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    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (161 journals)
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    - ENGINEERING (1135 journals)
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ENGINEERING (1135 journals)            First | 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 | Last

Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Motor Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Multivariate Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanomanufacturing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Nanoparticle Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoscience     Open Access  
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of NanoScience, NanoEngineering & Applications     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nanotechnology in Engineering and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Networks     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nonlinear Dynamics     Open Access  
Journal of Oceanography and Marine Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Operations Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Optics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Optoelectronics Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Petroleum Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Power Sources     Partially Free   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research     Open Access  
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Quality and Reliability Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Rare Earths     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Real-Time Image Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Regional Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Research of NIST     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Russian Laser Research     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Safety Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Safety Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Scientific Computing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Scientific Innovations for Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Semiconductors     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sensor Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Science)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Solar Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Solar Energy Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surface Investigation. X-ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surveying Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Technology Management & Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Telecommunications Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Testing and Evaluation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Chinese Institute of Industrial Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Franklin Institute     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India ): Series D     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India) : Series B     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India): Series A     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India): Series C     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access  
Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Thermal Stresses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transplantation     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Transport and Supply Chain Management     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Transportation Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Tribology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Turbomachinery     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Turbulence     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Urban Planning and Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Vibration and Acoustics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Visualization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Volcanology and Seismology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed.     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE A     Hybrid Journal  
Journal on Chain and Network Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Teknologi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal     Open Access  
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Landscape and Ecological Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Langmuir     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Leadership and Management in Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Learning Technologies, IEEE Transactions on     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Lighting Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Logic and Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
Logica Universalis     Hybrid Journal  
Lubrication Science     Hybrid Journal  
Machines     Open Access  
Machining Science and Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Magazine of Concrete Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

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Journal Cover Pest Management Science
   [7 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 1526-498X - ISSN (Online) 1526-4998
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1603 journals]   [SJR: 0.99]   [H-I: 64]
  • Behavior-modifying compounds for management of the red palm weevil
           (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver)
    • Authors: Salvatore Guarino; Stefano Colazza, Ezio Peri, Paolo Lo Bue, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Galina Gindin, Victoria Soroker
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Populations of red palm weevil (RPW), a severe pest of palms in Mediterranean countries, might be limited by semiochemical-based behavior-disrupting methods. We evaluated the effects of electroantennogram (EAG)-active plant volatiles on the behavior of RPWs from Italy and Israel. In field experiments, α-pinene, citronellol, geraniol, citral and 1-octen-3-ol were tested for their ability to disrupt attraction to pheromone–kairomone traps. Those that were found disruptive in the field were evaluated in a laboratory choice bioassay in individual cages for their effect on RPW female feeding and oviposition. Results Field experiments showed reduced captures in traps loaded with geraniol (−57%), 1-octen-3-ol (−50%) or α-pinene (−45% to −60%); captures in citronellol- or citral-loaded traps did not differ from controls. In laboratory experiments, 1-octen-3-ol was the most potent behavior-modifying compound, eliciting a significant/marginally significant reduction in both feeding and oviposition at the lowest dose tested in both populations. Geraniol generally caused a strong reduction of feeding and oviposition at each dose tested (Israel), or at the highest dose (Italy). α-pinene caused some reduction of feeding activity at the highest dose tested (Italy), but no consistent repellency (Israel). Conclusion Field and laboratory data suggest the potential for the use of 1-octen-3-ol, geraniol and α-pinene for RPW population management.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T15:37:50.124033-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3966
  • Stopped in its tracks: How λ-cyhalothrin can break the aphid
           transmission of a potato potyvirus
    • Authors: Brian Fenton; Thomas Salter, Gaynor Malloch, Graham Begg, Eric Anderson
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Pyrethroids are one of the most widespread and commonly used classes of insecticide and they are used in multiple roles including protecting potato crops from virus vector aphids. Resistance in some genotypes of a few species is now widespread but most species remain susceptible. The rate of virus transmission by two genotypes of the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, fed on Potato Virus Y-infected leaves of potato treated with the pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin, was evaluated. Results The susceptible genotype, type J, was significantly inhibited from transmitting virus to uninfected seedlings. A genotype containing the M918L super knock down resistance mutation conferring resistance to pyrethroids, type O, showed no inhibition of transmission. However, when survival of the aphids after exposure was compared, the pyrethroid had not killed the type J aphids. Conclusions λ-cyhalothrin in a commercial formulation disrupts PVY transmission by disorientating aphid vectors for a sufficient time that the virus loses its transmissibility. However, M. persicae genotypes carrying the M918L mutation are not prevented from transmitting.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T15:08:35.152425-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3967
  • Wild boar populations up, numbers of hunters down? A review of trends
           and implications for Europe
    • Authors: Giovanna Massei; Jonas Kindberg, Alain Licoppe, Dragan Gačić, Nikica Šprem, Jiri Kamler, Eric Baubet, Ulf Hohmann, Andrea Monaco, Janis Ozoliņš, Sandra Cellina, Tomasz Podgórski, Carlos Fonseca, Nickolay Markov, Boštjan Pokorny, Carme Rosell, András Náhlik
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Across Europe wild boar numbers increased in the 1960s‐1970s but stabilised in the1980s; recent evidence suggests that numbers and impact of wild boar grew steadily since the 1980s. As hunting is the main cause of mortality for this species, we reviewed wild boar hunting bags and hunter population trends in 18 European countries from 1982 to 2012. Hunting statistics and numbers of hunters were used as indicators of animal numbers and hunting pressure. The results confirmed that wild boar increased consistently throughout Europe whilst the number of hunters remained relatively stable or declined in most countries. We conclude that recreational hunting is insufficient to limit wild boar population growth and that the relative impact of hunting on wild boar mortality had decreased. Other factors, such as mild winters, reforestation, intensification of crop production, supplementary feeding and compensatory population responses of wild boar to hunting pressure might also explain population growth. As populations continue to grow, more human‐wild boar conflicts are expected unless this trend is reversed. New interdisciplinary approaches are urgently required to mitigate human‐wild boar conflicts that are otherwise destined to grow further.
      PubDate: 2014-12-16T04:57:00.452875-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3965
  • Larvicidal activity of the essential oil from Tetradium glabrifolium
           fruits and its constituents against Aedes albopictus
    • Authors: Xin Chao Liu; Qiyong Liu, Xu Bo Chen, Ligang Zhou, Zhi Long Liu
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In our screening program for new agrochemicals from wild plants, the essential oil of Tetradium glabrifolium (Champ. ex Benth.) T.G. Hartley fruits was found to possess strong larvicidal activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus L. The essential oil was extracted via hydrodistillation and their constituents were determined by GC‐MS analysis. The active compounds were isolated and identified by bioassay‐directed fractionation. Results GC/MS analyses revealed the presence of 19 components with 2‐tridecanone (43.38%), 2‐undecanone (24.09%), d‐limonene (13.01%), caryophyllene (5.04%) and β‐elemene (4.07%) being the major constituents. Based bioactivity‐directed chromatographic separation of the oil led to the isolation of 2‐tridecanone, 2‐undecanone and d‐limonene as active compounds. The essential oil of T. glabrifolium exhibited larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of A. albopictus with an LC50 value of 8.20 µg/ml. The isolated constituent compounds, 2‐tridecanone, 2‐undecanone and d‐limonene possessed strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of A. albopictus with LC50 values of 2.86 µg/ml, 9.95 µg/ml and 41.75 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion The findings indicated that the essential oil of T. glabrifolium fruits and the three constituents have an excellent potential for use in control of A. albopictus larvae and could be useful in search of newer, safer and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.
      PubDate: 2014-12-13T00:33:36.474818-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3964
  • Foraging activity of commensal Mus musculus in semicaptivity conditions.
           Effect of predator odours, previous experience and moonlight
    • Authors: María Busch; Nora E Burroni
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Mus musculus is a pest in urban and rural habitats where it consumes and contaminates food and may transmit diseases to human and domestic animals. Its control by anticoagulants is partially effective because of aversive behaviours and resistance. In this context, we wanted to assess the potential of the use of predator odours as repellents in experimental feeding trials using urine and faeces of domestic cats and faeces of geoffroyi cat, a wild small felid that is one of the main rodent predators in the study area. We also assessed the effect of previous experience and moonlight on foraging activity. Results We did not find an aversive response to cat odours in Mus musculus individuals. There was a trend to consume food in the same feeding stations along time and the visit rate was lower in periods with high moonlight than in periods with low moonlight. Conclusions Predator odours did not seem to be useful as rodent repellents but maintaining illumination may lower rodent foraging activity. As rodents maintain their feeding sites along time toxic baits may be more efficiently placed at sites previously known to be used by rodents.
      PubDate: 2014-12-10T03:36:26.502245-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3962
  • Effect of formulation and repeated applications on the enantioselectivity
           of metalaxyl dissipation and leaching in soil
    • Authors: Rafael Celis; Beatriz Gámiz, María A Adelino, Juan Cornejo, María C Hermosín
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Soil incubation and column leaching experiments were conducted to address the question of whether the type of formulation (unsupported vs clay‐supported) and repeated applications of the chiral fungicide (RS)‐metalaxyl affected the enantioselectivity of its dissipation and leaching in a slightly alkaline, loamy sand agricultural soil. Results Regardless of the type of formulation and the number of fungicide applications, the R‐enantiomer of metalaxyl was degraded faster than the S‐enantiomer, but the individual degradation rates of R‐ and S‐metalaxyl were highly affected by the different application regimes assayed (t1/2 = 2–104 days). Repeated applications accelerated the degradation of the biologically‐active R‐metalaxyl enantiomer, whereas they led to slower degradation of the non‐active S‐metalaxyl enantiomer. The type of formulation influenced less the dissipation rates of the enantiomers. For all formulations tested, soil column leachates became more and more enriched in S‐enantiomer as the number of fungicide applications was increased, and application of metalaxyl to soil columns as clay‐based formulations reduced the leaching of both enantiomers. Conclusion Pesticide application conditions can greatly influence the enantioselective dissipation of chiral pesticides in soil, and hence, are expected to exert a great impact on both the biological efficacy and the environmental chiral signatures of pesticides applied as mixtures of enantiomers or racemates to agricultural soils.
      PubDate: 2014-12-10T03:35:43.097083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3963
  • Comparisons of antifeedancy and spatial repellency of three natural
           product repellents against horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera:
    • Authors: Junwei J Zhu; Gary J Brewer, David J Boxler, Kristina Friesen, David B Taylor
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Horn flies are among the most important biting fly pests of cattle in the United States. Horn fly management is largely dependent upon pesticides, which ultimately leads to the rapid development of insecticide resistance. Alternative control strategies, including repellents, have shown promising results in reducing fly biting. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and longevity of recently identified natural product repellents against horn flies. Results Catnip oil, geraniol and C8910 acids reduced horn fly feeding in a laboratory bioassay and also exhibited spatial repellency in the olfactometer. Residual activity was observed for up to 3 days in laboratory assays, however, 24 hours of residual effectiveness was observed from the two repellents when applied on cattle in the field. The limited residual effectiveness was correlated to the high volatility of the major active repellent compounds. Conclusion All three natural product repellents effectively repel biting horn flies, exhibiting both feeding deterrence and spatial repellency. They may be used for developing an effective Push‐Pull strategy with a slow release matrix that can prolong their effectiveness for horn fly management.
      PubDate: 2014-12-10T03:35:34.585849-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3960
  • Geographical distribution and frequencies of
           organophosphate‐resistant Ace alleles and morphometric variations in
           olive fruit fly populations
    • Authors: Ersin Doğaç; İrfan Kandemir, Vatan Taskin
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND In the Mediterranean basin organophosphate (OP) insecticides have been used intensively to control olive fly populations. Acetylcholinesterase (Ace) is the molecular target of OP insecticides, and three resistance‐associated mutations that confer different levels of OP insensitivity have been identified. In this study, genotypes of olive fly Ace were determined in field‐collected populations from broad geographical areas in Turkey. In addition, the levels of asymmetry of wing and leg characters were compared in these populations. RESULTS Our study revealed the existence of a genetically smooth stratification pattern in OP resistance allele distribution in the olive fly populations of Turkey. In contrast to earlier findings, the frequency of Δ3Q was found to be lower in the Aegean region, where the populations have been subjected to high selection pressure. Results based on the morphological differences among the samples revealed a similar pattern for both sides and did not demonstrate a clear separation. CONCLUSION The frequencies and geographic range of resistance alleles indicate that they were selected in the Aegean coast of Turkey and then spread westward towards Europe. One possible explanation for the absence of morphological asymmetry in olive fly samples might be the presence of modifier allele(s) that compensates for the increase in asymmetry.
      PubDate: 2014-12-10T02:51:51.289633-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3958
  • Impact of the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, on the health
           of coast live oak before and after treatment with two systemic
    • Authors: Yigen Chen; Mary L. Flint, Tom W. Coleman, Joseph J. Doccola, Donald M. Grosman, David L. Wood, Steven J. Seybold
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, is threatening the health and survival of oak trees in San Diego Co., CA, USA. From two sites in the core area of the infestation, we report a 2.5‐yr investigation of the impact of A. auroguttatus on coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, before and after treatment with two systemic insecticides, emamectin benzoate (EB) and imidacloprid (IC). RESULTS None of the 446 survey trees died during the study. The crown dieback rating of most trees at both study sites remained unchanged, regardless of insecticide treatment. A higher cumulative increase in the number of A. auroguttatus emergence holes was observed on trees that were previously infested and on trees with larger diameters. Over the 2.5‐yr, the new infestation rates of initially uninfested trees across the untreated and treated groups were 50% (EB) and 32% (IC), and neither EB nor IC treatment affected cumulative increases in the number of emergence holes. EB‐injected trees did not have significant annual increases in the number of A. auroguttatus emergence holes at either 1.5 or 2.5 yr compared to that at 0.5 yr, whereas untreated trees had significant annual increases. Although IC‐injected trees had a significantly greater annual increment in the number of emergence holes than untreated trees during the last year of the study, treated trees had significant reductions in annual increases in emergence holes at both 1.5 and 2.5 yr compared to that at 0.5 yr. Untreated trees had no significant reduction in the annual increase in emergence holes at 1.5 and 2.5 yr. CONCLUSIONS Agrilus auroguttatus preferentially attacked previously infested and larger (DHB > 30 cm) oak trees, but the attacks led to very gradual changes in the health of the trees. Both EB and IC provided minor suppressive effects on A. auroguttatus emergence.
      PubDate: 2014-12-09T10:39:08.479255-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3959
  • Chemical Control of the Asian Citrus Psyllid and of Huanglongbing Disease
           in Citrus
    • Authors: Dhana Raj Boina; Jeffrey R. Bloomquist
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: By 2014, Huanglongbing (HLB), the most destructive disease of citrus, and its insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), became established in all major citrus growing regions of the world including the United States of America (USA), with the exception of California. At present, application of insecticides is the most widely followed option for reducing ACP populations, while application of antibiotics for suppressing HLB disease/symptoms is being practiced in some citrus growing regions. Application of insecticides during the dormant winter season, along with cultivation of HLB‐free seedlings and early detection and removal of symptomatic and asymptomatic trees has been very effective in managing ACP. Area‐wide management of ACP by application of insecticides at low‐volume in large areas of citrus cultivation, has been shown to be effective in managing HLB and reducing management costs. Since insecticide resistance is a major problem in sustainable management of ACP, rotation/alternation of insecticides with different chemistries and modes of action needs to be followed. Besides control of the insect vector, use of antibiotics has temporarily suppressed the symptoms of HLB in diseased trees. Recent efforts to discover and screen existing as well as new compounds for their antibiotic and antimicrobial activities have identified some promising molecules for HLB control. There is an urgent need to find a sustainable solution to the HLB menace through chemical control of ACP populations and within HLB‐infected trees through the judicious use of labeled insecticides (existing and novel chemistries) and antibiotics in area‐wide management programs with due consideration to the insecticide resistance problem.
      PubDate: 2014-12-09T10:32:46.594044-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3957
  • IPM‐CPR for peaches: Incorporating behaviorally‐based methods
           to manage Halyomorpha halys and key pests in peach
    • Authors: Brett R. Blaauw; Dean Polk, Anne L. Nielsen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The invasive brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)) has emerged as a key pest in mid‐Atlantic peach production. Current management of H. halys has disrupted IPM programs by relying exclusively on frequent, repeated, season‐long insecticide applications. We developed a behaviorally‐based tactic termed IPM‐CPR (Crop Perimeter Restructuring) utilizing border sprays for H. halys, groundcover management for Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae), and mating disruption for Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Results IPM‐CPR reduced insecticide usage by 25‐61%. Generally, there was less, and at times significantly less, catfacing injury (attributable to H. halys) in peaches in the IPM‐CPR blocks relative to the standard, and minimal differences in injury due to G. molesta, or L. lineolaris. These results suggest that perimeter applications of insecticides exploit the border‐arrestment behavior of H. halys by controlling them at the orchard edge, reducing damage throughout the block. Conclusion IPM‐CPR significantly reduces the area managed by growers for control of H. halys, while simultaneously managing key pests at levels equal to current grower standard practices. This approach brings IPM tactics back into the orchard system after disruption by the invasive H. halys and potentially supports beneficial insects.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T01:57:09.372604-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3955
  • Inheritance of resistance to 2,4‐D and chlorsulfuron in a multiple
           resistant population of Sisymbrium orientale
    • Authors: Christopher Preston; Jenna M Malone
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background A population of Sisymbrium orientale from South Australia has multiple resistance to auxinic herbicides and inhibitors of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS). Inheritance of resistance to 2,4‐D and chlorsulfuron was studied in this population. Results Crosses were made between 7 resistant individuals as pollen donors to 7 susceptible individuals. Sixteen F1 individuals from 3 crosses were identified by their lack of strong epinasty when treated with 200 g ha−1 2,4‐D. These individuals were selfed and segregation analysis of strong epinasty in the resulting progeny fitted a 3:1 ratio for resistant:susceptible individuals when treated with 200 g ha−1 2,4‐D, as predicted by a single major gene. A detailed dose response of the F2 populations to 2,4‐D confirmed single gene inheritance. Analysis of segregation to 1 g ha−1 chlorsulfuron, a concentration that kills all susceptible individuals, was unable to determine the mode of inheritance. A detailed dose response indicated that two genes contributed to chlorsulfuron resistance; a dominant target site mutation of Pro 197 to Ser and a second gene with dose‐dependent dominance. Conclusions This population has a single dominant allele conferring 2,4‐D resistance, whereas two genes contribute to chlorsulfuron resistance. Single dominant gene inheritance demonstrates that 2,4‐D resistance can be readily selected.
      PubDate: 2014-12-05T01:57:02.576397-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3956
  • Synthesis, Insecticidal Activities, and SAR Studies of Novel Anthranilic
           Diamides Containing Pyridylpyrazole‐4‐carboxamide
    • Authors: Kai Chen; Qi Liu, Jue‐Ping Ni, Hong‐Jun Zhu, Yu‐Feng Li, Qiang Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Anthranilic diamide insecticides containing pyridylpyrazole‐ 5‐carboxamide are extremely important in modern agriculture. New structurally modified compounds with high insecticidal activity were discovered by designing a series of novel pyridylpyrazole‐4‐carboxamides (9I‐9IV) and pyridylpyrazole‐4‐carboxamides (10I‐10IV), wherein the latter was designed by the cyclization of two amides. The structure‐activity relationship (SAR) between the two series was discussed in detail. Results Two series of novel anthranilic diamides containing pyridylpyrazole‐4‐carboxamide were synthesized and characterized via melting point, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, and elemental analyses. The insecticidal activities of these compounds against Plutella xylostella were evaluated. At a concentration of 100 mg L−1, the compounds with unmodified amide moieties (9I‐9IV) exhibited much better larvicidal activities than the other derivative compounds (10I‐10IV). Most of the compounds 9I‐9IV showed over 90% larvicidal activity at 100 mg L−1. Furthermore, compounds 9IIIa, 9IIIc, 9IIId, and 9IVd displayed significant insecticidal activity at 10 mg L−1. DFT calculation was carried out to provide more information regarding SAR. Conclusion Thirty‐two new anthranlic diamides containing pyridylpyrazole‐4‐carboxamide were designed and obtained. SAR analysis and DFT calculation results revealed that the amide moiety had a very important effect on bioactivity. Thsi work provided information that could aid investigations on novel insecticides.
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T01:21:46.144354-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3954
  • Challenges in devising economic spray thresholds for a major pest of
           Australian canola, the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor)
    • Authors: Aston L. Arthur; Ary A. Hoffmann, Paul A. Umina
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background A key component for spray decision‐making in IPM programmes is the establishment of economic injury levels (EIL) and economic thresholds (ET). We aimed to establish an EIL for the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor Tucker) on canola. Results Complex interactions between mite numbers, feeding damage and plant recovery were found, highlighting the challenges in linking H. destructor numbers to yield. A guide of 10 mites per plant was established at the 1st true leaf stage; however simple relationships were not evident at other crop development stages, making it difficult to establish reliable EILs based on mite number. Yield was however strongly associated with plant damage and plant densities, reflecting the impact of mite feeding damage and indicating a plant‐based alternative for establishing thresholds for H. destructor. Drawing on data from multiple field trials, we show that plant densities below 30–40 per m2 could be used as a proxy for mite damage when reliable estimates of mite densities are not possible. Conclusion This plant‐based threshold provides a practical tool that avoids the difficulties of accurately estimating mite densities. The approach may be applicable to other situations where production conditions are unpredictable and interactions between pests and plant hosts are complex.
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T01:21:19.662236-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3952
  • Direct determination of methyl parathion insecticide in rice samples by
           headspace‐solid phase microextraction‐gas
           chromatography–mass spectrometry
    • Authors: Darlan Ferreira da Silva; Francisco Eduardo Paiva Silva, Fernanda Gabrielle S. Silva, Gilvanda Silva Nunes, Mihaela Badea
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The organophosphorus insecticides, especially those based on methyl parathion as active principle, have been used extensively in the protection of rice in the Maranhão State, in the North‐East of Brazil. This paper describes the optimization of a solid phase microextraction (SPME) procedure in confined atmosphere (headspace, HS) for the determination of methyl parathion in rice organic samples, by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC‐MS). Results The proposed HS‐SPME‐GC/MS method has shown to be appropriate for direct analysis of the insecticide in polished rice, with satisfactory results for the following parameters: linearity (correlation coefficient: 0.9985); sensitivity (LOD and LOQ of 0.026 and 0.078 µg.Kg−1, respectively); precision (CVs between 6.1 and 22.4%) and accuracy (recoveries varying from 73.2 to 90,0%). Although the efficiency of the proposed GC/MS do not differ statistically (p
      PubDate: 2014-12-04T01:20:04.486237-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3953
  • Spatial analysis of mass trapping: How close is close enough ?
    • Authors: DM Suckling; LD Stringer, JM Kean, PL Lo, V Bell, JTS Walker, AM Twidle, A Jiménez‐Pérez, AM El‐Sayed
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The identification of new attractants can present opportunities for developing mass trapping, but standard screening methods are needed to expedite this. We have developed a simple approach based on quantifying trap interference in 4 × 4 trap arrays with different spacings. We discuss results from sex pheromones in Lepidoptera (lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana), Diptera (apple leafcurling midge, Dasineura mali), and Homoptera (citrophilous mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae), compared with a kairomone for New Zealand flower thrips (Thrips obscuratus). Results The 25:1 ratio of catch in corner to centre traps observed at 750 D. mali traps/ha was still evident as ~5:1 at 16 traps/ha, suggesting trap interference even at such low trap densities. Trap competition for sex pheromone lures at close spacing (
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T02:04:34.308198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3950
  • Chilo suppressalis and Sesamia inferens display different susceptibility
           responses to Cry1A insecticidal proteins
    • Authors: Bo Li; Yangyang Xu, Cao Han, Lanzhi Han, Maolin Hou, Yufa Peng
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Chilo suppressalis and Sesamia inferens are important lepidopteran rice pests that occur concurrently in rice‐growing areas of China. The development of transgenic rice expressing Cry1A insecticidal proteins has provided a useful strategy for controlling these pests. Results This study evaluated the baseline susceptibilities of C. suppressalis and S. inferens to Cry1A, as well as their responses to selection with Cry1A. Wide geographical variation in susceptibility was observed across all field populations. Within a given population, the LC50 of both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac against S. inferens was drastically higher than that of C. suppressalis. Large LC50 differences were detected between the two species for Cry1Ab in Poyang (74.6‐fold) population, while small differences were detected for Cry1Ac in Changsha (3.6‐fold) population. The Cry1Ac LC50 of C. suppressalis and S. inferens increased 8.4‐ and 4.4‐fold after 21 and 8 selection generations, respectively. Additionally, the estimated realized heritabilities (h2) of Cry1Ac tolerance were 0.11 in C. suppressalis and 0.292 in S. inferens. Conclusions S. inferens exhibited a significantly lower susceptibility and more rapidly evolved resistance to Cry1A compared to C. suppressalis. Therefore, S. inferens is more likely to evolve increased resistance, which threatens the sustainability of rice expressing Cry1A protein.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T01:59:08.613214-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3948
  • Temperature‐dependent fecundity of overwintered Scirtothrips
           dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and its oviposition model with field
    • Authors: Seong Hyuk Kang; Joon‐Ho Lee, Dong‐Soon Kim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background A population model can be a useful tool to understand population dynamics under various environmental factors, and can be useful for evaluating the efficacy of new management practices. This study was conducted to construct an oviposition model of overwintered Scirtothrips dorsalis as a part of its whole population model. Results Adult longevity decreased with increasing temperature and ranged from 44.7 d at 13 °C to 9.9 d at 33.0 °C. S. dorsalis showed a maximum fecundity of 52.6 eggs per female at 21 °C, which declined to 13.9 eggs per female at 33 °C. Egg development time decreased from 28.41 d at 13 °C to 5.14 d at 29 °C and 5.5 d at 33 °C. A oviposition model was developed based on three temperature‐dependent sub‐models: total fecundity, age‐specific oviposition rate and age‐specific survival rate model. Conclusion The oviposition model outputs well pursued the field occurrence patterns of S. dorsalis egg populations with a peak time discrepancy of 3 to 4 days. Our model should be useful for a population modeling of S. dorsalis in agricultural corps. Furthermore, the current model can be independently used for the timing of spraying against S. dorsalis in IPM programs of various crops.
      PubDate: 2014-12-03T01:58:59.147398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3949
  • Impact of Cogongrass Management Strategies on Generalist Predators in
           Cogongrass Infested Longleaf Pine Plantations
    • Authors: Sallie M. Sells; David W. Held, Stephen F. Enloe, Nancy J. Loewenstein, Lori G. Eckhardt
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica Beav.), an aggressive, invasive weed, with a global distribution. In North America, it threatens the integrity of southeastern pine agroecosystems including longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). While studies have examined the impacts of cogongrass and various vegetation management strategies on longleaf pine understory plant communities, little is known about how they impact on associated insect communities. To understand the effect cogongrass management strategies on arthropod natural enemies and bark beetles, a split plot design to test fire (whole plot) and 4 sub plot treatments: control, herbicide, seeding, and herbicide plus seeding, was used. Arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps and sweep samples. Results After two years of sampling, total natural enemies were not significantly affected by subplot treatment but were affected by burn treatment. Upon subdividing natural enemies into groups, only spiders were significantly affected by subplot treatment, but predatory beetles and ants were significantly affected by burn treatment. Abundance of root feeding bark beetles (Hylastes spp.) was not significant by subplot or whole plot treatments. Conclusions Multiple applications of herbicide remains the most effective way to manage cogongrass in longleaf pine. In this study, we found limited evidence that cogongrass management with herbicides would negatively impact arthropod natural enemies associated with longleaf pine or locally increase root‐feeding bark beetles.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T08:14:28.936577-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3951
  • Predicting codling moth (Cydia pomonella) phenology in North Carolina
           based on temperature and improved generation turnover estimates
    • Authors: Thomas M. Chappell; George G. Kennedy, James F. Walgenbach
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is major world‐wide pest of apples, pears and walnuts. A temperature‐driven phenological model of codling moth developed in Michigan has been utilized in North Carolina (NC) and other states for decades. Systematic inaccuracy of this model in predicting moth emergence in NC suggests that the relationship between emergence and temperature differs between the American midwest and southeast, or that additional factors may influence the system. Results A method was developed to optimize the estimation of generation turnover intervals. Emergence was modeled as a function of heat unit accumulation. Significant differences between emergence predictions based on the resultant model, and an existing model developed in Michigan, were found. Conclusion A new model of codling moth emergence incorporating improved estimates for generation turnover for North Carolina offers predictive improvement with practical importance to management. Differences between the emergence of susceptible and resistant moth populations were also investigated, leading to the suggestion that resistance to insecticides should be considered in future studies of emergence phenology.
      PubDate: 2014-12-02T08:14:22.247219-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3947
  • Abiotic Partitioning of Clothianidin Under Simulated Rice Field Conditions
    • Authors: Rebecca A. Mulligan; Sanjai J. Parikh, Ronald S. Tjeerdema
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Clothianidin is registered for pre‐ and post‐flood application in California rice fields for control of the rice seed midge, Cricotopus sylvestris, and rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus. The objective was to characterize air‐ and soil‐water partitioning of clothianidin under simulated California rice field conditions. Results Clothianidin was confirmed to be non‐volatile (from water) via the gas‐purge method, as no loss from the aqueous phase was observed at 22 and 37 °C; an upper limit KH value was calculated at 2.9 × 10−11 Pa m3 mol−1 (20 °C). Soil‐water partitioning was determined by the batch equilibrium method using four soils collected from rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, and sorption affinity (Kd), sorbent capacity, desorption and organic carbon‐normalized distribution (Koc) were determined. Values for pH, cation exchange capacity, and organic matter content ranged between 4.5 to 6.6, 5.9 to 37.9, and 1.25 to 1.97%, respectively. Log Koc values (22 and 37 °C) ranged between 2.6 to 2.7, while sorption capacity was low at 22 °C and further decreased at 37 °C. Hysteresis was observed in soils at both temperatures, suggesting that bound residues do not readily desorb. Conclusions Soil‐ and air‐water partitioning will not significantly reduce offsite transport of clothianidin from flooded rice fields via drainage.
      PubDate: 2014-12-01T09:19:27.505256-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3946
  • Palatability and efficacy of bromadiolone rodenticides block bait
           previously exposed to environmental conditions
    • Authors: Lia Nakagawa; Eduardo de Masi, Emerson Narciso, Hildebrando Montenegro Neto, Solange Papini
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In São Paulo city, rodent infestation is considered a serious public health problem and object of a municipal rodent control program. In the routine, one of the most important methods involves baiting in sewers, using bromadiolone block bait in a pulsed baiting strategy. It has been observed that after each pulse bait is not always consumed and its appearance has altered and this change has led to concerns about the efficacy. We assessed whether exposure to sewer conditions influences the palatability and efficacy of rodenticide baits to Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Baits containing bromadiolone as active ingredient were placed in sewers, removed after 30 days and offered to rats in a two‐choice food trial and a no‐choice food trial. Results The appearance of the rodenticides baits changed after 30 days exposure to sewer conditions but they continued to be palatable and effective against rats. The level of mortality was considered satisfactory, 75% in the two‐choice food trial and 100% in no‐choice food trial. Conclusion Results support the reuse of rodenticide block bait in rodent control. It seems justified to continue using/reuse baits even when their appearance has changed after 30 days exposure in sewer systems.
      PubDate: 2014-11-25T03:55:48.632898-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3944
  • Sensitivity of Podosphaera xanthii populations to anti‐powdery
           mildew fungicides in Spain
    • Authors: Davinia Bellón‐Gómez; David Vela‐Corcía, Alejandro Pérez‐García, Juan A Torés
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cucurbit powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii limits crop production in Spain, where disease control is largely dependent on fungicides. In previous studies, high levels of resistance to QoI and DMI fungicides were documented in south central Spain. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of P. xanthii populations to other fungicides and to provide tools for improved disease management. Results Using a leaf‐disc assay, sensitivity to thiophanate‐methyl, bupirimate and quinoxyfen of 50 isolates of P. xanthii was analysed to determine discriminatory concentrations between sensitive and resistant isolates. With the exception of thiophanate‐methyl, no clearly different groups of isolates could be identified, and as a result, discriminatory concentrations were established on the basis of maximum fungicide field application rate. Subsequently, a survey of P. xanthii resistance to these fungicides was carried out by testing a collection of 237 isolates obtained during the 2002–2011 cucurbit growing seasons. This analysis revealed very high levels of resistance to thiophanate‐methyl (95 %). By contrast, no resistance to bupirimate and quinoxyfen was found Conclusion Results suggest that thiophanate‐methyl has become completely ineffective for controlling cucurbit powdery mildew in Spain. By contrast, bupirimate and quinoxyfen remain as very effective tools for cucurbit powdery mildew management.
      PubDate: 2014-11-22T02:16:35.246288-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3943
  • Control of insect vectors and plant viruses in protected crops by novel
           pyrethroid‐treated nets
    • Authors: Beatriz Dáder; Saioa Legarrea, Aránzazu Moreno, María Plaza, Michele Carmo‐Sousa, Fermín Amor, Elisa Viñuela, Alberto Fereres
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Long Lasting Insecticide‐Treated Nets (LLITNs) constitute a novel alternative that combines physical and chemical tactics to prevent insect access and the spread of insect‐transmitted plant viruses in protected enclosures. This approach is based on a slow release insecticide‐treated net with large hole sizes that allow improved ventilation of greenhouses. The efficacy of a wide range of LLITNs was tested under laboratory conditions against Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii and Bemisia tabaci. Two nets were selected for field tests under a high insect infestation pressure in the presence of plants infected with Cucumber mosaic virus and Cucurbit aphid‐borne yellows virus. The efficacy of Aphidius colemani, a parasitoid commonly used for biological control of aphids was studied in parallel field experiments. Results LLITNs produced high mortality of aphids although their efficacy decreased over time with sun exposure. Certain nets excluded whiteflies under laboratory conditions, however they failed in the field. Nets effectively blocked the invasion of aphids and reduced the incidence of viruses in the field. The parasitoid A. colemani was compatible with LLITNs. Conclusion LLITNs of appropriate mesh size can become a very valuable tool in combination with biocontrol agents for additional protection against insect vectors of plant viruses under IPM programs.
      PubDate: 2014-11-18T02:18:12.263223-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3942
  • Insect P450 inhibitors and insecticides: challenges and opportunities
    • Authors: René Feyereisen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: P450 enzymes are encoded by a large number of genes in insects, often over a hundred. They play important roles in insecticide metabolism and resistance, and growing numbers of P450 enzymes are now known to catalyse important physiological reactions, such as hormone metabolism or cuticular hydrocarbon synthesis. Ways to inhibit P450 enzymes specifically or less specifically are well understood, as P450 inhibitors are found as drugs, as fungicides, as plant growth regulators and as insecticide synergists. Yet there are no P450 inhibitors as insecticides on the market. As new modes of action are constantly needed to support insecticide resistance management, P450 inhibitors should be considered because of their high potential for insect selectivity, their well‐known mechanisms of action and the increasing ease of rational design and testing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-11-17T11:26:10.6535-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3895
  • The pharmacokinetic properties of bifenthrin in the rat following multiple
           routes of exposure
    • Authors: Derek Gammon; Zhiwei Liu, Appavu Chandrasekaran, Shaaban ElNaggar
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Pyrethroids generally have relatively low oral toxicity but variable inhalation toxicity. The pharmacokinetics of bifenthrin in the rat after oral, inhalation and intravenous administration is described. Pyrethroid acute toxicity via oral and inhalation routes is also presented. RESULTS Groups of male rats were dosed by oral gavage at 3.1 mg kg−1 in 1 mL kg−1 of corn oil (the critical, acute, oral benchmark dose lower limit, BMDL) and at an equivalent dose by inhalation (0.018 mg L−1) for 4 h.  At 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h after dosing initiation, blood plasma and brain bifenthrin concentrations were measured. The maximum concentrations of bifenthrin in plasma were 361 ng mL−1 or 0.853 μM (oral) and 232 ng mL−1 or 0.548 μM (inhalation), and in brain they were 83 and 73 ng g−1. The area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) values were 1969 h ng mL−1 (plasma) and 763 h ng mL−1 (brain) following oral gavage dosing, and 1584 h ng mL−1 (plasma) and 619 h ng mL−1 (brain) after inhalation. Intravenous dosing resulted in apparent terminal half‐life (t1/2) values of 13.4 h (plasma) and 11.1 h (brain) and in AUC0–∞ values of 454 and 1566 h ng mL−1 for plasma and brain. Clearance from plasma was 37 mL min−1 kg−1. CONCLUSION Peak plasma and brain concentrations were generally a little higher after oral dosing (by ca 14%). Inhalation administration of bifenthrin did not cause increases in exposure in plasma or brain by avoiding first‐pass effects in the liver. The elimination t1/2 was comparable with other pyrethroids and indicated little bioaccumulation potential. These pharmokinetics data allow risks following inhalation exposure to be modeled using oral toxicity data. © 2014 The
      Authors . Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
      PubDate: 2014-11-17T11:22:15.938809-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3883
  • Knocking down a putative Δ1‐pyrroline‐5‐carboxylate
           dehydrogenase gene by RNA interference inhibits flight and causes adult
           lethality in the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)
    • Authors: Pin‐Jun Wan; Kai‐Yun Fu, Feng‐Gong Lü, Xin‐Xin Wang, Wen‐Chao Guo, Guo‐Qing Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Leptinotarsa decemlineata is an able disperser by flight. Novel control strategies must be explored to efficiently control the damage and inhibit the dispersal. Proline is a major energy substrate during flight. Delta‐pyrroline‐5‐carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDh) catalyzes the second step of proline degradation for the production of ATP. Results A full‐length Ldp5cdh cDNA was cloned. Ldp5cdh was ubiquitously expressed in the eggs, the first through fourth larval instars, wandering larvae, pupae and adults. In the adults, Ldp5cdh mRNA was widely distributed in thorax muscles, midgut, foregut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, ventral ganglion, fat body and epidermis, with the expression levels from the highest to the lowest. Two double‐stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) (dsLdp5cdh1 and dsLdp5cdh2) targeting Ldp5cdh were constructed and bacterially expressed. Ingestion of dsLdp5cdh1 and dsLdp5cdh2 successfully silenced Ldp5cdh, significantly increased the contents of proline, arginine and alanine, but strongly decreased the contents of asparate, asparagine, glutamate and glutamine in the hemolymph. Moreover, knocking down Ldp5cdh significantly reduced ATP content, decreased flight speed, shortened flight distance, and increased adult mortality. Conclusions It seems that identified Ldp5cdh encodes a functional P5CDh enzyme, and Ldp5cdh may serve as a potential target for dsRNA‐based pesticide for control the damage and dispersal of L. decemlineata adults.
      PubDate: 2014-11-14T09:23:06.484767-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3941
  • Susceptibility to sulfuryl fluoride and lack of cross‐resistance to
           phosphine in developmental stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium
           castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
    • Authors: Rajeswaran Jagadeesan; Manoj K Nayak, Hervoika Pavic, Kerri Chandra, Patrick J Collins
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Our aim was to ascertain the potential of sulfuryl fluoride (SF) as an alternative fumigant to manage phosphine‐resistant pests. We tested susceptibility of all life stages of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), to SF and assessed the presence of cross‐resistance to this fumigant in phosphine‐resistant strains of this species. Results Analysis of dose–response data indicated that the egg was the stage most tolerant to SF under a 48 h exposure period. At LC50, eggs were 29× more tolerant than other immature stages and adults, and required a relatively high concentration of 48.2 mg L−1 for complete mortality. No significant differences in tolerance to SF were observed among the three larval instars, pupae and adults; and all of these stages were controlled at a low concentration of 1.32 mg L−1. Phosphine‐resistant strains did not show cross‐resistance to SF. Conclusion Our research concluded that the current maximum registered rate of SF, 1500 g h m−3 is adequate to control all the post‐embryonic life stages of T. castaneum over a 48 h fumigation period, but it will fail to achieve complete mortality of eggs, indicating the risk of some survival of eggs under this short exposure period. As there is no cross resistance to SF in phosphine‐resistant insects, it will play a key role in managing phosphine resistance in stored grain insect pests.
      PubDate: 2014-11-08T01:31:37.240442-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3940
  • Foraging behavior of the parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus under intraguild
           predation risk by Macrolophus pygmaeus
    • Authors: María Concepción Velasco‐Hernández; Ricardo Ramirez‐Romero, Carla Sánchez‐Hernández, Antonio Biondi, Alejandro Muñoz‐Urias, Nicolas Desneux
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Intraguild predation (IGP), predation between species that use a common resource, can affect the populations of a pest, of the pest's natural enemy (IG‐prey), and the predator of the pest's natural enemy (IG‐predator). In this study, we determined whether the parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) (IG‐prey), modifies its foraging behavior under the risk of IGP by Macrolophus pygmaeus (Hemiptera: Miridae) (IG‐predator). Parasitoid behavior was analyzed using two bioassays (choice and no‐choice) with the following treatments: i) control, tomato leaf infested with whitefly nymphs; ii) PEP, tomato leaf infested with whitefly nymphs and previously exposed to the IG‐predator; and iii) PP, tomato leaf infested with whitefly nymphs, with both, the IG‐predator and the IG‐prey present. RESULTS: In both bioassays, we found that E. eremicus did not significantly modify the number of ovipositions, time of residence, duration of oviposition, and behavioral sequence. However, in the no‐choice bioassay, the number of attacks was higher and their duration shorter in the PEP treatment than in the control. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the parasitoid may detect IGP risk to a certain extent, but it did not significantly modify its foraging behavior suggesting that simultaneous release of the two natural enemies can be successfully employed.
      PubDate: 2014-11-06T03:06:23.32602-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3938
  • Maize (Zea mays) seeds can detect above ground weeds; thiamethoxam can
           alter the view
    • Authors: Maha Afifi; Elizabeth Lee, Lewis Lukens, Clarence Swanton
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Far red light is known to penetrate soil and delay seed germination. Thiamethoxam as a seed treatment has been observed to enhance seed germination. No previous work has explored the effect of thiamethoxam on the physiological response of buried maize seed when germinating in the presence of above ground weeds. We hypothesized that the changes in red: far red reflected from above ground weeds will be detected by maize seed phytochrome and delay seed germination by decreasing the level of GA and increasing ABA. We further hypothesized that thiamethoxam will overcome this delay in germination. Results Thiamethoxam enhanced seed germination in the presence of above ground weeds by increasing GA signaling, down regulating of Della protein and ABA signaling genes. An increase in amylase activity and a degradation of starch were also observed. Conclusions Far red reflected from the above ground weeds was capable of penetrating below the soil surface and was detected by maize seed phytochrome. Thiamethoxam altered the effect of far red on seed germination by stimulating GA and inhibiting ABA synthesis. This is the first study to suggest that the mode of action of thiamethoxam involves both GA synthesis and ABA inhibition.
      PubDate: 2014-11-04T05:36:25.694161-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3936
  • Acute Tier‐1 and Tier‐2 effect assessment approaches in the
           EFSA Aquatic Guidance Document: are they sufficiently protective for
    • Authors: René P.A. van Wijngaarden; Lorraine Maltby, Theo C.M. Brock
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objective of this paper is to evaluate whether the acute Tier‐1 and Tier‐2 methods as proposed by the Aquatic Guidance Document recently published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) are appropriate for deriving regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) for insecticides. The Tier‐1 and Tier‐2 RACs were compared to RACs based on threshold concentrations from micro/mesocosm studies (ETO‐RAC). A lower‐tier RAC was considered as sufficiently protective if less than the corresponding ETO‐RAC. Results ETO‐RACs were calculated for repeated (n = 13) and/or single pulsed applications (n = 17) of 26 insecticides to micro/mesocosms, giving a maximum of 30 insecticide X application combinations (i.e. cases) for comparison. Acute Tier‐1 RACs (for 24 insecticides) were lower than the corresponding ETO‐RACs in 27 out of 29 cases, while Tier‐2 Geom‐RACs (for 23 insecticides) were lower in 24 out of 26 cases. The Tier‐2 SSD‐RAC (for 21 insecticides) using HC5/3 was lower than the ETO‐RAC in 23 out of 27 cases whereas the Tier‐2 SSD‐RAC using HC5/6 was protective in 25 out of 27 cases. Conclusion The Tier‐1 and Tier‐2 approaches proposed by EFSA for acute effect assessment are sufficiently protective for the majority of insecticides evaluated. Further evaluation may be needed for insecticides with more novel chemistries (neonicotinoids, biopesticides) and compounds that show delayed effects (IGRs).
      PubDate: 2014-11-04T02:05:50.445997-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3937
  • Thymus vulgaris essential oil and thymol against Alternaria alternata
           (Fr.) Keissler: Effects on growth, viability, early infection, and
           cellular mode of action
    • Authors: Fabiano J Perina; Douglas C Amaral, Rafael S Fernandes, Claudia R G Labory, Glauco A Teixeira, Eduardo Alves
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In initial assays Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) has demonstrated activity against several plant‐pathogenic fungi and has reduced the fungal diseases to levels comparable to commercial fungicides. Thus, the goal of this work was to identify the mode of action in fungi of the TEO and its major compound thymol (henceforth called TOH) at cellular level using an ultrastructure approach. Results TEO from leaves and TOH had minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 500 and 250 µg mL−1 respectively, against A. alternata; under the same conditions, MICs for commercial fungicides and TEO were 1250 and 500 µg mL−1, respectively. Ultrastructure analysis showed that TOH phenolic substance prevented fungal growth, decreased fungal viability and prevented the penetration in fruits by a cell wall/plasma membrane interference mode of action with organelles targeted for destruction in the cytoplasm. Such mode of action differs from protective and preventive‐curative commercial fungicides used as pattern control. Conclusion These findings suggest that TOH was responsible for the anti‐fungal activity of TEO. Therefore, both the essential oil and its major substance have potential for use in the development of new phenolic structures and analogues to control Alternaria brown spot disease caused by A. alternata.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T01:32:47.083738-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3933
  • The contribution of spray formulation component variables to foliar uptake
           of agrichemicals
    • Authors: W Alison Forster; Mark O Kimberley
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objective of the current study was to determine the contribution of active ingredient (AI) and surfactant, and their concentrations, to the foliar uptake of agrichemicals, and to examine the physical properties that would need to be included in a model for foliar uptake. Results All spray formulation component variables significantly affected uptake (73% deviance explained), explaining from 43% (AI concentration nested within AI) to 5.6% (Surfactant) percentage deviance. The only significant interaction was between AI and surfactant (15.8% deviance explained). Overall, 90% of the deviance could be explained by the variables and their first order interactions. Conclusions Uptake increased with increasing lipophilicity of the AI at concentrations below those causing precipitation on the leaf surface. AI concentration had a far greater (negative) effect on the uptake of the lipophilic molecule epoxiconazole. The uptake of 2‐deoxy‐D‐glucose (DOG) and 2,4‐dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4‐D) increased with increasing HLB of the surfactant, the effect of HLB being far greater on the hydrophilic molecule DOG. However the differences observed in epoxiconazole uptake due to surfactant were strongly positively related to the spread area of the formulation on the leaf surface. For all AI, uptake increased in a similar manner with increasing molar surfactant concentration.
      PubDate: 2014-10-30T01:31:39.656754-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3934
  • Engineering for disease resistance: persistent obstacles clouding tangible
    • Authors: Ewen Mullins
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The accelerating pace of gene discovery coupled with novel plant breeding technologies provides tangible opportunities with which to engineer disease resistance into agricultural and horticultural crops. This is especially the case in regards to potato, wheat, apple and banana, which are afflicted with fungal and bacterial diseases that impact significantly on each crop's economic viability. Yet, public scepticism coupled with burdensome regulatory systems remain the two primary obstacles preventing the translation of research discoveries into cultivars of agronomic value. In this perspective review, the potential to address these issues is explained while specific opportunities arising from recent genomics‐based initiatives are highlighted as clear examples of what can be achieved in regards to developing disease resistance in crop species. There is an urgent need to tackle the challenge of agri‐chemical dependency in current crop production systems and while engineering for disease resistance is possible, it is not the sole solution and should not be proclaimed as so. Instead, all systems must be given due consideration with none dismissed in the absence of science‐based support; thereby ensuring future cropping systems have the necessary advantage over those pathogens that continue to inflict losses year after year.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T06:20:59.92984-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3930
  • Flupyradifurone: a brief profile of a new butenolide insecticide
    • Authors: Ralf Nauen; Peter Jeschke, Robert Velten, Michael E. Beck, Ulrich Ebbinghaus‐Kintscher, Wolfgang Thielert, Katharina Wölfel, Matthias Haas, Klaus Kunz, Georg Raupach
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The development and commercialization of new chemical classes of insecticides for efficient crop protection measures against destructive invertebrate pests is of utmost importance to overcome resistance issues and to secure sustainable crop yields. Flupyradifurone introduced here is the first representative of the novel butenolide class of insecticides active against various sucking pests and showing an excellent safety profile. Results The discovery of flupyradifurone was inspired by the butenolide scaffold in naturally occurring stemofoline. Flupyradifurone acts reversibly as an agonist on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, but is structurally different from known agonists as shown by chemical similarity analysis. It shows a fast action on a broad range of sucking pests as shown in laboratory bioassays and exhibits excellent field efficacy on a number of crops using different application methods including foliar, soil, seed treatment and drip irrigation. It is readily taken up by plants and translocated in the xylem as demonstrated by phosphor imaging analysis. Flupyradifurone is active on resistant pests including cotton whiteflies and is not metabolized by recombinantly expressed CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 conferring metabolic resistance to neonicotinoids and pymetrozine. Conclusion The novel butenolide insecticide flupyradifurone shows unique properties and will become a new tool for integrated pest management (IPM) around the globe as demonstrated by its insecticidal, ecotoxicological and safety profile.
      PubDate: 2014-10-28T21:52:14.162326-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3932
  • Spatial distribution and sequential sampling plans for Tuta absoluta
           (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomato crops
    • Authors: Arturo Cocco; Giuseppe Serra, Andrea Lentini, Salvatore Deliperi, Gavino Delrio
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This work investigated the within‐ and between‐plant distribution of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), in order to define action thresholds based on leaf infestation and propose enumerative and binomial sequential sampling plans for pest management applications in protected crops. Results The pest spatial distribution was aggregated between plants, and median leaves were the most suitable sample to evaluate its density. Action thresholds of 36 and 48%, 43 and 56%, 60 and 73% of infested leaves, corresponding to economic thresholds of 1 and 3% of damaged fruits, were defined for tomato cultivars with big, medium and small fruits, respectively. Green's method was a more suitable enumerative sampling plan as it required a lower sampling effort. Binomial sampling plans needed lower average sample sizes than enumerative plans to make a treatment decision, with probabilities of error 
      PubDate: 2014-10-28T21:52:06.938385-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3931
  • Slow Release Formulations Of The Herbicide Mcpa By Using
           Clay‐Protein Composites.
    • Authors: Alaa‐Aldin Alromeed; Laura Scrano, Sabino Bufo, Tomás Undabeytia
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background MCPA [(4‐chloro‐2‐methylphenoxy) acetic acid] is a widely used herbicide showing a high leaching in the soil. In this study, clay‐protein‐based‐formulations of this herbicide were designed to reduce the risk of water pollution resulting from conventional formulations. Results Clay‐gelatin formulations of MCPA were prepared and the influence of synthesis parameters such as pH and the presence of a plasticizer (glycerol) on the active substance content and performance of the new formulations were examined. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements provided information on the stability of the gelatin matrix in the gelatin‐clay complex. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that the herbicide was retained by the formation of hydrogen bonds with side amino groups of the protein backbone and polyion complexation. Clay‐protein‐based‐formulations prepared at a pH below the isoelectric point (pI) value of the protein and in the absence of glycerol provided the slowest release of MCPA in water. Soil columns experiments showed a four‐fold reduction in leaching and improved bioactivity in the upper soil layer for the new formulation compared to a commercial product used as a control. Conclusions A reduction in the recommended dose of MCPA can be achieved by employing clay‐gelatin, which reduces the environmental risk associated with herbicide applications.
      PubDate: 2014-10-27T01:44:30.524896-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3929
  • Integrated Pest Management and Weed Management
    • Authors: Micheal D. K. Owen; Hugh J. Beckie, Julia Y. Leeson, Jason K. Norsworthy, Larry E. Steckel
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background There is interest in more diverse weed management tactics because of evolved herbicide resistances in important weeds in many US and Canada crop systems. While herbicide resistances in weeds is not new, the issue has become critical because of the adoption of simple, convenient and inexpensive crop systems based on genetically engineered glyphosate tolerant crop cultivars. Importantly, genetic engineering has not been a factor in rice and wheat, two globally important food crops. Results There are many tactics that help mitigate herbicide resistance in weeds and should be widely adopted. Evolved herbicide resistance in key weeds has influenced a limited number of growers to include a more diverse suite of tactics to supplement existing herbicidal tactics. Most growers still emphasize herbicides often to the exclusion to alternative tactics. Conclusions Application of integrated pest management for weeds is better characterized as integrated weed management and more typically, integrated herbicide management. However, adoption of diverse weed management tactics is limited. Modifying herbicide use will not solve herbicide resistance in weeds and the relief provided by different herbicide use practices is generally short‐lived at best. More diversity of tactics for weed management must be incorporated in crop systems.
      PubDate: 2014-10-27T01:40:08.932698-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3928
  • Presence and impact of allelic variations of two alternative s‐kdr
           mutations, M918T and M918L, in the voltage‐gated sodium channel of
           the green‐peach aphid Myzus persicae
    • Authors: Michela Panini; Matteo Anaclerio, Vincenzo Puggioni, Lorenzo Stagnati, Ralf Nauen, Emanuele Mazzoni
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Pyrethroids have been widely employed in order to control several agricultural pests, including Myzus persicae. Target‐site resistance is the main mechanism that confers insensitivity to this class of compounds and the most common amino acid substitutions are kdr (L1014F) and s‐kdr (M918T), but recently another mutation in the s‐kdr locus (M918L) has been described in French and Korean populations of M. persicae. Results Molecular analysis of several Italian populations of M. persicae by pyrosequencing revealed the presence of the new s‐kdr mutation (M918L) in different forms. It was found in two different nucleotide polymorphisms (a/t or a/c substitution), in heterozygous or homozygous status, and also in combination with the classic kdr and s‐kdr. Bioassays on populations carrying M918L mutation show that it strongly affects pyrethroid efficacy, particularly of type II pyrethroids such as lambda‐cyhalothrin, whilst it has no effect against DDT. Conclusion This work contributes to add more information about the new s‐kdr M918L mutation in M. persicae, describing a more complicated situation due to the possible combination with the classic L1014F and M918T. Our data open new questions on the origin of these new genotypes with different combinations of target‐site mutations and also on their possible influence on control strategies.
      PubDate: 2014-10-24T02:14:27.189913-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3927
  • Developing effective fumigation protocols to manage strongly phosphine
           resistant Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae)
    • Authors: Ramandeep Kaur; Manoj K Nayak
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The emergence of high levels of resistance in Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) in recent years threatens the sustainability of phosphine, a key fumigant used worldwide to disinfest stored grain. We aimed at developing robust fumigation protocols that could be used in a range of practical situations to control this resistant pest. Results Lethal time (in days) to kill 99.9% (LT99.9) of mixed‐age populations, containing all life stages, of a susceptible and a strongly resistant C. ferrugineus populations were established at three phosphine concentrations (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L−1) and three temperatures (25, 30 and 35 °C). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that a phosphine concentration and temperature both contributed significantly to the LT99.9 of a population (P 
      PubDate: 2014-10-20T03:17:17.333779-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3926
  • Fumigant toxicity of basil oil compounds and related compounds to Thrips
           palmi and Orius strigicollis
    • Authors: Kwang‐Ho Kim; Chang‐Geun Yi, Young‐Joon Ahn, Soon Il Kim, Sang‐Guei Lee, Jun‐Ran Kim
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This study was aimed at assessing the fumigant toxicity to adult Thrips palmi (a serious insect pest) and Orius strigicollis (a beneficial predator insect) of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil compounds and structurally related compounds using vapour‐phase toxicity bioassays. Results Against adult T. palmi, linalool (LD50, 0.0055 mg cm−3) was the most toxic fumigant and was 15.2–fold more effective than dichlorvos (0.0837 mg cm−3). Strong fumigant toxicity was also observed in pulegone (0.0095 mg cm−3), (±)‐camphor (0.0097 mg cm−3) and 1,8‐cineole (0.0167 mg cm−3). Moderate toxicity was produced by camphene, 3‐carene, (−)‐menthone, (+)‐α‐pinene, (+)‐β‐pinene, α‐terpineol and (−)‐α‐thujone (0.0215–0.0388 mg cm−3). Against adult O. strigicollis, dichlorvos (LD50, 9.0 × 10−10 mg cm−3) was the most toxic fumigant, whereas the LD50 values of these compounds ranged from 0.0127 to >0.23 mg cm−3. Based upon selective toxicity ratio the compounds described are more selective than dichlorvos. Conclusion Basil oil compounds described merit further study as potential insecticides for control of T. palmi in greenhouses because of their generally lower toxicity to O. strigicollis and their greater activity as a fumigant than dichlorvos.
      PubDate: 2014-10-15T03:12:44.360636-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3925
  • First report of resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides
           in yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus): Confirmation and characterization
    • Authors: Parsa Tehranchian; Jason K. Norsworthy, Vijay Nandula, Scott McElroy, Shu Chen, Robert C. Scott
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Yellow nutsedge is one of the most problematic sedges in Arkansas rice, requiring the frequent use of halosulfuron (sulfonylurea) for its control. In the summer of 2012, halosulfuron at 53 g ha−1(labeled field rate) failed to control yellow nutsedge. The level of resistance to halosulfuron was determined in the putative resistant biotype and its cross‐resistance to other acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors from four different herbicide families. ALS enzyme assays and analysis of the ALS gene were used to ascertain the resistance mechanism. Results None of the resistant plants were killed by halosulfuron at a dose of 13,568 g ha−1 (256X the field dose), indicating a high level of resistance. Based on the whole plant bioassay, the resistant biotype was not controlled by any of the ALS‐inhibiting herbicides (imazamox, imazethapyr, penoxsulam, bispyribac, pyrithiobac‐sodium, bensulfuron, and halosulfuron) tested at the labeled field rate. The ALS enzyme from the resistant biotype was 2,540 times less responsive to halosulfuron than the susceptible biotype, and a Trp574 to Leu substitution was detected by ALS gene sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq. Conclusion The results suggesting a target‐site alteration as the mechanism of resistance in yellow nutsedge, which accounts for the cross‐resistance to other ALS‐inhibiting herbicide families.
      PubDate: 2014-10-11T00:15:13.656056-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3922
  • The Cumulative Damage Index Method: A New Method to Evaluate the
           Effectiveness of Control Measures for Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera:
    • Authors: Fang Mu; Lijuan Sun, Sifang Wang, Fangmeng Duan, Songdong Gu, Shujian Sun, Yanzhou Zhang, Changpeng Shen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background All previously and currently used methods for effectiveness evaluation of control measures for the Diamondback Moth (DBM) do not simultaneously take the actual damage and population size into consideration. Here, we propose a new method, the Cumulative Damage Index Method, in which the number of larvae and their amount of food consumption were simultaneously included in the calculation of the Theoretical Cumulative Damage Index (T) and Actual Cumulative Damage Index (A). An evaluation was made by the reduced degree of damage that was calculated according to T and A. Results Based on the new method, the corrected effectiveness of the combined use of biological measures, chemical insecticides, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.), and P. xylostella granulosis virus (PxGV) on DBM were 35.85%, 2.37%, 12.50%, and 11.77%, respectively. Under the action of natural factors, the Intrinsic Rate of Increase (I) of DBM was 5.1 ± 1.4; Under the integrated actions of natural factors and these four types of measures, the “I” of DBM was 0.34 ± 0.1, 6.1 ± 1.5, 2.1 ± 0.5, and 1.1 ± 0.3, respectively. The sole effectiveness of Trichogramma spp. when integrated with other natural factors, integrated biological measures, and chemical insecticides was 21.43 ± 1.69%, 45.27 ± 4.09%, and 20.68 ± 2.60%, respectively. Conclusions There was some difference between the effectiveness evaluated by the new method and “I”, and the actual damage caused by DBM could be well reflected by “A”. The new method is more scientifically appropriate and practical for the effectiveness evaluation than existing methods.
      PubDate: 2014-10-09T04:47:20.470318-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3923
  • Resistance to lambda‐cyhalothrin in Spanish field populations of
           Ceratitis capitata and metabolic resistance mediated by P450 in a
           resistant strain.
    • Authors: Rabeh Arouri; Gaelle Le Goff, Hiethem Hemden, Vicente Navarro‐Llopis, Mariem M'saad, Pedro Castañera, René Feyereisen, Pedro Hernández‐Crespo, Félix Ortego
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The withdrawal of malathion in the European Union in 2009 resulted in a large increase of lambda‐cyhalothrin applications for the control of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, in Spanish citrus crops. Results Spanish field populations of C. capitata have developed resistance to lambda‐cyhalothrin (6 to 14‐fold), achieving LC50 values (129 ‐ 287 ppm) higher than the recommended concentration for field treatments (125 ppm). These results contrast with the high susceptibility to lambda‐cyhalothrin found in three Tunisian field populations. We have studied the mechanism of resistance in the laboratory selected resistant strain W‐1Kλ (205‐fold resistance). Bioassays with synergists showed that resistance was almost completely suppressed by the P450 inhibitor PBO. The study of the expression of 53 of the 74 currently annotated P450 genes in the C. capitata genome revealed that CYP6A51 was overexpressed (13‐18‐fold) in the resistant strain. The W‐1Kλ strain also showed high levels of cross‐resistance to etofenprox (240‐fold) and deltamethrin (150‐fold). Conclusion Field‐evolved resistance to lambda‐cyhalothrin has been found in C. capitata. Metabolic resistance mediated by P450 appears to be the main resistance mechanism in the resistant strain W‐1Kλ. The levels of cross‐resistance found may compromise the effectiveness of other pyrethroids for the control of this species.
      PubDate: 2014-10-09T04:46:40.255143-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3924
  • Compatibility of reduced‐risk insecticides with the non‐target
           predatory mite Iphiseius degenerans (Acari: Phytoseiidae)
    • Authors: İsmail Döker; Maria L Pappas, Konstantinos Samaras, Anneta Triantafyllou, Cengiz Kazak, George D Broufas
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Iphiseius degenerans (Berlese) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a common predatory mite in citrus orchards in some areas of the Mediterranean basin and an important biological control agent of the thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs in greenhouse crops. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the ‘reduced‐risk’ insecticides acetamiprid, chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, methoxyfenozide, spinetoram and thiamethoxam on I. degenerans,as a means of testing their compatibility in IPM programs. Results Although all pesticides decreased immature survival, high mortality was only recorded for young larvae when exposed to acetamiprid, while metaflumizone, thiamethoxam and spinetoram resulted to intermediate lethal effects. The estimated LC50 values of acetamiprid, spinetoram and thiamethoxam for I. degenerans females were 0.52, 0.84 and 0.16‐fold lower compared to the respective values of Maximum Recommended Doses (MRD) of the pesticides for field application. Although all pesticides tested significantly decreased fecundity, highest rates corresponded to the three pesticides already mentioned. Conclusion Chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide and methoxyfenozide may preliminary be included in IPM programs, whereas the effects of acetamiprid, metaflumizone, spinetoram and thiamethoxam to I. degenerans should be clarified in further field toxicological tests. This information could be useful for rationally planning and implementing pest management on a sustainable basis.
      PubDate: 2014-10-09T03:21:21.59755-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3921
  • Field evaluation of an expertise‐based formal decision system for
           fungicide management of grapevine downy and powdery mildews
    • Authors: Laurent Delière; Philippe Cartolaro, Bertrand Léger, Olivier Naud
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background In France, viticulture accounts for 20% of the phytochemicals sprayed in agriculture. Eighty percent of grapevine pesticides target powdery and downy mildews. European policies promote pesticide use reduction, and new methods for low‐input diseases management are needed for viticulture. Here we present the assessment, in France, of Mildium®, a new decision support system for the management of grapevine mildews. Results A 4 years assessment trial of Mildium® has been conducted in a network of 83 plots distributed across the French vineyards. In most vineyards Mildium® has proved to be successful at protecting the crop while reducing by 30% to 50% the number of treatments required when compared to grower practices. Conclusion Mildium®'s design results from the formalization of a common management of both powdery and downy mildews and eventually leads to a significant fungicides reduction at the plot scale. It could foster stakeholders to design customized farm‐scale and low‐chemical‐input decision‐support methods.
      PubDate: 2014-09-27T02:38:01.071149-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3917
  • Effect of specific plant growth‐promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on
           growth and uptake of neonicotinoid insecticide thiamethoxam in corn (Zea
           mays L.) seedlings
    • Authors: Charalampos K Myresiotis; Zisis Vryzas, Euphemia Papadopoulou‐Mourkidou
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world that is used for food, feed and energy. The inoculation with plant growth‐promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) would reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and could be suggested as an alternative practice for sustainable production of corn in modern agricultural systems. In this study, the effect of two Bacillus PGPR formulated products Companion® (B. subtilis GB03) and FZB24® (B. subtilis FZB24) on corn growth and root uptake of insecticide thiamethoxam was investigated. Results All bacterial treatments were led to enhanced root biomass production by 38‐65% compared to the uninoculated control, with no stimulatory effect of PGPR on aboveground biomass of corn. The uptake results revealed that in plants inoculated with the PGPR B. subtilis FZB24 and B. subtilis GB03, singly or in combination, the uptake and/or systemic translocation of thiamethoxam in the aboveground corn parts was significantly higher at the different growth ages compared to the control receiving no bacterial treatment. Conclusion The findings suggest that the PGPR‐elicited enhanced uptake of thiamethoxam could lead to improved use efficiency of thiamethoxam using reduced rates of pesticides in combination with PGPR as an alternative crop protection technique.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26T02:59:27.060011-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3919
  • Design, synthesis and herbicidal evaluation of novel
           4‐(1H‐pyrazol‐1‐yl)pyrimidine derivatives
    • Authors: Hong‐Ju Ma; Jian‐Hua Zhang, Xiang‐Dong Xia, Jing Kang, Jian‐Hong Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background A series of novel pyrazoylpyrimidine derivatives were designed, synthesized, and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The herbicidal activities of 30 pyrazoylpyrimidine derivatives were assessed. Results Nine compounds caused good herbicidal activity for Pennisetum alopecuroides L. Among them, N‐ethyl‐6‐[5‐methyl‐3‐(trifluoromethyl)‐1H‐pyrazol‐1‐yl]‐pyrimidin‐4‐amine (8c) exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity against the root growth of Pennisetum alopecuroides L. with the IC50 of 1.90 mg/L. 2‐Methyl‐4‐[5‐methyl‐3‐(trifluoromethyl)‐1H‐pyrazol‐1‐yl]‐6‐(prop‐2‐yn‐1‐yloxy)pyrimidine (3e) produced the highest inhibition of chlorophyll level in seedlings of Pennisetum alopecuroides L. (IC50=3.14 mg/L). Conclusion The structure‐activity relationship indicated that alkynyloxy group at the 6‐position on the pyrimidine ring played a very important role for the bleaching activities. When the alkynyloxy group was replaced by alkoxy, amino, alkylthhio, and alkylsulphonyl groups, the bleaching activities of those compounds were diminished. However, the compounds substituted by an amino at the 6‐position of the pyrimidine ring expressed excellent inhibition activities against weed root growth.
      PubDate: 2014-09-26T02:41:49.042175-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3918
  • The push‐pull strategy for citrus psyllid control
    • Authors: Huaxue Yan; Jiwu Zeng, Guangyan Zhong
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” that causes citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently no remedial therapy exists for the disease and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push‐pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini‐review summarizes the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull‐push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull‐push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research.
      PubDate: 2014-09-25T02:00:47.963676-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3915
  • Local and global inverse modeling strategies to estimate parameters for
           pesticide leaching from lysimeter studies
    • Authors: Gunnar M Kahl; Yury Sidorenko, Bernhard Gottesbüren
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background As an option for higher tier leaching assessment of pesticides in Europe according to FOCUS, pesticide properties can be estimated from lysimeter studies by inversely fitting parameter values (DT50 and kom). The aim of the study was to identify adequate methods for inverse modelling. Results Model parameters for the PEARL model were estimated with different inverse optimization algorithms (Levenberg‐Marquardt, PD_MS2, SCEM). Optimization of crop factors and hydraulic properties was found to be an ill posed problem and all algorithms failed to identify reliable global minima for the hydrological parameters. All algorithms performed equally well in estimating pesticide sorption and degradation parameters. SCEM was in most cases the only algorithm that reliably calculated uncertainties. Conclusion The most reliable approach for finding the best parameter set in the stepwise approach of optimizing evapotranspiration, soil hydrology and pesticide parameters was to run only SCEM or a combined approach with more than one algorithm using the best fit of each step for further processing. PD_MS2 was well suitable for a quick parameter search. The linear parameter uncertainty intervals estimated by LM and PD_MS2 were usually larger than by the non‐linear method used by SCEM. With the suggested methods parameter optimization together with reliable estimation of uncertainties is possible also for relatively complex systems.
      PubDate: 2014-09-24T03:38:15.147528-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3914
  • Termite (Order Blattodea, Infraorder Isoptera) baiting 20 years after
           commercial release
    • Authors: Theodore A. Evans; Naeem Iqbala
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Termite baiting is now one of the two main management tools in developed countries after 20 years of commercial release. It has two main goals: to use small amounts of active ingredient and ‘colony elimination’, viz. death of all individuals in the colony. We consider how well baiting has been evaluated from 100 studies in the scientific literature. Studies have included 15 active ingredients, 23 termite species and 16 countries, yet most studies were of the chitin synthesis inhibitor hexaflumuron, Reticulitermes, and the USA. Baiting has mostly met its goals: typically about 0.5 gram of active ingredient was used; and colony elimination achieved, albeit rates varied from 0‐100%, and were sometimes supplemented with liquid insecticide. Baiting was most successful using chitin synthesis inhibitors against Reticulitermes and Coptotermes (Rhinotermitidae), in temperate locations, although colony elimination was usually inferred indirectly ‐ mostly by termite absence from baits ‐ and was often slow, from 25 to 450 days. Baiting has been less tested and less successful against higher termites in tropical locations, where they are most diverse and abundant. Future research may have to consider greater termite species diversity and other active ingredients to reduce control times to fulfil the potential of baiting.
      PubDate: 2014-09-22T02:05:24.277073-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3913
  • Characterization and inhibition studies of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)
           gut α‐amylase
    • Authors: Rimaljeet Kaur; Anil K Gupta, Gaurav K Taggar
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The survival of a devastating pest, Helicoverpa armigera, is mainly dependent on the availability of α‐amylase. Therefore, the characterization of H. armigera α‐amylase and targeting it with effective inhibitors could aid in reducing its damaging effects. Results H. armigera gut possessed four isozymes of α‐amylase. The molecular weight of major purified isozyme ranged from 79–81 kDa. The purified enzyme was identified to be α‐amylase on the basis of products formed from starch. The optimum pH and temperature were 10.0 and 50 °C, respectively. Activation energy was 5.7 kcal/mol. The enzyme showed high activity with starch and amylopectin whereas dextrins were the poor substrates. Km with starch, amylose and amylopectin was 0.45, 1.23 and 0.11 mg ml−1, respectively. ZnSO4, FeSO4, CuSO4, citric acid, oxalic acid and salicylic acid were the potent inhibitors. ZnSO4, salicylic acid and pigeonpea α‐amylase inhibitor (~21.0 kDa) acted primarily as competitive inhibitors, FeSO4 and citric acid displayed mainly anticompetitive behaviour while CuSO4 and oxalic acid behaved mainly as non‐competitive inhibitors. Conclusions The identification of effective ecofriendly inhibitors could help in managing H. armigera infestation.
      PubDate: 2014-09-19T03:40:47.321668-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3911
  • Novel control methods for insect pests: Development of a
           microencapsulation procedure for proteinaceous bio‐actives intended
           for oral delivery.
    • Authors: Elaine H Richards; Tim Wontner‐Smith, Hannah Bradish, M Paulina Dani, Jane V Cotterill
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objective was to develop an environmentally favourable microcapsule suitable for delivery of proteinaceous bio‐active agents ('bio‐insecticides') to pest insects. Results Utilising feeding bio‐assays, we determined that microspheres made of alginate can be produced in a variety of sizes and are palatable and non‐toxic to larvae of the lepidopteran pest, Lacanobia oleracea. Dehydrated microspheres were also readily ingested by larvae. Using a novel feeding bio‐assay and alginate microspheres containing a fluorescent marker material (coumarin 7 encapsulated in styrene maleic anhydride beads), we determined that the microspheres successfully deliver the marker to the insect gut. Moreover, the alginate microspheres rapidly break down in the alkaline conditions of the insect gut and release their contents, the beads passing through the gut in 2 to 3 h. Using BSA as a test protein and western blotting, it was determined that alginate can successfully encapsulate protein, and that the microspheres can be stored in a CaCl2 solution for up to 24 days without extensive leakage. Importantly, it was also determined that alginate and the microsphere‐making procedure developed, do not inactivate rVPr1 (an insect immunosuppressive protein and potential bio‐insecticide). Conclusions An alginate‐based microsphere has potential to deliver the proteinaceous bio‐active, rVPr1, to pest insects.
      PubDate: 2014-09-18T10:43:05.328947-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3912
  • Molecular assessment of predation by hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in
           Mediterranean lettuce crops.
    • Authors: Priscila Gomez‐Polo; Oscar Alomar, Cristina Castañé, Jonathan G. Lundgren, Josep Piñol, Nuria Agustí
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) are generalist predators of a great variety of pests. Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are two common pests in Mediterranean lettuce crops, where they occur alongside alternative prey (e.g., Collembola). A semi‐field experiment was conducted in an experimental lettuce plot where hoverfly predation on N. ribisnigri, F. occidentalis and Collembola was studied by conventional and qPCR using specific primers, as well as by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) in order to reveal other potential trophic interactions. Results Trophic linkages between hoverflies and N. ribisnigri were the strongest both in spring and summer. Frankliniella occidentalis and Collembolans were also detected in both seasons but with less frequency. qPCR detected a higher frequency of consumption than conventional PCR when both tests were run at optimal conditions. NGS analyses showed intraguild predation (IGP) on other hoverflies species, as well as on anthocorids, spiders and even aphid parasitoids. Conclusions Conventional and qPCR provided important insights into Mediterranean hoverfly species predation on target pest and non‐pest prey. NGS gave a complementary approach revealing a broader diet of these predators within the studied ecosystem.
      PubDate: 2014-09-18T10:42:40.741529-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3910
  • Construction of immobilized‐AChE column and its application in
           screening insecticidal constituents from Magnolia officinalis
    • Authors: Yong‐Hao Ye; Cong Li, Jun Yang, Liang Ma, Yu Xiao, Jun Hu, Nasir Ahmed Rajput, Cong‐Fen Gao, Ying‐Ying Zhang, Ming‐Hua Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Application of matrix‐immobilized target enzyme for screening inhibitors is widely used in drug development, however there are few studies in insecticide discovery. In this paper, an economical and effective immobilized‐AChE column was prepared using sol–gel embedding method, which was further combined with HPLC for screening the AChE inhibitors and insecticidal compounds from complex natural products. Results AChE inhibitory constituents, magnolol (1) and honokiol (2), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis with the IC50 values of 0.069 and 0.057 mM, respectively. In vivo bioassay indicated 1 and 2 showed insecticidal activity against Nilaparvata lugens with the LC50 values of 0.324 and 0.137 mM comparable to that of commonly used insecticide chlorpyrifos (0.233 mM). Moreover, molecular docking was carried out against the homology model of N. lugens AChE. The complexes showed that 1 and 2 placed themselves nicely into the active site of the enzyme and exhibit interaction energy which was in accordance with our activity profile data. Conclusion These results demonstrated that 1 and 2 had great applied potential to be developed as natural insecticides, and immobilized‐AChE column is very useful as rapid screening tool for the target enzymes towards potent inhibitors.
      PubDate: 2014-09-16T12:00:49.836996-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3908
  • Prospects for the use of biological control agents against Anoplophora in
    • Authors: Thomas Brabbs; Debbie Collins, Franck Hérard, Matteo Maspero, Dominic Eyre
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: This review summarises the literature on the biological control of Anoplophora spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and discusses its potential for use in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria brongniartii Petch (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) has already been developed into a commercial product in Japan and fungal infection results in high mortality rates. Parasitic nematodes: Steinernema feltiae Filipjev (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser have potential for use as biopesticides as an alternative to chemical treatments. Parasitoids: A parasitoid of Anoplophora chinensis Forster, Aprostocetus anoplophorae Delvare (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was discovered in Italy in 2002 and has been shown to be capable of parasitizing up to 72% of A. chinensis eggs. Some native European parasitoid species (e.g. Spathius erythrocephalus) also have potential to be used as biological control agents. Predators: Two woodpecker (Piciformis: Picidae) species that are native to Europe, Dendrocopos major Beicki and Picus canus Gmelin have been shown to be effective at controlling Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky in Chinese forests. The removal and destruction of infested and potentially infested trees is the main eradication strategy for Anoplophora sp. in Europe, but biological control agents could be used in the future to complement other management strategies, especially in locations where eradication is no longer possible.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T05:40:45.68928-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3907
  • Sensitivity to cymoxanil in Italian populations of Plasmopara viticola
    • Authors: Silvia L. Toffolatti; Giovanni Venturini, Paola Campia, Lorenzo Cirio, Diego Bellotto, Annamaria Vercesi
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The level of sensibility towards cymoxanil was quantified by oospore germination assays in 28 populations of Plasmopara viticola (Berk. et Curt.) Berlese and De Toni sampled from different Italian regions from 2009 until 2012. Results The populations showed good sensitivity levels, with EC50 values often lower than 10 mg/L of active ingredient and percentages of resistant individuals lower than 16 %. Only three populations, sampled at the end of grapevine growing season 2012, were characterized by high resistance levels. Field trials carried out in two of these vineyards showed that at the beginning of grapevine growing season 2013, the EC50 values of P. viticola populations as measured in the sporangial assay were higher than those observed with oospores. At the end of the season, in plots where cymoxanil was not applied, the populations fully reverted to sensitivity, while the EC50 values remained high where 3 to 6 applications were performed. Conclusion Oospore germination assays provide valuable information on the sensitivity of populations in vineyards also at the quantitative level. The results obtained during grapevine growing season confirm those obtained on the oospores and that cymoxanil resistance is unstable, indirectly suggesting that the application of the fungicide according to anti‐resistance strategies can lead to a good disease control.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T04:16:34.597711-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3906
  • First report of Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean (Q biotype) species in Brazil
    • Authors: Leonardo da Fonseca Barbosa; Valdir Atsushi Yuki, Julio Massaharu Marubayashi, Bruno Rossitto De Marchi, Fernando Luis Perini, Marcelo Agenor Pavan, Danielle Ribeiro de Barros, Murad Ghanim, Enrique Moriones, Jesus Navas‐Castillo, Renate Krause Sakate
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The Whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a major cosmopolitan pest and comprises a complex of more than 35 cryptic species that cause serious damage to agricultural crops worldwide. In this study, the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci, formerly known as Q biotype, was identified for the first time in Brazil. Results Adult B. tabaci were collected from different localities and hosts from Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of the country that borders to Uruguay and Argentina. Partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene indicated that B. tabaci MED species appears to be restricted to the Provincia of Barra do Quaraí, infesting Capsicum annuum cultivated in greenhouses and Ipomoea batatas in open fields. The partial mtCOI sequences obtained shared 100% nucleotide identity with reference sequences for the Q biotype reported from Uruguay. The secondary endosymbionts Hamiltonella and Cardinium were detected by PCR in the new identified MED species from Brazil, similar to the Q biotype from Uruguay. Conclusion Our results indicate the presence of the MED species in Brazil. The close monitoring of this new identified species in the Southern region of Brazil is essential to avoid its geographical expansion to more important agricultural areas in the country.
      PubDate: 2014-09-12T04:13:17.590039-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3909
  • Enhanced repellency of binary mixtures of Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil
           fatty acids or their esters and three terpenoids to Stomoxys calcitrans
    • Authors: Tran Trung Hieu; Won Sil Choi, Soon‐Il Kim, Mo Wang, Young‐Joon Ahn
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background An assessment was made of the repellency to female stable flies of tamanu nut oil fatty acids or their esters alone (each 0.5 mg cm−2) or in combination with cuminyl alcohol, cuminaldehyde and α‐phellandrene (each 0.25 mg cm−2) using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of synthetic repellent deet (0.25 mg cm−2). Results Based upon protection time (PT) (time to first bite of stable fly), oleic acid, linoleic acid, methyl oleate or methyl linoleate synergized the repellency of each monoterpenoid and deet. For example, the binary mixture of oleic acid and cuminyl alcohol (PT, 2.05 h) resulted in significantly greater repellency than either oleic acid (0.55 h), cuminyl alcohol (0.70 h) or deet alone (1.50 h). The binary mixtures of oleic acid and cuminyl alcohol or deet (PT, 2.10 h) did not differ significantly in repellency. Structure–activity relationship indicates that degrees of saturation, side chain length and functional group of fatty acids appear to play a role in determining the fatty acid repellency to stable flies. Conclusion Mixtures formulated from fatty acid and monoterpenoid described could be useful as potential repellents for protecting humans and possibly domestic animals from bites caused by stable fly.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T03:59:10.938085-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3904
  • Eradication of Tephritid Fruit Fly Pest Populations: Outcomes and
    • Authors: D. M. Suckling; J. M. Kean, L. D. Stringer, C. Cáceres‐Barrios, J. Hendrichs, J. Reyes‐Flores, B. Dominiak
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The number of insect eradication programs is rising in response to globalisation. A database of arthropod and plant pathogen eradications covers 1050 incursion responses, with 928 eradication programs on 299 pest and disease taxa in 104 countries ( Methods A subset of the database was assembled with 211 eradication or response programs against 17 species of fruit flies (Tephritidae) in 31 countries, in order to investigate factors affecting the outcome. Results The failure rate for fruit fly eradication programs was about 7%, with 0% for Ceratitis capitata (n = 85 programs), and 0% for two Anastrepha species (n = 12 programs), but 12% for 13 Bactrocera species (n = 108 programs). A number of intended eradication programs against long‐established populations were not initiated because of cost and other considerations, or evolved during the planning phase into suppression programs. Cost was dependent on area, ranged from USD 0.1‐240 million, and averaged ~12 million (normalised to USD in 2012). In addition to the routine use of surveillance networks, quarantine and fruit destruction, the key tactics used in eradication programs were male annihilation, protein bait sprays (which can attract both sexes), fruit destruction and the sterile insect technique. Conclusions Eradication success generally required the combination of several tactics applied on an area‐wide basis. Because the likelihood of eradication declines with an increase in the area infested, it pays to invest in effective surveillance networks that allow early detection and delimitation while invading populations are small, thereby greatly favouring eradication success.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10T03:30:41.570511-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3905
  • RNA interference of P450 CYP6CM1 gene has different efficacy in B and Q
           biotypes of Bemisia tabaci
    • Authors: Jingjing Li; Xiaomin Li, Rune Bai, Yan Shi, Qingbo Tang, Shiheng An, Qisheng Song, Fengming Yan
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Cytochrome P450 monooxygenses have been proven to be associated with high resistance in Bemisia tabaci B (Middle East‐Minor Asia 1 genetic group) and Q (Mediterranean genetic group) biotypes to neonicotinoid class of insecticides. In this study, the RNA interference (RNAi) effects on P450 CYP6CM1 gene expression, mortality, and pesticide‐detoxifying ability between B. tabaci B and Q biotypes were compared in an attempt to provide basis for potential RNAi application in management of this pest. Rsults Double‐stranded RNAs (dsRNA) of P450 CYP6CM1 genes corresponding to the B and Q biotypes were synthesized using specific primers and introduced into the insect body of B. tabaci adults through membrane feeding. The results showed that dsRNA significantly silenced the target genes in B. tabaci with dsRNA concentrations or treatment time, and silencing was more effectively in B biotype than in Q biotype. Feeding dsRNA led to the high mortality in both biotypes, with higher mortality in biotype B (up to 85.88%) than in biotype Q (up to 56.40%). In addition, ability in detoxifying imidacloprid and nicotine was inhibited in dsRNA‐treated adults of both biotypes, more efficiently in biotype B than in biotype Q. Conclusion RNA interference of P450 CYP6CM1 gene decreased gene expression, increased mortality, inhibited ability to detoxify a pesticide or a plant secondary metabolite in both biotypes of B. tabaci, with better efficacy in biotype B than in biotype Q.
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T07:11:31.895312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3903
  • Model based determination of the influence of textile fabric on bioassay
           analysis and the effectiveness of a textile slow‐release system of
           DEET in mosquito control
    • Authors: Benny Malengier; Tineke Goessens, Flora F. Mafo, Mike De Vrieze, Lieva Van Langenhove, Samuel Wanji, Frederic Lynen
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Determining how effective a product is to repel mosquitoes or other flying insects is a difficult task. One approach is using a bioassay with textile fabric. We investigated the role of the textile substrate in the bioassay with a numerical model, and compared with known results for DEET. We next apply the model to determine the effectiveness of textile slow‐release formulations based on coatings, and compare this with a field study in the Cameroon. Slow‐release formulations are difficult to evaluate with standard tests as the compound needs a build up time not present in these tests. Results We found excellent correspondence between the model and the known DEET results without matching parameters. Slow release approaches are deemed possible but have several drawbacks. Modeling can help in identifying optimal use conditions. The field test with a slow release system performed better than the model anticipated with initially more than 90% repellency. DEET coated textile was considered not marketable however. Conclusion We advise that bioassays also characterize more detailed the type of textile fabric used so as to allow drawing conclusions with textile modeling. Concerning coated textile slow release systems, more research is needed. We nevertheless advise usage mainly at entrance points, eg as scrims.
      PubDate: 2014-09-08T07:11:29.860522-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3902
  • Susceptibility to Bt proteins is not required for Agrotis ipsilon aversion
           to Bt maize
    • Authors: Rachel R. Binning; Joel Coats, Xiaoxiao Kong, Richard L. Hellmich
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Although Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize has been widely adopted in diverse regions around the world, relatively little is known about the susceptibility and behavioral response of certain insect pests to Bt maize in countries where this maize is not currently cultivated. These are important factors to consider as management plans are developed. These factors were investigated for Agrotis ipsilon, a global pest of maize, with Cry1F and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 maize. Results Agrotis ipsilon demonstrated an initial, post‐ingestive aversive response to Cry1F maize. Development and mortality were also affected – survival on Cry1F maize tissue was 40% and weight gain of survivors of Cry1F exposure was significantly reduced. A post‐ingestive aversive response was also seen for Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 maize, however longer‐term feeding, weight gain, and survival were not affected. Conclusion Agrotis ipsilon showed aversion to both Bt treatments. Aversion to Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 maize was unexpected because these proteins have no known insecticidal effect against Lepidoptera, however results confirm that this aversion was temporary and did not affect growth or development. The Cry1F results suggest A. ipsilon will abandon Cry1F maize in the field before any selection for resistance. These data support the use of refuge to delay Cry1F resistance development in A. ipsilon populations.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04T03:35:45.148243-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3901
  • Fitness costs of reproductive capacity and ovarian development in a Bt
           resistant strain of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera
           (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    • Authors: Wanna Zhang; Long Ma, Feng Zhong, Yanan Wang, Yuyuan Guo, Yanhui Lu, Gemei Liang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera has developed resistance to the insecticidal Cry1Ac toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in China. To better understand fitness cost associated to resistance evolution, the reproductive capacities and ovarian development were examined in four strains of H. armigera: a Cry1Ac‐susceptible (96S), a Cry1Ac‐resistant fed on an artificial diet with Cry1Ac toxin for 135 generations (BtR), and two strains derived from BtR: a strain grown without Cry1Ac selection for 38 generations (CK1), and a strain grown for one generation without Cry1Ac selection (CK2). Results 96S and CK1 had similar reproductive capacity and Cry1Ac susceptibility. Comparing to 96S and CK1, the fecundity and hatching rate of CK2 decreased more than 30% and 50%, respectively. Moreover, the number of eggs laid by BtR was significantly lower than that by 96S and CK1, but higher than that by CK2. In accordant with the differences of reproductive capacity, ovarian development in CK2 and BtR was significantly delayed. Conclusion These results indicated that there was a fitness cost in the reproductive physiology in the resistant strains. Reversion to susceptibility to the Bt Cry‐toxin in resistant CK1 strain was associated with an increase in reproductive capacity.
      PubDate: 2014-09-03T06:06:16.771038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3900
  • Design, Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Novel
           Quinaoline‐2,4‐diones as 4‐Hydroxyphenylpyruvate
           Dioxygenase Inhibitors
    • Authors: Da‐Wei Wang; Hong‐Yan Lin, Run‐Jie Cao, Ze‐Zhong Ming, Tao Chen, Ge‐Fei Hao, Wen‐Chao Yang, Guang‐Fu Yang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Backgound 4‐Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (EC, HPPD) has been identified as one of the most promising target sites for herbicide discovery. To discover novel HPPD inhibitors with high herbicidal activity and improved crop selectivity, a series of novel triketone‐containing quinazoline‐2,4‐dione derivatives possessing a variety of substituents at the N‐1 position of the quinazoline‐2,4‐dione ring were designed and synthesized. Results The results of in vitro tests and greenhouse experiments indicated that some analogues showed good HPPD inhibitory activity, with promising broad spectrum herbicidal activity at the rate of 150 g ai/ha. Most surprisingly, compound 11h, 1‐ethyl‐6‐(2‐hydroxy‐6‐oxocyclohex‐1‐enecarbonyl)‐3‐(o‐tolyl)quinazoline‐2,4(1H,3H)‐dione, showed the highest HPPD inhibition activity with a Ki value of 0.005 μM, about 2 times more potent than mesotrione (Ki = 0.013 μM). Further greenhouse experiments indicated that compounds 11d and 11h displayed strong and broad‐spectrum post‐emergent herbicidal activity even at a dosage as low as 37.5 g ai/ha, which was superior to mesotrione. More importantly, compounds 11d and 11h were safe for maize at the rate of 150 g ai/ha, and compound 11d was safe for wheat as well. Conclusion The present work indicated that the triketone‐containing quinazoline‐2,4‐dione motif could be a potential lead structure for further development of novel herbicides.
      PubDate: 2014-09-03T06:06:14.31359-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3894
  • Mosquitocidal Carbamates With Low Toxicity to Agricultural Pests: An
           Advantageous Property For Insecticide Resistance Management
    • Authors: Daniel R. Swale; Paul R. Carlier, Joshua A. Hartsel, Ming Ma, Jeffrey R. Bloomquist
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Insecticide resistance in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is well documented and widespread agricultural use of pyrethroids may exacerbate development of resistance when pyrethroids are used in vector control. We have developed carbamate anticholinesterases that possess a high degree of An. gambiae:human selectivity for enzyme inhibition. The purpose of this study was to assess the spectrum of activity of these carbamates against other mosquitoes and agricultural pests. Results Experimental carbamates were potent inhibitors of mosquito acetylcholinesterases, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Similar potencies were observed for Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster enzymes. Although meta‐substituted carbamates were potent inhibitors, two ortho‐substituted carbamates displayed poor enzyme inhibition (IC50 ≥ 10−6 M) in honey bee (Apis mellifera), Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri), and lepidopteran agricultural pests (Plutella xylostella and Ostrinia nubilalis). Enzyme inhibition results were confirmed by toxicity studies in caterpillars, where the new carbamates were 2‐ to 3‐fold less toxic than propoxur and up to 10‐fold less active than bendiocarb, indicating little utility of these compounds for crop protection. Conclusion The experimental carbamates were broadly active against mosquito species but not agricultural pests, which should mitigate selection for mosquito insecticide resistance by reducing agricultural uses of these compounds.
      PubDate: 2014-09-03T06:05:40.965703-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3899
  • Mating disruption of Coleophora deauratella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae)
           using laminate flakes in red clover seed production fields
    • Authors: Boyd A. Mori; Maya L. Evenden
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The red clover casebearer, Coleophora deauratella, is a significant pest in red clover (Trifolium pratense) seed production regions throughout the world. The internal feeding nature of C. deauratella larvae makes infestations difficult to control with insecticide. We test the ability of Hercon Disrupt Micro‐Flakes® releasing the complete pheromone blend of C. deauratella to disrupt communication and mating in red clover seed production fields. Results Initial small‐plot (0.25 ha) trials found a significant reduction (93.6 ± 2.9%) of male C. deauratella captured in pheromone‐treated plots compared to untreated controls. Subsequent large‐plot (5 ha) mating disruption trials found a significant reduction (72.3 ± 5.7 %) in male C. deauratella captured in pheromone‐treated plots compared to untreated control plots over the growing season. Furthermore, larval numbers were significantly reduced and seed yield was increased in pheromone‐treated plots compared to untreated control plots. In a concurrent small‐plot (0.0625 ha) trial with various flake densities, disruption increased with pheromone flake density and the resulting graphical disruption profiles matched the theoretical predictions of mating disruption by competitive attraction. Conclusion Pheromone‐mediated mating disruption with laminate flakes has the potential to suppress C. deauratella populations and may help reduce damage even at high pest densities.
      PubDate: 2014-09-02T03:07:37.555532-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3898
  • Utilizing Next‐Generation Sequencing to Study Homeologous
           Polymorphisms and Herbicide Resistance Endowing Mutations in Poa annua
           Acetolactate Synthase Genes
    • Authors: Shu Chen; J. Scott McElroy, Michael L Flessner, Fenny Dane
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to herbicide resistance in non‐model polyploid weed species is fraught with difficulty due to the gene duplication and lack of reference sequences. Our research seeks to overcome these obstacles by Illumina HiSeq read mapping, SNP calling and allele frequency determinations. Our focus is on the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene, the target site of ALS inhibiting herbicides, in Poa annua, an allotetraploid weed species originated from two diploid parents, P. supina and P. infirma. Results ALS contigs with complete coding regions of P. supina, P. infirma, and P. annua were assembled and compared with ALS genes from other plant species. The ALS infirma‐homeolog of P. annua showed higher levels of nucleotide sequence variability than the supina‐homeolog. Comparisons of read mappings of P. annua and a simulated P. supina × P. infirma hybrid showed high resemblance. Two homeolog‐specific primer pairs were designed, and used to amplify a 1860 bp region that covers all resistance‐conferring codons in the ALS gene. Four P. annua populations, GN, RB, GW and LG, showed high resistance to two ALS inhibitors, bispyribac‐sodium and foramsulfuron, and two populations, HD and RS, showed lower resistance in the rate response trial. Mutations conferring Trp‐574‐Leu substitution were observed in the infirma‐homeolog of GN and RB, and supina‐homeolog of GW and LG, but no resistance conferring mutation was observed in the two populations of lower resistance, HD and RS. Conclusion In this study we have demonstrated the use of NGS data to study homeologous polymorphisms, parentage and herbicide resistance in an allotetraploid weed species, P. annua. Complete coding sequences of ALS gene were assembled for P. infirma, P. supina, infirma‐homeolog and supina‐homeolog in P. annua. A pipeline consisted of read mapping, SNP calling and allele frequency calculation was developed to study the parentage of P. annua, which provided a new perspective to look at this topic besides the views of morphology, karyotype and phylogeny. Our two homeolog‐specific primer pairs can be utilized in future research to separate the homeologs of ALS gene in P. annua and cover all the codons that have been reported to confer herbicide resistance.
      PubDate: 2014-09-02T03:05:22.414882-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3897
  • Methiozolin Sorption and Mobility in Sand‐Based Root‐Zones
    • Authors: Michael Luke Flessner; Glenn R Wehtje, Joseph Scott McElroy, Julie A Howe
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Methiozolin is a herbicide currently used for annual bluegrass control in golf course putting greens. Previous research indicates that maximum weed control efficacy requires root exposure; however, soil sorption and mobility of methiozolin has not been established. Research was conducted to investigate soil sorption and subsequent desorption by dilution of methiozolin, as well as soil mobility using batch equilibrium experiments and thin‐layer chromatography in nine root‐zones. Evaluations focused on sand‐based systems typical of many golf course putting greens. Results Sorption coefficients (Kd values) ranged from 0.4 to 29.4 mL g−1 and averaged 13.8 mL g−1. Sorption was most influenced by organic matter content; conversely, soil pH had a negligible effect. Methiozolin desorption did not occur with 0.01 M CaCl2 dilution. Methiozolin mobility was low; retardation factors (Rf values) were 
      PubDate: 2014-09-01T03:56:14.640149-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3896
  • Identification of species and geographical strains of Sitophilus oryzae
           and Sitophilus zeamais using VIS/NIR hyperspectral imaging technique
    • Authors: Yang Cao; Chaojie Zhang, Quansheng Chen, Yanyu Li, Shuai Qi, Lin Tian, YongLin Ren
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Identifying stored‐product insects is essential for granary management. Automated, computer‐based classification methods are rapidly developing in many areas. A hyperspectral imaging technique could potentially be developed to identify stored‐product insect species and geographical strains. This study tested and adapted the technique using four geographical strains of each of two insect species, the rice weevil and maize weevil to collect and analyze the resultant hyperspectral data. Results Three characteristic images that corresponded to the dominant wavelengths, 505, 659 and 955 nm were selected by multivariate image analysis. Each image was processed and 22 morphological and textural features from regions of interest were extracted as the inputs for an identification model. We found the back propagation neural network model to be the superior method for distinguishing between the insect species and geographical strains. The overall recognition rates of the classification model for insect species were 100% and 98.13% for the calibration and prediction sets respectively, while the rates of the model for geographical strains were 94.17% and 86.88% respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging, together with the appropriate recognition method, could provide a potential instrument for identifying insects and could become a useful tool for identification of Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais to aid in the management of stored‐product insects.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29T04:40:11.250973-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3893
  • Effect of insecticide treated potato plants on aphid behavior and Potato
           Virus Y acquisition.
    • Authors: Sébastien Boquel; Jianhua Zhang, Claudia Goyer, Marie‐Andrée Giguère, Catherine Clark, Yvan Pelletier
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The objective was to assess the effect of two contact insecticides, lambda‐cyhalothrin and flonicamid, and three systemic insecticides, pymetrozine, dimethoate and imidacloprid on the behavior and Potato virus Y acquisition of three aphid species, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), Rhopalosiphum padi L. and Aphis fabae (Scopoli). Results One to four days after application, contact insecticides strongly modified aphid behavior and intoxicated them. Dimethoate sprayed on potato plants did not change the behavior of the three tested aphid species while imidacloprid slightly reduced the probing behavior of M. euphorbiae and intoxicated several R. padi. The residual effect of the insecticides (10 to 21 days after application) was almost nonexistent. No intoxication was found and only slight changes in the behavior of R. padi and A. fabae were observed. The acquisition of PVY by R. padi was reduced on lambda‐cyhalothrin and dimethoate treated plants that were sprayed a few days before the test. Conclusion One systemic and two contact insecticides were effective at intoxicating aphids and reducing probing behavior soon after application. Some insecticides might sporadically reduce the spread of PVY either by modifying the behavior or reducing PVY acquisition but their action is likely limited to a short period of time after application.
      PubDate: 2014-08-27T03:11:19.698698-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3892
  • Tetraoxanes as a New Class of Efficient Herbicides Comparable to
           Commercial Products
    • Authors: Raphael C. Cusati; Luiz C. A. Barbosa, Célia R. A. Maltha, Antônio J. Demuner, Alberto Oliveros‐Bastidas, Antônio A. Silva
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Several 1,2,4,5‐tetraoxanes were synthesized and their herbicidal activity was tested against weed and compared to commercial herbicides glyphosate and imazethapyr. Results The compounds were prepared by reacting carbonyl compounds with hydrogen peroxide under acid catalysis affording 1,1‐dihydroperoxides (36‐91%) that were further converted into 1,2,4,5‐tetraoxanes (10‐52%) under similar reaction conditions. All products were evaluated against Sorghum bicolor and Cucumis sativus at 0.0125 mM to 1.0 mM and several tetraoxanes caused >70% inhibition on the growth of roots and aerial parts. The most active products were evaluated against the weeds Sorghum arundinaceum, Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria brizantha and Bidens pilosa. Some compounds were highly effective (>80% inhibition at 1.0 mM) against the weeds, showing activity comparable to that of glyphosate or imazethapyr. Also, compound 36 was selective, being inactive against dicotyledonous while inhibiting the roots and aerial parts of monocotyledonous by 92.9‐97.5%, comparable to the effect of glyphosate. Conclusions Tetraoxanes constitute in a new class of effective herbicides with great potential for commercial development.
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T05:23:12.326027-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3891
  • Nematicidal activity of furanocoumarins from parsley against Meloidogyne
    • Authors: Pierluigi Caboni; Marco Saba, Chrisostomos Oplos, Nadhem Aissani, Andrea Maxia, Urania Menkissoglu‐Spiroudi, Laura Casu, Nikoletta Ntalli
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background This report describes activity against Meloidogyne spp. and chemical characterisation of the essential oil and methanol extract of Petroselinum crispum aerial parts. This study was based on the hypothesis that P. crispum could be used as an intercrop and soil amendment in tomato culture for nematode control. Results The methanol extract and the essential oil exhibited significant nematicidal activity against M. incognita, M. hapla and M. arenaria, with the first being the most sensitive species, with EC50/72h of 140 ± 15 and 795 ± 125 mg L−1for the extract and oil, respectively. The most abundant furanocoumarin compounds in the methanolic extract were xanthotoxin, psoralen, bergapten and oxypeucedanin; levels ranged from 1.77 to 46.04 mg kg−1 wet weight. The EC50/24h values of xanthotoxol, psoralen and xanthotoxin against M. incognita were 68 ± 33, 147 ± 88 and 200 ± 21 mg L−1, respectively. Addition of fresh parsley paste to soil reduced the number of M. incognita females and plant galls on tomato roots; EC50 values were 24.79 and 28.07 mg g−1, respectively. Moreover, parsley paste enhanced tomato growth in a dose‐response manner. Conclusions Parsley exhibits promising nematicidal activity as an organic amendment and as a source of nematotoxic furanocoumarins.
      PubDate: 2014-08-26T05:22:26.174923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3890
           ferrugineus IN Phoenix canariensis BY DIFFERENT APPLICATION METHODS
    • Authors: Ó. Dembilio; J.M Riba, M. Gamón, J.A. Jacas
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is the most destructive pest of palms. As detection of early infestation stages is difficult, preventive measures, mostly chemical control, are crucial. Stipe injection of insecticides has developed fast as a suitable technique. However, pesticide movement within palms and palm reaction to wounding remains controversial. We used abamectin and imidacloprid applied by crown spray, stipe and frond injections to disentangle how these pesticides move within P. canariensis and how tissues wounded by injection heal. Furthermore, we established their lethal doses to larvae of R. ferrugineus. Results Maximum residues of imidacloprid (0.1 mg kg−1) were detected in crown and frond samples for up to 2 months after stipe injection whereas maximum residues of abamectin were found in frond tip samples (0.5 mg a.s. kg−1) 5 months after stipe injection. Based on the LCs calculated, these doses could satisfactorily protect palms for up to 3 months after treatment. No significant wound damage was observed 2 years after injection. Conclusion Stipe injection, irrespective of the active substance considered, resulted in better distribution and higher persistence compared with frond injection and, especially, crown spray. As a consequence, our results point at stipe injection as a good alternative to control R. ferrugineus.
      PubDate: 2014-08-25T05:33:13.297953-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3889
  • Bird‐repellents effects on bait efficacy for control of invasive
           mammal pests
    • Authors: Phil Cowan; Sam Brown, Guy Forrester, Lynn Booth, Michelle Crowell
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Repellents to reduce crop damage from birds and mammals have been investigated extensively but their efficacy in reducing risk to non‐target birds in aerial poisoning operations for control of mammal pests is less known. We assessed the impact on bait acceptability, palatability and kill efficacy for captive wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and possums (Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr) of adding bird repellents (anthraquinone and d‐pulegone) to baits used for their control in food choice trials. Results For possums, anthraquinone at 0.25% reduced acceptability and palatability but not the efficacy of poison baits, whereas d‐pulegone at 0.17% had no significant effects. Rats showed little response to d‐pulegone, but developed a marked aversion to prefeed baits containing anthraquinone at both 0.1 and 0.25%, such that almost no exposed rats ate poison baits and mortality was reduced significantly. The aversion induced by anthraquinone was generalised to the bait as anthraquinone‐exposed rats did not eat bait with only d‐pulegone. Conclusion Anthraquinone is not suitable for inclusion in bait for rat control at the concentrations tested, and also presents some risk to efficacy for possum control. D‐pulegone would be suitable for inclusion in bait for possums and rats but problems related to its volatility in bait manufacture and storage would need to be overcome. Further studies should focus on an alternative secondary repellent, or establishing the maximum anthraquinone concentration that does not reduce efficacy for rats and testing whether or not that concentration is sufficient to reliably repel native birds from baits.
      PubDate: 2014-08-21T04:31:49.020158-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3887
  • Absorption, translocation and metabolism of bispyribac‐sodium on
           rice seedlings under cold stress
    • Authors: Luiz Fernando D Martini; Nilda R Burgos, José Alberto Noldin, Luis Antonio Avila, Reiofeli A Salas
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Rice production is highly affected by weed competition. The efficacy of chemical weed control and crop safety is a function of absorption, translocation and metabolism of herbicides. This study investigates the effect of cold stress 22/16C (day/night) on absorption, translocation and metabolism of 14C‐bispyribac‐sodium on rice seedlings. Results Maximum 14C‐bispyribac‐sodium absorption occurred at 24 HAT and was stimulated by the warm 30/22C (day/night) temperature. A large amount of total absorbed herbicide was retained in the treated leaf, indicating that bispyribac‐sodium had minimal translocation to other plant parts. Piperonyl‐butoxide, a P450 inhibitor, plus herbicide, caused greater injury than the herbicide alone. In addition, injury on rice plants was enhanced by exposure to cold, emphasizing the negative effect on herbicide metabolism. In the Thin Layer Chromatography metabolism experiment, cold‐grown plants had higher injury and retained more of the parent herbicide than plants grown at a warm temperature. Conclusion Cold stress reduces bispyribac‐sodium absorption and metabolism in rice, but has no effect on translocation.
      PubDate: 2014-08-20T05:21:35.466055-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3882
  • Baseline‐sensitivity of maize borers in India to the Bacillus
           thuringiensis insecticidal proteins Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2
    • Authors: S. K. Jalali, Lalitha Y; Rakshit Ojha, Pradyumn Kumar, Suby S. B, Reema Sharma, Rupa Nair, C.Ravi K, S.P. Kamath, S.Mohan K.
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Among the major pests of maize in India are two stem borers, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Sesamia inferens (Walker) and an earworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). As a pest control strategy, transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize hybrids are undergoing regulatory trials in India. We have determined the sensitivity of the target lepidopterans to the insecticidal Bt proteins expressed in Bt‐maize as this determines product efficacy and the resistance management strategy to be adopted. Maize hybrids with event MON89034 express two insecticidal Bt proteins, Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2. Results Sensitivity profiles of 53 populations of C. partellus, 21 of S. inferens and 21 of H. armigera, collected between 2008 and 2013 from maize growing areas in India, to Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins were generated through dose‐response assays. Cry1A.105 protein was the most effective to neonates of C. partellus (mean MIC90 range 0.30 ‐ 1.0 µg mL−1) and H. armigera (mean MIC90 range 0.71 ‐ 8.22 µg mL−1), whereas, Cry2Ab2 (mean MIC90 range 0.65 ‐ 1.70 µg mL−1) was the most effective to S. inferens. Conclusion Populations of C. partellus, S. inferens and H. armigera, were susceptible to the Bt proteins Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2. The Bt‐sensitivity data will serve as pre‐commercialization benchmarks for resistance monitoring purposes.
      PubDate: 2014-08-20T05:19:42.308123-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3888
  • Cyantraniliprole: A valuable tool for Frankliniella occidentalis
           (Pergande) management
    • Authors: Pablo Bielza; Juan Guillén
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Frankliniella occidentalis is a worldwide economically important pest. Scarcity of effective products and cross‐resistance issues make resistance to existing insecticides a recurring problem that requires the development of new control tools, such as incorporating novel compounds. Lethal effects of cyantraniliprole on adults and larvae from field and insecticide‐resistant populations were evaluated. In addition, the sublethal effects on biological features such as fecundity, fertility, feeding, oviposition and mating were studied. Results Results obtained for larvae produced LC50 values from 33.4 to 109.2 mg L−1, with a low natural variability (3.3‐fold) and a LC50 composite value of 52.2 mg L−1. The susceptibility for adults was 23‐fold lower than for larvae. No evidence of cross‐resistance between cyantraniliprole and established insecticides used against thrips was evident. Relevant sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole were demonstrated including reduced fecundity, fertility, feeding, oviposition and mating success. Conclusion Low variation in susceptibility across contemporary populations of F. occidentalis and a lack of cross‐resistance to other insecticides indicates cyantraniliprole as a potential candidate in rotation programs within an insecticide resistance management strategy. The combined sub‐lethal effect on reproduction will have an important impact in population reduction. Available data indicate that cyantraniliprole is likely to be a valuable tool for managing thrips populations.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19T04:13:23.026991-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3886
  • Resmethrin, the First Modern Pyrethroid Insecticide
    • Authors: David M. Soderlund
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The discovery of resmethrin almost five decades ago was the seminal event in the development of pyrethroid insecticides as important pest management tools whose value endures today. This brief review considers the development of pyrethroids from the perspective of the discovery of resmethrin. I describe the pathway to the discovery of resmethrin and the unique properties that differentiated it from the pyrethrins and earlier synthetic pyrethroids. I also summarize information on metabolic fate and mechanisms of selective toxicity, first elucidated with resmethrin, that have shaped our understanding of pyrethroid toxicology since that time. Finally, I review the discovery pathway that led from resmethrin to the development of the first photostable, agriculturally useful pyrethroids that established the importance of this insecticide class.
      PubDate: 2014-08-14T03:20:37.824077-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3881
  • Transportation Behavior of fluopicolide and its control effect against
           Phytophthora capsici in greenhouse tomatoes after soil application
    • Authors: Lili Jiang; Hongyan Wang, Hui Xu, Kang Qiao, Xiaoming Xia, Kaiyun Wang
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Fluopicolide, a novel benzamide fungicide, was registered for control of oomycete pathogens, of which P. capsici is included. In this study, fluopicolide (5% SC) was applied in soil at the rate of 1.5, 3 and 6 L ha−1 (which is normal, double and quadruple dosage respectively) to investigate its transportation behavior and control efficiency on tomato blight as a soil treatment agent. Results The results showed that, soil treated fluopicolide could be absorbed by tomato roots and then transplanted to stems and leaves. It could exist in tomato roots for more than 30 days, and in leaves and stems until the 20th day. The decline discipline of fluopicolide in soil was in accordance with the first order dynamic equation, with half‐lives (t1/2) 5.33, 4.75 and 5.42 d for the ND, DD and QD treatment respectively. The control efficiencies of soil treated fluopicolide were better than spraying applied one, and the inhibition ratios were 93.02%, 97.67% and 100% on the 21st day for the ND, DD and QD treatment respectively. Conclusion Soil application of fluopicolide could control P. capsici in greenhouse tomatoes with high efficiency and long persistence.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12T03:42:54.52326-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3879
  • Metabolism of agrochemicals and related environmental chemicals based on
           cytochrome P450s in mammals and plants
    • Authors: Hideo Ohkawa; Hideyuki Inui
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A yeast gene expression system originally established for mammalian cytochrome P450 monooxygenase cDNAs was applied to functional analysis of a number of mammalian and plant P450 species including 11 human P450 species (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4). The human P450 species CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 were identified as P450 species metabolizing various agrochemicals and environmental chemicals. CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 specifically metabolized sulfonylurea herbicides and halogenated hydrocarbons, respectively. Plant P450 species metabolizing phenylurea and sulfonylurea herbicides were also identified mainly as CYP71 family, although CYP76B1, CYP81B1 and CYP81B2 metabolized phenylurea herbicides. The transgenic plants expressing these mammalian and plant P450 species were applied to herbicide tolerance as well as phytoremediation of agrochemical and environmental chemical residues. The combined use of CYP1A1, CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 belonging to 2 families and 3 subfamilies covered a wide variety of herbicide tolerance and phytoremediation of these residues. The use of 2,4‐D and bromoxynil induced CYP71AH11 in tobacco seemed to enhance herbicide tolerance and selectivity.
      PubDate: 2014-07-31T02:14:40.571498-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3871
  • Perspectives on Transgenic, Herbicide‐Resistant Crops in the USA
           Almost 20 Years after Introduction
    • Authors: Stephen O. Duke
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Herbicide‐resistant crops have had profound impacts on weed management. Most of the impact has been by glyphosate‐resistant maize, cotton, soybean, and canola. Significant economic savings, yield increases, and more efficacious and simplified weed management resulted in widespread adoption of the technology. Initially, glyphosate‐resistant crops enabled significantly reduced tillage and reduced the environmental impact of weed management. Continuous use of glyphosate with glyphosate‐resistant crops over broad areas facilitated the evolution of glyphosate‐resistant weeds, which have resulted in increases in the use of tillage and other herbicides with glyphosate, reducing some of the initial environmental benefits of glyphosate‐resistant crops. Transgenic crops with resistance to auxinic herbicides, as well as to herbicides that inhibit acetolactate synthase, acetyl‐CoA carboxylase, and hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, stacked with glyphosate and/or glufosinate resistance, will become available in the next few years. These technologies will provide additional weed management options for farmers, but will not have all of the positive impacts (reduced cost, simplified weed management, lowered environmental impact, and reduced tillage) that glyphosate‐resistant crops had initially. In the more distant future, other herbicide‐resistant crops (including non‐transgenic ones), herbicides with new modes of action, and technologies that are currently in their infancy (e.g., bioherbicides, sprayable herbicidal RNAi, and/or robotic weeding) may impact the role of transgenic, herbicide‐resistant crops in weed management.
      PubDate: 2014-07-23T03:39:08.764241-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3863
  • Development of multi‐functional metabolic synergists to suppress the
           evolution of resistance against pyrethroids in insects that blood feed on
    • Authors: Melissa C. Hardstone; Joseph P. Strycharz, Junheon Kim, Il‐Kwon Park, Kyong Sup Yoon, Young Joon Ahn, Laura C. Harrington, Si Hyeock Lee, J. Marshall Clark
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background Pyrethroids are the insecticides of choice when exposure to humans is likely, such as occurs in vector‐ and public health‐related control programs. Unfortunately, the pyrethroids share a common resistance mechanism with DDT, knockdown resistance (kdr), and prior extensive use of DDT has predisposed the pyrethroids to cross‐resistance via kdr. Given the widespread occurrence of kdr, the use of synergists with pyrethroids is considered prudent to guard against the selection of multiply‐resistant insects. Results 3‐phenoxybenzyl hexanoate (PBH) was synthesized as a multi‐functional pyrethroid synergist that besides being a surrogate substrate for sequestration/hydrolytic carboxylesterases now also functions as a substrate for oxidative xenobiotic metabolism. Addition of PBH to permethrin‐treated females of the ISOP450 strain of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus resulted in a 3‐fold increase in synergism as judged by the synergistic ratio. Similarly, PBH synergized the action of deltamethrin by 6‐fold on females of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, and was 2.8‐fold more synergistic than piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Conclusions PBH synergized the action of both type I and II pyrethroids in a mosquito vector (Cx. p. quinquefasciatus) and in a public health pest, C. lectularius, respectively, indicating a broad spectrum of action on blood‐feeding insects. PBH appears to have residual properties similar to permethrin and is itself non‐toxic, unlike PBO, and therefore should be compatible with existing pyrethroid formulations used for ITNs and home/residential sprays.
      PubDate: 2014-07-14T13:23:55.018539-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3856
  • Mode of action analysis for pesticide‐induced rodent liver tumours
           involving activation of the constitutive androstane receptor: relevance to
           human cancer risk
    • Authors: Brian G. Lake; Roger J. Price, Thomas G. Osimitz
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: A number of non‐genotoxic chemicals including some pesticides have been shown to increase the incidence of liver tumours in rats and/or mice. Frameworks for analysing the modes of action (MOAs) by which chemicals produce liver tumours in rodents and the relevance of such tumour data for human risk assessment have now been established. One common MOA for rodent liver tumour formation by non‐genotoxic chemicals involves activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Key and associative events for a CAR activation MOA include receptor activation, liver hypertrophy, induction of cytochrome P450 enzyme activities, increased replicative DNA synthesis, altered hepatic foci and liver tumours. While some effects of rodent CAR activators can be observed in human liver, a major species difference is that, unlike rodents, CAR activators do not increase replicative DNA synthesis in human hepatocytes. The CAR activation MOA for rodent liver tumour formation is thus not plausible for humans and hence such compounds do not pose a hepatocarcinogenic hazard for humans.
      PubDate: 2014-07-07T12:17:38.560237-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3854
  • Phosphine resistance in Australian Cryptolestes species (Coleoptera:
           Laemophloeidae): Perspectives from mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase I
    • Authors: Wee Tek Tay; Stephen J. Beckett, Paul J. De Barro
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Background The flat grain beetles (FGB) species Cryptolestes ferrugineus, C. pusillus, C. pusilloides, and C. turcicus are major stored products pests worldwide, of which the first three are present in Australia. C. ferrugineus is also a species with high phosphine resistance status in various countries. Morphological identification of Cryptolestes species is difficult and represents an additional barrier to effectively manage phosphine resistance in FGB. Result Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (mtDNA COI) gene characterisation enabled differentiation of the four major FGB pest species through direct sequence comparison, and enabled the development of a PCR‐RFLP method for rapid species differentiation. We detected two mtDNA haplotypes (Cunk‐01, 02) present at low frequencies with an average nucleotide divergence rate of 0.079 ± 0.011 (s.e.) from C. pusillus. This nucleotide divergence rate is similar to that between C. ferrugineus and C. pusilloides (0.088 ± 0.012). Male and female genitalia morphologies of the Cunk‐02 individuals indicated they were consistent with C. pusillus yet DNA sequence analyses suggested species‐level divergence. The mtDNA COI gene of phosphine bioassayed (at 720ppm; 1mg/L) lab‐reared F1 generation survivors supported the presence of strong phosphine resistance in C. ferrugineus, but unexpectedly also in C. pusilloides and C. pusillus F1 survivors. Conclusion We demonstrated the utility of molecular DNA techniques for differentiating closely related insect species, and its usefulness in assisting the management of pest insect species. The likely presence of a cryptic C. pusillus species in Australia and the possible development of strong phosphine resistance in Australian FGB pest species require further investigation.
      PubDate: 2014-04-21T04:29:26.937952-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3805
  • A Growth Year for Pest Management Science
    • Authors: Stephen O. Duke
      Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: 2014-12-08T10:12:01.637406-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3935
  • Biopesticides – towards increased consumer safety in the European
    • Authors: Katarzyna Czaja; Katarzyna Góralczyk, Paweł Struciński, Agnieszka Hernik, Wojciech Korcz, Maria Minorczyk, Monika Łyczewska, Jan K Ludwicki
      Pages: 3 - 6
      Abstract: The introduction of new food safety regulations in the European Union has resulted in the withdrawal of many synthetic active substances used in plant protection products, in light of their potential or actual harmful effect on human and animal health, as well as on the environment. Alternatives to these compounds are being developed – naturally occurring pesticides, also referred to as biopesticides. The use of biopesticides in crop protection leads to decreased levels of pesticide residues in foods, and as a result to lower risk levels for the consumer. Biologically active agents defined as biopesticides are varied, and therefore application of the same environmental and consumer safety criteria to all of them is impossible. This presents serious complications in the approval of these pesticides as active plant protection products and in their registration. It needs to be stressed that, in the registration procedure of the European Union, biopesticides are subject to the same regulations as synthetic active substances. This situation has resulted in the need to introduce numerous new provisions in the legislation, as well as the preparation of new guidelines facilitating the registration of biopesticides. These activities aim to promote naturally originating pesticides. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-06-19T09:57:47.907691-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3829
  • Manipulating behaviour with substrate‐borne vibrations –
           potential for insect pest control
    • Authors: Jernej Polajnar; Anna Eriksson, Andrea Lucchi, Gianfranco Anfora, Meta Virant‐Doberlet, Valerio Mazzoni
      Pages: 15 - 23
      Abstract: This review presents an overview of the potential use of substrate‐borne vibrations for the purpose of achieving insect pest control in the context of integrated pest management. Although the importance of mechanical vibrations in the life of insects has been fairly well established, the effect of substrate‐borne vibrations has historically been understudied, in contrast to sound sensu stricto. Consequently, the idea of using substrate‐borne vibrations for pest control is still in its infancy. This review therefore focuses on the theoretical background, using it to highlight potential applications in a field environment, and lists the few preliminary studies that have been or are being performed. Conceptual similarities to the use of sound, as well as limitations inherent in this approach, are also noted. © 2014 The
      Authors . Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
      PubDate: 2014-07-16T09:17:31.235617-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3848
  • Effects of radiation on inherited sterility in the European grapevine moth
           (Lobesia botrana)
    • Authors: Hadass Steinitz; Adi Sadeh, Adi Kliot, Ally Harari
      Pages: 24 - 31
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an alternative, environmentally friendly method for controlling insect pests. In the Lepidoptera, a low dose of gamma irradiation causes inherited sterility (SIT‐IS), leading to full sterility in females but only partial sterility in males, which successfully compete with wild males for mates. This study examined the effect of a low radiation dose (150 Gy) on the fitness parameters of male and female Lobesia botrana, a polyphagous and major pest of vineyards found in the Middle East, Europe and the Americas. RESULTS Irradiation of the pupae did not affect their emergence rate, flight ability out of a cylinder, male response to sex pheromone in a field cage or male or female mating success. A major effect of irradiation was observed in the significantly reduced number of irradiated females' offspring reaching pupation, and as a consequence a limited number of F2 offspring. The effect of irradiation on male partial sterility (also called inherited sterility) was reflected in the male‐biased sex ratio of F1 offspring of irradiated males, the reduced number of F1 offspring and the very low number of F2 descendants. CONCLUSION This study demonstrates the feasibility of controlling L. botrana using SIT‐IS. Adding this method to the arsenal of environmentally friendly tools to control this pest may assist in further reducing the use of insecticides on edible crops. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-27T09:40:27.667965-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3797
  • RNA interference of NADPH–cytochrome P450 reductase of the rice
           brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, increases susceptibility to
    • Authors: Su Liu; Qing‐Mei Liang, Wen‐Wu Zhou, Yan‐Dong Jiang, Qing‐Zi Zhu, Hang Yu, Chuan‐Xi Zhang, Geoff M Gurr, Zeng‐Rong Zhu
      Pages: 32 - 39
      Abstract: BACKGROUND NADPH–cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is essential for numerous biological reactions catalysed by microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s). Knockdown of CPR in several insects leads to developmental defects and increased susceptibility to insecticides. However, information about the role of CPR in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is still unavailable. RESULTS A full‐length cDNA encoding CPR was cloned from N. lugens (NlCPR). The deduced amino acid sequence showed marked features of classical CPRs, such as an N‐terminus membrane anchor, conserved domains for flavin mononucleotide, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate binding, as well as an FAD‐binding motif and catalytic residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that NlCPR was located in a branch along with bed bug and pea aphid hemipteran insects. NlCPR mRNA was detectable in all tissues and developmental stages of N. lugens, as determined by real‐time quantitative PCR. NlCPR transcripts were most abundant in the abdomen in adults, and in first‐instar nymphs. Injection of N. lugens with double‐strand RNA (dsRNA) against NlCPR significantly reduced the transcription level of the mRNA, and silencing of NlCPR resulted in increased susceptibility in N. lugens to beta‐cypermethrin and imidacloprid. CONCLUSION The results provide first evidence that NlCPR contributes to the susceptibility to beta‐cypermethrin and imidacloprid in N. lugens. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-20T13:38:57.876905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3760
  • Altered gene regulation and potential association with metabolic
           resistance development to imidacloprid in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus
    • Authors: Yu Cheng Zhu; Randall Luttrell
      Pages: 40 - 57
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Chemical spray on cotton is almost an exclusive method for controlling tarnished plant bug (TPB), Lygus lineolaris. Frequent use of imidacloprid is a concern for neonicotinoid resistance in this key pest. Information of how and why TPB becomes less susceptible to imidacloprid is essential for effective monitoring and managing resistance. RESULTS Microarray analysis of 6688 genes in imidacloprid‐selected TPB (Im1500FF) revealed 955 upregulated and 1277 downregulated (≥twofold) genes in Im1500FF, with 369 and 485 of them annotated. Five P450 and nine esterase genes were significantly upregulated, and only one esterase gene and no P450 genes were downregulated. Other upregulated genes include helicases, phosphodiesterases, ATPases and kinases. Pathway analyses identified 65 upregulated cDNAs that encode 51 different enzymes involved in 62 different pathways, including P450 and esterase genes for drug and xenobiotic metabolisms. Sixty‐four downregulated cDNAs code only 17 enzymes that are associated with only 23 pathways mostly related to food digestion. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated a significant change in gene expression related to metabolic processes in imidacloprid‐selected TPB, resulting in overexpression of P450 and esterase genes for potential excess detoxification and cross/multiple resistance development. The identification of these and other enzyme genes establishes a foundation to explore the complicity of potential imidacloprid resistance in TPB. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
      PubDate: 2014-03-20T13:39:05.643167-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3761
  • Integration of an insecticidal scorpion toxin (BjαIT) gene into
           Metarhizium acridum enhances fungal virulence towards Locusta migratoria
    • Authors: Guoxiong Peng; Yuxian Xia
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as biopesticides, but poor efficacy has blocked their application. One approach to improving virulence is by genetic manipulation. BjαIT from the venom of Buthotus judaicus is an insect‐selective neurotoxin. To clarify the insecticidal potency of BjαIT as a virulence candidate in microbial biocontrol agents, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum was genetically modified with BjαIT, and its resulting activity against locusts (Locusta migratoria manilensis) was assessed. RESULT In comparison with the wild‐type strain, the engineered isolate BjαIT‐102 grew significantly quicker in locust haemolymph. Correspondingly, the median lethal dose (LC50) for BjαIT‐102 was 18.2‐fold lower, and the median lethal times (LT50) for BjαIT‐102 were reduced by 28.1 and 30.4%, respectively, after topical inoculation and injection. BjαIT‐102 formed conidia on dead locusts, although the conidial yield was reduced 1.58‐fold. Moreover, there were no significant differences in germination and appressorium formation between the BjαIT‐102 and wild‐type strains. CONCLUSION Expression of BjαIT in M. acridum significantly increased virulence against locusts by shortening the in vivo infection period without affecting conidium formation on the carcasses. This study demonstrated that engineering entomopathogenic fungi to incorporate BjαIT offers great potential for increasing their virulence. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-20T13:39:02.328394-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3762
  • Residues of the fungicide epoxiconazole in rice and paddy in the Chinese
           field ecosystem
    • Authors: Bipeng Yan; Fei Ye, Dangping Gao
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Epoxiconazole is extensively used as fungicide in cereals, grapes and other crops worldwide. Rice is one of the world's most important food crops. Many people who depend on rice for their food live in Asia. A method employing liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry was developed for determination of epoxiconazole in brown rice, straw, rice hull, paddy water and soils. Epoxiconazole residues in rice hull, brown rice, straw and soil were also determined. RESULTS The limit of quantitation was set at 0.01 mg kg−1 for the matrices studied. Epoxiconazole degradation in straw, paddy water and soil was studied. The epoxiconazole residues in brown rice, straw, hull and paddy soil were determined. Concurrent recoveries were between 89.2 and 104.1%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 4.6 to 14.4% at three fortification levels between 0.01 and 5.0 mg kg−1. The half‐lives in straw, paddy water and soils were found to be 4.7–5.9, 2.9–6.0 and 2.9–6.4 days respectively. The maximum residues in brown rice, straw, hull and paddy soil samples were 0.18, 2.47, 2.54 and 0.09 mg kg−1 respectively. CONCLUSION Compared with the maximum residue levels (MRLs) for epoxiconazole in rice that have been set by the European Union (0.1 mg kg−1) and by China (0.5 mg kg−1), the epoxiconazole residue on rice at an application rate of 112.5 g AI ha−1 with two applications at an interval of 7 days, and with a 28 day preharvest interval (PHI), is below the MRL, and thus the use of epoxiconazole is considered to be safe. Epoxiconazole should be applied correctly, according to good agricultural practice, using only the recommended amounts, frequencies and appropriate PHI. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-25T08:59:34.414171-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3763
  • Induced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera through exogenous application
           of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in groundnut, Arachis hypogaea
    • Authors: Abdul Rashid War; Michael Gabriel Paulraj, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, Hari Chand Sharma
      Pages: 72 - 82
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Induced resistance to Helicoverpa armigera through exogenous application of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) was studied in groundnut genotypes (ICGV 86699, ICGV 86031, ICG 2271 and ICG 1697) with different levels of resistance to insects and the susceptible check JL 24 under greenhouse conditions. Activities of oxidative enzymes and the amounts of secondary metabolites and proteins were quantified at 6 days after JA and SA application/insect infestation. Data were also recorded on plant damage and H. armigera larval weights and survival. RESULTS Higher levels of enzymatic activities and amounts of secondary metabolites were observed in the insect‐resistant genotypes pretreated with JA and then infested with H. armigera than in JL 24. The insect‐resistant genotypes suffered lower insect damage and resulted in poor survival and lower weights of H. armigera larvae than JL 24. In some cases, JA and SA showed similar effects. CONCLUSION JA and SA induced the activity of antioxidative enzymes in groundnut plants against H. armigera, and reduced its growth and development. However, induced response to application of JA was greater than to SA, and resulted in reduced plant damage, and larval weights and survival, suggesting that induced resistance can be used as a component of pest management in groundnut. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-04T04:38:05.875702-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3764
  • Synthesis and antifungal activity of
           3‐aryl‐1,2,4‐triazin‐6‐one derivatives
    • Authors: W John Owen; Michael T Sullenberger, Michael R Loso, Kevin G Meyer, Thomas J Slanec
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: BACKGROUND As a result of resistance development in many plant‐pathogenic fungi to agricultural fungicides, there is an ongoing need to discover novel antifungal chemistries to help sustain efficient crop production. A fungicide screening program identified 3‐phenyl‐1‐(2,2,2‐trifluoroethyl)‐1,2,4‐triazin‐6(1H)‐one (5) as a promising new starting point for further activity optimization. A series of analogs were designed, prepared and evaluated in growth inhibition assays using four plant‐pathogenic fungi. RESULTS Thirty nine analogs (compounds 5 to 43) were prepared to explore structure–activity relationships at R1 and R2, and all targeted structures were characterized by 1H NMR and MS. All compounds were in vitro tested against three ascomycetes [Leptosphaeria nodorum, Magnaporthe grisea and Zymoseptoria tritici (syn. Mycosphaerella graminicola)] and one basidiomycete (Ustilago maydis) pathogen. When R2 was trifluoroethyl, fungicidal activity was enhanced by a single electron‐withdrawing substitution, such as Br, Cl and CF3 in the 3‐position at R1 (compounds 9, 10 and 12), of which the 3‐bromo compound (10) was the most active (EC50 = 0.08, averaged across four pathogens). More subtle activity improvement was found by addition of a second halogen substituent in the 4‐position, with the 3‐Br‐4‐F analog (20) being the most active against the commercially important cereal pathogen Z. tritici. Replacement of the R2 haloalkyl group with benzyl, alkyl (e.g. n‐butyl, i‐butyl, n‐pentyl) and, particularly, CH2‐cycloalkyls (e.g. CH2‐cyclopropyl, CH2‐cyclobutyl) resulted in further activity enhancements against the ascomycete fungi, but was either neutral or detrimental to activity against U. maydis. One of the most active compounds in this series (41) gave control of Z. tritici, with an EC50 of 0.005 ppm, comparable with that of the commercial strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin (EC50 0.002 ppm). CONCLUSIONS The present work demonstrated that the 3‐phenyl‐1,2,4‐triazin‐6‐ones are a novel series of compounds with highly compelling levels of antifungal activity against agriculturally relevant plant‐pathogenic fungi. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-01T06:26:29.259751-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3765
  • Differential mechanisms of action of the novel γ‐aminobutyric
           acid receptor antagonist ectoparasiticides fluralaner (A1443) and fipronil
    • Authors: Miho Asahi; Masaki Kobayashi, Hiroto Matsui, Kunimitsu Nakahira
      Pages: 91 - 95
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Fluralaner (A1443) is an isoxazoline ectoparasiticide that is a novel antagonist of γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (GABARs), with a potency comparable to that of fipronil, a phenylpyrazole ectoparasiticide. To clarify the biological effectiveness of fluralaner against fipronil‐resistant pests, differences in the actions of fluralaner and fipronil on GABARs that possess resistance to dieldrin (rdl)‐type mutations were evaluated. RESULTS Fipronil had neither pest control nor GABAR‐antagonistic activities against two‐spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) that had two different rdl‐type amino acids (A301 → H and T350 → A: Drosophila melanogaster GABAR numbering) and against small brown planthoppers (Laodelphax striatellus) that had a novel rdl‐type (A283 → N) mutation in GABARs. In contrast, fluralaner showed not only high pest control activities against these pests, but also excellent antagonistic activities for these rdl‐type GABARs. CONCLUSION The findings indicate that rdl‐type fipronil‐resistant pests do not show cross‐resistance to fluralaner owing to the differential actions of fluralaner and fipronil on the GABAR. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-03-31T08:10:17.083812-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3768
  • Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of the tea geometrid
           Ectropis obliqua (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to volatiles from a
           non‐host plant, rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae)
    • Authors: Zhengqun Zhang; Lei Bian, Xiaoling Sun, Zongxiu Luo, Zhaojun Xin, Fengjian Luo, Zongmao Chen
      Pages: 96 - 104
      Abstract: BACKGROUND A plant‐based ‘push‐pull’ strategy for Ectropis obliqua (Prout) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is being developed using semiochemicals in the volatiles of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae). The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the bioactive components within R. officinalis by gas chromatography–electroantennographic detection (GC‐EAD) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC‐MS), and to test the antennal and behavioural responses of E. obliqua to these chemicals. The emission dynamics of bioactive chemicals was also monitored. RESULTS GC‐EAD experiments indicated that E. obliqua antennae responded to the following volatile compounds from R. officinalis: myrcene, α‐terpinene, γ‐terpinene, linalool, cis‐verbenol, camphor, α‐terpineol and verbenone, which were the minor constituents. Based on the dose‐dependent antennal and behavioural responses of E. obliqua to these bioactive compounds, myrcene, γ‐terpinene, linalool, cis‐verbenol, camphor and verbenone were found to play a key role in repelling the moths, and the mixture that included all eight compounds was significantly more effective. The maximum emissions of these semiochemicals occurred at nightfall. CONCLUSIONS The specifically bioactive compounds in R. officinalis volatiles are responsible for repelling E. obliqua adults. Results indicate that R. officinalis should be considered as a potential behaviour‐modifying stimulus for ‘push’ components when developing ‘push‐pull’ strategies for control of E. obliqua using semiochemicals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-14T04:26:23.804347-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3771
  • Distribution of prothioconazole and tebuconazole between wheat ears and
           flag leaves following fungicide spraying with different nozzle types at
    • Authors: Szabolcs Lehoczki‐Krsjak; Mónika Varga, Ákos Mesterházy
      Pages: 105 - 113
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Wheat ears are difficult targets from the aspect of fungicide spraying. Sideward‐spraying nozzle types may enhance the ear coverage, which may possibly lead to higher effectiveness in the management of Fusarium head blight (FHB). RESULTS On average, sideward‐spraying Turbo TeeJet Duo nozzles resulted in 1.30 and 1.43 times higher prothioconazole‐desthio and tebuconazole contents and Turbo FloodJet nozzles in 1.08 and 1.34 times higher prothioconazole‐desthio and tebuconazole contents in wheat ears by comparison with those achieved with vertically‐spraying XR TeeJet nozzles. In contrast, the vertically‐spraying XR TeeJet nozzles resulted in 1.57 and 1.31 times higher prothioconazole‐desthio and tebuconazole contents in the flag leaf blade. The degradation of the active ingredient (AI) depended on the year, the cultivar and the plant organ, but not on the spraying method. There was no clear relationship between the efficacy of a given nozzle type and the outcome of the FHB epidemic. CONCLUSIONS The ear coverage and therefore the AI content have been improved with the two sideward‐spraying nozzle types. There was no effective translocation of the AI content between the ears and flag leaf blades. Prothioconazole and tebuconazole proved to be highly effective in the management of FHB, but the FHB resistance of the cultivar was also decisive. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-09T03:41:18.292841-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3774
  • Impact of fipronil on the mushroom bodies of the stingless bee
           Scaptotrigona postica
    • Authors: Cynthia RO Jacob; Hellen M Soares, Roberta CF Nocelli, Osmar Malaspina
      Pages: 114 - 122
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Studies on stingless bees are scarce, and little is known about these insects, especially regarding the effects of contamination by neurotoxic insecticides, which can cause damage to important structures of the insect brain. This study evaluated the morphological changes in the intrinsic neurons of the protocerebral mushroom bodies (Kenyon cells) of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica after exposure to different doses of fipronil, using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. This region of the brain was selected for analysis because of its importance as a sensory integration centre. RESULTS In both oral and topical treatments, Kenyon cells presented pyknotic profiles, suggesting cell death. Statistical analysis showed significant differences among doses and exposure times. Transmission electron microscopy revealed changes in the nucleus and cellular organelles. Depending on the dose, the characteristics observed suggested apoptotosis or necrosis. CONCLUSION This study demonstrates the toxic effects of fipronil. An increase in the number of pyknotic profiles of Kenyon cells of mushroom bodies was observed even at the sublethal doses of 0.27 ng AI bee−1 and 0.24 ng AI µL−1 in the topical and oral treatments respectively. Also, differences in the number of pyknotic profiles were dose and time dependent. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-30T08:36:26.021572-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3776
  • Detection of the I1781L mutation in
           fenoxaprop‐p‐ethyl‐resistant American sloughgrass
           (Beckmannia syzigachne Steud.), based on the loop‐mediated
           isothermal amplification method
    • Authors: Lang Pan; Jun Li, Wen‐na Zhang, Liyao Dong
      Pages: 123 - 130
      Abstract: BACKGROUND The increasing use of fenoxaprop‐p‐ethyl has resulted in evolved resistance in American sloughgrass (Beckmannia syzigachne Steud.). Target‐site‐based resistance to acetyl‐CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors in B. syzigachne occurs owing to an isoleucine‐to‐leucine substitution at residue 1781 (I1781L) of the ACCase enzyme. A rapid detection method is needed to identify the resistance‐conferring substitution. RESULTS Four populations of B. syzigachne that were resistant to fenoxaprop‐p‐ethyl and contained the I1781L substitution were identified. Conventional PCR and derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) methods were used to detect the mutation. Additionally, a rapid nucleic acid detection method, loop‐mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), was successfully developed and used to detect the genetic mutation underlying the I1781L substitution in the B. syzigachne ACCase enzyme. CONCLUSION This report is the first to describe the application of a LAMP assay for mutation detection in herbicide‐resistant weeds. The assay does not require specialised equipment: only a standard laboratory bath is needed. This technique could be employed for detecting the I1781L substitution in B. syzigachne plants and seeds. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-15T07:56:30.15799-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3777
  • Validating spatiotemporal predictions of an important pest of small grains
    • Authors: Scott C Merrill; Thomas O Holtzer, Frank B Peairs, Philip J Lester
      Pages: 131 - 138
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Arthropod pests are typically managed using tactics applied uniformly to the whole field. Precision pest management applies tactics under the assumption that within‐field pest pressure differences exist. This approach allows for more precise and judicious use of scouting resources and management tactics. For example, a portion of a field delineated as attractive to pests may be selected to receive extra monitoring attention. Likely because of the high variability in pest dynamics, little attention has been given to developing precision pest prediction models. Here, multimodel synthesis was used to develop a spatiotemporal model predicting the density of a key pest of wheat, the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov). RESULTS Spatially implicit and spatially explicit models were synthesized to generate spatiotemporal pest pressure predictions. Cross‐validation and field validation were used to confirm model efficacy. A strong within‐field signal depicting aphid density was confirmed with low prediction errors. CONCLUSION Results show that the within‐field model predictions will provide higher‐quality information than would be provided by traditional field scouting. With improvements to the broad‐scale model component, the model synthesis approach and resulting tool could improve pest management strategy and provide a template for the development of spatially explicit pest pressure models. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-28T05:29:03.288949-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3778
  • What happens when crops are turned on? Simulating constitutive
           volatiles for tritrophic pest suppression across an agricultural landscape
    • Authors: Ian Kaplan; Danny Lewis
      Pages: 139 - 150
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Herbivore‐induced plant volatiles, or HIPVs, are increasingly considered as a biocontrol enhancement tool by constitutively emitting these carnivore‐attracting chemicals from agricultural fields. While ample data substantiate the olfactory preference of predators for HIPVs in laboratory environments, little is understood about the consequences of ‘turning crops on’ in the field. To explore the ramifications for arthropod pest management, a spatially explicit predator–prey population model was constructed that simulated a crop field releasing signals to recruit natural enemies from the surrounding landscape. RESULTS Field size had an overriding influence on model outcome, both isolated as a single factor and interactively shaping responses to other parameters (e.g. habituation, foraging efficiency). Predator recruitment exponentially declined with increasing field size from nearly double the baseline density in small fields (225 individuals m−2) to a mere 4% increase (130 individuals m−2) in large fields. Correspondingly, HIPVs enhanced pest consumption in small fields (ca 50% fewer prey), while generating virtually no impact in large fields. CONCLUSION Collectively, the model suggests that reducing the perimeter/core area ratio will ultimately constrain the utility of predator retention as a pest control tactic in commercial‐sized fields and illustrates potential consequences of the widespread commercialization of this technology in agriculture. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-30T08:41:47.904178-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3779
  • Cross‐resistance, the stability of acetamiprid resistance and its
           effect on the biological parameters of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus
           solenopsis (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), in Pakistan
    • Authors: Muhammad Babar Shahzad Afzal; Sarfraz Ali Shad, Naeem Abbas, Mahmood Ayyaz, William B Walker
      Pages: 151 - 158
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Acetamiprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is effective against both soil and plant insects, including insects of the orders Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera and Thysanoptera. In order to estimate the effects associated with insecticide exposure and devise better pest management tactics, a field population of Phenacoccus solenopsis was exposed to acetamiprid in the laboratory. Subsequently, cross‐resistance and the effects of acetamiprid on the biological parameters of P. solenopsis were investigated. RESULTS Following five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315‐fold greater resistance to this chemical compared with an unexposed control population. The selected population also demonstrated very high to moderate cross‐resistance to other tested insecticides. Furthermore, acetamiprid resistance remained unstable when the acetamiprid‐selected population was not exposed for a further five generations. The acetamiprid‐selected population had a relative fitness of 0.22, with significantly lower survival rate, pupal weight, fecundity, percentage hatching, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, biotic potential and mean relative growth rate, with prolonged male and female nymphal duration, developmental time from egg to female adult and male and female longevity compared with the control population. CONCLUSION P. solenopsis biological parameters are greatly affected by acetamiprid, and it is of significant cost for the insects to counter these effects. This study will be a valuable source of information for further understanding of acetamiprid resistance and for assisting the development of resistance management programmes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-04-22T07:41:04.562876-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3783
  • Modelling the effect of pyrethroid use intensity on mite population
           density for walnuts
    • Authors: Yu Zhan; Siqi Fan, Minghua Zhang, Frank Zalom
      Pages: 159 - 164
      Abstract: BACKGROUND Published studies relating pyrethroid use and subsequent mite outbreaks have largely been based on laboratory and field experiments, with some inferring a result of increased miticide use. The present study derived a mathematical model proposed to quantify the effect of pyrethroid use intensity on mite population density. The model was validated against and parameterized with actual field‐level pyrethroid and miticide use data from 1995 to 2009 for California walnuts, where the miticide use intensity was a proxy of the mite population density. RESULTS The parameterized model was MI = 1.61 − 0.89 · exp(−93.31PI) (RMSE = 0.13; R2 = 0.69; P < 0.01), where PI and MI are the average pyrethroid and miticide use intensity in small intervals respectively. A three‐range scheme was presented to quantify pesticide applications based on the change rate of MI to PI. Specific for California walnuts, the PI range of 0–0.025 kg ha−1 was identified as the rapidly increasing range where MI increased vastly when PI increased. CONCLUSION Results confirmed that more miticide was used, presumably to prevent or control mite resurgence when pyrethroids were applied, a practice that is not only costly but might be expected to aggravate mite resistance to miticides and increase risk associated with these chemicals to the environment and human health. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry
      PubDate: 2014-05-08T07:56:39.782118-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ps.3799
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