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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 909 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (56 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (643 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (43 journals)
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    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (643 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 329)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 77)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 276)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 384)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access  
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 220)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 77)
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2302-7274
Published by Universitas Udayana Homepage  [70 journals]
  • REVIEW: ANTOSIANIN DAN PEMANFAATANNYA

    • Authors: Melania Priska, Natalia Peni, Ludovicus Carvallo, Yulius Dala Ngapa
      Pages: 79 - 97
      Abstract: ABSTRAK: Antosianin merupakan senyawa turunan polifenol yang keberadaannya sangat melimpah di alam dengan keanekaragaman dalam berbagai jenis tumbuhan dan memiliki banyak fungsi fisiologis penting pada setiap organisme hidup. Antosianin selain bertanggung jawab memberikan warna oranye hingga hitam pada tumbuhan tingkat tinggi, antosianin juga berperan sebagai pelindung dari adanya cekaman biotik dan abiotik; serta sebagai fotoprotektor terhadap radiasi sinar UV-B. Pemanfaataan antosianin pada tumbuhan lebih banyak dipergunakan dalam bidang pangan; kesehatan (sediaan farmasi); dan industri (kosmetik) karena tidak memiliki efek berbahaya. Efektifitas antosianin yang baik untuk menjaga kesehatan dan menurunkan kadar penyakit kronis yaitu apabila mengonsumsi antosianin pada wanita antara 19,8 – 64,9 mg dan pada pria sekitar 18,4 – 44,1 mg setiap hari. Kata kunci: Antosianin, Biosintesis, dan Polifenol. ABSTRACT: Anthocyanin is a polyphenol derivative compound whose existence is very abundant in nature within many kind of plants and has many important physiological functions on each living organisms. Anthocyanin in addition has been known that gives an orange color to black on higher grade plants and also has a role as a protection from the biotic and abiotic stress and as a photoprotector to UV-B radiation.  The applications of anthocyanin contained in plants are more likely to be used in food industries,  health purposes (pharmaceutical industries), and cosmetic industries due to their because they do not have harmful effects on humans. The good effectivity of anthocyanin to maintain the human health and can reduce the levels of chronic diseases if it is regurally consumed every day at dose of  19.8 - 64,9 mg for woman and  of  18,4 - 44,1 mg for man.  
      PubDate: 2019-02-07
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2019)
       
  • SINTESIS KOPOLIMER CANGKOK KITOSAN-g-POLI(ASAM AKRILAT) SEBAGAI ADSORBEN
           KATION Cu2+, Pb2+, DAN Cr3+

    • Authors: James Sibarani, Arisma Damayanti, Irdhawati Irdhawati, Manuntun Manurung, Ni Made Puspawati
      Pages: 98 - 105
      Abstract: ABSTRAK. Sintesis dan karakterisasi kopolimer cangkok poli(asam akrilat) (PAA) pada kitosan (CS) {CS-g-PAA} sebagai penukar kation sudah dilakukan melalui kopolimerisasi redoks menggunakan cerium (IV)-sulfat sebagai inisiator. Konsentrasi dari monomer asam akrilat divariasikan pada konsentrasi 10%(v/v) dan 20% (v/v) dan juga variasi berat inisiator sebesar 0,1; 0,5; dan 1,0 gram. Data spektroskopi FTIR mengkonfirmasi keberhasilan proses grafting. Berdasarkan data spektroskopi FTIR, munculnya puncak serapan baru pada bilangan gelombang 1759,06 cm-1 (C=O).Persen grafting optimum diperoleh dan kopolimer yang disintesis menggunakan 0,5 gram cerium (IV) sulfat diperoleh sebesar 1066,18% (b/b) dan 2434,11% (b/b) berturut-turut untuk konsentrasi monomer 10% (v/v) dan 20% (v/v). pH optimum untuk adsorpsi Pb2+ dan Cr3+ adalah 6 sedangkan untuk yang diperoleh terhadap ion Cu2+ adalah pada pH 8. Kapasitas adsorpsi tertinggi yang diperoleh terhadap ion Cu2+ adalah 52,6 mg/g dan memungkinkan untuk meningkat. Tingginya kapasitas adsorpsi CS-g-PAA terhadap Cu2+ menunjukkan bahwa kopolimer ini merupakan penukar kation yang sangat baik Kata kunci: hidrogel, kopolimerisasi grafting, kitosan-g-poli(asam akrilat), penukar kation, redoks ABSTRACT. The synthesis and characterization of graft copolymer poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) in chitosan (CS) {CS-g-PAA) as cation exchanger were carried out  by redox copolymerization using cerium (IV)-sulfate as an initiator. Concentrations of acrylic acid monomers were varied at concentrations of 10% (v/v) and 20%(v/v) as well as the variation of the initiator of 0.1; 0.5; and 1.0 gram. Analysis of the PAA was conducted using FTIR spectroscopy to confirm the process of grafting which revealed the existence of new absorption peak at 1759.06 cm-1 assigned to C = O. The optimum percentage of grafting and the synthesized of copolymer used 0.5  gram cerium (IV) sulfate were 1066,18%(b/b) and 2434,11%(b/b) respectively for the concentration of monomer in 10%(v/v) and 20%(v/v). The optimum pH for adsorption of Pb2+ and Cr3+ at 6, whereas for Cu2+ ion at pH 8. The highest adsorption capacity obtained on Cu2+ ions is 52.6 mg/g and that’s possible to increase. The higher capacity of CS-g-PAA adsorption to Cu2+ indicates that CS-g-PAA is an excellent cation exchanger.  
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • HIDROLISIS BATANG JAGUNG SECARA ENZIMATIK DARI TANAH HUTAN MANGROVE

    • Authors: Ni Nengah Kartini Asih, Putu Suarya, Ida Bagus Putra Manuaba, I Nengah Wirajana
      Pages: 106 - 115
      Abstract: ABSTRAK: Tanah hutan mangrove merupakan salah satu sumber selulase. Aktivitas selulase pada tanah hutan mangrove pantai suwung kauh dengan substrat sekam padi telah dilakukan pada penelitian sebelumnya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui waktu hidrolisis optimum dan aktivitas selulase dari tanah hutan mangrove dengan substrat batang jagung tanpa dan dengan delignifikasi. Tanah hutan mangrove Pantai Suwung Kauh Denpasar Bali digunakan secara langsung sebagai sumber selulase. Batang jagung tanpa dan dengan delignifikasi masing – masing dicampur dengan tanah hutan mangrove dan diinkubsi pada suhu 30oC dan pH 7,0 dengan variasi waktu inkubasi 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, dan 11 hari. Gula pereduksi hasil hidrolisis ditentukan dengan menggunakan metode Nelson – Somogyi yang absorbansinya diukur dengan spektrofotometer UV-Vis pada panjang gelombang 540 nm. Aktivitas selulase ditentukan berdasarkan penambahan produk gula pereduksi yang dihasilkan dalam rentang waktu inkubasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa waktu hidrolisis optimum pada sampel tanpa delignifikasi terjadi pada waktu inkubasi selama 5 hari, dengan konsentrasi gula pereduksi 4.5285 mg/mL. Sedangkan, waktu hidrolisis optimum pada sampel dengan delignifikasi terjadi pada waktu inkubasi selama 3 hari (B1), dengan konsentrasi gula pereduksi 16.2340 mg/mL. Aktivitas selulase tertinggi pada sampel tanpa delignifikasi dari hari ke-3 sampai ke-5  sebesar 2.6729 U/mL; dan pada sampel delignifikasi dari hari ke-1 sampai ke-3 sebesar 5.4328 U/mL. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa tanah hutan mangrove memiliki aktivitas selulase untuk menghidrolisis substrat batang jagung dan proses delignifikasi berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas selulase.   Kata kunci :  batang jagung, delignifikasi, tanah hutan mangrove, selulase     ABSTRACT: Mangrove forest soil is one of the sources of cellulase. Cellulase activity in mangrove forest soil from coast of Suwung Kauh Denpasar Bali with rice husk substrate has been carried out in previous studies. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal hydrolysis time and cellulase activity of mangrove forest soil with corn stalks substrate with and without delignification. The mangrove forest soil from coast of Suwung Kauh Denpasar Bali was directly as a source of cellulase. The corn stalks with and without delignification were mixed with mangrove forest soil and incubated at 30oC and pH 7.0 with incubation times of 0, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days, respectively. The reducing sugar of hydrolysis results was determined by using the Nelson-Somogyi method that the absorbances were measured by the spectrophotometer UV-Vis at wavelength 540 nm. The cellulase activities were determined based on the concentration of reducing sugar that resulted in the incubation period. The results showed that the optimum hydrolysis time in the sample without delignification occurred at an incubation time of 5 days, with a concentration of reducing sugar 4.5285 mg/mL. Whereas, the optimum hydrolysis time in the sample with delignification occurred at the incubation time for 3 days, and with a concentration of reducing sugar 16.2340 mg/mL. The highest cellulase activity in the sample without delignification was from days 3 to 5 of 2.6729 U / mL; and in the delignification sample was from days 1 to 3 of 5,4328 U / mL. The results of this study were that mangrove forest soil had the cellulase activity to hydrolyze substrate and delignification process had a effect on the cellulase activity.      
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK METANOL DAUN CENDANA (Santalum album L.)
           TERHADAP BAKTERI Staphylococcus aureus DAN Escherichia coli

    • Authors: Ni Made Puspawati, I Gede Tangkas Mei Yasa, I Wayan Suirta
      Pages: 116 - 122
      Abstract: ABSTRAK: Cendana (Santalum album L.) merupakan tanaman endemik Nusa Tenggara Timur yang secara tradisional telah digunakan untuk mengobati berbagai macam penyakit termasuk infeksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan aktivitas antibakteri fraksi n-heksana, kloroform, dan n-butanol ekstrak daun cendana (Santalum album L.) terhadap bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli serta menentukan konsentrasi hambat minimum dan mengidentifikasi komponen senyawa pada fraksi paling aktif. Serbuk daun cendana dimaserasi dengan metanol dan ekstrak metanol yang diperoleh kemudian difraksinasi berturut-turut dengan n-heksana, kloroform, dan n-butanol. Masing-masing fraksi yang diperoleh diuji aktivitas antibakterinya dengan metode sumur difusi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan fraksi n-heksana mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dengan diameter zona hambat sebesar 19,30 mm dan memberikan daya hambat minimum 7,5 mm pada konsentrasi 17% (b/v), tetapi tidak menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri terhadap Escherichia coli. Sementara untuk fraksi kloroform dan n-butanol tidak menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri tehadap kedua bakteri uji. Pemisahan fraksi aktif n-heksana dengan kromatografi kolom dengan eluen n-heksan:etil asetat (8:3), memberikan 6 fraksi gabungan (A,B,C,D,E,F), dan fraksi B menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri relatif paling besar dengan diameter zona hambat 10,60 mm. Hasil identifikasi fraksi aktif B dengan GC-MS menunjukkan terdapat lima belas senyawa dan tiga diantaranya dengan persentase area terbesar yaitu lupeol, nerolidol, dan sitostenone yang merupakan senyawa  golongan terpenoid  diduga berkontribusi terhadap aktivitas antibakterinya.   Kata kunci: cendana, antibakteri, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, terpenoid.   ABSTRACT: Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is an endemic plant of East Nusa Tenggara whicht has been traditionally used to treat various diseases including infection.. The aim of this research was to determine antibacterial activity of n-hexane, chloroform, and n-buthanol fractions of methanol cendana leaf extract toward Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) and Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria and minimum inhibitory concentration  of active fraction and to  identify chemical consituents of the active fraction. Cendana leaf powder was macerated with methanol to yield crude methanol extract which was then fractionated into n-hexane, chlorofrom, and n-buthanol fractions respectively. Each fraction was tested for its antibacterial activity using well diffusion method. The most active fraction was separated using column chromatography and identified using GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer).  The antibacterial activity test showed the n-hexane fraction was able to inhibit the growth of S.aureus with inhibition zone diameter of 19.30 mm and minimum inhibitory concentartion at 17 % (w/v) with inhibition zone diameter of 7.50 mm  but it did not inhibit the growth of E.coli, while chloroform and n-buthanol fractions did not inhibit the growth of both S. aureus and E. coli. The separation of  n-hexane active fraction on column chromatography eluted with n-hexane: ethyl acetate (8:3) gave six fractions (A,B,C,D,E,F) and fraction B was  the most relatively active toward S.aureus with inbition zone diameter of 10.60 mm.  Identification of fraction B showed  fifteen compounds and three of them with high percentage area were identified as lupeol nerolidol and sitostenone, a terpenoid compounds, which may contribute for the actibacterial activity.    
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • KARAKTERISTIK HIDROKSIAPATIT HASIL EKSTRAKSI TERMAL DARI TULANG LIMBAH DAN
           APLIKASINYA UNTUK ADSORPSI ION SELEKTIF BIRU METILEN

    • Authors: I Made Sutha Negara, I Nengah Simpen
      Pages: 123 - 130
      Abstract: ABSTRAK: Tujuan penelitian adalah mempelajari karakteristik hidroksiapatit (TA) yang diekstraksi secara termal dan aplikasinya untuk adsorpsi ion selektif biru metilen. Karakteristik TA yang dipelajari adalah rasio Ca/P, kristalinitas dan ukuran partikel, keasaman dan kebasaan permukaan, situs aktif, serta luas permukaan. TA diekstraksi secara termal pada variasi suhu 400, 750, 950, dan 1100oC. Karakterisasi yield TA ditentukan secara gravimetri, Ca/P dianalisis secara laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), kristalinitas dan ukuran kristal secara difraksi sinar-X (X-ray diffraction, X-RD), keasaman dan kebasaan permukaan ditentukan secara titrasi asam-basa, situs aktif secara fourier transform infrared (FTIR), serta luas permukaan secara spektrometri UV-vis dari methylene blue method. Sementara, jumlah ion selektif biru metilan yang teradsorpsi ditentukan secara spektrometri UV-vis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa TA yang diekstraksi secara termal pada suhu 400oC paling baik karakteristiknya, yaitu rasio Ca/P paling mendekati standar (1,64 dibandingkan standar 1,67), berfasa kristal dengan ukuran rata-rata paling kecil (6,79 nm), jumlah situs aktif tertinggi (21,94 x 1020 situs/g), dan luas permukaan (Langmuir surface area) tertinggi (31,49 m2/gram) serta jumlah ion selektif biru metilen yang teradsorpsi rata-rata juga tertinggi yaitu 85,89%. TA tersebut potensial digunakan sebagai adsorben untuk ion biru metilen.   Kata kunci: tulang sapi, hidroksiapatit, biru metilen, adsorpsi   ABSTRACT: The aim of this research to study the characteristics of hydroxyapatite (TA) which was extracted thermally from bovine bone waste and its application to adsorption of methylene blue selective ions. Characteristics of TA were studied are Ca/P ratio, crystallinity and crystalline size, surface acidity and basicity, active sites, and Langmuir surface area. The TA is extracted thermally on temperatures variation of 400, 750, 950, and 1100oC. Characterization of Ca/P was done by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), crystallinity and crystalline size analyzed by X-ray diffraction (X-RD), surface acidity and basicity by acid-base titrations, fuctional groups by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), as well as Langmuir surface area with the methylene blue method analyzed by UV-vis spectrometric. Meanwhile, the amount of adsorbed methylene blue selective ions was determined by UV-vis spectrometric. The results showed that the TA extracted thermally at 400°C was the best characteristic, the Ca/P ratio was 1.64 closed to the standard (1.67), average crystalline size (6.79 nm), the highest amount of active sites (21.94 x 1020 sites/g), and the highest Langmuir surface area (31,49 m2/g) and the highest average amount of adsorbed methylene blue selective ions was 85.89%.    
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • MODIFIKASI SILIKA GEL MELALUI REAKSI HETEROGEN DENGAN DIFENILKARBAZON

    • Authors: I Wayan Sudiarta, Putu Suarya
      Pages: 131 - 137
      Abstract: ABSTRAK: Penelitian mengenai modifikasi silika gel dengan difenilkarbazon melalui reaksi heterogen telah dilakukan. Modifikasi silika gel dilakukan melalui tiga tahapan yaitu aktivasi silika gel dengan HCl 4M (SiA), sintesis silika gel termodifikasi kloropropiltrimetoksisilan (Si-CPTS) dengan merekasikan SiA dengan kloropropiltrimetoksisilan, dan sintesis silika gel termodifikasi difenil karbazon dengan merekasikan Si-CPTS dengan difenilkarbazon. Variasi rasio jumlah silika gel dan difenilkarbazon dan waktu reaksi modifikasi dipelajari. Semua silika gel dianalisis dengan Spektroskopi IR untuk menentukan gugus fungsi dan analisis kehilangan berat dengan pemanasan pada 600 oC untuk mengetuahi jumlah modifier yang terikat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berdasarkan interpretasi spektra IR dan data kehilangan berat, sintesis silika gel termodifikasi difenilkarbazon melalui reaksi heterogen telah berhasil dikerjakan. Kondisi optimum modifikasi terjadi pada rasio difenilkarbazon dan silika gel 5 mL difenikarbazon 4% (b/v) dan 1 gram silika gel, dengan waktu optimum reaksi adalah 8 jam   Kata Kunci : difenilkarbazon, kloropropil trimetoksisilan, reaksi heterogen, modifikasi silika gel.   ABSTRACT: Modification of silica gel with diphenylcharbazone using heterogeneous reactions has been done. The modification of silica gel was carried out by three stages which were activation of silica gel with HCl 4 M (SiA), synthesis of chloropropyl trimethoxysilane-modified silica gel (Si-CPTS) by reacting the SiA with chloropropyl trimethoxysilane, and synthesis of diphenylcharbazone modified silica gel by reacting the Si-CPTS with diphenylcharbazone. The effects of the different ratio in the amount of silica gel to diphenylcharbazone and the reaction time for the modification were studied. All types of the silica gel were analyzed by IR spectroscopy to determine their functional groups and weight loss analyzes due to the heating process at 600 ° C to determine the amount of bonded modifiers.The results showed that the synthesis of diphenylcarbazon-modified silica gel using heterogeneous reaction has been successfully completed. The optimum ratio was 5 mL 4%(w/v) of diphenylcharbazone to 1 gram of silica gel, and the optimum reaction time was 8 hours.    
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • ANALISIS KADAR LAKTOSA DAN ASAM LAKTAT DENGAN HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID
           CHROMATOGRAPH (HPLC) DAN KADAR ETANOL DENGAN GAS CHROMATOGRAPH (GC) PADA
           KRIM KEFIR

    • Authors: Ni Putu Rahayu Artini, I Wayan Tanjung Aryasa, Desak Putu Risky Vidika A
      Pages: 138 - 144
      Abstract: ABSTRAK: Krim kefir memiliki rasa, warna, dan konsistensi yang menyerupai yoghurt namun tekstur krim kefir lebih encer. Gumpalan susunya lebih lembut, dan memiliki aroma khas yeast. Krim kefir mempunyai efek yang baik untuk kesehatan, seperti mengontrol metabolisme kolesterol, sebagai probiotik, antitumor, antibakteri, antijamur, dan lain-lain. Krim  kefir pada penelitian ini dibuat dari proses fermentasi antara bakteri grain kefir dengan susu plain murni, dimana pada penelitian ini dilakukan proses variasi waktu fermentasi yaitu 24 jam, 48 jam, dan 72 jam. Berdasarkan hasil analisis variasi waktu fermentasi berpengaruh terhadap sifat kimia  krim kefir, yaitu secara keseluruhan, baik FI, FII, dan FIII memiliki penampakan berupa cairan kental dan konsistensi homogen. Variasi waktu fermentasi berpengaruh terhadap sifat kimia krim kefir yaitu, penurunan kadar laktosa, kadar asam laktat, dan kadar alkohol. Pada penelitian ini waktu fermentasi terbaik adalah 24 jam (FI) sehingga menghasilkan krim kefir dengan kadar asam laktat 0,37%, kadar alkohol 0,05%, dan kadar laktosa 6,04%   Kata kunci : krim kefir, fermentasi, kadar asam laktat, kadar alkohol, dan kadar laktosa.   ABSTRACT: Cream kefir has a taste, color, and consistency that resembles yogurt but cream kefir texture is thinner. The lumps of the milk are softer and have a distinctive yeast scent. Cream kefir has  good effects on human health, such as controlling cholesterol metabolism, as probiotics, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, and others. Cream of kefir in this research is made from fermentation process between grain kefir bacteria with pure plain milk, which in this research is processed variation of fermentation time is 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours. Based on the result of analysis of fermentation time variation effect on physical properties of kefir cream, that is, overall, each FI, FII, and FIII has the appearance of thick fluid  and homogeneous consistency. The variation of fermentation time affects the chemical properties of cream kefir cream, namely, decreasing lactose levels, lactic acid levels, and alcohol content. In this study, the best fermentation time was 24 hours (FI) to produce cream kefir with a 0.37% of lactic acid, 0.05% of alcohol content, and lactose content of 6.04%.    
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • PEMBUATAN BIOETANOL DARI CAMPURAN LIMBAH NASI DAN KULIT PISANG

    • Authors: Ni Made Sukma Sanjiwani, Wiwik Susanah Rita, I Made Dira Swantara
      Pages: 145 - 151
      Abstract: ABSTRAK: Kulit pisang dan nasi merupakan limbah dari upacara keagamaan di Bali yang terbuang. Pembuatan bioetanol dilakukan untuk memanfaatkan limbah tersebut. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pembuatan bioetanol campuran nasi dan kulit pisang. Campuran nasi dan kulit pisang yang digunakan dengan perbandingan 10:0; 7:3; 5:5; 3:7; dan 0:10. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan kadar bioetanol yang diperoleh pada waktu fermentasi optimum. Penelitian ini dibagi menjadi beberapa tahap, yaitu tahapan persiapan sampel, hidrolisis nasi dan kulit pisang secara fisik dengan cara perebusan dan kimia dengan penambahan H2SO4, penentuan kadar gula pereduksi (Metode Nelson Semogyi), fermentasi, destilasi, dan penentuan kadar bioetanol menggunakan kromatografi gas. Kadar gula pereduksi tertinggi pada hidrolisis secara fisik (9,35%) dihasilkan dari campuran nasi dan kulit pisang (7:3) dengan waktu perebusan 50 menit, sedangkan kadar gula pereduksi tertinggi pada hidrolisis secara kimia (5,75%) dihasilkan dari campuran nasi dan kulit pisang (3:7) dengan konsentrasi H2SO4 1%. Waktu optimum yang diperlukan pada proses fermentasi campuran nasi dan kulit pisang pada hidrolisat secara fisik dan kimia menggunakan ragi tape berturut–turut 7 dan 6 hari, dengan kadar etanol masing–masing sebesar 4,17 dan 1,65%.   Kata kunci: bioetanol, destilasi, fermentasi, gula pereduksi, hidrolisis, limbah kulit pisang dan nasi     ABSTRACT: Banana peels and cooking rice are mostly becoming waste after Balinese religion ceremonies. Bioethanol production is carried out to utilize the waste. In this research, bioethanol mixture of cooking rice and banana peels is made. A mixture of cooking rice and banana peels used was with a ratio of 10:0; 7:3; 5:5; 3:7; and 0:10. The purpose of this research was to determine the content of bioethanol obtained at the optimum fermentation time. This research was divided into several stages, namely sample preparation stage, hydrolysis of cooking rice and banana peels physically by boiling and chemically with the addition of H2SO4, determination of reducing sugar content (Nelson Semogyi Method), fermentation, distillation, and determination of bioethanol content using Gas Chromatography. The highest reducing sugar content in physical hydrolysis (9,35%) was produced from a mixture of cooking rice and banana peels (7:3) with a boiling time of 50 minutes, while the highest reducing sugar content in chemical hydrolysis (5,75%) was produced from the mixture cooking rice and banana peels (3:7) with concentration H2SO4 1%. The optimum time required for the fermentation process on a hydrolyzate physically and chemically using yeast respectively 7 and 6 days, with ethanol content were respectively 4,17 and 1,65%.    
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • FORMULASI SEDIAAN SABUN PADAT MINYAK ATSIRI SERAI DAPUR (Cymbopogon
           citratus DC.) SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI TERHADAP Escherichia coli DAN
           Staphylococcus aureus

    • Authors: Wiwik Susanah Rita, Ni Putu Eka Vinapriliani, I Wayan Gede Gunawan
      Pages: 152 - 160
      Abstract: ABSTRAK: Minyak atsiri serai dapur (Cymbopogon citratus DC.) dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif pengganti antibakteri sintetik dalam pembuatan sabun mandi padat transparan.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi serai dapur sebagai antibakteri terhadap Escherichia coli dan Staphylococcus aureus, formulasi terbaik minyak atsiri serai dapur sebagai sabun antibakteri, dan baku mutu SNI dari sabun mandi antibakteri yang dihasilkan. Penelitian ini terdiri dari 5 formula dan 3 kali ulangan. Formula pada penelitian ini adalah penambahan minyak atsiri serai dapur sebesar 0, 1, 2, 3, dan 5 g. Uji aktivitas antibakteri terhadap E. coli dan S. aureus dilakukan dengan metode sumur difusi, sedangkan uji kualitas sabun yang ditentukan adalah kadar air, jumlah asam lemak tersabunkan, asam lemak bebas/alkali bebas, lemak tak tersabunkan, dan minyak mineral. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan minyak atsiri serai dapur pada sabun transparan berpengaruh nyata terhadap aktivitas antibakteri terhadap E.coli, tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap S. aureus. Perlakuan terbaik pada penelitian ini adalah perlakuan penambahan minyak atsiri serai dapur 1 g (formula 2). Minyak atsiri dapat menghambat pertumbuhan E. coli dan S. aureus dengan daya hambat kuat. Diameter hambat terhadap E. coli sebesar 12,25; 12,25; dan 16,75 mm pada konsentrasi 25; 50; dan 100%, sedangkan daya hambat terhadap S. aureus sebesar 10,25; 10,50; dan 11,00 mm pada konsentrasi yang sama. Aktivitas antibakteri sabun transparan terhadap bakteri E. coli dan S. aureus juga tergolong kuat dengan diameter hambat keduanya antara 17-22 mm. Hasil uji kualitas sabun padat transparan sesuai dengan standar SNI kecuali fraksi  tak tersabunkan. Kata kunci : antibakteri, Cymbopogon citratus DC., Escherichia coli, sabun, Staphylococcus aureus. ABSTRACT: Essential oil of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC.) was able to be used as an alternative to synthetic antibacterial in producing of transparent solid soap. The aim of this research is to study of lemongrass as antibacterial against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, best formulation of lemongrass essential oil as antibacterial soap, and SNI quality standard of antibacterial soap. The study consisted of 5 formulas and 3 replications. The formula in this study was the addition of lemongrass essential oil of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 g. The antibacterial activity test against E. coli and S. aureus was done by diffusion well method, while the soap quality test determined was moisture content, the amount of saponified fatty acid, free fatty acids / alkali, unsaponified lipid, and mineral oil. The results shows that the addition of essential oil of lemongrass on transparent soap had a significant effect on antibacterial activity against  E. coli, but did not affect to S. aureus. The best treatment in this research was the addition of essential oil of lemongrass 1 g (formula 2). Essential oils can inhibit the growth of E. coli and S. aureus with strong inhibition. The inhibitory zone towards E. coli was 12.25; 12.25; and 16.75 mm at concentration 25; 50; and 100% respectively, while that towards S. aureus was 10.25; 10.50; and 11.00 mm at the same concentration. The antibacterial activity of transparent soap against E. coli and S. aureus bacteria was also quite strong with both inhibitory diameter of 17-22 mm. The result of transparent solid soap quality test was in accordance with SNI standard except unsaponified fraction.  
      PubDate: 2018-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
 
 
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