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CHEMISTRY (587 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal of Catalysts     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Chemical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Chemical Health Risks     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Chemical Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Cheminformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chemometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chromatography A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Journal of Chromatography Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Clinical Toxicology     Open Access  
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Computational Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Coordination Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Flow Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fluorescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Fluorine Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Materials Chemistry A : Materials for Energy and Sustainability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Materials Chemistry B : Materials for Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Materials Chemistry C : Materials for Optical, Magnetic and Electronic Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Materials Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 91)
Journal of Membrane and Separation Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Modern Chemistry & Chemical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Molecular Liquids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Molecular Recognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nepal Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Nucleic Acids Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ocean University of China (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymer & Composites     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Journal of Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Research Updates in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Saudi Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Solid State Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Solution Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Structural Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sulfur Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Superhard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Systems Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access  
Journal of the American Chemical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Bangladesh Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Theoretical Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
JPC - Journal of Planar Chromatography - Modern TLC     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Informasi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kinetics and Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Korea-Australia Rheology Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Langmuir     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Latvian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Lebensmittelchemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lipid Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Luminescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Macromolecular Materials & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover   Kinetics and Catalysis
  [SJR: 0.367]   [H-I: 21]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1608-3210 - ISSN (Online) 0023-1584
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2302 journals]
  • Metal nature effect on catalytic reactions in furfural-H 2 O 2 -H 2
           O-group V or VI d -metal salt systems in acid media
    • Abstract: Abstract Homogeneous catalytic reactions of furfural oxidation by hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous medium in the presence of catalytic amounts of a vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, or chromium salt have been studied to compare them with the acid-autocatalytic reaction. The formation of peroxo complexes of the corresponding metals has been established. The interaction of these peroxo complexes with the carbonyl group of furfural affords organic metal-containing peroxides. The subsequent transformations of these peroxides in the presence of the indicated catalysts lead to different dominant final products. This is explained by different mechanisms of the oxidation of the key intermediates, namely, 2-formyloxy- and 2-hydroxyfurans. In the presence of the vanadium and molybdenum salts, the catalytic role of the resuting carboxylic acids is insignificant, as distinct from what is observed in the acid-autocatalyzed reaction.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Properties of nitrogen-oxygen surface compounds on ZrO 2 samples with
           different phase compositions according to in situ IR spectroscopy data
    • Abstract: Abstract The zirconium dioxide surface has a wide variety of adsorption sites differing in their nature. The proportions of these sites can be changed by varying the oxide preparation and pretreatment conditions. This fact shows itself as a wide diversity of surface structures resulting from NO and O2 adsorption. Under conditions of the selective catalytic reduction of NO x , the most stable nitrogen oxide species are nitrates that result from the interaction between NO x and the ZrO2 surface. The concentrations of the other nitrogen-oxygen surface compounds are two orders of magnitude lower. The routes of NO 3 − formation and decomposition on the ZrO2 surface are discussed. In these routes, monodentate nitrates (which show themselves at 1550–1555 cm−1) are considered as intermediates in the formation and decomposition of bidentate NO 3 − .
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • A temperature-programmed desorption and IR spectroscopic study of the
           mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation on copper-containing catalysts
    • Abstract: Abstract With the use of the temperature-programmed desorption of CO and IR spectroscopy, it was found that, after the adsorption of carbon monoxide on the oxidized 5% CuO/CeO2, 5% CuO/ZrO2, 5% CuO/Al2O3, and 5% CuO/SiO2 samples at 20°C, the greatest amount of adsorbed molecules (2.5 × 1020 g−1) was present on 5% CuO/ZrO2. Of these molecules, 1.0 × 1020 and 1.4 × 1020 g−1 formed carbonyl and carbonate adsorption complexes with the participation of copper-containing sites, respectively. The oxidized sample of 5% CuO/ZrO2 contained only the oxidation sites Cu2+O2−, which participated in the formation of carbonates upon the adsorption of CO. A portion of Cu2+ cations was reduced to Cu+ in the course of reaction, and two types of the carbonyl complexes Cu+CO were formed on them. They were characterized by the presence of absorption bands at 2110 and 2107 cm−1 in the IR spectrum and decomposed with the desorption of CO at 100 and 170°C. Carbonyls were oxidized by adsorbed oxygen at 20°C to carbonates. The temperature of their decomposition accompanied by the desorption of CO2 (T max = 170°C) was lower than that of carbonates (240 and 350°C) formed upon the adsorption of CO on the oxidized surface in the absence of oxygen from a gas phase. The properties of adsorption complexes and their participation in the reaction CO + O2 → CO2 at low temperatures, in particular, with the use of a hydrogen-containing mixture, were considered. The oxidation of CO on CuO clusters in 5% CuO/CeO2 and 5% CuO/ZrO2 were discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Cobalt-containing catalysts based on Al 2 O 3 for the oxidative
           destruction of organic dyes in the aqueous phase
    • Abstract: Abstract Alumina-based cobalt-containing catalysts have been synthesized for the oxidation of organic dyes with hydrogen peroxide in the aqueous phase. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, cobalt on the support surface is in the divalent state, specifically in oxide and spinel forms. Both phases are highly active in a wide pH range, but cobalt in spinel form is more resistant to leaching into the solution.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Cellulose supported ruthenium nanoclusters as an efficient and recyclable
           catalytic system for benzene hydrogenation under mild conditions
    • Abstract: Abstract Ruthenium nanoclusters supported on biopolymer cellulose were prepared by chemical reduction technique and characterized by various experimental tools. The cellulose supported Ru catalyst effectively hydrogenates benzene under mild and solvent free conditions. The complete conversion of benzene to cyclohexane was achieved at 70°C and 2.0 MPa partial pressure of H2 in 1 h. Effect of various parameters such as reaction temperature, H2 partial pressure, metal loading and catalyst amount on hydrogenation of benzene was studied in detail. The catalyst was recovered from product and reused upto four times without significant loss in its catalytic activity.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Study of the differential selectivity of cross-coupling reactions for
           elucidating the nature of the true catalyst
    • Abstract: Abstract A phase trajectory analysis has demonstrated that, in the Mizoroki-Heck reaction involving competing aryl bromides, variation of reaction parameters (nature and concentration of the catalyst precursor and the presence/absence of a reductant and a stabilizer of colloid particles) does not change the phase trajectories. This indicates that the reaction proceeds solely via a homogeneous mechanism. A similar situation is observed when benzoic anhydride is used as the arylating agent. This suggests that the homogeneous mechanism takes place in this case as well. When the arylating agent is benzoyl chloride, the phase trajectory of the competitive reaction depends on the nature of the catalyst precursor; therefore, this process occurs at least partially via a heterogeneous mechanism.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Hydrotreating performance of La-modified Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalysts prepared by
           hydrothermal impregnation method
    • Abstract: Abstract To enhance the surface active sites of the catalyst, a series of La-modified Ni/γ-Al2O3 samples were prepared by hydrothermal impregnation method and characterized by XRD, XPS and UV-Vis DRS methods. XRD shows that hydrothermal impregnation is helpful to enhancing the dispersion degree of active component. XPS and UV-Vis DRS indicate that the catalyst modified by a certain amount La is conducive to increasing the surface Ni content. The results indicates that the joint action of La modification and hydrothermal impregnation condition is beneficial to increasing surface active sites and catalytic performance.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Kinetics and mechanism of 1,3-pentadiene cationic polymerization
    • Abstract: Abstract 1,3-Pentadiene cationic polymerization under the action of titanium tetrachloride-carboxylic acid (CF3COOH, CF3COOD, CCl3COOH, CHCl2COOH, CH2ClCOOH, CH3COOH, and (CH3)3CCOOH) catalytic systems has been studied. The highest activity in the 1,3-pentadiene polymerization is shown by the TiCl4-trifluoroacetic or deuterated trifluoroacetic acids system. Poly-1,3-pentadiene synthesized over these catalytic systems is characterized by a relatively low M n , which changes slightly with an increasing monomer conversion, while M w of the polymer increases substantially. The polymer chain propagation rate constants and the concentration of active species at various initial 1,3-pentadiene concentration have been determined using a deuterium-containing initiator. The reduced unsaturation of poly-1,3-pentadiene synthesized via the cationic polymerization method is due to chain transfer to the polymer and does not result from the cyclization reaction with the formation of six-membered cyclic structures.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • IR spectroscopic and calorimetric study of water and formic acid
           adsorption on a vanadium-titanium catalyst
    • Abstract: Abstract Formaldehyde is oxidized to formic acid at a high selectivity over vanadium -titanium catalysts. IR spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques were used for studying the structure and energy parameters of the surface formic acid and water complexes on the of 11 wt % V2O5/89 wt % TiO2 catalyst. A decrease in the adsorption-desorption heat of formic acid from 100 down to 50 kJ/mol was observed at an increase in the surface coverage. The adsorption heat of formic acid in the form of bidentate formates is 70 kJ/mol under the conditions of the steady-state oxidation of formaldehyde that indicates, according to the earlier DFT calculations, a weak bonding of formate to the active site (V5+) to provide desorption of the intact acid from the vanadium-titanium catalyst surface. The weakly bonded formates are involved in the formation of formic acid during the catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde and provide the high selectivity of the reaction. The close adsorption heats of water (74 kJ/mol) and of formic acid indicate their possible competitive adsorption and may account for the favorable effect of water on the selectivity of formaldehyde oxidation to formic acid.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Effects of boron and barium dopants on VMgO catalysts employed in the
           oxidative dehydrogenation of n -octane
    • Abstract: Abstract Boron and barium were employed as dopants for the VMgO system. The catalysts were characterized by ICP-OES, BET, IR, powder XRD, EDX, TPR-H2, TPD-NH3, XPS, and 51V MAS NMR. These catalysts were used for the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-octane in a continuous flow fixed bed reactor using air as an oxidant. Catalytic tests were carried out at a GHSV of 8000 h−1 and an n-octane to oxygen ratio of 0.8. The dopants induced some changes in the catalysts’ properties, e.g. the acid-base character, the reducibility, and the symmetry and the heterogeneity of the VO4 tetrahedra. Changes in the catalytic performance were also observed. Doping with barium enhanced styrene selectivity and yield, while boron adversely affected the activity and the ODH selectivity of the VMgO system. The catalytic activities may be explained by the reducibility of the vanadium species.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Role of SH groups and chemisorbed hydrogen in the formation of sulfur
           vacancies on an edge of a molybdenum disulfide crystallite
    • Abstract: Abstract The formation of sulfur vacancies on an edge of a molybdenum disulfide crystallite with the participation of SH groups has been considered using density functional theory with a plane-wave basis set and a PBE functional. The relative energy of a number of surface sulfur and hydrogen species has been determined. The profiles of the reactions of the SH group with molecular hydrogen have been investigated.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Titanium dioxide sensitization with a biscyanine dye in the photocatalytic
           reduction of methylene blue
    • Abstract: Abstract Photosensitive heterostructures containing titanium dioxide and a sensitizer, viz., a cyanine dye with two conjugated chromophores have been obtained. Their absorption spectra have been studied, and their photocatalytic activity has been demonstrated to depend on the dye content and irradiation conditions. The energetics of possible electronic processes induced by light of various spectral ranges is considered. Some explanationsare proposed for the observed regularities.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Kinetics of the radical-chain oxidation of methyl oleate inhibited by
           5-amino-6-methyluracil and 5-amino-1,3,6-trimethyluracil
    • Abstract: Abstract The effects of 5-amino-6-methyluracil (AMU) and 5-amino-1,3,6-trimethyluracil (ATMU) on the rate of oxygen uptake in methyl oleate (MO) radical-chain oxidation initiated by 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile as a model reaction have been investigated. The rate constant (k 7) for the reactions of the peroxyl radical forming from MO with AMU and ATMU at 333 K in the medium of the substrate being oxidized has been measured. k 7 is (1.7 ± 0.2) × 104 L mol−1 s−1 in the presence of AMU and (1.3 ± 0.2) × 104 L mol−1 s−1 in the presence of ATMU. k 7 for MO oxidation in aqueous cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solution takes a much smaller value of (2.8 ± 0.8) × 103 L mol−1 s−1.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Non-linear analysis of Haldane kinetic model in phenol degradation in
           batch operations
    • Abstract: Abstract The Haldane kinetic model of phenol biodegradation in batch operation is discussed. This kinetic is most commonly used to describe the dependence of specific growth rate on the concentration of an inhibition substrate. Analytical expressions for the concentration of biomass and substrate are presented using new approach to the homotopy perturbation method. Our results are compared with the experimental data for all values of parameters.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Liquid-phase hydrogenation of nitrobenzene and o -nitrochlorobenzene in
           the presence of phosphorus-containing palladium nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Abstract The properties of phosphorus-modified palladium catalysts in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of nitrobenzene and o-nitrochlorobenzene have been investigated. A general regularity in the reduction of the nitro compounds in the presence of the phosphorus-containing palladium catalysts is an autoacceleration observed at large P: Pd ratios of 0.7–1.5. The autoacceleration is due to a redox process between the intermediate (azoxy derivative) and PdP2, a component of the catalyst nanoparticles. A promoting effect of elemental phosphorus on the chemoselectivity of the Pd-P catalysts in o-nitrochlorobenzene hydrogenation has been discovered. The main factors responsible for the changes in the quantitative characteristics of the phosphorus-modified palladium nanoparticles are considered. Among these factors there are the nature of the nanoparticles, their size, and the state of the surface layer. The properties of the Pd-P catalysts are determined by the proportions of palladium clusters and palladium phosphides (Pd(0) and Pd x P) in the nanoparticles. The formation of the clusters and phosphides has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
      PubDate: 2015-03-01
  • Direct oxidation of hydrogen sulfide over vanadium catalysts: I. Kinetics
           of the reaction
    • Abstract: Abstract The kinetics of H2S oxidation with atmospheric oxygen over V2O5 has been investigated at temperatures of 150–250°C, O2: H2S > 4 mol/mol, and initial H2S concentrations of up to 3 vol %. In spite of the large excess of oxygen over hydrogen sulfide, the H2S conversion rate depends on the oxygen concentration and does not depend on the hydrogen sulfide concentration. The temperature dependence of the H2S conversion rate differs markedly from the Arrhenius dependence and is nearly linear. The SO2 formation rate obeys the Arrhenius equation. The mechanism suggested for hydrogen sulfide oxidation includes SO2 and liquid sulfur formation steps and the interaction between H2S and SO2 in a liquid sulfur film. Reaction rates have been calculated for this reaction mechanism. The calculated rates coincide with experimental data. Numerical values of rate constants have been obtained for the liquid-phase interaction between H2S and SO2.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Kinetics of tetracene oxidation with singlet molecular oxygen: Dependence
           on the physicochemical properties of the solvent
    • Abstract: Abstract The photosensitized oxidation of tetracene with singlet molecular oxygen in organic and aqueous-organic solvents has been investigated. Bimolecular rate constants of the reaction have been measured. The kinetic effect of a solvent is determined by its dielectric properties and electron affinity.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Mechanism of the first step of ozone addition to halogen-substituted
    • Abstract: Abstract Quantum chemical calculations have been carried out for the ozonolysis of monofluoro-, monochloro-, 1,1-difluoro-, and 1,1-dichloroethylene using the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set by the B2PLYP (B2LYP-D) double-hybrid method involving the Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, the CASSCF multiconfigurational ab initio method with MRMP2 corrections, and the CCSD coupled cluster method. The mechanisms of concerted (Criegee) and nonconcerted (DeMore) additions have been investigated. The CCSD method more precisely simulates these reactions. With the MRMP2 method, the overall reaction rate constant is underestimated because of incomplete geometry optimization, but on the whole the dependence of the rate constant on the nature and number of substituents is practically identical to the dependence predicted by the two other methods. Polar substituents in the molecule increase the contribution from the nonconcerted addition mechanism, which reaches 50% for 1,1-difluoroethylene and 98% for 1,1-dischloroethylene.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Effect of metallocenes on benzoyl peroxide decomposition
    • Abstract: Abstract Benzoyl peroxide (BP) decomposition in the presence of the Cp2Fe, (C5Me5)2Fe, (C5Me5)2ZrCl2, (AcC5H4)(C5H4)Fe, Cp2ZrCl2, and Cp2TiCl2 metallocenes in ethylbenzene oxidation as a model reaction has been studied. It has been shown that the metallocenes have a catalytic effect on BP decomposition in accordance with their electrochemical potentials. The rate constant of the bimolecular BP decomposition reaction with the formation of radicals in the BP-ferrocene system (1.46 L mol−1 s−1) has been found.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
  • Transformation of aqueous solutions of glucose over the Pt/C catalyst
    • Abstract: Abstract The transformations of glucose over the Pt/C catalyst in a flow reactor in the temperature range 140–200°C at a pressure of 5.0 MPa have been studied. The main routes of glucose conversion in an aqueous phase in the presence of hydrogen, helium, or air have been considered. A product formation scheme depending on the reaction parameters has been proposed. At 140°C, glucose hydrogenation into sorbitol occurs with a selectivity of 77%. In an oxidizing atmosphere, glucose transforms into gluconic acid (with 73% selectivity at 140°C); here, the formation of sorbitol and mannitol (with a selectivity of 5–7% at 180–200°C) is also possible. Glucose transformation by-products, such as C3–C5 polyatomic alcohols, ketones, acids, and furfural derivatives, have been identified. The degree of glucose reforming in the aqueous solution with the formation of the gaseous products H2 and CO2 is no higher than 10% at 200°C.
      PubDate: 2015-01-01
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