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World Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
X-Ray Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B : A Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Kinetics and Catalysis
  [SJR: 0.317]   [H-I: 23]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1608-3210 - ISSN (Online) 0023-1584
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2336 journals]
  • Unified kinetic model of soot formation in the pyrolysis and oxidation of
           aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in shock waves
    • Authors: G. L. Agafonov; I. V. Bilera; P. A. Vlasov; I. V. Zhil’tsova; Yu. A. Kolbanovskii; V. N. Smirnov; A. M. Tereza
      Pages: 557 - 572
      Abstract: Abstract The formation of soot particles in the pyrolysis and oxidation of various aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in argon behind reflected shock waves has been investigated by computational and theoretical methods. The hydrocarbons examined include methane, ethane, propane (aliphatic hydrocarbons with ordinary bonds), acetylene, ethylene, propylene (aliphatic hydrocarbons with multiple bonds), benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene (simplest aromatic hydrocarbons). Soot formation in the pyrolysis and oxidation of both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons can be simulated in detail within a unified kinetic model. The predictive power of the unified kinetic model has been verified by directly comparing the calculated kinetic data for the formation of products and reactive radicals in the pyrolysis and oxidation of various hydrocarbons to the corresponding experimental data. In all calculations, all the kinetic parameters of the unified kinetic model were strictly fixed. A good quantitative fit between the data calculated via the unified kinetic model and experimental data has been attained.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050013
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Synergism in combustion processes
    • Authors: V. V. Azatyan; G. V. Balayan; V. M. Prokopenko; N. V. Chapysheva; S. K. Abramov
      Pages: 573 - 577
      Abstract: Abstract The effect of CF3H, CF4, and N2 on the ignition of methane–air mixtures has been investigated. The effect of trifluoromethane is due to its being involved in reaction chain termination. A nonadditive effect of trifluoromethane and nitrogen on the concentration limits of ignition and flame propagation in methane–air mixtures has been predicted and revealed. The synergistic effect arises from the exponential dependence of the rate of the chain process on the concentrations of the initial components.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050037
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Synergistic effect of sonolysis and photocatalysis in the degradation
           kinetics of effluent solution
    • Authors: T. Yetim; T. Tekin
      Pages: 578 - 585
      Abstract: Abstract In this study, degradation of the effluent solution using sonolysis, sonocatalysis, photocatalysis and sonophotocatalysis was investigated. For this purpose, an artificial effluent solution (AES) containing Acid Black 1 and Acid Blue 62 dyestuffs was prepared. The initial AES concentration, catalyst amount, light intensity and the power of ultrasound energy were chosen as the reaction parameters.The degradation rate of AES followed the pseudo-first order kinetics inconcentration of artificial effluent solution. The results showed that the sonophotocatalysis (US + UV + TiO2) was more effective in the degradation than sonolysis (US), sonocatalysis (US + TiO2) and photocatalysis (UV + TiO2) performed individually. The highest and lowest degradation rates were obtained in sonophotocatalytic process and sonolytic process (US), respectively. It was found also that the synergistic effect between sonolysis and photocatalysis processes is the main reason why the maximum degradation is achievable in the sonophotocatalytic process.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050190
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Alkene hydrogenation over palladium supported on a carbon–silica
    • Authors: T. I. Akchurin; N. Z. Baibulatova; S. A. Grabovskii; P. P. Talipova; E. G. Galkin; V. A. Dokichev
      Pages: 586 - 591
      Abstract: Abstract Palladium catalysts supported on a carbon–silica material were synthesized. Hydrogenation by molecular hydrogen was studied in the presence of straight-chain and cyclic olefins. As distinct from what is observed for olefins having a phenyl substituent, for aliphatic alkenes the reaction rate decreases with an increasing conversion due to the accumulation of hydrogenation products. The synthesized palladium catalysts show a higher hydrogenation activity than Pd/C.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050025
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • A comparative study on catalytic performance of modified nanocrystalline
           and microcrystalline zeolite X for synthesis of cumene by transalkylation
           of 1,4-diisopropylbenzene with benzene
    • Authors: R. Thakur; S. Barman
      Pages: 592 - 601
      Abstract: Abstract Cumene is a commercially important product in the petrochemical industries. In isopropylation of benzene, 1,4-diisopropyl benzene (1,4-DIPB) is produced as low value by-product. This low value by-product DIPB is used to maximize the production of commercially important product cumene by transalkylation reaction. Reduction of crystal size in zeolite can increase surface area of the external surface and in this way bring about substantial changes in catalytic activity. Moreover modification with rare-earth metal enhances the acidity of zeolite. In this work, nanocrystalline and microcrystalline zeolite X were modified with cerium to study the combine effect of crystal size and ion modification of zeolite on selectivity of cumene in commercially important transalkylation reaction. Benzene and 1,4-diisopropylbenzene in a molar ratio of 1 to 12.5 were subjected to vapour-phase reaction in the temperature range of 498 to 593 K at atmospheric pressure with space time of 5.27–10.54 kg h/kmol. Nanosized crystalline zeolite gives much higher conversions of 1,4-DIPB than microcrystalline zeolite. Over cerium modified nanosized zeolite CeXN 81.85% conversion of 1,4-DIPB and 97% cumene selectivity were achieved. It was found that stability and activity of CeXN for cumene synthesis was much higher than that of CeXM zeolite. Kinetic constants for the reactions were estimated and the activation energies for various reactions over CeXM were determined. The activation enegy for transalkylation reaction was found to be 78.54 kJ/mol.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050189
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • The effects of thermal treatment of ZnO–ZnCr 2 O 4 catalyst on the
           particle size and product selectivity in dehydrocyclization of crude
           glycerol and ethylenediamine
    • Authors: Reema Sarkari; Vankudoth Krishna; Medak Sudhakar; Tumula Venkateshwar Rao; Aytam Hari Padmasri; Darbha Srinivas; Akula Venugopal
      Pages: 602 - 609
      Abstract: Abstract The ZnO–ZnCr2O4 (Zn–Cr–O) sample obtained by decomposition of Zn-Cr hydrotalcite precursor was subjected to the thermal treatment at different temperatures and the physico-chemical properties of the Zn–Cr–O system were compared with its catalytic behavior in dehydrocyclization of crude glycerol and ethylenediamine (EDA). Upon high temperature treatment of Zn–Cr–O the Cr6+ ions underwent autoreduction to form stable Cr3+ species and the particle size of both ZnO and ZnCr2O4 increased dramatically. Thermal effect did not influence the intermolecular cyclisation of EDA to form pyrazine. By contrast, an inversely proportional dependence was found between the rate of formation of 2-methylpyrazine and the particle size of Zn–Cr–O whereas the rate of 2-pyrazinylmethanol was directly proportional to the particle size.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050177
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Experimental and kinetic study of catalytic cracking of heavy fuel oil
           over E-CAT/MCM-41 catalyst
    • Authors: A. A. Ebrahimi; S. Tarighi; A. B. Ani
      Pages: 610 - 616
      Abstract: Abstract The catalytic cracking of heavy fuel oil was investigated over the equilibrium fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (E-Cat) as a base component with the mesoporous MCM-41 as an additive. The catalytic performance of the E-Cat/MCM-41 system was assessed in a fixed-bed MAT unit. The reaction was performed at temperatures of 500, 530, 550 and 600°C and the product distributions in both gaseous and liquid phases were studied. The yields of products including light olefins, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, dry gas, coke and also the conversions obtained over different temperatures were reported and some generalities discussed. The maximum yield of propylene (17.5%) was obtained at 550°C whereas the highest conversion and gasoline yield was gained at 530°C. An eight-lump kinetic model containing 11 kinetic parameters was considered. Those parameters were estimated based on experimental data at specific temperatures by fourth order Runge–Kutta algorithm and the least square method. In addition, Arrhenius equation was used to calculate apparent activation energies. The calculated data of the product yields were in a close agreement with the experimental data.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050098
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Supported catalysts based on Pd–In nanoparticles for the liquid-phase
           hydrogenation of terminal and internal alkynes: 1. formation and structure
    • Authors: P. V. Markov; G. O. Bragina; G. N. Baeva; O. P. Tkachenko; I. S. Mashkovskii; I. A. Yakushev; M. N. Vargaftik; A. Yu. Stakheev
      Pages: 617 - 624
      Abstract: Abstract The formation of Pd–In catalysts synthesized from the heteronuclear acetate complex PdIn(CH3COO)5 was studied by temperature-programmed reduction, electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO and hydrogen temperature-programmed desorption (H2-TPD). IR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO and H2-TPD confirmed the formation of bimetallic Pd–In nanoparticles. It was found that the Pd–In nanoparticle surface contains predominantly Pd atoms separated from one another by indium atoms, which is evidenced by the disappearance of the CO band shift resulting from the lateral dipole–dipole interaction between adsorbed CO molecules and by a significant decrease in the band intensity of CO adsorbed in bridged form. Almost complete inhibition of palladium hydride (PdHx) provides additional evidence of the formation of Pd–In bimetallic particles.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s002315841605013x
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Supported catalysts based on Pd–In nanoparticles for the liquid- phase
           hydrogenation of terminal and internal alkynes: 2. catalytic properties
    • Authors: P. V. Markov; G. O. Bragina; G. N. Baeva; I. S. Mashkovskii; A. V. Rassolov; I. A. Yakushev; M. N. Vargaftik; A. Yu. Stakheev
      Pages: 625 - 631
      Abstract: Abstract Pd–In/Al2O3 and Pd–In/MgAl2O4 catalysts prepared from dinuclear Pd–In acetate complexes were studied in the hydrogenation of alkyne compounds with different structures. The Pd–In catalysts demonstrate high selectivity in the hydrogenation of internal alkynes comparable with that of the Lindlar catalyst. Similar activity/selectivity characteristics are reached at a significantly lower Pd content. For terminal alkynes, the favorable effect of Indium introduction is considerably less pronounced. An analysis of the In effect on the selectivity and the ratio between the rates of the first and second hydrogenation steps suggests that the reaction selectivity is determined to a large extent by a thermodynamic factor (adsorption–desorption equilibrium between the reactants and the reaction products).
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050141
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Effect of micropores on the effective diffusion coefficient
    • Authors: V. M. Khanaev; E. S. Borisova; P. N. Kalinkin; O. N. Kovalenko
      Pages: 632 - 639
      Abstract: Abstract The effective diffusion coefficient for catalysts differing in their porous structure has been derived from experimental data on H2S conversion in the Claus reaction. The effective diffusion coefficient increases under conditions of catalyst deactivation due to sulfur condensation in micropores. A mathematical model is suggested to describe the micropore effect on the effective diffusion coefficient.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050116
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Effect of cobalt weight content on the structure and catalytic properties
           of Co/CNT catalysts in the fischer–tropsch synthesis
    • Authors: S. A. Chernyak; G. E. Selyaev; E. V. Suslova; A. V. Egorov; K. I. Maslakov; A. N. Kharlanov; S. V. Savilov; V. V. Lunin
      Pages: 640 - 646
      Abstract: Abstract Cobalt-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts containing 1 to 40 wt % cobalt supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated. The CNTs have been characterized by low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All catalysts have been prepared by impregnating, with an ethanolic solution of cobalt nitrate, the CNTs preoxidized with concentrated nitric acid and have been tested in the FTS at 220°C and atmospheric pressure. Correlations have been established between the cobalt weight content of the catalyst and the Co particle size determined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Co content and particle size have an effect on the activity and selectivity of the catalyst and on the target fraction (C5+) yield in the FTS. The highest CO conversion is observed for the catalyst containing 20 wt % Co; the highest selectivity and activity, for the catalyst containing 5 wt % Co; the highest C5+ yield, for the catalyst containing 10 wt % Co.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050062
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Oxidative coupling of methane: Mechanism and kinetics
    • Authors: V. I. Lomonosov; M. Yu. Sinev
      Pages: 647 - 676
      Abstract: Abstract The mechanism of the oxidative coupling of methane (OCM), a reaction discovered in the early 1980s, and the development of approaches to kinetic description of this reaction are analyzed. In addition to being of potential practical significance as a single-step synthetic route from methane to ethylene, a valuable chemical and petrochemical semiproduct, OCM was the first heterogeneous–homogeneous process of this hitherto unknown type. Its distinctive feature is that it is impossible to separately determine the methane conversion via the main pathway (into C2 hydrocarbons) in the homogeneous phase and on the catalyst surface, because reactive intermediates (methyl radicals) result from the interaction of methane molecules with active sites of the surface, while the primary OCM product (ethane) results from the recombination of these radicals in the gas phase. The correlation between the phenomenological regularities of the OCM process and its mechanism, the correlation between the nature of the active sites and the mechanism of activation of methane and oxygen, and the possibility of constructing a self-consistent kinetic model taking into account the specific features of the process—redox nature of the active sites and the free-radical character of the major intermediate compounds—are analyzed in detail.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050128
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • On the properties of surface complexes formed upon the adsorption of NO x
           , C 3 H 6 , and their mixtures with oxygen on ZrO 2 according to EPR, TPD,
           and fourier transform IR spectroscopy data
    • Authors: V. A. Matyshak; A. N. Il’ichev; O. N. Sil’chenkova; V. A. Sadykov; V. N. Korchaka
      Pages: 677 - 685
      Abstract: Abstract The adsorption of reactant mixtures is quantitatively and qualitatively different from the adsorption of the individual reactants. Thus, O2 is almost not adsorbed on ZrO2; however, a considerable concentration of molecular oxygen was detected among the products of desorption after the adsorption of a mixture of NO + O2 and the total amount of desorbed molecules was greater by a factor of 10 than their total amount after the individual adsorption of NO and O2. Among the qualitative differences is the formation of the O2 - radical anion on the surface only upon the adsorption of the mixture of NO + O2. Similarly, the number of desorbed molecules upon the simultaneous adsorption of C3H6, NO, and O2 was much greater than that upon their individual adsorption; this is related to the formation of paramagnetic and nonparamagnetic NO2–hydrocarbon complexes on the surface, which contained the NO2 group and a hydrocarbon fragment.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050153
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • CO oxidation with oxygen of the catalyst and gas-phase oxygen over
           (0.5−15)%СоО/СеО 2
    • Authors: N. Il’ichev; Z. T. Fattakhova; D. L. Shashkin; V. A. Matyshak; V. N. Korchak
      Pages: 686 - 696
      Abstract: Abstract The CO adsorption species on Co3O4 and (0.5-15%)CoO/CeO2 catalysts have been investigated by temperature-programmed desorption and IR spectroscopy. At 20°C, the largest amount of CO is adsorbed on the 5%CoO/CeO2 sample to form, on Com 2+On 2+ clusters, hydrogen-containing, bidentate, and monodentate carbonate complexes, whose decomposition is accompanied by CO2 desorption at 300 and 450°C (1.1 × 1020 g–1). The formation of the carbonates is accompanied by the formation of Co+ cations and Co0, on which carbonyls form. The latter decompose at 20, 90, and 170°C to release CO (2.7 × 1019 g–1). Part of the carbonyls oxidizes to CO2 upon oxygen adsorption, and the CO2 undergoes desorption at 20°C. Adsorbed oxygen decreases the decomposition temperature of the H-containing and bidentate carbonates from 300 to 100-170°C and maintains the sample in the oxidized state, which is active in subsequent CO adsorption and oxidation. CO oxidation by oxygen of the catalyst diminishes the activity of the sample in these processes and increases the decomposition temperature of the carbonate complexes. Taking into account the properties of the adsorption complexes, we concluded that the H-containing and bidentate carbonates are involved in CO oxidation by oxygen of the catalyst at ~170°C under isothermal conditions. The rate limiting step is the decomposition of the carbonates, a process whose activation energy is 65-74 kJ/mol.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050104
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Study of the oxygen exchange kinetics in the nonstoichiometric oxide SrFeO
           3–δ under isostoichiometric conditions using the oxygen partial
           pressure relaxation technique
    • Authors: S. F. Bychkov; M. P. Popov; A. P. Nemudry
      Pages: 697 - 703
      Abstract: Abstract The kinetics of oxygen exchange in the nonstoichiometric strontium ferrite SrFeO3–δ with the structure of cubic perovskite was studied by the oxygen partial pressure relaxation technique in the isostoichiometric regime at temperatures of 500–900°C in a range of δ from 0.24 to 0.44. An increase in the oxygen nonstoichiometry δ was accompanied by a decrease in the rate of sample relaxation and by an increase in the apparent activation energy of oxygen exchange.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050050
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Thermal stability of Ag–Au, Cu–Au, and Ag–Cu bimetallic
           nanoparticles supported on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite
    • Authors: A. V. Bukhtiyarov; I. P. Prosvirin; I. A. Chetyrin; A. A. Saraev; V. V. Kaichev; V. I. Bukhtiyarov
      Pages: 704 - 711
      Abstract: Abstract The formation of Ag–Au, Cu–Au, and Ag–Cu bimetallic particles on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Samples with the core–shell structure of particles were prepared by sequential thermal vacuum deposition. The thermal stability of the samples was studied over a wide range of temperatures (25-400°C) under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. The heating of the samples to ~250°C leads to the formation of bimetallic alloy particles with a relatively uniform distribution of metals in the bulk. The thermal stability of the samples with respect to sintering depends on the nature of the supported metals. Thus, the Ag–Au particles exhibited the highest thermal resistance (~350°C) under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, whereas the Ag–Cu particles agglomerated even at ~250°C.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050049
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Synthesis, morphology, and activity of La 1–x Ag x MnO 3 ± y
    • Authors: O. V. Russkikh; D. V. Ivanov; L. A. Isupova; D. S. Chezganov; A. A. Ostroushko
      Pages: 712 - 721
      Abstract: Abstract La1–xAgxMnO3 ± y (x = 0-0.3) mixed oxides have been synthesized by the pyrolysis of polymer–salt compositions using different organic compounds and different salt: organic compound ratios. The correlation between the reaction medium temperature during pyrolysis, the composition of the resulting oxide, and synthesis conditions has been investigated. The effect of these conditions on the character of the pyrolysis process, on the phase composition and microstructure of the resulting oxide particles and metallic silver, and on their mutual distribution is reported. The catalytic properties of the synthesized oxides in methane and soot oxidation are considered, and a correlation is established between the catalytic activity of the oxides and the synthesis conditions.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416050165
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 5 (2016)
  • Photocatalytic degradation of Br-trihalomethanes by nanosized TiO 2
           /diatomite hybrid photocatalyst
    • Authors: J. Zhang; A. Wei; Q. Wu; D. Zhang
      Pages: 429 - 433
      Abstract: Abstract Nanosized TiO2/diatomite catalyst was prepared by sol–gel method at ambient temperature. Diatomite was used as a carrier, tetrabutyl titanate served as a source of titanium. The photocatalytic degradation of Br-THMs was successfully achieved in the presence of TiO2/diatomite under Xe-light irradiation. It was suggested that Br-THMs were debromized in a stepwise manner. The rate of degradation increases markedly with increasing extent of substitution of Br-THMs by bromine because the C–Br bond is less stable than the C–Cl bond. Furthermore, the degradation of Br-THMs was caused by the action of hydroxyl free radicals, the signals of which were registered by means of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416040030
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2016)
  • Homopolymerization and copolymerization of vinyl chloride over supported
           metalorganic catalysts
    • Authors: N. Yu. Kovaleva; L. A. Novokshonova
      Pages: 474 - 481
      Abstract: Abstract The homopolymerization of vinyl chloride and its copolymerization with ethylene over dibutyl ether–modified SiO2-supported Ziegler–Natta catalysts based on titanium and vanadium chlorides have been studied. The supported metal complexes are sufficiently active in the polymerization of vinyl chloride. Their activity depends on the catalyst composition and conditions of formation of the catalyst on the surface of the support. The chain structure of the resulting polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has been studied by NMR spectroscopy. The thermal properties of the synthesized PVC have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The PVC obtained possesses enhanced thermal stability owing to the specific features of its chain structure. Vinyl chloride polymerization over the supported metalorganic catalyst proceeds mainly via a free-radical mechanism. Process conditions have been found for conducting the copolymerization of vinyl chloride with ethylene over supported metal complexes resulting in the formation of true statistical copolymers, which is confirmed by IR and NMR spectroscopy.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416030071
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2016)
  • Evaluation of the acidic properties of the B 2 O 3 –Al 2 O 3 and Pt/B 2
           O 3 –Al 2 O 3 systems by spin probe EPR spectroscopy and their
           correlation with the occurrence of the joint hydroisomerization of heptane
           and benzene
    • Authors: V. L. Yurpalov; E. D. Fedorova; V. A. Drozdov; A. V. Lavrenov
      Pages: 540 - 545
      Abstract: Abstract The acidity of a series of borate-containing aluminum oxide samples with the concentrations of B2O3 from 0.9 to 27.5 wt % and Pt-containing catalysts obtained on their basis was studied by spin probe EPR spectroscopy. With the use of anthracene and the TEMPO nitroxide radical as probe molecules, it was established that an increase in the B2O3 content of the B2O3–Al2O3 and Pt/B2O3–Al2O3 systems leads to a symbatic increase in the number of medium-strength Brønsted acid sites (BASs). In this case, the yields of target hydroisomerization products (isoheptanes and methylcyclopentane) correlate with the number of BASs.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0023158416040169
      Issue No: Vol. 57, No. 4 (2016)
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Heriot-Watt University
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