-10-04T15:33:02Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 95

      PubDate: 2015-09-30T17:53:49Z
  • Triphenylphosphine-grafted, RAFT-synthesised, porous monoliths as
           catalysts for Michael addition in flow synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Kristine J. Barlow, Victor Bernabeu, Xiaojuan Hao, Timothy C. Hughes, Oliver E. Hutt, Anastasios Polyzos, Kathleen A. Turner, Graeme Moad
      We describe the preparation and application of triphenylphosphine functional polystyrene-based porous monolithic catalysts for use as flow reactors. RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer)-crosslinking polymerisation of styrene and divinylbenzene provided monoliths which were then functionalized by RAFT “grafting from” polymerisation of 4-styryldiphenylphosphine mediated by the retained thiocarbonylthio functionality. Under the chosen conditions, the retention of the RAFT functionality was proved by chain extension experiments in which the monoliths were five times re-subjected to the grafting conditions. Importantly, the bound triphenylphosphine-functionality was demonstrated to be catalytically active when the monoliths were used as flow reactors in performing Michael addition of 1-hexanethiol to tert-butyl acrylate and of acetyl acetone to diethyl azodicarboxylate. Conversions from reagent to product of up to 77% were achieved. The monoliths were susceptible to oxidation of the phosphine groups most likely caused by adventitious oxygen in the non-degassed reaction medium, but were successfully regenerated by trichlorosilane reduction and reused.

      PubDate: 2015-09-30T17:53:49Z
  • Preparation and characterization of novel side-chain azobenzene polymers
           containing tetrazole group
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Xiaoqiang Xue, Jing Yang, Wenyan Huang, Hongjun Yang, Bibiao Jiang
      A novel methacrylate monomer containing azobenzene chromophore and tetrazole moiety, 4′-(2-methacryloxyethyl)methylamino-4-(5-chlorotetrazol-1-yl)azobenzene (MACA), was synthesized and polymerized to form homopolymer (PMACA) via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using 2-cyanoprop-2-yl dithiobenzoate (CPDB) as the RAFT agent and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator in dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution. Meanwhile, block copolymers (PMMA-b-PMACAs) were successfully obtained by RAFT polymerization of MACA using PMMA as the macro-RAFT agent and AIBN as an initiator. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) characterization indicated that polymers with well-controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions (M w/M ns<1.30) were obtained. The structures of these polymers were characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR spectra. Thermal and photoisomerization behaviors of the polymers indicated that these polymers were amorphous state with good heat stability and photoisomeriztion performance. Relationship between the electrochemical behavior of block copolymer (PMMA-b-PMACA) and the photoisomerization of azobenzene was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in chloroform solution, which showed that the oxidation peak of copolymer shifted from 1.0V to 0.6V during azobenzene isomerization from trans to cis form. Furthermore, surface relief gratings (SRGs) formed on the films of PMMA-b-PMACAs were also investigated with illumination of a linearly polarized Kr+ laser beam. The diffraction efficiency of the SRGs was 1.22 (PMMA-b-PMACA1), 2.38 (PMMA-b-PMACA2) and 3.02 (PMMA-b-PMACA3), respectively, which increased with the azobenzene contain for the copolymers.

      PubDate: 2015-09-30T17:53:49Z
  • Porous polymeric antimicrobial resin containing N-halamine functional
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Shulan Yan, Xiufang Yan, Xuexiang Shao, Jie Liang
      An effective and easily recovered porous divinylbenzene (DVB) cross-linked antimicrobial polymeric resin containing N-halamine functional groups, poly (styrene-co-N-(t-Bu)-N-chloro-acryl amide) (PSA-N-Cl) resin, has been synthesized by a suspension copolymerization of styrene and acrylic acid and DVB, an amination with tert-butylamine and triethylenediamine (TEDA), and then a facile chlorination in diluted NaOCl solution. The as-prepared porous DVB cross-linked PSA-N-Cl resin was characterized by Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). BET analysis indicated that PSA-N-Cl resin has a very large surface area (124.9 m2/g) which is favorable for the quick water disinfection. Antibacterial tests showed that the as-prepared PSA-N-Cl resin possesses powerful antibacterial efficacies against both Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The as-prepared PSA-N-Cl resin was capable of about 7.95-log and 7.81-log reductions of E. coli and S. aureus within 1 and 3min of contact times, respectively. Also, the regenerability and preliminary storage stability of the as-prepared PSA-N-Cl resin were investigated.

      PubDate: 2015-09-22T14:42:56Z
  • HSA immobilized novel polymeric matrix as an alternative sorbent in
           hemoperfusion columns for bilirubin removal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Mahdi Kavoshchian, Recep Üzek, Sadık Ahmet Uyanık, Serap Şenel, Adil Denizli
      HSA immobilized poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate), HSA-P[HEMA], cryogel monolith was examined as an alternative sorbent to be used in hemoperfusion columns for bilirubin removal from serum. The cryogel monolith synthesis was performed by free radical polymerization using MBAA as crosslinker, APS and TEMED as redox pair. Cyanogen bromide (CNBr) was used as a matrix-activating agent for the preparation of immobilized cryogels. Control cryogel monolith, P[HEMA], and HSA-P[HEMA] were characterized by swelling test, SEM images, porosity and surface area measurements, and blood compatibility tests. Activation and immobilization processes were optimized. The removal of bilirubin from plasma samples overloaded with bilirubin was performed using P[HEMA] cryogel monoliths containing different amounts of immobilized HSA in continuous mode. Several factors such as pH, temperature, concentration, flow rate, effecting adsorption capacity of the matrix were analyzed. The maximum bilirubin removal from plasma was 25.4 mg/g at 37.5 °C. The desorption agent was 0.1 M NaOH and 1.0 M NaCl containing solution. The reusability was tested for 10 consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. The adsorption isotherm models and kinetics of process were also studied.

      PubDate: 2015-09-18T14:34:56Z
  • Preparation and characterization of 3-chloropropyl polysiloxane-based
           heat-curable silicone rubber using polyamidoamine dendrimers as
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Fuying Dong, Shen Diao, Depeng Ma, Shengyou Zhang, Shengyu Feng
      A series of high-temperature vulcanization (HTV) silicone rubber was prepared with polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as concentrative cross-linkers and polysiloxane containing 3-chloropropyl groups (CPPS) as gums in a novel curing system. The curing, mechanical, and thermal properties of this novel HTV silicone rubber (MCSR) were studied through rheometry, mechanical testing, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The curing process was analyzed on the basis of the cure curves obtained by rheometry. The optimal conditions to prepare MCSR were determined by changing curing conditions, including cross-linker concentration, curing temperature, and postcuring temperature. MCSR exhibited a tensile strength of 9.34MPa and a tear strength of 47.71kN/m when the molar ratio of [3-chloropropyl]/[N–H] was 1:1.5. These excellent mechanical properties were attributed to the concentrative cross-linking effect from PAMAM dendrimers. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties slightly changed as the generation of PAMAM dendrimers increased because of steric hindrance. In addition, TGA results indicated that MCSR was thermally stable in a nitrogen atmosphere even at high degradation temperatures, such as T5 wt.% loss (MCSR-3)=451.7°C and T50 wt.% loss (MCSR-3)=659.0°C. DSC analysis revealed that a glass transition peak followed by a melt was identified for MCSR at −160°C to 30°C. The experimental results showed that using PAMAM dendrimers as cross-linkers is a practical way to obtain silicone rubber with excellent properties.

      PubDate: 2015-09-18T14:34:56Z
  • Poly(maleic acid-co-propane-1,2-diol-co-adipic acid) for pH-triggered drug
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Abu Mahmud, M. Abu Bakr
      Poly(maleic acid-co-propane-1,2-diol-co-adipic acid) was synthesized using xylene as the reaction medium in Dean–Stark apparatus. The synthesized co-polyester was characterized by its FTIR-spectrum, elemental analysis, molecular weights, solubility in common organic solvents and hydrolytic degradation test. From the hydrolytic degradation study it was found that the polyester sample remained almost intact in the acid medium but gradually degraded in basic medium. Because of such pH-responsive degradation nature, this polyester was tried as an enteric coating material for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Drug release from the polymer coated specimen in simulated physiological environments was investigated and British Pharmacopoeia standard enteric coating properties of the polymer were observed.

      PubDate: 2015-09-18T14:34:56Z
  • Encapsulation of ionic liquid BMIm[PF6] within polyurea microspheres
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ester Weiss, Diana Gertopski, Maneesh Kumar Gupta, Raed Abu-Reziq
      The encapsulation of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIm[PF6]) in polyurea microspheres is demonstrated. This method is based on the encapsulation of ionic liquid within a polyurea shell by emulsification and interfacial polymerization of amine and isocyanate monomers. Emulsification of BMIm[PF6] was performed in water or oil, enabling formation of two different BMIm[PF6] polyurea microcapsules with different chemical features. While the BMIm[PF6]-in-water emulsion enables the formation of BMIm[PF6] polyurea microcapsules with regular aliphatic diamines, the BMIm[PF6]-in-oil emulsion requires the utilization of a specific diamine functionalized with ionic liquid groups. The microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, infrared and solid NMR.

      PubDate: 2015-09-18T14:34:56Z
  • Functionalized bicomponent polymer membranes as supports for covalent
           immobilization of enzymes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Teodor Sandu, Andrei Sarbu, Celina Maria Damian, Delia Patroi, Tanta Verona Iordache, Temenuzhka Budinova, Boyko Tsyntsarski, M. Ferhat Yardim, Ahmet Sirkecioglu
      The present work was aimed at developing new reactive polymer materials suitable to be used as supports for enzyme covalent immobilization. Thus, new bicomponent polymer membranes were developed using poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) (PAN-co-PVAc) in mixture with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). First of all, PAN-co-PVAc/PVA blends were dissolved in DMSO, until a homogenous polymer solution was obtained. To prepare membranes, these solutions were cast on a glass plate followed by the immersion of this plate in a coagulation bath containing a 50%–50% (volume %) water–isopropyl alcohol mixture. In this way membranes containing OH functional groups were obtained. Before tyrosinase immobilization, membranes were functionalized with glutardialdehyde; hence CHO binding sites were inserted and membrane became reactive for the enzyme. In order to prove that both, functionalization and immobilization reactions, were successful, the modifications produced by these reactions were investigated by various techniques i.e. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Atomic Force Microscopy. The occurrence of important changes in membrane features confirmed the success of both reactions. Furthermore, the activity of bonded enzyme was determined by pyrocatechol method and compared to the activity of the free enzyme.

      PubDate: 2015-09-10T14:17:58Z
  • Chiral polymeric nanoparticles for aldol reaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Shira R. Adler, Yitzhak Mastai
      In this paper, we report on the preparation and use of chiral polymeric nanoparticles, based on proline, as nanocatalysts for the asymmetric aldol reaction. The chiral polymeric nanoparticles were synthesized using a novel technique based on miniemulsion polymerization of chiral N-oleoyl-D/L-proline monomers. This method led to the formation of chiral polymeric nanoparticles with average size of 160nm. Moreover, the polymeric chiral nanoparticles prepared by miniemulsion polymerization are of high surface area, and the entire particle, not just the surface, is chiral. The efficiency of the polymeric chiral nanoparticles for asymmetric aldol reaction in organic solvents and water is demonstrated. Although the chiral selectivity of the polymeric nanoparticles is low compared to free amino acid still they have the advantage of the low catalyst loading that is required and the opportunity to recycle the polymeric nanoparticle catalysts.

      PubDate: 2015-09-10T14:17:58Z
  • Switchable and reversible superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces by
           redox response using covalent S-S bond
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Guilhem Godeau, Thierry Darmanin, Frédéric Guittard
      Here we report for the first time the use of dithiolane as platform for reversible surface functionalization with switchable water and oil-wettability. That platform allows to prepare switchable superhydrophobic/hydrophilic surfaces and oleophobic/oleophilic surfaces. Based on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) surface bearing dithiolane groups, this strategy allows to obtain reversible functionalization of surfaces with various thiol compounds. Interestingly, the use of fluorinated thiols also highly changes the surface morphology and porosity leading to superhydrophobic properties and highly oleophobic properties with water and oil reversibility. Dithiolane surfaces are key platform in order to prepare switchable surfaces for a large range of applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-09-10T14:17:58Z
  • Effect of HNTs modification in nanocomposite membrane enhancement for
           bacterial removal by cross-flow ultrafiltration system
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): A. Moslehyani, M. Mobaraki, A.F. Ismail, T. Matsuura, S.A. Hashemifard, M.H.D. Othman, A. Mayahi, M. Rezaei DashtArzhandi, M. Soheilmoghaddam, E. Shamsaei
      This study investigated the potential of silver lactate (SL)-holloysite nanotube clay (HNTs) nano-filler embedded into the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer matrix as a antibacterial separator. Three different nanocomposite membranes were fabricated via phase inversion technique aimed to enhance the permeation flux and fouling resistance with complete bacterial rejection. HNT has been modified by N-β-(aminoethyl)-ɣ-aminopropyltrimethoxy silane (AEAPTMS) aiming for immobilization of SL on the surface HNT during dope preparation. Salmonella and Enterobacter aerogenes (E.aerogenes)were considered as two types of bacteria to be removed from contaminated water in this experimental work. Nanocomposite membranes were characterized and analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and tensile strength. Potential silver ion loss was assessed by measuring the silver content in the coagulation bath and in the UF permeate using inductive-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Moreover, antibacterial effect of the membrane was examined in terms of removal of microorganisms by filtration, Log Reduction Value (LRV) and thickness of inhibition zone. From the experimental results, the prepared nanocomposite membranes have shown more than 99% bacterial rejection, LRV of more than 3 and broad inhibition zones in the agar plate. In particular, the nanocomposite membrane consisting M-HNTs/SL/PVDF showed significant improvement in permeation flux and flux declination among all the tested membranes. It was also found that modification of HNTs resulted in reduction of silver leaching by uniform distributing of SL. which contributed significant inhibition for both types of growth bacteria within 24 h incubation.

      PubDate: 2015-09-05T14:03:23Z
  • Use of magnetic and fluorescent polystyrene/tetraphenylporphyrin/maghemite
           nanocomposites for the photoinactivation of pathogenic bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): A.E. Chávez-Guajardo, L. Maqueira, J.C. Medina-Llamas, J.J. Alcaraz-Espinoza, T.L. Araújo, G.M. Vinhas, A.R. Rodrigues, K.G.B. Alves, C.P. de Melo
      In this work, we initially describe the preparation of magnetic and fluorescent nanocomposites (MF NCs) based on polystyrene/tetraphenylporphyrin/maghemite (PS/TPP/γ-Fe2O3). After carrying a series of exploratory experiments, we have found that the composite that presented the highest values of fluorescence intensity and magnetization (S1 samples) was obtained when we employed 1mL of TPP and 1 % of PS. When tested as photosensitizer agents for the inactivation of the pathogenic bacteria E. coli, these MF NCs presented excellent antibacterial activity, indicating that they can be promising candidates to inactivate microorganisms dispersed in aqueous solutions. Taking into account this peculiar combination of outstanding properties and simple and low cost synthesis, we suggest that this kind of NC could find widespread use in environmental and biomedical applications.

      PubDate: 2015-09-05T14:03:23Z
  • Kinetic studies and grafting mechanism for methyl aniline derivatives onto
           chitosan: Highly adsorptive copolymers for dye removal from aqueous
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): S.M. Sayyah, Amr A. Essawy, A.M. El-Nggar
      A polysaccharide, chitosan is received vast attention because of their non-toxic, low cost and biodegradable properties. In this study, three promise grafted chitosan copolymers using methyl polyaniline conducting polymeric isomers were successfully synthesized through oxidative-radical copolymerization using ammonium persulphate as initiator in acidic medium. The kinetic behaviors of graft copolymerization were extensively studied under various parameters. Moreover, the rate of grafting copolymerization is affected by concentrations of monomer, initiator, HCl in addition to temperature. The activation energy (Ea), enthalpy of activation (∆H*) and negative value of entropy (∆S*) support the progress of copolymerization. Environmental impacts of the grafted polymers in water detoxification were manifested. A comparison study for adsorption of remazol red dye from aqueous solutions onto Ch-g-PMeANIs was investigated.

      PubDate: 2015-09-05T14:03:23Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 94

      PubDate: 2015-08-31T13:32:06Z
  • Synthesis and characterization of dual-stimuli-responsive micelles based
           on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and polycarbonate with photocleavable
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Jia-You Fang, Yin-Ku Lin, Shiu-Wei Wang, You-Chen Li, Ren-Shen Lee
      Dual-sensitive block copolymers, PNiPAAm-b-PNBTMC, were synthesized via the ring-opening polymerization of 3-methyl-3-nitrobenzyl-trimethylene carbonate (NBTMC) bearing numerous 2-nitro-benzoxycarbonyl photolabile groups with a PNiPAAm macroinitiator in the presence of an organocatalyst, 1,5,7-triazobicyclo-[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD). When the polymer solutions were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, we observed significant changes in the structure and morphology of the particles. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies revealed that the copolymers underwent micellization or dissociation transitions in water in response to temperature changes and UV irradiation. No significant toxicity of these nanoparticles was found at concentrations up to 300μgmL−1.

      PubDate: 2015-08-27T13:23:06Z
  • Effective regeneration of an adsorbent for the removal of organic
           contaminants developed based on UV radiation and toxicity evaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Soonjae Lee, Jae-Sang Lee, Mi-Kyung Song, Jae-Chun Ryu, Byungryul An, Chang-Gu Lee, Chanhyuk Park, Sang-Hyup Lee, Jae-Woo Choi
      Composites of powdered activated carbon and/or titanium dioxide were investigated as a photo-regenerable adsorbent for use in the removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from aqueous solution. Seven types of adsorbents were prepared for organic contaminant adsorption tests. Lab-scale tests were conducted to investigate the removal efficiencies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and the potential for regenerating the adsorbents using UV irradiation. Among these adsorbents, the ultrasonic irradiated alginate bead-impregnated powdered activated carbon and titanium dioxide-dry type 1 (PTAB-D-Sonic 1) exhibited the greatest adsorption capacity for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (12.38mgg−1); in addition, the removal efficiency was consistent approximately 11mgg−1, notwithstanding repetitive regeneration by UV irradiation. The characteristics of each adsorbent were confirmed using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. In addition, a cytotoxicity experiment was conducted on the developed material, and the results showed that all seven materials had low cytotoxic effects on human cells. This research provides promising results for the application of a photo-regenerable adsorbent, e.g., PTAB-D-Sonic 1, for the removal of various organic contaminants from sewage and wastewater.

      PubDate: 2015-08-27T13:23:06Z
  • Plasma treatment of the surface of poly(hydroxybutyrate) foil and
           non-woven fabric and assessment of the biological properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): P. Slepička, Z. Malá, S. Rimpelová, N. Slepičková Kasálková, V. Švorčík
      This paper deals with the poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB, foil and fabric) surface modification, characterization and the view of its possible application. The influence of Ar plasma treatment on surface polarity was studied. The changes of the surface parameters were determined immediately after treatment and after annealing related to plasma power, treatment time and heating. These surface-induced differences were studied by different analytic methods: polarity (wettability) was studied by contact angle measurement and surface energy calculation, the surface morphology analysis was done by atomic force microscopy and for determination of chemical composition of surface layer, the XPS analysis was used. It was found that after plasma treatment the surface energy of both PHB foil and non-woven fabric significantly increased. PHB non-woven fabric exhibited almost immeasurable contact angle after the plasma treatment. The wettability of both types of PHB substrates after heating was completely inversed. The significant change in roughness of PHB foil was found. After the plasma treatment, the material ablation was determined, which was also connected with surface chemical changes, thus the surface was found to be corrugated. The heating procedure induced “little” crystallites on the surface. Positive effect of PHB foil modifications on surface biocompatibility was confirmed. The biocompatibility was also preserved when thermal stress was applied. Silver nanolayer sputtered on PHB fabric surface induced strong anti-microbial properties.

      PubDate: 2015-08-23T09:21:12Z
  • Polymeric Corrosion Inhibitors for the Oil &amp; Gas Industry: Design
           Principles and Mechanism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Brylee David B. Tiu, Rigoberto C. Advincula
      This work aims to provide an overview of the most common functional groups of polymeric corrosion inhibitors for the oil and gas industry. Exploration, production and transportation of petroleum and natural gas products constantly deal with highly corrosive environment due to oxygen, acid stimulation, CO2 and H2S contamination so versatile materials are required in order to keep corrosion rates in control. Unlike small molecule corrosion inhibitors, polymers have the advantage of better film-forming capabilities and multi-functional chemistries, which could significantly improve protective barrier properties. In line with this, only structures tested in relevant oil and gas media are included in order to highlight certain moieties capable of complex formation with the metal surface or chelation on corrosive agents resulting to better inhibiting performance.

      PubDate: 2015-08-23T09:21:12Z
  • Creation of a new material stream from Japanese cedar resources to
           cellulose nanofibrils
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Zhuqun Shi, Quanling Yang, Yuko Ono, Ryunosuke Funahashi, Tsuguyuki Saito, Akira Isogai
      Japanese cedar is one of the most abundant plantation softwood in Japan, although it is not effectively utilized as wood resources. Japanese cedar cellulose was isolated and subjected to one-pot catalytic oxidation and reduction with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and NaBH4, respectively. The TEMPO-oxidized and NaBH4-reduced Japanese cedar celluloses (TOCs-NaBH4) had carboxylate contents of up to 1.4mmol/g and viscosity-average degrees of polymerization from 2000 to 3000. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the TOCs-NaBH4 showed that the crystal widths were ~3nm, indicating that the C6-OH groups present on the crystalline cellulose microfibril surfaces were selectively oxidized to C6-carboxylate groups. When the TOCs-NaBH4 with carboxylate contents of 0.9–1.4mmol/g were mechanically disintegrated in water, transparent TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibril (TOCN) dispersions were obtained. The lengths of the TOCNs, determined from their atomic force microscopy images, varied from 800 to 1500nm, depending on the oxidation conditions. The TOCNs prepared from Japanese cedar cellulose have the average of high aspect ratios (>300), which are greater than those (~150) prepared from wood pulps and thus advantageous.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-08-19T09:05:20Z
  • Cationic Polymer Chain Tethered on the Pore-wall of 3-D Ordered
           Macroporous Resin for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Xiaomei Wang, Cuihong Wu, Lei Tian, Guohui Li, Xu Zhang, Feng Lei, Jiayan Qu, Pange Liu
      A novel 3-D ordered macroporous (3DOM) adsorbent with a cationic polymer chain (poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate), PDMAEMA)) tethered on the pore wall was prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) for the removal of toxic Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution. In comparison with recently reported adsorbents, the adsorbent remarkably stands out owing to large adsorption capacity, relatively fast kinetics, and high stability in the regeneration process. The adsorption capacity significantly depended on the solution pH and there was a wide working pH range that is much convenience in practical application. Kinetics of Cr(VI) adsorption by the 3DOM adsorbent were studied in batch experiments, in the temperature range 298-318K. The equilibriums were arrived within 120–130min and a pseudo-second order model can be described well. In the adsorption isotherm study, experimental data followed the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity increased with the increase of temperature, and reached the high value of 431.0mg/g at 308K. Thermodynamic parameters revealed spontaneous and endothermic adsorption processes. Furthermore, the 3DOM adsorbent remained high adsorption capacity (above 90% of the original Cr(VI) loading capacity) after 15 adsorption-desorption cycles by simply using sodium hydroxide solution as the desorption liquid, which ensured the reusability of 3DOM adsorbent.

      PubDate: 2015-08-19T09:05:20Z
  • Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93

      PubDate: 2015-08-15T08:57:10Z
  • Enhanced electrokinetic, dielectric and electrorheological properties of
           covalently bonded nanosphere-TiO2/polypyrrole nanocomposite
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Seyda Cabuk, Halil Ibrahim Unal
      Nanosphere-TiO2 was synthesized, surface functionalized with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) and then covalently bonded with polypyrrole (PPy) with buttom-up surface engineering strategy to obtain nanosphere-TiO2/PPy core/shell hybrit nanocomposite. All the materials were subjected to full chemical and morphological characterizations by using various techniques. The presence of NaCl, AlCl3, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecylsulfate observed to cause high colloidal stabilities of the nanocomposite dispersions by reaching to zeta(ζ)-potential values of ζ>+30mV and ζ<−30mV. A series of suspensions were prepared by dispersing nanosphere-TiO2 and nanosphere-TiO2/PPy particles in insulating silicone oil (SO) and dielectric properties were determined using an LCR meter. Antisedimentation stabilities of these suspensions were determined against gravitational forces and 54% colloidal stability was achieved with the nanocomposite after 30days. Polarizabilities of the suspended particles were observed using an optical microscope under externally applied electric field strength. Then the suspensions were subjected to electrorheological measurements by investigating the effects of shear rate, particle volume fraction, shear stress, and electric field strength. Non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviors were observed for the samples. Further, vibration damping characteristics of the materials were determined with shear stress and frequency oscillation measurements. Enhanced reversible viscoelastic deformations were observed for the dispersions from creep-recovery tests and 64% creep-recovery was obtained for nanosphere-TiO2/PPy/SO system under E=3.5kV/mm.

      PubDate: 2015-08-10T03:36:31Z
  • Preparation of a novel polymer monolith with high loading capacity by
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Rongyue Zhang, Qiang Li, Dekun Ji, Yiting Pan, Bo Xu, Yongdong Huang, Lan Zhao
      The polymer monolith for solid-phase synthesis with high efficiency was prepared through in situ copolymerization of chloromethylstyrene and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PCMS-EDMA). The obtained monolith was grafted by two kinds of poly (ethylene glycol) acrylate oligomer, poly (ethylene glycol) acrylate (PEGA) and poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (mPEGA).. The monolith was grafted via activators generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP) with the increased number of functional groups (−OH). About 0.61-0.81mmol/g hydroxyl group resulted from side groups in each grafting polymer chain. PmPEGA in the grafting block copolymer chains can increase the distance between the adjacent reactive sites of PEGA (−OH) in each polymer chain. Therefore, the grafted monoliths with the block copolymer of PEGA-co-mPEGA can give high yield (85%) and purity (93%) of the crude peptide (a difficult sequence-acyl carrier protein fragment 65–74) under the condition of high loading capacity (0.76mmol/g). These results were higher than those by the grafted monolith with only polymer of PEGA (72% and 81%, respectively) and commercial Wang resin (43% and 39%, respectively). The synthetic efficiency on the grafted monolith with block copolymer in the continuous flow technique was 5–6 folds higher than Wang resins in the manual operation conditions.

      PubDate: 2015-08-10T03:36:31Z
  • The separation of the pyrethroid insecticide Fastac 10 EC by cationic
           pullulan derivatives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Luminita Ghimici, Marieta Constantin
      Pullulan derivatives with different content of tertiary amine groups have been evaluated, as flocculants, for the separation of pesticide Fastac 10 EC from model emulsions. The flocculation performance of the cationic polysaccharide samples at different conditions (Polycation dose, pH and pesticide concentration) was followed by UV–vis spectroscopy measurements. The results show similar values for the maximum removal efficiency (around 90%), irrespective of the ionic groups content and an increase (from 80% to more than 90%) with initial pesticide concentration increase (from 0.02% to 0.04%). The optimum polycation dose decreased with increasing substitution degree and decreasing the emulsion pH. The supernatant zeta potential dependence on the cationic polysaccharide dose indicated a charge neutralization mechanism for the flocculation of pesticide particles, that was supported by particle aggregates size measurements.

      PubDate: 2015-08-10T03:36:31Z
  • Effects of cross-linking in nanostructure and physicochemical properties
           of fish gelatins for bio-applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Alaitz Etxabide, Marta Urdanpilleta, Pedro Guerrero, Koro de la Caba
      The development of advanced materials from proteins requires their modification to improve functional properties, mainly barrier properties. In order to obtain the improvement of properties desirable for some bio-related uses, such as food, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, Maillard reaction, a natural and non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, can be promoted and controlled by sugar contents and heating treatments. In this paper, Maillard reaction improves the barrier properties of fish gelatin films, providing an excellent protection against UV light and decreasing solubility due to the cross-linking induced by heating and lactose addition. Furthermore, a fluorescence compound is formed during this reaction and can be used as an indicator of the reaction progress. The knowledge of reaction kinetics as well as the changes observed in the nanostructure as a consequence of the cross-linking between fish gelatin and lactose provides the scientific information needed to spread the field of application of the products that can be manufactured using these natural reactive polymers.

      PubDate: 2015-08-06T03:27:45Z
  • Synthesis, functionalization and characterization of UV-curable lactic
           acid based oligomers to be used as surgical adhesives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): J.M.C. Santos, D.S. Marques, P. Alves, T.R. Correia, I.J. Correia, Cristina M.S.G. Baptista, P. Ferreira
      The synthesis, functionalization and characterization of low molecular weight L-lactic acid based oligomers to be used as new UV-curable bioadhesives are presented herein. Prepolymers hydroxyl terminated were produced by L-lactic acid dehydration with 1,4-butanediol. The prepolymer was further modified with photoreactive sites by adding an isocyanate-functional unsaturated acrylic ester, which was used for the first time in the biomedical field (LAROMER® LR 9000). Films were afterwards produced upon UV irradiation for 120s, using a biocompatible photoinitiator (Irgacure® 2959), and finally characterized. The synthesized films exhibited a moderate swelling ratio, suitable for the envisioned application. DSC analysis confirmed an increase in Tg values after each synthesis step. Nevertheless, the film Tg remains lower than the physiological and room temperature. TGA confirmed an improved stability of films at high temperatures. The in vitro degradation tests showed their susceptibility to hydrolysis at 37°C, suitable for short-term uses. Preliminary evaluation of the adhesion capacity suggested that the synthesized material may be effective in sustaining wound closure and repair. The surface energy was also measured and its value was lower than the ones from blood or skin which supports the previous statement. Blood compatibility studies, cell viability assays (using human dermal fibroblasts) and bacterial inhibition tests (using two bacteria models) were performed. The results indicated that cured adhesive is bio/haemocompatible and possesses antimicrobial activity. Altogether, characterization results showed that the produced material presented a set of properties suitable for biomedical applications, particularly as a surgical adhesive.

      PubDate: 2015-07-24T21:41:24Z
  • Ring-opening reactions of backbone epoxidized polyoxanorbornene
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Ufuk Saim Gunay, Erhan Demirel, Gurkan Hizal, Umit Tunca, Hakan Durmaz
      In this article, we report the synthesis of poly(oxanorbornene imide) (PONB) with internal epoxy groups (epoxidized-PONB30) and its ring-opening reactions with various nucleophiles, such as amine, azide, and thiols. The ring-opening reactions with amines yielded the amine-hydroxyl PONBs in the range of 36–95% of functionalization depending upon the amine content per epoxy. An allylamine-hydroxyl functionalized PONB was further functionalized efficiently with 1-octanethiol by radical thiol-ene reaction. The ring-opening reaction of the main chain epoxy using thiols resulted in a lower functionalization than amines with a similar functional group (e.g., allyl). In addition, sodium azide together with NH4Cl, was employed efficiently in the ring-opening reaction of the main chain epoxy, resulting in an azide/hydroxyl-functional PONB30 with 53% efficiency, which was determined after a model copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) experiment was carried out.

      PubDate: 2015-07-20T21:39:34Z
  • Experimental design approach in the synthesis of molecularly imprinted
           polymers specific for iprodione fungicide
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 94
      Author(s): Manal Bitar, Jacqueline Maalouly, Hanna Chebib, Adrien Lerbret, Philippe Cayot, Elias Bou-Maroun
      An experimental design (ED) approach was applied to study the weight of three factors in the synthesis of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) specific for iprodione fungicide. The objective was to obtain a high specific polymer with the best performance of iprodione binding. Thirteen iprodione-imprinted polymers and 13 non-imprinted polymers (NIP) were synthesized according to ED having 3 influencing factors: the polymerization method, the crosslinker nature and the functional monomer type. For each factor, two levels were studied: bulk and precipitation polymerization for the first factor, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) for the second factor, and methacrylamide (MAM) alone or with styrene for the third factor. The ED responses were: the imprinting factor, the site number and the apparent affinity constant. They were determined after studying the interactions between iprodione and each MIP and NIP in hydro-alcoholic medium. The best polymer of the ED was synthesized using MAM as functional monomer, EGDMA as crosslinker and precipitation polymerization. It has an imprinting factor of 2.4, a site number of 1172 and an affinity constant of 19.36. The best MIP was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Nitrogen sorption isotherms. The best MIP has a mesoporous structure with a high specific surface area of 407m2·g−1. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) was successfully applied, using the best MIP, to preconcentrate iprodione from a white wine containing two competing fungicides.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-16T21:28:29Z
  • Designing Packaging Materials with Viscoelastic and Gas Barrier Properties
           by Optimized Processing of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)
           with Lignin
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Adriana Kovalcik , Michal Machovsky , Zuzana Kozakova , Martin Koller
      Microbial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) bio-polyester was combined by thermoforming with Kraft lignin in order to design new advanced composite materials for packaging purpose. After assessing the compatibility of the two raw materials, the thermoformed composite sheets were investigated in order to assess the impact of the lignin fraction (between 0 and 10 wt. %) on melting and crystallization behavior, thermo-oxidative stability, mechanical and viscoelastic properties, and permeability for oxygen and carbon dioxide. It turned out that the applied Kraft lignin is highly compatible with microbial PHBHV, and by exerting a reinforcing effect, acts as an active additive. As aspired, the gas permeability was decreased by combining PHBHV with 1 wt. % lignin; here, a reduction of permeability for oxygen by 77 % and by 91 % for carbon dioxide, respectively, was observed if compared to the native bio-polyester specimens. Also the low thermo-oxidation stability, a typical characteristic of pure PHBHV, was increased for the lignin-containing materials. This first report on thermoformed composite materials of microbial PHBHV and lignin suggests a new class of bio-based polymer materials to be applied for packaging of various easily perishable goods.

      PubDate: 2015-07-11T16:07:17Z
  • Synthesis of novel temperature responsive PEG-b-[PCL
           -g-P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA)]-b-PEG (tBG) triblock-graft copolymers and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Yue-Ming An , Teng Liu , Rong Tian , Shou-Xin Liu , Ya-Nan Han , Qin-Qin Wang , Wei-Juan Sheng
      Novel triblock-graft copolymers, poly ethylene glycol-b-[poly(ε-caprolactone)-g- poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethyl methacrylate-co-oligo (ethylene glycol) methacrylate)]-b-poly ethylene glycol (PEG-b-[PCL-g-P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA)] -b-PEG) (tBG), were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). In the synthesis process, temperature responsive P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA) chains were grafted onto the PCL block of triblock copolymer PEG-b-PCL-b-PEG to improve its hydrophilicity. This method succeeded in increasing the solubility of PEG-b-PCL-b-PEG in water, and more importantly, endowing PEG-b-PCL-b-PEG with temperature sensitivity. By adjusting the feed ratio of 2-(2-methoxy ethoxy) ethyl methacrylate (MEO2MA) and oligo (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA) monomers, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the tBG can be realized at about 37°C. Taking advantage of the excellent mechanical property of graphene sheets, alkyne-functionalized graphene oxide (alkyne-GO) was introduced to cross-link tBGs and prepare tBG/GO composite hydrogel through click reaction between tBG-N3 and alkyne-GO. Different from traditional cross-linker, alkyne-GO acts as reinforcing fillers in the composite hydrogel. Benefited from superior properties of PCL, PEG, P(MEO2MA-co-OEGMA) and GO, the as-prepared temperature responsive tBG/GO hydrogel exhibits excellent mechanical strength and toughness, demonstrating a future potential applications in tissue engineering and biotechnology fields.

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T15:51:57Z
  • Polymer-lipid interactions: biomimetic self-assembly behaviour and surface
           properties of poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid) with
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers
      Author(s): Virginia Saez-Martinez , Patchara Punyamoonwongsa , Brian J. Tighe
      Various lubricating body fluids at tissue interfaces are composed mainly of combinations of phospholipids and amphipathic apoproteins. The challenge in producing synthetic replacements for them is not replacing the phospholipid, which is readily available in synthetic form, but replacing the apoprotein component, more specifically, its unique biophysical properties rather than its chemistry. The potential of amphiphilic reactive hypercoiling behaviour of poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) was studied in combination with two diacylphosphatidylcholines (PC) of different chain lengths in aqueous solution. The surface properties of the mixtures were characterized by conventional Langmuir–Wilhelmy balance (surface pressure under compression) and the du Noüy tensiometer (surface tension of the non-compressed mixtures). Surface tension values and 31P-NMR demonstrated that self-assembly of polymer-phospholipid mixtures were pH and concentration-dependent. Finally, the particle size and zeta potential measurements of this self-assembly showed that it can form negatively charged nanosized structures that might find use as drug or lipids release systems on interfaces such as the tear film or lung interfacial layers. The structural reorganization was sensitive to the alkyl chain length of the PC.

      PubDate: 2015-07-05T15:51:57Z
  • Preparation and characterization of antimicrobial electrospun poly(vinyl
           alcohol) nanofibers containing benzyl triethylammonium chloride
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Jeong-Ann Park , Song-Bae Kim
      The aim of this study was to characterize antimicrobial electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers containing benzyl triethylammonium chloride (BTEAC) as an antimicrobial agent. The antimicrobial BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were prepared through electrospinning at the optimal conditions of 15kV voltage and a 1.0mLh−1 flow rate. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test results against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia, BTEAC-PVA nanofibers containing 2.6% BTEAC were fabricated to test the antibacterial and antiviral activities. The average diameter of the BTEAC-PVA nanofibers increased from 175.7 to 464.7nm with increasing BTEAC concentration from 0 to 2.6%. The antimicrobial activities of the BTEAC-PVA nanofibers were tested against bacteria. The antibacterial tests with 2.6% BTEAC-PVA nanofibers demonstrated that bacterial reduction in PVA nanofibers was similar to the control value, indicating that PVA had a minimal effect on bacteria death. For the BTEAC-PVA nanofibers, the bacterial reduction ratio increased with increasing contact time, demonstrating that BTEAC-PVA nanofibers successfully inhibited the growth of bacteria. In addition, the antiviral tests against viruses (bacteriophages MS2 and PhiX174) showed that the BTEAC-PVA nanofibers inactivated both MS2 and PhiX174.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Studies on uptake behavior of Hg(II) and Pb(II) by amine modified glycidyl
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Archana Gupta , Rajeev Jain , D.C. Gupta
      The removal of mercury and lead ions from aqueous solutions investigated by ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine and tetraethylenepentamine functionalized polymeric adsorbent. The adsorbent was prepared by amination of terpolymer synthesized from glycidylmethacrylate, styrene and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide. In the single metal species system (only mercury or lead ions are present) poly(glycidylmethacrylate–ethylenediamine) (PGMA–EDA), poly(glycidylmethacrylate–diethylenetriamine) (PGMA–DETA), and poly(glycidylmethacrylate–tetraethylenepentamine) (PGMA–TEPA) were found to adsorb lead or mercury ions with a slightly higher adsorption uptake capacity for lead than mercury ions. Among the three functionalized polymers poly(glycidylmethacrylate–diethylenetriamine) (PGMA–DETA) shows faster and higher adsorption capacity than poly(glycidylmethacrylate–ethylenediamine) (PGMA–EDA), poly(glycidylmethacrylate–tetraethylenepentamine) (PGMA–TEPA). The natural pH of both the metal ions was found to be most suitable for uptake. The uptake of Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions was investigated by using batch technique. The maximum adsorption capacities of Pb ions were predicted to be 4.74, 4.76 and 4.73mmol/g and the maximum Hg(II) ion uptakes were found to be 4.76, 4.80 and 4.21mmol/g respectively for PGMA–EDA, PGMA–DETA and PGMA–TEPA resins at their natural pH. The uptakes of Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions on the resins were found to follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudosecond order kinetics.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Synthesis of water-soluble wholly aromatic polyketones bearing
           1,1′-binaphthyl-6,6′-diyl units
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Katsuya Maeyama , Hiroaki Kumagai
      A water-soluble wholly aromatic polyketone modified with sodium carboxylate (PK-COONa) was synthesized through demethylation of the wholly aromatic polyketone bearing four methoxy groups per repeat unit (PK-OMe) followed by ethoxycarbonylmethylation and saponification. The obtained polyketones, i.e., the methyl-cleaved analogue (PK-OH), the ethoxy carbonyl group-bearing analogue (PK-COOEt), the sodium carboxylate analogue (PK-COONa), and the carboxy group-bearing analogue (PK-COOH), have varying solubilities in water and common organic solvents and thermal stabilities, depending on the functional groups.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Optically active, magnetic microspheres: Constructed by helical
           substituted polyacetylene with pendent prolineamide groups and applied as
           catalyst for Aldol reaction
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Jiexuan Song , Haiyang Zhang , Jianping Deng
      This article reports on the preparation of a novel category of optically active magnetic microspheres (OAMMPs) consisting of Fe3O4 nanoparticles and helical substituted polyacetylene bearing pendent prolineamide groups and the use of them for asymmetric direct Aldol reactions. The microspheres (200–300μm in diameter) were prepared by using chiral acetylenic monomer and alkynyl-Fe3O4 nanoparticles via suspension polymerization approach. They were obtained in high yield (>99%) with regular spheric morphology and exhibited noticeable optical activity, according to circular dichroism spectra and specific optical rotation measurements. The microspheres further served as chiral catalyst for performing direct Aldol reactions between acetone and p-nitrobenzaldehyde, providing the product in moderate yield (68%) and ee (75%). The magnetic microspheres can be easily recycled and reused. Mechanism for the asymmetric catalysis of Aldol reaction was further proposed.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Polymeric anion exchanger supported hydrated Zr(IV) oxide nanoparticles: A
           reusable hybrid sorbent for selective trace arsenic removal
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Surapol Padungthon , Michael German , Surases Wiriyathamcharoen , Arup K. SenGupta
      Natural groundwater contamination by arsenic puts over 100 million people at-risk throughout the world. If arsenic is the primary concern, the most ideal treatment solution would be a regenerable fixed-bed adsorbent: minimal energy requirement, simple operation and low cost. Such an adsorbent should have high arsenic capacity, high physical/chemical durability and high regenerability for several cycles of reuse. Hybrid anion exchange resins impregnated with hydrous zirconium oxide nanoparticles (HAIX–Zr) combine the physical durability and high anion diffusivity of anion exchanger resins with the high arsenic capacity and high chemical durability of zirconium oxides. HAIX–Zr was synthesized using non-hazardous and easy-to-transport pre-calcined zirconium oxide and was tested to be an effective As(V) and As(III) adsorbent over several cycles of exhaustion–regeneration in the presence of high concentrations of competing anions; at high concentrations, phosphate and silica show competition with arsenic. The high regenerability of HAIX–Zr (>90%) makes it more sustainable to regenerate and reuse the HAIX–Zr for numerous cycles to reduce the volume of arsenic-laden waste. Unlike other iron- or aluminum-based adsorbents, HAIX–Zr is chemically stable at landfill conditions where it could be safely disposed without leaching arsenic.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Tyramine modified alginates via periodate oxidation for peroxidase induced
           hydrogel formation and immobilization
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Olivera Prodanovic , Dragica Spasojevic , Milos Prokopijevic , Ksenija Radotic , Nevena Markovic , Marija Blazic , Radivoje Prodanovic
      Phenol and amino groups were introduced into alginate to different degrees via oxidation with 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20mol% of periodate and reductive amination by tyramine. Modification of alginate with tyramine was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and UV–VIS spectroscopy, while concentration of phenol and ionizable groups was determined using absorbance at 275nm and acid–base titration. All tyramine-alginates were able to form hydrogels after cross-linking with horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and hydrogen peroxide. Tyramine-alginates oxidized with up to 10mol% of periodate were also capable of forming hydrogels with calcium ions. Tyramine-alginates were tested for HRP immobilization within micro-beads obtained by peroxidase catalyzed droplet polymerization using internal delivery of hydrogen peroxide via glucose oxidase and glucose. Highest activity of immobilized peroxidase was obtained with 20% (w/v) tyramine-alginate obtained via 20mol% periodate oxidation. Immobilized enzyme was not leaking from the micro-beads and was further kinetically characterized for pyrogallol oxidation. Km for pyrogallol was increased after immobilization from 1.93mM for soluble HRP to 7.34mM for immobilized HRP. The optimum pH was also increased from pH7.0 to 8.0. Temperature and organic solvent stability improved significantly after immobilization, so that half-life at 70°C increased around four times, while half-life in 80% (v/v) dioxane increased 22 times. After repeated use of 6 times in batch reactor for pyrogallol oxidation immobilized HRP retained 45% of original activity.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • pH-responsive superabsorbent polymers: A pathway to self-healing of mortar
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Arn Mignon , Didier Snoeck , David Schaubroeck , Nathalie Luickx , Peter Dubruel , Sandra Van Vlierberghe , Nele De Belie
      Cracks are concrete's worst problem. External, passive treatments are expensive and time consuming. pH-responsive superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) offer an internal active solution. When cracks occur, the SAPs can swell, fill the crack (self-sealing) and assist in the formation of healing products (self-healing). In previous work, a range of (superabsorbent) polymers have been synthesized and characterized. Based on these results, the two best performing SAPs were chosen for further characterization. The results indicate that the SAPs developed do not show degradation in cement filtrate solutions. Upon addition of SAPs, a decrease in mortar strength occurred, yet a positive effect on self-sealing was observed since the water permeability decreased. Furthermore, the formation of products became apparent at the sealed cracks of the mortar samples containing 1m% SAPs. Identification using scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the products mainly consisted of healing products (more specifically CaCO3) which is illustrative for self-healing.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Synthesis and characterization of poly(lactic acid) based graft copolymers
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Tungabidya Maharana , Sasmita Pattanaik , Anita Routaray , Nibedita Nath , Alekha Kumar Sutar
      This review summarizes recent developments in the preparation and characterization of grafting of poly(lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA). PLA is the most expansively researched and utilized biodegradable, biocompatible, compostable, recyclable and renewable thermoplastic polyester. The graft copolymers of PLA have been synthesized and characterized by different spectroscopic techniques, including FTIR spectra and NMR data. The graft copolymers of PLA have been analyzed critically by taking different monomers/polymers; such as chitosan, cellulose, starch, polyethylene glycol, vinyl based polymers, lignin, dextran, methyl methacrylate, maleic anhydride and graphene oxide. In the first part of this review, the grafting of PLA and applications of grafted PLA has been discussed briefly. The second part, the major objective of this paper, focuses on the synthesis and characterization of different PLA based graft copolymers. For few cases, where useful properties, such as high molecular weight, narrow PDI, or stereocontrol, have been observed, a more detailed examination of the graft copolymers is provided.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Facile method towards functionalization of partially fluorinated
           polyarylethers via sequential post-polymerization modification
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Jingbo Wu , Jau-Hung Liou , Charles Y. Shu , Yash Patel , Remya Menon , Cara Santucci , Scott T. Iacono , Dennis W. Smith Jr. , Bruce M. Novak
      A novel partially fluorinated arylene vinylene ether (FAVE) polymer containing ester groups was synthesized, which was used to prepare three reactive FAVE polymers containing carboxylic acid groups, alcohol groups, and acid chloride groups, respectively. Post-polymerization modifications of the FAVE polymer's carboxylic acid groups (via a DCC coupling procedure with the desired alcohol), alcohol groups (via DCC coupling or an acid chloride esterification procedure with the desired carboxylic acid or acid chloride), and acid chloride groups (via an optimized nucleophilic substitution reaction with the desired alcohol or amine) were successfully performed. Several examples have been successfully prepared to demonstrate the versatility of these developed modification methods. FAVE polymers have been prepared with NHS active ester groups, Disperse Red 1 chromophores, benzyl bromide groups, aryl trifluorovinyl ether groups, ATRP initiator groups, vinyl groups, propargyl groups, Disperse Orange 3 chromophores, and benzaldehyde groups. In most cases, analytical data are consistent with a quantitative conversion of the reactive or functional groups. It is demonstrated that no degradation of the FAVE polymer matrix occurs after multistep post-polymerization modification reactions.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Synthesis and evaluation of different adsorbents based on poly(methacrylic
           acid–trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) and
           poly(vinylimidazole–trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) for the
           adsorption of tebuthiuron from aqueous medium
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Raquel Justo da Fonseca , Mariana Gava Segatelli , Keyller Bastos Borges , César Ricardo Teixeira Tarley
      In the present study a new cross-linked copolymer poly(methacrylic acid–trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) (named PMA) and poly(vinylimidazole–trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) (named PVI) was synthesized through precipitation polymerization and applied to the adsorption of tebuthiuron. Adsorbent materials were characterized by using FT-IR, SEM, TGA, textural data, and elemental analysis. Kinetic study showed that the tebuthiuron adsorption was very quick and the equilibrium time was achieved at 20min for both polymers. Experimental kinetic data for both polymers were very well described by the second-order kinetic model, thus indicating that tebuthiuron adsorption involves chemical adsorption in different binding sites, which could control the reaction rate. Adsorption equilibrium data were better fitted to the dual-site Langmuir–Freundlich model, which recognizes the existence of two kinds of adsorption sites on the polymer surface ascribed to the presence of carboxyl and carbonyl groups from PMA and imidazole ring and carbonyl group from PVI. The maximum adsorption capacities of PMA and PVI were found to be 186.76 and 213.89mgg−1, respectively, which are much higher than other adsorbents.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Renewable epoxy networks by photoinitiated copolymerization of
           poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate)s and isosorbide derivatives
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): C. Lorenzini , D.L. Versace , E. Renard , V. Langlois
      New biodegradable epoxy networks derived from poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate)s and isosorbide were synthesized by photoinitiated cationic ring opening polymerization in the presence of diaryl iodonium salt (I 250). Bis-epoxidized terminated PHA oligomers, PHA-diepoxy, were first prepared in three steps, microwave assisted alcoholysis in the presence of ethylene glycol, condensation with allyl isocyanate and epoxidation of alkene terminal groups. Moreover, isosorbide diglycidyl ether (DGEDAS) was prepared by epoxidation of allylic derivative. The photoinitiated polymerization is a straightforward way applied at room temperature in a very short reaction time (i.e. 300s) to obtain renewable crosslinked networks that remain partially biodegradable by lipase. Higher degradability was observed by increasing the content of PHA.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • New fluorescent hyperbranched polymeric sensors as probes for monitoring
           photopolymerization reactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Sandra Medel , Paula Bosch
      Two polychromophoric dansyl hyperbranched fluorescent probes (HBPs) have been used as fluorescent sensors to follow photopolymerization reactions of acrylic monomers through fluorescence monitoring. Simultaneously, photo-DSC measurements were conducted. The combined data obtained by both techniques allowed to measure precise and adequately the kinetics of the systems. Differences are found depending on the composition of the formulation, but no depending on the probe inserted in the systems. The behavior and sensitivity of the functional HBP's have been compared with their low molecular weight monochromophoric reference compounds. Hyperbranched polychromophoric probes showed the same sensitivity towards the process than the monochromophoric probes, confirming the high sensitivity of the hyperbranched probes. Also, the data obtained by fluorescence allow distinguishing the different steps involved in the mechanism of a radical crosslinking polymerization, which could not be observed only with calorimetric measurements. The advantages of the functional HBP fluorescent probes towards their low molecular weight homologues are discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • An investigation on the effect of phenylboronic acid on the
           processibilities and thermal properties of bis-benzoxazine resins
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Shujuan Wang , Qinxiang Jia , Yuhong Liu , Xinli Jing
      Benzoxazine resins (BZs) as a novel type of phenolic resin are high-performance matrix resin for advanced composites. Yet there still exist some deficiencies when used as ablative material in aerospace applications, such as high curing temperature and poor thermal stability. In the present study, the phenylboronic acid (PBA) modified BZs (PBBZs) exhibiting excellent processibilities and thermal properties were prepared by incorporating PBA into BZ. The viscosity, gel time and curing behaviors were examined to demonstrate that PBBZs possessed better processibilities than the BZ, representing the catalytic effect of PBA in this case. The incorporation of PBA accelerated the ring-opening polymerization of BZ, leading to the lower curing temperature. TGA results reveal that the cured PBBZs exhibit excellent thermal properties, where the char yield at 800°C (nitrogen atmosphere) reaches 63.7% and is increased by 14.1 percentage points than that of BZ. The formed phenylboronates during curing act as additional cross-linking points and increase the cross-linking density of the cured resin, which results in the enhancement of the glass transition temperature of BZ ranging from 165°C to 219°C. This study provides a new vision for the preparation of high-performance matrix resin for ablative materials by introducing aryl-boron backbone.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Aspartic acid in a new role: Synthesis and application of a pH-responsive
           cyclopolymer containing residues of the amino acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Zakariyah A. Jamiu , Hasan A. Al-Muallem , Shaikh A. Ali
      The reaction between diallylamine and dimethyl maleate afforded the Michael addition product dimethyl N,N-diallylaspartate [(CH2 CH–CH2)2NCH(CO2Me)CH2CO2Me] I , which upon treatment with dry HCl and ester hydrolysis with aqueous HCl gave its hydrochloride salt [(CH2 CH–CH2)2NH+CH(CO2Me)CH2CO2Me Cl−] II and N,N-diallylaspartic acid hydrochloride [(CH2 CH–CH2)2NH+CH(CO2H)CH2CO2H Cl−] III, respectively. The new monomers II and III underwent cyclopolymerization to give, respectively, cationic polyelectrolytes (CPEs) poly(II ) and poly(III). Under the influence of pH, triprotic acid (+) poly(III) was equilibrated to water-insoluble diprotic polyzwitterionic acid (±) IV, water-soluble monoprotic poly(zwitterion–anion) (± −) V, and its conjugate base polydianion (=) VI. The protonation constants of the carboxyl group and trivalent nitrogen in VI have been determined. A 20-ppm concentration of IV is effective in inhibiting the precipitation of CaSO4 from its supersaturated solution with an ≈100% scale inhibition efficiency for a duration of 50h at 40°C. The aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) of VI and polyoxyethylene have been studied. The transformation of water-soluble VI to insoluble IV makes it a recycling ATPS as it can be recycled by precipitation at a lower pH.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Synthesis and chemosensory properties of terpyridine-containing diblock
           polycarbazole through RAFT polymerization
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Ruey-Shin Juang , Po-Chih Yang , Hua-Wen Wen , Cheng-Yi Lin , Sih-Ciao Lee , Ting-Wei Chang
      This paper describes the synthesis of a terpyridine-containing diblock copolymer, poly(N-vinylcarbazole)-block-poly[4′-((4-vinylphenyl) phenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″- terpyridine] (poly(VK15-b-TPY4)), using the macro-chain transfer agent VK macro-CTA, and employing two-step reverse addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization. We examined the effect of terpyridine units on sensory characteristics of fluorescent chemosensors. VK macro-CTA and diblock copolymer poly(VK15-b-TPY4) both exhibited moderate thermal stability, with thermal decomposition temperatures of 5% weight losses at approximately 307°C and 378°C, respectively, suggesting that the enhancement of thermal stability was attributed to the incorporation of terpyridine segments into the block copolymer. Poly(VK15-b-TPY4) exhibited higher sensitivities to Ni2+ and Mn2+ ions, with Stern–Volmer constants (K sv) of 2.58×105 M−1 and 2.57×105 M−1, respectively. Adding a Zn2+ ion not only caused partial fluorescence enhancement (3.2-fold quantum efficiency) but also induced a bathochromic shift of emission peak by approximately 56nm (from 429nm to 485nm), indicating that the Zn2+-terpyridine complex reduced the twist and vibration of the C–C polymer backbone and enhanced the charge transfer from donors to acceptors because of the more planar and rigid structure. Our results suggest that poly(VK15-b-TPY4) is a promising material for chemosensory applications.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Applicability and toxicity evaluation of an adsorbent based on jujube for
           the removal of toxic heavy metals
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Byungryul An , Chang-Gu Lee , Mi-Kyung Song , Jae-Chun Ryu , Soonjae Lee , Seong-Jik Park , Dongye Zhao , Song-Bae Kim , Chanhyuk Park , Sang-Hyup Lee , Seok Won Hong , Jae-Woo Choi
      The removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater is important, owing to its eco-toxicity in aqueous environment. In this study, the mechanism and efficiency of the removal of toxic heavy metals by an eco-friendly adsorbent was investigated. Various types of adsorbents made from jujube were synthesized by varying the drying temperature of gel-type beads and elution method for jujube constituents. The maximum adsorption capacity for lead and copper ions was determined using the Langmuir isotherm model, with DJB-A-S-F (freeze-dried jujube bead made from a solution of squeezed autoclaved jujube) having the highest values at 60.44mg/g (lead) and 20.33mg/g (copper). In addition, the characteristics of the various adsorbents were determined by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to identify the constituents of DJB-A-S-F before and after adsorption of heavy metals (Pb- and Cu-DJB-A-S-F). Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed to investigate whether the binding of heavy metals to DJB-A-S-F increases cellular toxicity. As a result, no differences in cell viability between DJB-A-S-F and the ones coupled to heavy metals were observed, indicating that the developed adsorbents are non-cytotoxic with good compatibility. Thus, DJB-A-S-F is a promising adsorbent for the removal of toxic heavy metal cations from wastewater.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
  • Dynamic covalent cross-linked polymer gels through the reaction between
           side-chain β-keto ester and primary amine groups
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers, Volume 93
      Author(s): Binoy Maiti , Bhuban Ruidas , Priyadarsi De
      A dynamic covalent gel network was constructed via the coupling reaction between the pendant primary amine groups of poly(l-leucine methacryloyloxyethyl ester) (P(H2N-Leu-EMA)) and the side-chain β-keto ester functionalities of poly(2-(acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate) (PAEMA) by varying the molar ratios of P(H2N-Leu-EMA)/PAEMA and the concentration of polymers in different solvents at room temperature. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study confirmed the newly formed enamine bonds in the polymeric gel. Rheological studies showed that the mechanical strength of gels increased with increasing weight percentage (wt.%) of polymers in solution. Furthermore, polymer gels can be transferred to the mixture of starting polymer solutions by regulating the pH of the system, which can be further transformed into the gel state by adding an external base.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T15:44:36Z
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