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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 845 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (51 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (595 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (25 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (41 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (67 journals)

CHEMISTRY (595 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 247)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 194)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 308)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 14)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 181)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 251)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover BioNanoScience
  [SJR: 0.428]   [H-I: 10]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 2191-1630 - ISSN (Online) 2191-1649
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Acute Aneurysm is more Critical than Acute Stenoses in Blood Vessels: a
           Numerical Investigation Using Stress Markers
    • Authors: Arindam Bit; Himadri Chattopadhay
      Abstract: Abstract Diseases of blood vessels are mostly associated with stenoses and aneurysm. Secondary stenoses is an associated condition in both cases. Numerical analysis of hemodynamic in diseased blood vessel was done to evaluate probability of development of secondary stenoses. Relevant viscosity models were considered at disease conditions. Patient-specific profile was considered to represent velocity at inlet of geometry. This velocity profile was transformed to Womersley form prior to application. SIMPLE method was used for correction of pressure, whereas blood rheology was considered as non-Newtonian. Elasticity of vessel was neglected as vessels become more rigid in diseased artery. Continuity and momentum equations were solved for pressure and velocity interpolation throughout entire flow field. Flow in downstream; near boundary walls induced secondary vortices in stenosed vessels, whereas its criticality increased in aneurismal vessel. Oscillatory Shear Index (OSI) and Relative Residence Time (RRT) were formulated along endothelial lining to identify dead regions. Spatial distribution of RRT along vessel wall varied with variations in viscosity model of active fluid (such as Power Law or Quemada model). Simultaneously, OSI and RRT got modulated with change in flow rate. Centerline velocity gets modulated at far downstream from diseased section in comparison to near downstream. Numerical study based on stress parameters shows that vessels with acute aneurysm were more prone to secondary stenoses than vessels with stenoses. Thus, based on numerical results, order of priority for treatment of aneurismal vessels with acute conditions should be made for those showing dual symptoms of diseases in blood vessels.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0473-4
       
  • Gamma-Irradiated Bifidobacteria Establish a Protective Effect on Mice to
           Experimental Radiation Exposure
    • Authors: Konstantin Vladimirovich Sychev; Ramzi Nizamovich Nizamov; Malik Nilovich Mukminov; Kamil Saubanovich Khaertynov; Natalya Mikhaylovna Aleksandrova; Ilsur Gabdulkhakovich Galimzyanov; Fazil Akberovich Medetkhanov; Elena Svyatoslavovna Koshpaeva; Ayrat Sharafetdinovich Khafizov; Eduard Arkadevich Shuralev
      Abstract: Abstract The purpose of this work is to assess the radioprotective effect exerted by the irradiated form of Bifidobacterium bifidum probiotic on experimentally irradiated mice. As a result of the research, we were able to determine experimentally the optimal dose of gamma rays (12–14 Gy) that ensures a switching of the metabolism of probiotic microorganisms towards the synthesis of superoxide dismutase (an antiradical enzyme) and activates production of interferon (a mediator of immunopoiesis) by immunocompetent cells. The mice were exposed to 8.0 Gy doses of \( {}_{\;}{}^{137}\mathrm{Cs} \) gamma radiation at an exposure dose rate of 3.13 × 10−5 C/(kg s). Twenty four hours after the exposure, the animals were administered subcutaneously a single 0.2-ml dose (1 × 108 CFU) of either native bifidumbacterin or the radiation-modified form of this probiotic. The radioprotective effect was evaluated according to various parameters, such as the change in hematological parameters, the quantitative composition of the gut microbiome, and the ability of the drug to induce the release intercellular interaction mediators (interferons) by stimulated immune cells of the host. A single subcutaneous injection of 1 × 108 CFU of either native bifidumbacterin or its irradiated form, administered in the composition of the growth medium 24 h after the irradiation, protects 60 to 80% of lethally irradiated white mice. The radioprotective effect of the biopreparation is associated with a milder form of acute radiation syndrome, makes pancytopenia less severe (1.13–1.21 times against 2.7–4.9 times in the irradiated control group), and reduces the number of opportunistic enterobacteria (2.2 lg against 4.9 lg in the irradiated animals) in the intestine.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0471-6
       
  • Synergistic Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential of Zinc Oxide
           Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Cassia auriculata Leaf Extract
    • Authors: Hemali Padalia; Pooja Moteriya; Sumitra Chanda
      Abstract: Abstract The problem of microbial resistance is growing, and search for novel approaches to tackle the problem on multidrug resistance pathogens is the need of the hour. The present investigation involves green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using Cassia auriculata leaf extract and evaluates its synergistic antimicrobial and cytotoxic effect. The results of various techniques confirmed the formation of ZnO NPs. UV-visible spectrum of ZnO NPs showed maximum peak at 370 nm. The crystalline nature of the ZnO NPs was confirmed by XRD analysis. The SEM analysis revealed that particles were spherical and irregular in shape, and average size of nanoparticles was 68.64 nm. The antimicrobial activity and synergistic antimicrobial activity were evaluated against pathogenic microorganisms. ZnO NPs showed broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against tested pathogens and enhanced synergistic antimicrobial activity as compared to standard antibiotic. Cytotoxic effect of ZnO NPs was evaluated by MTT assay against HeLa cancer cell line, and ZnO NPs showed dose-dependent cytotoxic activity. The synthesized ZnO NPs possess significant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity and hence can be used therapeutically as nanomedicine for diagnosis and drug therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0463-6
       
  • Effects of Copper Nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on Crop Plants: a Mini Review
    • Authors: V. D. Rajput; T. Minkina; S. Suskova; S. Mandzhieva; V. Tsitsuashvili; V. Chapligin; A. Fedorenko
      Abstract: Abstract Nanoparticles (NPs) received great attention due to their unique properties and beneficiary applications in various sectors. The rapid growth of NPs production and its abundant uses create additional risks on an anthropogenically modified ecosystem, and consequently on human beings. The main aim of this review article is to explore the possible threats imposed by CuO NPs on cultivated crop plants. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science portals for the literature review to get latest updated information and developments in the field of toxicity of CuO NPs on cultivated plants. This review article clearly denoted the toxic effects of CuO NPs on cultivated crop plants by inhibiting seed germination, decreases in the shoot and root lengths, reduction in photosynthesis and respiration rate, and morphological as well enzymatic changes. The information is significant to researchers and policymakers to define limits and future prospectives.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0466-3
       
  • Synthesis Characterization and In Vitro Release Study of
           Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticle
    • Authors: Kushagri Singh; Abha Mishra; Amit Singh
      Abstract: Abstract Ciprofloxacin, a poorly soluble drug-loaded chitosan nanoparticle, was prepared for the treatment of microbial infections. Nanoformulation of ciprofloxacin was prepared using 85% deacetylated chitosan as a biodegradable polymer and tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linking agent by ionotropic gelation. It was further evaluated and characterized on the basis of morphology, drug loading efficiency, X-ray diffraction, zeta potential value, Fourier transform infrared study, antimicrobial study, and also in vitro release behavior of ciprofloxacin. The FTIR spectral studies indicated that there was no interaction found between the drug and chitosan. The sample CS1 formulation was found stable with good drug entrapment efficiency, fair zeta potential value, and its size ranged between 100 and 200 nm. The in vitro study showed sustained release behavior with steady rise in cumulative drug release (> 99%) for up to about 8 h and thereafter, no significant release observed. The characterized formulations were also used to study antimicrobial activity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0470-7
       
  • Nitric Oxide Production Correlates with Cell Death of Fibroblasts Treated
           by Bacillus pumilus Ribonuclease
    • Authors: Pavel Zelenikhin; Andreas Koschinski; Olga Ilinskaya
      Abstract: Abstract NO is a crucial messenger in tumor cell signaling. High levels of nitric oxide synthase expression may be cytostatic or cytotoxic for tumor cells, whereas low levels can have the opposite effect and promote tumor growth. Bioimaging is a major technique to visualize the nitric oxide level in living cells and to compare it with physiological outcomes. In this report, we used two fluorescent probes, DAA and DAF-FM diacetate, in order to visualize NO levels in normal and ras-transformed fibroblasts treated by the bacterial ribonuclease binase (Bacillus pumilus RNase). To assess selective toxicity of binase towards cells expressing the ras oncogene, a fluorescent live/dead dye was applied. Here we compared the NO levels in normal and ras-transformed fibroblasts to elucidate the role of NO in the apoptotic signaling cascade induced by binase.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0469-0
       
  • Binase Do Not Change Level of Intracellular RNA in Breast Cancer Cells
    • Authors: Victoria Pukhovskaya; Evgeniya Sokolova; Pavel Zelenikhin
      Abstract: Abstract We analyzed changes of intracellular RNA level in breast cancer cells using BT-20, BT-474, and MCF-7 cell lines. It is the continuation of our former studying the effect of bacterial ribonucleases on physiological and biochemical parameters of breast cancer cells. For the first time, we tested ability of Bacillus pumilus RNase (binase) to effect the level of intracellular RNA in these cells. Differences in total RNA level under of the binase action on the cells of triple negative, triple positive, and double positive breast cancer during 48 h of treatment were not detected. The sensitivity of cells to binase was not associated with a reduction of the intracellular RNA level.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0462-7
       
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen: a Review of Assay Techniques, Variability and
           Their Clinical Implications
    • Authors: N. Gill; S. Zouwail; H. Joshi
      Abstract: Abstract Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used worldwide in the detection and management of prostate cancer. Its discovery revolutionised the care of patients with prostate cancer, but there remains a question of why inter-assay variability exists and how significantly this affects the decision-making process in the care of patients with the disease. We conducted a literature review to evaluate the two areas: inter-assay variability and its relation to clinical practice. Our results show there are internationally recognised standard assays, and the variability of assays are reliant on local/national calibration to a set standard preparation and rely on the measurement of different isoforms of PSA on an equimolar basis. Inter-assay variability exists and can be as high as 8%, which has differing impacts on decision making for diagnostic procedures and treatment modalities depending on the clinical circumstances and PSA level.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0465-4
       
  • Easy and Fast Preparation of Large and Giant Vesicles from Highly Confined
           Thin Lipid Films Deposited at the Air–Water Interface
    • Authors: Valter Bavastrello; Adriano Caliari; Isabella Pesce; Luis A. Bagatolli; Martin M. Hanczyc
      Abstract: Abstract Lipid vesicles are supramolecular structures of great interest for industrial and research applications. They can be used simply to compartmentalize solutions and pack active molecules in femtoliter-scale volumes or as highly sophisticated drug delivery vehicles and dynamic cell-size bioreactors. For these reasons, many methods for the production of vesicles have been developed, and some of them present several drawbacks, such as long working times and the requirement of specific equipment to perform the technique. In this work, we present a method to produce vesicles from highly confined lipid films at the air–water interface. The procedure involves two simple steps: the formation of the thin lipid film at the air–water interface and then brief sonication (10 s). These films are obtained by depositing different aliquots of lipid organic solutions at the air–liquid interface of round-bottom Eppendorfs tubes. The morphology of the highly confined lipid thin films was studied by optical microscopy noting the formation of non-uniform depositions at the air–liquid interface, with the presence of thicker portions close to the container sidewall. Post-sonication, the presence of vesicles composed of 2-oleoyl-1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) or 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) was confirmed using the complementary techniques of fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The size distribution investigations carried out by flow cytometry revealed the optimal concentrations to favor the formation of giant vesicles (GVs). Furthermore, we investigated aqueous phase encapsulation by adding calcein or green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the aqueous phase then characterized by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We demonstrate a fast and easy method for producing vesicles including GVs on demand.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0464-5
       
  • Antimicrobial and Catalytic Potential of Soymida febrifuga Aqueous Fruit
           Extract-Engineered Silver Nanoparticles
    • Authors: Sowmyya T; Vijaya Lakshmi G
      Abstract: Abstract Nanotechnology has changed the outlook of researchers towards science and technology. The past decade has experienced an enormous upshot of applications of nanoparticles and nanomaterials. The enhanced surface area of the particles due to their nanosize is contributing to the wide range of applications for which nanoparticles are used. In the present study, fruits of a medicinal tree, Soymida febrifuga belonging to the family Meliaceae, were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The water-soluble phytochemicals extracted from the dried fruits of Soymida febrifuga were used as reducing and stabilizing agents in the reduction of Ag+ to nano-silver. The AgNPs were characterized using various instrumental methods such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Nanoparticle analyzer, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The characterization studies revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical in shape and crystalline in nature with an average particle size of 14.27 nm. The Soymida febrifuga aqueous fruit extract-engineered AgNPs were tested for their antimicrobial activity. The AgNPs were tested for their ability to suppress the growth of two gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, and two gram-negative bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas putrida. The inhibitory concentration of 0.54 μg/L AgNPs synthesized from the aqueous fruit extract of Soymida febrifuga is the lowest reported till date. The prepared AgNPs were used as effective catalysts in the degradation of Congo red (CR), Bromocresol green (BCG), and Bromophenol blue (BPB) dyes in presence of Sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The developed method is a facile and rapid method of green and eco-friendly synthesis of AgNPs using a minute amount of plant material. Graphical Abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0458-3
       
  • PCR Identification of Aspergillus niger with Using Natural Additives for
           Controlling and Detection of Malformins and Maltoryzine Production by HPLC
           
    • Authors: T. M. Abdelghany; Medhat A. El-Naggar; Magdah A. Ganash; Mohamed A. Al Abboud
      Abstract: Abstract Nowadays, it has been difficult to control exposure of humans to fungal toxic metabolites, because these metabolites naturally occur in the environment. Therefore, the use of natural compounds like essential oils, besides biocontrol than that of synthetic products, can be a good alternative for addressing this problem. Seven fungal species belonging to four genera were isolated from ten samples of wheat grains randomly collected from Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia, with using the direct plating technique. Because Aspergillus niger was the most distributed and the most frequent fungus in wheat grains, therefore their identification was confirmed by PCR and tested for production of malformin A, malformin C, and maltoryzine in synthetic and natural media, besides using safe additive essential oils (EOs) for controlling these toxic metabolites production. Productivities of malformin A, malformin C, and maltoryzine were 13.4 ± 0.00, 9.6 ± 0.05, and 0.37 ± 0.00 μg/l synthetic medium compared with 17.4 ± 0.18, 11.9 ± 0.05, and 0.49 ± 0.01 μg/l natural medium, respectively. Malformin A, malformin C, and maltoryzine production was suppressed by neem oil, where production inhibition percent were 45.98, 47.89, and 51.01 on natural compared to 29.85, 29.16, and 35.13% on synthetic media for malformin A, malformin C, and maltoryzine, respectively, at 7.50% (v/v) neem oil. With using oregano EO 7.50% (v/v), inhibitions of malformin A, malformin C, and maltoryzine production were 44.77, 46.88 and 67.57% on synthetic growth medium, and 45.98, 38.65 and 51.02%, respectively, on natural medium. A weak remarkable reduction of these toxin syntheses was observed with using fenugreek EO compared with the other used oils.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0455-6
       
  • Pleiotropic Effect of Salt Stress on Motility and Synthesis of Secreted
           Ribonucleases by Bacillus pumilus
    • Authors: M.A. Kharitonova; V.G. Evtugyn; A.I. Kolpakov
      Abstract: Abstract Members of the genus Bacillus can successfully counteract a sudden increase in salinity. In addition to the accumulation of osmolytes, saline stress also affects other aspects of bacterial physiology such as exoenzymes synthesis and motility. Here, we have shown that increase of salinity in growth medium leads to elevated biosynthesis level of low-molecular weight ribonuclease (RNase) binase I from Bacillus pumilus. The same effect was established previously for high-molecular weight binase II. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the absence of flagella and some other changes in salt-stressed cells of B. pumilis. We also detected the gene sequences homologous to the recognition sites of response regulator DegU in the binase I and binase II promoters. Using the B. subtilis strains with various mutations in DegU gene, we found that the two-component signal transduction system DegS-DegU which regulates the motility under salt stress participates in the control of biosynthesis for both secreted RNase of B. pumilis (binase I and binase II).
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0460-9
       
  • The Role of CYP1A1 Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Erysipelas
    • Authors: Veronika V. Kadkina; Irina E. Kravchenko; Gulnaz L. Aybatova; Nadezhda V. Lukina; Olga S. Kozlova; Albert A. Rizvanov
      Abstract: Abstract The research aims are to study the role of CYP1A1 gene polymorphism in predisposition to erysipelas and reveal connections with the clinical course of the disease. We used the standard techniques of molecular genetic analysis. The DNA samples used in genotyping were extracted from leukocytes of venous blood by deproteinization with a phenol-chloroform mixture. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Statistical data relating to the investigated polymorphic markers were estimated at a 95% confidence level (CL). Genotype frequencies were compared using either the standard Pearson’s chi-squared test or the two-sided Fisher’s exact test. This study presents a comparative analysis of the distribution of gene polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 (Ile462Val, rs1048943) of phase I detoxification (microsomal oxidation) in the experimental group of 71 patients with erysipelas and a control group of 71 healthy individuals. We also analyzed these relationships of CYP1A1 (Ile462Val) gene polymorphisms with the sex of the patients, the severity and multiplicity of the disease, and the nature of the local process in patients with erysipelas. The results of the investigation indicate the presence of a relationship between cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 (Ile462Val, rs1048943) gene polymorphism and the development of erysipelas. Analysis of these relationships of CYP1A1 (Ile462Val) gene polymorphism with the sex of the patients, the severity and multiplicity of the disease, and the nature of the process in the examined group of patients with erysipelas did not reveal any statistically significant differences.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0456-5
       
  • A Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Effect of Thymus capitatus
           Ethanolic Extract on the Different Respiratory Tract Infections Isolates
    • Authors: Gamal Osman Hassan; Nazira Karamova; Mobarak Abu Mraheil; Walid Mohamed; Trinad Chakraborty; Olga Ilinskaya
      Abstract: Abstract Natural components, particularly those derived from medicinal plants, provide a promising source of new antimicrobial agents for the treatment of respiratory infections. In this work, we studied the antimicrobial potency of Thymus capitatus ethanolic extract against nine microorganisms isolated from clinical material obtained from patients admitted to hospitals in Egypt and Germany with infections of the respiratory tract (bacterial sinusitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis and bronchitis) using the disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. All isolates obtained from the Giessen University Clinic (Germany) exhibit susceptibility of different extent to the plant extract tested. The growth inhibition zone diameters for nine strains were in the range of 13–15.5 mm at a concentration of 5 mg/disc. The extract produced large inhibition zones of 14–17 mm diameters for seven microbial strains obtained in Egypt although it failed to inhibit the growth of isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis. In fact, most of the respiratory tract infections isolates from Egypt were generally more susceptible to the ethanolic extract of Thymus capitatus at lower MIC values than those obtained from Giessen University Clinic MIC values. The results of this study suggest that further delineation of bioactive phytomolecules of Thymus capitatus ethanolic extract will improve their potential application for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-10-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0459-2
       
  • Comparative Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity of Xymedon Preparation
           Derivatives with Ascorbic Acid and Methionine
    • Authors: Alexandra Vyshtakalyuk; Andrey Parfenov; Lilya Gumarova; Nail Nazarov; Vladimir Zobov; Irina Galyametdinova; Vyacheslav Semenov
      Abstract: Abstract The main objective of this work was a comparative evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of pyrimidine derivative of the active compound of Xymedon (1-(ß-oxyethyl)-4.6-dimethyl-1.2-dihydro-2-oxopirimidon) and its derivatives with methionine and ascorbic acid. The experiment was conducted on nonlinear white rats of both sexes based on the model of toxic damage inflicted on liver by CCl4 with prophylactic scheme. The compounds were injected at doses of 1/500 LD50 (13 mg/kg for Xymedon and 11 mg/kg for its derivatives with ascorbic acid and methionine). The study showed that, out of the three compounds considered, the Xymedon derivative with ascorbic acid had the most prominent hepatoprotective properties, as, given the CCl4 poisoning, it caused the greatest decrease of liver damage area (by a factor of 3.25 over control) and change of the largest number of biochemical markers towards normalization. The Xymedon derivative with methionine had less prominent hepatoprotective properties than both the derivative with ascorbic acid and Xymedon itself.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0461-8
       
  • Ultraviolet Protection Action of Carbon Nanoparticles in Leaves
    • Authors: M. S. Swapna; C. Beryl; S. S. Reshma; Veena Chandran; V. S. Vishnu; P. M. Radhamany; S. Sankararaman
      Abstract: Abstract Carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) have been explored widely in many fields of science and technology owing to its unique physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological properties. The interaction of the visible region of the electromagnetic radiation with plants and their role in photosynthesis is well studied. The antenna pigments in the protein matrix of thylakoid play a significant role in energy transport mechanism involved in photosynthesis. The energy absorbed by the proteins in the UV region also involves in the energy transport. The present work is aimed to understand the absorption of radiation by leaves in the ultraviolet (UV) region and the impact of CNPs produced by internal combustion diesel engines (ICE) in altering the absorbance level. The effect of CNPs is found to lower the UV absorbance by leaves and thus acting as UV shield, protecting the leaves from cell damages. The characterization of the CNP and leaves is done by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and UV-visible spectrophotometer.
      PubDate: 2017-10-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0454-7
       
  • The Effect of Mammalian Cell Functionalization with Polycation and
           Halloysite Nanotubes on Intercellular Interactions
    • Authors: Elvira Rozhina; Ilnur Ishmuhametov; Svetlana Batasheva; Rawil Fakhrullin
      Abstract: Abstract This paper describes the formation of a cytoprotective frame on mammalian cells and determines its impact on cell viability and creation of 3D tissue-like structures from cells modified by halloysite nanotubes and a polycation. Using the “hanging drop” method, spheroids were obtained from unmodified cells and cells modified with halloysite nanotubes and poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride). It has been shown that layer-by-layer modification of eukaryotic cells with the natural mineral halloysite and the polymer has little effect on their physiological parameters. Probably, the functionalization of the surface of cells by the nanoframe can be used for their protection from lethal factors, as well as for targeted drug delivery.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0453-8
       
  • Hydrothermal Synthesis of Cu-ZnO-/TiO 2 -Based Engineered Nanomaterials
           for the Efficient Removal of Organic Pollutants and Bacteria from Water
    • Authors: Pardeep Kumar; Virender Singh Kundu; Suresh Kumar; Baljeet Saharan; Vanish Kumar; Nikhil Chauhan
      Abstract: Abstract Water pollution is responsible for the majority of deaths over the globe. Numerous photocatalysts were developed for the removal of pollutants from aquatic systems. The present work is a step ahead in the development of the water purification system. For the advancement in the removal efficiency of the photocatalyst, Cu-ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites have been synthesized with the hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic performance of the developed system was tested on two organic dyes, i.e., methyl orange and rhodamine B. The Cu-ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite exhibited more than tenfold increase in the degradation efficiency for organic dyes, when compared with pristine ZnO and TiO2. Likewise, the nanocomposite degraded 99% of bacterial colonies and exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in visible light. We have also optimized the Cu-doping level for the maximum photocatalytic activity of Cu-ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites.
      PubDate: 2017-10-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0452-9
       
  • Network-Driven Activity and Neuronal Excitability in Hippocampus of
           Neonatal Rats with Prenatal Hyperhomocysteinemia
    • Authors: Aleksey V. Yakovlev; Evgeniya Kurmashova; Andrey Zakharov; Guzel F. Sitdikova
      Abstract: Abstract Maternal hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCy) correlated with a number of complications such as abruption placentae, preeclampsia syndrome, in utero fetal death and fetal neural tube defects, cognitive impairment, and neurodegeneration during postnatal development. In the present study, we investigated the effects of prenatal HHCy on electrophysiological features and spontaneous network activity of neurons in hippocampus of rats of the first postnatal week. The analysis of intrinsic electrophysiological properties of pyramidal neurons has shown the decrease of the membrane capacitance and the threshold of generation of action potentials in rats with prenatal HHCy without alteration of the input resistance and resting membrane potential. In trains of action potentials elicited with prolonged current injections, an increase of interspike intervals and a broadening of action potentials during repetitive firing were observed in control neurons. In the neurons of pups with prenatal HHCy, the changes in interspike intervals were not significant and the broadening of action potentials in train was less pronounced. Using extracellular field potential recordings from the hippocampal slices, we found that the network activity in hippocampal slices from rats with prenatal HHCy displayed several abnormalities including the increase in overall neuronal firing and reduction of frequency of giant depolarizing potentials in CA3 regions. We conclude that the increased neuronal excitability and impairment of network activity in hippocampus can underlie neurodevelopmental abnormalities and hyperexcitability in prenatal HHCy.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0450-y
       
  • The Effect of l -Ascorbate
           1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-4,6-Dimethyl-1,2-Dihydropyrimidin-2-One on the
           Regeneration of the Planarian Girardia tigrina
    • Authors: Andrey Porfiriev; Ksenia Yuganova; Alexander Belyaev; Alexandra Vyshtakaliuk; Vladimir Zobov; Vyacheslav Semenov
      Abstract: Abstract The effect of l-ascorbate 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4,6-dimethyl-1,2-dihydropyrimidine-2-one, a co-crystal of Xymedon with ascorbic acid, derived from pyrimidine on the regeneration process of the planarian Girardia tigrina (Girard, 1850) has been investigated. Being a co-crystal of Xymedon with ascorbic acid, the preparation is characterized by the improved properties compared to Xymedon. The new preparation falls within the group of hepatoprotectors capable of liver regeneration in response to various destructive factors. It has been shown that the new preparation at different concentration levels can inhibit planarian head regeneration. Two combinations of the test substance were used in the work: a neat form of the preparation; a mixture of the preparation with Na2CO3 to reduce the acidity of the test substance. The neat preparation showed a statistically insignificant tendency to an increase in the regeneration of G. tigrina planarians. When mixed with Na2CO3, the preparation inhibited the regeneration of G. tigrina planarians. G. tigrina planarians is a popular model for studying regeneration processes and stem cell proliferation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-017-0451-x
       
 
 
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