Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 987 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (58 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (716 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (22 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (44 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (48 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (716 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 421)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Electronic Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Theory and Simulations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advanced Therapeutics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 95)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 208)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 323)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 450)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Chemical Science International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 209)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry Education Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 311)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistrySelect     Hybrid Journal  
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
ChemNanoMat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemPhotoChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chempublish Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemSystemsChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ciencia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Communications Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Number of Followers: 1  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2199-3793
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • Correction to: Acid–base equilibria of amino acids: microscopic and
           macroscopic acidity constants
    • Abstract: We regret the misprint of two chemical equations in the original article.
      PubDate: 2019-03-13
  • Paul Walden (1863–1957): the man behind the Walden inversion , the
           Walden rule , the Ostwald-Walden-Bredig rule and Ionic liquids
    • Abstract: Abstract The name of Paul Walden is connected with several fields of chemistry. This paper summarizes his most important results in stereochemistry and in physical chemistry and discusses the connection with ionic liquids. A short biography describes his way from a poor Latvian family to a well-known chemist who worked in Russia, Latvia and Germany. His contributions to the history of chemistry cannot be covered here.
      PubDate: 2019-01-31
  • Transfer phenomena and interactions of non-aqueous phase liquids in soil
           and groundwater
    • Abstract: Abstract Non-aqueous phase liquids are water immiscible organic liquids that are widely encountered in the environment. Exemplar NAPLs include chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, petroleum products, and waste products such as coal tar. Real-world NAPLs are usually multi-component solution mixtures, and many of the components in NAPLs pose a major challenge to soil, air, and water quality. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine the key physico-chemical properties of NAPLs and how these affect the behaviour of NAPLs in the sub-surface environment.
      PubDate: 2019-01-25
  • Bed electrodes in microbial electrochemistry: setup, operation and
    • Abstract: Abstract Microbial electrochemical technologies have become a vital field of interest in the last two decades. Their reactors are of interest for a large community of scientists working in environmental engineering and technology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, physics, mathematical modeling, microbiology and other disciplines. Due to the fascinating fundamentals and the high promises for application at the horizon, the field is increasingly reflected in the curricula of students of the aforementioned disciplines. The main motivation for this article is to give scientists and students an overview on one specific sub-topic: bed electrodes and bed electrode reactors. After a brief introduction, these granulated electrodes are analyzed from an engineering, electrochemical and microbiological point of view. Thereby we guide the potential future operator for deciding which biotechnological processes and applications under which operational conditions (i.e. fixed-bed electrodes versus fluidized bed electrodes) may benefit by using bed electrodes. Special focus is given to the electrochemical and microbial characterization of granules. Thus we discuss a recent tool that opens the possibility to survey the electrochemical behavior of microbial biofilms on bed electrodes—the e-Clamp. Finally, two case studies of bed electrode reactors are briefly discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
  • Which is the atomic number Z of the first member of a given electronic
           sublevel l '
    • Abstract: Abstract An equation that provides the atomic number Z of the first member of a given sublevel l is given and demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2018-12-05
  • Electrochemical promotion of catalytic reactions
    • Abstract: Abstract An electrochemical promotion of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions (EPOC) became possible through the use of porous metal electrodes interfaced to a solid electrolyte. The EPOC effect has been demonstrated for more than 100 reaction systems. Surface science investigations showed that the physical basis for the EPOC effect lies in the electrochemically induced spillover of the transported ionic species onto the surface of the metal electrodes. This report summarizes the progress which has been achieved in the mechanistic understanding of the EPOC effect.
      PubDate: 2018-12-04
  • Electrochromism: a fascinating branch of electrochemistry
    • Abstract: Abstract This lecture on electrochromism and electrochromic devices starts with a short introduction to the field. This is followed by an overview of the different classes of electrochromic materials, in which each class is illustrated by some typical examples. The third part deals with some basic parameters to assess electrochromic compounds and devices. After this, we discuss the different types of electrochromic devices or elements, again always illustrated by some examples. Manufacturing considerations and real-world practical application examples of electrochromics are the topics of the last two parts of this lecture.
      PubDate: 2018-11-27
  • Vanadium in health issues
    • Abstract: Abstract Vanadium (20th in natural abundance) is omnipresent in the environment both naturally and in problematic or toxic concentrations, as pollutant. Ingested, e.g. with drinking water and food, or by inhalation in the form of oxides attached to dust particle, vanadium can cause health hazards. Since vanadate is a phosphate antagonist, vanadium—in appropriate low concentrations—is also expected to exert a variety of physiological actions, some of which have been documented in pre-medicinal or—in the case of diabetes type 2—in phase IIa clinical tests. Other potential implementations, elucidated and scrutinized in this report, include myocardial infarctions, viral, bacterial and parasitic infections (the latter essentially in tropical countries), and cancer.
      PubDate: 2018-11-21
  • A basic introduction into microbial fuel cells and microbial
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper provides a basic introduction into biological fuel cells, with a strong emphasis on microbial fuel cells and microbial electrocatalysis. The paper is directed to students at bachelor and early master level as an entry reading, providing basic concepts, terminology and understanding, on an exemplary level. Literature advice is provided for further, continuative reading.
      PubDate: 2018-11-12
  • Forensic philately: the science of stamp authentication
    • Abstract: Abstract The science behind stamp characterisation and authentication is described concerning pigments and their chromophores, paper and additives as well as cancellation. Non-destructive analytical methods have been used like XRD, EDX, XRF, PIXE, FT-IR, IR-ATR, laser Raman microscopy, and visible light microscopy. Colour-forming molecular mechanisms are discussed as well as colour fading and chemically based colour changes. Proposals are derived for reducing altering processes.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
  • Square-wave voltammetry
    • Abstract: Abstract This text is written as a very basic, first introduction to square-wave voltammetry, as one of the very specific, but most versatile techniques in the family of pulse voltammetric techniques. To make the text self-consistent, a brief introduction to voltammetry is initially given, to make the next elaboration of square-wave voltammetry more easily understandable. For more comprehensive introduction to voltammetric techniques, the previous chem-text is recommended (Scholz in ChemTexts 1:17, 2015). The aim of the current text is to explain the basic features of square-wave voltammetry, to reveal the essential idea behind the specific shape of the excitation signal used, as well as to demonstrate that square-wave voltammetry is highly suited to study the mechanism of electrode reactions. The latter is illustrated by addressing the simplest experimental situation encountered in voltammetry to make the text didactically suited for broader student population studying chemistry and related sciences.
      PubDate: 2018-11-01
  • What a chemistry student should know about the history of Prussian blue
    • Abstract: Abstract The exciting story of the serendipitous discovery of Prussian blue has fascinated artists, art historians, chemists, historians of science and others since more than three centuries. Based on several new research results from the last decade, this lecture for chemistry students gives a short but precise up-to-date account on the history of Prussian blue. It starts with the discovery of this new blue pigment by the color maker and former army officer Johann Jacob von Diesbach and the theologian and alchemist Johann Conrad Dippel in 1706 in Berlin. This is followed by an account of the early years of this pigment until the preparation method was finally made public by the Royal Court Apothecary (pharmacist) Caspar Neumann from Berlin who provided the Prussian blue recipe to the Royal Society for anonymous publication. In the following part of this lecture, it is reported about changes in the production method of Prussian blue and about new applications areas for the compound. In the last few decades this research towards new fields of application of Prussian blue has broadened dramatically, which can been seen from the ever-increasing number of publications per year with Prussian blue as a research subject. At the end of this lecture, we shortly discuss the history of the large group of Prussian blue analogues.
      PubDate: 2018-10-22
  • Correction to: German version of “Star dust: greetings from deep
    • Abstract: Unfortunately, the text “Star dust: greetings from deep space” has been published without the German version as supplementary material.
      PubDate: 2018-10-06
  • Nuclear transformations and radioactive emissions: Part II—secondary
           transitions and post-effects
    • Abstract: Abstract The present chapter follows part I of a series of two articles, which characterized unstable nuclei and described primary transformation pathways to stabilize a nucleus in terms of its nucleon compositions. Part II focuses on follow-up phenomena of those “primary” transformations. It first illustrates the class of secondary transitions, which all originate from an excited nuclear level of a nucleus, formed in a primary transformation. Next it discusses post-effects, which appear when nuclear transformations and transitions affect the atom as a whole, i.e. also its electron shell. Third, there are several post-effect phenomena when particular or electromagnetic radiation emitted in the course of the above-mentioned processes interact with surrounding condensed matter. Consequently, there are many specific emissions which accompany those secondary and post-effect processes, and which are not directly related to the primary transformations. A prominent example is γ-emissions as emitted in one of the three secondary transition pathways. These γ-rays, however, represent just one of the many emission which altogether are the essence of radioactivity.
      PubDate: 2018-10-06
  • Nuclear transformations and radioactive emissions: Part I—primary
           transformation pathways of unstable nuclei
    • Abstract: Abstract To understand the origin and character of individual radioactive emissions accompanying nuclear transformation processes, it is essential to understand what an unstable nucleus is, what its motivation is to transform, and how the nucleus selects the best way to transform. The following chapter represents part I of a series of two articles. It introduces the composition of stable atomic nuclei, the meaning of “isotopes”, the discrepancy between the mass of the nucleus and the sum of the mass of the nucleons it is composed of (the “mass defect”), and the parameter of “mean nucleon binding energy”. It is the fate of those unstable nuclei, that they transform to more stable ones. Part I will focus on the “primary” pathways of those transformations, i.e., those, where the nucleon composition of an unstable nucleus is modified to gain mean nucleon binding energy. Those transformation processes are the origin of certain radioactive emissions, and part I will discuss those originating from the primary transformation pathways, i.e., mainly β- and α-emissions.
      PubDate: 2018-10-05
  • What’s in a name: a comparison of Chinese and Japanese approaches to the
           translation of chemical elements
    • Abstract: Abstract When we research the development of Chinese terms in chemistry, a historical study of the Japanese approach to chemical nomenclature needs also to be considered. The Chinese terms yuansu (element), yuanzi (atom), fenzi (molecular), dangliang (valence), youji (organic) and wuji (inorganic) were derived from Japanese, and were introduced after the Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895). However, the Chinese nomenclature had also a great impact on the development of Japanese terms in chemistry. So the influence of the Chinese terms is no doubt a point to be discussed when considering chemical terms in Japanese. The term huaxue (chemistry), for example, was coined in the middle of nineteenth century in China and was then introduced into Japan soon after. The Japanese term kagaku (chemistry) came to be widely used in public in the 1870s.
      PubDate: 2018-09-24
  • Freeze drying: a novel method for preparation of solid analytical tungsten
           and molybdenum standards
    • Abstract: Abstract The lecture lesson starts with a brief review of freeze-drying history, its scientific basics, and numerous applications. Freeze drying is also a new effective method to prepare solid analytical standards, which is superior to the conventional methods blending and spiking. The freezing process in liquid nitrogen is completed in fractions of a second. Hence, the original homogeneous distribution of the dopants is preserved and the subsequent sublimation step minimizes any disturbance. Freeze-dried standards exhibit superior lateral distribution and uniform depth distribution. Tungsten standards obtained by freeze-drying aqueous solutions of doped highly soluble ammonium metatungstate showed an outstanding degree of homogeneity. Various tungsten standards doped with 10–28 elements ranging from 10 to 200 ppm each were successfully used as controls for a number of analytical techniques including glow discharge mass spectrometry and DC ARC optical emission spectroscopy. Molybdenum standards prepared by freeze-drying aqueous solutions of doped slightly soluble ammonium paramolybdate, revealed, however, some degree of segregation. Compared to standards prepared by the conventional methods, the freeze-dried standards were still superior. By introducing the starting mixture into liquid nitrogen as a mist, the homogeneous distribution of the dopants was significantly improved.
      PubDate: 2018-08-30
  • Polyoxometalates: more than a phasing tool in protein crystallography
    • Abstract: Abstract Protein crystallography is the most widely used method for determining the molecular structure of proteins and obtaining structural information on protein–ligand complexes at the atomic level. As the structure determines the functions and properties of a protein, crystallography is of immense importance for nearly all research fields related to biochemistry. However, protein crystallography suffers from some major drawbacks, whereby the unpredictability of the crystallization process represents the main bottleneck. Crystallization is still more or less a ‘trial and error’ based procedure, and therefore, very time and resource consuming. Many strategies  have been developed in the past decades to improve or enable the crystallization of proteins, whereby the use of so-called additives, which are mostly small molecules that make proteins more amenable to crystallization, is one of the most convenient and successful methods. Most of the commonly used additives are, however, restricted to particular crystallization conditions or groups of proteins. Therefore, a more universal additive addressing a wider range of proteins and being applicable to a broad spectrum of crystallization conditions would represent a significant advance in the field of protein crystallography. In recent years, polyoxometalates (POMs) emerged as a promising group of crystallization additives due to their unique structures and properties. In this regard, the tellurium-centered Anderson–Evans polyoxotungstate [TeW6O24]6− (TEW) showed its high potential as crystallization additive. In this lecture text, the development of POMs as tools in protein crystallography are discussed with a special focus on the so far most successful cluster TEW.
      PubDate: 2018-08-28
  • From the Kissinger equation to model-free kinetics: reaction kinetics of
           thermally initiated solid-state reactions
    • Abstract: Abstract Recently the term, “model-free kinetics” has increasingly been used in thermoanalytical studies. It is noteworthy that even without knowledge of the concrete reaction mechanism of a material transformation, “model-free kinetics” can be used to determine relevant kinetic parameters such as activation energy ΔEa, preexponential factor A, and reaction rate constant k. An obvious thought that comes to mind is to combine techniques of the thermal analysis with the classical chemical reaction kinetics. Concerning the investigation of classical reaction kinetics, a series of isothermal experiments is necessary to take the time-to-yield ratio of any chemical reaction into account. Based on an introduced mechanism of the chemical reaction, the reaction rate constant k is determined for a series of temperatures T, i.e. k becomes a function of temperature; k = k(T). Generally, the examined substances are solids (e.g. polymers, plastics) and their thermal conversions are heterogeneous reactions at an interface. Would it, therefore, not be simpler to use non-isothermal procedures of thermal analysis for the kinetic analysis of solid state reactions'
      PubDate: 2018-08-11
  • Colloidal photoemissive nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Abstract Nanoparticles possess distinctive properties compared to those of their bulk counterparts. They can be prepared as colloids using molecules which play a key role in their preparation, colloidal stability, functionality, and/or optical features. These molecules can act as solvents, surfactants, reactants and ligands. Photoactive nanoparticles exhibit unique optical features due to the combined effect of their nanometric scale and the derived quantum confinement effect. The degree and type of response to size is related to their composition. They can form either colourless or colourful colloids, emit light either at longer wavelengths than those of the absorbed light (down-conversion luminescence) or at shorter wavelengths (up-conversion luminescence). In addition, the nanostructures can exhibit enhanced properties compared with their bulk counterparts, (for example, superior chemical sensing) due to their intrinsic large surface/volume ratio and their functionality can be further enhanced by ligand exchange or modification. Moreover, the processability of colloidal nanoparticles is crucial to many of their applications, such as for light-emitting devices and in optoelectronics, among other applications.
      PubDate: 2018-08-10
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