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CHEMISTRY (594 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 215)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 304)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 113)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 13)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 187)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 262)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Science : Nano     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Advanced Functional Materials
  [SJR: 5.21]   [H-I: 203]   [50 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1616-301X - ISSN (Online) 1616-3028
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Contents: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 39/2017)
    • PubDate: 2017-10-17T06:07:23.868359-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770232
  • Batteries: SiO2/TiO2 Composite Film for High Capacity and Excellent
           Cycling Stability in Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes (Adv. Funct. Mater.
    • Authors: Gibaek Lee; Sudeok Kim, Sunkyu Kim, Jinsub Choi
      Abstract: The universe is known as a matter consisting of 99.999% plasma. In article number 1703538, Jinsub Choi and co-workers prepare plasma in the electrolyte under high voltage conditions, so-called plasma electrolyte oxidation (PEO). This allows the formation of SiO2-TiO2 nanocomposites on a Ti substrate, in which SiO2 and TiO2 are designed to contribute to high capacity and excellent cycling stability of Li-ion batteries, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T06:07:20.716932-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770229
  • Self-Powered Sensors: Ultralight and Binder-Free All-Solid-State Flexible
           Supercapacitors for Powering Wearable Strain Sensors (Adv. Funct. Mater.
    • Authors: Weigu Li; Xiaobin Xu, Chang Liu, Marshall C. Tekell, Jing Ning, Jianhe Guo, Jincheng Zhang, Donglei Fan
      Abstract: All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on strategically created three-dimensional hierarchically porous graphite foams are reported by Donglei Fan and co-workers in article number 1702738. The supercapacitors exhibit ultrahigh specific capacitances based on the entire electrode weight and retain 80% of capacitance after 1000 continuous bending cycles. They can be seamlessly integrated with strain sensors for self-powered detections of strains from skins, including carotid artery pulses and finger bending.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T06:07:20.191721-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770233
  • Perovskite Quantum Dots: Enhancing the Stability of Perovskite Quantum
           Dots by Encapsulation in Crosslinked Polystyrene Beads via a
           Swelling–Shrinking Strategy toward Superior Water Resistance (Adv.
           Funct. Mater. 39/2017)
    • Authors: Yi Wei; Xiaoran Deng, Zhongxi Xie, Xuechao Cai, Sisi Liang, Ping'an Ma, Zhiyao Hou, Ziyong Cheng, Jun Lin
      Abstract: In article 1703535, Ziyong Cheng, Jun Lin, and co-workers present a method to stabilize perovskite quantum dots (PQDs). Highly luminescent perovskite–polystyrene composite beads with uniform morphology are prepared by packing perovskite quantum dots in crosslinked polystyrene beads via swelling in toluene and then shrinking the beads in hexane. The composite preserves optical performance even being immersed into water over nine months.
      PubDate: 2017-10-17T06:07:19.032733-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770230
  • Masthead: (Adv. Funct. Mater. 39/2017)
    • PubDate: 2017-10-17T06:07:16.302453-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201770231
  • Tunable Near-Infrared Organic Nanowire Nanolasers
    • Authors: Xuedong Wang; Zhi-Zhou Li, Ming-Peng Zhuo, Yishi Wu, Shuo Chen, Jiannian Yao, Hongbing Fu
      Abstract: Organic semiconductor nanowires have inherent advantages, such as amenability to low-cost, low-temperature processing, and inherent four-level energy systems, which will significantly contribute to the organic solid-state lasers (OSSLs) and miniaturized laser devices. However, the realization of near-infrared (NIR) organic nanowire lasers is always a big challenge due to the difficultly in fabrication of organic nanowires with diameters of ≈100 nm and material issues such as low photoluminescence quantum efficiency in the red-NIR region. What is more, the achievement of wavelength-tunable OSSLs has also encountered enormous challenge. This study first demonstrates the 720 nm NIR lasing with a low lasing threshold of ≈1.4 µJ cm−2 from the organic single-crystalline nanowires, which are self-assembled from small organic molecules of (E)-3-(4-(dimethylamino)-2-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one through a facile solution-phase growth method. Notably, these individual nanowires' Fabry–Pérot cavity can alternatively provide the red-NIR lasing action at 660 or 720 nm from the 0–1 or 0–2 radiative transition channels, and the single (660 or 720 nm)/dual-wavelength (660 and 720 nm) laser action can be achieved by modulating the length of these organic nanowires due to the intrinsic self-absorption. These easily-fabricated organic nanowires are natural laser sources, which offer considerable promise for coherent light devices integrated on the optics microchip.Near-infrared (NIR) lasing is achieved from self-assembled, single organic nanowires with a rectangular cross-section with a width of ≈120 nm. Notably, the individual organic nanowire Fabry–Perot (FP) cavity can alternatively provide the red-NIR lasing action at 660 or 720 nm, which arises from the 0–1 or 0–2 radiative transition channels.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:21:30.735555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703470
  • Composite Colloidal Gels Made of Bisphosphonate-Functionalized Gelatin and
           Bioactive Glass Particles for Regeneration of Osteoporotic Bone Defects
    • Authors: Mani Diba; Winston A. Camargo, Mariateresa Brindisi, Kambiz Farbod, Alexey Klymov, Stephan Schmidt, Matthew J. Harrington, Lorenza Draghi, Aldo R. Boccaccini, John A. Jansen, Jeroen J. J. P. van den Beucken, Sander C. G. Leeuwenburgh
      Abstract: Injectable composite colloidal gels are developed for regeneration of osteoporotic bone defects through a bottom-up assembly from bisphosphonate-functionalized gelatin and bioactive glass particles. Upon bisphosphonate functionalization, gelatin nanoparticles show superior adhesion toward bioactive glass particles, resulting in elastic composite gels. By tuning their composition, these composite colloidal gels combine mechanical robustness with self-healing ability. The composite colloidal gels support cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro without requiring any osteogenic supplement. In vivo evaluation of the composite colloidal gels reveals their capacity to support the regeneration of osteoporotic bone defects. Furthermore, the bisphosphonate modification of gelatin induces a therapeutic effect on the peri-implantation region by enhancing the bone density of the osteoporotic bone tissue. Consequently, these composite colloidal gels offer new therapeutic opportunities for treatment of osteoporotic bone defects.Injectable composite colloidal gels are developed via bottom-up assembly from bisphosphonate-functionalized gelatin and bioactive glass particles. These composite gels combine mechanical robustness with self-healing ability, and stimulate cellular activities in vitro. Moreover, these materials exhibit a strong capacity to support the regeneration of osteoporotic bone defects, and also induce a therapeutic effect on peridefect osteoporotic bone in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:16:45.84065-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703438
  • High Reversible Pseudocapacity in Mesoporous Yolk–Shell Anatase
           TiO2/TiO2(B) Microspheres Used as Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries
    • Authors: Hao Wei; Erwin F. Rodriguez, Anthony F. Hollenkamp, Anand I. Bhatt, Dehong Chen, Rachel A. Caruso
      Abstract: As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, titanium dioxide (TiO2) shows good gravimetric performance (336 mAh g−1 for LiTiO2) and excellent cyclability. To address the poor rate behavior, slow lithium-ion (Li+) diffusion, and high irreversible capacity decay, TiO2 nanomaterials with tuned phase compositions and morphologies are being investigated. Here, a promising material is prepared that comprises a mesoporous “yolk–shell” spherical morphology in which the core is anatase TiO2 and the shell is TiO2(B). The preparation employs a NaCl-assisted solvothermal process and the electrochemical results indicate that the mesoporous yolk–shell microspheres have high specific reversible capacity at moderate current (330.0 mAh g−1 at C/5), excellent rate performance (181.8 mAh g−1 at 40C), and impressive cyclability (98% capacity retention after 500 cycles). The superior properties are attributed to the TiO2(B) nanosheet shell, which provides additional active area to stabilize the pseudocapacity. In addition, the open mesoporous morphology improves diffusion of electrolyte throughout the electrode, thereby contributing directly to greatly improved rate capacity.Mesoporous anatase TiO2 yolk–TiO2(B) shell microspheres are synthesized via a solvothermal process. Porous shells of thin TiO2(B) nanosheets are separated by a gap from the anatase TiO2 cores. These microspheres show a high reversible capacity and long-term cyclability as active anode materials in lithium-ion batteries.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:16:08.337357-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703270
  • High Performance PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells by Employing
           Solution-Processed CdS Thin Films from a Single-Source Precursor as the
           Electron Transport Layer
    • Authors: Long Hu; Robert J. Patterson, Yicong Hu, Weijian Chen, Zhilong Zhang, Lin Yuan, Zihan Chen, Gavin J. Conibeer, Gang Wang, Shujuan Huang
      Abstract: CdS thin films are a promising electron transport layer in PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices. Some traditional deposition techniques, such as chemical bath deposition and RF (radio frequency) magnetron sputtering, have been employed to fabricate CdS films and CdS/PbS CQD heterojunction photovoltaic devices. However, their power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) are moderate compared with ZnO/PbS and TiO2/PbS heterojunction CQD solar cells. Here, efficiencies have been improved substantially by employing solution-processed CdS thin films from a single-source precursor. The CdS film is deposited by a straightforward spin-coating and annealing process, which is a simple, low-cost, and high-material-usage fabrication process compared to chemical bath deposition and RF magnetron sputtering. The best CdS/PbS CQD heterojunction solar cell is fabricated using an optimized deposition and air-annealing process achieved over 8% PCE, demonstrating the great potential of CdS thin films fabricated by the single-source precursor for PbS CQDs solar cells.A heterojunction PbS quantum dot solar cell with an efficiency over 8% is achieved by optimizing CdS electron transport layer deposited by a simple single-source precursor spin-coating process. The optimized band alignment of the device improves the short circuit current and fill factor.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:15:43.289067-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703687
  • InVADE: Integrated Vasculature for Assessing Dynamic Events
    • Authors: Benjamin Fook Lun Lai; Locke Davenport Huyer, Rick Xing Ze Lu, Stasja Drecun, Milica Radisic, Boyang Zhang
      Abstract: Drug screening with simplified 2D cell culture and relevant animal testing fail to predict clinical outcomes. With the rising cost of drug development, predictive 3D tissue models with human cells are in urgent demand. Establishing vascular perfusion of 3D tissues has always been a challenge, but it is necessary to mimic drug transport and to capture complex interorgan crosstalk. Here, a versatile multiwell plate is presented empowered by built-in microfabricated vascular scaffolds that define the vascular space and support self-assembly of various parenchymal tissues. In this configuration, assembly and organ-specific function of a metabolically active liver, a free-contracting cardiac muscle, and a metastatic solid tumor are demonstrated, tracking organ function using noninvasive analysis techniques. By linking the 3D tumor and the liver tissue in series, it is demonstrated that the presence of liver tissue is crucial to correctly reveal the efficacy of a chemotherapeutic drug, Tegafur. Furthermore, the complete cancer metastasis cascade is demonstrated across multiple organs, where cancer cells escaping from the solid tumor can invade a distant liver tissue connected through a continuous vascular interface. This combinatory use of microfabricated scaffold onto a standard cell culturing platform can offer important insights into the mechanics of complex interorgan biological events.InVADE, integrated vasculature for assessing dynamic events, is a user-friendly 96-well plate platform that utilizes a single vascularized scaffold to recapture in- vivo- like drug transfer and cell trafficking between multiple organs. This platform can offer not only highly reproducible data in drug target validation but also further unlock pathways involved in complex multiorgan biological events.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:11:31.25339-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703524
  • Spiro-Bridged Ladder-Type Oligo(para-phenylene)s: Fine Tuning Solid State
           Structure and Optical Properties
    • Authors: Björn Kobin; Jutta Schwarz, Beatrice Braun-Cula, Moritz Eyer, Anton Zykov, Stefan Kowarik, Sylke Blumstengel, Stefan Hecht
      Abstract: A set of ladder-type quaterphenyls with an incremental number of spiro-bifluorene units in the bridge positions as well as an in-plane bent quaterphenyl carrying all bridges on one and the same side of the ribbon are synthesized and characterized. While spiro-bifluorene substituents lead to bathochromically shifted maxima in the UV–vis absorption spectra, this effect can be compensated by in-plane bending. The influence of different deposition techniques on the solid state structure is analyzed by X-ray diffraction of single crystals obtained by crystallization from solution as well as sublimation. An increasing number of spiro-bifluorene substituents are found to aid thin-film formation.A set of ladder-type quaterphenyls with an incremental number of spiro-bifluorene units and an in-plane bent quaterphenyl carrying all bridges on one side of the ribbon are synthesized and characterized with regard to their optical properties and their ability of thin-film formation. The influence of different crystallization techniques on the solid state structure is analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:10:47.262723-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201704077
  • A General Strategy for Stretchable Microwave Antenna Systems using
           Serpentine Mesh Layouts
    • Authors: Tammy Chang; Yuji Tanabe, Charles C. Wojcik, Alex C. Barksdale, Sage Doshay, Zhenya Dong, Hao Liu, Maoyi Zhang, Yuli Chen, Yewang Su, Thomas H. Lee, John S. Ho, Jonathan A. Fan
      Abstract: Wireless functionality is essential for the implementation of wearable systems, but its adaptation in stretchable electronic systems has had limited success. In this paper, the electromagnetic properties of stretchable serpentine mesh-based systems is studied, and this general strategy is used to produce high-performance stretchable microwave systems. Stretchable mechanics are enabled by converting solid metallic sections in conventional systems to subwavelength-scale serpentine meshes, followed by bonding to an elastomeric substrate. Compared to prior implementations of serpentine meshes in microwave systems, this conversion process is extended to arbitrary planar layouts, including those containing curvilinear shapes. A detailed theoretical analysis is also performed and a natural tradeoff is quantified between the stretching mechanics and microwave performance of these systems. To explore the translation of these concepts from theory to experiment, two types of stretchable microwave devices are fabricated and characterized: a stretchable far-field dipole antenna for communications and a stretchable midfield phased surface for the wireless powering of biomedical implanted devices.A general strategy for producing high-performance stretchable microwave systems using subwavelength-scale serpentine mesh layouts is presented. A detailed theoretical analysis is used to quantify the natural tradeoff between the stretching mechanics and microwave performance of these systems. To explore the translation of these concepts from theory to experiment, a stretchable far-field dipole antenna and midfield phased surface are demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:06:48.47235-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703059
  • Fabricating MnO2 Nanozymes as Intracellular Catalytic DNA Circuit
           Generators for Versatile Imaging of Base-Excision Repair in Living Cells
    • Authors: Feng Chen; Min Bai, Ke Cao, Yue Zhao, Jing Wei, Yongxi Zhao
      Abstract: Nanomaterial/DNA integrated systems have become an emerging tool for intracellular imaging. However, intracellular catalytic DNA circuit is rarely explored. Commonly used nanosystems neglect intracellular DNA assembly, conformation folding and catalytic efficiency, all demanding appropriate metal ion conditions. Herein, MnO2 nanosheet/DNAzyme (nanozyme) is fabricated as intracellular catalytic DNA circuit generator for high signal amplification, and its operation is reported for monitoring DNA base-excision repair (BER) in living cells with improved performance. MnO2 nanosheet works as not only DNA nanocarrier but also as DNAzyme cofactor supplier. The nanozyme is constructed by adsorbing DNA probes on MnO2 nanosheets, facilitating cellular uptake of DNA. They are rapidly released in cellular environments by reducing MnO2 nanosheets to Mn2+ as DNAzyme cofactor. After repair enzyme activation, nanozymes are properly assembled with active folded conformation and hold sustained catalytic efficiency over many cycles. It offers at least 40-fold amplified signals for the monitoring of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-initiated and DNA glycosylase-initiated BER pathways. Multiplex imaging can be allowed by integrating several sets of probes with per MnO2 nanosheet. The MnO2 nanozyme opens up exciting opportunities for imaging low-abundance biomarkers and relevant biological pathways in living cells.MnO2 nanosheets/DNAzymes (nanozymes) are fabricated as catalytic DNA circuit generators to monitor base-excision repair pathways. This MnO2 nanozyme is properly assembled with active folded conformation, and holds sustained catalytic efficiency in cellular environments. It offers at least 40-fold enhanced signals for the imaging of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease and glycosylases in living cells.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:06:24.388597-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702748
  • Toward High Thermoelectric Performance of Thiophene and
           Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) Molecular Wires
    • Authors: Marjan Famili; Iain M. Grace, Qusiy Al-Galiby, Hatef Sadeghi, Colin J. Lambert
      Abstract: The design of thermoelectric materials for the efficient conversion of waste heat into electricity requires simultaneous tuning of their electrical and thermal conductance. A comparative theoretical study of electron and phonon transport in thiophene and ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) based molecular wires is performed. It is shown that modifying thiophene by substituting ethylenedioxy enhances the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT for molecules of the same length. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the electrical conductance of EDOT-based wires decays more slowly with length than that of thiophene-based wires and that their thermal conductance is lower. The room-temperature ZT of undoped EDOT is found to be rather low. However, doping of EDOT by the electron acceptor tolunenesulfunate increases the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductance, while decreasing the thermal conductance, leading to a thermoelectric figure of merit as high as ZT = 2.4.The thermoelectric performance of thiophene molecular wires can be enhanced by ethylenedioxy substitution, to yield ethylenedioxythiophene molecular wires, whose electrical conductance decays slowly with length and whose thermal conductance is reduced.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:05:50.89198-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703135
  • Targeted Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Cancer Gene Therapy via
           Liposome-Templated Hydrogel Nanoparticles
    • Authors: Zeming Chen; Fuyao Liu, Yanke Chen, Jun Liu, Xiaoying Wang, Ann T. Chen, Gang Deng, Hongyi Zhang, Jie Liu, Zhangyong Hong, Jiangbing Zhou
      Abstract: Due to its simplicity, versatility, and high efficiency, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology has emerged as one of the most promising approaches for treatment of a variety of genetic diseases, including human cancers. However, further translation of CRISPR/Cas9 for cancer gene therapy requires development of safe approaches for efficient, highly specific delivery of both Cas9 and single guide RNA to tumors. Here, novel core–shell nanostructure, liposome-templated hydrogel nanoparticles (LHNPs) that are optimized for efficient codelivery of Cas9 protein and nucleic acids is reported. It is demonstrated that, when coupled with the minicircle DNA technology, LHNPs deliver CRISPR/Cas9 with efficiency greater than commercial agent Lipofectamine 2000 in cell culture and can be engineered for targeted inhibition of genes in tumors, including tumors the brain. When CRISPR/Cas9 targeting a model therapeutic gene, polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), is delivered, LHNPs effectively inhibit tumor growth and improve tumor-bearing mouse survival. The results suggest LHNPs as versatile CRISPR/Cas9-delivery tool that can be adapted for experimentally studying the biology of cancer as well as for clinically translating cancer gene therapy.Clinical translation of CRISPR/Cas9 technology requires development of safe approaches for efficient delivery of Cas9 and guide RNA. Here, novel liposome-templated hydrogel nanoparticles (LHNPs) optimized for codelivery of protein and nucleic acids are reported. It is demonstrated that when coupled with the minicircle technology, LHNPs deliver CRISPR/Cas9 with efficiency adequate for treatment of tumors within and outside of the brain.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:05:36.015445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703036
  • Multifurcate Assembly of Slanted Micropillars Fabricated by Superposition
           of Optical Vortices and Application in High-Efficiency Trapping
    • Authors: Jincheng Ni; Zhongyu Wang, Ziqin Li, Zhaoxin Lao, Yanlei Hu, Shengyun Ji, Bing Xu, Chenchu Zhang, Jiawen Li, Dong Wu, Jiaru Chu
      Abstract: Self-assembly induced by capillary force is abundant in nature and has been widely used in fabrication as a bottom-up method. Here a rapid and flexible method for achieving an even number of furcate slanted micropillars by single-exposure under a spatial phase modulated laser beam is reported, which is produced by designing a superimposed hologram with opposite topological charges to split the incident beam into several equal-weighting sectors. These furcate micropillars with intentional spatial arrangement can be directed to capillary-assisted self-assembly process for generating designable hierarchical functional arrays. Due to the slanted characteristic of micropillars (8°–13°), the assembled arrays are very stable and can be used as an effective tool for trapping SiO2 particles to form honeycomb patterns with an ultrahigh trapping ratio (>90%), which can image as a microlens array. The investigation reveals that micropillars with a height of 6 µm exhibit the high trapping ratio of particles, which maintain a fine imaging performance. The fast fabrication (more than 2 orders of magnitude enhancement) of furcate slanted pillars paves an avenue for developing innovative microoptics, microfluidics and biological scaffold engineering.A rapid and flexible method for fabricating an even number of furcate slanted micropillars is realized by superimposing opposite optical vortices. The furcate micropillars are directed to capillary-driven self-assembly with intentional spatial arrangement, which can catch SiO2 particles with an ultrahigh trapping ratio (>90%). The furcate pillars pave an avenue for developing innovative microoptics, microfluidics, and biological scaffold engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T06:01:41.532989-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701939
  • Multimodal Bioactivation of Hydrophilic Electrospun Nanofibers Enables
           Simultaneous Tuning of Cell Adhesivity and Immunomodulatory Effects
    • Authors: Laura Wistlich; Juliane Kums, Angela Rossi, Karl-Heinz Heffels, Harald Wajant, Jürgen Groll
      Abstract: Biomaterials research usually focuses on functional and structural mimicry of the extracellular matrix or tissue hierarchy and morphology. Most recently, material-induced modulatory effects on the immune system to arouse a healing response is another upcoming strategy. Approaches, however, that integrate both aspects to induce healing and facilitate specific cell adhesion are so far little explored. This study exploits manifold but chemical crosslinker free functionalization of hydrophilic and nonadhesive electrospun fiber surfaces with peptides for controlled cell adhesion, and with neutra­lizing antibodies targeting the master cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to dampen proinflammatory reactions by the fiber adherent cells. It is demonstrated that cell attachment and immunomodulatory properties of a textile can be tailored at the same time to generate meshes that combine immunosuppressive activity with specific cell adhesion properties.A simple, robust strategy for multimodal fiber functionalization within one preparation step using reactive isocyanate macromeres is presented. A threefold functiona­lization and the application of this approach generating meshes with biochemical activity is demonstrated. Immobilization of different antibodies and RGD peptides results in fibers with TNF-depleting and cell binding activity which may be used as immunomodu­latory wound dressings materials.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T07:15:54.651361-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702903
  • Photopatterning Freestanding Chiral Nematic Mesoporous Organosilica Films
    • Authors: Andrea S. Terpstra; Wadood Y. Hamad, Mark J. MacLachlan
      Abstract: Chiral nematic mesoporous organosilica (CNMO) films are functionalized with a mixture of hydrophobic silanes and spiropyran compounds to create freestanding photochromic films that can be used for reversible photo­patterning. The mesoporosity and interconnected pore structure of the films imparted by the cellulose nanocrystal template enables a large cross-section of the material to be functionalized. Thus, the materials show intense absorption spectra from the tethered spiropyran and rapid color changes when the porous films are irradiated with UV or white light. The spiropyran-bound CNMO films behave as reversible sensors where metal binding to the spiropyran results in visible color changes detectable by the naked eye. These metals can be removed in the presence of ethanol and white light, regenerating the metal-free film. The proof-of-concept demonstrated in this paper may help to develop new photochromic displays, security features, and patterns.Freestanding photochromic films made from functionalizing chiral nematic mesoporous organosilica (CNMO) films are presented. The CNMO templated from cellulose nanocrystals shows high mesoporosity and interconnected pore structure allowing for a large cross-section of the material to be functiona­lized with spiropyran. These materials show rapid color changes when irradiated with UV or white light.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T07:15:34.612628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703346
  • Photoluminescent Arrays of Nanopatterned Monolayer MoS2
    • Authors: Grace G. D. Han; Kun-Hua Tu, Farnaz Niroui, Wenshuo Xu, Si Zhou, Xiaochen Wang, Vladimir Bulović, Caroline A. Ross, Jamie H. Warner, Jeffrey C. Grossman
      Abstract: Monolayer 2D MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition is nanopatterned into nanodots, nanorods, and hexagonal nanomesh using block copolymer (BCP) lithography. The detailed atomic structure and nanoscale geometry of the nanopatterned MoS2 show features down to 4 nm with nonfaceted etching profiles defined by the BCP mask. Atomic resolution annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals the nanopatterned MoS2 has minimal large-scale crystalline defects and enables the edge density to be measured for each nanoscale pattern geometry. Photoluminescence spectroscopy of nanodots, nanorods, and nanomesh areas shows strain-dependent spectral shifts up to 15 nm, as well as reduction in the PL efficiency as the edge density increases. Raman spectroscopy shows mode stiffening, confirming the release of strain when it is nanopatterned by BCP lithography. These results show that small nanodots (≈19 nm) of MoS2 2D monolayers still exhibit strong direct band gap photoluminescence (PL), but have PL quenching compared to pristine material from the edge states. This information provides important insights into the structure–PL property correlations of sub-20 nm MoS2 structures that have potential in future applications of 2D electronics, optoelectronics, and photonics.Sub-20 nm patterns of monolayer MoS2 nanodots, nanorods, and nanmesh, generated by block copolymer lithography, show novel modulated photoluminescence. Annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy provides atomic level insights into the nanostructures, revealing high crystalline quality and features down to 4 nm in size.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T07:11:51.979092-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703688
  • Ordered Superparticles with an Enhanced Photoelectric Effect by
           Sub-Nanometer Interparticle Distance
    • Authors: Dan Luo; Xiaoyun Qin, Qian Song, Xuezhi Qiao, Zhen Zhang, Zhenjie Xue, Cong Liu, Guang Mo, Tie Wang
      Abstract: As the development in self-assembly of nanoparticles, a main question is directed to whether the supercrystalline structure can facilitate generation of collective properties, such as coupling between adjacent nanocrystals or delocalization of exciton to achieve band-like electronic transport in a 3D assembly. The nanocrystal surfaces are generally passivated by insulating organic ligands, which block electronic communication of neighboring building blocks in nanoparticle assemblies. Ligand removal or exchange is an operable strategy for promoting electron transfer, but usually changes the surface states, resulting in performance alteration or uncontrollable aggregation. Here, 3D, supercompact superparticles with well-defined superlattice domains through a thermally controlled emulsion-based self-assembly method is fabricated. The interparticle spacing in the superparticles shrinks to ≈0.3 nm because organic ligands lie prone on the nanoparticle surface, which are sufficient to overcome the electron transfer barrier. The ordered and compressed superstructures promote coupling and electronic energy transfer between CdSSe quantum dots (QDs). Therefore, the acquired QD superparticles exhibit different optical properties and enhanced photoelectric activity compared to individual QDs.Ordered quantum dot (QD) superparticles with a compressed supercrystalline domain are fabricated through a thermally controlled emulsification process. The interparticle distances are shrunk down to the lattice constant of the QDs by prostrating ligands, which promotes coupling and electronic energy transfer between QDs. The acquired QD superparticles, exhibiting unique optical and photoelectric properties, can be applied in photodegradation and solar-driven photocatalytic processes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T14:33:07.267734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701982
  • The Fusion of Imidazolium-Based Ionic Polymer and Carbon Nanotubes: One
           Type of New Heteroatom-Doped Carbon Precursors for High-Performance
           Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
    • Authors: Hui Pan; Zhibin Cheng, Zhubing Xiao, Xiaoju Li, Ruihu Wang
      Abstract: Rational design of sulfur host materials with high electrical conductivity and strong polysulfides (PS) confinement is indispensable for high-performance lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries. This study presents one type of new polymer material based on main-chain imidazolium-based ionic polymer (ImIP) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs); the polymer composites can serve as a precursor of CNT/NPC-300, in which close coverage and seamless junction of CNTs by N-doped porous carbon (NPC) form a 3D conductive network. CNT/NPC-300 inherits and strengthens the advantages of both high electrical conductivity from CNTs and strong PS entrapping ability from NPC. Benefiting from the improved attributes, the CNT/NPC-300-57S electrode shows much higher reversible capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability than NPC-57S and CNTs-56S. The initial discharge capacity of 1065 mA h g−1 is achieved at 0.5 C with the capacity retention of 817 mA h g−1 over 300 cycles. Importantly, when counter bromide anion in the composite of CNTs and ImIP is metathesized to bis(trifluoromethane sulfonimide), heteroatom sulfur is cooperatively incorporated into the carbon hosts, and the surface area is increased with the promotion of micropore formation, thus further improving electrochemical performance. This provides a new method for optimizing porous properties and dopant components of the cathode materials in Li–S batteries.The integration of main-chain imidazolium-based ionic polymer and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) generates one type of new 3D conductive carbon material for high-performance Li–S batteries. The close coverage and seamless junction of CNTs by N-doped porous carbon (NPC) result in inheritance and improvement of high electrical conductivity from CNTs and strong polysulfides entrapping ability from NPC.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T14:32:36.842518-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703936
  • Sandwich-Type Nanocomposite of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Periodic
           Mesoporous Silica with Vertically Aligned Mesochannels of Tunable Pore
           Depth and Size
    • Authors: Zheng-Ming Wang; Wenqin Peng, Yoshiko Takenaka, Noriko Yoshizawa, Katsunori Kosuge, Wendong Wang, Geoffrey A. Ozin
      Abstract: Sandwich-type nanocomposites of graphene oxide (GO) and periodic mesoporous silica (PMS) with vertically aligned mesochannels of different pore depth and size are synthesized and characterized, and their formation modes are examined. The existence of mesoscale ordered structure in the mixture of GO and surfactant solutions is confirmed for the first time by in situ small angle X-ray scattering measurement using synchrotron radiation. The mesochannel depth and pore wall ripening of PMS in the nanocomposites are controlled by the reaction time of the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate. The pore size of PMS in the nanocomposites can be varied in the range of 1–5 nm by varying the chain length of alkyltrimethylammonium (CnTA+) template and high specific surface area (≈1000 m2 g−1) is achieved for all samples. Nanocomposites with vertically aligned PMS mesochannels can be synthesized by applying CnTA+ templates of n ≥ 12, whereas with CnTA+ of n ≤ 10, either PMS nanoparticle deposited GO structure or the structure with incomplete coverage of GO surface with imperfect PMS is found. The aggregation behaviors of surfactant molecules on GO depend on surfactant concentration relative to critical micelle concentration and reaction temperature, and result in the peculiar nanocomposites of different structural styles.Vertically aligned mesochannel depth and size of sandwich-type nanocomposites of reduced graphene oxide (GO) and periodic mesoporus silica can be tailored by tuning synthesis conditions and alkyl chain length of CnTA+ templates, whose formation mode is examined by the high photon flux SAXS technique and zeta-potential-based solution chemistry of surfactant and GO mixtures.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T02:00:00.357854-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201704066
  • From Molecular-Level Organization to Nanoscale Positioning: Synergetic
           Ligand Effect on the Synthesis of Hybrid Nanostructures
    • Authors: Di Xiang; Hong Liu, Lei Yang, Yuting Liang, Jiaqi Zhu, Zhongyuan Lu, Ying Hou, Ming Yang
      Abstract: A key challenge in advancing the design of hybrid nanostructures (HNs) lies in the difficulty in mastering the principle of selected hybrid formation, which is complicated not only by the size and shape variations of nanoparticles but also by the interfacial phenomena associated with surface ligands. Here this study elaborates the formation mechanism of HNs by a combined experimental and theoretical study employing multiscale simulations and shows how molecular information encoded on particle surface can be transferred into distinct composite patterns. The emergence of different HNs is found to be not only related to ligand binding strengths affecting the reaction kinetics but also the ligand–ligand interactions responsible for phase segregation. Unexpectedly, the sulfidation of Ag nanoparticles co-stabilized by citrate/gallic acid with different molar ratios constantly produces heterodimers with faster reaction rate than the formation of core–shell structures when they are solely coated by citrate or gallic acid. The surprising result originates from the phase separation of two short surface ligands with large contrast in binding strengths as indicated by photoluminescence spectra and supported by the dissipative particle dynamics simulations. Hierarchical HNs consisting of a heterodimer shell with built-in hot spots can be further synthesized using Au@Ag core–shell particles with mixed surface layers.Synergetic ligand effect on the formation of hybrid nanostructures is revealed by a combined experimental and theoretical study, allowing the establishment of the connection between molecular-level organization and nanoscale positioning. The demonstrated dual ligand roles originating from different binding strengths and ligand–ligand interactions responsible for phase segregation pave a way for advancing the design of functional inorganic composite materials.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12T01:07:01.14597-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703006
  • Facile Synthesis of Red/NIR AIE Luminogens with Simple Structures, Bright
           Emissions, and High Photostabilities, and Their Applications for Specific
           Imaging of Lipid Droplets and Image-Guided Photodynamic Therapy
    • Authors: Dong Wang; Huifang Su, Ryan T. K. Kwok, Guogang Shan, Anakin C. S. Leung, Michelle M. S. Lee, Herman H. Y. Sung, Ian D. Williams, Jacky W. Y. Lam, Ben Zhong Tang
      Abstract: Red/near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecules with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics are of great interest in bioimaging and therapeutic applications. However, their complicated synthetic approaches remain the major barrier to implementing these applications. Herein, a one-pot synthetic strategy to prepare a series of red/NIR-emissive AIE luminogens (AIEgens) by fine-tuning their molecular structures and substituents is reported. The obtained AIEgens possess simple structures, good solubilities, large Stokes shifts, and bright emissions, which enable their applications toward in vitro and in vivo imaging without any pre-encapsulation or -modification steps. Excellent targeting specificities to lipid droplets (LDs), remarkable photostabilities, high brightness, and low working concentrations in cell imaging application make them remarkably impressive and superior to commercially available LD-specific dyes. Interestingly, these AIEgens can efficiently generate reactive oxygen species upon visible light irradiation, endowing their effective application for photodynamic ablation of cancer cells. This study, thus, not only demonstrates a facile synthesis of red/NIR AIEgens for dual applications in simultaneous imaging and therapy, but also offers an ideal architecture for the construction of AIEgens with long emission wavelengths.A one-pot synthetic strategy is described for preparing red- and near-infrared-emissive aggregation-induced emission (AIE) luminogens (AIEgens) with simple structures, large Stokes shifts, and bright emissions. These AIEgens can be utilized as lipid droplet-specific bioprobes in cell imaging and in vivo zebrafish imaging with high photostabilities and brightness. They are also effective in photodynamic cancer cell ablation upon visible light irradiation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T06:48:47.220654-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201704039
  • Fatigue-Resistant Bioinspired Graphene-Based Nanocomposites
    • Authors: Sijie Wan; Qunfeng Cheng
      Abstract: Graphene is an attractive building block for constructing functional materials of flexible electronic devices, due to its extraordinary mechanical and electrical properties. Up to now, large amounts of high-performance graphene-based nanocomposites are fabricated. However, the fatigue behavior of graphene-based nanocomposites, a key parameter for flexible electronic devices, is rarely investigated. According to the fatigue mechanisms of thermosetting polymer composites, the fatigue resistance of graphene-based nanocomposites can be significantly improved by effectively restricting the crack growth. Natural nacre demonstrates unique multisuppression of crack propagation, which is attributed to its sophisticated interfacial architecture over multiple length scales, resulting in remarkable fracture toughness. The crack suppression mechanisms corresponding to different interfacial design strategies within bioinspired graphene-based nanocomposites (BGBNs) are summarized in this feature article. The static mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, and fatigue resistance of these BGBNs are compared and discussed. The synergistic effect from various interfacial interactions and building blocks is highlighted to serve as the guidance for constructing novel fatigue-resistant BGBNs. The promising applications of fatigue-resistant BGBNs in flexible electronic devices are reviewed, and several challenges and corresponding solutions are proposed. The perspective of fatigue-resistant BGBNs for fundamental research and commercial application is depicted.Natural nacre provides an inspiration for constructing fatigue-resistant graphene-based nanocomposites by means of interfacial interactions crosslinking and building blocks toughening, which can impede the crack growth through crack deflection, crack bridging, and plastic deformation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T06:48:15.577302-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703459
  • Tuning the Viscosity Profile of Ionic Vitrimers Incorporating
           1,2,3-Triazolium Cross-Links
    • Authors: Mona M. Obadia; Antoine Jourdain, Philippe Cassagnau, Damien Montarnal, Eric Drockenmuller
      Abstract: Vitrimers are dynamic polymer networks with unique viscoelastic behavior combining the best attributes of thermosets and thermoplastics. Ionic vitrimers are a recent class of dynamic materials, where 1,2,3-triazolium cross-links are reshuffled by trans-N-alkylation exchange reactions. Comparison of dynamic properties with a selection of vitrimers relying on different exchange reactions highlights the particularly high viscous flow activation energies of trans-N-alkylation reactions, thus providing an enhanced compromise between fast reprocessing at moderately high temperatures and low creep at service temperature. Varying the [monomer]/[cross-linker] ratio in the initial formulation of these 1,2,3-triazolium-based networks affords a fine tuning of their viscosity profiles. Confrontation of rheometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data allows the correlation of variations in chemical composition with changes in the covalent exchange dynamics. This unprecedented approach enables the proposition of a dissociative two-step mechanism for the trans-N-alkylation of 1,2,3-triazoliums initiated by a nucleophilic attack of the 1,2,3-triazolium cross-links by the iodide counteranion, yielding uncrosslinking by de-N-alkylation. Subsequent rapid re-N-alkylation of the formed 1,2,3-triazole by surrounding iodide-functionalized dangling chains affords exchange of the cross-link position. This study highlights that strictly associative exchange reactions are not compulsory to induce vitrimer behavior, and may pave the way to a much wider variety of vitrimers relying on conventional reversible covalent reactions.1,2,3-Triazolium-based ionic vitrimers show particularly high viscous flow activation energies up to 162 kJ mol−1, which affords enhanced compromises between fast reprocessing at high temperatures and long-term stability at service temperature. Confrontation of rheometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization on networks having drastically different chemical composition and cross-linking density corroborates a dissociative two-step mechanism for the trans-N-alkylation dynamic covalent exchanges.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T06:45:42.261618-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703258
  • Suppressing Lithium Dendrite Growth by Metallic Coating on a Separator
    • Authors: Hongkyung Lee; Xiaodi Ren, Chaojiang Niu, Lu Yu, Mark H. Engelhard, Inseong Cho, Myung-Hyun Ryou, Hyun Soo Jin, Hee-Tak Kim, Jun Liu, Wu Xu, Ji-Guang Zhang
      Abstract: Lithium (Li) metal is one of the most promising candidates for the anode in high-energy-density batteries. However, Li dendrite growth induces a significant safety concerns in these batteries. Here, a multifunctional separator through coating a thin electronic conductive film on one side of the conventional polymer separator facing the Li anode is proposed for the purpose of Li dendrite suppression and cycling stability improvement. The ultrathin Cu film on one side of the polyethylene support serves as an additional conducting agent to facilitate electrochemical stripping/deposition of Li metal with less accumulation of electrically isolated or “dead” Li. Furthermore, its electrically conductive nature guides the backside plating of Li metal and modulates the Li deposition morphology via dendrite merging. In addition, metallic Cu film coating can also improve thermal stability of the separator and enhance the safety of the batteries. Due to its unique beneficial features, this separator enables stable cycling of Li metal anode with enhanced Coulombic efficiency during extended cycles in Li metal batteries and increases the lifetime of Li metal anode by preventing short-circuit failures even under extensive Li metal deposition.Janus-faced separator design with ultrathin copper (Cu) metal film coating onto one side surface of the conventional polyethylene separator is proposed for lithium (Li) dendrite suppression and cycling stability improvement. Enabling the separator to be electrically and ionically conductive is very effective to facilitate the electrochemical deposition/stripping of Li metal and modulate of the Li metal/electrolyte interface structure.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T07:26:33.269599-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201704391
  • Highly Desirable Photodetectors Derived from Versatile Plasmonic
    • Authors: Hongyu Chen; Longxing Su, Mingming Jiang, Xiaosheng Fang
      Abstract: With unique ability to concentrate and manipulate light at nanoscale, surface plasmon resonance technologies create additional opportunities for fabricating superintegration photodetectors with desirable functionalities. To gain an insight into the state-of-the-art of plasmonic photodetectors, recent advances in novel devices as well as potential building blocks are presented herein. The article focuses particularly on understanding the enhancement mechanism of different architectures such as nanoparticles, gratings, waveguides, antennas, and microcavities. Meanwhile, challenges and potential design schemes are proposed in this inspiring field.With a unique ability to concentrate and manipulate light at nanoscale, surface plasmon resonance technologies create additional opportunities for fabricating superintegration photodetectors with desirable functionalities. To gain an insight into the state-of-the-art of plasmonic photodetectors, recent advances in novel devices as well as potential building blocks are presented in this feature article.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T07:25:49.860325-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201704181
  • Bjerknes Forces in Motion: Long-Range Translational Motion and Chiral
           Directionality Switching in Bubble-Propelled Micromotors via an Ultrasonic
    • Authors: James Guo Sheng Moo; Carmen C. Mayorga-Martinez, Hong Wang, Wei Zhe Teo, Beng Hau Tan, Trung Dung Luong, Silvestre Roberto Gonzalez-Avila, Claus-Dieter Ohl, Martin Pumera
      Abstract: Manipulation of a micromotor's locomotion has been the ultimate aim of scientists and engineers alike. While numerous roadmaps have been cast, the interswitching of the locomotion and directionality of these miniaturized machines remains elusive. In this report, ultrasound is utilized to produce stop/go motion on bubble-propelled micromotors via Bjerknes forces. An intricate study using high-speed camera on the interactions between the bubbles and micromotor is undertaken. The reciprocal action between oscillating bubbles aggregates and ejected microbubbles in an acoustic field demonstrate influence on the motion of the micromotor. Long-range translational motion can be induced into the micromotor, when repulsive forces between bubble aggregates and ejected microbubbles are manifested in an acoustic field by Bjerknes forces. Additionally, such ultrasonic pulses demonstrate capability to change the directionality of the micromotor, where chirality of the locomotion can be switched. Here, introduction of pulses of ultrasonic irradiation demonstrates new capabilities to switch the motion of bubble-propelled micromotors.Under ultrasound irradiation, the vibration of bubbles in solution results in the manifestation of Bjerknes forces in an acoustic field. Such forces allow for the occurrences of both repulsive and attractive forces, being dependent on the bubble sizes. This paves the way for the manipulation of bubble-propelled micromotors, where stop-go, translational, and chiral-directional motion can be induced.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T07:16:24.194027-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702618
  • Photoactive Hybrid AuNR-Pt@Ag2S Core–Satellite Nanostructures for
           Near-Infrared Quantitive Cell Imaging
    • Authors: Aihua Qu; Liguang Xu, Maozhong Sun, Liqiang Liu, Hua Kuang, Chuanlai Xu
      Abstract: The quantitative detection of microRNA (miR) and multimode-imaging-induced photothermal therapy in vivo have become the focus of much attention. Platinum (Pt) decorated gold nanorods (AuNR-Pt) and Ag2S core–satellite (AuNR-Pt@Ag2S) multifunctional nanostructures are fabricated to quantify intracellular miRs (miR-21), near-infrared fluorescence cell quantitative imaging, and tumor ablation in vivo. When combined with miR-21, the nanoassembly displays significant fluorescence intensity in the second window of the near-infrared region (1000–1700 nm) after 808 nm excitation. The Ag2S fluorescence intensity has a good linear relationship with the amount of intracellular miR in the range of 0.054–20.45 amol ngRNA−1 and a limit of detection of 0.0082 amol ngRNA−1. The nanoassembly is also used to develop multimodal bioimaging, including near-infrared, X-ray computed tomographic, and photoacoustic imaging in HeLa-tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, the tumors are completely eliminated by the high photothermal capacity of the AuNR-Pt@Ag2S assembly. This nanoassembly provides a multifunctional nanoplatform for the ultrasensitive detection of miRs and tumor diagnosis and therapy in vivo.AuNR-Pt@Ag2S multi­functional nanostructures with the yield up to 80% have been fabricated. The Ag2S fluorescent ima­ging in living cells is exhibited to quantify miRNA with a LOD of 0.0082 amol/ngRNA. To be noticed, this is the first reported the Ag2S fluorescent imaging in living cells has been developed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T07:12:08.112183-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703408
  • Thrombosis-Responsive Thrombolytic Coating Based on Thrombin-Degradable
           Tissue Plasminogen Activator (t-PA) Nanocapsules
    • Authors: Cong Li; Hui Du, Aizhen Yang, Shuaibing Jiang, Zhenhua Li, Dan Li, John L. Brash, Hong Chen
      Abstract: Surface modification with bioactive agents capable of combating thrombosis is a widely used strategy for developing antithrombotic biomaterials. However, exposure of the blood to the antithrombotic agent on the material surface may cause hemostatic disorders under normal conditions. Ideally an implanted biomaterial should respond appropriately on demand to a specific change in the physiologic environment, as happens in the body itself. In the present study, a thrombosis-responsive surface coating with the ability to lyse fibrin as it forms is reported. The coating consists of nanocapsules (NCs) in which the fibrinolysis activator t-PA is encapsulated in a thrombin-degradable hydrogel shell. The t-PA NCs are attached to several materials covalently through a polydopamine adhesive layer. The resulting surfaces are treated with the antifouling agent glutathione (GSH) to prevent further interactions with blood/plasma components. The t-PA NCs/GSH-coated surface is stable and remain inert in normal plasma environment while releasing t-PA and promoting fibrinolysis when thrombin is present. The fibrinolytic activity increases with increasing thrombin concentration, and therefore presumably with the extent of thrombosis. This work constitutes the first report of an antithrombotic coating whose function is triggered and regulated, respectively, by the appearance of thrombin and the extent of coagulation.A novel thrombolytic coating whose activity is triggered by thrombosis is developed. The coating consists of thrombin-degradable tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) nanocapsules. The coated surfaces remain inert in normal plasma environment while releasing t-PA and promoting fibrinolysis when thrombin is present. Such coating could avoid unfavorable complications caused by inherent antithrombotic activity in the case of traditional antithrombotic materials.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T07:11:34.522426-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703934
  • A Multifunctional Nanoplatform against Multidrug Resistant Cancer: Merging
           the Best of Targeted Chemo/Gene/Photothermal Therapy
    • Authors: Wei Cheng; Junpeng Nie, Nansha Gao, Gan Liu, Wei Tao, Xiaojun Xiao, Lijuan Jiang, Zhigang Liu, Xiaowei Zeng, Lin Mei
      Abstract: Synergistic therapy that combines chemo-, gene-, or photothermal means shows great potential for enhancing the therapeutic effects on cancers. Tumor-targeted nanoparticles based on a doxorubicin (DOX)-gated mesoporous silica nanocore (MSN) encapsulated with permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) small interfering RNA (siRNA) and a polydopamine (PDA) outer layer for DOX loading and folic acid decoration are designed. The multifunctional nanoplatform tactfully integrates chemo- (DOX), gene- (P-gp siRNA), and photothermal (PDA layer) substances in one system. In vitro results reveal that DOX release behaviors are both pH- and thermal-responsive and the release of co-delivered P-gp siRNA is also pH-dependent due to the pH-cleavable DOX gatekeeper on MSN. In addition, due to the near-infrared light-responsive PDA outer layer and folic acid conjugation, the nanoparticles exhibit outstanding photothermal activity and selective cell targeting ability. Subsequently, in vitro and in vivo antitumor experiments both demonstrate the enhanced antitumor efficacy of the multifunctional nanoparticles, indicating the significance of synergistic therapy combining chemo-, gene-, and photothermal treatments in one system.A novel drug and siRNA codelivery system based on polydopamine-coated drug-self-gated mesoporous silica is developed. This drug delivery platform possesses three different therapeutic effects: chemo-, gene-, and photothermal therapy. Moreover, this nanosystem with tumor-targeting and pH-responsive abilities is also endowed. The enhanced tumor therapy effect is demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo studies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T00:24:55.270196-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201704135
  • Highly Aligned Plasmonic Gold Nanorods in a DNA Matrix
    • Authors: Yun Jeong Cha; Dae Seok Kim, Dong Ki Yoon
      Abstract: Since the Lycurgus Cup was made in the 4th century, metal nanoparticles have attracted much interest due to the characteristics of the plasmonic and metamaterials that show beautiful colors. Despite these fascinating properties, the practical use is limited because it is difficult to control the orientation of the plasmonic nanoparticles. Here, highly aligned plasmonic gold nanorods are obtained using self-assembled DNA material. Simple mechanical shearing results in long-range DNA–gold nanorod arrays which show parallel, perpendicular, and zigzag configurations due to the competition between the shear force and DNA elasticity. The resulting surface plasmonic resonance properties of the aligned DNA–gold nanorods film show highly polarization-dependent behavior in a large area, which is critical for optical and photonic applications. This simple way to form anisotropic plasmonic films can be used for plasmonic nanoparticles in potential applications such as displays and sensors.Orientation of gold nanorods (GNRs) can be successfully controlled using DNA material based on the host–guest strategy. Simple shearing of DNA–GNR solution causes long-range ordering of GNRs, showing parallel, perpendicular, and zigzag orientations based on the competition between the shearing effect and DNA elasticity. The resulting platform is applicable for plasmonic nanoparticles for potential optical and photonic applications.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T00:11:53.805093-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703790
  • Spectroscopic Indications of Tunnel Barrier Charging as the Switching
           Mechanism in Memristive Devices
    • Authors: Benedikt Arndt; Francesco Borgatti, Francesco Offi, Monifa Phillips, Pedro Parreira, Thorsten Meiners, Stephan Menzel, Katharina Skaja, Giancarlo Panaccione, Donald A. MacLaren, Rainer Waser, Regina Dittmann
      Abstract: Resistive random access memory is a promising, energy-efficient, low-power “storage class memory” technology that has the potential to replace both flash storage and on-chip dynamic memory. While the most widely employed systems exhibit filamentary resistive switching, interface-type switching systems based on a tunable tunnel barrier are of increasing interest. They suffer less from the variability induced by the stochastic filament formation process and the choice of the tunnel barrier thickness offers the possibility to adapt the memory device current to the given circuit requirements. Heterostructures consisting of a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) tunnel barrier and a praseodymium calcium manganite (PCMO) layer are employed. Instead of spatially localized filaments, the resistive switching process occurs underneath the whole electrode. By employing a combination of electrical measurements, in operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy, it is revealed that an exchange of oxygen ions between PCMO and YSZ causes an electrostatic modulation of the effective height of the YSZ tunnel barrier and is thereby the underlying mechanism for resistive switching in these devices.In operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy is employed on praseodymium calcium manganite memristive devices with a yttria-stabilized zirconia tunnel barrier. The analyses reveal that the exchange of oxygen ions at the interface causes an electrostatic modulation of the effective tunnel barrier height and can thereby be regarded as the underlying mechanism for resistive switching in these devices.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T00:05:41.563042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702282
  • CoS Quantum Dot Nanoclusters for High-Energy Potassium-Ion Batteries
    • Authors: Hong Gao; Tengfei Zhou, Yang Zheng, Qing Zhang, Yuqing Liu, Jun Chen, Huakun Liu, Zaiping Guo
      Abstract: Potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) are a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries because potassium is an abundant natural resource. To date, PIBs are in the early stages of exploration and only a few anode materials have been investigated. This study reports a cobalt sulfide and graphene (CoS@G) composite as anode electrode for PIBs for the first time. The composite features interconnect quantum dots of CoS nanoclusters uniformly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The coexistence of CoS quantum dot nanoclusters and graphene nanosheets endows the composite with large surface area, highly conductive network, robust structural stability, and excellent electrochemical energy storage performance. An unprecedented capacity of 310.8 mA h g−1 at 500 mA g−1 is obtained after 100 cycles, with a rate capability better than an equivalent sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). This work provides the evidence that PIBs can be a promising alternative to SIBs, especially at high charge–discharge rates. The development of the CoS@G anode material also provides the basis of expanding the library of suitable anode materials for PIBs.A CoS quantum dot nanoclusters graphene composite (CoS@G) is applied as anode in potassium-ion batteries (PIBs). The coexistence of CoS quantum dots nanoclusters and graphene nanosheets endows the composite with a large surface area, a highly conductive network, and robust structural stability. In PIBs, the electrode delivers an unprecedented capacity of 310.8 mA h g−1 at 500 m A g−1 after 100 cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T07:27:25.433926-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702634
  • Boosting the Charge Transport Property of Indeno[1,2-b]fluorene-6,12-dione
           though Incorporation of Sulfur- or Nitrogen-Linked Side Chains
    • Authors: Zhi-Ping Fan; Xiang-Yang Li, Xiao-E. Luo, Xian Fei, Bing Sun, Li-Chuan Chen, Zi-Fa Shi, Chun-Lin Sun, Xiangfeng Shao, Hao-Li Zhang
      Abstract: Alkyl chains are basic units in the design of organic semiconductors for purposes of enhancing solubility, tuning electronic energy levels, and tailoring molecular packing. This work demonstrates that the carrier mobilities of indeno[1,2-b]fluorene-6,12-dione (IFD)-based semiconductors can be dramatically enhanced by the incorporation of sulfur- or nitrogen-linked side chains. Three IFD derivatives possessing butyl, butylthio, and dibutylamino substituents are synthesized, and their organic field-effect transistors (OFET) are fabricated and characterized. The IFD possessing butyl substituents exhibits a very poor charge transport property with mobility lower than 10−7 cm2 V−1 s−1. In contrast, the hole mobility is dramatically increased to 1.03 cm2 V−1 s−1 by replacing the butyl units with dibutylamino groups (DBA-IFD), while the butylthio-modified IFD (BT-IFD) derivative exhibits a high and balanced ambipolar charge transport property with the maximum hole and electron mobilities up to 0.71 and 0.65 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively. Moreover, the complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor-like inverters incorporated with the ambipolar OFETs shows sharp inversions with a maximum gain value up to 173. This work reveals that modification of the aromatic core with heteroatom-linked side chains, such as alkylthio or dialkylamino, can be an efficient strategy for the design of high-performance organic semiconductors.Dramatic improvement of hole and electron transport properties of indeno[1,2-b]fluorene-6,12-dione is achieved through incorporation of sulfur- or nitrogen-linked side chains. Materials containing sulfur linkage give ambipolar organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with high and balanced hole and electron mobilities. Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor-like inverters based on the ambipolar OFETs exhibit high gain value up to 173.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T07:26:20.218332-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702318
  • High-Efficiency Near-Infrared Fluorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
           with Small Efficiency Roll-Off: A Combined Design from Emitters to Devices
    • Authors: Jie Xue; Qingxin Liang, Yunge Zhang, Ruoyun Zhang, Lian Duan, Juan Qiao
      Abstract: The simultaneous realization of high quantum yield and exciton utilizing efficiency (ηr) is still a formidable challenge in near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs). Here, to achieve a high quantum yield, a novel NIR dye, 4,9-bis(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-naphtho[2,3-c][1,2,5]selenadiazole, is designed and synthesized with a large highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital overlap and an aggregation-induced emission property, which demonstrates a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 27% at 743 nm in toluene and 29% at 723 nm in a blend film. For a high ηr, an orange-emitting thermally activated delayed fluorescent material, 1,2-bis(9,9-dimethyl-9,10-dihydroacridine)-4,5-dicyanobenzene, is chosen as the sensitizing host to harvest triplet excitons in devices. The optimized devices achieve a good ηr of 45.7% and a high external quantum efficiency up to 2.65% at 730 nm, with a very small efficiency roll-off of 2.41% at 200 mA cm−2, which are among the most efficient values for NIR-FOLEDs over 700 nm. The effective utilization of triplet excitons via the thermally activated delayed fluorescence-sensitizing host will pave a way to realize high-efficiency NIR-FOLEDs with small efficiency roll-off.A novel and efficient near-infrared fluorescent emitter is designed and synthesized possessing aggregation-induced emission characteristic and a high photoluminescence quantum yield of 29% at 723 nm in the blend film. The optimized near-infrared fluorescent organic light emitting diode employing a thermal-activated delayed fluorescent material as the sensitizing host achieves a high maximum external quantum efficiency of 2.65% with an emission peak at 730 nm.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T07:25:41.285589-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703283
  • Structure Confined Porous Mo2C for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution
    • Authors: Jun Wan; Jiabin Wu, Xiang Gao, Tianqi Li, Zhimi Hu, Huimin Yu, Liang Huang
      Abstract: Molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) has been widely applied in energy conversion, electrocatalysis, and other electronic devices, but its nanostructure with certain morphology and porous structure is tough to control. In this work, 1D or 2D porous Mo2C nanostructures can be synthesized by carburizing cobalt-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cladding MoO3 nanowires or nanosheets hybrid structure under high temperature. The obtained 2D porous Mo2C shows a low onset overpotential (η = 25 and 36 mV) and a small Tafel slope (40 and 47 mV dec−1) in 0.1 m HClO4 and 0.1 m KOH as well as great stability. This work highlights a new strategy for the design and synthesis of porous nanostructure Mo2C electrocatalysts.In this work, 1D or 2D porous Mo2C nanostructures can be synthesized by carburizing cobalt-based ZIF (ZIF-67) cladding MoO3 nanowires or nanosheets hybrid structure under high temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T07:22:20.701341-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703933
  • A Specific Groove Pattern Can Effectively Induce Osteoblast
    • Authors: Chang-Su Kim; Jin-Hee Kim, Bokyoung Kim, Young-Seok Park, Hong-Kyun Kim, Hieu Trung Tran, Sang Hoon Kim, Hojeong Jeon, Sangjib Kim, Ji Hyun Sim, Hyun Mu Shin, Gwanghun Kim, Young Joo Baik, Kee-Joon Lee, Hae-Young Kim, Tae Jin Yun, Youn Sang Kim, Hang-Rae Kim
      Abstract: Little is known about the principles of surface structure design for orthopedic and dental implants. To find topographical groove patterns that could enhance osteoblast differentiation according to cell type, groove patterns are fabricated with ridges (0.35−7 µm) and grooves (0.65−6 µm) of various widths and explored their mechanisms in improving osteoblast differentiation. This study finds that a groove pattern enhancing osteoblast differentiation is associated with the ability of the cell to extend its length and that it is able to overcome the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation that takes place under inflammatory conditions. The groove pattern suppresses the generation of reactive oxygen species, a reaction that is increased in inflammatory conditions. It also modulates the expression of osteogenic factors according to differentiation time. Importantly, specific groove patterns AZ-2 and AZ-4, with ridge width of 2 µm and groove width of 2 or 4 µm, respectively, effectively promote bone regeneration in critical-sized calvarial defects without additional factors. This knowledge of groove patterns can be applied to the development of orthopedic and dental devices.A groove pattern enhancing osteoblast differentiation is associated with the ability of the cell to extend its length and that it is able to overcome the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and effectively promotes bone regeneration in calvarial defects. This knowledge of groove patterns can be applied to the development of orthopedic and dental devices.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T07:21:52.576181-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703569
  • Highly Conductive Transition Metal Carbide/Carbonitride(MXene)@polystyrene
           Nanocomposites Fabricated by Electrostatic Assembly for Highly Efficient
           Electromagnetic Interference Shielding
    • Authors: Renhui Sun; Hao-Bin Zhang, Ji Liu, Xi Xie, Rui Yang, Yue Li, Song Hong, Zhong-Zhen Yu
      Abstract: Highly conductive polymer nanocomposites are greatly desired for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding applications. Although transition metal carbide/carbonitride (MXene) has shown its huge potential for producing highly conductive films and bulk materials, it still remains a great challenge to fabricate extremely conductive polymer nanocomposites with outstanding EMI shielding performance at minimal amounts of MXenes. Herein, an electrostatic assembly approach for fabricating highly conductive MXene@polystyrene nanocomposites by electrostatic assembling of negative MXene nanosheets on positive polystyrene microspheres is demonstrated, followed by compression molding. Thanks to the high conductivity of MXenes and their highly efficient conducting network within polystyrene matrix, the resultant nanocomposites exhibit not only a low percolation threshold of 0.26 vol% but also a superb conductivity of 1081 S m−1 and an outstanding EMI shielding performance of>54 dB over the whole X-band with a maximum of 62 dB at the low MXene loading of 1.90 vol%, which are among the best performances for electrically conductive polymer nanocomposites by far. Moreover, the same nanocomposite has a highly enhanced storage modulus, 54% and 56% higher than those of neat polystyrene and conventional MXene@polystyrene nanocomposite, respectively. This work provides a novel methodology to produce highly conductive polymer nanocomposites for highly efficient EMI shielding applications.Highly conductive MXene@polystyrene nanocomposites fabricated by electrostatic assembly for highly efficient electromagnetic interference shielding. The nanocomposite with 1.90 vol% of MXene presents a high conductivity of 1081 S m−1, an outstanding electromagnetic interference shielding performance of above 54 dB over the whole X-band with a maximum of 62 dB, and 54% enhancement in storage modulus as compared to neat polystyrene.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T07:21:12.34855-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702807
  • Microfabricated Drug Delivery Devices: Design, Fabrication, and
    • Authors: Hongbin Zhang; John K. Jackson, Mu Chiao
      Abstract: Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release devices that possess an integration of structural, mechanical, and perhaps electronic features, which may address challenges associated with conventional delivery systems. In this feature article, microfabricated devices are described in terms of materials, mechanical design, working principles, and fabrication methods, all of which are key features for production of multifunctional, highly effective drug delivery systems. In addition, the current status and future prospects of different types of microfabricated devices for controlled drug delivery are summarized and analyzed with an emphasis on various routes of administration including ocular, oral, transdermal, and implantable systems. It is likely that microfabrication technology will continue to offer new, alternative solutions to design advanced and sophisticated drug delivery devices that promise to significantly improve medical care.Microfabricated drug delivery devices are intensively designed and fabricated for years, showing great advantages over conventional approaches for more accurate and on-demand drug delivery. The state-of-the-art achievements in the field are reviewed with special attention to different aspects such as materials, design principles, fabrication technology, and application routes. Future prospects on drug delivery devices are given.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T07:18:13.169726-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703606
  • Selective Dispersion of Large-Diameter Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes by
           Functionalized Conjugated Dendritic Oligothiophenes for Use in Printed
           Thin Film Transistors
    • Authors: Wei Gao; Wenya Xu, Jun Ye, Tingting Liu, Junkai Wang, Hongwei Tan, Yi Lin, Masayoshi Tange, Dongfeng Sun, Liangzhuan Wu, Toshiya Okazaki, Yingjun Yang, Zhiyong Zhang, Jianwen Zhao, Zheng Cui, Chang-Qi Ma
      Abstract: Selective dispersion of semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWCNTs) by conjugated polymer wrapping is recognized as the most promising scalable method for s-SWCNT separation. Despite a number of linear conjugated polymers being reported for use in s-SWCNT separation, these linear polymers suffer batch-to-batch variation for their undefined molecular structure. Here, it is reported that conjugated dendritic oligothiophenes with multiple diketopyrrolopyrrole groups at the periphery have the capability of selectively dispersing large diameter s-SWCNTs with high dispersion efficiency and certain chiral selectivity. Printed top-gated thin film transistors using the dendrimer sorted s-SWCNTs show high charge carrier mobility of up to 57 cm2 V−1 s−1 and on/off ratios of ≈106 with high reproducibility, which is ascribed to the defined and monodispersed molecular structure of dendrimers. Moreover, owing to the multiple peripheral anchoring groups of these dendritic molecules, these dendrimer-s-SWCNT dispersions display excellent stability. The current work proves that dendritic molecules are excellent dispersion reagents for s-SWCNT separation.Diketopyrrolopyrrole-functionalized conjugated dendrons and dendrimers with 3D hyperbranched structure are a new class of materials for use in single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) selective sorting. It is reported that the devices based on these conjugated dendrimer wrapped s-SWCNT can achieve high charge carrier mobility of up to 57 cm2 V−1 s−1, and with high on/off ratios of ≈106.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T07:16:54.544853-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703938
  • pH-Sensitive Dissociable Nanoscale Coordination Polymers with Drug Loading
           for Synergistically Enhanced Chemoradiotherapy
    • Authors: Jingjing Liu; Hairong Wang, Xuan Yi, Yu Chao, Yuehao Geng, Ligeng Xu, Kai Yang, Zhuang Liu
      Abstract: Although various types of radiosensitizers based on nanoparticles are explored to enhance radiotherapy via different mechanisms, nanoscale radiosensitizers with full biodegradability, sensitive responsiveness to the tumor microenvironment, as well as the ability to greatly amplify radiation-induced tumor destruction are still demanded. Herein, this study designs nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) based on acidic sensitive linker and high Z number element hafnium (Hf) ions. Chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I) (TPPGC), a chemotherapeutic drug, is successfully loaded into those NCPs after they are coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Owing to the acid-triggered cleavage of the organic linker, such formed NCP-PEG/TPPGC nanoparticles would be dissociated under reduced pH within the tumor, leading to the release of TPPGC to induce mitochondrial damage and arrest the cell cycle of tumor cells into the radiosensitive phase (G1). Meanwhile, Hf ions are able to act as radiosensitizers by absorbing X-ray and depositing radiation energy within tumors. With efficient tumor accumulation after intravenous injection, NCP-PEG/TPPGC offers remarkable synergistic therapeutic outcome in chemoradiotherapy without appreciable toxic side effect. This work thus presents a biodegradable nano-radiosensitizer with in vivo tumor-specific decomposition/drug release profiles and great efficacy in chemoradiotherapy of cancer.In this work, a new type nanoscale coordination polymer (NCP) is designed based on a pH-sensitive linker and high Z element hafnium (Hf) ions. After loading with a chemotherapy drug, Chloro(triphenylphosphine)gold(I), such drug-loaded NCP nanoparticles can be degraded to release chemotherapeutics under reduced pH within the tumor, and in the meanwhile act as a radiosensitizer to achieve synergistically enhanced chemoradiotherapy.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T07:16:22.289906-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703832
  • Facile Two-Step Synthesis of All-Inorganic Perovskite CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br,
           and I) Zeolite-Y Composite Phosphors for Potential Backlight Display
    • Authors: Jia-Yi Sun; Freddy T. Rabouw, Xian-Feng Yang, Xie-Yi Huang, Xi-Ping Jing, Shi Ye, Qin-Yuan Zhang
      Abstract: Recently developed CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, and I) perovskite quantum dots (QDs) hold great potential for various applications owing to their superior optical properties, such as tunable emissions, high quantum efficiency, and narrow linewidths. However, poor stability under ambient conditions and spontaneous ion exchange among QDs hinder their application, for example, as phosphors in white-light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). Here, a facile two-step synthesis procedure is reported for luminescent and color-tunable CsPbX3–zeolite-Y composite phosphors, where perovskite QDs are encapsulated in the porous zeolite matrix. First zeolite-Y is infused with Cs+ ions by ion exchange from an aqueous solution and then forms CsPbX3 QDs by diffusion and reaction with an organic solution of PbX2. The zeolite encapsulation reduces degradation and improves the stability of the QDs under strong illumination. A WLED is fabricated using the resulting microscale composites, with Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates (0.38, 0.37) and achieving 114% of National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) and 85% of the ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020 (Rec.2020) coverage.A synthesis procedure for luminescent perovskite quantum dots embedded in zeolite-Y crystals is presented. The structural and optical properties of the resulting composites are characterized in detail. Zeolite embedding improves the stability of perovskite quantum dots to degradation. Finally, the composites are used to produce a white-light-emitting diode with wide color gamut.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T07:15:38.99023-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201704371
  • Electrically and Sunlight-Driven Actuator with Versatile Biomimetic
           Motions Based on Rolled Carbon Nanotube Bilayer Composite
    • Authors: Ying Hu; Jiaqin Liu, Longfei Chang, Lulu Yang, Aifeng Xu, Ke Qi, Pin Lu, Guan Wu, Wei Chen, Yucheng Wu
      Abstract: Designing multistimuli responsive soft actuators which can mimic advanced and sophisticated biological movements through simple configuration is highly demanded for the biomimetic robotics application. Here, inspired by the human's flick finger behavior which can release large force output, a soft jumping robot mimicking the gymnast's somersault is designed based on the rolled carbon nanotube/polymer bilayer composite actuator. This new type of rolled bilayer actuator with tubular shape is fabricated and shows electrically and sunlight-induced actuation with remarkable performances including ultralarge deformation from tubular to flat (angel change>200° or curvature>2 cm−1), fast response (
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T09:01:04.462648-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201704388
  • Low-Power Nonvolatile Charge Storage Memory Based on MoS2 and an Ultrathin
           Polymer Tunneling Dielectric
    • Authors: Myung Hun Woo; Byung Chul Jang, Junhwan Choi, Khang June Lee, Gwang Hyuk Shin, Hyejeong Seong, Sung Gap Im, Sung-Yool Choi
      Abstract: Low-power, nonvolatile memory is an essential electronic component to store and process the unprecedented data flood arising from the oncoming Internet of Things era. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is a 2D material that is increasingly regarded as a promising semiconductor material in electronic device applications because of its unique physical characteristics. However, dielectric formation of an ultrathin low-k tunneling on the dangling bond-free surface of MoS2 is a challenging task. Here, MoS2-based low-power nonvolatile charge storage memory devices are reported with a poly(1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinyl cyclotrisiloxane) (pV3D3) tunneling dielectric layer formed via a solvent-free initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) process. The surface-growing polymerization and low-temperature nature of the iCVD process enable the conformal growing of low-k (≈2.2) pV3D3 insulating films on MoS2. The fabricated memory devices exhibit a tunable memory window with high on/off ratio (≈106), excellent retention times of 105 s with an extrapolated time of possibly years, and an excellent cycling endurance of more than 103 cycles, which are much higher than those reported previously for MoS2-based memory devices. By leveraging the inherent flexibility of both MoS2 and polymer dielectric films, this research presents an important milestone in the development of low-power flexible nonvolatile memory devices.Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)-based low-power nonvolatile charge storage memory is developed using an ultrathin poly(1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinyl cyclotrisiloxane) tunneling dielectric layer with low-k (≈2.2) that is uniformly deposited on dangling bond-free surface of MoS2 via solvent-free initiated chemical vapor deposition process. The fabricated devices exhibit reliable memory operation with low-power consumption, presenting a new solution for developing a low-power, flexible, nonvolatile memory device.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T08:59:06.297685-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703545
  • Photo-Induced Charge-Variable Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Brushes
           Encapsulating Upconversion Nanoparticles for Promoted siRNA Release and
           Collaborative Photodynamic Therapy under NIR Light Irradiation
    • Authors: Hui Zhao; Wenbo Hu, Hengheng Ma, Rongcui Jiang, Yufu Tang, Yu Ji, Xiaomei Lu, Bing Hou, Weixing Deng, Wei Huang, Quli Fan
      Abstract: Combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapy has become a major strategy in cancer treatment for enhancing anticancer efficacy. However, developing nanoplatform that can promote siRNA release and collaborate with efficient PDT under NIR light irradiation is still a big challenge. Photo-induced charge-variable conjugated polyelectrolyte brushes encapsulating upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP@CCPEB) as an efficient nanoplatform are reported. Cationic conjugated polyelectrolyte brush (CCPEB) is synthesized through quaternary ammoniation of N-functionalized polyfluorene brush by photodegradable 2-nitrobenzyl-2-bromoacetate. CCPEB with abundant positive charges and intrinsic photosensitizer (PS) performance is good for integrating siRNA carrier and PS into one molecule. The obtained CCPEB next encapsulates upconversion nanoparticle for realizing its NIR light excitation. Agarose gel electrophoresis experiments show that UCNP@CCPEB present good stability and excellent siRNA-loading capacity (1 mol UCNP@CCPEB to at least 32.5 mol siRNA). Under 980 nm light irradiation, UCNP@CCPEB exhibit efficient single oxygen production for PDT. Concurrently, the photoresponsive cationic side-chain of CCPEB turns into zwitterionic chain and thus accelerates its siRNA release to 80%. In vitro and in vivo experiments show that the successful A549 tumor suppression is achieved by UCNP@CCPEB/siPlk1 complex under 980 irradiation. It is envisioned that UCNP@CCPEB can serve as an efficient platform for combining various phototherapies together.Photo-induced charge-variable conjugated polyelectrolyte brushes encapsulating upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP@CCPEB) is fabricated for promoted small interfering RNA (siRNA) release and collaborative photodynamic therapy under NIR light irradiation. UCNP@CCPEB with good stability and excellent siRNA-loading capacity exhibit good 1O2 production and promote siRNA release under 980 nm irradiation which induces highly effective collaborative tumor therapy in vitro and in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T08:58:34.032489-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702592
  • Protein Biophosphors: Biodegradable, Multifunctional, Protein-Based
           Hydrogel for White Emission, Sensing, and pH Detection
    • Authors: Kyle Benson; Ananta Ghimire, Ajith Pattammattel, Challa V. Kumar
      Abstract: A highly efficient, multifunctional, bioderived white-emitting hydrogel (biophosphor) consisting of crosslinked bovine serum albumin and three fluorescent dyes, Coumarin 460, fluorescein, and 5(6)-carboxy-x-rhodamine, is reported here. White emission is obtained upon excitation of the biophosphor at 365 nm with appropriate mole ratios of the above dyes. The CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinates of white emission with 365 nm excitation are (0.36, 0.37), and the correlated color temperature is 5300 K. Multifunctional nature of the biophosphor is also demonstrated. A UV-light-emitting-diode (361 nm) coated with this biophosphor, for example, indicates white emission (CIE 0.28, 0.31) with a half-life of 106 (±5) h. The white emission is also highly sensitive to pH over a broad range (pH 1–11). Incorporation of glucose oxidase and peroxidase in the biophosphor allows for the detection of glucose over a physiologically relevant range of 1.8–288 mg dL−1. This is a unique, advanced biophosphor with LED and sensing applications, and it is the first example of a multifunctional, proteinaceous white emitter.This work reports a multifunctional, bioderived white-emitting hydrogel (biophosphor) produced from crosslinked bovine serum albumin embedded with blue-, green-, and red-emitting dyes. White emission is obtained when excited at 365 nm, and the chromaticity coordinates are (0.36, 0.37). The resulting biophosphor is suitable for light emitting diode coating, pH sensing (1–11), and glucose detection (1.8 to 288 mg dL−1).
      PubDate: 2017-10-06T08:56:48.97466-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702955
  • Ice-Templated Protein Nanoridges Induce Bone Tissue Formation
    • Authors: Mingying Yang; Yajun Shuai, Kegan S. Sunderland, Chuanbin Mao
      Abstract: Little is known about the role of biocompatible protein nanoridges in directing stem cell fate and tissue regeneration due to the difficulty in forming protein nanoridges. Here an ice-templating approach is proposed to produce semi-parallel pure silk protein nanoridges. The key to this approach is that water droplets formed in the protein films are frozen into ice crystals (removed later by sublimation), pushing the surrounding protein molecules to be assembled into nanoridges. Unlike the flat protein films, the unique protein nanoridges can induce the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts without any additional inducers, as well as the formation of bone tissue in a subcutaneous rat model even when not seeded with MSCs. Moreover, the nanoridged films induce less inflammatory infiltration than the flat films in vivo. This work indicates that decorating biomaterials surfaces with protein nanoridges can enhance bone tissue formation in bone repair.Semi-parallel nanoridges made of silk protein can induce the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts without any additional inducers and further induce the formation of bone tissue in a rat model.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T05:18:29.46645-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703726
  • Laser-Induced In-Fiber Fluid Dynamical Instabilities for Precise and
           Scalable Fabrication of Spherical Particles
    • Authors: Jing Zhang; Kaiwei Li, Ting Zhang, Pio John S. Buenconsejo, Ming Chen, Zhe Wang, Mengying Zhang, Zhixun Wang, Lei Wei
      Abstract: Scalable fabrication of spherical particles at both the micro- and nanoscales is of significant importance for applications spanning optical devices, electronics, targeted drug delivery, biodevices, sensors, and cosmetics. However, current top-down and bottom-up fabrication methods are unable to provide the full spectrum of uniformly sized, well-ordered, and high-quality spheres due to their inherent restrictions. Here, a generic, scalable, and precisely controllable fabrication method is demonstrated for generating spherical particles in a full range of diameters from microscale to nanoscale. This method begins with a macroscopic composite multimaterial solid-state preform drawn into a fiber that defines precisely the initial conditions for the process. It is then followed by CO2 laser heating to enable the transformation from a continuous fiber core into a series of homogeneous spheres via Plateau–Rayleigh capillary instability inside the fiber. This physical breakup method applies to a wide range of functional materials with different melting temperatures from 400 to 2400 K and 10 orders of difference in fiber core/cladding viscosity ratio. Furthermore, an ordered array of silicon-based whispering-gallery mode resonators with the Q factor as high as 7.1 × 105 is achieved, owing to the process induced ultrasmooth surface and highly crystalline nature.A scalable and precisely controllable in-fiber fabrication method is demonstrated by using Plateau–Rayleigh capillary instability to produce uniformly sized, high-quality, and globally ordered spherical particles from microscale to nanoscale. This fabrication tool works for a variety of materials in a wide range of processing temperature from 400 to 2400 K and 10 orders of difference in fiber core/cladding viscosity ratio.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T05:17:40.423186-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703245
  • Metal-Ion (Fe, V, Co, and Ni)-Doped MnO2 Ultrathin Nanosheets Supported on
           Carbon Fiber Paper for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction
    • Authors: Zhiguo Ye; Tao Li, Guang Ma, Yinghu Dong, Xianliang Zhou
      Abstract: Manganese dioxides (MnO2) are considered one of the most attractive materials as an oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrode due to its low cost, natural abundance, easy synthesis, and environmental friendliness. Here, metal-ion (Fe, V, Co, and Ni)-doped MnO2 ultrathin nanosheets electrodeposited on carbon fiber paper (CFP) are fabricated using a facile anodic co-electrodeposition method. A high density of nanoclusters is observed on the surface of the carbon fibers consisting of doped MnO2 ultrathin nanosheets with an approximate thickness of 5 nm. It is confirmed that the metal ions (Fe, V, Co, and Ni) are doped into MnO2, improving the conductivity of MnO2. The doped MnO2 ultrathin nanosheet/CFP and the IrO2/CFP composite electrodes for OER achieve a low overpotential of 390 and 245 mV to reach 10 mA cm−2 in 1 m KOH, respectively. The potential of the doped composite electrode for long-term OER at a constant current density of 20 mA cm−2 is much lower than that of the pure MnO2 composite electrode.Metal-ion (Fe, V, Co, and Ni)-doped MnO2 ultrathin nanosheets with an approximate thickness of 5 nm are formed on the carbon fibers using a facile anodic co-electrodeposition method. The doping of metal ions and ultrathin nanostructure play an important role in improving the electrocatalytic activities and stabilities of the composite electrode for the oxygen evolution reaction.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T05:17:03.803003-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201704083
  • High-Efficiency and Stable Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled by a
           Solution-Processed Metal-Doped Nickel Oxide Hole Injection Interfacial
    • Authors: Fan Cao; Haoran Wang, Piaoyang Shen, Xiaomin Li, Yanqiong Zheng, Yuequn Shang, Jianhua Zhang, Zhijun Ning, Xuyong Yang
      Abstract: Stabilization is one critical issue that needs to be improved for future application of colloidal quantum dot (QD)-based light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). This study reports highly efficient and stable QLEDs based on solution-processsed, metal-doped nickel oxide films as hole injection layer (HIL). Several kinds of metal dopants (Li, Mg, and Cu) are introduced to improve the hole injection capability of NiO films. The resulting device with Cu:NiO HIL exhibits superior performance compared to the state-of-the-art poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-based QLEDs, with a maximum current efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 45.7 cd A−1 and 10.5%, respectively. These are the highest values reported so far for QLEDs with PEDOT:PSS-free normal structure. Meanwhile, the resulting QLED shows a half-life time of 87 h at an initial luminance of 5000 cd m−2, almost fourfold longer than that of the PEDOT:PSS-based device.This study reports highly efficient and stable quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs) based on solution-processed metal-doped NiO films as hole injection layer (HIL). The best-performing device with Cu:NiO HIL exhibits superior performance compared to the state-of-the-art poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-based QLEDs, with a maximum current efficiency and external quantum efficiency of 45.7 cd A−1 and 10.5%, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T11:58:11.420563-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201704278
  • Extreme Two-Phase Cooling from Laser-Etched Diamond and Conformal,
           Template-Fabricated Microporous Copper
    • Authors: James W. Palko; Hyoungsoon Lee, Chi Zhang, Tom J. Dusseault, Tanmoy Maitra, Yoonjin Won, Damena D. Agonafer, Jess Moss, Farzad Houshmand, Guoguang Rong, Joshua D. Wilbur, Derrick Rockosi, Ihor Mykyta, Dan Resler, David Altman, Mehdi Asheghi, Juan G. Santiago, Kenneth E. Goodson
      Abstract: This paper reports the first integration of laser-etched polycrystalline diamond microchannels with template-fabricated microporous copper for extreme convective boiling in a composite heat sink for power electronics and energy conversion. Diamond offers the highest thermal conductivity near room temperature, and enables aggressive heat spreading along triangular channel walls with 1:1 aspect ratio. Conformally coated porous copper with thickness 25 µm and 5 µm pore size optimizes fluid and heat transport for convective boiling within the diamond channels. Data reported here include 1280 W cm−2 of heat removal from 0.7 cm2 surface area with temperature rise beyond fluid saturation less than 21 K, corresponding to 6.3 × 105 W m−2 K−1. This heat sink has the potential to dissipate much larger localized heat loads with small temperature nonuniformity (5 kW cm−2 over 200 µm × 200 µm with
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T02:56:39.7122-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703265
  • Thermoelectric Polymer Aerogels for Pressure–Temperature Sensing
    • Authors: Shaobo Han; Fei Jiao, Zia Ullah Khan, Jesper Edberg, Simone Fabiano, Xavier Crispin
      Abstract: The evolution of the society is characterized by an increasing flow of information from things to the internet. Sensors have become the cornerstone of the internet-of-everything as they track various parameters in the society and send them to the cloud for analysis, forecast, or learning. With the many parameters to sense, sensors are becoming complex and difficult to manufacture. To reduce the complexity of manufacturing, one can instead create advanced functional materials that react to multiple stimuli. To this end, conducting polymer aerogels are promising materials as they combine elasticity and sensitivity to pressure and temperature. However, the challenge is to read independently pressure and temperature output signals without cross-talk. Here, a strategy to fully decouple temperature and pressure reading in a dual-parameter sensor based on thermoelectric polymer aerogels is demonstrated. It is found that aerogels made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) can display properties of semiconductors lying at the transition between insulator and semimetal upon exposure to high boiling point polar solvents, such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Importantly, because of the temperature-independent charge transport observed for DMSO-treated PEDOT-based aerogel, a decoupled pressure and temperature sensing can be achieved without cross-talk in the dual-parameter sensor devices.A dual-parameter sensor based on thermoelectric polymer aerogel with fully decoupled temperature and pressure sensing capability is successfully developed and characterized. This is achieved by finely tuning the transport properties of the conducting aerogels with exposure to the vapor of high boiling point polar solvents, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Pressure sensitivity is also improved by DMSO treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T02:55:54.946556-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703549
  • Theranostic Prodrug Vesicles for Reactive Oxygen Species-Triggered
           Ultrafast Drug Release and Local-Regional Therapy of Metastatic
           Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
    • Authors: Fangyuan Zhou; Bing Feng, Tingting Wang, Dangge Wang, Zhirui Cui, Siling Wang, Chunyong Ding, Zhiwen Zhang, Jian Liu, Haijun Yu, Yaping Li
      Abstract: A reactive oxygen species (ROS)-activatable doxorubicin (Dox) prodrug vesicle (RADV) is presented for image-guided ultrafast drug release and local-regional therapy of the metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). RADV is prepared by integrating a ROS-activatable Dox prodrug, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-modified photosensitizer pyropheophorbide-a, an unsaturated phospholipid 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and cholesterol into one single nanoplatform. RADV is of extremely high drug loading ratio (27.5 wt%) by self-assembly of the phospholipid-mimic Dox prodrug into the liposomal bilayer membrane. RADV displays good colloidal stability to prevent premature drug leakage during the blood circulation and inert photochemotoxicity to avoid nonspecific side effect. RADV passively accumulates at tumor site through the enhanced permeability and retention effect when administrated systemically. Once deposited at the tumor site, RADV generates fluorescent and photoacoustic signals to guide near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation, which can induce localized ROS generation, not only to trigger prodrug activation and ultrafast drug release but also conduct photodynamic therapy in a spatiotemporally controlled manner. In combination with NIR laser irradiation, RADV efficiently inhibits the tumor growth and distant metastasis of TNBC. Local-regional tumor therapy using intelligent theranostic nanomedicine might provide an alternative option for highly efficient treatment of the metastatic TNBC.A reactive oxygen species (ROS)-activatable doxorubicin prodrug vesicle (RADV) is reported for image-guided local-regional therapy of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Under the guidance of fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging, NIR laser irradiation is performed to induce ROS generation and trigger drug release at the tumor site. RADV efficiently inhibits TNBC tumor growth and distant metastasis by combing photodynamic and locally activated chemotherapy.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T02:52:30.940807-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703674
  • Supertough Hybrid Hydrogels Consisting of a Polymer Double-Network and
           Mesoporous Silica Microrods for Mechanically Stimulated On-Demand Drug
    • Authors: Suji Choi; Young jin Choi, Moon-Sun Jang, Jung Hee Lee, Ji Hoon Jeong, Jaeyun Kim
      Abstract: Despite their potential in various fields of bioapplications, such as drug/cell delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine, hydrogels have often suffered from their weak mechanical properties, which are attributed to their single network of polymers. Here, supertough composite hydrogels are proposed consisting of alginate/polyacrylamide double-network hydrogels embedded with mesoporous silica particles (SBA-15). The supertoughness is derived from efficient energy dissipation through the multiple bondings, such as ionic crosslinking of alginate, covalent crosslinking of polyacrylamide, and van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bondings between SBA-15 and the polymers. The superior mechanical properties of these hybrid hydrogels make it possible to maintain the hydrogel structure for a long period of time in a physiological solution. Based on their high mechanical stability, these hybrid hydrogels are demonstrated to exhibit on-demand drug release, which is controlled by an external mechanical stimulation (both in vitro and in vivo). Moreover, different types of drugs can be separately loaded into the hydrogel network and mesopores of SBA-15 and can be released with different speeds, suggesting that these hydrogels can also be used for multiple drug release.The mesoporous silica-embedded, supertough hybrid hydrogel shows enhanced mechanical stability in both normal conditions and physiological conditions under mechanical stimulation. Furthermore, multiple drugs can be loaded into this hybrid hydrogel; these drugs are subject to on-demand release at different times via stimulation with a mechanical force. These supertough hybrid hydrogels have great potential for a variety of bioapplications.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T02:51:45.915175-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703826
  • Eradication of Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcal Infections by
           Light-Activatable Micellar Nanocarriers in a Murine Model
    • Authors: Yong Liu; Henny C. van der Mei, Bingran Zhao, Yan Zhai, Tangjian Cheng, Yuanfeng Li, Zhenkun Zhang, Henk J. Busscher, Yijin Ren, Linqi Shi
      Abstract: Bacterial infections are mostly due to bacteria in their biofilm mode-of-growth, making them recalcitrant to antibiotic penetration. In addition, the number of bacterial strains intrinsically resistant to available antibiotics is alarmingly growing. This study reports that micellar nanocarriers with a poly(ethylene glycol) shell fully penetrate staphylococcal biofilms due to their biological invisibility. However, when the shell is complemented with poly(β-amino ester), these mixed-shell micelles become positively charged in the low pH environment of a biofilm, allowing not only their penetration but also their accumulation in biofilms without being washed out, as do single-shell micelles lacking the pH-adaptive feature. Accordingly, bacterial killing of multidrug resistant staphylococcal biofilms exposed to protoporphyrin IX-loaded mixed-shell micelles and after light-activation is superior compared with single-shell micelles. Subcutaneous infections in mice, induced with vancomycin-resistant, bioluminescent staphylococci can be eradicated by daily injection of photoactivatable protoporphyrin IX-loaded, mixed-shell micelles in the bloodstream and light-activation at the infected site. Micelles, which are not degraded by bacterial enzymes in the biofilm, are degraded in the liver and spleen and cleared from the body through the kidneys. Thus, adaptive micellar nanocarriers loaded with light-activatable antimicrobials constitute a much-needed alternative to current antibiotic therapies.Photodynamic treatment with protoporphyrin IX-loaded micelles is successful in eradicating a subcutaneous, multidrug-resistant infection in mice, while unused micelles are demonstrated to be cleared from the blood circuation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T12:18:39.05867-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701974
  • Multifunctional Mo–N/C@MoS2 Electrocatalysts for HER, OER, ORR, and
           Zn–Air Batteries
    • Authors: Ibrahim Saana Amiinu; Zonghua Pu, Xiaobo Liu, Kwadwo Asare Owusu, Hellen Gabriela Rivera Monestel, Felix Ofori Boakye, Haining Zhang, Shichun Mu
      Abstract: Replacement of noble-metal platinum catalysts with cheaper, operationally stable, and highly efficient electrocatalysts holds huge potential for large-scale implementation of clean energy devices. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and metal dichalcogenides (MDs) offer rich platforms for design of highly active electrocatalysts owing to their flexibility, ultrahigh surface area, hierarchical pore structures, and high catalytic activity. Herein, an advanced electrocatalyst based on a vertically aligned MoS2 nanosheet encapsulated Mo–N/C framework with interfacial Mo–N coupling centers is reported. The hybrid structure exhibits robust multifunctional electrocatalytic activity and stability toward the hydrogen evolution reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, and oxygen reduction reaction. Interestingly, it further displays high-performance of Zn–air batteries as a cathode electrocatalyst with a high power density of ≈196.4 mW cm−2 and a voltaic efficiency of ≈63 % at 5 mA cm−2, as well as excellent cycling stability even after 48 h at 25 mA cm−2. Such outstanding electrocatalytic properties stem from the synergistic effect of the distinct chemical composition, the unique three-phase active sites, and the hierarchical pore framework for fast mass transport. This work is expected to inspire the design of advanced and performance-oriented MOF/MD hybrid-based electrocatalysts for wider application in electrochemical energy devices.An advanced electrocatalyst is designed based on a vertically-aligned MoS2 nanosheet encapsulated Mo–N/C framework with Mo–N coupling centers at the interface. The hybrid electrocatalyst exhibits high multifunctional activity and stability toward the hydrogen evolution reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, and oxygen reduction reaction, as well as high Zn–air battery performance.
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T12:07:54.923866-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702300
  • Bioinspired Adhesive Hydrogels Tackified by Nucleobases
    • Authors: Xin Liu; Qin Zhang, Guanghui Gao
      Abstract: Bioinspired strategies for designing hydrogels with excellent adhesive performance have drawn much attention in biomedical applications. Here, bioinspired adhesive hydrogels tackified by independent nucleobase (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil) from DNA and RNA are successfully explored. The nucleobase-tackified hydrogels exhibit an excellent adhesive behavior for not only various solid substrates (polytetrafluoroethylene, plastics, rubbers, glasses, metals, and woods) but also biological tissues consisting of heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, bone, and muscle. The maximum adhesion strength of A-, T-, G-, C-, and U-tackified hydrogels on the aluminum alloy surface is 780, 166, 250, 227, and 433 N m−1, respectively, superior to that of pure PAAm hydrogels (40 N m−1) after adhesive time of 10 min. It is anticipated that bioinspired hydrogels will play a significant role in the applications of wound dressing, medical electrodes, tissue adhesives, and portable equipment. Moreover, the bioinspired nucleobase-tackified strategy would open a novel avenue for designing the next generation of soft and adhesive materials.In the current investigation, bioinspired adhesive hydrogels tackified by independent nucleobase (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil) from DNA and RNA are successfully explored. The nucleobase-tackified hydrogels exhibit an excellent adhesive behavior for various solid substrates and biological tissues. It is anticipated that the bioinspired nucleobase-tackified strategy will open a novel avenue for designing the next generation of soft materials with adhesive behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T12:06:07.286824-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703132
  • Eco-Friendly SnTe Thermoelectric Materials: Progress and Future Challenges
    • Authors: Raza Moshwan; Lei Yang, Jin Zou, Zhi-Gang Chen
      Abstract: As a key type of emerging thermoelectric material, tin telluride (SnTe) has received extensive attention because of its low toxicity and eco-friendly nature. The recent trend shows that band engineering and nanostructuring can enhance thermoelectric performance of SnTe as intermediate temperature (400–800 K) thermoelectrics, which provides an alternative for toxic PbTe with the same operational temperature. This review highlights the key strategies to enhance the thermoelectric performance of SnTe materials through band engineering, carrier concentration optimization, synergistic engineering, and structure design. A fundamental analysis elucidates the underpinnings for the property improvement. This comprehensive review will boost the relevant research with a view to work on further performance enhancement of SnTe materials.SnTe qualifies as an eco-friendly alternative to medium temperature thermoelectric PbTe by showing robust potential as high-performance thermoelectrics via effective strategies through band engineering, carrier concentration optimization, synergistic engineering, and structure design.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T11:32:53.027024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703278
  • Combinatorial Particle Patterning
    • Authors: Clemens von Bojnicic-Kninski; Roman Popov, Edgar Dörsam, Felix F. Loeffler, Frank Breitling, Alexander Nesterov-Mueller
      Abstract: The unique properties of solid particles make them a promising element of micro- and nanostructure technologies. Solid particles can be used as building blocks for micro and nanostructures, carriers of monomers, or catalysts. The possibility of patterning different kinds of particles on the same substrate opens the pathway for novel combinatorial designs and novel technologies. One of the examples of such technologies is the synthesis of peptide arrays with amino acid particles. This review examines the known methods of combinatorial particle patterning via static electrical and magnetic fields, laser radiation, patterning by synthesis, and particle patterning via chemically modified or microstructured surfaces.An overview on combinatorial particle patterning is provided, examining the known methods via electrical and magnetic fields, laser radiation, and extending them with novel approaches. Solid particles as carriers of monomers can be used to synthesize molecular libraries, such as peptide arrays. The possibility of patterning different kinds of particles on the same substrate opens the pathway for novel technologies.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T11:32:07.53674-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703511
  • Defect Creation in HKUST-1 via Molecular Imprinting: Attaining Anionic
           Framework Property and Mesoporosity for Cation Exchange Applications
    • Authors: Ying Chuan Tan; Hua Chun Zeng
      Abstract: Discovering new methods to tailor the physical and chemical properties of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) for their numerous potential applications is highly desired. In this work, engineering defects in MOF via a molecular imprinting approach is developed to endow HKUST-1, a well-studied classical MOF, with hierarchical structure, mesoporosity, and anionic framework property. Ringlike anionic HKUST-1 (HKUST-1-R) and a wide variety of metal-doped isostructural analogues (M/HKUST-1-R, M = Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, or Zn) are obtained. The benefits of transforming imprinted HKUST-1-R to M/HKUST-1-R are further demonstrated for various applications. This synthetic strategy is therefore suitable for rational design and functionalization of MOFs in addition to their morphological control in nanoscale.Engineering neutral-charged metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with anionic frameworks and mesopores via a molecular imprinting approach is demonstrated on HKUST-1. This defect-engineering method allows rational design of a new class of MOFs with additional functionalities, and as exemplified, defective HKUST-1 is able to perform unexplored ion-exchange applications. The attained mesoporous hierarchical structure further enhances the practicality of engineered MOFs for such applications.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T11:31:22.033872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703765
  • Syntheses and Energy Storage Applications of MxSy (M = Cu, Ag, Au) and
           Their Composites: Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors
    • Authors: Yao Lu; Bing Li, Shasha Zheng, Yuxia Xu, Huaiguo Xue, Huan Pang
      Abstract: The development of novel materials to improve energy storage efficiencies is essential to satisfy ever-increasing energy demands. MxSy (M = Cu, Ag, Au) and their composites offer opportunities and enormous prospects in energy storage due to their extraordinary electrochemical properties, which promote promising energy storage characteristics in terms of stability, energy and power density, lifetime, etc. Recent developments of MxSy (M = Cu, Ag, Au) and their composites with various morphologies have received considerable attention. Multidimensional morphologies of MxSy (M = Cu, Ag, Au) and their composites have enriched charge-storage and electron-transport abilities. This review provides a detailed account of the synthetic strategies based on sulfur sources (i.e., inorganic sulfur sources, organosulfur sources, and other sulfur sources), which dictate the morphologies of nanosized MxSy (M = Cu, Ag, Au) and their composites. Notably, nanostructured silver sulfide can be prepared from the bulk to nanoscale. Moreover, the electrochemical applications of these materials for lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, and supercapacitors are summarized. Finally, future perspectives on the development challenges and major opportunities for MxSy (M = Cu, Ag, Au) and their composites, which must be overcome to achieve further improvements in electrochemical performance are outlined.Recent developments and challenges of MxSy (M = Cu, Ag, Au) and their composites with a focus on synthetic methods and their electrochemical applications, including lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries, and supercapacitors have been reported. The relationships between their morphologies and electrochemical performances are comprehensively summarized and evaluations are given in this review.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T11:30:46.932336-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703949
  • Effect of Alkyl Chain Branching Point on 3D Crystallinity in High N-Type
           Mobility Indolonaphthyridine Polymers
    • Authors: Kealan J. Fallon; Annikki Santala, Nilushi Wijeyasinghe, Eric F. Manley, Niall Goodeal, Anastasia Leventis, David M. E. Freeman, Mohammed Al-Hashimi, Lin X. Chen, Tobin J. Marks, Thomas D. Anthopoulos, Hugo Bronstein
      Abstract: Herein, this study investigates the impact of branching-point-extended alkyl chains on the charge transport properties of three ultrahigh n-type mobility conjugated polymers. Using grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering, analysis of the crystallinity of the series shows that while π–π interactions are increased for all three polymers as expected, the impact of the side-chain engineering on polymer backbone crystallinity is unique to each polymer and correlates to the observed changes in charge transport. With the three polymers exhibiting n-type mobilities between 0.63 and 1.04 cm2 V−1 s−1, these results ratify that the indolonaphthyridine building block has an unprecedented intrinsic ability to furnish high-performance n-type organic semiconductors.The effect of alkyl side-chain branching position on charge transport in organic semiconductors exhibiting high crystallinity is discussed herein. This study confirms that the indolonapthryidine building block has an intrinsic ability to facilitate ultrahigh n-type mobility in organic field-effect transistors, of which examples remain lacking, with recorded μe = 0.63–1.04 cm2 V−1 s−1.
      PubDate: 2017-09-28T11:29:33.485672-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201704069
  • Organometal Trihalide Perovskites with Intriguing Ferroelectric and
           Piezoelectric Properties
    • Authors: Ran Ding; Xiaoli Zhang, Xiao Wei Sun
      Abstract: Organometal trihalide perovskites (OTPs) as a new subclass of perovskite materials have recently aroused increasing interest due to their numerous advantages of facile low-temperature processing, tunable bandgaps, diverse compositions, and superior charge transfer dynamics, which have been widely used in various applications. In particular, solar cells composed of these perovskites have made unprecedented progress in just a few years with maximum power conversion efficiency, evolving from 3.8 to 21.6%. In spite of such impressive achievement, a fundamental understanding of intrinsic optoelectronic and physiochemical properties is a key challenge impeding the development of the OTPs. This review article aims to provide a concise overview of the current status of OTPs research, highlighting the unique properties of OTPs, especially ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties, which are vital to photovoltaic and piezoelectric applications but still not adequately explained. Various material synthesis strategies of OTPs are surveyed, exhibiting that the OTPs architecture can serve as a promising and robust platform for opening new horizons in ferroelectric and piezoelectric researches. Several applications, including piezoelectric generators, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, and water-splitting cells, demonstrate the latent potentialities of OTPs.Recent progress on organometal trihalide perovskites in terms of intrinsic properties with a focus on ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity, synthesis strategies of thin films and bulk/nanocrystals, and various applications is reviewed. The importance of an in-depth understanding on the underlying ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity is discussed, and their thorough investigation is the main factor necessary for facilitating the functionalization of these materials.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T10:05:55.888017-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702207
  • Enhancing the Stability of Perovskite Quantum Dots by Encapsulation in
           Crosslinked Polystyrene Beads via a Swelling–Shrinking Strategy toward
           Superior Water Resistance
    • Authors: Yi Wei; Xiaoran Deng, Zhongxi Xie, Xuechao Cai, Sisi Liang, Ping'an Ma, Zhiyao Hou, Ziyong Cheng, Jun Lin
      Abstract: Organic/inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites are promising optoelectronic materials due to their unique structure, excellent properties, and fascinating potential applications in lighting, photovoltaic, etc. However, perovskite materials are very sensitive to moisture and polar solvent, which greatly hinders their practical applications. Here, highly luminescent perovskite–polystyrene composite beads with uniform morphology are prepared via a simple swelling–shrinking strategy. This process is carried out only in nonpolar toluene and hexane without the addition of any polar reagents. As a result, the as-prepared composite beads not only retain high luminescence but also exhibit superior water-resistant property. The composites emit strong luminescence after being immersed into water over nine months. Moreover, even in some harsh environments such as acid/alkali aqueous solution, phosphate buffer solution, and Dulbecco's modified eagle medium biological buffers, they still preserve high luminescence. The applications in light-emitting diodes and cellular labeling agents are also carried out to demonstrate their ultrastability.Highly luminescent perovskite–polystyrene composite beads with uniform morphology are prepared by packing perovskite quantum dots in crosslinked polystyrene beads via swelling in toluene and then shrinking the beads in hexane. The composite not only retains high luminescence but also exhibits superior water resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11T01:31:40.200386-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703535
  • SiO2/TiO2 Composite Film for High Capacity and Excellent Cycling Stability
           in Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes
    • Authors: Gibaek Lee; Sudeok Kim, Sunkyu Kim, Jinsub Choi
      Abstract: In this study, partially crystalline anodic TiO2 with SiO2 well-distributed througout the entire oxide film is prepared using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) to obtain a high-capacity anode with an excellent cycling stability for Li-ion batteries. The micropore sizes in the anodic film become inhomogeneous as the SiO2 content is increased from 0% to 25%. The X-ray diffraction peaks show that the formed oxide contains the anatase and rutile phases of TiO2. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses confirm that TiO2 contains amorphous SiO2. Anodic oxides of the SiO2/TiO2 composite prepared by PEO in 0.2 m H2SO4 and 0.4 m Na2SiO3 electrolyte deliver the best performance in Li-ion batteries, exhibiting a capacity of 240 µAh cm−2 at a fairly high current density of 500 µA cm–2. The composite film shows the typical Li–TiO2 and Li–SiO2 redox peaks in the cyclic voltammogram and a corresponding plateau in the galvanostatic charge/discharge curves. The as-prepared SiO2/TiO2 composite anode shows at least twice the capacity of other types of binder-free TiO2 and TiO2 composites and very stable cycling stability for more than 250 cycles despite the severe mechanical stress.A porous SiO2/TiO2 composite film as an anode for Li-ion batteries is achieved via a plasma electrolytic oxidation process, containing amorphous/anatase/rutile TiO2 and well-distributed amorphous SiO2. It exhibits a noticeably high capacity (more than 700 µAh cm‒2 at 100 µA cm‒2) and stable capacity retention (over 250 cycles) with excellent cycle performance.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T07:31:40.444166-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703538
  • Ligand Versatility in Supercrystal Formation
    • Authors: Annett Reichhelm; Danny Haubold, Alexander Eychmüller
      Abstract: Supercrystals (SCs) offer the opportunity to integrate nanoparticles into current technologies without losing their unique and designable properties. In the past two decades, much research has been conducted, allowing the synthesis of differently shaped nanoparticles of various materials. Employing those building units, several methods have been developed enabling the preparation of an increasing number of different superstructures. In this review, an overview is given of the large versatility of surfactant molecules used for SC preparation. While SCs with uncharged organic ligands are by far the largest group, the use of charged or uncommon ligands allows the preparation of unique SCs and superlattices. Additionally, the influence of the ligands on the self-assembly and properties of the resulting SCs is highlighted.Herein, the influence of the surfactant species on supercrystal formation is discussed with regard to superlattice and structural diversity. The variety of different ligands is categorized into three groups: uncharged long-chain organics, charged organics, and unusual ligands. While the first category includes the mostly-used ligands, uncommon surfactants enable the preparation of unique superstructures.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T07:21:45.237292-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700361
  • Mutually Synergistic Nanoparticles for Effective Thermo-Molecularly
           Targeted Therapy
    • Authors: Huanhuan Luo; Qiaoli Wang, Yibin Deng, Tao Yang, Hengte Ke, Hong Yang, Hui He, Zhengqing Guo, Dong Yu, Hong Wu, Huabing Chen
      Abstract: Photothermal therapy (PTT) is of particular importance as a highly potent therapeutic modality in cancer therapy. However, a critical challenge still remains in the exploration of highly effective strategy to maximize the PTT efficiency due to tumor thermoresistance and thus frequent tumor recurrence. Here, a rational fabrication of the micelles that can achieve mutual synergy of PTT and molecularly targeted therapy (MTT) for tumor ablation is reported. The micelles generate both distinct photothermal effect from Cypate through enhanced photothermal conversion efficiency and pH-dependent drug release. The micelles further exhibit effective cytoplasmic translocation of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) through reactive oxygen species mediated lysosomal disruption caused by Cypate under irradiation. Translocated 17AAG specifically bind with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), thereby inhibiting antiapoptotic p-ERK1/2 proteins for producing preferable MTT efficiency through early apoptosis. Meanwhile, translocated 17AAG molecules further block stressfully overexpressed HSP90 under irradiation and thus inhibit the overexpression of p-Akt for achieving the reduced thermoresistance of tumor cells, thus promoting the PTT efficiency through boosting both early and late apoptosis of Cypate. Moreover, the micelles possess enhanced resistance to photobleaching, preferable cellular uptake, and effective tumor accumulation, thus facilitating mutually synergistic PTT/MTT treatments with tumor ablation. These findings represent a general approach for potent cancer therapy.This study reports a rational fabrication of the micelles that can achieve mutual synergy of photothernal therapy (PTT) and molecularly targeted therapy (MTT) for effective tumor ablation through enhanced PTT by blocking stressfully overexpressed HSP90 under irradiation using 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) and preferable MTT efficiency by reactive oxygen species mediated effective cytoplasmic translocation of 17AAG caused by Cypate under irradiation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T07:12:31.673252-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702834
  • Single Component Organic Solar Cells Based on Oligothiophene-Fullerene
    • Authors: Thanh Luan Nguyen; Tack Ho Lee, Bhoj Gautam, Song Yi Park, Kenan Gundogdu, Jin Young Kim, Han Young Woo
      Abstract: A new donor (D)–acceptor (A) conjugate, benzodithiophene-rhodanine–[6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (BDTRh–PCBM) comprising three covalently linked blocks, one of p-type oligothiophene containing BDTRh moieties and two of n-type PCBM, is designed and synthesized. A single component organic solar cell (SCOSC) fabricated from BDTRh–PCBM exhibits the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.44% and maximum external quantum efficiency of 46%, which are the highest among the reported efficiencies so far. The SCOSC device shows efficient charge transfer (CT, ≈300 fs) and smaller CT energy loss, resulting in the higher open-circuit voltage of 0.97 V, compared to the binary blend (BDTRh:PCBM). Because of the integration of the donor and acceptor in a single molecule, BDTRh-PCBM has a specific D–A arrangement with less energetic disorder and reorganization energy than blend systems. In addition, the SCOSC device shows excellent device and morphological stabilities, showing no degradation of PCE at 80 °C for 100 h. The SCOSC approach may suggest a great way to suppress the large phase segregation of donor and acceptor domains with better morphological stability compared to the blend device.Integration of donor and acceptor in a single molecule by a covalent linkage is a promising approach to overcome unfavorably large-phase separation in bulk heterojunction blend solar cells. A new all-in-one system forms a specific molecular arrangement which decreases energetic disorder and facilitates ultrafast charge separation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T12:13:52.512452-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702474
  • Substantial Cyano-Substituted Fully sp2-Carbon-Linked Framework:
           Metal-Free Approach and Visible-Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution
    • Authors: Shuai Bi; Zhi-An Lan, Silvia Paasch, Wenbei Zhang, Yafei He, Chao Zhang, Feng Liu, Dongqing Wu, Xiaodong Zhuang, Eike Brunner, Xinchen Wang, Fan Zhang
      Abstract: Polymeric semiconductors are emerging as a kind of competitive photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution due to their well-tunable structures, versatile functionalization, and low-cost processibility. In this work, a series of conjugated porous polymers with substantial cyano-substituted fully sp2-carbon frameworks are efficiently synthesized by using electron-deficient tricyanomesitylene as a key building block to promote an organic base-catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation with various aldehyde-substituted arenes. The resulting porous polymers feature donor-acceptor structures with π-extended conjugation, rendering them with distinct semiconducting properties. They possess hierarchically porous structures, nanoscale morphologies, and intriguing wettability. These promising physical characters, finely tailorable by varying the arene units, are essentially relevant to the abundant cynao substituents over the whole frameworks. The as-prepared porous polymers exhibit excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for water-splitting hydrogen evolution with apparent quantum yield up to 2.0% at 420 nm or 1.9% at 470 nm, among the highest values yet reported for porous polymer-based photocatalysts, also representing the first example of such kinds of catalysts formed through a metal-free-catalyzed carbon–carbon coupling reaction.Fully sp2-carbon-linked frameworks with substantial cyano substituents are formed by metal-free-catalyzed carbon–carbon coupling reaction. They exhibit excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities for H2 evolution with apparent quantum yield up to 2.0% at 420 nm (and 1.9% even at 470 nm). Such promising properties are highly correlated with their distinct visible-light harvesting abilities, hierarchically porous structures, and unique nanoscale morphologies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T05:06:30.400939-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703146
  • Universal Control on Pyroresistive Behavior of Flexible Self-Regulating
           Heating Devices
    • Authors: Yi Liu; Han Zhang, Harshit Porwal, Wei Tu, Jamie Evans, Mark Newton, James J. C. Busfield, Ton Peijs, Emiliano Bilotti
      Abstract: Smart heating devices with reliable self-regulating performances and high efficiency, combined with additional properties like mechanical flexibility, are of particular interest in healthcare, soft robotics, and smart buildings. Unfortunately, the development of smart heaters necessitates managing normally conflicting requirements such as good self-regulating capabilities and efficient Joule heating performances. Here, a simple and universal materials design strategy based on a series connection of different conductive polymer composites (CPC) is shown to provide unique control over the pyroresistive properties. Hooke's and Kirchhoff's laws of electrical circuits can simply predict the overall pyroresistive behavior of devices connected in series and/or parallel configurations, hence providing design guidelines. An efficient and mechanically flexible Joule heating device is hence designed and created. The heater is characterized by a zero temperature coefficient of resistance below the self-regulating temperature, immediately followed by a large and sharp positive temperature coefficient (PTC) behavior with a PTC intensity of around 106. Flexibility and toughness is provided by the selected elastomeric thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix as well as the device design. The universality of the approach is demonstrated by using different polymer matrices and conductive fillers for which repeatable results are consistently obtained.Flexible self-regulating heating devices, using a simple and universal materials design strategy, provide a unique control over pyroresistive behavior by connecting different conductive polymer composites in series. A tricomponent-series-assembled heating device is successfully developed and characterized. This device combines, for the first time, high positive temperature coefficient intensity with good Joule heating, as well as mechanical flexibility and robustness.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T02:07:06.435588-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702253
  • Tantalum Sulfide Nanosheets as a Theranostic Nanoplatform for Computed
           Tomography Imaging-Guided Combinatorial Chemo-Photothermal Therapy
    • Authors: Yanlan Liu; Xiaoyuan Ji, Jianhua Liu, Winnie W. L. Tong, Diana Askhatova, Jinjun Shi
      Abstract: Near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing metal-based nanomaterials have shown tremendous potential for cancer therapy, given their facile and controllable synthesis, efficient photothermal conversion, capability of spatiotemporal-controlled drug delivery, and intrinsic imaging function. Tantalum (Ta) is among the most biocompatible metals and arouses negligible adverse biological responses in either oxidized or reduced forms, and thus Ta-derived nanomaterials represent promising candidates for biomedical applications. However, Ta-based nanomaterials by themselves have not been explored for NIR-mediated photothermal ablation therapy. In this work, an innovative Ta-based multifunctional nanoplatform composed of biocompatible tantalum sulfide (TaS2) nanosheets (NSs) is reported for simultaneous NIR hyperthermia, drug delivery, and computed tomography (CT) imaging. The TaS2 NSs exhibit multiple unique features including (i) efficient NIR light-to-heat conversion with a high photothermal conversion efficiency of 39%, (ii) high drug loading (177% by weight), (iii) controlled drug release triggered by NIR light and moderate acidic pH, (iv) high tumor accumulation via heat-enhanced tumor vascular permeability, (v) complete tumor ablation and negligible side effects, and (vi) comparable CT imaging contrast efficiency to the widely clinically used agent iobitridol. It is expected that this multifunctional NS platform can serve as a promising candidate for imaging-guided cancer therapy and selection of cancer patients with high tumor accumulation.TaS2-based cancer nanomedicine: A novel near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing polyethylene glycol (PEG)–TaS2 nanosheet platform is developed, which possesses several unique features including NIR-triggered hyperthermia, high drug-loading capacity, multiple stimuli-responsive drug release, good biocompatibility, high tumor accumulation, and efficient X-ray attenuation for computed tomography imaging. This PEG–TaS2-based nanomedicine provides a potential new strategy for personalized treatment of advanced malignancies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T07:17:19.959014-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703261
  • Ultralight and Binder-Free All-Solid-State Flexible Supercapacitors for
           Powering Wearable Strain Sensors
    • Authors: Weigu Li; Xiaobin Xu, Chang Liu, Marshall C. Tekell, Jing Ning, Jianhe Guo, Jincheng Zhang, Donglei Fan
      Abstract: Flexible energy storage devices play a pivotal role in realizing the full potential of flexible electronics. This work presents high-performance, all-solid-state, flexible supercapacitors by employing an innovative multilevel porous graphite foam (MPG). MPGs exhibit superior properties, such as large specific surface area, high electric conductivity, low mass density, high loading efficiency of pseudocapacitive materials, and controlled corrugations for accommodating mechanical strains. When loaded with pseudocapacitive manganese oxide (Mn3O4), the MPG/Mn3O4 (MPGM) composites achieve a specific capacitance of 538 F g−1 (1 mV s−1) and 260 F g−1 (1 mV s−1) based on the mass of pure Mn3O4 and entire electrode composite, respectively. Both are among the best of Mn3O4-based supercapacitors. The MPGM is mechanically robust and can go through 1000 mechanical bending cycles with only 1.5% change in electric resistance. When integrated as all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitors, they offer a full cell specific capacitance as high as 53 F g−1 based on the entire electrode and retain 80% of capacitance after 1000 continuous mechanical bending cycles. Furthermore, the all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors are incorporated with strain sensors into self-powered flexible devices for detection of both coarse and fine motions on human skins, i.e., those from finger bending and heart beating.Ultralight, hierarchically porous graphite foams are employed as electrode supports of all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors. The devices exhibit 53 F g−1 full-cell capacitance based on the entire weight of electrodes and 80% capacitance retention after 1000 bending cycles. Moreover, they seamlessly integrate with wearable strain sensors for self-powered detection of both coarse and fine motions, e.g., those from finger bending and heart pulses.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T07:16:29.889502-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702738
  • Reversible Attachment with Tailored Permeability: The Feather Vane and
           Bioinspired Designs
    • Authors: Tarah N. Sullivan; Michael Chon, Rajaprakash Ramachandramoorthy, Michael R. Roenbeck, Tzu-Tying Hung, Horacio D. Espinosa, Marc A. Meyers
      Abstract: In bird flight, the majority of the wing surface consists of highly refined and hierarchically organized feathers. They are composed of barbs that stem from the feather shaft and barbules that branch from barbs, forming a rigid feather vane. Barbules provide adhesion within the vane through an interlocking hook-and-groove mechanism to allow for the effective capture of air. This functional adhesive can reattach if structures unfasten from one another, preventing catastrophic damage of the vane. Here, using pelican primary feathers as a model material, we investigate the in-plane adhesion and stiffness of barbules. With guineafowl, pelican, and dove feathers, we determine the effect of barbules on the feather vane's ability to capture air. The vane is found to have directional permeability, and the effect of detaching barbules on the feather's competency is determined to be a function of barb dimensions. Interestingly, barbule spacing is found to vary within a narrow 8–16 µm range for birds weighing from 4–11 000 g (hummingbird to condor). Additionally, bioinspired barbules are fabricated through additive manufacturing to study the complexities of the vane. Barbules are underexplored structures imperative to the adeptness of the feather in flight, with the potential to provide bioinspired aerospace materials.The flying feathers of birds are hierarchically organized structures with barbs branching from the feather shaft and interlocking barbules branching from barbs to form a rigid vane. Here, the effect of barbules on the feather vane's ability to capture air is determined, and the barbule's effectiveness in holding the vane together is investigated.
      PubDate: 2017-08-16T05:06:05.605703-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702954
  • Space-Confined Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Ultrathin HfS2
           Flakes for Optoelectronic Application
    • Authors: Chaoyi Yan; Lin Gan, Xing Zhou, Jun Guo, Wenjuan Huang, Jianwen Huang, Bao Jin, Jie Xiong, Tianyou Zhai, Yanrong Li
      Abstract: Due to the predicted excellent electronic properties superior to group VIB (Mo and W) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), group IVB TMDs have enormous potential in nanoelectronics. Here, the synthesis of ultrathin HfS2 flakes via space-confined chemical vapor deposition, realized by an inner quartz tube, is demonstrated. Moreover, the effect of key growth parameters including the dimensions of confined space and deposition temperature on the growth behavior of products is systematically studied. Typical as-synthesized HfS2 is a hexagonal-like flake with a smallest thickness of ≈1.2 nm (bilayer) and an edge size of ≈5 µm. The photodetector based on as-synthesized HfS2 flakes demonstrates excellent optoelectronic performance with a fast photoresponse time (55 ms), which is attributed to the high-quality crystal structure obtained at a high deposition temperature and the ultraclean interface between HfS2 and the mica substrate. With such properties HfS2 holds great potential for optoelectronics applications.High-quality, ultrathin HfS2 flakes are synthesized for the first time via an improved chemical vapor deposition method introducing a confined space, which is employed to construct a precursor growth environment that is stable and precisely tunable regarding reactant concentrations. The photodetector based on the HfS2 flake shows a fast response time of 55 ms.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T02:20:56.440859-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702918
  • Dual Near-Infrared Two-Photon Microscopy for Deep-Tissue Dopamine
           Nanosensor Imaging
    • Authors: Jackson T. Del Bonis-O'Donnell; Ralph H. Page, Abraham G. Beyene, Eric G. Tindall, Ian R. McFarlane, Markita P. Landry
      Abstract: A key limitation for achieving deep imaging in biological structures lies in photon absorption and scattering leading to attenuation of fluorescence. In particular, neurotransmitter imaging is challenging in the biologically relevant context of the intact brain for which photons must traverse the cranium, skin, and bone. Thus, fluorescence imaging is limited to the surface cortical layers of the brain, only achievable with craniotomy. Herein, this study describes optimal excitation and emission wavelengths for through-cranium imaging, and demonstrates that near-infrared emissive nanosensors can be photoexcited using a two-photon 1560 nm excitation source. Dopamine-sensitive nanosensors can undergo two-photon excitation, and provide chirality-dependent responses selective for dopamine with fluorescent turn-on responses varying between 20% and 350%. The two-photon absorption cross-section and quantum yield of dopamine nanosensors are further calculated, and a two-photon power law relationship for the nanosensor excitation process is confirmed. Finally, the improved image quality of the nanosensors embedded 2-mm-deep into a brain-mimetic tissue phantom is shown, whereby one-photon excitation yields 42% scattering, in contrast to 4% scattering when the same object is imaged under two-photon excitation. The approach overcomes traditional limitations in deep-tissue fluorescence microscopy, and can enable neurotransmitter imaging in the biologically relevant milieu of the intact and living brain.The two-photon excitation of single-walled carbon nanotube nanosensors produces a near-infrared fluorescent signal in response to the neurotransmitter dopamine. Both the excitation (1560 nm) and emission (900–1400 nm) wavelengths fall within a local transmittance maximum for brain tissue, scalp, and cranial bone, enabling dopamine imaging deep into highly scattering media.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T02:11:58.92909-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702112
  • Tailored Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanostructures: Synthesis, Modification,
           and Sensing Applications
    • Authors: Lichan Chen; Jibin Song
      Abstract: Various beneficial properties of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) have been discovered during the promotion of its visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for water splitting. These properties enable g-CN working as a sensing signal transducer with multiple output modes. In this review, state-of-the-art sensing applications of tailored g-CN nanostructures in the recent years are presented. Initially, g-CN nanoarchitectures featuring large surface areas, abundance of active sites, and high dispersity in water are presented along with their preparation methods. Then, sensing applications of these g-CN nanoarchitectures are described in sequence of the immobilization of recognition elements; semiconductor and electron donating properties derive signaling transduction modes, and efficient approaches for improving sensing performances. The review is concluded with a summary and some perspectives on the challenges and future possibilities of this research field.The fabrication, sensing application, and future perspectives of a graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN)-based sensor are highlighted, which includes the following: the design and synthesis of g-CN nanoarchitectures that are suitable for sensor construction; the strategy of conjugation of recognition elements to g-CN nanoarchitectures, signaling transduction modes derived from g-CN's semiconductor and electron donating properties; and efficient approaches for improving sensing performances, i.e., with high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility.
      PubDate: 2017-08-15T02:06:46.330936-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702695
  • Nanotechnology for Neuroscience: Promising Approaches for Diagnostics,
           Therapeutics and Brain Activity Mapping
    • Authors: Anil Kumar; Aaron Tan, Joanna Wong, Jonathan Clayton Spagnoli, James Lam, Brianna Diane Blevins, Natasha G, Lewis Thorne, Keyoumars Ashkan, Jin Xie, Hong Liu
      Abstract: Unlocking the secrets of the brain is a task fraught with complexity and challenge – not least due to the intricacy of the circuits involved. With advancements in the scale and precision of scientific technologies, we are increasingly equipped to explore how these components interact to produce a vast range of outputs that constitute function and disease. Here, an insight is offered into key areas in which the marriage of neuroscience and nanotechnology has revolutionized the industry. The evolution of ever more sophisticated nanomaterials culminates in network-operant functionalized agents. In turn, these materials contribute to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, including drug delivery, neuroprotection, neural regeneration, neuroimaging and neurosurgery. Further, the entrance of nanotechnology into future research arenas including optogenetics, molecular/ion sensing and monitoring, and piezoelectric effects is discussed. Finally, considerations in nanoneurotoxicity, the main barrier to clinical translation, are reviewed, and direction for future perspectives is provided.Nanoneuroscience is a promising approach to unlocking the secrets of the brain and addressing its complexities and challenges. This begins with the evolution and refinement of ever-more-sophisticated nanomaterials, culminating in network-operant functionalized agents.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:24:18.585946-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700489
  • A Benchmark Quantum Yield for Water Photoreduction on Amorphous Carbon
    • Authors: Mohammad Z. Rahman; Patrick C. Tapping, Tak W. Kee, Ronald Smernik, Nigel Spooner, Jillian Moffatt, Youhong Tang, Kenneth Davey, Shi-Zhang Qiao
      Abstract: Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN) is a less-explored but promising photocatalyst for hydrogen production. Despite an extended visible light absorption (EVLA) its low quantum efficiency (QE) for water photoreduction is a long standing problem. This implies that EVLA is not proportionally translated into collection of large amounts of photogenerated electrons. Minimizing the mismatch between light-absorption and charge-collection remains a scientific challenge. Here a sponge-like hierarchical structure of a-CN that addresses this apparent mismatch is reported. Combined experimental and finite difference time domain simulations demonstrate the ability of the a-CN sponge to induce scattering for total internal light reflection that promotes localized charge carrier generation. Diffused reflectance and transient fluorescence decay studies show good agreement with simulations with a 40% enhanced light-trapping and an ≈23 times longer electron lifetime in spongy a-CN compared with that of the bulk material. The result is a new high benchmark for hydrogen production of 203.5 µmol h−1 with a QE of 6.1% at 420 nm in a reaction system of 10 vol% triethanolamine and 1 wt% Pt cocatalyst. The enhanced water photoreduction is a result of amenable photophysical and electrochemical attributes existing within the a-CN sponge.Spongy amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN) has been developed and demonstrated for photocatalytic hydrogen production via water-splitting. Hydrogen production with a-CN has an apparent quantum efficiency of 6.1% under visible light irradiation (420 nm). This is a high benchmark for hydrogen production, superseding all previously reported a-CN photocatalysts.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:22:40.525432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201702384
  • Multifunctional Electrode Design Consisting of 3D Porous Separator
           Modulated with Patterned Anode for High-Performance Dual-Ion Batteries
    • Authors: Songquan Zhang; Meng Wang, Zhiming Zhou, Yongbing Tang
      Abstract: Searching for low-cost and high-capacity electrode materials such as metal anodes is of important significance for the development of new generation rechargeable batteries. However, metal anodes always suffer from severe volume expansion/contraction during a repeated electrochemical alloying/dealloying process. In this study, a novel concept about modifying metal-anodes-based battery construction with a multifunctional electrode (ME) design is provided. The ME consists of a 3D porous separator that is modulated with a patterned aluminum anode, which simultaneously works as a current collector, anode material, and separator in a dual-ion battery (DIB). The 3D porous separator not only enables the ME to possess significantly improved electrolyte uptake and retention capabilities, but also acts as a protecting layer to restrict the surface pulverization of the Al anode. The ME-DIB displays remarkably enhanced cell performances, including excellent cycling stability with 92.4% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at a current density of 2 C, and superior rate performance with 80.7% capacity retention at 10 C.A multifunctional electrode (ME) consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) porous separator is reported that is modulated with a patterned aluminum anode, which simultaneously works as a current collector, anode material, and separator for a dual-ion battery (DIB). The 3D porous separator enables the ME significantly improved electrolyte uptake and retention capabilities, but also acts as a protecting layer to restrict pulverization of the Al anode. The ME-DIB displays excellent cycling stability and superior rate performance.
      PubDate: 2017-08-04T09:16:44.562776-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201703035
  • Coordinating Biointeraction and Bioreaction of a Nanocarrier Material and
           an Anticancer Drug to Overcome Membrane Rigidity and Target Mitochondria
           in Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Rui Xue Zhang; Lily Yi Li, Jason Li, Zhensong Xu, Azhar Z. Abbasi, Lucy Lin, Mohammad A. Amini, Wei Yu Weng, Yu Sun, Andrew M. Rauth, Xiao Yu Wu
      Abstract: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a main cause of chemotherapy failure in cancer treatment. It is associated with complex cellular and molecular mechanisms including overexpression of drug efflux transporters, increased membrane rigidity, and impaired apoptosis. Numerous efforts have been made to overcome efflux transporter-mediated MDR using nanotechnology-based approaches. However, these approaches fail to surmount plasma membrane rigidity that attenuates drug penetration and nanoparticle endocytosis. Here, a “one-two punch” nanoparticle approach is proposed to coordinate intracellular biointeraction and bioreaction of a nanocarrier material docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and an anticancer prodrug mitomycin C (MMC) to enhance mitochondrion-targeted toxicity. Incorporation of DHA in solid polymer-lipid nanoparticles first reduces the membrane rigidity in live cancer cells thereby increasing nanoparticle cellular uptake and MMC accumulation. Subsequent intracellular MMC bioreduction produces free radicals that in turn react with adjacent DHA inducing significantly elevated mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, leading to irreversible damage to mitochondria. Preferential tumor accumulation of the nanoparticles and the synergistic anticancer cytotoxicity remarkably inhibit tumor growth and prolonged host survival without any systemic toxicity in an orthotopic MDR breast tumor model. This work suggests that combinatorial use of biophysical and biochemical properties of nanocarrier materials with bioreactive prodrugs is a powerful approach to overcoming multifactorial MDR in cancer.A nanocomposite of binary lipids and polymer with anticancer prodrug mitomycin C (MMC) (MMC-DHA-PLN) is designed to overcome multifaceted drug resistance. It first utilizes the biointeraction of nanomaterial docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to facilitate cellular uptake of the nanoparticle-encapsulated MMC, and then synchronizes intracellular activation of MMC and lipid peroxidation of DHA to damage mitochondria, leading to enhanced anticancer efficacy in vitro and in vivo.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T07:22:26.15285-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201700804
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