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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 885 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (55 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (619 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (619 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 291)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 253)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 366)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 195)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 263)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.308
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 2191-1630 - ISSN (Online) 2191-1649
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Radiobiological Characterization of the Radiosensitization Effects by Gold
           Nanoparticles for Megavoltage Clinical Radiotherapy Beams
    • Authors: R. Ab. Rashid; K. Abdul Razak; M. Geso; R. Abdullah; N. Dollah; W. N. Rahman
      Pages: 713 - 722
      Abstract: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been experimentally proven to induce radiosensitization effects particularly for kilovoltage photon beam. Theoretically, AuNPs bombarded with kilovoltage photon beam would increase the photoelectric interactions cross section and hence increase cell death. Despite the intriguing finding, this type of beam is not common in clinical radiotherapy and possesses limited application compare to megavoltage beams. In this study, quantification of the radiosensitization effects acquired from clinical megavoltage photon, electron, and high-dose rate (HDR) gamma rays from Ir-192 source were conducted. In addition, radiobiological characterization of the cell survival curves that are commonly described by linear-quadratic (LQ) model was also evaluated using multi-target (MT) and repairable conditionally repairable (RCR) model. Significant sensitization enhancement ratios (SER) were obtained particularly for 15 MeV electron beams in which the amplification of radiation effects by AuNPs is up to the factor of 1.78. The results also demonstrate validity of experimental models to describe the cell survival curve and determine the radiosensitization effects. However, slight variation was observed for SER values computed from each model which indicate the importance to specify the quantification method. Adoption of radiobiological models and their parameters could also be employed as indicator to explain the mechanistic events in the AuNPs’ radiosensitization effects. As conclusion effective radiosensitization by megavoltage clinical radiotherapy beams could be achieved and precise radiobiological characterization drawn from radiobiological models may provide insight towards radiobiological impacts induced by AuNPs.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0524-5
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
  • Bioaccumulation of Transition Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Their
           Influence on Early Growth Stages of Vigna unguiculata Seeds
    • Authors: R. Suriyaprabha; K. A. Sreeja; M. Prabu; P. Prabu; V. Rajendran
      Pages: 752 - 760
      Abstract: A reasonable understanding of the impact and health risk of the metal oxide nanoparticles treated on edible plants is necessary in order to use nanomaterials in food and medicine. In this study, we investigate the uptake and toxic response of transition metal oxides, namely Fe2O3, CuO and ZnO nanoparticles synthesised by co-precipitation method using nitrate salts of the respective metals as precursors. The characterisation of all the prepared nanoparticles shows the purity above 97% with rod-like morphology. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds are soaked in a monodispersed solution of nanoparticles and kept for seed germination and plant growth. Transport and accumulation of the nanoparticles treated in the seeds are assessed through X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy which confirms the uptake of the nanoparticles with respect to the treatment regime. The seeds soaked in CuO nanoparticles reveal better seed germination percentage, an increased coleoptile length and a plant height at 100 ppm concentration than other nanoparticles. This study proves the limitation of CuO nanoparticle application for better growth of cowpea plants whereas iron and zinc oxide nanoparticles show promising response in plant growth, uptake and bioavailability in seeds even at higher treatments. Graphical
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0535-2
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
  • Hepato-, Nephro- and Pancreatoprotective Effect of Derivatives of Drug
           Xymedon with Biogenic Acids Under Toxic Influence of Carbon Tetrachloride
           in Rats
    • Authors: Alexandra Borisovna Vyshtakalyuk; Andrey Anatolyevich Parfenov; Nail Gosmanovich Nazarov; Lilya Faikovna Gumarova; Georgii Valentinovich Cherepnev; Irina Vladimirovna Galyametdinova; Vladimir Vasilyevitch Zobov; Vyacheslav Engelsovich Semenov
      Pages: 845 - 858
      Abstract: The main purpose of the work is to study pharmacological peculiar properties of effect of pyrimidine derivatives, salt-like conjugates of the pyrimidine-based drug Xymedon (I) with biogenic acids (succinic (II), l-ascorbic (III), para-aminobenzoic (IV), niacin (V), and l-methionine (VI)) as well as a compound (VII), in which the atom N of the pyrimidine ring is alkylated by the methyl group, on the liver, kidney, and pancreas in rats under toxic influence of carbon tetrachloride. The experiment has been carried out on 115 mature outbred white rats of both sexes at the prophylactic scheme. The compounds were studied in doses 1/300 of LD50. The research has studied the structural-morphological changes in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas, as well as biochemical markers: cytolysis (lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase), liver (total, direct, and indirect bilirubin, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase) kidney (urea, creatinine), and pancreas (amylase, lipase) functions. The study has shown that noncovalent conjugates of Xymedon with biogenic acids had a protective effect on the liver as well as on the kidneys and pancreas poisoned by carbon tetrachloride. The derivative with l-ascorbic acid, which had the most pronounced effect on structural-morphological changes in liver among other pyrimidine derivatives, has also proved to be effective in terms of the impact on the kidney and pancreatic cells. The derivative with p-aminobenzoic acid, along with improving the structural-morphological organization of kidneys, also results in reduced levels of creatinine and bilirubin in the blood.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0526-3
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
  • Influence of Nonspecific Inhibitor of NO-Synthase L-NAME on Electric
           Characteristics of Premotor Interneurons of Terrestrial Snails
    • Authors: Tatiana Kh. Bogodvid; Vyatcheslav V. Andrianov; Lyudmila N. Muranova; Khalil L. Gainutdinov
      Pages: 884 - 887
      Abstract: It has been found that the application of nonspecific inhibitor of NO-synthase L-NAME caused the depolarization shift of the membrane potential of premotor interneurons of defensive behavior of terrestrial snails. This effect is opposite to hyperpolarization shift of the membrane potential caused by the action of the nitric oxide donor—sodium nitroprusside.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0533-4
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Interaction of Water-Soluble Pillar[5]Arenes Containing Amide and
           Ammonium Fragments with Lipid Bilayer
    • Authors: Polina V. Skvortsova; Elena V. Gruzdeva; Dzhigangir A. Faizullin; Dmitriy N. Shurpik; Vladimir G. Evtugyn; Pavel V. Zelenikhin; Vladimir V. Klochkov; Ivan I. Stoikov; Bulat I. Khairutdinov
      Pages: 888 - 894
      Abstract: The absence of toxic properties and genotoxic activity was shown for water-soluble pillar[5]arenes containing amide and ammonium fragments. There was no induced mutation associated with the substitution of base pairs in the Ames test. Using the methods of turbidimetry and transmitting electron microscopy (TEM), the interaction of the macrocycle with the surface of lipid bilayer in the liquid crystalline state was established. DLS detected the appearance of larger particles upon titration of liposome suspension with pillar[5]arene 3. TEM confirms an increase in the average diameter of liposomes in the presence of the macrocycle which may result from liposome fusion. The interaction of a nontoxic derivative pillar[5]arene with the surface of a lipid bilayer is shown with the help of the turbidimetry and transmission electron microscopy.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0532-5
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
  • Protective Action of Xymedon on the Morphological Structures of the
           Pancreas of the Rat in Ischemia
    • Authors: Renat Kadyrov; Valeriia Syromiatnikova
      Pages: 895 - 899
      Abstract: Pathologic processes associated with the effect of ischemia on the pancreas are not yet fully investigated and searching for ways of reduction of the damaging effect of ischemia for providing full organ regeneration are of certain interest. Protective properties of xymedone with regard to pathologic processes in pancreas were studied on a model of total ischemia created by ligation of the coeliac and cranial mesenteric artery for 0 to 90 min. Pathologic structural changes in the pancreas in case of ischemia lasting up to 30 min are minor and therefore fully reversible. On the contrary, ischemia duration of more than 60 min in the group of animals not injected with xymedone can be seen as critical. We conclude that prior intraperitoneal injection of xymedone in the dose of 3.3 mg/kg helps to delay the development of pathologic processes in pancreatic parenchyma by approximately 30 min.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0530-7
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
  • LC-MS Method Development for Simultaneous Determination of
           Trans-3′-hydroxycotinine and Three Mercapturic Acids in Urine
    • Authors: L. V. Lopukhov; A. V. Laikov; V. A. Romanova; D. Z. Gatina; V. L. Lopukhov; S. R. Abdulkhakov; T. A. Zaitseva; S. N. Medvedeva; E. V. Gnuchikh; I. I. Salafutdinov; T. V. Grigoryeva
      Pages: 924 - 929
      Abstract: The negative impact of tobacco smoke on the human body is due to a wide range of harmful substances including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some VOCs of tobacco smoke metabolize in human organism into mercapturic acids (MAs). The determination of the amount of MAs in readily available biological fluids, for example in urine, allows to assess the level of exposure of these VOCs in a particular person. It is useful to assess the impact of individual VOCs on the body together with the assessment of the intake of nicotine. The intake of nicotine can be determined by the content of its metabolites in the urine, in particular by the content of trans-3′-hydroxycotinine (tH-Cot). A joint assessment of the concentrations of trans-3′-hydroxycotinine and MAs in urine allows obtaining selective information about effects of different VOCs and nicotine on the smoker’s body. We have developed a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for simultaneous quantifying of tH-Cot and three MAs: N-Acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)cysteine (HPMA), N-Acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl-1-methyl)-L-cysteine (HMPMA), N-Acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-L-cysteine (CEMA). We used this method to quantify the levels of MAs and tH-Cot in the urine of a group of 15 smokers just before and 5 days after smoking cessation. For all studied compounds, we have found statistically significant changes in concentration on the fifth day of smoking cessation. The method developed can be used to jointly assess the levels of exposure to nicotine and VOCs in the study of various tobacco products.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0528-1
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
  • Chitosan/Octadecylamine-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Containing Nigella
           arvensis Extract as Improved Antimicrobial Biofilm Against Foodborne
    • Authors: Sedef İlk; Mehmet Şener; Mehtap Vural; Sedat Serçe
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop inexpensive and facile nanocomposites based on chitosan and organo-clay with the antimicrobial affectivity that provide the serious challenges caused by bacterial infections in various products such as food packaging materials. The chitosan with octadecylamine montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) nanocomposites by supplementing 1, 2.5, and 5 w% Nigella arvensis seed (black cumin) extract (CMBC-1, CMBC-2.5, and CMBC-5) were prepared chitosan from ionic liquid solutions in the presence of ODA-MMT and black cumin extract suspension. The effect of black cumin with different content on the structure and antimicrobial activity of the nanocomposite have been investigated. The interactions between the chitosan matrix, ODA-MMT, and black cumin extract at different conditions were characterized both physicochemically (FT-IR, SEM, and XRD) and biologically (antimicrobial). The results indicated that the formation of exfoliated nanostructure of nanocomposites was provided by loading of nanodispersed clay in matrix. Antimicrobial activity of CMBC nanocomposite film was evaluated using disc diffusion method against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium SL 1344 and Gram-positives Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. The antimicrobial activity studies of the CMBCs illustrated that the nanocomposites could more strongly inhibit the growth of the tested Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria within increased content of black cumin from 1 to 5 w%. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antimicrobial effect of CMBC nanocomposite film. Such biomaterials within nontoxic and inexpensive properties will thus have great potential applications in the development of new packing materials that can effectively prevent the antimicrobial formation. Graphical ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0565-9
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Co-Polymer Nanocomposite Film and its
           Enhanced Antimicrobial Behavior
    • Authors: E. Muthusankar; S. Vignesh Kumar; Narendran Rajagopalan; D. Ragupathy
      Abstract: This work reports the synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of polyaniline/polyvinyl alcohol (PANI/PVA) and polydiphenylamine/polyvinyl alcohol (PDPA/PVA) co-polymer nanocomposite films. Initially, chemical oxidative polymerization was employed to synthesis PANI and PDPA by oxidizing aniline (AN) and diphenylamine (DPA) in the presence of ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) as an oxidant. A trace amount of prepared PANI and PDPA were used to prepare nanocomposite films by solution casting technique, using PVA as a stabilizer. Surface morphological studies reveal the impregnated amorphous structure of PANI and PDPA size in the range of ~ 50–150 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) examines to confirm the presence of PANI, PDPA, and PVA in nanocomposite film. Disk diffusion approach was adopted to study the antimicrobial activity of PANI/PVA and PDPA/PVA nanocomposite films.
      PubDate: 2018-10-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0564-x
  • Cloning of Phytase Genes from Pantoea Sp. 3.5.1 and Bacillus ginsengihumi
           M2.11 in Pichia pastoris
    • Authors: Daria S. Troshagina; Aliya D. Suleimanova; Daria L. Itkina; Margarita R. Sharipova
      Abstract: Phytases (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate hydrolase) catalyze the hydrolysis of phytate to inorganic phosphate and less phosphorylated myo-inositol derivatives and are widely used as feed additives in animal nutrition. Nevertheless, nowadays, there is a constant search for new phytases and new expression systems for better production of these important enzymes. In this study, we report cloning of two novel bacterial phytases belonging to the different enzyme classes and having different properties in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Sequences of agpP and phyC genes, encoding histidine acid phytase from Pantoea sp. 3.5.1 and β-propeller phytase from Bacillus ginsengihumi M2.11, respectively, were optimized and chemically synthesized according to the P. pastoris codon usage bias. The optimized genes were cloned into the yeast vectors pPINK-HC and pPINK-LC under the control of the inducible promoter AOX1 and two different signal peptides—signal sequence of α-amylase gene from Aspergillus niger and presequence of inulinase gene from Kluyveromyces maxianus. PCR analysis, restriction analysis, and DNA sequencing confirmed correct integration of agpP and phyC genes into P. pastoris genome. As a result, recombinant strains of P. pastoris with codon-optimized bacterial phytase genes (agpP and phyC), encoding histidine acid and β-propeller phytases, integrated into the genome under the alcohol oxidase promoter AOX1 and two different signal peptides, were obtained. Recombinant phytase AgpP was stably expressed and secreted into the culture medium of yeasts, whereas the expression of phyC gene was only confirmed at transcription level.
      PubDate: 2018-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0563-y
  • Spatial Structure and Conformational Mobility of Seven-Membered Cyclic
           Acetals and Ketals Containing Pyridoxine Moiety in Solution by NMR Methods
    • Authors: I. Z. Rakhmatullin; L. F. Galiullina; A. A. Balandina; F. K. Karataeva; Y. G. Shtyrlin; V. V. Klochkov
      Abstract: In the last decade, pyridoxine derivatives were widely used for the synthesis of molecules with important biological and physical properties. However, rational synthesis of the compounds with desirable biochemical or physical properties often requires information about their spatial structure and conformational mobility. NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for conformational analysis of biologically important samples, such as pyridoxine derivatives, in solution. This paper is devoted to a review of the results obtained by our group over the last 5 years on the NMR study of nine newly synthesized pyridoxine derivatives in acetone solution. It was shown that studied compounds are involved into several conformational exchange processes. The activation energies of all observed conformational exchange processes were calculated.
      PubDate: 2018-09-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0562-z
  • An Anisotropic Analysis of Human Femur Bone with Walking Posture:
           Experimental and Numerical Analysis
    • Authors: Ritu Painkra; Shubhashis Sanyal; Arindam Bit
      Abstract: Load-bearing bones have a capacity to ground the load from the point of impact to the opposite end (distal end) of the same bone irrespective of the direction of (inclination) impact forces. This is only possible due to highly heterogeneous microstructure of bones. In such circumstances, it is unjustified to assume bone to be isotropic in nature. Therefore, a correction factor is introduced while assuming material property of the bone, and thus non-isotropic modeling was considered. In this study, stress analysis of proximal femur bone with isotropic and anisotropic (non-isotropic) material property is modeled while the reaction force corresponding to walking cycle is implemented at the femur head. The results showed a significant variation of 30–45% while evaluating Von-Mises stress and strain developed on the femur bone under different loading conditions. Maximum Von-Mises stress is found on the lateral-interior side of femur, while maximum strain is identified on the same plane near the neck region of femur head. This study concludes the significance of anisotropic modeling of femur bone subjected to variable loading condition.
      PubDate: 2018-09-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0560-1
  • Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide-Silver Nanocomposites and Assessing
           Their Toxicity on the Green Microalga Chlorella vulgaris
    • Abstract: The growing demands for nanotechnology in the recent years have resulted in environmental release of nanomaterials. In the current study, reduced graphene oxide-silver nanocomposites (Ag-rGO) were synthesized by an easy method and their characteristics were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Subsequently, toxicity of Ag-rGO was examined on the marine microalga Chlorella vulgaris. After treatment of algal cells with different concentrations of Ag-rGO for 24 h, growth parameters have been significantly decreased. In addition, a considerable reduction in viability of the treated cells was designated. Further considerable effects of Ag-rGO treatments have been revealed by increments in the activities of a number of antioxidant enzymes and reductions in the photosynthetic pigment contents. Our results showed that the main toxic effects of Ag-rGO are associated with the presence of Ag nanoparticles in the structure of these nanocomposites.
      PubDate: 2018-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0561-0
  • Influence of Chemical Reaction and Nonlinear Thermal Radiation on
           Bioconvection of Nanofluid Containing Gyrotactic Microorganisms with
           Magnetic Field
    • Authors: Dulal Pal; Surya Kanta Mondal
      Abstract: This paper deals with the study of bioconvection in nanofluid containing motile gyrotactic microorganisms over an exponentially stretching sheet by considering nonlinear thermal radiation and transverse magnetic field. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are first transformed into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations along with appropriate boundary conditions by using appropriate similarity transformations. Then, these equations are solved numerically by fifth-order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration scheme with shooting technique. The influence of various important physical parameters and bioconvection parameter on velocity, temperature, concentration of nanoparticle, rescaled density of gyrotactic microorganism, local skin friction, Nusselt number, Sherwood number, etc. are studied graphically. It is found that an increase on the bioconvection Lewis number, bioconvection Peclet number, and concentration difference of motile microorganism parameter give rise to the density of motile microorganism. Also, nanoparticle concentration increases by increasing the chemical reaction parameter whereas it decreases by increasing the nonlinear thermal radiation parameter.
      PubDate: 2018-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0555-y
  • The Influence of Hindlimb Unloading on the Bone Tissue’s Structure
    • Authors: Tatyana Baltina; Oskar Sachenkov; Oleg Gerasimov; Maxim Baltin; Artur Fedyanin; Igor Lavrov
      Abstract: The results of numerous studies indicate interactions between antiortostatic support and bone’s tissue. It is known that mechanical, genetic, endocrine, and age-related factors can influence the bones at the same time. Nevertheless, the physiological and pathological mechanisms of interconnection between unloading hindlimb and bones are largely unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between unloading hindlimb and changes in bone’s tissue. After unloading of the hindlimb during 14 days, femoral bones were collected in order to evaluate the weight, density, and geometrical bone parameters. Additionally, a test with a three-point bending and computed tomography scanning was carried out. Using computed tomography data, fabric tensor was built. From the assumption that the bone tissue is orthotropic (exists a maximum of three mutually orthogonal axes with different material properties), we performed this analysis. Orthotropic properties of the bone tissue were analyzed in assumption that the principal direction of the fabric tensor is coaxial with the axes of orthotropy of the material. It was found that the axes of orthotropy of the bone tissue in the cross section are mostly directed in tangent direction, and after hindlimb unloading, axes of orthotropy rotate 90° (became directed in radial direction). Anisotropy ratio in the cross section changes significantly. Meanwhile, Young’s modulus and ultimate strength decrease. It shows that unloading of the hindlimb aggravates quality of the bone tissue.
      PubDate: 2018-07-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0551-2
  • Gamma-Radiation Monitoring of Luminescent Porous Silicon for Tumor Imaging
    • Authors: V. V. Galushka; O. Ya. Belobrovaya; D. N. Bratashov; O. Yu. Kondrateva; V. P. Polyanskaya; V. I. Sidorov; I. T. Yagudin; D. V. Terin
      Abstract: Photoluminescent macroporous silicon is studied for tumor imaging application. Gamma-radiation is used for modification of morphology of pores and their size. It is shown by Raman and photoluminescence study that after the irradiation of gamma rays new nanocrystallites of smaller diameter in comparison to the initial porous silicon appeared.
      PubDate: 2018-07-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0544-1
  • Fecal Transplantation Against Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection
    • Authors: Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi; Allison Wren; Sayar R. Abdulkhakov; Albert A. Rizvanov
      Abstract: Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming Gram-positive intestinal inhabitant of many asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. In the past, it was thought to have a commensal relationship with us but recent research has cast doubt on this. C. difficile infection (CDI) is a major public health concern and is associated with a decrease in fecal microbial diversity. In addition, the disrupted gastroduodenal microbial ecosystem by first-line antibiotic therapy is a predisposing factor for bacterial overgrowth by C. difficile. Given its high prevalence and the increasing incidence of virulent C. difficile isolates worldwide, with concomitant increased mortality and morbidity, new interventions including fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) are urgently needed. The main rationale for FMT is to rebalance the gut microbiota. Undoubtedly, FMT is safe and efficacious enough to recommend it to decision-makers in order to institute routine application in clinical practices.
      PubDate: 2018-07-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0545-0
  • Antioxidant and Immune Effects of Water Soluble Polysaccharides Isolated
           from Cinnamomum verum Bark
    • Authors: Mehendi Goyal; Harloveleen Kaur; Maitri Bhandari; Albert A. Rizvanov; Svetlana F. Khaiboullina; Manoj Baranwal
      Abstract: Cinnamomum verum plant is widely used in traditional medicine to reduce inflammation. In the present study, water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from Cinnamomum verum bark followed by sequential separation from four solvent extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform and methanol) and analysed for the presence of sugar, protein and different phytochemicals. Crude and purified ethyl acetate fractions of soluble polysaccharides were analysed in vitro using mouse leukemic macrophage (RAW 264.7) cell line and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Water-soluble (crude and ethyl acetate purified fractionation) polysaccharides contained glucose, whereas proteins and phytochemicals were absent. Water-soluble polysaccharide fraction had less antioxidant activity as compared to all four solvent extracts. Also, water-soluble polysaccharides (250 μg/ml) did not affect the cell growth, while all other four extracts (250 μg/ml) inhibited the growth of RAW 264.7 cells. Cell growth inhibition was detected when concentration of crude and ethyl acetate fraction polysaccharides was increased, where IC50 values were 1120 ± 27 and 1780 ± 227 μg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, crude and ethyl acetate polysaccharides showed concentration-dependent increase of the cell growth in PBMCs, indicating immunostimulating effect. Our data suggests that the immunological properties of cinnamon may be associated with the presence of polysaccharides.
      PubDate: 2018-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0542-3
  • Optimization of Chitosan-Gelatin Nanofibers Production: Investigating the
           Effect of Solution Properties and Working Parameters on Fibers Diameter
    • Authors: Nafise Amiri; Zohreh Rozbeh; Toktam Afrough; Sayyed Abolghasem Sajadi Tabassi; Ali Moradi; Jebrail Movaffagh
      Abstract: Electrospinning of chitosan-gelatin, using organic solvents, have already been reported. This study was designed to fabricate, characterize, and optimize electrospun chitosan-gelatin nanofibrous membranes using acetic acid as a more safe alternative aqueous solvent. Series of 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, and 50/50 ratios of chitosan and gelatin were prepared using aqueous acetic acid as solvent. Blend solutions were electrospun after adding polyethylene oxide (PEO) to facilitate the electrospinning process. The effects of solution properties as well as the operating parameters on the architecture of the electrospun chitosan-gelatin nanofibers were investigated through evaluation of the electrical conductivity, viscosity, morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), mechanical properties, and hydrophilicity. Uniform beadless nanofibrous hydrophilic mats were fabricated with average fiber diameters from 229.79 ± 41.45 to 308.66 ± 50.03 nm. Concentration was the main parameter among all solution properties in controlling nanofiber diameter. The fiber diameters decreased with increasing the voltage, decreasing the feed rate, and increasing the needle to collector distance up to a certain amount. The interactions between the components of the blend solutions were confirmed by FTIR spectra. The Young’s moduli of all chitosan-gelatin blend nanofibers were higher than the chitosan nanofibers and increased significantly after cross-linking (P < 0.05). Chitosan-gelatin blends with different ratios of each biopolymer can be electrospun using acetic acid as an aqueous solvent and addition of PEO to yield hydrophilic membranes with uniform and beadless nanofibers. The architectural similarity of the nanofibrous chitosan-gelatin mats to natural ECM makes them great candidates for different biomedical applications.
      PubDate: 2018-06-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0540-5
  • Quantitative Cytotoxicity, Cellular Uptake and Radioprotection Effect of
           Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in MRC-5 Normal Cells and MCF-7 Cancerous Cells
    • Authors: Nouraddin Abdi Goushbolagh; Bagher Farhood; Akram Astani; Abolfazl Nikfarjam; Mojgan Kalantari; Mohammad Hosein Zare
      Abstract: Optimal distribution of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) or nanoceria can have a significant impact on their cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and radioprotection effects. In this study, two different distribution plans of CONPs were investigated. A scanner electron microscope (SEM) was used for chemical analysis and recording of CONP images. Using MTT assay, the non-toxic concentrations of nanoceria with two different distribution plans were determined in MRC-5 and MCF-7 cell lines. Nanoceria cellular uptake at 50, 150, and 250 μM with two different dispersion plans was determined by using the UV/VIS absorbance of cell culture medium after 24 h of incubation. In order to quantify radioprotection effect, cells treated with non-toxic concentrations of nanoceria were exposed to 10, 40, and 100 cGy of 6 MV photon beams. The diameter of the spherical CONPs was 29 nm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that the cerium element has the highest weight percentage in CONPs (97.9%). Accumulation rate of filtered and non-filtered suspension were determined as 0.3608 and 14.2708 μg/ml/h, respectively. The 70 and 110 μM concentration of sustained nanoceria suspension did not have any toxicity for MRC-5 and MCF-7 cells, respectively. In both cell lines, 50, 150, and 250 μM of filtered nanoceria had a significant uptake than the non-filtered nanoceria. A total of results showed that the 70 μM of nanoceria have a significant radioprotection on normal cells in the radiation dose of 40 and 100 cGy, while the highest cellular uptake of nanoceria occurred in cancer cells. The results suggest that using of stable distribution of CONPs for radiation protection could be a good choice, knowing that these nanostructures will have selective protection in normal cells.
      PubDate: 2018-06-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-018-0538-z
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