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Journal Cover Polymer Science Series C
  [SJR: 0.209]   [H-I: 12]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1555-614X - ISSN (Online) 1811-2382
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • New trends in controlled radical polymerization
    • PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • The potential of 1 H NMR spectroscopy for studying the kinetics and
           mechanism of controlled radical polymerization with reversible chain
    • Abstract: Abstract The potential of 1H NMR spectroscopy for determining the constants of chain transfer to a symmetric bifunctional agent of reversible chain transfer and for studying the changes in the current concentrations of the initial and final agents formed during the replacement of one leaving group with a polymer (oligomeric) radical of the agents of reversible chain transfer during the homopolymerization of N-vinyl succinimide, the homopolymerization of vinyl acetate, and the copolymerization of 4-vinylpyridine and tert-butyl acrylate in the presence S,S-dibenzyltrithiocarbonate is studied. The correct calculation of the constants of chain transfer is shown to be possible only during agreement of the studied system with the taken scheme of polymerization with reversible chain transfer, a minimum contribution of side reactions, and signal separation that is sufficient for the quantitative analysis of initial and polymer (monosubstituted) agents of reversible chain transfer in the 1H NMR spectra. The lower limit of the constants of transfer to the polymer agents of reversible chain transfer is estimated, and the great efficiency of these agents in comparison to that of the initial low-molecular-mass ones is directly confirmed. A complex of necessary investigations to study any new polymerization system where the controlled radical homoand copolymerization with reversible chain transfer in the presence of symmetric trithiocarbonates occurs is performed.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Reversible deactivation radical polymerization of polyfunctional monomers
    • Abstract: Abstract In this review, the results of modern theoretical and experimental investigations of three-dimensional reversible-deactivation radical polymerization are discussed. The most important factors affecting the critical gelation conversion, the probability of cyclization, and the topological structures of polymers are underlined. Examples of the most promising application of the reversible deactivation radical polymerization to produce new polymer materials are given.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • The role of termination reactions of radical intermediates in reversible
           addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization
    • Abstract: Abstract This review summarizes the experimental kinetic data on the polymerization of various monomers mediated by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer agents of various classes and the results of model experiments illustrating the conditions under which the products of termination of radical intermediates may be formed. The contributions of these reactions to the overall kinetics of the process are considered. An approach to the study of reversibility of termination reactions of intermediates is advanced.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Methods of controlled radical polymerization for the synthesis of polymer
    • Abstract: Abstract Methods for the synthesis of polymer (molecular) brushes via various controlled-radical-polymerization approaches are considered, and their properties are analyzed. Special attention is paid to atomtransfer radical polymerization, which is most frequently used for these purposes. The potential of the synthesis of molecular brushes with various chemical structures, including amphiphilic brushes, is demonstrated in many examples.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) (Co)polymerization
           of isobornyl acrylate
    • Abstract: Abstract Controlled/living radical homopolymerization of isobornyl acrylate and its copolymerization with styrene with reversible chain transfer via the addition-fragmentation mechanism in the presence of benzyl dithiobenzoate have been studied. It has been shown that the (co)polymerization proceeds through living chains, a result that is confirmed by a linear increase in the number-average molecular weight with conversion and by low polydispersity indexes. With the use of polymer RAFT agents block copolymers have been synthesized. Amphiphilic copolymers have been obtained through acid hydrolysis of isobornyl acrylate units in copolymers of various microstructures.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Synthesis of amphiphilic block-gradient copolymers of styrene and acrylic
           acid by Nitroxide Mediated Polymerization
    • Abstract: Abstract We present an overview on synthesis of amphiphilic ionic block-gradient copolymers of styrene and acrylic acid by means of one step direct Nitroxide Mediated Polymerization (NMP) and their characterization. The copolymers comprise a block of poly(acrylic acid) and one or two terminal blocks that include co-monomer units of styrene and acrylic acid in variable proportion. Using 1H NMR the gradient sequence of the poly(acrylic acid-co-styrene) copolymer block has been confirmed. In contrast to diblock copolymers of styrene and acrylic acid, that are known to form in aqueous environment “frozen” aggregates with glassy poly(styrene) core, the novel block gradient copolymers exhibit stimuli-responsive aggregation behavior, as was demonstrated by subsequent studies. This feature makes them very promising for design of a large variety of smart functional materials.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Iron-based catalytic systems in atom-transfer
           controlled-radical-polymerization processes
    • Abstract: Abstract The literature data about the use of catalytic systems and compositions based on iron and its complexes for the controlled synthesis of polymers via the atom-transfer mechanism are generalized and analyzed. The effects of the oxidation number of a metal atom, the ligand environment, the structure of a radical initiator, the activating additives, and other factors on the molecular-weight characteristics of the polymers and the kinetics of vinyl polymerization are considered.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Kinetic features of pseudoliving radical polymerization under conditions
           of reversible inhibition by nitroxide radicals
    • Abstract: Abstract This review is devoted to two topical aspects of the kinetics of pseudoliving radical polymerization occurring under conditions of reversible inhibition by nitroxide radicals. The main kinetic features of polymerization, which are still being discussed in the literature, are considered. The data on the rate constants of reinitiation and reversible-termination reactions in polymerization systems are generalized and discussed for the first time.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Branched triphenylamine-based oligomers for organic electronics
    • Abstract: Abstract This review involves discussion and analysis of the main advantages and trends of the molecular design of branched triphenylamine-based oligomers and their application in modern organic electronics devices, such as organic solar cells, light-emitting diodes, thin-film field-effect transistors, and sensors.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Electroluminescent lanthanide-containing polymers
    • Abstract: Abstract The data on the synthesis and physicochemical and photo- and electroluminescent properties of carbochain linear polymers containing ions of rare-earth metals bound via chemical or coordination bonds to the polymer chain are summarized. The effects of the ligand environment at lanthanide atoms and the structures of the polymers on their luminescence activity are considered. Possible approaches to increase the efficiency of electroluminescence of polymer lanthanide emitters are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Light-emitting transistor structures based on semiconducting polymers and
           inorganic nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Abstract One of the new directions in organic electronics is the development of light-emitting organic field-effect transistors, which combine the light-emitting properties of organic light-emitting diodes and the switching properties of organic field-effect transistors. Optical and electronic properties of novel nanocomposite materials based on semiconducting polymers and inorganic nanoparticles and designed for applications in organic electronics devices were investigated. Light-emitting organic field-effect transistors with composite active layers based on the soluble semiconducting polymers PFO and MEH-PPV and ZnO nanoparticles and having asymmetric electrodes (Al and Au) that inject electrons into ZnO and holes into PFO and MEH-PPV were prepared and investigated. The data are interpreted in the context of the possibility of organic field-effect transistors based on PFO: ZnO and MEH-PPV: ZnO composite films to work in both the unipolar regime and the ambipolar regime. It is shown that the mobility of charge carriers in light-emitting organic field-effect transistors based on PFO: ZnO at 300 K reaches ∼0.02 for electrons and ∼0.03 cm2/(V s) for holes, increasing with an increase in the concentration of nanoparticles up to ∼2 cm2/(V s), a value that is comparable to the maximum mobility values for conducting polymers. Light-emitting organic field-effect transistors based on PFO: ZnO and MEH-PPV: ZnO emit light in the green and orange ranges of the optical spectrum, respectively, their electroluminescence intensities rising with an increase in either the negative bias or the positive bias at the source-drain and the gate as well as with an increase in the concentration of ZnO nanoparticles. The results indicate that light-emitting organic field-effect transistors based on soluble conjugated polymers and semiconducting ZnO nanoparticles are examples of multifunctional devices whose production technology is compatible with the modern ink-jet printing technology of organic electronics.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Solution processable semiconducting organic single crystals
    • Abstract: Abstract In this review we describe recent progress in fabrication, characterisation and measurements of solution processed organic single crystals based on small molecule semiconductors. We focus on single crystal applications using Field-Effect Transistors as building blocks for organic electronics.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Common approaches to the synthesis of tetrapyrrole macroheterocyclic
           compounds: Promising materials for photovoltaic devices
    • Abstract: Abstract The main trends in the development of the synthesis of tetrapyrrole macroheterocyclic compounds, whose functionalization makes it possible to control the properties of formed porphyrin-containing materials applied in molecular electronics for improvement of photovoltaic properties, are presented in this review.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Non-fullerene acceptors for organic solar cells
    • Abstract: Abstract Solar cells based on organic semiconductor molecules are a promising alternative to conventional silicon photocells owing to their low cost, simple production, and good mechanical properties. Effective organic photocells are based on a heterojunction using an active layer consisting of two different organic semiconductors, one of which is an electron donor, while the other is an acceptor. Progress in organic photovoltaics is related to the development of new donor materials, while fullerene derivatives are commonly used as acceptors. The advantages and disadvantages of fullerene compounds for organic solar cells are discussed in this review, the principles of their operation are briefly considered, and the most successful new non-fullerene acceptors are described. The application of latter acceptors has made it possible to fabricate organic solar cells with an efficiency of about 2–4%.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Self-assembled organic semiconductors for monolayer field-effect
    • Abstract: Abstract Recent data on the structures and properties of self-organized molecules used for the production of the semiconducting layer in self-assembled organic monolayer field-effect transistors are reviewed. Methods for fabrication of these transistors are presented together with their advantages and shortcomings. Electric characteristics of the produced devices are compared. Major structural regularities for selection of the reactive group in self-organized semiconductor oligomer molecules are elucidated with respect to the type of substrate.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Recent trends in crystal engineering of high-mobility materials for
           organic electronics
    • Abstract: Abstract Acenes and heteroacenes are receiving great attention in fundamental and applied science due to their interesting optoelectronic and charge transport properties. Their easy synthesis and functionalization have enabled the rapid development of a large number of molecular materials with remarkable charge-transport properties. This perspective provides an overview of their fundamental properties, molecular packing/morphology and charge transport properties and summarizes the progress made in recent years in the development of new high-mobility small-molecule materials focusing in particular on crystalline materials that have been able to approach or surpass mobilities of amorphous silicon.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Recent advances in organic electronics materials and devices
    • PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • PEDOT-properties and applications
    • Abstract: Abstract Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is an intrinsically conductive polymer that is used in a wide range of applications such as antistatics, capacitors, touch panels, organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells and printed electronics. This paper describes the characteristic parameters of 31 different commercially available PEDOT dispersions. It shows how the PEDOT dispersions have been tailored to each of those applications and thereby the opportunities and limitations of this material.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
  • Polyaniline: Synthesis, properties, and application
    • Abstract: Abstract The methods of synthesis and the properties of polyaniline—a representative of the family of conducting polymers—are reviewed briefly. It is shown that variation in the conditions of aniline polymerization makes it possible to synthesize polymer materials with the desired structures and properties and, thus, to provide for the use of polyaniline in various fields of science and engineering. Special attention is given to the matrix synthesis of polyaniline as the main approach to obtain electroactive and conducting composite materials. The use of polyaniline and the related composite materials in polymer electronics is analyzed briefly.
      PubDate: 2014-09-01
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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