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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 931 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (58 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (663 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (27 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (43 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (663 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 378)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 88)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 289)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 403)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 233)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 284)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
C - Journal of Carbon Research
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2311-5629
Published by MDPI Homepage  [222 journals]
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 58: First-Principles Modeling of Atomic Structure and
           Chemical and Optical Properties of β-C3N4

    • Authors: Xue Lei, Danil W. Boukhvalov, Anatoly F. Zatsepin
      First page: 58
      Abstract: In our work, we report the results of first-principles modeling of optical and chemical properties of β-C3N4 in bulk (pristine and defected), surface, and nanoclusters. We demonstrate significant sensitivity of adsorption spectra of β-C3N4 to any kinds of disorder in atomic structure. Formation and passivation of the surface provides similar changes in optical properties. The value of the indirect bandgap depends on the chemical structure of the surface. The surface of the bulk crystal and nanocluster is chemically active and unavoidably passivated at ambient conditions. Partial oxidation of the surface of β-C3N4 provides decreasing of the bandgap. Functionalization of the active sites on the surface by monovalent species (hydrogen and fluorine) leads to vanishing of the bandgap in the case of (001) surface and changes the value of the bandgap in the case of nanoclusters. Results of our calculations also demonstrate the appearance of magnetic moments in hydrogenated and fluorinated (001) surface of β-C3N4.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-09-24
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040058
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 59: Carbons from Biomasic Waste and their Applications

    • Authors: Bedia, Belver
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Carbon-based materials, such as chars, activated carbons, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional graphene nanosheets, have shown great potential for a wide variety of applications[...]
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-09-26
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040059
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 60: On the Emission Properties of Carbon Dots: Reviewing
           Data and Discussing Models

    • Authors: Carbonaro, Corpino, Salis, Mocci, Thakkar, Olla, Ricci
      First page: 60
      Abstract: The emission properties of carbon dots (CDs) have already found many potential applications, from bio-imaging and cell labelling, to optical imaging and drug delivery, and are largely investigated in technological fields, such as lighting and photonics. Besides their high efficiency emission, CDs are also virtually nontoxic and can be prepared through many green chemistry routes. Despite these important features, the very origin of their luminescence is still debated. In this paper, we present an overview of sounding data and the main models proposed to explain the emission properties of CDs and their tunability.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-10-02
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040060
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 61: Electroless Deposition of Cu-SWCNT Composites

    • Authors: Raja, Esquenazi, Jones, Li, Brinson, Wright, Gowenlock, Barron
      First page: 61
      Abstract: In this work, as-received HiPCO single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are incorporated in a controllable manner at various concentrations into Cu-SWCNT composites via electroless plating, by varying the related reaction times, with polyethylene glycol (PEG) used as a dispersing agent. The resultant samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology assessment, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the assessment of crystal phase identification, and Raman spectroscopy for the confirmation of the presence of the incorporated SWCNTs. The Cu-SWCNT composites were found to contain carbon, catalytic iron (associated with the raw, as-received SWCNTs), oxygen, and copper; the latter was found to be inversely proportional to carbon and iron contents. The oxygen (associated with both the SWCNT defect sites and oxidized copper surfaces) remained more or less constant regardless of the proportion of SWCNTs in the composites. The Raman IG:ID ratio remains within the experimental error constant, indicating that the electroless deposition does not have a deleterious effect on the SWCNTs. At short deposition times, SEM revealed a relatively dense structure comprising a distinctive fibrous morphology, suggestive of an underlying SWCNT substrate coated with copper; however, with increasing deposition, a more porous morphology is observed. The size of the granular particles increases up until 10 min of reaction, after which time it remains unchanged.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-10-07
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040061
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 62: Challenges and Opportunities of Carbon Nanomaterials
           for Biofuel Cells and Supercapacitors: Personalized Energy for Futuristic
           Self-Sustainable Devices

    • Authors: Jeerapan, Ma
      First page: 62
      Abstract: Various carbon allotropes are fundamental components in electrochemical energy-conversion and energy-storage devices, e.g., biofuel cells (BFCs) and supercapacitors. Recently, biodevices, particularly wearable and implantable devices, are of distinct interest in biomedical, fitness, academic, and industrial fields due to their new fascinating capabilities for personalized applications. However, all biodevices require a sustainable source of energy, bringing widespread attention to energy research. In this review, we detail the progress in BFCs and supercapacitors attributed to carbon materials. Self-powered biosensors for futuristic biomedical applications are also featured. To develop these energy devices, many challenges needed to be addressed. For this reason, there is a need to: optimize the electron transfer between the enzymatic site and electrode; enhance the power efficiency of the device in fluctuating oxygen conditions; strengthen the efficacy of enzymatic reactions at the carbon-based electrodes; increase the electrochemically accessible surface area of the porous electrode materials; and refine the flexibility of traditional devices by introducing a mechanical resiliency of electrochemical devices to withstand daily multiplexed movements. This article will also feature carbon nanomaterial research alongside opportunities to enhance energy technology and address the challenges facing the field of personalized applications. Carbon-based energy devices have proved to be sustainable and compatible energy alternatives for biodevices within the human body, serving as attractive options for further developing diverse domains, including individual biomedical applications.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-10-09
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040062
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 63: Near-Infrared, Light-Triggered, On-Demand
           Anti-inflammatories and Antibiotics Release by Graphene Oxide/Elecrospun
           PCL Patch for Wound Healing

    • Authors: Mauro, Cavallaro, Giammona
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Very recently, significant attention has been focused on the adsorption and cell adhesion properties of graphene oxide (GO), because it is expected to allow high drug loading and controlled drug release, as well as the promotion of cell adhesion and proliferation. This is particularly interesting in the promotion of wound healing, where antibiotics and anti-inflammatories should be locally released for a prolonged time to allow fibroblast proliferation. Here, we designed an implantable patch consisting of poly(caprolactone) electrospun covered with GO, henceforth named GO–PCL, endowed with high ibuprofen (5.85 mg cm−2), ketoprofen (0.86 mg cm−2), and vancomycin (0.95 mg cm−2) loading, used as anti-inflammatory and antibiotic models respectively, and capable of responding to near infrared (NIR)-light stimuli in order to promptly release the payload on-demand beyond three days. Furthermore, we demonstrated the GO is able to promote fibroblast adhesion, a key characteristic to potentially provide wound healing in vivo.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040063
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 64: Effect of Halogen Ions on the Photocycle of
           Fluorescent Carbon Nanodots

    • Authors: Alice Sciortino, Roberto Pecorella, Marco Cannas, Fabrizio Messina
      First page: 64
      Abstract: Carbon dots (C-dots) are well-known for their strong sensitivity to the environment, which reflects on intensity and shape changes of their fluorescence, induced by various interacting ions and molecules in solution. Although these interactions have been extensively studied in the last few years, especially in view of their possible sensing applications, the existing works have mostly focused on the quenching of C-dot fluorescence induced by metal cations. In fact, these latter easily bind to C-dots surfaces, which are negatively charged in most cases, promoting an electron transfer from the surface to them. Much less is known from the literature on the effect induced on C-dots by prototypical negative species in solutions, motivating more systematic studies on this different class of interactions. Here, we analyzed the effect of halogen ions on the fluorescence of C-dots, by combining steady-state optical absorption and photoluminescence, time-resolved fluorescence and femtosecond pump/probe spectroscopy. We demonstrate a quenching effect of C-dots fluorescence in the presence of halogen ions, which becomes more and more pronounced with increasing atomic number of the halogens, being negligible for chloride, appreciable for bromide and stronger for iodide. We find that quenching is mostly static, due to the binding of halogen ions on suitable surface sites at C-dots surfaces, while collisional quenching becomes obvious only at very high iodide concentrations. Finally, nanosecond and femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopies provide information on the quenching mechanism and time scales. Based on these data, we propose that the fluorescent state is deactivated by intersystem crossing to a dark triplet state, induced by close-range interactions with the heaviest halogen ions.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040064
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 65: The State of HiPco Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in

    • Authors: Varun Shenoy Gangoli, M. Anto Godwin, Gadhadar Reddy, Robert Kelley Bradley, Andrew R. Barron
      First page: 65
      Abstract: High-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco)-synthesized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been a widely studied carbon nanomaterial for nearly two decades. It has been the de facto standard for SWCNT research, be it functionalization, separation and purification, or composites, as a result of the consistent, high-quality material that was made available at an affordable price to researchers worldwide. The recent shutdown of the HiPco reactor at Rice University has resulted in a scarcity of HiPco material available to the research community, and a new source of similar SWCNTs is desperately needed. Continued research and development on the design, materials used, and the overall process have led to a new HiPco material, referred to as NoPo HiPCO®, as an alternative to the erstwhile Rice HiPco SWCNTs. In this work, we have compared the two HiPco materials, and aim to provide more clarity for researchers globally on the state of HiPco SWCNTs for research and applications alike in 2019.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-10-28
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040065
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 66: From Newspaper Substrate to Nanotubes—Analysis of
           Carbonized Soot Grown on Kaolin Sized Newsprint

    • Authors: Bruce E. Brinson, Varun Shenoy Gangoli, Anjli Kumar, Robert H. Hauge, W. Wade Adams, Andrew R. Barron
      First page: 66
      Abstract: Herein, we report the successful use of newspaper as a substrate for the growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with intriguing results demonstrating that (a) the large surface area of newspaper stock allows for SWCNT growth and (b) only newspaper produced with kaolin clay sizing allowed for SWCNT growth. Kaolin newsprint was impregnated with Al2O3 and Fe(NO3)3·9H2O (as precursors to FexOy nanoparticles), and calcined (30 min at 400 °C). The subsequent char residue was loaded into a CVD chamber and used as a substrate for SWCNT growth at 750 °C, using H2, C2H2, and water vapor as the growth gas. Samples of raw carbon soot exhibiting fluorescence spectra, indicative of SWCNTs, were further evaluated by resonant Raman spectroscopy, and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The calcinated substrate remnants were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Experiments utilizing paper substrates produced with kaolin filler resulted in hybridized sp2–sp3 bonded carbon species. The soot was found to consist primarily of carbon nanotubes and bi-layer graphene in the form of collapsed nanotubes, also known as graphene nanoribbons (GNR).
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-10-29
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040066
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 67: Two-Dimensional Carbon: A Review of Synthesis
           Methods, and Electronic, Optical, and Vibrational Properties of
           Single-Layer Graphene

    • Authors: Angelo Armano, Simonpietro Agnello
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Graphite has been widely used by humans for a large part of their history. Nevertheless, it has only recently been possible to isolate its basic unit: carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb structure on a single plane, namely graphene. Since its discovery, many techniques have been developed and improved to properly synthesize graphene and its derivatives which are part of the novel class of two-dimensional materials. These advanced materials have imposed themselves in nanotechnology thanks to some outstanding physical properties due to their reduced dimensions. In the case of graphene, its reduced dimension gives rise to a high electrical mobility, a large thermal conductivity, a high mechanical resistance, and a large optical transparency. Therefore, such aspect is of great scientific interest for both basic and applied research, ranging from theoretical physics to surface chemistry and applied solid state physics. The connection between all these fields is guaranteed by spectroscopy and especially by Raman spectroscopy which provides a lot of information about structural and electronic features of graphene. In this review, the authors present a systematized collection of the most important physical insights on the fundamental electronic and vibrational properties of graphene, their connection with basic optical and Raman spectroscopy, and a brief overview of main synthesis methods.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040067
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 68: Recycling Oxacillin Residues from Environmental Waste
           into Graphene Quantum Dots

    • Authors: Soriano, Cárdenas
      First page: 68
      Abstract: Of great concern are the residual antibiotics from dirt that can be found in farm soil and wastewater. This kind of emerging pollutant into engineered nanomaterials is riveting. This work proposes the elimination and transformation of a beta-lactam antibiotic, oxacillin, from environmental waste to graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Two protocols were followed in which the use of ethylenediamine (EDA) in the transformation leads to GQDs with excellent optical properties. Therefore, two types of GQDs were synthesized in a Teflon-lined stainless autoclave by a thermal procedure using oxacillin in the absence and presence of EDA. The ensuing e-GQDs from oxacillin and EDA display a stronger fluorescence emission in comparison to those synthesized without EDA (o-GQDs). The combination of Kaiser test analyses, infrared (IR) and Raman measurements revealed the presence of oxygen-containing groups and primary amines at the edges of the graphitic nanolayer for e-GQDs. This straightforward strategy brings hope and opens a new interest in waste recycling by means of extracting residual contaminants from the environment for their further transformation into adequate non-toxic graphitic nanomaterials with potential applications.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040068
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 69: Analyzing the Raman Spectra of Graphenic Carbon
           Materials from Kerogens to Nanotubes: What Type of Information Can Be
           Extracted from Defect Bands'

    • Authors: Puech, Kandara, Paredes, Moulin, Weiss-Hortala, Kundu, Ratel-Ramond, Plewa, Pellenq, Monthioux
      First page: 69
      Abstract: Considering typical spectra of a broad range of carbonaceous materials from gas-shale to nanotubes, various ways by which defects show up in Raman spectra are exampled and discussed. The position, resonance behavior, and linewidth of both the D and G bands are compared, even if in some cases obtaining accurate information on the materials from the fitting parameters is a difficult task. As a matter of fact, even if a full picture is unreachable, defining parameter trends is one acceptable option. Two ways to determine the linewidth, either graphically and or by fitting are proposed in order to be able to compare literature data. The relationship between the crystallite size obtained from the linewidth and from X-ray diffraction, which is complementary to the Tuinstra and Koenig law, is examined. We show that a single approach is not possible unless modeling is performed and therefore that analysis of Raman spectra should be adapted to the specificities of each sample series, i.e., a minimum of knowledge about the materials is always required.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040069
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 70: Evaluation of Commercial “Carbon Quantum Dots”
           Sample on Origins of Red Absorption and Emission Features

    • Authors: Liang, Ge, Hou, Ren, Yang, Bunker, Overton, Wang, Sun
      First page: 70
      Abstract: The commercially acquired aqueous solution of “carbon quantum dots” sample was evaluated by optical absorption and fluorescence emission methods; in reference to aqueous dispersed small carbon nanoparticles and representative carbon dots prepared from chemical functionalization of the carbon nanoparticles. The results suggest a very low content of carbon that is associated with nanoscale carbon particles/domains in the as-supplied sample; and likely significant contamination by dye-like species/mixtures. In the absence of any information on the synthesis and history of the commercial sample, the possible cause of the contamination was illustrated by an example on similar dye formation in the one-pot carbonization synthesis of “red carbon dots” from citric acid–formamide precursor mixtures under too mild processing conditions that were insufficient for the intended carbonization. The negative impacts to the carbon dots research field by the apparent proliferation and now commercial availability of carbon-deficient or even largely carbon-less “carbon quantum dots”, which are more susceptible to dye contamination or dominance, are discussed.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040070
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 71: Excitons in Carbonic Nanostructures

    • Authors: Alexander P. Demchenko
      First page: 71
      Abstract: Unexpectedly bright photoluminescence emission can be observed in materials incorporating inorganic carbon when their size is reduced from macro–micro to nano. At present, there is no consensus in its understanding, and many suggested explanations are not consistent with the broad range of experimental data. In this Review, I discuss the possible role of collective excitations (excitons) generated by resonance electronic interactions among the chromophore elements within these nanoparticles. The Förster-type resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism of energy migration within nanoparticles operates when the composing fluorophores are the localized electronic systems interacting at a distance. Meanwhile, the resonance interactions among closely located fluorophores may lead to delocalization of the excited states over many molecules resulting in Frenkel excitons. The H-aggregate-type quantum coherence originating from strong coupling among the transition dipoles of adjacent chromophores in a co-facial stacking arrangement and exciton transport to emissive traps are the basis of the presented model. It can explain most of the hitherto known experimental observations and must stimulate the progress towards their versatile applications.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040071
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 72: Functionalization of Carbon Nanomaterials for
           Biomedical Applications

    • Authors: Liu, Speranza
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Over the past decade, carbon nanostructures (CNSs) have been widely used in a variety of biomedical applications. Examples are the use of CNSs for drug and protein delivery or in tools to locally dispense nucleic acids to fight tumor affections. CNSs were successfully utilized in diagnostics and in noninvasive and highly sensitive imaging devices thanks to their optical properties in the near infrared region. However, biomedical applications require a complete biocompatibility to avoid adverse reactions of the immune system and CNSs potentials for biodegradability. Water is one of the main constituents of the living matter. Unfortunately, one of the disadvantages of CNSs is their poor solubility. Surface functionalization of CNSs is commonly utilized as an efficient solution to both tune the surface wettability of CNSs and impart biocompatible properties. Grafting functional groups onto the CNSs surface consists in bonding the desired chemical species on the carbon nanoparticles via wet or dry processes leading to the formation of a stable interaction. This latter may be of different nature as the van Der Waals, the electrostatic or the covalent, the π-π interaction, the hydrogen bond etc. depending on the process and on the functional molecule at play. Grafting is utilized for multiple purposes including bonding mimetic agents such as polyethylene glycol, drug/protein adsorption, attaching nanostructures to increase the CNSs opacity to selected wavelengths or provide magnetic properties. This makes the CNSs a very versatile tool for a broad selection of applications as medicinal biochips, new high-performance platforms for magnetic resonance (MR), photothermal therapy, molecular imaging, tissue engineering, and neuroscience. The scope of this work is to highlight up-to-date using of the functionalized carbon materials such as graphene, carbon fibers, carbon nanotubes, fullerene and nanodiamonds in biomedical applications.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040072
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 73: Micrometric Growth Defects of DLC Thin Films

    • Authors: Thibault Maerten, Cédric Jaoul, Roland Oltra, Patrice Duport, Christophe Le Niniven, Pascal Tristant, Frédéric Meunier, Olivier Jarry
      First page: 73
      Abstract: Defects in diamond-like carbon coatings deposited on corrosion sensitive 100Cr6 steel have been studied. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are promising for corrosion protection due to chemical inertness and low electrical conductivity. Nevertheless, the performance of these coating is highly sensitive to the presence of uncoated areas. These defects represent the primary way of substrate degradation in aggressive environments. An in situ optical microscopy coupled to an electrochemical activation was developed to reveal micrometric growth defects and observe that they were at the origin of corrosion. A square wave voltammetry was applied to increase the sensitivity of electrochemical techniques based on the detection of the dissolution of the bare metal surface triggered by the presence of uncoated spots. This method can be utilized to quantify defect density arising from vapor deposition processes.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-11-14
      DOI: 10.3390/c5040073
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 35: A Simple Two-Step Process for Producing Strong and
           Aligned Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites

    • Authors: Seyram Gbordzoe, Paa Kwasi Adusei, Devika Chauhan, Noe T. Alvarez, Mark R. Haase, Karim Mansari, Sathya N. Kanakaraj, Yu-Yun Hsieh, Vesselin Shanov
      First page: 35
      Abstract: In this paper, we present the results of a study related to fabrication of polymer-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) composites made with different thermoplastic polymers. These composites have been manufactured by employing a simple two-step process using the internal resistive heating approach. The resulting composites have shown improved tensile strength, load, and elastic modulus compared to pristine CNT sheets. Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-CNT, UltemTM-CNT and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)-CNT composites showed an increase in tensile strength by as much as 41%, 77% and 86% respectively over pristine CNT sheets. The improvement in tensile strength is the result of a good adhesion achieved between the aligned CNTs and polymer as observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-06-27
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030035
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 36: Handling and Risk Mitigation of Nanoscale Graphene
           and Related Materials: Some Considerations and Recommendations

    • Authors: Velram Balaji Mohan
      First page: 36
      Abstract: The purpose of this communication is to put forward some considerations and recommendations while handling nanomaterials, especially graphene and its derivatives. A large graphene sheet is generally stable and inert; thus, graphene and its derivatives are not considered hazardous, but good laboratory practices should be taken seriously for the safe handling and use of such materials. This article provides some insights about nanoscale graphene handling and some important considerations.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030036
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 37: Mechanical Desensitization of an Al/WO3 Nanothermite
           by Means of Carbonaceous Coatings Derived from Carbohydrates

    • Authors: Pierre Gibot, Quentin Miesch, Arnaud Bach, Fabien Schnell, Roger Gadiou, Denis Spitzer
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Nanothermites show great developmental promise in the near future in civilian, military and aerospace applications due to their tuneable reactive properties (ignition delay time, combustion velocity and pressure release). However, the high mechanical sensitivities of some of these energetic nanocomposites can make transportation and handling of them hazardous. Here, a mechanical desensitization (shock and friction) of an Al/WO3 nanothermite is successfully obtained by means of carbon adding through the pyrolysis of naturally occurring molecules (carbohydrates). The combustion behaviour of the carbon-based energetic mixtures were also evaluated and a respectable reactivity has been evidenced.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030037
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 38: Electrodeposition of Cu–SWCNT Composites

    • Authors: Pavan M. V. Raja, Gibran L. Esquenazi, Cathren E. Gowenlock, Daniel R. Jones, Jianhua Li, Bruce Brinson, Andrew R. Barron
      First page: 38
      Abstract: Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are used as a component of a plating solution of CuSO4 for direct current electrodeposition of Cu–SWCNT composites with varying nanotube proportions without the use of either a surfactant, a dispersing agent, or functionalization of the SWCNTs. The Cu–SWCNT composites are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The composites are comprised of metallic Cu and SWCNTs with minor oxide impurities, as well as the residual (Fe) catalyst from the unpurified SWCNTs, in addition to displaying nanotube-mediated morphological differences. EDX analysis of carbon (wt%) is close to quantitative with respect to the wt% of SWCNTs added to the electrolysis solution. The presence of SWCNTs decreases the oxidation of the copper, as well as changing the identity of the oxide from CuO, for electrolysis of Cu, to Cu2O. Hard adherent Cu–SWCNT coatings are prepared by the addition of Cu powder to the electrolysis solution. The approach described in this paper will enable controlled synthesis of metal-nanomaterial composites that can potentially be processed further into high ampacity electrical conductors.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030038
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 39: A Rational Investigation of the Lewis Acid-Promoted
           Coupling of Carbon Dioxide with Cyclohexene Oxide: Towards CO2-Sourced
           Polycyclohexene Carbonate under Solvent- and Cocatalyst-Free Conditions

    • Authors: Joseph Grondin, Christian Aupetit, Thierry Tassaing
      First page: 39
      Abstract: We report a rational investigation of the selective synthesis of poly(cyclohexene carbonate) from CO2 and cyclohexene oxide by using commercially available Lewis acids with nontoxic metal centers. After a preliminary screening, we focused on the use of zinc salts, and the effect of the pressure, the temperature, the catalyst loading, and the presence of cocatalyst or a solvent on the reaction yields, selectivity, and molar masses was evaluated for selected catalytic platforms. Thus, we found that ZnTosylate in catalytic amounts under solvent- and cocatalyst-free conditions enables the selective synthesis of poly(cyclohexene carbonate) with a molecular weight of about 62.1 kg/mol with about 70% yields at 343 K and 4 MPa. To the best of our knowledge, this is a rare example of high molar mass polycyclohexene carbonates that are moreover obtained under solvent- and cocatalyst-free conditions. The high selectivity of ZnTos towards the formation of poly(cyclohexene carbonate) was interpreted, thanks to in situ FTIR spectroscopy and DFT calculations, as resulting from its ability to coactivate CO2.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-07-16
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030039
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 40: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Treated Carbon
           Nanowalls’ Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight
           Mass Spectrometry (CNW-SALDI-MS)

    • Authors: Takayuki Ohta, Hironori Ito, Kenji Ishikawa, Hiroki Kondo, Mineo Hiramatsu, Masaru Hori
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Carbon nanowalls (CNWs), vertically standing highly crystallizing graphene sheets, were used in the application of a surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF-MS). The CNW substrates solved the issues on interferences of matrix molecules and alkali metal addition ions in low-weight molecule detection. Before SALDI sample preparations, the hydrophobic CNW was treated by atmospheric pressure plasma for exposing hydrophilicity to the CNWs’ surface. Detection of water soluble amino acids, arginine, was demonstrated.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030040
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 41: Recent Advances in Carbon Dots

    • Authors: Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Constantine Stalikas
      First page: 41
      Abstract: It is unequivocally true that in recent years, carbon-based nanomaterials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes, have attracted tremendous interest and an increasing number of applications have reaped their numerous benefits [...]
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030041
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 42: Mechanism of Catalytic CNTs Growth in 400–650 °C
           Range: Explaining Volcano Shape Arrhenius Plot and Catalytic Synergism
           Using both Pt (or Pd) and Ni, Co or Fe

    • Authors: Luis Sousa Lobo
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The Arrhenius plot of catalytic carbon formation from olefins on Ni, Co, and Fe has a volcano shape in the range 400–550 °C with reaction orders 0 (at lower T: Below ~500 °C) and one (at higher T: Above ~500 °C) at each side of the maximum rate. The reaction follows a catalytic route with surface decomposition of the gas (olefin) on the catalyst nanoparticle, followed by the bulk diffusion of carbon atoms and carbon nanotube growth on the opposite side. At the higher temperature region (500–550 °C), the initial surface reaction step controls the rate and the reaction order is one, both in olefins and hydrogen (H). This confirms that H is essential for the surface reaction to occur. This is very valuable information to get faster CNT growth rate at relatively low temperatures. The apparent activation energy observed must correspond with the surface reaction Ea corrected for the temperature dependence of the two molecules involved (olefin and H). Adding a noble metal (Pt, Pd) to the carbon formation catalyst is frequently found to increase the reaction rate further. This effect has been described as an H spillover since 1964. However, there is evidence that the bulk diffusion of H atoms prevails and does not “spillover” the surface diffusion. Diffusion of H atoms through the solids involved is easy, and the H atoms remain single (“independent”) until emerging on a surface.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-07-29
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030042
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 43: Innovative Activated Carbon Based on Deep Eutectic
           Solvents (DES) and H3PO4

    • Authors: Aloysius Akaangee Pam
      First page: 43
      Abstract: In this present work, a novel method for synthesis of palm kernel shell activated carbon was established using DES (choline chloride/urea)/H3PO4 as the activating agent. The pore characterization, morphology, and adsorption properties of the activated carbons were investigated. The activated carbon samples made from the same feedstock at two pyrolysis temperatures (500 and 600 °C) were compared for their ability to adsorb Pb(II) in aqueous solution. The results demonstrated that the production of the activated carbon and adsorptive properties were significantly influenced by the pyrolysis temperature and the ratio of precursor to activating agent. DES/H3PO4 activated carbon (having surface area 1413 m2/g and total pore volume 0.6181 cm3/g) demonstrated good Pb(II) removal. Although all the tested activated carbon samples adsorbed Pb(II) from aqueous solution, they demonstrated different adsorption capabilities according to their various properties. The pyrolysis temperature, however, showed little influence on the activated carbon adsorption of Pb(II) when compared to the impregnation ratio. Their good desorption performance perhaps resulted from the porous structure.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030043
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 44: Waste Coffee Management: Deriving High-Performance
           Supercapacitors Using Nitrogen-Doped Coffee-Derived Carbon

    • Authors: Jonghyun Choi, Camila Zequine, Sanket Bhoyate, Wang Lin, Xianglin Li, Pawan Kahol, Ram Gupta
      First page: 44
      Abstract: In this work, nitrogen-doped activated carbon was produced from waste coffee powder using a two-step chemical activation process. Nitrogen doping was achieved by treating the coffee powder with melamine, prior to chemical activation. The produced nitrogen-doped carbon resulted in a very high surface area of 1824 m2/g and maintained a high graphitic phase as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The elemental composition of the obtained coffee-derived carbon was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The supercapacitor electrodes were fabricated using coffee-waste-derived carbon and analyzed using a three-electrode cell testing system. It was observed that nitrogen-doping improved the electrochemical performance of the carbon and therefore the charge storage capacity. The nitrogen-doped coffee carbon showed a high specific capacitance of 148 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g. The symmetrical coin cell device was fabricated using coffee-derived carbon electrodes to analyze its real-time performance. The device showed the highest specific capacitance of 74 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g. The highest energy and power density for the device was calculated to be 12.8 and 6.64 kW/kg, respectively. The stability test of the device resulted in capacitance retention of 97% after 10,000 cycles while maintaining its coulombic efficiency of 100%. These results indicate that the synthesized nitrogen-doped coffee carbon electrode could be used as a high-performance supercapacitor electrode for energy storage applications, and at the same time manage the waste generated by using coffee.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030044
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 45: Fluence Enhanced Optical Response of Ag Implanted
           Amorphous Carbon Thin Films

    • Authors: Shunmugam Ramsamy Naidoo, Abdulsalam Ismaila
      First page: 45
      Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (NPs) are known to exhibit strong interaction with light photons because their surface conduction electrons undergo collective oscillations once photo-excited at specific wavelengths; the so-called surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Their incorporation into carbon-based material is shown to greatly influence the overall optical response of the matrix due to aggregation. In this paper, we studied the optical response of silver-irradiated amorphous carbon films due to varying fluence of 25 keV Ag ions in the range 2.5–3.4 × 1016 ions/cm2. Raman spectroscopy provided an insight into the microstructural details of the Ag:a-C nanocomposites such that access to bond characteristics of the films is enabled by directly linking the Raman information with sp2/sp3 configurations. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis show significant increase in particle grain size and surface roughness of the films with increasing fluence while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed fluence-induced particle aggregation due to irradiation. Optical absorption studies revealed that the SPR of Ag NPs occurs in the wavelength range 418–395 nm in the irradiated films. The blue shift in plasmonic wavelength response is explained with respect to the fluence-induced increase in the particulate grain size and particle density as confirmed by AFM and TEM. The optical band gap energy ( E g ) of the pristine carbon film decreased from 1.79 eV to 1.41 eV while Urbach parameter ( E u ) increased from 0.01 eV to 12.0 eV, respectively with increasing fluence. These tunable optical parameters can be tailored into applications in surface coatings and as functional materials for solar cell efficiency enhancement.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030045
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 46: Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma-Enhanced
           Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Fe1−xMnxO Nanoparticles as Catalysts:
           How Does the Catalytic Activity of Graphitization Affect the Yields and

    • Authors: Takashi Yanase, Takuya Miura, Tatsuya Shiratori, Mengting Weng, Taro Nagahama, Toshihiro Shimada
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The choice of a catalyst for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth is critical to controlling the morphology and chirality of the final product. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) can alleviate the requirements of the catalyst, i.e., they must be active for both the decomposition of the source gas and graphitization in the conventional thermal CVD. However, it is still not well understood how the catalytic activity of the graphitization affects the yield and quality of CNTs. In this paper, we systematically investigated the influence of the catalytic activity of graphitization by tuning the composition of Fe1−xMnxO (x = 0–1) nanoparticles as catalysts. As the Mn component increased, the number of CNTs decreased because Mn has no catalytic function of the graphitization. The quality of CNTs also affected by the inclusion of the Mn component. Our study may provide useful information to develop a new catalyst for CNT growth in PECVD.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030046
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 47: Macadamia Nutshell Biochar for Nitrate Removal:
           Effect of Biochar Preparation and Process Parameters

    • Authors: Salam Bakly, Raed A. Al-Juboori, Les Bowtell
      First page: 47
      Abstract: Agricultural runoff is a major cause of degradation to freshwater sources. Nitrate is of particular interest, due to the abundant use of nitrogen-based fertilizers in agricultural practices globally. This study investigated the nitrate removal of biochar produced from an agricultural waste product, macadamia nutshell (MBC). Kinetic experiments and structural analyses showed that MBC pyrolsed at 900 °C exhibited inferior NO3− removal compared to that pyrolsed at 1000 °C, which was subsequently used in the column experiments. Concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 mg/L, with flowrates of 2, 5 and 10 mL/min, were examined over a 360 min treatment time. Detailed statistical analyses were applied using 23 factorial design. Nitrate removal was significantly affected by flowrate, concentration and their interactions. The highest nitrate removal capacity of 0.11 mg/g MBC was achieved at a NO3− concentration of 15 mg/L and flowrate of 2 mL/min. The more crystalline structure and rough texture of MBC prepared at 1000 °C resulted in higher NO3− removal compared to MBC prepared at 900 °C. The operating parameters with the highest NO3− removal were used to study the removal capacity of the column. Breakthrough and exhaustion times of the column were 25 and 330 min respectively. Approximately 92% of the column bed was saturated after exhaustion.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-08-08
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030047
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 48: Preparation, Stability and Local Piezoelectrical
           Properties of P(VDF-TrFE)/Graphene Oxide Composite Fibers

    • Authors: Maxim Silibin, Dmitry Karpinsky, Vladimir Bystrov, Dzmitry Zhaludkevich, Marina Bazarova, P. Mirzadeh Vaghefi, P. A. A. P. Marques, Budhendra Singh, Igor Bdikin
      First page: 48
      Abstract: The unprecedented attributes such as biocompatibility and flexibility of macromolecular piezoelectric polymer has triggered an immense interested in scientific society for their potential exploitation in implantable electronic devices. In the present article, a theoretical and experimental investigation is done to explore the polarization behavior of composite fibers based on copolymer poly-trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE) and graphene oxide (GO) with varying composition of the components is explored for its possible application in bioelectronic devices. Electromechanical properties of the PVDF/GO nanofibers were investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) method. The switching behavior, charge states, and piezoelectric response of the fibers were found to depend on the concentration of GO up to 20%. Theoretical models of PVDF chains, interacting with Graphene/GO layers has been used to explore the evolution of piezoresponse in the composite fibers. In order to compute piezoelectric coefficients, the behavior of composite in electrical fields has been modeled using software HyperChem. The experimental results are qualitatively correlated with a computed theoretical model.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030048
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 49: Growing Cities and Mass Participant Sport Events:
           Traveling Behaviors and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    • Authors: Stavros Triantafyllidis, Harry Davakos
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Fast-growing cities are expected to become a key contributor to the global climate crisis. A key characteristic of those urban districts is the accommodation of mass participant sport events. Sport entities, in collaboration with city governments, plan annually active participation sport events to promote their cities as tourism destinations. Mass participant sport events aim to attract more visitors to the cities and to establish a successful social and economically sustainable future to those places. Given the fact that transportation is a critical factor of the residents and the visitors’ behavior, it is crucial to research the quantity of CO2 emissions generated to those places in association with the travel behaviors of the active sport event participants. Data collected from an annual mass participant running event in a highly ranked growing city in the United States. Findings showed that most of the active sport event participants traveled more than 150 miles to participate in the race and they used their vehicles. The largest quantity of CO2 emissions derived from those participants who traveled a round trip of, on average, 500 miles. The long-distance travelers alone generated 338 million kg of CO2 emissions. The conclusions recommend that growing cities and sport events should target long-distance travelers for promotions concerning sustainable transportation. Consequently, mass participant sport events could play a crucial role in the development of growing cities, and, in turn, growing cities that control long-distance traveling behaviors can reduce the global amount of greenhouse gas emissions and their impact on the global environmental destruction.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030049
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 50: Atom Probe Tomography (APT) Characterization of
           Organics Occluded in Single Calcite Crystals: Implications for
           Biomineralization Studies

    • Authors: Alberto Pérez-Huerta, Michio Suzuki, Chiara Cappelli, Fernando Laiginhas, Hiroyuki Kintsu
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Occlusion of organic components in synthetic calcite crystals has been recently used as a model to understand the role of intra-crystalline organics in biominerals. However, the characterization of the distribution of both types of organics inside these calcite crystals is very challenging. Here, we discuss the potential of using the technique of atom probe tomography (APT) for such characterization, focusing on the analysis of chitin incorporation in single crystals. Additionally, APT has at least the same spatial resolution as TEM tomography, yet with the advantage of obtaining quantitative chemical data. Results show that chitin, either after degradation with yatalase or in the form of nanofibers, forms discrete clusters (2 to 5 nm) in association to water and hydronium molecules, rather than forming a 3D network inside crystals. Overall findings indicate that APT can be an ideal technique to characterize intra-crystalline organic components in abiogenic and biogenic carbonates to further advance our understanding of biomineralization.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030050
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 51: Insights into the Electrochemical Behavior of Mercury
           on Graphene/SiC Electrodes

    • Authors: Ivan Shtepliuk, Mikhail Vagin, Rositsa Yakimova
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Fast and real time detection of Mercury (Hg) in aqueous solutions is a great challenge due to its bio-accumulative character and the detrimental effect on human health of this toxic element. Therefore, development of reliable sensing platforms is highly desirable. Current research is aiming at deep understanding of the electrochemical response of epitaxial graphene to Mercury exposure. By performing cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements as well as density functional theory calculations, we elucidate the nature of Hg-involved oxidation-reduction reactions at the graphene electrode and shed light on the early stages of Hg electrodeposition. The obtained critical information of Hg behavior will be helpful for the design and processing of novel graphene-based sensors.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-08-22
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030051
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 52: Changing Contents of Carbon Hybridizations in
           Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon Layers (a-C:H) on Sustainable
           Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) Exhibit a Significant Deterioration in
           Stability, Depending on Thickness

    • Authors: Torben Schlebrowski, Lucas Beucher, Hadi Bazzi, Barbara Hahn, Stefan Wehner, Christian B. Fischer
      First page: 52
      Abstract: PHB is a biodegradable polymer based on renewable raw materials that could replace synthetic polymers in many applications. A big advantage is the resulting reduction of the waste problem, as well as the conservation of fossil resources. To arrange it for various applications, the surface is arranged by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with amorphous hydrogenated carbon layers (a-C:H). Here, on a 50 µm thick PHB-foil, a-C:H layers of different thicknesses (0–500 nm) were deposited in 50 nm steps. Surface topography was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), chemical composition by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy and wettability checked by contact angle. In addition, layers were examined by synchrotron supported X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), which revealed thickness dependent changes of the sp2/sp3 ratio. With increasing thickness, even the topography changes show internal, stress-induced phenomena. The results obtained provide a more detailed understanding of the predominantly inorganic a-C:H coatings on (bio)polymers via in situ growth.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-08-30
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030052
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 53: Recent Advances in Seeded and Seed-Layer-Free Atomic
           Layer Deposition of High-K Dielectrics on Graphene for Electronics

    • Authors: Emanuela Schilirò, Raffaella Lo Nigro, Fabrizio Roccaforte, Filippo Giannazzo
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Graphene (Gr) with its distinctive features is the most studied two-dimensional (2D) material for the new generation of high frequency and optoelectronic devices. In this context, the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of ultra-thin high-k insulators on Gr is essential for the implementation of many electronic devices. However, the lack of out-of-plane bonds in the sp2 lattice of Gr typically hinders the direct ALD growth on its surface. To date, several pre-functionalization and/or seed-layer deposition processes have been explored, to promote the ALD nucleation on Gr. The main challenge of these approaches is achieving ultra-thin insulators with nearly ideal dielectric properties (permittivity, breakdown field), while preserving the structural and electronic properties of Gr. This paper will review recent developments of ALD of high k-dielectrics, in particular Al2O3, on Gr with “in-situ” seed-layer approaches. Furthermore, recent reports on seed-layer-free ALD onto epitaxial Gr on SiC and onto Gr grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on metals will be presented, discussing the role played by Gr interaction with the underlying substrates.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030053
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 54: Polycondensation of Hexamethylenetetramine in
           Anhydrous Acid Media as a New Approach to Carbyne-Like Materials and Its
           Application as Dispersant of Carbon Materials

    • Authors: Alyona V. Gerasimova, Olga V. Alekhina, Leticia García-Cruz, Jesús Iniesta, Alexander V. Melezhik, Aleksey G. Tkachev
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Aminocumulene (AC), a technical name that results from the hexamethylenetetramine polycondensation in anhydrous sulfuric acid, was successfully performed toward the synthesis of oligomeric cumulenic compounds made up of carbyne-like (=C=C)x fragments as a main moiety together with amino endcapping groups. The tentative mechanism for the synthesis of the soluble and insoluble AC likely included the participation of carbene species as an intermediate. Spectral properties obtained from UV-Vis, infrared, and Raman spectroscopies, and surface chemistry analysis through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the soluble AC confirmed the presence of a mixture of linear and branched aminocumulene-based oligomers. AC displayed high performance as a dispersant and stabilizer agent of both multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene in aqueous solutions after powerful insonation treatment under controlled temperature compared to the most commonly used dispersant agents. Thereby, AC is vitally important for the preparation of carbonaceous materials based on nanoinks in a wide variety of fields.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030054
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 55: Macroscopic Behavior and Microscopic Factors of
           Electron Emission from Chained Nanocarbon Coatings

    • Authors: Daleri Boqizoda, Anatoly Zatsepin, Evgeny Buntov, Anatoly Slesarev, Daria Osheva, Tatiana Kitayeva
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The carbyne-containing films based on linear-chain carbon are promising materials for the manufacture of electronic equipment components. These carbyne-containing materials can be used as active elements of computational electronics and as ultra-miniature sensors of gaseous environment. The temperature studies of the electrical characteristics of carbyne-containing films by most of the scientific groups are limited to the low temperature range in which the quantum properties of nanostructures are most pronounced. We studied carbyne-containing films with a thickness of 20 and 400 nm on copper and silicon substrates using optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE) in the temperature range from room temperature (RT) to 400 °C. Theoretical modeling explains the dependence of work function on termination groups and substrate lattice. Experimental data revealed a relationship between the spectral characteristics of electron emission and temperature. The spectral contributions of both surface states and bulk interband transitions were clearly distinguishable.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030055
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 56: Structure and Properties of Chained Carbon: Recent Ab
           Initio Studies

    • Authors: Evgeny Buntov, Anatoly Zatsepin, Tatiana Kitayeva, Alexander Vagapov
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Carbon chains or carbyne-like structures represent the next generation of 1D materials whose properties can be tuned by the chain length, doping, and the type of termination. Currently inaccessible technology of the macroscopic carbyne synthesis and characterization makes theoretical work especially valuable. The state of the art methods being applied in the field are density functional theory and molecular dynamics. This paper provides a review of the current state of research on modeling linear carbon structures and related materials. We show that even though the “static” properties of carbon chains (mechanical strength, thermal conduction, band gaps, and phonon spectra) are extensively described, there are only a few simulations of the synthesis processes that constitute the next challenge in 1D research.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-09-11
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030056
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 57: Porphyrinoid–Fullerene Hybrids as Candidates in
           Artificial Photosynthetic Schemes

    • Authors: Vasilis Nikolaou, Asterios Charisiadis, Christina Stangel, Georgios Charalambidis, Athanassios G. Coutsolelos
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Natural photosynthesis inspired the scientific community to design and synthesize molecular assemblies that possess advanced light-harvesting and electron-transfer features. In this review, we present the preparation and the photophysical investigation of novel porphyrin–fullerene hybrids acting as artificial photosynthetic systems. Porphyrinoids stand as chlorophyll analogues and have emerged as suitable photosensitizers in supramolecular electron donor–acceptor hybrids. Fullerenes (C60) are versatile electron acceptors with small reorganization energy and low reduction potentials. The novel derivatives presented herein mimic the fundamental features of the photosynthetic reaction center, namely, light harvesting, charge separation, and charge transport. To this end, a comprehensive analysis on these key processes that occur in various porphyrin–fullerene entities is illustrated in this work.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/c5030057
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 3 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 14: RKKY Interaction in Graphene at Finite Temperature

    • Authors: Eugene Kogan
      First page: 14
      Abstract: In our publication from eight years ago (Kogan, E. 2011, vol. 84, p. 115119), we calculated Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between two magnetic impurities adsorbed on graphene at zero temperature. We show in this short paper that the approach based on Matsubara formalism and perturbation theory for the thermodynamic potential in the imaginary time and coordinate representation which was used then, can be easily generalized, and calculate RKKY interaction between the magnetic impurities at finite temperature.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020014
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 15: Preparation of MgO-Templated N-Doped Mesoporous
           Carbons from Polyvinylpyrrolidone: Effect of Heating Temperature on Pore
           Size Distribution

    • Authors: Tomoya Takada, Mayu Kurihara
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Magnesium oxide (MgO)-templated nitrogen (N)-doped mesoporous carbons were prepared by using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a raw material and magnesium lactate (Mglac) as a precursor for the MgO template to examine the influence of heating temperature and MgO precursor (magnesium acetate was used in similar previous studies) on the pore size and nitrogen content. The MgO-templated carbon was obtained by heating the PVP/Mglac mixture in an inert atmosphere followed by an acid treatment for MgO removal. The mesopore size of the carbons was approximately 4 nm regardless of heating temperature, corresponding to the crystallite size of the MgO template estimated via X-ray diffraction. This indicates that the mesopore of approximately 4 nm was generated using the MgO template. However, larger pores were also found to exist. This result indicates that the larger pores generated through processes other than the MgO templating, likely the thermal decomposition of PVP, are contained in the templated carbon. The volume of the larger pores and the specific surface area increased with increasing heating temperature. The nitrogen content of the carbon decreased as the heating temperature was increased, but it was found to be irrelevant to the MgO precursor.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020015
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 16: Plasma-Derived Graphene-Based Materials for Water
           Purification and Energy Storage

    • Authors: Nikolas Natter, Nikolaos Kostoglou, Christian Koczwara, Christos Tampaxis, Theodore Steriotis, Ram Gupta, Oskar Paris, Claus Rebholz, Christian Mitterer
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Several crucial problems, such as rapid population growth and extended demands for food, water and fuels, could lead to a severe lack of clean water and an energy crisis in the coming decade. Therefore, low-cost and highly-efficient technologies related to filtration of alternative water supplies (e.g., purification of wastewater and water-rich liquids) and advanced energy storage (e.g., supercapacitors) could play a crucial role to overcome such challenges. A promising class of solid materials for these purposes is exfoliated graphene, and more specifically, its nanoporous forms that exhibit large specific surface areas and pore volumes. In the current work, two plasma-exfoliated graphene-based materials with distinctive morphological and porosity features, including non-porous and low-specific surface area platelets versus nanoporous and high-specific surface area flakes, were tested as filters for water purification purposes (i.e., decolourization and deacidification) and as electrodes for supercapacitors (i.e., ion electrosorption). The findings of this study suggest that a nanoporous and large specific surface area graphene-based material promotes the water purification behaviour by removing contaminants from water-based solutions as well as the energy storage performance by confining ions of aqueous electrolytes.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020016
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 17: A Multifunctional Wearable Device with a
           Graphene/Silver Nanowire Nanocomposite for Highly Sensitive Strain Sensing
           and Drug Delivery

    • Authors: Ge Shi, Tianqing Liu, Zlatko Kopecki, Allison Cowin, Ivan Lee, Jing-Hong Pai, Sean E. Lowe, Yu Lin Zhong
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Advances in wearable, highly sensitive and multifunctional strain sensors open up new opportunities for the development of wearable human interface devices for various applications such as health monitoring, smart robotics and wearable therapy. Herein, we present a simple and cost-effective method to fabricate a multifunctional strain sensor consisting of a skin-mountable dry adhesive substrate, a robust sensing component and a transdermal drug delivery system. The sensor has high piezoresisitivity to monitor real-time signals from finger bending to ulnar pulse. A transdermal drug delivery system consisting of polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles and a chitosan matrix is integrated into the sensor and is able to release the nanoparticles into the stratum corneum at a depth of ~60 µm. Our approach to the design of multifunctional strain sensors will lead to the development of cost-effective and well-integrated multifunctional wearable devices.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-04-04
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020017
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 18: Electrochemical Properties of Graphene Oxide
           Nanoribbons/Polypyrrole Nanocomposites

    • Authors: Johara Al Dream, Camila Zequine, K. Siam, Pawan K. Kahol, S. R. Mishra, Ram K. Gupta
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Graphene is a highly studied material due to its unique electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. Graphene is widely applied in the field of energy such as in batteries, supercapacitors, and solar cells. The properties of graphene can be further improved by making nanocomposites with conducting polymers. In this work, graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) were synthesized by unzipping multiwall carbon nanotubes. Graphene nanoribbons were used to make nanocomposites with polypyrrole for energy storage applications. The synthesized nanocomposites were structurally and electrochemically characterized to understand their structure and electrochemical properties. The electrochemical characterizations of these nanocomposites were carried out using cyclic voltammetry. The specific capacitance of the nanocomposites was observed to decrease with increasing scan rates. The highest specific capacitance of 2066 F/g was observed using cyclic voltammetry for the optimized nanocomposite of GONR and polypyrrole. Our study suggests that the electrochemical properties of graphene or polypyrrole can be improved by making their composites and that they could be successfully used as electrode materials for energy storage applications. This study can also be extended to the self-assembly of other conducting polymers and graphene nanoribbons through a simple route for various other applications.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-04-12
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020018
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 19: Bioimaging Applications of Carbon Nanodots: A Review

    • Authors: Athanasia Kasouni, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Constantine Stalikas
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Carbon nanodots (CNDs) is the newest member of carbon-based nanomaterials and one of the most promising for the development of new, advanced applications. Owing to their unique and unparalleled physicochemical and photoluminescent properties, they are considered to be a rising star among nanomaterials. During the last decade, many applications have been developed based on CNDs. Among others, they have been used as bioimaging agents to label cells and tissues. In this review, we will discuss the advancements in the applications of CNDs in in the field of imaging, in all types of organisms (i.e., prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and animals). Selective imaging of one type of cells over another, imaging of (bio)molecules inside cells and tumor-targeting imaging are some of the studies that will be discussed hereafter. We hope that this review will assist researchers with obtaining a holistic view of the developed applications and hit on new ideas so that more advanced applications can be developed in the near future.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020019
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 20: Temperature-Dependence of Solvent-Induced Stokes
           Shift and Fluorescence Tunability in Carbon Nanodots

    • Authors: Alice Sciortino, Marco Cannas, Fabrizio Messina
      First page: 20
      Abstract: We carried out a cryogenic investigation on the optical properties of carbon dots, aiming to better understand their emission mechanism and the role of the solvent. The solvatochromic Stokes shift is quantified by a low temperature approach which allows freezing of the photo-excited state of carbon dots, preventing any solvation relaxation. Moreover, the reduction in temperature helps to identify the dynamical inhomogeneous contribution to the broadening of the emission band; therefore, disentangling the role of solvent from other types of broadening, such as the homogeneous and the static inhomogeneous contributions.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-04-24
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020020
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 21: Finger-Like Carbon-Based Nanostructures Produced by
           Combustion of Flour-Based Sticks (Spaghetti)

    • Authors: Frederik Ossler, Crispin J. D. Hetherington
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Biomass is becoming particularly important as a starting material for advanced carbon structures. In this study, we found interesting nanostructures on the surface of burnt spaghetti using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) for analysis. The structures were elongated and finger-like, with evidence that the tubes have shell and core components. The shell was carbon that included amorphous and layered graphene structures. EDX showed enriched potassium and phosphorous in the core and at the tip of the tubes. The results indicate that tube formation depends on phase separation of polar/ionic and nonpolar moieties when water is produced in the biomass from the pyrolysis/combustion. The tube growth is most probably due to the raising pressure of vapor that cannot escape through the carbon film that is formed at the surface of the stick from flame heat. This process resembles glass blowing or volcanic activity, where the carbon acts as the glass or earth’s crust, respectively. These observations suggest that new interesting tubular nanostructures with different properties on the inside and outside can be produced in a relatively simple way, utilizing processes of combustion of starch-rich biomass materials.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020021
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 22: Sustainable Recycling of Formic Acid by Bio-Catalytic
           CO2 Capture and Re-Hydrogenation

    • Authors: Zhengyang Zhao, Pei Yu, Bhuvana K. Shanbhag, Phillip Holt, Yu Lin Zhong, Lizhong He
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Formic acid (FA) is a promising reservoir for hydrogen storage and distribution. Its dehydrogenation releases CO2 as a by-product, which limits its practical application. A proof of concept for a bio-catalytic system that simultaneously combines the dehydrogenation of formic acid for H2, in-situ capture of CO2 and its re-hydrogenation to reform formic acid is demonstrated. Enzymatic reactions catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase (CA) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) under ambient condition are applied for in-situ CO2 capture and re-hydrogenation, respectively, to develop a sustainable system. Continuous production of FA from stripped CO2 was achieved at a rate of 40% using FDH combined with sustainable co-factor regeneration achieved by electrochemistry. In this study, the complete cycle of FA dehydrogenation, CO2 capture, and re-hydrogenation of CO2 to FA has been demonstrated in a single system. The proposed bio-catalytic system has the potential to reduce emissions of CO2 during H2 production from FA by effectively using it to recycle FA for continuous energy supply.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020022
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 23: Vertically Aligned Few-Layered Graphene-Based
           Non-Cryogenic Bolometer

    • Authors: Anil K. Yadav, Saba Mehsar Khan, Anirban Kundu, Renu Rani, Navneet Soin, James McLaughlin, Devi Shanker Misra, Kiran Shankar Hazra
      First page: 23
      Abstract: In this study, we report the photoresponse of vertically aligned few-layered graphene (VAG) upon infra-red (IR) irradiation at room temperature. Four probe measurements showed the current–voltage (I–V) characteristic of electrical switching during pulsed IR irradiation. The photoresponse reported here for VAG was significantly higher than that reported for carbon nanotube (CNT) samples. Our investigation shows that such a photoresponse arose solely from the bolometric effect, where the conductivity changed with temperature. The resistance magnitude of the VAGs increased ~two fold for each 6 °C increase in temperature. Also, the Thermal Coefficient of Resistance (TCR) in this region was ~11%/K, which is the highest TCR value reported for any carbon nanomaterial.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-05-02
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020023
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 24: Recent Advancements in Doped/Co-Doped Carbon Quantum
           Dots for Multi-Potential Applications

    • Authors: Ganeshlenin Kandasamy
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Carbon quantum dots (CQDs)/carbon nanodots are a new class of fluorescent carbon nanomaterials having an approximate size in the range of 2–10 nm. The majority of the reported review articles have discussed about the development of the CQDs (via simple and cost-effective synthesis methods) for use in bio-imaging and chemical-/biological-sensing applications. However, there is a severe lack of consolidated studies on the recently developed CQDs (especially doped/co-doped) that are utilized in different areas of application. Hence, in this review, we have extensively discussed about the recent development in doped and co-doped CQDs (using elements/heteroatoms—e.g., boron (B), fluorine (F), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), and phosphorous (P)), along with their synthesis method, reaction conditions, and/or quantum yield (QY), and their emerging multi-potential applications including electrical/electronics (such as light emitting diode (LED) and solar cells), fluorescent ink for anti-counterfeiting, optical sensors (for detection of metal ions, drugs, and pesticides/fungicides), gene delivery, and temperature probing.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020024
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 25: Fabrication of Graphene-Reinforced Nanocomposites
           with Improved Fracture Toughness in Net Shape for Complex 3D Structures
           via Digital Light Processing

    • Authors: Zuying Feng, Yan Li, Chenxing Xin, Danna Tang, Wei Xiong, Han Zhang
      First page: 25
      Abstract: A solvent-free method to fabricate graphene-reinforced nanocomposites in net shape via digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing has been developed in this work. The effect of graphene nanofillers on resin viscosity and wettability for various printing parameters has been examined, with a systematic characterization of the mechanical and thermomechanical properties. With the addition of 0.5 wt.% graphene nanoplatelets in the resin, the flexural modulus and fracture toughness have been improved by 14% and 28% from neat resin, respectively. Thermomechanical properties of graphene-reinforced nanocomposites were also enhanced compared with the neat resin, without scarification in their printability. The feasibility of utilizing the DLP method to fabricate a fracture toughness specimen (KIC test) without complex skill-dependent notch preparation steps was explored, with different notch tip angles printed for net-shaped specimens. This provided a simple and versatile way to perform a quick examination of reinforcing efficiency from nanofillers at very low cost with high resolution and reproducibility. To demonstrate the suitability of current resins for complexly shaped structures, a gyroid scaffold for tissue engineering applications based on current graphene nanocomposite resins has been successfully fabricated via DLP, showing the great potential of current photocurable resins for applications in various fields such as tissue engineering or personalized medical devices without the cost barriers of traditional methods.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020025
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 26: Highly Active, High Specific Surface Area Fe/C/N ORR
           Electrocatalyst from Liquid Precursors by Combination of CO2 Laser
           Pyrolysis and Single NH3 Thermal Post-Treatment

    • Authors: Henri Perez, Virginie Jorda, Jackie Vigneron, Mathieu Frégnaux, Arnaud Etcheberry, Axelle Quinsac, Yann Leconte, Olivier Sublemontier
      First page: 26
      Abstract: This paper reports original results on the synthesis and characterization of Fe/C/N ORR electrocatalysts obtained by a combination of CO2 laser pyrolysis and thermal post-treatment. The precursor liquid media, consisting in a 14 g·L−1 iron III acetylacetonate solution in toluene, was aerosolized and then exposed to a CO2 laser beam for pyrolysis in continuous flow. Ammonia was used in the pyrolysis process, both as the laser wavelength absorbing gas (i.e., energy transfer agent) and as the sole source of nitrogen. After the laser pyrolysis step, the material was submitted to thermal post-treatment under argon on the one hand, and ammonia on another hand. The three materials—one as-prepared, one thermally treated under argon, and one thermally treated under ammonia—were characterized, in particular, through specific surface area determination, XPS analysis, and ORR measurement. It was found that both kinds of thermal treatment significantly improved the ORR performances, which were evaluated on porous electrodes. Indeed, while the as-prepared material showed an ORR onset potential at ≈790 mV vs. the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) in HClO4 1M, the argon treatment increased the latter to ≈820 mV, and the ammonia treatment led to a very high value of ≈910 mV. Selectivities of 3.65 and 3.93 were measured for the argon and ammonia treated materials, respectively. The outstanding ORR performance resulting from the ammonia treatment is probably related to the very high BET specific surface area measured at 1130 m2·g−1, which was notably obtained without using any templating or sacrificial component in the precursor media.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020026
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 27: Methods for the Treatment of Cattle Manure—A

    • Authors: Carolina Font-Palma
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Environmental concerns, caused by greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere and overrunning of nutrients and pathogens to water bodies, have led to reducing direct spread onto the land of cattle manure. In addition, this practice can be a source of water and air pollution and toxicity to life by the release of undesirable heavy metals. Looking at the current practices, it is evident that most farms separate solids for recycling purposes, store slurries in large lagoons or use anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. The review explores the potential for cattle manure as an energy source due to its relatively large calorific value (HHV of 8.7–18.7 MJ/kg dry basis). This property is beneficial for thermochemical conversion processes, such as gasification and pyrolysis. This study also reviews the potential for upgrading biogas for transportation and heating use. This review discusses current cattle manure management technologies—biological treatment and thermochemical conversion processes—and the diverse physical and chemical properties due to the differences in farm practices.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-05-15
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020027
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 28: Preparation of Few-Layer Graphene/Carbon Nanotube
           Hybrids Using Oxide Spinel Catalysts

    • Authors: Bruno F. Machado, Revathi R. Bacsa, Camila Rivera-Cárcamo, Philippe Serp
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Functional 3D materials can be developed from graphene-based hybrids by introducing other nanomaterials, with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) being the most studied additive. For large-scale applications, few-layer graphene (FLG)-CNT hybrids are produced by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (c-CVD) starting from a mixture of catalysts (one for FLG and one for CNTs) in the required proportions. Due to the difference in growth kinetics between CNTs and FLG, the composition of such hybrids is not well controlled. In this study, we report the single-step preparation of FLG-CNT hybrid materials by a fixed-bed c-CVD process using a single catalyst with the formula AlxCo1−xFe2O4 (x = 0.025–0.10). Different catalysts (with varying x) were prepared by the citrate–nitrate gel combustion method. Then, c-CVD synthesis was carried out at 650 °C in a horizontal fixed-bed reactor using ethylene as the carbon source. Only FLG was obtained when using CoFe2O4. However, the introduction of small amounts of Al (x < 0.05) induced the simultaneous production of CNTs, leading to the formation of uniform FLG-CNT hybrids. For catalysts with higher Al content (e.g., AlCoFeO4), CNTs were selectively produced. Thus, we observed the existence of a narrow Al-doping window, where CNTs and FLG can be obtained simultaneously. Our results can pave the way to developing high-yield single catalyst-based CVD synthesis of FLG-CNT hybrid materials.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020028
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 29: The Advances in Biomedical Applications of Carbon

    • Authors: Timur Saliev
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Unique chemical, physical, and biological features of carbon nanotubes make them an ideal candidate for myriad applications in industry and biomedicine. Carbon nanotubes have excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, high biocompatibility, flexibility, resistance to corrosion, nano-size, and a high surface area, which can be tailored and functionalized on demand. This review discusses the progress and main fields of bio-medical applications of carbon nanotubes based on recently-published reports. It encompasses the synthesis of carbon nanotubes and their application for bio-sensing, cancer treatment, hyperthermia induction, antibacterial therapy, and tissue engineering. Other areas of carbon nanotube applications were out of the scope of this review. Special attention has been paid to the problem of the toxicity of carbon nanotubes.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-05-23
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020029
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 30: Mechanothermal Approach for N-, S-, P-, and B-Doping
           of Carbon Nanotubes: Methodology and Catalytic Performance in Wet Air

    • Authors: Olívia Salomé G. P. Soares, Raquel P. Rocha, José J. M. Órfão, Manuel Fernando R. Pereira, José L. Figueiredo
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The texture and the surface chemistry of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were modified using a solvent-free methodology involving a ball-milling mechanical treatment and thermal treatment under nitrogen in the presence of adequate precursors (melamine, sodium thiosulfate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and boric acid) of different heteroatoms (N, S, P, and B, respectively). The incorporation of these heteroatoms promotes significant changes in the pristine textural and chemical properties. This easy post-doping method allows the introduction of large concentrations of heteroatoms. Their effect on the catalytic activity of the materials was evaluated in the oxidation of oxalic acid by catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), as an alternative to the noble metal and rare earth oxide catalysts traditionally used in this process. Improved catalytic activities were obtained using the N-, P-, and B-doped CNTs in oxalic acid oxidation, while the S-doped CNT sample underperformed in comparison to the pristine material.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-06-04
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020030
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 31: Microbiological Properties of Microwave-Activated
           Carbons Impregnated with Enoxil and Nanoparticles of Ag and Se

    • Authors: Oleg Petuhov, Tudor Lupascu, Dominika Behunová, Igor Povar, Tatiana Mitina, Maria Rusu
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Microwave-activated carbons from walnut shells (ACMW) were impregnated with Ag and Se nanoparticles and with the Enoxil biologically active preparation, and the microbiological properties of the obtained composites were studied. To increase the functionality of the adsorbent, the activated carbon was oxidized with ozone, resulting in ACMWO containing aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic groups. There was a considerable decrease in the specific surface of the activated carbon after the oxidation process. Nitrogen adsorption was used to determine the structural parameters of the activated carbons. A simultaneous thermal analysis was used to study the thermal behavior of intact and oxidized activated carbons. Infrared spectroscopy was applied to analyze the surface chemistry of the adsorbents. The microbiological activity of the activated carbons was studied using Escherichia coli bacteria and Candida albicans fungi. The kinetic study of the microbiological activity allowed the estimation of the bactericidal/fungicidal action time of the activated carbons.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020031
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 32: Chemical Recycling of Consumer-Grade Black Plastic
           into Electrically Conductive Carbon Nanotubes

    • Authors: Ali Hedayati, Chris Barnett, Gemma Swan, Alvin Orbaek White
      First page: 32
      Abstract: The global plastics crisis has recently focused scientists’ attention on finding technical solutions for the ever-increasing oversupply of plastic waste. Black plastic is one of the greatest contributors to landfill waste, because it cannot be sorted using industrial practices based on optical reflection. However, it can be readily upcycled into carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a novel liquid injection reactor (LIR) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. In this work, CNTs were formed using black and white polystyrene plastics to demonstrate that off-the-shelf materials can be used as feedstock for growth of CNTs. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests the CNTs from plastic sources improve diameter distribution homogeneity, with slightly increased diameters compared with control samples. Slight improvements in quality, as determined by Raman spectroscopy of the D and G peaks, suggest that plastics could lead to increased quality of CNTs. A small device was constructed as a demonstrator model to increase impact and public engagement.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020032
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 33: Carbon Dots for Sensing and Killing Microorganisms

    • Authors: Fengming Lin, Yan-Wen Bao, Fu-Gen Wu
      First page: 33
      Abstract: Carbon dots (or carbon quantum dots) are small (less than 10 nm) and luminescent carbon nanoparticles with some form of surface passivation. As an emerging class of nanomaterials, carbon dots have found wide applications in medicine, bioimaging, sensing, electronic devices, and catalysis. In this review, we focus on the recent advancements of carbon dots for sensing and killing microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Synthesis, functionalization, and a toxicity profile of these carbon dots are presented. We also discuss the underlying mechanisms of carbon dot-based sensing and killing of microorganisms.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-06-14
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020033
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 34: Mechanical Behavior of Porous Functionally Graded
           Nanocomposite Materials

    • Authors: A. F. Mota, M. A. R. Loja
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Materials used in biomedical applications need to cope with a wide set of requisites, one of them being their structural adequacy to a specific application. Thus, it is important to understand their behavior under specified standard cases, namely concerning their structural performance. This objective constituted the focus of the present study, where nanocomposite functionally graded materials integrating different porosity distributions were analyzed. To this purpose a set of numerical simulations based on the finite element method, reproducing American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) tensile and bending tests were considered. The results obtained show a good performance of the models implemented through their preliminary verification. It is also possible to conclude that carbon nanotubes and porosity distributions provide different and opposite effects in the context of the nanocomposite materials analyzed.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-06-22
      DOI: 10.3390/c5020034
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 3: An Overview of the Recent Progress in the Synthesis
           and Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    • Authors: Gul Rahman, Zainab Najaf, Asad Mehmood, Salma Bilal, Anwar Shah, Shabeer Mian, Ghulam Ali
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known as nano-architectured allotropes of carbon, having graphene sheets that are wrapped forming a cylindrical shape. Rolling of graphene sheets in different ways makes CNTs either metals or narrow-band semiconductors. Over the years, researchers have devoted much attention to understanding the intriguing properties CNTs. They exhibit some unusual properties like a high degree of stiffness, a large length-to-diameter ratio, and exceptional resilience, and for this reason, they are used in a variety of applications. These properties can be manipulated by controlling the diameter, chirality, wall nature, and length of CNTs which are in turn, synthesis procedure-dependent. In this review article, various synthesis methods for the production of CNTs are thoroughly elaborated. Several characterization methods are also described in the paper. The applications of CNTs in various technologically important fields are discussed in detail. Finally, future prospects of CNTs are outlined in view of their commercial applications.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/c5010003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 4: Experimental Investigation of the Mechanisms of Salt
           Precipitation during CO2 Injection in Sandstone

    • Authors: Yen Adams Sokama-Neuyam, Jann Rune Ursin, Patrick Boakye
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Deep saline reservoirs have the highest volumetric CO2 storage potential, but drying and salt precipitation during CO2 injection could severely impair CO2 injectivity. The physical mechanisms and impact of salt precipitation, especially in the injection area, is still not fully understood. Core-flood experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanisms of external and internal salt precipitation in sandstone rocks. CO2 Low Salinity Alternating Gas (CO2-LSWAG) injection as a potential mitigation technique to reduce injectivity impairment induced by salt precipitation was also studied. We found that poor sweep and high brine salinity could increase salt deposition on the surface of the injection area. The results also indicate that the amount of salt precipitated in the dry-out zone does not change significantly during the drying process, as large portion of the precipitated salt accumulate in the injection vicinity. However, the distribution of salt in the dry-out zone was found to change markedly when more CO2 was injected after salt precipitation. This suggests that CO2 injectivity impairment induced by salt precipitation is probably dynamic rather than a static process. It was also found that CO2-LSWAG could improve CO2 injectivity after salt precipitation. However, below a critical diluent brine salinity, CO2-LSWAG did not improve injectivity. These findings provide vital understanding of core-scale physical mechanisms of the impact of salt precipitation on CO2 injectivity in saline reservoirs. The insight gained could be implemented in simulation models to improve the quantification of injectivity losses during CO2 injection into saline sandstone reservoirs.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/c5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 5: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of C in 2018

    • Authors: C Editorial Office
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Rigorous peer-review is the corner-stone of high-quality academic publishing [...]
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/c5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 6: Convenient Preparation of Graphene Oxide from
           Expandable Graphite and Its Characterization by Positron Annihilation
           Lifetime Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Guido Panzarasa, Giovanni Consolati, Marco Scavini, Mariangela Longhi, Fiorenza Quasso
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) is conveniently prepared from expandable graphite using a simplified Hummers’ method. The product is thoroughly characterized by usual techniques (UV-vis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies, zeta potential, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption) to confirm the success of synthesis. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is then used to extract information on the microenvironment in between the layers of graphene oxide.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/c5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 7: Electrochemical Reaction in Hydrogen Peroxide and
           Structural Change of Platinum Nanoparticle-Supported Carbon Nanowalls
           Grown Using Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    • Authors: Masakazu Tomatsu, Mineo Hiramatsu, Hiroki Kondo, Kenji Ishikawa, Takayoshi Tsutsumi, Makoto Sekine, Masaru Hori
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reactions on platinum nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanowalls (Pt-CNWs) under potential applications were investigated on a platform of CNWs grown on carbon fiber paper (CFP) using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Through repeated cyclic voltammetry (CV), measurements of 1000 cycles using the Pt-CNW electrodes in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution with 240 μM of H2O2, the observed response peak currents of H2O2 reduction decreased with the number of cycles, which is attributed to decomposition of H2O2. After CV measurements for a total of 3000 cycles, the density and height of CNWs were reduced and their surface morphology changed. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) compositional mapping revealed agglomeration of Pt nanoparticles around the top edges of CNWs. The degradation mechanism of Pt-CNWs under potential application with H2O2 is discussed by focusing on the behavior of OH radicals generated by the H2O2 reduction.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/c5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 8: Effects of Ion Bombardment Energy Flux on Chemical
           Compositions and Structures of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Films Grown
           by a Radical-Injection Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    • Authors: Hirotsugu Sugiura, Hiroki Kondo, Takayoshi Tsutsumi, Kenji Ishikawa, Masaru Hori
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films have attracted much attention, because of their excellent physical and chemical properties, such as high mechanical hardness, chemical robustness, a wide variety of optical bandgaps, and so forth. Although an ion bombardment energy has been regarded as essential in the well-know subplantation model, it alone is inadequate especially in complicated reactions of a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. In this study, an ion bombardment energy flux (ΓEi) was proposed as a crucial factor to determine chemical compositions and structures of a-C:H films. To obtain the amounts of ΓEi, electron densities, hydrogen (H) excitation temperatures, and negative direct current (DC) self-bias voltage (-VDC) were measured. The deposition rate increased, and sp2-C clusters incorporation was induced by the ΓEi. With increasing ΓEi, photoluminescence (PL) backgrounds in Raman spectra decreased, while spin densities in electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements increased. These results suggested the H content of a-C:H film decreased depending on the amount of ΓEi. The ΓEi is one of the crucial factors to determine the properties of the a-C:H films.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/c5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 9: Novel Tubular Carbon Membranes Prepared from Natural

    • Authors: Xuezhong He
      First page: 9
      Abstract: The novel tubular carbon membranes produced from natural materials are, for the first time, reported. The novelty of this idea is to use natural rattans as precursors for making carbon membranes to address the challenges of cellulose polymers. The rattan precursors were carbonized to present evenly distributed channels inside the tubular carbon membranes. Each channel has an inner diameter of 2 × 10−4 m with a dense-selective inner layer and a porous outer layer. Future work on selection of suitable rattans, proper pre-treatment, carbon structure tailoring can be conducted to open a new research field of carbon membranes/materials.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-02-01
      DOI: 10.3390/c5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 10: Rice Husk-Derived High Surface Area Nanoporous Carbon
           Materials with Excellent Iodine and Methylene Blue Adsorption Properties

    • Authors: Lok Kumar Shrestha, Mamata Thapa, Rekha Goswami Shrestha, Subrata Maji, Raja Ram Pradhananga, Katsuhiko Ariga
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Iodine and methylene blue adsorption properties of the high surface area nanoporous carbon materials derived from agro-waste and rice husk is reported. Rice husk was pre-carbonized at 300 °C in air followed by leaching out the silica nanoparticles by extraction with sodium hydroxide solution. The silica-free rice husk char was mixed with chemical activating agents sodium hydroxide (NaOH), zinc chloride (ZnCl2), and potassium hydroxide (KOH) separately at a mixing ratio of 1:1 (wt%) and carbonized at 900 °C under a constant flow of nitrogen. The prepared carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), and Raman scattering. Due to the presence of bimodal micro- and mesopore structures, KOH activated samples showed high specific surface area ca. 2342 m2/g and large pore volume ca. 2.94 cm3/g. Oxygenated surface functional groups (hydroxyl, carbonyl, and carboxyl) were commonly observed in all of the samples and were essentially non-crystalline porous particle size of different sizes (<200 μm). Adsorption study revealed that KOH activated samples could be excellent material for the iodine and methylene blue adsorption from aqueous phase. Iodine and methylene blue number were ca. 1726 mg/g and 608 mg/g, respectively. The observed excellent iodine and methylene blue adsorption properties can be attributed to the well-developed micro- and mesopore structure in the carbon material. This study demonstrates that the agricultural waste, rice husk, and derived nanoporous carbon materials would be excellent adsorbent materials in water purifications.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
      DOI: 10.3390/c5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 11: Plasma Oxidation Printing into DLC and Graphite for
           Surface Functionalization

    • Authors: Tatsuhiko Aizawa, Kenji Wasa, Yoshiro Nogami
      First page: 11
      Abstract: A diamond-like carbon (DLC) film, coated on a AISI420-J2 stainless steel substrate and vertically aligned graphite (VAG), was structured by high-density plasma oxidation to work as a DLC-punch for micro-stamping and DLC-nozzle array for micro-dispensing, in addition to acting as a copper-plated thermal spreader, respectively. Thick DLC films were micro-patterned by maskless lithography and directly plasma-etched to remove the unmasked regions. Thick VAG (Ca plates were micro-patterned by screen-printing and selectively etched to activate the surface. Raman spectroscopy as well as electric resistivity measurement proved that there was no degradation of VAG by this surface activation. Wet plating was utilized to prove that copper wettability was improved by this surface treatment.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-03-11
      DOI: 10.3390/c5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 12: Fluorescent Carbon Dots Ink for Gravure Printing

    • Authors: Apostolos Koutsioukis, Vassiliki Belessi, Vasilios Georgakilas
      First page: 12
      Abstract: In the present article, we describe the use of highly fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) for the preparation of an effective water-based carbon dot ink (CD-ink) for gravure printing. Carbon dots were prepared hydrothermally from citrate and triethylenetetramine, and mixed properly with certain resins that are used in gravure inks. The as-produced CD gravure ink was used successfully for printing high quality fluorescent images.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/c5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
  • C, Vol. 5, Pages 13: Novel Biobased Polyol Using Corn Oil for Highly
           Flame-Retardant Polyurethane Foams

    • Authors: Sneha Ramanujam, Camila Zequine, Sanket Bhoyate, Brooks Neria, Pawan K. Kahol, Ram K. Gupta
      First page: 13
      Abstract: A novel bio-based polyol was synthesized using corn oil and 2-mercaptoethanol via thiol-ene reaction as an alternative to petroleum-based polyol for the synthesis of polyurethane foams. The polyol was analyzed using wet chemical techniques to obtain hydroxyl number and viscosity. Infrared spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography were used to confirm the structural properties of the foams. Flame-retardant polyurethane foams were prepared by the addition of different concentrations of dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) in final foam composition. The effect of DMMP on the thermo-mechanical properties of the polyurethane foams was analyzed. The TGA analysis showed improved stability of the final char with addition of DMMP in the foams. All the foams maintained a well-defined cellular structure and over 95% of closed cell content. The horizontal burning test showed reduced burning time and weight loss from 115 s and 38 wt.% for the neat foams, to 3.5 s and 5.5 wt.% for DMMP-containing foams (1.94 wt.% P). The combustion test using cone calorimeter showed a considerable reduction in heat release rate and total heat release. Thus, our study shows that corn-oil based polyol can be used to produce renewable polyol for industrially producible rigid polyurethane foams. The addition of a small amount of DMMP could result in a significant reduction in the flame-retardant properties of the polyurethane foams.
      Citation: C — Journal of Carbon Research
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
      DOI: 10.3390/c5010013
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2019)
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