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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 931 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (58 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (663 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (27 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (43 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (48 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (663 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 88)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 288)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 404)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 285)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Chemosensors
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2227-9040
Published by MDPI Homepage  [222 journals]
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 25: Potentiometric Biosensing Applications of
           Graphene Electrodes with Stabilized Polymer Lipid Membranes

    • Authors: Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli, Dimitrios P. Nikolelis, Christina G. Siontorou, Marianna-Thalia Nikolelis, Stephanos Karapetis
      First page: 25
      Abstract: This review provides information and details about the fabrication of biosensors composed of lipid membranes that can be used to rapidly detect toxic compounds in food, environmental pollutants, and analytes of clinical interest. Biosensors based on polymeric lipid membranes have been used to rapidly detect a wide range of these analytes, offering several advantages including fast response times, high sensitivity and selectivity, portability for field applications, and small size. A description of the construction of these devices and their applications for the rapid detection of toxic substances in food, environmental pollutants, and analytes of clinical interest is provided in this review.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-06-28
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6030025
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 26: Lifetime and Fluorescence Quantum Yield of
           Two Fluorescein-Amino Acid-Based Compounds in Different Organic Solvents
           and Gold Colloidal Suspensions

    • Authors: Viviane Pilla, Augusto C. Gonçalves, Alcindo A. Dos Santos, Carlos Lodeiro
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Fluorescein and its derivatives are yellowish-green emitting dyes with outstanding potential in advanced molecular probes for different applications. In this work, two fluorescent compounds containing fluorescein and an amino acid residue (compounds 1 and 2) were photophysically explored. Compounds 1 and 2 were previously synthesized via ester linkage between fluorescein ethyl ester and Boc-ser (TMS)-OH or Boc-cys(4-methyl benzyl)-OH. Studies on the time-resolved fluorescence lifetime and relative fluorescence quantum yield (φ) were performed for 1 and 2 diluted in acetonitrile, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and tetrahydrofuran solvents. The discussion considered the dielectric constants of the studied solvents (range between 7.5 and 47.2) and the photophysical parameters. The results of the lifetime and φ were compared with those obtained for compounds 1, 2 and fluorescein without an amino acid residue in alkaline aqueous solutions. Moreover, as a preliminary result compound 2 (S-cysteine) was tested in the presence of gold nanoparticles as an aggregation colorimetric probe.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6030026
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 12: Smart Polymers in Micro and Nano Sensory
           Devices

    • Authors: José Reglero Ruiz, Ana Sanjuán, Saúl Vallejos, Félix García, José García
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The present review presents the most recent developments concerning the application of sensory polymers in the detection and quantification of different target species. We will firstly describe the main polymers that are being employed as sensory polymers, including, for example, conducting or acrylate-based polymers. In the second part of the review, we will briefly describe the different mechanisms of detection and the target species, such as metal cations and anions, explosives, and biological and biomedical substances. To conclude, we will describe the advancements in recent years concerning the fabrication of micro and nano sensory devices based on smart polymers, with a bibliographic revision of the research work published between 2005 and today, with special emphasis on research work presented since 2010. A final section exposing the perspectives and challenges of this interesting research line will end the present review article.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020012
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 13: Detection and Digital Resolution Counting
           of Nanoparticles with Optical Resonators and Applications in Biosensing

    • Authors: Miguel Ángel Aguirre, Kenneth Long, Nantao Li, Sello Manoto, Brian Cunningham
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The interaction between nanoparticles and the electromagnetic fields associated with optical nanostructures enables sensing with single-nanoparticle limits of detection and digital resolution counting of captured nanoparticles through their intrinsic dielectric permittivity, absorption, and scattering. This paper will review the fundamental sensing methods, device structures, and detection instruments that have demonstrated the capability to observe the binding and interaction of nanoparticles at the single-unit level, where the nanoparticles are comprised of biomaterial (in the case of a virus or liposome), metal (plasmonic and magnetic nanomaterials), or inorganic dielectric material (such as TiO2 or SiN). We classify sensing approaches based upon their ability to observe single-nanoparticle attachment/detachment events that occur in a specific location, versus approaches that are capable of generating images of nanoparticle attachment on a nanostructured surface. We describe applications that include study of biomolecular interactions, viral load monitoring, and enzyme-free detection of biomolecules in a test sample in the context of in vitro diagnostics.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020013
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 14: Colorimetric Materials for Fire Gas
           Detection—A Review

    • Authors: Katrin Schmitt, Karina Tarantik, Carolin Pannek, Jürgen Wöllenstein
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The damage caused by outbreaks of fire continues to be enormous despite ongoing improvements in fire detection and fighting. Therefore, the detection of fires at the earliest possible stage is essential. The latest developments in fire detection devices include the addition of carbon monoxide (CO) or temperature sensors into the widespread smoke detectors, but also alternative solutions are searched for. Advantageous is the direct detection of the most relevant fire gases CO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), because they are produced very early in a developing fire. A sensitive, selective, and low-cost method to detect these gases is the use of colorimetric materials combined with a compact optical readout. In this review, we take account of recent developments in this research field and provide a comprehensive overview on suitable materials for CO and NO2 detection in fire gas sensing and first steps towards novel fire gas detectors.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020014
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 15: Simultaneous Analysis of Sensor Data for
           Breath Control in Respiratory Air

    • Authors: Rolf Seifert, Thorsten Conrad, Jens Peter, Hubert Keller
      First page: 15
      Abstract: There is a broad field of applications of breath monitoring in human health care, medical applications and alcohol control. In this report, an innovative mobile sensor system for breath control in respiratory air called AGaMon will be introduced. The sensor system is able to recognize a multitude of different gases like ethanol (which is the leading component of alcoholic drinks), H2S (which is the leading component for halitosis), H2 (which is the leading component for dyspepsia and food intolerance), NO (which is the leading component for asthma) or acetone (which is the leading component for diabetes), thus ,covering almost all significant aspects. An innovative calibration and evaluation procedure called SimPlus was developed which is able to evaluate the sensor data simultaneously. That means, SimPlus is able to identify the samples simultaneously; for example, whether the measured sample is ethanol or another substance under consideration. Furthermore, SimPlus is able to determine the concentration of the identified sample. This will be demonstrated in this report for the application of ethanol, H2, acetone and the binary mixture ethanol-H2. It has been shown that SimPlus could identify the investigated gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) very well and that the relative analysis errors were smaller than 10% in all considered applications.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-04-03
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020015
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 16: Metal Oxide Nanostructures in Food
           Applications: Quality Control and Packaging

    • Authors: Vardan Galstyan, Manohar Bhandari, Veronica Sberveglieri, Giorgio Sberveglieri, Elisabetta Comini
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Metal oxide materials have been applied in different fields due to their excellent functional properties. Metal oxides nanostructuration, preparation with the various morphologies, and their coupling with other structures enhance the unique properties of the materials and open new perspectives for their application in the food industry. Chemical gas sensors that are based on semiconducting metal oxide materials can detect the presence of toxins and volatile organic compounds that are produced in food products due to their spoilage and hazardous processes that may take place during the food aging and transportation. Metal oxide nanomaterials can be used in food processing, packaging, and the preservation industry as well. Moreover, the metal oxide-based nanocomposite structures can provide many advantageous features to the final food packaging material, such as antimicrobial activity, enzyme immobilization, oxygen scavenging, mechanical strength, increasing the stability and the shelf life of food, and securing the food against humidity, temperature, and other physiological factors. In this paper, we review the most recent achievements on the synthesis of metal oxide-based nanostructures and their applications in food quality monitoring and active and intelligent packaging.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020016
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 17: A Rationally Designed, Spiropyran-Based
           Chemosensor for Magnesium

    • Authors: Georgina M. Sylvia, Adrian M. Mak, Sabrina Heng, Akash Bachhuka, Heike Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Andrew D. Abell
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Magnesium ions (Mg2+) play an important role in mammalian cell function; however, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of Mg2+ regulation in disease states. An advance in this field would come from the development of selective, reversible fluorescent chemosensors, capable of repeated measurements. To this end, the rational design and fluorescence-based photophysical characterisation of two spiropyran-based chemosensors for Mg2+ are presented. The most promising analogue, chemosensor 1, exhibits 2-fold fluorescence enhancement factor and 3-fold higher binding affinity for Mg2+ (Kd 6.0 µM) over Ca2+ (Kd 18.7 µM). Incorporation of spiropyran-based sensors into optical fibre sensing platforms has been shown to yield significant signal-to-background changes with minimal sample volumes, a real advance in biological sensing that enables measurement on subcellular-scale samples. In order to demonstrate chemosensor compatibility within the light intense microenvironment of an optical fibre, photoswitching and photostability of 1 within a suspended core optical fibre (SCF) was subsequently explored, revealing reversible Mg2+ binding with improved photostability compared to the non-photoswitchable Rhodamine B fluorophore. The spiropyran-based chemosensors reported here highlight untapped opportunities for a new class of photoswitchable Mg2+ probe and present a first step in the development of a light-controlled, reversible dip-sensor for Mg2+.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020017
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 18: The Use of Hoechst Dyes for DNA Staining
           and Beyond

    • Authors: Jonas Bucevičius, Gražvydas Lukinavičius, Rūta Gerasimaitė
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Hoechst dyes are among the most popular fluorophores used to stain DNA in living and fixed cells. Moreover, their high affinity and specificity towards DNA make Hoechst dyes excellent targeting moieties, which can be conjugated to various other molecules in order to tether them to DNA. The recent developments in the fields of microscopy and flow cytometry have sparked interest in such composite molecules, whose applications range from investigating nucleus microenvironment to drug delivery into tumours. Here we provide an overview of the properties of Hoechst dyes and discuss recent developments in Hoechst-based composite probes.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-04-18
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020018
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 19: Dissection of Protein Kinase Pathways in
           Live Cells Using Photoluminescent Probes: Surveillance or
           Interrogation'

    • Authors: Darja Lavogina, Sergei Kopanchuk, Kaido Viht
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Protein kinases catalyze phosphorylation, a small yet crucial modification that affects participation of the substrate proteins in the intracellular signaling pathways. The activity of 538 protein kinases encoded in human genome relies upon spatiotemporally controlled mechanisms, ensuring correct progression of virtually all physiological processes on the cellular level—from cell division to cell death. The aberrant functioning of protein kinases is linked to a wide spectrum of major health issues including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory diseases, etc. Hence, significant effort of scientific community has been dedicated to the dissection of protein kinase pathways in their natural milieu. The combination of recent advances in the field of light microscopy, the wide variety of genetically encoded or synthetic photoluminescent scaffolds, and the techniques for intracellular delivery of cargoes has enabled design of a plethora of probes that can report activation of target protein kinases in human live cells. The question remains: how much do we bias intracellular signaling of protein kinases by monitoring it' This review seeks answers to this question by analyzing different classes of probes according to their general structure, mechanism of recognition of biological target, and optical properties necessary for the reporting of intracellular events.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-04-25
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020019
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 20: Modelling and Development of Electrical
           Aptasensors: A Short Review

    • Authors: Rosella Cataldo, Maria Leuzzi, Eleonora Alfinito
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Aptamers are strands of DNA or RNA molecules, chemically synthetized and able to bind a wide range of targets, from small molecules to live cells, and even tissues, with high affinity and specificity. Due to their efficient targeting ability, they have many different kinds of applications. Particularly attractive is their use in biotechnology and disease therapy, in substitution of antibodies. They represent a promising way for early diagnosis (aptasensors), but also for delivering imaging agents and drugs and for inhibiting specific proteins (therapeutic aptamers). Starting by briefly reviewing the most recent literature concerning advances in biomedical applications of aptamers and aptasensors, the focus is on the issues of a theoretical/computational framework (proteotronics) for modelling the electrical properties of biomolecules. Some recent results of proteotronics concerning the electrical, topological and affinity properties of aptamers are reviewed.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020020
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 21: Using Fluorescence Intensity of Enhanced
           Green Fluorescent Protein to Quantify Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • Authors: Erin Wilson, Macduff Okuom, Nathan Kyes, Dylan Mayfield, Christina Wilson, Derek Sabatka, Jasmin Sandoval, Jared R. Foote, Michael J. Kangas, Andrea E. Holmes, Arin L. Sutlief
      First page: 21
      Abstract: A variety of direct and indirect methods have been used to quantify planktonic and biofilm bacterial cells. Direct counting methods to determine the total number of cells include plate counts, microscopic cell counts, Coulter cell counting, flow cytometry, and fluorescence microscopy. However, indirect methods are often used to supplement direct cell counting, as they are often more convenient, less time-consuming, and require less material, while providing a number that can be related to the direct cell count. Herein, an indirect method is presented that uses fluorescence emission intensity as a proxy marker for studying bacterial accumulation. A clinical strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was genetically modified to express a green fluorescent protein (PA14/EGFP). The fluorescence intensity of EGFP in live cells was used as an indirect measure of live cell density, and was compared with the traditional cell counting methods of optical density (OD600) and plate counting (colony-forming units (CFUs)). While both OD600 and CFUs are well-established methods, the use of fluorescence spectroscopy to quantify bacteria is less common. This study demonstrates that EGFP intensity is a convenient reporter for bacterial quantification. In addition, we demonstrate the potential for fluorescence spectroscopy to be used to measure the quantity of PA14/EGFP biofilms, which have important human health implications due to their antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy could serve as an alternative or complementary quick assay to quantify bacteria in planktonic cultures and biofilms.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020021
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 22: Miniaturized Single Chip Arrangement of a
           Wheatstone Bridge Based Calorimetric Gas Sensor

    • Authors: Navas Illyaskutty, Onur Kansizoglu, Oguzhan Akdag, Binayak Ojha, Jens Knoblauch, Heinz Kohler
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The design and fabrication of a miniaturized calorimetric-type gas sensor in a single chip arrangement is presented. Active and passive thin-film Pt meanders are integrated in a single platform (7 × 7 mm2) together with a temperature sensor and a thin-film microheater at the reverse side. Active meanders are covered by a porous Al2O3/2 wt % Pt thick-film layer. The selection of substrate, position of meanders, and active catalysts (especially their concentration) play a crucial role in directing sensor performance. The presented results show that the sensor signal (Wheatstone bridge voltage) is generated by diffusion-limited exothermic reactions which point towards catalytically enhanced combustion reactions mainly inside the active porous layer. By extrapolation of the linear sensitivity curves, the sensitivity limit was estimated to be 4 ppm for propene and to be 18 ppm for CO. In general, the one-chip-sensing concept has high potential to be used as a gas sensor for analysis of combustible gases; however, further optimization of the meander design and the catalyst material as well as investigations of the sensing behavior under varying ambient temperatures are necessary before such applications shall be considered.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020022
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 23: Label-Free Sensing in Microdroplet-Based
           Microfluidic Systems

    • Authors: Ali Kalantarifard, Abtin Saateh, Caglar Elbuken
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Droplet microfluidic systems have evolved as fluidic platforms that use much less sample volume and provide high throughput for biochemical analysis compared to conventional microfluidic devices. The variety of droplet fluidic applications triggered several detection techniques to be applied for analysis of droplets. In this review, we focus on label-free droplet detection techniques that were adapted to various droplet microfluidic platforms. We provide a classification of most commonly used droplet platform technologies. Then we discuss the examples of various label-free droplet detection schemes implemented for these platforms. While providing the research landscape for label-free droplet detection methods, we aim to highlight the strengths and shortcomings of each droplet platform so that a more targeted approach can be taken by researchers when selecting a droplet platform and a detection scheme for any given application.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-05-24
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020023
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 24: Advances and Perspectives in Chemical
           Imaging in Cellular Environments Using Electrochemical Methods

    • Authors: Robert A. Lazenby, Ryan J. White
      First page: 24
      Abstract: This review discusses a broad range of recent advances (2013–2017) in chemical imaging using electrochemical methods, with a particular focus on techniques that have been applied to study cellular processes, or techniques that show promise for use in this field in the future. Non-scanning techniques such as microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer high time-resolution (<10 ms) imaging; however, at reduced spatial resolution. In contrast, scanning electrochemical probe microscopies (SEPMs) offer higher spatial resolution (as low as a few nm per pixel) imaging, with images collected typically over many minutes. Recent significant research efforts to improve the spatial resolution of SEPMs using nanoscale probes and to improve the temporal resolution using fast scanning have resulted in movie (multiple frame) imaging with frame rates as low as a few seconds per image. Many SEPM techniques lack chemical specificity or have poor selectivity (defined by the choice of applied potential for redox-active species). This can be improved using multifunctional probes, ion-selective electrodes and tip-integrated biosensors, although additional effort may be required to preserve sensor performance after miniaturization of these probes. We discuss advances to the field of electrochemical imaging, and technological developments which are anticipated to extend the range of processes that can be studied. This includes imaging cellular processes with increased sensor selectivity and at much improved spatiotemporal resolution than has been previously customary.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-05-29
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6020024
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 1: Recent Advances in the Detection of
           Neurotransmitters

    • Authors: Bo Si, Edward Song
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Neurotransmitters are chemicals that act as messengers in the synaptic transmission process. They are essential for human health and any imbalance in their activities can cause serious mental disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s disease. Hence, monitoring the concentrations of various neurotransmitters is of great importance in studying and diagnosing such mental illnesses. Recently, many researchers have explored the use of unique materials for developing biosensors for both in vivo and ex vivo neurotransmitter detection. A combination of nanomaterials, polymers, and biomolecules were incorporated to implement such sensor devices. For in vivo detection, electrochemical sensing has been commonly applied, with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry being the most promising technique to date, due to the advantages such as easy miniaturization, simple device architecture, and high sensitivity. However, the main challenges for in vivo electrochemical neurotransmitter sensors are limited target selectivity, large background signal and noise, and device fouling and degradation over time. Therefore, achieving simultaneous detection of multiple neurotransmitters in real time with long-term stability remains the focus of research. The purpose of this review paper is to summarize the recently developed sensing techniques with the focus on neurotransmitters as the target analyte, and to discuss the outlook of simultaneous detection of multiple neurotransmitter species. This paper is organized as follows: firstly, the common materials used for developing neurotransmitter sensors are discussed. Secondly, several sensor surface modification approaches to enhance sensing performance are reviewed. Finally, we discuss recent developments in the simultaneous detection capability of multiple neurotransmitters.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6010001
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 2: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of
           Chemosensors in 2017

    • Authors: Chemosensors Editorial Office
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Chemosensors maintains high quality standards for its published papers. In 2017, a total of 32 papers were published in the journal.[...]
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6010002
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 3: Effect of Dangling Bonds on De-Poling Time
           for Polymeric Electric Field Optical Sensors

    • Authors: Amir Ali, Amal Tourky, Roushdy Ali
      First page: 3
      Abstract: This paper investigates the possible chemical changes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) caused by two different techniques of fabrication for ultra-sensitive electric field optical sensors. The sensing element is a micro-sphere made from 60:1 PDMS (60 parts base silicon elastomer to one part polymer curing agent by volume). The measurement principle is based on the morphology dependent resonances (MDR) shifts of the micro-sphere. We present the effects of curing and poling of polymer micro-spheres used as optical sensors. The degree of curing leads to changes in the de-poling time which results from dangling bonds in the polymeric chains. Consequently, the longevity of the sensitivity of the sensor can extended by two orders of magnitude. An analysis is carried out along with preliminary experiments to investigate that behavior.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6010003
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 4: Infra-Red Plasmonic Sensors

    • Authors: Anthony Centeno, Siti Aid, Fang Xie
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Plasmonic sensors exploiting the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of noble metal nanoparticles are common in the visual spectrum. However, bio-sensors near the infra-red (NIR) windows (600–900 nm and 1000–1400 nm) are of interest, as in these regions the absorption coefficients of water, melanin deoxyglobin, and hemoglobin are all low. The first part of this paper reviews the work that has been undertaken using gold (Au) and silver (Ag) particles in metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) in the NIR. Despite this success, there are limitations, as there is only a narrow band in the visual and NIR where losses are low for traditional plasmonic materials. Further, noble metals are not compatible with standard silicon manufacturing processes, making it challenging to produce on-chip integrated plasmonic sensors with Au or Ag. Therefore, it is desirable to use different materials for plasmonic chemical and biological sensing, that are foundry-compatible with silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). One material that has received significant attention is highly-doped Ge, which starts to exhibit metallic properties at a wavelength as short as 6 μm. This is discussed in the second part of the paper and the results of recent analysis are included.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6010004
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 5: Raman and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering
           for Biofilm Characterization

    • Authors: Seda Keleştemur, Ertug Avci, Mustafa Çulha
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Biofilms are a communal way of living for microorganisms in which microorganism cells are surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Most microorganisms can live in biofilm form. Since microorganisms are everywhere, understanding biofilm structure and composition is crucial for making the world a better place to live, not only for humans but also for other living creatures. Raman spectroscopy is a nondestructive technique and provides fingerprint information about an analyte of interest. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is a form of this technique and provides enhanced scattering of the analyte that is in close vicinity of a nanostructured noble metal surface such as silver or gold. In this review, the applications of both techniques and their combination with other biofilm analysis techniques for characterization of composition and structure of biofilms are discussed.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-01-19
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6010005
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 6: Stand-Off Chemical Detection Using
           Photoacoustic Sensing Techniques—From Single Element to Phase Array

    • Authors: Deepa Gupta, Xing Chen, Chen-Chia Wang, Sudhir Trivedi, Fow-Sen Choa
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Technologies that can detect harmful chemicals, such as explosive devices, harmful gas leaks, airborne chemicals or/and biological agents, are heavily invested in by the government to prevent any possible catastrophic consequences. Some key features of such technology are, but not limited to, effective signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the detected signal and extended distance between the detector and target. In this work, we describe the development of photoacoustic sensing techniques from simple to more complex systems. These techniques include passive and active noise filters, parabolic sound reflectors, a lock-in amplifier, and beam-forming with an array of microphones; using these techniques, we increased detection distance from a few cm in an indoor setting to over 41 feet in an outdoor setting. We also establish a theoretical mathematical model that explains the underlying principle of how SNR can be improved with an increasing number of microphone elements in the phase array. We validate this model with computational simulations as well as experimental results.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6010006
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 7: CO-Sensing Properties of Diode-Type Gas
           Sensors Employing Anodized Titania and Noble-Metal Electrodes under
           Hydrogen Atmosphere

    • Authors: Takeo Hyodo, Naoki Morinaga, Yasuhiro Shimizu
      First page: 7
      Abstract: CO-sensing properties of diode-type sensors employing an anodized TiO2 film and noble-metal (M) electrodes (M/TiO2 sensor, M: Pd, Pt, and Pd-nPt, n: the amount of Pt (wt %) in the Pd-nPt electrode) were investigated at 50–250 °C in dry or wet H2. All the M/TiO2 sensors showed nonlinear I–V characteristics as a diode device in air and N2, but the I–V characteristics of the sensors were actually linear in H2 because of the negligible small height of Schottky barrier at their M/TiO2 interface. The Pd/TiO2 sensor showed no CO response in H2, but the Pt/TiO2 and Pd-nPt/TiO2 sensors responded to CO in H2. Among them, the Pd-64Pt/TiO2 sensor showed the largest CO response at 100 °C in H2. The reason why the mixing of Pd with Pt was effective in improving the CO response is probably because of a decrease in the amount of dissolved hydrogen species, an increase in the amount of dissociatively adsorbed hydrogen species, and an increase in the amount of adsorbed CO species in CO balanced with H2 by the mixing of Pt into Pd. The interference from moisture in the target gas on the CO response should be largely improved from a practical application perspective.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-01-24
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6010007
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 8: Nitric Oxide Sensors for Biological
           Applications

    • Authors: Nicole Iverson, Eric Hofferber, Joseph Stapleton
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential signaling molecule within biological systems and is believed to be involved in numerous diseases. As a result of NO’s high reaction rate, the detection of the concentration of NO, let alone the presence or absence of the molecule, is extremely difficult. Researchers have developed multiple assays and probes in an attempt to quantify NO within biological solutions, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. This review highlights many of the current NO sensors, from those that are commercially available to the newest sensors being optimized in research labs, to assist in the understanding and utilization of NO sensors in biological fields.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-02-09
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6010008
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 9: Exploring the Emotion of Disgust:
           Differences in Smelling and Feeling

    • Authors: Lorenzo Stafford, Diana Fleischman, Nicholas Le Her, Thomas Hummel
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Disgust evolved to motivate humans away from disease cues and may heighten discernment of these cues. Disease cues are often best perceived through our sense of smell, however very few studies have examined how eliciting disgust influences smell intensity or valence. In two novel experiments we investigated how domains of disgust induction influence odor perception. In experiment 1 participants (n = 90) were randomly allocated to one of two kinds of Disgust Induction (DI): Pathogen (DI-P), Moral (DI-M) or a Control (DI-C), followed by an evaluation of three affectively distinct odors (disgust-related, neutral, liked). Using a modified procedure in experiment 2, participants (n = 70) were again randomly assigned to one of the three disgust induction conditions, but here they evaluated one (disgust-related) odor during disgust induction. In experiment 2 we also measured feelings of disgust and anger. In experiment 1, surprisingly, we found overall ratings of odor disgust were lower in the DI-P compared to other groups, whereas in experiment 2, odor disgust was higher in the DI-P versus the DI-M/DI-C conditions, which also differed from each other. We also found that whereas feelings of disgust were higher in DI-P, in contrast, anger was higher for those individuals in the DI-M condition. These findings suggest that compared to a Control condition, inducing state Pathogen and Moral disgust lead to higher perceived odor disgust, whereas feelings of disgust/anger yield divergent effects. The work here also demonstrates that methodologies utilizing odor perception (disgust) can be a useful addition to measuring changes in state disgust.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6010009
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 10: Synthesis, Curing Behavior and Swell Tests
           of pH-Responsive Coatings from Acryl-Terminated Oligo(β-Amino Esters)

    • Authors: Krister Hammarling, Mats Sandberg, Magnus Engholm, Henrik Andersson, Hans-Erik Nilsson
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The ability of acryl-terminated oligo( β -amino esters) (AOBAE) to be coated on fibers and printed electronics without solvents and to be cross-linked to a pH-responsive coatings, makes AOBAE-based coatings a potential type of pH-sensor coating. However, there are currently no reports of AOBAEs used as a pH-responsive coating material in sensor applications. Here we present an investigation of the synthesis, curing behavior and swell tests of AOBAEs. AOBAEs were synthesized from reacting an excess of asymmetric diacrylates with piperazine without the use of any solvents. They were then cross-linked to an insoluble network by UV-curing. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the AOBAEs. NMR was used to clarify the irregular structure of the AOBAE. FTIR was used to monitor the effects of UV-curing dose and air exposure on monomer conversion during curing. An interferometric technique was used to monitor the swelling behavior of the coating in response to pH variations. Swell experiments showed that the AOBAE also responded to pH variations after polymerization. Therefore, AOBAE is an interesting class of material with potential use as a pH responsive coating in optical-and printed electronics pH-sensors applications.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6010010
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Chemosensors, Vol. 6, Pages 11: Spectroscopic Chemical Sensing and
           Imaging: From Plants to Animals and Humans

    • Authors: Pietro Strobbia, Ren Odion, Tuan Vo-Dinh
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Chemical sensing and imaging technologies are of great importance in medical diagnostics and environmental sensing due to their ability to detect and localize chemical targets and provide valuable information in real-time. Biophotonic techniques are the most promising for in vivo applications due to their minimal invasivity. Our laboratory has introduced various biophotonics-based technologies for chemical sensing and imaging for biochemical sensing, medical diagnostics, and fundamental research. Over the years, we have developed a wide variety of fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based technologies for the detection of biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. This paper provides an overview of the research on chemical and biological sensors developed in our laboratory, highlighting our work on in vivo imaging and sensing, including minimally invasive detection of endogenous fluorophores associated with malignant tissue, SERS-tag localization of cancer cells and tissues, and SERS-based detection of nucleic acid biotargets and its feasibility for in vivo applications. This manuscript also presents new development on the use of Raman imaging of SERS-labeled nanoprobes incubated in leaves for use in biofuel research, laying the foundation for studies on functional imaging of nucleic acid biomarkers in plants.
      Citation: Chemosensors
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors6010011
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2018)
       
 
 
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