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Journal Cover Process Safety Progress
  [SJR: 0.359]   [H-I: 28]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1066-8527 - ISSN (Online) 1547-5913
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • An exposure assessment approach for potential thermal degradation
           compounds in 2-phase immersion cooling operations
    • Authors: Phillip Tuma; Jay Schulz, Jason Bonk, Robert Roy, Michael DeLorme, Perry Logan
      Abstract: Passive 2-phase immersion cooling (P2PIC) is a technique for cooling computers with the potential to reduce capital and operating costs within datacenters. Computers cooled by P2PIC are submerged in a fluorochemical liquid that boils (hence 2-phase) from the heat generating components. Although the tanks in which this is done are normally sealed and vented outdoors, they are opened periodically for maintenance. The volatility of the liquids suggests the need for risk assessments relating to inhalation of the liquids' vapor under these normal operating conditions. Fourier transfer infrared vapor concentration measurements gathered during spill and transfer simulation and at two proof-of-concept P2PIC installations show inhalation concentrations substantially below exposure guidelines.Liquids can be thermally decomposed under certain failure scenarios to create decomposition products with greater hazard and risk profiles. A methodology is presented for estimating possible human exposure to such products. The exposure levels that result are interpreted in the context of the most toxic of the thermal decomposition products known to form and suggest employee exposure substantially below published occupational exposure and emergency response guidelines. Fluid conditioning systems and gas monitoring equipment further reduce the risk of human exposure to fluid vapor and thermal decomposition products. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T06:10:20.778152-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11956
  • Fracture toughness and brittle failure: A pressure vessel case study
    • Authors: John Puryear; Guillermo Ramirez, Clint Botard, Kollin Kenady
      Abstract: That the manufacturing and fabrication process can introduce low fracture toughness and cause brittle failure in steel has been documented in well-known studies. These include failure of Liberty ships during World War II and, more recently, weld failures in steel moment frames during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. In both of these cases, the manufacturing and fabrication process introduced stress states that reduced fracture toughness and caused brittle failures.Control of the manufacturing and fabrication process to maintain sufficient fracture toughness remains a challenge for the Oil and Gas Industry. In this article, we will review an incident of a brittle failure of a pressure vessel. The head of the pressure vessel, which was operating as a low-pressure separator, detached about its circumference at a pressure much less than the vessel's maximum operating pressure. A root cause analysis of the incident identified the performance gaps and root causes from the vessel's service conditions, manufacture, and fabrication that combined to cause the brittle failure.This article examines the performance gaps that lead to the failure and their root causes. The effect of the root causes on the vessel's mechanical properties is discussed. Further, the performance gaps are related to material and fabrication guidelines in the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. Finally, recommendations for correcting the performance gaps are offered. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T02:23:45.723531-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11955
  • Inherently safer design for synthesis of 3-methylpyridine-N-oxide
    • Authors: Min Hua; Min Qi, Xuhai Pan, Wendi Yu, Lu Zhang, Juncheng Jiang
      Abstract: Alkyl pyridine-N-oxide can decompose to pyridine which readily leads to explosion accident in air. Therefore, risk analysis and inherently safer design are necessary for this process. This article aims to study the thermal hazards of the process of 3-methylpyridine oxidized by hydrogen peroxide, and then the corresponding Inherently Safer Designs (ISDs) were proposed. The inherent hazards during the process were first qualitatively evaluated by Qualitative Assessment for Inherently Safer Design. Then, the reaction calorimeter was employed to analyze the thermal hazards of the target reaction. Meanwhile, the Integrated Inherent Safety Index methods were simplified to quantitatively estimate the level of inherent safety of the process. The results show that the potential risk of the process is 87.2% which is at the high risk level. Based on the hazard identification and assessment results, three ISDs, namely adding catalyst (ISD I), improving reaction condition (ISD II), and using a tubular (ISD III), were proposed to enhance the safety. Finally, combining comparative experiments with ISI methods, an effect evaluation model for ISD was established to verify the rationality of the ISDs. The results indicate that the reaction hazards are diminished when three ISDs are utilized in production process. The inherent safety level of the reaction is increased by 22.2%, 50.7%, and 31.8%, respectively. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:53:38.215849-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11952
  • A stylized trend analysis approach for process monitoring and fault
    • Authors: Yan Fang; M.A.K. Rasel, Peyton C. Richmond
      Abstract: A stylized trend analysis was developed to identify recurring or standard operating procedures (SOP) such as equipment switching or maintenance from plant process history data to detect faults and near misses due to operator errors or equipment failures. Trend based fault detection and diagnosis systems have not been implemented widely in the chemical process industries because known fault scenarios are typically required. Known fault scenarios were not required for the stylized trend analysis because faults and near misses were identified by comparing trends with normal SOP transition responses. Large volumes of historical data were processed automatically allowing corrective action to be taken prior to an incident. The stylized trend analysis was demonstrated to detect unsteady-state transition faults on historical distributed control system data simulated for a continuous process ethylene plant dryer switching operation. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-12-08T05:33:17.139674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11951
  • Emotional safety culture: A new and key element of safety culture
    • Authors: Bing Wang; Chao Wu, Lang Huang
      Abstract: Fostering a positive safety culture is essential and important for preventing individual and large-scale accidents. However, many accidents caused by people's unsafe behaviors occur because safety culture is poor, or some main elements of safety culture are missing. The two key objectives of this article are: (1) to propose people's emotional safety needs based on people's emotional needs and (2) to put forward emotional safety culture and analyze its role in behavior-based safety (BBS) management. First, the connotation of people's emotional safety needs was explained, which includes the need “to love and to be loved,” the need for self-perfection of safety humanity, and the need for realizing self-value to safety. Second, the connotation of emotional safety culture was analyzed. Meanwhile, the role of emotional safety culture in BBS management was explored. At last, the basic patterns and strategies of developing emotional safety culture were briefly discussed. Overall, emotional safety culture is one of the new and key elements of safety culture and is a feasible and effective approach to BBS management and developing a strong safety culture. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-12-07T00:36:49.578328-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11953
  • Effects of external radiation heat flux on combustion characteristics of
           pure and oil-impregnated transformer insulating paperboard
    • Authors: Jiaqing Zhang; Bosi Zhang, Minghao Fan, Liufang Wang, Guocheng Ding, Yu Tian, Qingtao Chen
      Abstract: The effects of external radiation heat flux on the combustion characteristics of pure transformer insulating paperboard (PTIP) and oil-impregnated transformer insulating paperboard (OITIP) were investigated experimentally. The experiments were conducted with the cone calorimeter using five external radiation heat fluxes that ranged from 25 to 80 kW/m2. The results showed that the ignition time decreased with the external radiation heat flux, and the ignition time of PTIP was much longer than that of OITIP. Both the PTIP and OITIP are thermal thick materials, and the critical radiation heat flux of the PTIP was larger than that of the OITIP. For the PTIP, the peak of the heat release rate (HRR) and toxic gas productions had no significant difference, while those of the OITIP increased with the external radiation heat flux. The HRR peak of the PTIP was larger than that of the OITIP with the external radiation heat fluxes of 25, 35, 50, and 65 kW/m2. When the radiation heat flux increased to 80 kW/m2, the HRR peak of the OITIP became higher. From the perspective of the CO production rate, the hazard of PTIP fires was more severe than that of OITIP fires under the external radiation heat fluxes of 25 and 35 kW/m2. The CO production rate of the PITP was lower than that of the OITP with the high external radiation heat fluxes of 50, 65 and 80 kW/m2. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog 000: 000–000, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T02:12:17.083235-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11950
  • Evolution of the classification of flammable and combustible liquids in
    • Authors: Sergey Alexeev; Vitaly Smirnov, Nicolay Barbin, Dar'ya Alexeeva
      Abstract: Classification of liquids on the basis of the fire and explosion characteristics plays an important role to ensure fire safety. The history of this classification is closely connected with oil revolution that took place in the second half of the 19th century in USA. Cheap kerosene led to the beginning of kerosene era. The increase of fires and explosions was the by-effect of that process and became a real problem for a lot of countries. For safe kerosene in Russia, the first limits were set in 1886 and 1889 by the decree of the Russian Emperor Alexander III. In the future, this classification has been extended to all liquids. The first Soviet classification appeared in 1939. After the World War II, it has been further developed. Now in Russia there are several classifications of flammable and combustible liquids, in which there is the ideology of the criteria of safe kerosene. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T02:12:11.675309-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11949
  • Effectiveness of water sprays in mitigating toxic releases
    • Authors: Samrat Mukherjee; Seshu Dharmavaram, Stephen Jaskolka
      Abstract: Water spray curtains are often advertised as means to mitigate the consequences of released chemicals from high pressure tanks. Spray curtain effectiveness claims by certain vendors are misleading—a curtain placed at the periphery of a tank will only scrub a puff of a release. A spray curtain that can effectively contain a consequential release will look very different and cost much more. Studies that demonstrate spray curtains to be effective assume low gas velocities. However, calculations show that pressurized liquid NH3 or HF when released from an orifice to the atmosphere comes out at a high velocity and momentum in the form of a two-phase jet. The jet must travel quite a distance before the velocity drops enough to be effectively scrubbed by a water curtain. The water curtain therefore needs to be at this large distance and consequently the diameter of the water curtain manifold ring needs to be quite large to be effective. This paper presents engineering calculations to estimate jet velocity, diameter & concentration, calculations to evaluate the efficiency of water sprays and discussion of water spray curtain designs that are more effective. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T02:05:31.825184-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11948
  • Effect of Small Vent Area on a Small-Scale Methane-Air Explosion
    • Authors: Kai Zhang; Zhirong Wang, Supan Wang, Juncheng Jiang
      Abstract: A series of small-scale experiments on vented methane-air explosions are carried out in a 22 L spherical vented vessel with small vent areas. The experiment is conducted under both constrained and unconstrained circumstances where the dimensionless vent ratios are different. A discussion of the various characteristics of the explosion is presented. Under the constrained circumstances, reduced dimensionless vent ratios can lead to an increase in the maximum explosion venting pressure and in the maximum explosion rising rate, called nonbalanced vented explosions. However, when the dimensionless vent ratios are higher than a certain value, the maximum explosion venting pressure and maximum explosion rising rate do not change, which is called as balanced vented explosions. When the dimensionless vent ratios are between 0.009 and 0.025, it has a remarkable effect. When the dimensionless vent ratio is between 0.00169 and 0.009, it doesn't affect the explosion pressure. However, a very high explosion venting pressure appears. Moreover, the pressure is close to the maximum explosion pressure in a closed vessel. When the dimensionless vent ratios are lower than 0.00169, the maximum explosion venting pressure is higher than the maximum explosion pressure in a confined space. Nevertheless, under the unconstrained circumstances, the maximum explosion venting pressure is always lower than the maximum enclosed explosion pressure despite of different dimensionless vent ratios. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T07:45:57.88679-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11945
  • Integrated Assessment of Safety Distances for Rescue Work in Chemical
           Plant Fires Involving Domino Effects
    • Authors: Shih-Fang Tsai; An-Chi Huang, Chi-Min Shu
      Abstract: This study employed the Suite for the Assessment of Flammable, Explosive, and Toxic Impacts to synergize the environmental data, risk frequency, and physical and chemical properties of chemical-induced fires and explosions at accident sites and thereby establish an integrated assessment model. In addition, the suite was used to visualize fires and explosions resulting from domino effects caused by thermal radiation and blast overpressure in initial accidents at chemical plants.The simulation results were successfully utilized to respond to a chemical plant fire, assist the fire command officer to determine the range of domino effects during rescue, and extinguish the ignition source. In addition, the model provided safety distances for rescue to enable the proper deployment of rescuers and vehicles and to prevent their exposure to deadly hazards.The simulation results also provided the integrated safety distances including acceptable safety distances for rescuers with the appropriate protective equipment and the range of domino effect during the first accident and the second accident. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-11-29T07:45:52.229705-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11947
  • Elongated VCE blast waves and structural response
    • Authors: Jihui Geng; Thomas Mander, J. Kelly Thomas, Quentin Baker
      Abstract: Elongated congested volumes are common at chemical processing and petroleum refining facilities due to the arrangement of processing units, but there have been relatively few evaluations reported for the blast loads produced by elongated vapor cloud explosions (VCEs). The accidental VCE that occurred at the Buncefield, UK facility in 2005 involved an elongated congested volume formed by the trees and undergrowth along a portion of the site boundary. Some of near-field damage indicators present at the Buncefield site could not be reasonably explained using existing standard VCE blast load prediction techniques that are based on an assumption that the congested volume filled with flammable gas cloud is hemispherical and located at grade level.This paper summarizes recent work to define the characteristics associated with elongated congested volume VCEs and identify differences relative to standard VCEs involving compact congested volume geometries. The main conclusions from this work with regard to the blast wave shape for an elongated congested volume deflagration are: (1) the blast wave behaves as an acoustic wave along the long axis, (2) the blast wave has a very quick transition from the positive phase peak pressure to the negative phase peak pressure (i.e., quick relative to the positive phase duration), and (3) the magnitude of the pressure drop between the peak positive and negative pressures diminishes quickly with distance outside the congested volume. These observations are not consistent with the behavior of a compact congested volume geometry VCE blast wave.Deflagration and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) regimes were also identified for unconfined elongated congested volume VCEs as a function of the normalized flame travel distance and flame speed. These regimes were verified with existing test data, including data from the on-going RPSEA test program. These observations and the DDT regime identification provide a frame of reference to develop a better understanding of elongated congested volume VCEs.Generic structures, with properties typical of conventional construction, were analyzed to illustrate the effect of the elongated congested volume VCE blast loads on structural response. The results show that, for an elongated congested volume VCE, a high flame speed deflagration may result in more severe structural response in the near-field than for a detonation (i.e., due to a DDT). These results provide an alternative near-field damage indicator analysis approach for the investigation of elongated congested volume VCE incidents. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T08:04:01.802029-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11944
  • And now for something completely different
    • Authors: Michael P. Broadribb
      Abstract: Process safety management systems are generally credited with reducing major accident risk in the process industries. While those systems have been around for many years—the EU introduced the Seveso Directive in 1982, and US OSHA promulgated the PSM regulation 10 years later— many companies today are challenged by inadequate and/or stagnant process safety management system performance. Several companies have experienced major incidents, particularly when they are subject to prescriptive regulations such as OSHA PSM.Reliance on compliance with prescriptive regulations is no guarantee of preventing major incidents. No regulator anywhere has ever thought of everything that can cause a process safety incident and then written a regulation to safeguard against that occurrence. Good process safety requires that hazards are identified, the risks of these hazards are understood, and those risks are managed by “doing the right thing.” This frequently requires additional activities that go beyond regulatory compliance.In 2007, CCPS introduced Risk Based Process Safety (RBPS), which builds on lessons learned since the early 1980s, and applies management system principles of Plan, Do, Check, Act. Being risk-based, RBPS is not prescriptive. It recognizes that all hazards and risks are NOT equal, and focuses more resources on the higher hazards and risks that have been identified. This enables finite company resources to be optimally deployed to efficiently improve process safety performance. The 20 elements of RBPS go beyond OSHA PSM to include other elements, such as risk analysis and performance metrics.Some companies have embraced RBPS and moved away from compliance-driven process safety management systems. However, RBPS is primarily focused on process plant operations. While some elements of RBPS can be applied to large and small projects, RBPS and its guidance does not comprehensively address projects or certain other aspects of process safety.The paper highlights “some completely different” process safety elements for which no RBPS guidance is currently available, and discusses the application of a more comprehensive RBPS approach to fill these gaps. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T08:03:52.588552-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11943
  • Instructions to Authors
    • PubDate: 2017-11-13T01:51:50.20459-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11946
  • Learning process safety principles through practice
    • Authors: Manisha Gunasekera; Faisal Khan, Salim Ahmed
      Abstract: Learning of process safety principles through practice is an area that needs promotion in process and chemical engineering academic institutions. This work presents a problem-based learning (PBL) activity to introduce process engineering safety protocols into laboratory experimental procedures. The activities include direct engagement of students in identifying hazards involved with each step in the experimental procedure and respective safety options related to each hazard. The required safety options are then selected in the hierarchy from inherent safety to procedural safety. The selected safety strategies are implemented and practiced during the experiment promoting industrial safety culture within the laboratory. This learning activity was introduced in the laboratory experimental procedure for evaluating the performance of a plug flow reactor. The feedback from students shows that the majority has a positive perception toward the main learning outcomes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-11-06T00:22:18.654268-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11942
  • Human error: A myth eclipsing real causes
    • Authors: Ignacio José Alonso; Mike Broadribb
      Abstract: For years, professionals involved in the investigation of industrial accidents have identified “human error” as a common cause of many major process safety incidents. However, incorrect actions by workers that lead or contribute to disaster are associated with factors related to cultural, engineering, situational, psychological, procedural, and organizational aspects, and tend to remain in the background. The aeronautical industry has developed exhaustive research into causal factors and methodologies to address risks associated with “human error.” Pilots work in complex environments and are routinely exposed to high stress that can induce pilot error which may result in a threat to flight safety. As in the Oil and Gas industry, catastrophic accidents are infrequent, but are highly visible and often involve massive loss of life. The environment to which operators and managers of process plants can be exposed and that of aircraft crew can be similar. This article describes these similarities and explores causal factors to find commonalities and possible root causes. The ǁ Center for Chemical Process Safety Risk Based Process Safety (RBPS) approach has provided a more comprehensive framework to examine aspects that influence behaviors of individuals that work in hazardous environments. The paper evaluates typical factors associated to “human error” with possible causes related to the RBPS elements. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T00:56:26.992927-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11936
  • Condensing shafts on biogas stations and operational safety
    • Authors: Petr Trávníček; Luboš Kotek, Tomáš Vítěz, Jan Chovanec
      Abstract: This article investigates health and safety risks at a biogas station, in particular the activities in the condensation shaft. There were selected three scenarios in total, which can lead to a fatal accident during the maintenance and servicing of equipment located in the condensation shafts. These are the following scenarios: (1) the worker descends to the condensation shaft and in the subsequent service activities consumes oxygen contained in shaft, falls into unconsciousness and dies. (2) There is such a gas concentration in the condensate shaft that intoxication occurs (but even direct asphyxiation is possible—e.g., methane, carbon dioxide) thereafter subsequent death. (3) The worker suffers fatal injuries due to a fall from a height. The individual scenarios are discussed in the article, including whether and under what circumstances these may occur. To support the authors claims, measurements of selected gases concentrations were made in condensation shafts at eight biogas plants. The aim of this article is to highlight the risks that can be encountered when working in condensing shafts and how they can be prevented. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T00:56:14.233826-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11933
  • A risk-based approach for predicting domino effects due to fires combining
           exceedance curves with dynamic thermal stress analysis
    • Authors: Jordi Dunjó Denti; Marcel Amorós-Martí, Neil Prophet, Gene Gorski
      Abstract: This article proposes a risk-based method for domino effect characterization and potential escalation for process equipment affected by thermal radiation (i.e., fires). This methodology intends to answer two key questions: (1) which process equipment is impacted by a heat flux capable of resulting in escalation due to equipment failure; and (2) what is the associated time to the process equipment failure; that is, Time to Failure (TTF). The first phase consists of developing dedicated heat flux exceedance curves for a given location of interest. The second phase involves a dynamic simulation for the prediction of the TTF due to fires impacting the equipment identified in phase one. A two-step approach is proposed for ensuring accurate results: (1) vessel wall segmentation to determine how the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) of the material decreases as a function of temperature, and (2) the UTS is then compared with the Hoop stress by considering the equipment internal pressure combined with the installed overpressure protection performance.This article defines step-by-step how to conduct a risk-based assessment and determine the TTF using a case study. It demonstrates the applicability and accuracy of this approach, which helps the decision-making process on how potential mitigation measures can be implemented. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T01:46:59.436302-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11937
  • Influential factors of vented explosion position on maximum explosion
           overpressure of methane-air mixture explosion in single spherical
           container and linked vessels
    • Authors: Kai Zhang; Zhirong Wang, Zhen Chen, Fengwei Jiang, Supan Wang
      Abstract: An explosion venting system is established to examine the influencing factors of the vented explosion position for a single vessel, a single vessel connected by pipes and two vessels connected by pipes during the explosion venting process of a methane-air mixture. Relative to a single vessel, it is shown that the maximum explosion venting pressure of the lateral vented explosion does not appear to vary greatly from that of a top vented explosion. It appears that as the volume of the spherical vessel increases, the maximum pressure increases. The maximum overpressure for an explosion venting on the top and side does not vary for either a large or small vessel connected by pipes. However, as the maximum explosion overpressure in the pipe increases, the maximum explosion overpressure peak occurs at the end of the pipe, and the explosion flame that propagates in the pipe accelerates and enlarges. Compared with an airtight explosion, an explosion venting on the top and side of a single vessel is more effective for both a large and small vessel connected by pipes. The pressure in the vessel and pipe appears to fluctuate and produces multiple peaks in the explosion venting process. Ignition in a large vessel is more dangerous than ignition in a small vessel under an airtight condition for two vessels connected by pipes. Regardless of the ignition position in the large or small vessel, the explosion venting effect in the small vessel is better than that in the large vessel. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-10-27T01:46:52.934817-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11940
  • Implementing risk-based inspection approach: Is it beneficial for pressure
           equipment in Malaysia industries'
    • Authors: Ramuna Mohamed; Che Rosmani Che Hassan, Mahar Diana Hamid
      Abstract: The transition from time-based inspection to risk–based inspection (RBI) in Malaysian industry began in June 2014 with the gazette of Factories and Machinery (Special Scheme of Inspection) (Risk-Based Inspection) Regulations 2014 (SSI 2014). Under the new regulations, owners shall express their commitment and provide proof of their ability to ensure safety, integrity, and operability of relevant equipment. The regulation does not prescriptively mention methods to implement the RBI approach, but does spell out minimum requirements. Upon successful demonstration of compliance to the authority, the Certificate of Fitness of pressurized equipment may be extended to maximum 72 months.This paper aims to establish the benefits which may accrue from the adoption of RBI approach and ascertain the potential difficulties associated with the implementation of this approach. The paper first presents a review of the literature, establishing the major reasons for, and the benefits of, RBI implementation. This is followed by the results of a Malaysian survey on the implementation of RBM approach. An audit was conducted in the Malaysian petrochemical and chemical industries in April 2016. The audit results highlight the reasons for and benefits of implementing RBI. The paper concludes with a discussion and recommendations for the implementation of the RBI approach. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T01:11:22.321602-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11903
  • A new methodology to evaluate system-level performance of explosion
           suppression systems
    • Authors: Jenny Chao; Sergey Dorofeev
      Abstract: A parametric experimental study was performed to understand the effect of various factors on the explosion suppression phenomenon. Full-scale suppression experiments were conducted in FM Global's 2.5 and 25 m3 vessels. Either quiescent propane-air or cornstarch-air explosions were suppressed using a 2.5, 5, 10, or 50 L suppressant bottle, filled with sodium bicarbonate and pressurized with nitrogen to approximately 62 bar. The growth of the suppressant cloud in the open atmosphere was also measured in conjunction with the pressure drop in each size of suppressant bottle. From these results, it was found that an expanding flame must be entirely enveloped by suppressant for successful suppression of the flame to occur. Based on this concept, a simple physics-based model was developed to determine the maximum protected throw distance, surface area, and volume of a single suppressant bottle (as part of a suppression system). This can be easily scaled to larger volumes than what was used in the experiments. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T06:45:38.662857-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11935
  • Research on thermal runaway process of styrene bulk polymerization
    • Authors: Weibo Jiang; Xuhai Pan, Min Hua, Lei Ni, Juncheng Jiang
      Abstract: In a strongly exothermic reaction process, any cooling system failure can lead to a serious accident. The present paper investigates the developments in a polymerization reaction system when thermal runaway occurs. Temperature of polymerization is the key parameter of interest. In this work, a kinetic model of styrene polymerization was used to predict reactor temperature using Aspen Plus software. An adiabatic process of styrene polymerization was simulated, and the results indicate that the reactor temperature is able to reach 260°C. When thermal runaway occurs, the degree of styrene polymerization is lower. Different conditions were employed to explore the influence of operating parameters. The results demonstrate that the higher the initial reaction temperature, the faster thermal runaway occurs, and that the greater the proportion of diluent is, the later the reactor reaches its TMAX. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T06:45:26.247059-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11934
  • General method for uncertainty evaluation of safety integrity level
           calculations – part 2 analytical methods
    • Authors: Raymond “Randy” Freeman
      Abstract: The IEC 61511 standard requires a verification calculation that a proposed design for a safety instrumented function (SIF) achieves the desired safety integrity level (SIL). The evaluation of the SIL of a new or existing safety instrumented system requires detailed calculations based on the failure rates of the device and the planned maintenance/testing cycle for the system. The failure rates of the devices are often taken from standard failure rate tabulations of equipment. The maintenance and testing plans are developed based on plant experience. All of the data used in the SIL calculations are uncertain. This article develops a general method for uncertainty analysis of the SIL calculations. The general method is based on the application of probability theory—variance contribution analysis—to the equations presented in ISA TR 84.00.02-2115. An example is worked to demonstrate the methodology. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T23:30:25.948103-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11915
  • In Harm's way—after which nothing was the same again too close for
           comfort—part 2
    • Authors: Michael P. Broadribb
      Abstract: Learning from experience is one of the four pillars of Risk-Based Process Safety. Incidents that occur at one facility often provide opportunities to strengthen management systems at another. Sharing technical lessons learned from incidents is vital to improving process safety performance across the process industries. Most incidents also involve human factors, often as a key causal factor. Understanding performance-shaping factors can be essential to minimizing future failures.Most case studies on process safety incidents are written by a third party who was not directly involved in the incident. As such, the papers may lack insights that can only be properly articulated by someone directly involved.In his early career the author was involved in two major incidents while managing day-to-day operation of refinery process units. This article describes the second incident involving several employees rendered unconscious from exposure to hydrogen sulfide. The first incident involving two major fires was published in Process Safety Progress [Broadribb, Process Safety Progress 32 (2013) 255–259]. In both incidents, the author found himself decidedly too close for comfort and could easily have become a casualty himself.The second incident occurred during commissioning of a major process unit in which eight men were exposed to sour gas. The blank isolating the Reactor from the Main Fractionator column was being removed and the work had progressed to the point where the flanges had been jacked open and the blank removed, when the men on the job were overcome by gas. Breathing apparatus was not being worn. Members of the rescue party were also affected by gas.This article will raise awareness of lessons learned relating to a number of elements of Risk-Based Process Safety [CCPS, “Guidelines for Risk Based Process Safety”, New York, 2007] and human factors.“This article was prepared for presentation at American Institute of Chemical Engineers 2014 Spring Meeting, 10th Global Congress on Process Safety, New Orleans, Louisiana, March 30–April 2, 2014, and American Institute of Chemical Engineers 2017 Spring Meeting, 13th Global Congress on Process Safety, San Antonio, Texas, March 26–29, 2017.” © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T00:15:24.241154-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11932
  • Protective walls against effects of vapor cloud fast deflagration: CFD
           recommendations for design
    • Authors: Elena Vyazmina; Simon Jallais, Alberto Beccantini, Sophie Trélat
      Abstract: Protective walls are a well-known and efficient way to mitigate overpressure effects of explosions. For detonation there are multiple published investigations concerning interactions of blast waves and walls, whereas for deflagration no well-adapted and rigorous method has been reported in the literature. This article describes the validation of a new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach for fast deflagrations. In a first step, the vapor cloud explosion involving a fast deflagration is substituted by an equivalent vessel burst problem. The purpose of this step is to avoid reactive flow computations. In a second step, CFD is used to model the pressure propagation from the equivalent (nonreactive) vessel burst problem. After verifying the equivalence of the fast deflagration and the vessel burst problem in the first step, the ability of two CFD codes FLACS and Europlexus is examined for situations with and without barriers. Parametric analysis by means of numerical simulations is performed to investigate the efficiency of finite barriers to mitigate blast waves. Another parametric study shows how the maximum overpressure value in the shade of the barrier depends on the magnitude of the incoming overpressure wave. On this basis, several recommendations are suggested for designing protective walls. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T05:25:39.263123-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11930
  • Major process accidents: Their characteristics, assessment, and management
           of the associated risks
    • Authors: Ming Yang
      Abstract: Major process accidents continue to occur with the advancement of modern process systems. Major process accidents should not be viewed as Black Swan and can be predicted and prevented. This article investigates the characteristics of process accidents. Based on which, a method for the diagnosis and classification of accidents is proposed. The proposed tool is applied to the Bhopal accident and the swine flu event. The case studies verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed tool. To tackle major process accidents, conventional risk assessment, and management approaches are inapplicable without adaption. Enormous research work is needed to develop new generation of methods and tools that enable safer process systems and operations. Knowledge and technological gaps are identified in this perspective. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-09-21T05:00:56.935337-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11931
  • Barriers to adopting inherently safer design philosophy in Iran
    • Authors: Mohammad Javad Jafari; Farshad Nourai, Mostafa Pouyakian, Seyed Ali Torabi, Masoud Rafiee Miandashti, Heidar Mohammadi
      Abstract: Inherently safer design (ISD) is the best option to design of safer, cheaper, healthier, and more economic process plants, although this situation of its implementation in the real cases is not satisfying as it should be. This study aimed at explore the barriers influencing adopting ISD philosophy in Iran as a developing country with high potential development in process industries. In this qualitative study, a total of 47 experts—process designers and process safety engineers working in the oil, gas, petrochemical, and chemical manufacturing industries of Iran—participated, and data were gathered through a semiconstructed interview. Data analysis was conducted using the deductive content analysis method. Five categories and 21 subcategories were identified as barriers to the adoption of ISD in Iran, including organization-related barriers (eight factors), inherent-safety-related barriers (three factors), legal- and regulation-related barriers (four factors), technology-related barriers (three factors), and academic-related barriers (three factors). This study revealed that there are several barriers to the adoption of ISD philosophy in Iran, and negligence to address these barriers can negatively affect such adoption. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T23:26:12.488967-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11927
  • A HAZOP gap query approach for hazard assessment in multiproduct
    • Authors: James Torres; Nick Ashley
      Abstract: Batch, multiproduct chemical processing facilities present special challenges for conducting thorough hazard assessments. New or improved methods are needed to perform quality hazard analyses while reducing time and resource demands on facility personnel. A technique has been developed to expand traditional hazard and operability (HAZOP) methodology to include additional parameters for process operational intent, chemicals, and affected upstream/downstream equipment. Integrated Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) is applied to assess existing or proposed Independent Protection Layers, and compare resulting mitigated risk to risk criteria limits. The HAZOP for each unit then becomes a baseline hazard assessment, to which subsequent processes can be compared, without having to repeat the full HAZOP for each new process. For new products, a process intent template is completed by selecting the chemicals and equipment to be used, as well as the unit operations and conditions for each step in a semibatch process. The unit HAZOP file is queried using programmed search logic to identify matching process intent/equipment/chemicals parameters that were considered during the base HAZOP. A condensed Process Hazard Review is conducted to review the results, ensure identified items are applicable to the proposed new process, and evaluate new items that were not previously covered under the base HAZOP. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-09-14T23:26:10.198534-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11928
  • Failure analysis of a twin-screw pump shaft
    • Authors: Shugen Xu; Yuan Zhang, Chong Wang, Zhiwei Sun, Shengkun Wang, Yanling Zhao
      Abstract: A failure analysis was performed on a fractured twin-screw pump shaft. Through the analysis of the macromorphology and microstructure of the fracture, the analysis of the chemical compositions of shaft material, the metallographic test of the specimens cut from the fracture, the investigation of the operating condition of the pump, the main reason for the fracture can be described as the increased rotating and bending load caused by low viscosity medium. Corresponding preventive measures were put forward. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T01:06:07.0439-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11929
  • CCPS project 246: Second edition of the guidelines for siting and layout
           of facilities
    • Authors: Bruce K. Vaughen; Martin Timm, Donald Connolley, Charles Cowley
      Abstract: The second edition of the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) Guidelines for Siting and Layout of Facilities (2017) has been written to address the many developments in the last decade which have improved how companies survey and select new sites, evaluate acquisitions, or expand their existing facilities. By updating the title of the first edition issued in 2003, Guidelines for Facility Siting and Layout, it has been emphasized that this book focuses not only on siting of buildings and unit operations within a facility, but also on siting of facilities within a community. This guideline addresses issues for those involved in business and project development of processes with hazardous materials and energies, provides guidance for facility layout experts, and provides information for authorities and the public involved in the project's approval. In addition, this edition adds discussions on how the life cycle and long-term risks of the facility are addressed, how toxic dispersions and the effects of explosions are modeled, how changes can be more effectively managed, and how to select the optimal distances between the equipment. This article will provide an overview of the changes to the first edition, as well as provide an overview of the significant reviews and updates to the appendices containing the recommended separation distances and checklists that will help the teams obtain the information they need when locating the project, when arranging the processes, and when arranging the equipment. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-08-31T01:05:47.080529-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11918
  • Thermal hazard investigation of a pharmaceutical intermediate
    • Authors: Ralph Zhao; Dan Muzzio, Tom Vickery, Elizabeth Fisher, Laura Artino, Jay Yin, Joe Hinksmon, Adam Fine
      Abstract: During the process development of a pharmaceutical advanced intermediate, new chemistry using an aqueous workup resulted in the discovery of a new hydrated crystal form of this intermediate. This hydrated crystal form showed thermal instability at a relatively low temperature compared to the original anhydrous form. Thermal stability and associated process safety hazards were investigated in order to ensure process safety and transportation safety of this intermediate. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-08-11T23:00:39.093805-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11917
  • Integrating Human Factors (HF) into a Process Safety Management System
    • Authors: Stephen C. Theophilus; Chizaram D. Nwankwo, Elijah Acquah-Andoh, Enobong Bassey, Udeme Umoren
      Abstract: Human factors and process safety management (PSM) have become key factors in preventing exposure to both hazardous materials and major accidents. Therefore, comprehensive process safety management is required to address all aspects of human factors. Currently, there are several-process safety management models all of which have some weaknesses with respect to the control of human factors inherent in the process industry. Moreover, there is as yet no universally accepted process safety management model that treats process safety management as an integral part of the management system. Therefore, a need has arisen to integrate human factors and the existing frameworks and models into a single integrated management system to ensure a holistic approach of control and a continuous learning system. This article identifies the missing human factors in the current system and describes an integrated process safety management system (IPSMS) model drawn from screening all existing PSM frameworks, while integrating the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). The model, which adopts the PLAN, DO, CHECK, and ACT framework, also outlines an implementation strategy. We conclude that IPSMS provides both a theoretical and a practical framework with which to manage, measure and analyse process safety management systems. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-07-30T23:45:22.804354-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11909
  • Reducing the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist attacks:
           Dehorning rhinos
    • Authors: Nima Khakzad
      Abstract: The terrorist attacks to two French chemical facilities in June and July 2015 raised the flag about the attractiveness of chemical plants to terrorist groups and the imminent risk of similar attacks in western countries. Although the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the US put the security of chemical infrastructures in a spotlight, the majority of previous attempts have since been made toward threat assessment and vulnerability assessment of chemical plants yet overlooking their attractiveness as an influential parameter in security risks. The recent poaching of a rhino in a French zoo on March 6, 2017, despite all the security measures in place, can be taken as a metaphor to show the inefficacy of security countermeasures if not coupled with measures to reduce the attractiveness. The present work aims to emphasize the applicability of safety concepts such as inherently safer design and land use planning to this purpose. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T03:55:30.474073-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11907
  • Lessons in process safety management learned from a pesticide plant
           explosion in Taiwan
    • Authors: Horng-Jang Liaw
      Abstract: A massive explosion in Taichung, Taiwan, in 2016, which was attributed to the thermal decomposition of o,o-dimethyl phosphoramidothioate, resulted in one fatality and one injury. This accidental explosion stemmed from certain elements being absent from process safety management (PSM), including process safety information, the management of change, process hazard analysis, mechanical integrity, operating procedures, training, and the pre-startup safety review. Problems encountered during the promotion of PSM were also identified, such as the hazards associated with highly hazardous chemicals at normal temperatures and pressure as outlined in the safety data sheet and the fact that these may be different from those under the conditions of the process. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T03:56:50.619936-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11913
  • Security risk assessment and management in chemical plants: Challenges and
           new trends
    • Authors: Nima Khakzad; Imee Su Martinez, Hyuck-Myun Kwon, Constantine Stewart, Rohan Perera, Genserik Reniers
      Abstract: The present study is to point out the outcomes of the Seminar on the Chemical Weapon Convention and Chemical Safety and Security Management for Member States in the Asia Region held by Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons in Doha, Qatar, in February 2017. The seminar was aimed at supporting chemical safety and security (CSS) management in the chemical industry in Asian countries. Overall goal was to sensitize States Parties to the new approaches that can be adopted in relation to CSS management, with a particular focus on providing assistance to small and medium-sized enterprises. This article reflects the observations made by keynote speakers via their interaction with participants from Asian State Parties during presentations' questions & answers sessions and following workshops. The article is an attempt to highlight the challenges in security risk assessment and management of chemical facilities and discuss some new trends for further improvements. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T03:56:46.776452-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11914
  • Attenuation of thermal radiation through water mist
    • Authors: Dalibor Balner; Karla Barcova
      Abstract: This article focuses on the interaction of thermal radiation with water droplets and the creation of water mist for the purpose of evaluating the decrease of heat flux when positioning a water curtain of various parameters between a radiation source and a radiometer. The change of water curtain parameters, affecting the passing through of thermal radiation, was performed using five nozzles with a variable spray characteristics. For the respective nozzles the attenuation of thermal radiation was determined and the thermal radiation transmittance was calculated. Water mist was created using a high-pressure pump and nozzles with a different size of the orifice. The measurement of droplet size was performed using the time-shift technique. The Omegalux radiant panel was used as the radiation source and the Hukseflux SBG01 radiometer with a working range of 0–5 kW.m−2 was used as the detector. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T03:51:28.156328-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11904
  • The validity of engineering judgment and expert opinion in hazard and risk
           analysis: The influence of cognitive biases
    • Authors: Paul Baybutt
      Abstract: Hazard and risk analysis depends heavily on human decision making in the form of engineering judgment and expert opinion. Human decision making may be flawed by the effects of heuristics and cognitive biases. The influence of these psychological factors may invalidate the results of hazard and risk analysis studies. They must be managed carefully to minimize their possible adverse impacts. This article provides a pragmatic view of cognitive biases and guidance on how to address them in hazard and risk analysis. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T03:51:23.675559-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11906
  • Guidelines for designing risk matrices
    • Authors: Paul Baybutt
      Abstract: Risk matrices are used widely in process safety to rate and rank risks posed by processes to help with decision making. For example, commonly they are used in process hazard analysis to rate the risks of hazard scenarios and determine the need for risk reduction. However, there are no standards for risk matrices in process safety. Companies develop their own without the benefit of established industry guidelines. Risk matrices are deceptively simple but their design and use are rife with pitfalls, even for experienced users. Some of these pitfalls are not obvious and invalid risk ratings can result which are unrecognized. Guidelines for constructing risk matrices that address these pitfalls are provided. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-07-07T03:51:19.592502-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11905
  • Experimental study of the initial pressure effect on methane-air
           explosions in linked vessels
    • Authors: Yaya Zhen; Zhirong Wang, Junhui Gong
      Abstract: This study experimentally addresses the pressure evolution during the closed and vented explosion progress of a methane-air mixture ([CH4 = 10%]) in different vessel-pipeline configurations at ambient initial temperature and different initial pressures. Based on the experimental measurements, it is found that the maximum values of both closed and vented explosion pressure increase linearly with the initial pressure in isolated and linked vessel scenarios. Compared with a vented explosion, the initial pressure has a greater impact on the explosion overpressure in an isolated vessel and a single spherical vessel connected to a pipe during a closed explosion. For the configuration of two spherical vessels connected by a pipe, the explosion overpressure in the primary vessel is always lower than that in the secondary vessel during both closed and vented explosions at each initial pressure. According to Chapman-Jouget Detonation Theory (C-J detonation theory), when the ignition is located in a large vessel, detonation is observed in the secondary vessel at an initial pressure of 0.08 MPa. The vent position and ignition position both have an influence on the extent of variation of the pressure differential between two vessels with a given initial pressure. For the configuration of a single vessel connected to a pipe, the initial pressure influences the maximum explosion pressure and vented explosion overpressure least in a small vessel when the ignition position is located in the small vessel. These conclusions can provide references for the safety design of chemical equipment. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T01:06:27.26042-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11897
  • Bow tie to improve risk management of natural gas pipelines
    • Authors: Márcio Vinicios Pereira Muniz; Gilson Brito Alves Lima, Rodrigo Goyannes Gusmão Caiado, Osvaldo Luiz Gonçalves Quelhas
      Abstract: The use of pipelines for natural gas transportation is continuously growing around the world. Pipeline accidents affecting the environment, people, assets, and company reputations have historically occurred as a result of failures in risk management. Bow Tie diagrams could provide a clear and resourceful risk management method for the safety and risk practitioner's toolkit. This article describes a case study using Bow Tie methodology to supply an analysis of the effectiveness of existing controls in pipelines and provide a better understanding, mainly to operators and the community, as to pipeline risks and their controls, by presenting a graphical interface. Thus, this article contributes to a better perception and understanding of pipeline risks and can encourage companies to use the main causes, preventive barriers, mitigation barriers, shortfalls, recommended actions, degradation factors and their safeguards as guidelines to construct Bow Tie diagrams for their pipelines in the safety management process. Additionally, the company could use the diagrams as a tool to communicate with the community about the risks and to show stakeholders that the risks are under control. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T02:30:47.617834-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11901
  • A new paradigm for accident investigation and analysis in the era of big
    • Authors: Lang Huang; Chao Wu, Bing Wang, Qiumei Ouyang
      Abstract: The advent of the era of Big Data has spawned a new research paradigm and has transformed the outlook of numerous fields in science and engineering. Similarly, as one of the important fields of safety science, the area of accident investigation also has great opportunities for leveraging Big Data to its advantage. With this in mind, in this article, the influencing factors of accident investigation were analyzed. Then, the definition of Safety-related Big Data (SRBD) was analyzed, and a four-layer pyramidal structure consisting of SRBD, Safety Information, Safety Law, and Safety Knowledge was constructed. Based on this, the conceptual model of the accident investigation paradigm based on SRBD was proposed. Moreover, the opportunities offered by the proposed new paradigm were argued from three aspects, which are “tools,” “inputs,” and “constraints.” Last, the proposed paradigm was applied in a case study. Results show that the proposed paradigm can provide a novel method for accident investigation and analysis. The presented paper aims to explore the great expectations for accident investigation in the era of Big Data. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-05-18T08:25:24.764448-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11898
  • Pressure relief valve inspection interval
    • Authors: Thiago Trotta; Charles Kashou, Nancy Faulk
      Abstract: Determining the correct interval for pressure relief valve inspection, testing, and maintenance remains a major challenge for facilities covered by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration Process Safety Management Standard. To this end, guidance is provided by API Standard 510, Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alteration, by API Recommended Practice 576, Inspection of Pressure-relieving Devices, by API Standard 520, Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices, Part II-Installation, and by NB-23, National Board Inspection Code—Part 2 Inspection. Furthermore, ASME BPVC, Sections I and VIII, provide general guidelines for the repair of pressure relief valves.However, the testing and inspection interval listed, up to ten years, is the maximum time span between shop inspections and overhaul. Further direction is often requested for determining the proper interval for valves in typical process services, especially in cases of PRV chattering. Recent API STD 520 Part II guidance on performing engineering analyses for PRV installations, based on service and specific installation, is included here.In this paper, a decision-making approach to determining these intervals based on a combined understanding of risk-based inspection, quality assurance, engineering analyses, and facility experience is presented. The approach provides process operators and managers with additional assistance in making this determination. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T04:02:00.195582-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11892
  • Dynamic safety risk modeling of process systems using bayesian network
    • Authors: Esmaeil Zarei; Ali Azadeh, Mostafa Mirzaei Aliabadi, Iraj Mohammadfam
      Abstract: Process complex systems in particular oil and gas plants due to dealing with hazardous materials at severe process conditions are much prone to catastrophic accidents. In this context, safety risk analysis is a crucial tool to develop effective strategies to prevent accident and provide mitigative measures. Dynamic risk analysis (DRA) is one of the most practical approaches for risk analysis that helps provide safer operations of complex process systems. The present work is aimed at demonstrating the application of an integrated DRA approach to comprehensive quantitative modeling and analysis of the both aspects of risk, that is, probability and consequence assessments. In this approach, first, the worst case scenario is identified and then a robust tool is developed for dynamic accident scenario modeling and risk assessment by means of Bayesian Network. This approach is applied to risk analysis of a flammable liquid storage system at a gas refinery. The work provides valuable information on the identification and comprehensive analysis of worst case accident scenarios, their main consequences, critical basic events, and minimal cut sets which lead to accident scenarios and also for dynamic updating of probabilities and risk. The obtained results are more appropriate and rigorous to developing preventive and mitigative strategies for potential accident scenarios and thus increase the safety level in the complex process systems. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T01:40:52.94895-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11889
  • Pipeline risk assessment using artificial intelligence: A case from the
           colombian oil network
    • Authors: Alexander Guzman Urbina; Atsushi Aoyama
      Abstract: Currently, in order to make decisions regarding the safety of pipelines, the risk values and risk targets are becoming relevant points for discussion. However, the challenge is the reliability of the models employed to get the risk data. Such models usually involve a large number of variables and deal with high amounts of uncertainty. Therefore, there is a strong need for a powerful tool to cope with that uncertainty, and one of the best tools dealing with uncertainty is the implementation of artificial intelligence methods using fuzzy logic.Hence, this study aims to present an artificial intelligence inference system that minimizes the uncertainty of traditional approaches of risk assessment in pipelines. Also, in order to show the applicability of the model developed, this study presents a case from the Colombian oil transportation network. Besides that, this study presents an uncertainty analysis for the risk values, comparing the results of the inference system with traditional approach. The results show that the inference system performs better since the magnitude of the average error and its standard deviation are less than the traditional approach. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-04-09T02:00:27.561449-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11890
  • A new insight into the accident investigation: A case study of Tianjin
           Port fire and explosion in China
    • Authors: Zhou Aitao; Fan Lingpeng
      Abstract: By figuring out the cause and learning the lessons, accident investigation serves to avoid the like accidents effectively. Incident Management is one of the twelve key factors among China's process safety management system (PSMS), while accident investigation is central to Incident Management. This paper selected “Tianjin Port 8.12 fire and explosion accident” (“Tianjin 8.12 Accident”) as an investigation case. Three core components: cause analysis, affixing the responsibility and corrective suggestions, were unfolded. Problems were analyzed from process safety and accident development point of view. A process analysis approach, which is based on event sequence-barrier failed, was employed for accident investigation. Affixing responsibility process based on failed analysis was used for accident investigating and affixing. In order to give corrective suggestions, safety information-based corrective suggestions are proposed by starting from systematic and interconnected perspective and combining with finding failed behaviors and an in-depth analysis of the causes behind the behaviors. Subsequently, an integral accident investigation approach, which consists of cause analysis based on event sequence-barrier failed, affixing responsibility process based on failed analysis and systematic corrective measures based on safety information, can effectively render scientific theoretical guidance to investigation and analysis of an accident. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-04-08T07:56:58.241613-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11891
  • Method for CFD facilitated pressure rise calculation due to deflagration
           in heat recovery steam generator
    • Authors: Wei Zhou; Manuel Cardenas, David Moyeda
      Abstract: For combined cycle operations, especially during startup and shutdown, safety concerns have always been the top priority. Residual fuels can escape to and accumulate in the downstream heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) if appropriate purge is not taken, which may cause deflagration, an explosion at subsonic condition, during startup when heat source exists. Residual fuel deflagration will lead to pressure rise and therefore, structural and or tube damages depending on the level of pressure increase. Therefore, a careful study of the residual fuel distribution in HRSG and the pressure rise due to possible deflagration is wanted.Historically, thermodynamics relationships and chemical equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the pressure rise. These approaches either assume that all fuel energy is converted into heat, or make assumptions on the amount of fuel in chemical equilibrium that contributes to the pressure rise. These assumptions tend to overestimate the pressure rise. With the development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, a more accurate prediction of the fuel concentration in HRSG during transient startup and/or shutdown process is possible. The local fuel concentrations can now be calculated and therefore, how much fuel that are within the explosion limits and contribute to the pressure rise can be detected readily.This article presents the transient CFD modeling results of residual fuel concentration in a typical HRSG configuration during a gas turbine/combined cycle startup failure process. The article then refines the adiabatic mixing model with the predicted local fuel concentrations to provide a better estimation of the pressure rise due to deflagration. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T01:46:35.814418-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11887
  • Process safety education and training academic education as a foundation
           for other process safety initiatives on education
    • Authors: Geert Boogaerts; Jan Degrève, Geert Vercruysse
      Abstract: Commitment to process safety is fundamental to the process industry. Governance, promotion, and participation in academic and related educational programs are testament to the industry's commitment and stakeholder reach. Process safety education and training is a very broad topic. Industry-academic collaboration is essential when developing high level education and training on process safety. This article looks at the development of educational and training programmes for students in Advanced Master programmes in the European master network and for experienced industry workers. The Advanced Master Safety Engineering developed at the University has a proven track record in realizing the intended learning outcomes along with a high level of academic and professional orientation as well as international orientation. The results related to the learning outcomes are very satisfying, which implies that there is a good relationship between the intended learning outcomes, the programme and the evaluation tests. The associated Advanced Master Class on process safety has a very satisfying overall trainee satisfaction (Level 1) and learning gains (Level 2) evaluation in the Kirkpatrick's Model. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T03:55:36.363538-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11885
  • Introduction to functional safety assessments of safety controls, alarms,
           and interlocks: How efficient are your functional safety projects?
    • Authors: Eloise Roche; Monica Hochleitner, Angela Summers
      Abstract: The return on investment (ROI) for safety controls, alarms, and interlocks (SCAI) can be significantly impacted by human error, which can occur during any lifecycle activity and be committed by competent workers. Design, installation, testing, maintenance, and operational practices are often repeated throughout a site, lowering the ROI with each flawed installation. A functional safety assessment (FSA) is a tool used to identify and correct defects before a simple human error allows an incident to propagate in spite of the capital spent on the installed SCAI equipment.Significant efficiency can be gained when FSAs are periodically conducted during the SCAI lifecycle, so that critical information is gathered when needed. This article will discuss the internationally endorsed five-stage approach to FSA. The purpose and content of each FSA stage is reviewed and execution timing is suggested that focuses project resources to maximize FSA benefit to project cost and schedule. Finally, a case study illustrates how lack of effective and timely FSA contributed to the occurrence of a costly and catastrophic loss event. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T03:55:34.665064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11886
  • Atmospheric tank failures: Mechanisms and an unexpected case study
    • Authors: Michael S. Schmidt
      Abstract: The literature on catastrophic failures of low-pressure tanks focuses on the ignition of explosive mixtures in the vapor space of those tanks, and rightly so, because most catastrophic failures of atmospheric tanks involve explosions of such mixtures. Moreover, there is a general sense in the industry that other than explosions of flammable mixtures, the only other hazard associated with low-pressure tanks is the occasional dramatic implosion of a vessel that is inadequately protected against vacuum.In fact, there are a number of mechanisms that can lead to the catastrophic failure of a low-pressure tank that have nothing to do with combustion or unprotected vacuum. Under certain circumstances, even a tank equipped with an atmospheric vent and containing nothing other than salt water can explode, with disastrous impacts.This article reviews the mechanisms for catastrophic failure of low pressure tanks, both implosion and explosion, and serves as a reminder for experienced process safety practitioners and as a tutorial for new process safety practitioners of what to look for during a hazard review. It also includes a case study of an atmospheric caustic tank explosion that resulted from a previously unreported mechanism that involved neither combustion nor vacuum. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T04:35:52.316894-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11881
  • A technique to control major hazards of the coal gasification process
           developed from critical events and safety barriers
    • Authors: Feng Sun; Wei Xu, Guangjian Wang, Bing Sun
      Abstract: Many coal gasification related accidents happened in China recently. Investigations of the accidents show that the performance of safety barriers and the risk influence factors contributing to it plays an important role. Lack of attention on the performance of safety barriers and associated risk influence factors hinder the thorough understanding of these accidents and, therefore, needs to be addressed by providing a new analysis methodology. Herein, we developed an approach from critical events and safety barriers to control the major hazards during the coal gasification process. The method consists of process hazard identification based on critical events, barrier performance evaluation based on barrier diagrams, and quantification of risk influence factors based on Bayesian network. The application of the method indicates that it is suitable for controlling major hazards of the coal gasification process as well as other chemical processes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T04:35:42.185681-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11880
  • Chinese process safety management core elements and control measures
    • Authors: Aitao Zhou; Lingpeng Fan, Mingfei Ma, Bo Tao
      Abstract: With the popularization and application of chemical process safety management (PSM) systems in the chemical industry, the use of such systems in China has become the focus of a large volume of research. In this article, 12 elements included in the current Chinese PSM system are divided into four stages from a structural point of view. This division will be helpful in the follow-up analysis. After a careful analysis of the evaluation results for one PSM pilot study in Nanjing, some correlations have been found between the results of the elemental evaluation. Small- and medium-sized chemical plants make up a large proportion of Chinese chemical plants and many chemical accidents take place in these plants, so a simplified PSM system in practical operation need to be found. Based on a previous PSM structural analysis, the secondary elements of the PSM system can be removed. This allows researchers to avoid the traditional method of analyzing PSM elements individually. In the concrete analysis process, a theoretical analysis of the correlation degree between elements can be combined with the results of accident investigations. The simplified Chinese PSM system consists of four core elements: Process safety information, process hazard analysis, training, and emergency management. Based on the current applications of these four core elements in China, a consideration of correlations between these elements is used to make several suggestions for improving China's PSM systems. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-01-22T11:20:24.826483-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11878
  • Issue Information-TOC
    • Pages: 323 - 323
      PubDate: 2017-11-13T01:51:50.931678-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11849
  • Emergency management: It starts with a question in the design stages
           “What can go wrong'”
    • Authors: John F. Murphy
      Pages: 325 - 325
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T06:46:14.972623-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11938
  • Reducing Process Safety Events: An approach proven by sustainable results
    • Authors: John Champion; Sheila Van Geffen, Lynnette Borrousch
      Pages: 326 - 337
      Abstract: The Dow Chemical Company has significantly reduced the number of Tier 1 Process Safety events from 69 in 2008 to an average of 10 in 2013–2015. This paper will share some of the key elements that have led to this successful and sustainable reduction in incidents. The structure of the paper is focused around the concept of “Effective Process Safety Programs” published by Klein and Vaughen, Process Safety: Key Concepts and Practical Applications, CRC Press, 2017.In this paper, we will provide details on Dow's Operational Discipline systems that enable success on a day-to-day basis. These systems include Procedure Use Culture, Process Safety Training programs, and Process Safety Collaboration Networks. We will also describe our Process Safety Management Systems that enable long-term success including Dow's Loss Prevention Principles (LPP), use of Process Hazards Analysis (PHA), Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) and other tools to manage risk, and Dow's Mechanical Integrity program. The success is built on a strong foundation of Safety Culture and Leadership. This paper will illustrate how Dow is structured to support the Process Safety efforts and examples will be shared about how leadership at all levels of the organization is practiced and demonstrated. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog 36: 326–337, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-10-28T01:20:35.824786-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11941
  • Consequence modeling at the Eastman Kingsport site
    • Authors: Michael James; David Skelton
      Pages: 338 - 352
      Abstract: The intent of this paper will be to review the methods utilized at the Eastman Kingsport site in determining magnitude of consequences of toxic, thermal, and blast overpressure scenarios. This will include discussion on dispersion modeling, dose-response methods for toxic, and thermal probits as well as assessing occupant vulnerability through the use of BakerRisk's Explosion Risk Cooperative tools. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog 36: 338–352, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T06:46:00.546833-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11908
  • Explosion behavior of ammonia and ammonia/methane in oxygen-enriched air
    • Authors: Valeria Di Sarli; Francesco Cammarota, Ernesto Salzano, Almerinda Di Benedetto
      Pages: 368 - 371
      Abstract: The effect of enriching air with oxygen on the explosion behavior of ammonia and ammonia/methane has been experimentally investigated in a closed 5-l cylindrical vessel. Results have shown that for both ammonia and ammonia/methane, when moving from air to pure oxygen, a transition takes place from a normal deflagration behavior to one that near or at the end is accompanied by a combustion-induced Rapid Phase Transition (cRPT) pressure pulse, an explosion mode characterized by strong oscillations in pressure time histories culminating in over-adiabatic peaks (i.e., values of the peak pressure even higher than 400 bar and, thus, much higher than the thermodynamic value). On the basis of these findings under the experimental conditions applied in our tests, the occurrence of cRPT should be carefully considered in the development of industrial processes based on ammonia reactions in oxygen-enriched atmosphere. For that, the phenomenon should be investigated in equipment of larger volume. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog 36: 368–371, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-07-20T04:17:11.263368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11912
  • Effects of the explosion intensity on the distribution of flame region in
           a tunnel
    • Authors: Qiuju Ma; Jiachen Chen, Qi Zhang
      Pages: 372 - 377
      Abstract: The purpose of present work is mainly to study the effects of explosion intensity on the distribution law of the flame region involving methane-air explosion based on the numerical results and theoretical analysis. Numerical simulation using software package AutoReaGas, a finite-volume computational code for fluid dynamics suitable for gas explosion and blast problems, is adopted. The simulation works were performed in a full-scale tunnel with various wall boundary conditions so that different explosion intensity levels could be achieved. Different flame regions were achieved for the same original gas region of 56 m. The flame region is always longer than the original gas region in all cases of stoichiometric methane-air mixtures. Higher explosion intensity can induce a shorter flame region. In the case of smooth wall, the explosion intensity is very low, so the flame region reaches up to the longest value of 218 m. The ratio between the length of flame region and the length of the original gas region ranges from 1.3 to 3.9 with the decline of explosion intensity. It indicates that even though lower explosion intensity can reduce the shock wave damage, it will enlarge the accident range and especially extend the high temperature flame hazard. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog 36: 372–377, 2017
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T00:50:27.63152-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11877
  • Safety & Health news
    • Authors: John F. Murphy
      Pages: 422 - 424
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T06:46:03.680663-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/prs.11939
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