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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 931 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (58 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (663 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (663 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 375)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 88)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 191)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 286)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 403)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 183)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 235)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 284)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.308
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 2191-1630 - ISSN (Online) 2191-1649
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2562 journals]
  • Tracking the Virulent Helicobacter pylori Strains Instead of Its
           Pan-Screening to Prevent Gastric Cancer
    • Abstract: Abstract Gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori is associated with the development of chronic gastroduodenal disorders, including atrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer, and gastric cancer. Mainly over the last three decades, exemplary research efforts and clinical trials have been aimed at achieving the best formulation and treatment regimens for mass eradication of H. pylori. Reflecting on these efforts, we would like to pose the following questions: Is it mandatory to aim for eradication of all H. pylori strains or only specific strains thereof' What populations should be selected for antibiotic therapy' Until now, the screen-and-treat strategy has been the best recommendation by the guidelines for clinicians caring for patients from high-risk populations, but targeting the virulent strains of H. pylori had not been considered. However, updated guidelines based on renewed concepts to improve H. pylori treatment could help clinicians better manage their patients who suffer from gastric cancer. Importantly, preventing gastric cancer will not be feasible by the screen-and-test strategy alone. Here, we present a commentary proposing a renewed consideration of H. pylori screening and treatment and their potential impact on H. pylori eradication in anticipation of preventing gastric cancer.
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
  • Silver Nanoparticles Deposited Algal Nanofibrous Cellulose Sheet for
           Antibacterial Activity
    • Abstract: Abstract Nanofibrillated, intertwined, and bird’s nest type cellulose (Iα) was extracted from green filamentous seaweed Chaetomorpha crassa by using simple bleaching agent. Silver nanoparticles were grown over seaweed cellulose sheet by using single-step hydrothermal method. The nanofibrillated cellulose and silver nanoparticles deposited cellulose sheets were characterized by FTIR, SEM-EDX, TGA, XRD, UV-Visible spectroscopy, and tensile strength. XRD peaks showed that seaweed cellulose was highly crystalline (crystallinity index: 83.21%) and acted as reducing agent, reducing Ag2O/Ag2CO3 to metal silver. The average diameter of seaweed nanofibrous cellulose and silver nanoparticles were 25 nm and 56 nm, respectively. The broad spectra in UV-Vis analysis indicated that silver nanoparticles had agglomerated. Silver deposited sheet was thermally stable as compared to cellulose sheet. Nanosilver-coated cellulose sheet has been found with good antimicrobial property against the gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus: 54.5%) and the gram-negative (Escherichia coli: 43.8%) microbes. The laboratory findings reveal that with the use of marine raw material along with straightforward manufacturing process, the antibacterial sheet can effectively develop for applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, food packaging, textile, water treatment, and biotechnological industries.
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
  • CuO Nanoparticle-Protein Bioconjugate: Characterization of CuO
           Nanoparticles for the Study of the Interaction and Dynamic of Energy
           Transfer with Bovine Serum Albumin
    • Abstract: Abstract Here, we aim to disclose the role of two different ranges concentration of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) for the adsorption of BSA to CuO NP surfaces and the kinetics of the energy transfer between CuO NPs and BSA molecule by using different spectroscopy, time-resolved fluorescence measurements, and DLS study. The grown ~ 20.31 nm CuO NPs showed 3.60-eV band gap and 1.026-eV Urbach energy. The XRD pattern showed that the unit cell of the synthesized CuO nano-crystal is monoclinic phase. The photoluminescence spectrum of pure CuO NPs showed a high quantum yield of the blue emission. A small red shift of the absorption peak of BSA is determined because of binding with CuO NPs. The calculated value of an apparent association constant (Kapp) in the CuO NPs–BSA bioconjugate was found to be 6.51 × 103 M−1 and 2.16 × 103 M−1 for the small concentration range and large concentration range, respectively. The total change in energy transfer efficiency (ΔEeff) at room temperature is 22% and 5.6% for the use large and small concentration, respectively; at body temperature, this change is 13.6% and 6.6%, respectively. The BSA quenching is a mixed type in lower temperature in the low-concentration range and fully dynamic in the high-concentration range. The nature of interaction is exothermic, electrostatic, and hydrophobic. The fluorescence lifetimes of pure BSA decreased from 4.94 to 1.04 ns upon adsorption onto CuO NPs, corresponding to Eeff of 79.35%. The use of large concentration leads to aggregation rather than individual corona formation under the small concentration of CuO NPs. Graphical Abstract Graphical Abstract
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
  • Effect of Some Charged Polymers on the Activity of Pancreatic Porcine
    • Abstract: Lipases play an important role in numerous metabolic reactions in all living species and may be activated at interfaces by some biopolymers in vivo, but inhibited—in vitro. The effect of two chitosan samples with different molecular weights on the activity of lipase from porcine pancreas (LPP) in triacetin hydrolysis was investigated. An equimolar amount or excess of chitosan activates LPP by a factor of 1.2 to 1.6. In order to support these data, a negatively charged polyelectrolyte—sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)—was used instead of chitosan. A small increase in LPP activity was found also at an equimolar amount or excess of PSS. This unexpected effect can be explained as “interfacial activation” of LPP with opening of the hydrophobic channel for triacylglycerol hydrolysis. The observed activation effect is important for fundamental biochemistry of human and animal digestion models, as well as for further lipase applications. Graphical abstract Possible molecular interactions between chitosan and lipase from porcine pancreas
      PubDate: 2019-10-25
  • NMR 1 H, 13 C, 31 P Interpretation of Phosphorylotropic Rearrangement in
           in DMSO Solution
    • Abstract: Abstract Phosphorylotropic rearrangement in N,N′-(bis)(diizopropoxyphosphorylamidocarbonyl)-1,10-diaza-18-crown-6-ester dissolved in DMSO was investigated by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy. The transition from the amide form to the phosphorylotropic form was shown to cause a simultaneous signal modification of the NMR spectra of three mentioned isotopes in all structural elements of the molecule.
      PubDate: 2019-09-16
  • Time-Dependent Nonlinear Convective Flow and Radiative Heat Transfer of
           Cu-Al 2 O 3 -H 2 O Hybrid Nanoliquid with Polar Particles Suspension: a
           Statistical and Exact Analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract The statistical and exact analysis of heat transfer rate and skin friction coefficient of a nonlinear convective flow of Cu − Al2O3 − H2O hybrid nanofluid with polar particle suspension is performed. The heat transport phenomenon includes radiative heat effect. A micropolar fluid model is accounted. Exact solutions to the governing problem are found via Laplace transform method (LTM). The heat transfer rate and skin friction are analysed critically via statistical methods like probable error and regression models. The slope of linear regression of data points for skin friction and Nusselt number is estimated to quantify the increase/decrease. The Nusselt number and thermophysical properties for twenty-four different hybrid nanofluids are presented. A novel idea of a nonlinear convective flow of Cu − Al2O3 − H2O hybrid nanofluid with polar particle suspension is investigated for the first time. Opposite behaviour of velocity and microrotation profile are established when the physical parameters are varied.
      PubDate: 2019-09-04
  • Laser-Induced Thermotherapy for Treatment of Nontoxic Goiter: Case Report
    • Abstract: Abstract Nodular formations of the thyroid gland are quite a widespread pathology. The prevalence of nodular goiter in the population is present in 50–70% of the total population. Basically, thyroid nodes are benign and aren’t a direct threat to human life. Laser-induced thermotherapy is one of the minimally invasive methods of treatment. The main idea of laser-induced thermotherapy is to heat the thyroid nodule by laser radiation with a wavelength of 805–1060 nm to a temperature of 41–46°С. In this case, the results of treatment by laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) in 7 patients with nontoxic goiter were studied. There were no complications after the procedure. The technique of LITT showed high efficiency as a treatment of nontoxic goiter, because in many cases there was a decrease in the size of the thyroid node by 71.6 ± 16.8%. The introduction of LITT to the clinical practice and inclusion it into guidelines of nodular non-toxic goiter treatment can give to patient opportunity to treat nodes without surgical operations.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Natural Convection Study with Internal Heat Generation on Heat Transfer
           and Fluid Flow Within a Differentially Heated Square Cavity Filled with
           Different Working Fluids and Porous Media
    • Abstract: Abstract To study the intricate natural convection in square cavity filled with porous medium with an electrically conductive fluid in the presence of internal heat source, a numerical methodology based on the finite volume method and a full multigrid acceleration is utilized in this paper. The Darcy–Brinkman is adopted to model the fluid flow and energy transport equations in order to predict the heat transfer process in the porous medium. Numerical solutions are generated for representative combinations of the controlling Grashof number (103 ≤ Gr ≤ 106), the Prandtl number (0.015 ≤ Pr ≤ 0.054), and the Darcy number (10−5 ≤ Da ≤ 10−2). Typical sets of streamlines, isotherms, and average Nusselt number profiles are presented to analyze the flow patterns set up by the competition between homogenous and porous medium. It is revealed that average Nusselt number values are strongly affected by the increase of Prandtl number and the presence of homogeneous medium overestimates the rate of heat transfer better than the presence of a porous medium. Correlations of heat transfer rates in porous medium cases are established in the current investigation.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Equilibrium, Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Bovine Serum Albumin from
           Carbon Based Materials Obtained from Food Wastes
    • Abstract: Abstract In this research, the adsorption of bovine serum albümin (BSA) onto activated carbon (AC) obtained from apple bark was carried out and the thermodynamic parameters of adsorption process were investigated. Besides, the functions involved in BSA attachment were examined by adsorption experiments on retention capacities for BSA at 298 K, pH of 7, ionic strength of 5.10−2 M, and initial concentration of 5.10−2 g L−1, respectively. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption experiment onto activated carbon (AC) indicated that the highest adsorption yield was achieved at pH 5.5. The BSA molecules at pH 5.5 are very stable and that pH value is close to isoelectronic point of BSA. The surface structural change of BSA and activated carbon was studied before and after the experiment using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). By the way, the thermodynamic functions such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG∗), activation energy (Ea), activation entalphy (ΔH∗), and activation entropy (ΔS∗) were calculated as − 66.17, 37.73, − 29.09 kJ mol−1, and + 124.42 J mol−1 K−1 for bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, respectively. The adsorption of the process was investigated using Eyring and Arrhenius equations and the adsorption kinetic of BSA on AC was found to be coherent with the pseudo-second-order model. Graphical Abstract
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Current Approaches to the Evaluation of Soil Genotoxicity
    • Abstract: Abstract Increasing human population, industrial activity, and intensive methods in agriculture have led to the release of various pollutants in soil, water, and air. While many organic compounds can be degraded by indigenous micro- and phytoflora, some pollutants are not degradable and accumulate in the environment. This requires regular monitoring of their presence for modeling and prognosis of their distribution and possible ecological risks. Conventionally all contaminants are classified by their effects on living organisms to the toxic and genotoxic ones. Toxic compounds lead to organism death, but genotoxic agents affect the genetic machinery of the cells causing mutations which can then be transmitted to offspring. The majority of pollutants have both toxic and genotoxic effects at high and low concentrations respectively. To date, various approaches to different fields of environmental toxicology for predicting the presence of toxic and mutagenic substances in soils are suggested. These tests can be classified by either biological system employed (bacteria, plants, or animals) or genetic endpoint detected. In this paper, we will review these experimental approaches, the level of their universality, advantages, and pitfalls when evaluating the mutagenic potential of contaminated soils.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Effects of Gold Nanoparticles with Different Surface Charges on Cellular
           Internalization and Cytokine Responses in Monocytes
    • Abstract: Surface modification of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) affects the interactions between the AuNPs and biological systems. To use AuNPs in biomedical applications, an investigation of how different surface charges of AuNPs affect the internalization mechanisms and functions of monocytes is needed. In this study, U937 cells were exposed to AuNPs with positive (AuNPs+ve) and negative (AuNPs-ve) surface charges. Cellular responses to the AuNPs, including cell uptake pathways, cell activation and cytokine production, were analysed. The results indicated different responses to AuNPs-ve and AuNPs+ve in outcomes including internalization pathways, cell activation and cytokine production levels. Interestingly, the results suggested that AuNPs+ve tended to enter the cells via macropinocytosis and strongly elicited a cellular response of IL-6 production via NF-kB activation, whereas the AuNPs-ve suppressed IL-6 production. Therefore, these results provide essential information for designing nanoparticles and may contribute to possible future nanomedicine applications, such as drug delivery and vaccination. Graphical abstract The demonstration of AuNPs+ve and AuNPs-ve were taken up through the immune cells by different pathways via phagocytosis/macropinocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and caveolae-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, respectively. Then, the cellular activations were occurred and observed by NF-kB activation and cytokine production.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Endophytic Fungi, and its
           Cytotoxic Activity
    • Abstract: Abstract Nanoparticle research is currently an area of intense scientific interest due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, and electronic fields. The biological synthesis of nanoparticles includes the synthesis of nanoparticles using microbes which have the capability to absorb the nanoparticles that exist in various forms. In the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles by a fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae, the fungus mycelium is exposed to the metal salt solution. The change in color of the medium indicates the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNPs were structurally characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The size of the silver nanoparticles was ranging from 62.77 –103 nm in the fungal mat and 66.75–111.23 nm in the cell filtrate respectively with the existence of free OH and NH groups, aromatic CH stretch, C–C stretch, unsaturation in the molecule, and C–Cl stretch. The cytotoxic efficiency of the AgNPs on human MCF7 breast cancer cell lines and A549 human lung cancer cell lines was appraised by cell viability assay. The synthesized AgNPs inhibited the propagation of cells at an IC50 concentration of 100 μg/mL. Thus, this study reveals that the green synthesis is an eco-friendly method for production of AgNPs from endophytic fungi which provided a powerful anti-proliferative action on MCF-7 and A549 cell lines, suggesting them as a novel chemotherapeutic agent against human breast and lung cancers.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticle from Datura inoxia Flower Extract
           and Its Cytotoxic Activity
    • Abstract: Abstract The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized biologically through a green synthesis method using the flower extract of Datura inoxia, a well-known medicinal plant for its antispasmodic, pacifying, pain relief, and for respiratory ailments. The synthesized AgNPs were structurally characterized and the cytotoxic efficiency of the AgNPs on human breast cancer cell line (MCF7) was appraised by cell viability assay, followed by cytomorphological analysis. However, apoptosis initiated by the AgNPs administration was assessed through nuclear fragmentation assay, cell cycle arrest, and comet assay. The synthesized AgNPs inhibited the propagation of cells at an IC50 concentration of 20 μg/mL after 24 h incubation. The AgNPs promoted apoptosis through DNA damage. Thus, this study reveals that the green synthesis is an ecofriendly method for production of AgNPs from Datura inoxia flower extract which provided a powerful anti-proliferative action on MCF7 cell line, suggesting them as a novel chemotherapeutic agent against human breast cancer.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Glutathione S-Transferase: Purification and Characterization of from
           Cherry Laurel ( Prunus laurocerasus L . ) and the Investigation In Vitro
           Effects of Some Metal Ions and Organic Compounds on Enzyme Activity
    • Abstract: Abstract In this study, the cherry laurel flesh fruit was purified to obtain glutathione S-transferase, a well-known antioxidant enzyme. Enzyme purification was performed using two separate processes: gel filtration and affinity chromatography. The sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis method was used for determining enzyme purity. The optimum pH, optimum temperature, optimum ionic strength, stable pH, and KM and Vmax values for glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene were obtained for the enzyme as follows: 7.0 in the K-phosphate buffer, 30 °C, 0.125 M, 6.5 in the K-phosphate buffer, 0.344 mM, 0.89 mM, and 0.098 EU/ml, 0.214 EU/ml. Lineweaver-Burk graphs were used to examine the in vitro enzyme activity in order to determine the inhibitory effects of some metal ions such as Cd2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Mg2+ and organic compounds such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), benzoic acid, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The IC50 and Ki values for each of the metal ions and organic molecules were calculated. According to the results, Ca2+ metal ion and sodium dodecyl sulfate compounds were found to be the best inhibitor with a Ki value of 0.06 ± 0.04 and 0.20 ± 0.27, respectively.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Antifungal and Antibacterial Assay by Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized
           from Aqueous Leaf Extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper reports a safe, simple, green, nontoxic, and environment-friendly approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum at room temperature. The aqueous leaf extract was capable to act as a reducing, capping, and stabilizing agent. UV-visible spectroscopic, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be stable, face-centered cubic, crystalline, and spherical and in the range of 20–25 nm. The antimicrobial activities of the synthesized AgNPs were investigated against plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria alternata and plant pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas syringae. The assay results showed that A. alternata and P. syringae were inhibited at the 100 ppm of AgNPs in the respective medium. Antifungal assay shows the disruption of fungal mycelium at various places. Similarly, antibacterial assay shows the inhibition zones. These results confirmed that this protocol is a green, environment-friendly, and nontoxic method for the synthesis of AgNPs. Assay results confirmed that the synthesized AgNPs can be used as an effective growth inhibitor for various pathogenic microorganisms and applicable to control microbial systems.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Development of Novel Effective Agents Against Candida albicans Biofilms
    • Abstract: Abstract It is common knowledge that Candida albicans are one of the main sources of fungal infections which may lead to inflammation or even threaten life. Until now, fungal infection treatment has been considered as a challenging task due to several problems associated with their application like toxicity, drug interactions, and resistance. This paper outlines a new approach to develop effective agents against Candida albicans biofilms. The impact of borneols and sulfur-containing terpenoids of bornane series on the in vitro formation and growth of clinical strain of C. albicans in biofilms has been studied and compared with modern antimycotics. As a result, thioterpenoid 4 minimum inhibitory concentrations for C. albicans strain plankton ranged from 100 to 200 μg/ml where biofilm growth inhibition occurred at the concentration of 200 μg/ml. It is generally accepted that fluconazole 7 is widely used in clinical practice but still not effective against biofilms of C. albicans fungi. Therefore, we believe that isoborneol 2 and thioterpenoids 3 and 4, as well as terbinafine 6, can be promising starting points for the development of new antifungal agents against the pathogenic activity of fungi including pathogens embedded in biofilms since they demonstrated an effective resistance against the formation of pseudomycelia.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Mushroom Extract of
           Pleurotus giganteus : Characterization, Antimicrobial, and α-Amylase
           Inhibitory Activity
    • Abstract: Abstract The present study was carried out to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using extracts of wild edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus, and to characterize the synthesized AgNPs and also to evaluate the synthesized AgNPs for antimicrobial and α-amylase inhibitory activity. Green synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Antibacterial activity of AgNPs was studied by disc diffusion method along with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and α-amylase inhibition assay of AgNPs were also studied. UV–Vis spectra of reaction mixture of AgNPs exhibited surface plasmon resonance peak around at 420 nm. FTIR study revealed that mainly carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amine functional groups were present in a mushroom extract which mainly reduced Ag+ to Ag0. AFM, TEM, SEM, SAED, and XRD pattern analysis supported that synthesized AgNPs were mostly spherical shaped within average size 2–20 nm and crystalline in nature. Biosynthesized AgNPs showed more antibacterial potentiality against Gram (–) bacteria. MIC of green synthesized AgNPs were found against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus as 12, 10, 14, and 15 μg/ml, respectively. α-Amylase inhibition assay of green synthesized AgNPs revealed that percent inhibition of α-amylase decreased with increasing concentration of green synthesized AgNPs. Wild edible mushroom P. giganteus can be used as a source of reducing and capping agents of spherical metallic silver nanoparticles which offers potential medicinal properties.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Albendazole Electrospun Nanofiber Films: In-vitro and Ex-vivo Assessment
    • Abstract: Abstract Albendazole (ABZ) is a broad-spectrum, synthetic benzimidazole anthelmintic approved by the US FDA in 1996. However, it exhibits low oral bioavailability owing to its high lipophilicity and poor water solubility. Moreover, if such a drug molecule is projected for the therapy of a particular group of the population, for example, pediatric or geriatric, the formulation challenge is even greater with the need to manufacture a dosage form that is suitable for particular patients. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofiber films as a new delivery system adopted for the oromucosal administration of ABZ. The prepared nanofiber films were evaluated regarding their mechanical and physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release, and ex vivo permeation. Scanning electron microscopy was used to prove the formation of uniform, non-woven, smooth nanofibers. ABZ-loaded PVA nanofiber films showed ~ 5-fold improvement in the dissolution rate of ABZ as compared to ABZ alone. Additionally, an ex vivo permeation study in a goat buccal mucosa displayed 3.2-fold improvement in the permeation of ABZ from PVA nanofiber films. The prepared nanofiber films were found to be stable over the period of 3 months, confirmed from accelerated stability studies. Accordingly, electrospinning was shown to be a capable nanotechnology-based strategy for the formulation of poorly water-soluble molecules so as to improve their primary and secondary biopharmaceutical properties. Thus, oromucosal administration of drug-loaded nanofiber films could be a promising approach for pediatric or geriatric patients.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Latex Allergy in Health Professionals: Specific Aspects of Diagnostics
    • Abstract: Abstract The study aimed to develop preventive measures for occupational allergy to latex in health care workers and to elucidate diagnostic specifics of latex sensitization by clinical and immunological parameters. One thousand three hundred forty-six health professionals whose work involves contact with latex-containing products underwent a screening questionnaire survey. One hundred twenty health professionals had an immunoassay done involving the estimation of total and latex-specific IgE. Thirty-six health care workers had a prick skin test done with a standard kit of allergens (home dust mites, epidermal, and pollen allergens). Latex allergy in health care workers is most often characterized by the development of skin manifestations and allergic rhinitis. Latex allergy in health professionals was found to be most common in individuals with the history of allergies, confirmed by increased total IgE values, which should be taken into consideration in occupational fitness assessments on a preliminary medical examination.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Eupatorium odoratum ,
           Acanthospermum hispidum Leaf Extracts, and Its Antibacterial Effects
           Against Pathogens: a Comparative Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Metal oxide nanoparticles have numerous applications in the food processing, agriculture, and medical field. The green way synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles using leaf extracts has gained great interest because of cost effective, rapid, simple, and eco-friendly approach. In this research work, we report the synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) using Eupatorium odoratum and Acanthospermum hispidum leaf extracts at room temperature (27 °C). Further, the synthesized CuO NPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive atomic X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy technique. The zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli was found to be 19 mm, 12 mm, and 15 mm for CuO NPs synthesized using Eupatorium odoratum extract and 13 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm for CuO NPs synthesized using Acanthospermum hispidum extract. The green synthesized CuO NPs are an effective candidate which plausibly utilized in the biomedical field. Graphical Abstract
      PubDate: 2019-07-11
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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