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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 902 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (55 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (636 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (43 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (48 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (636 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 77)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 378)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 216)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 177)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 75)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover
BioNanoScience
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.308
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  
 
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 2191-1630 - ISSN (Online) 2191-1649
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Convective Heat Transfer in Drilling Nanofluid with Clay Nanoparticles:
           Applications in Water Cleaning Process
    • Abstract: Drilling fluids are significant in the drilling methods of oils and gases from rocks and land. To improve the performance of drilling fluid clay nanoparticles, play a vital rule. When clay nanoparticles are added to the drilling fluids, the thermal conductivity, viscosity levels, and boiling point of the fluid boost which provide resistant to high temperatures and control the fluid cost. Bearing in mind the substantial rule of clay nanoparticles in drilling fluid, this article demonstrates the convection heat transfer in drilling nanofluid. More exactly, clay nanoparticles are suspended in three different based fluids (water, kerosene, and engine oil). The mathematical expressions of Maxwell–Garnett and Brinkman for the effective thermophysical properties of clay nanofluids are utilized, whereas the flow phenomenon is governed by a set linear PDEs with physical initial and boundary conditions. The Laplace transform technique is applied to obtain exact analytical solutions for velocity and temperature profiles. The skin friction and Nusselt number are computed and presented in tabular forms. To insight the influence of various flow parameters, the obtained solutions are computed using Mathcad and plotted in different figures. The results show that the Nusselt number is significantly increased with increasing values of volume concentration.
      PubDate: 2019-03-19
       
  • Analysis of the Interaction and Proliferative Activity of Adenocarcinoma,
           Peripheral Blood Mononuclear and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells after
           Co-Cultivation In Vitro
    • Abstract: The tumor microenvironment is a heterogeneous population of cells actively involved in the process of growth and development of a tumor. Research has demonstrated the interactions between the different populations of cells are critical for the formation of the tumor microenvironment and, if recapitulated experimentally, can be used to produce more effective models for preclinical screening of anticancer drugs. In this study, we demonstrate co-culturing HeLa adenocarcinoma cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and mesenchymal stromal cells results in changes in the proliferative activity of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mesenchymal stromal cell populations. This data supports the further development of in vitro co-culture systems utilizing these cell types for pre-clinical screening of anticancer drugs.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
       
  • Design of Reconfigurable Inductorless RF VCO in 130 nm CMOS
    • Abstract: The need for low-power and low-cost connected devices supporting several communication standards continues to increase with the rising demand in Internet of Things (IoT) applications. This paper presents a reconfigurable inductorless radiofrequency (RF) voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) capable to work across various frequency bands with a low area. This VCO has an inductor-capacitor (LC) topology though using an active inductor based on a gyrator-C structure. It uses n-bits controlled CMOS inverters for coarse frequency tuning and diode varactor for fine frequency tuning. Implemented in 130-nm CMOS technology, the VCO can cover a frequency tuning of 1.22–2.6 GHz. It achieves a phase noise of – 87 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz with a power consumption of 4 mW from 1.1-V supply. The active die area is only 54 × 59 μm2.
      PubDate: 2019-03-15
       
  • Functional State of the Neuromotor Apparatus of the Gastrocnemius Muscle
           in Rat Under Microgravity: Effect of Spinal Cord Stimulation
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was the evaluation of the functional state of the neuromotor apparatus of the gastrocnemius muscle in rat under conditions of gravitational unloading, as well as in conditions of gravitational unloading combined with magnetic stimulation of the spinal cord. The electrical potentials of gastrocnemius muscle of the rat evoked by the stimulation of the sciatic nerve were recorded after a week of exposure the animal in the experimental conditions. Parameters of motor response and H-reflex were evaluated. It was found that gravitational unloading caused an increase of the reflex excitability of the motor centers of gastrocnemius muscle of the rat and magnetic stimulation of the spinal cord combined with unloading increased the intensity of transformations. In addition, it was registered the changes of the functional state of the muscle under conditions of gravitational unloading combined with the stimulation of the spinal cord. The detected transformations were probably associated with the activation of adaptation processes in the new motor environment (simulation of the microgravity, restriction of peripheral afferentation including the support afferentation).
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
       
  • Development of a Novel Electrochemical Inhibition Sensor Array Based on
           Bacteria Immobilized on Modified Screen-Printed Gold Electrodes for Water
           Pollution Detection
    • Abstract: The development of a novel and simple inhibition biosensor array for detection of water pollutants based on bacteria immobilized on the surface of the electrodes is the main goal of this work. A series of electrochemical measurements (i.e., cyclic voltammograms) were carried out on modified screen-printed gold electrodes with three types of bacteria, namely Escherichia coli, Shewanella oneidensis, and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), immobilized via poly l-lysine. For comparison purposes, similar measurements were carried out on bacteria samples in solutions; also optical measurements (fluorescence microscopy, optical density, and flow cytometry) were performed on the same bacteria in both liquid and immobilized forms. The study of the effect of heavy metal ions (lead), pesticides (atrazine), and petrochemicals (hexane) on DC electrochemical characteristics of immobilized bacteria revealed a possibility of pattern recognition of the above inhibition agents in an aquatic environment.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
       
  • Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamic of Adsorption of Enzymes on
           Diatomite Clay Materials
    • Abstract: In adsorption experiments, enzymes and diatomite clay minerals that have been used lately are of great importance due to their biological and physicochemical properties. For this purpose, in this study, the adsorption and kinetic parameters of lipase enzyme on diatomite clay were investigated. The diatomite and the lipase enzyme were characterized by SEM, TGA, FTIR, etc. The effect of adsorption kinetic parameters such as pH (from 5.5 to 9), initial of enzyme concentration (0.10–0.35 g L−1), temperature (288–318 K), and ionic strength (1.10−3–7.5.10−3 mol L−1) was investigated, and obtained optimum conditions for the maximum adsorption capacity of diatomite clay were found to be pH 7, temperature of 36.5 °C, and ionic strength of 0.35 g L−1. The kinetic data obtained from experimental studies were investigated using different kinetic models that are pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intra-particle diffusion. The results showed the second-order equation was found to be the best kinetic model for the adsorption process. The activation parameters such as Ea, enthalpy (ΔH), Gibbs free energy (ΔG), and entropy (ΔS) were calculated. The activation parameter results showed that the interaction between diatomite clay and lipase enzyme is a physical interaction and their adsorption process is exothermic. These results indicated that diatomite clay could be used as an adsorbent for the adsorption of lipase on diatomite.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
       
  • Kinetical Release Study of Copper Ferrite Nanoparticle Incorporated on
           PCL/Collagen Nanofiber for Naproxen Delivery
    • Abstract: Nanofiber has become one of tissue engineering examples and has extensive application on medical field, particularly as a wound healing and wound dressing. In this research, nanofiber composite based on polycaprolactone and collagen was successfully obtained via electrospinning process and further developed as host of naproxen as anti-inflammatory agents. Addition of copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) nanoparticles on the nanocomposite becomes an advance part on this study to control of naproxen release. Several characterizations were furnished to prove the design composite nanofiber and its drug release analysis performed to find out the kinetic model and naproxen release mechanism from nanofibers. CuFe2O4 nanoparticles have potential to be used to control naproxen release in nanofiber that lead to decrease level of drug released, where mostly follow the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The release of naproxen was certainly influenced by pH value, in which the drug was easier to release on base, instead of acid or neutral condition. Varied naproxen and nanoparticle compositions were prepared to reach optimum formulation of the release. This study provides fundamental data for the effect of magnetic nanoparticle on drug release process.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
       
  • Tri-Calcium and Zinc Phosphates Solubilization by Aspergillus niger and
           Its Relation to Organic Acids Production
    • Abstract: In recent years, numerous reports have characterized fungi not only to increase the efficiency of phosphate fertilizers but also to increase the availability of phosphorus from insoluble sources of phosphate. Aspergillus niger, as one of the ubiquitous organic acid-producing soil fungus, was screened for the ability to solubilize different concentrations of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and zinc phosphate (ZP) ranging from 100 to 400 ppm. A. niger was able to solubilize TCP and ZP with solubilization index ranging from 2.10 to 3.5 and from 2.06 to 2.26, respectively. A drop in pH from 6.5 to 3.0 and 3.2 as one mechanism of phosphorus solubilization was observed in medium inoculated and supplemented with 400 ppm of TCP and ZP, respectively. A. niger released phosphorus from TCP (23.01 ppm) increasing its concentrations up to 400 ppm associated with increasing calcium releasing. Phosphorus releasing increased (42.16 ppm) with increasing ZP up to 200 ppm, and then decreased with increasing ZP up to 400 ppm associated with the releasing of zinc. HPLC results indicate that organic acids were released in high concentration when TCP and ZP were used with different concentrations compared with the control. For example, oxalic, malic, succinic, citric, and fumaric acid concentrations were 3.61, 3.13, 4.93, 3.17, and 2.11 at 100 ppm of TCP; and 3.09, 5.50, 5.08, 3.80, and 2.35 μg/ml at ZP compared with their concentrations 2.46, 1.83, 2.61, 3.16, and 1.37 μg/ml, respectively, in control.
      PubDate: 2019-03-02
       
  • Effect of Subtilisin-like Proteinase of Bacillus pumilus 3–19 on
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms
    • Authors: Daniil Kabanov; Nailia Khabipova; Lia Valeeva; Margarita Sharipova; Alexey Rogov; Svetlana Kuznetsova; Irina Abaseva; Ayslu Mardanova
      Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common device-associated pathogen and also a model object in biofilm research. In this study biofilm growth dynamics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa RSC-2 strain on different culture media was described. It was shown that Mueller-Hinton broth is more suitable for biofilm growth than Lysogeny broth. In vitro biofilm surface was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Staining with Congo red dye demonstrated that the observed strain can produce amyloid-like fibers that play important role in biofilms and are proposed to be a target for proteinase treatment. The effect of subtilisin-like proteinase of Bacillus pumilus 3–19, trypsin, and proteinase K on biofilm was studied. All of these proteinases can destroy biofilms depending on the time of incubation and enzyme activity. After 4 h of incubation, 18–47% of biofilms were destroyed, which can be linked to the resistance of amyloid proteins to proteolytic degradation. However, an increase in the incubation time (to 24 h) led to complete destruction of biofilm.
      PubDate: 2019-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-019-00617-z
       
  • Biogenic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Avicennia marina Seed
           Extract and Its Antibacterial Potential
    • Authors: Krishna Suresh Babu Naidu; Nelisha Murugan; J. K. Adam; Sershen
      Abstract: Avicennia marina is the most abundant and widely distributed mangrove species and has been used in traditional medicine for treating skin diseases, rheumatism, ulcers, and smallpox. However, the biomedical potential of its seeds remains poorly characterized. The current contribution investigated the antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from aqueous A. marina seed extract. When characterized using UV analysis and TEM analysis, the nanoparticles exhibited maximum absorption at 420 nm and average size of 5–10 nm. Analysis by FTIR revealed eight prominent absorption peaks at 3333, 3305, 2927, 2107, 1565, 1301, 1135, and 773 cm−1 suggesting the involvement of amide, carboxylic, aliphatic amines, and amino acid groups in the seed extract in the capping of nanoparticles. The AgNPs displayed inhibitory activity against a range of human pathogenic bacterial species: Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 5129), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). E. coli was the most sensitive to the silver nanoparticles (MIC 6.25 μg/mL) followed by K. pneumonia and P. aeruginosa (MIC 12.5 μg/mL). E. faecalis was resistant to silver nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AgNPs from A. marina seed extract display broad spectrum antibacterial activity and may be useful in treating antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.
      PubDate: 2019-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-019-00612-4
       
  • Phytogenic Synthesis of Band Gap-Narrowed ZnO Nanoparticles Using the Bulb
           Extract of Costus woodsonii
    • Authors: Mohammad Mansoob Khan; Nurin Hayatus Saadah; Mohammad Ehtisham Khan; Mohammad Hilni Harunsani; Ai Ling Tan; Moo Hwan Cho
      Abstract: The use of biomass for functional nanomaterial is fascinating. Costus woodsonii was used as a green approach to synthesize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles from its bulb (flower). The as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD showed that the commercial ZnO (C-ZnO) and as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were of high purity and displayed a hexagonal wurtzite and well crystalline structure. XPS confirms that Zn was in the + 2 chemical state. FT-IR spectroscopy showed some additional peaks on the as-synthesized ZnO only due to a surface coating of the components of the bulb extract. TEM revealed the morphology, particle size, and high purity of the ZnO nanoparticles. The UV-Vis DRS of the as-synthesized ZnO showed a red shift compared to C-ZnO, which was attributed to the surface coating of the as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. These studies confirmed the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles with a lower band gap, i.e., Eg = 2.66–2.79 eV. Therefore, phytogenic synthesis could be a new or alternate pathway for the synthesis of different types of novel nanomaterials with unique characteristics without altering the basic and fundamental structure.
      PubDate: 2019-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-019-00616-0
       
  • New Approaches to Scaffold Biocompatibility Assessment
    • Authors: A. N. Ivanov; M. S. Saveleva; M. N. Kozadaev; O. V. Matveeva; Yu E. Sal’kovskiy; G. P. Lyubun; D. A. Gorin; I. A. Norkin
      Abstract: At the present day, the biocompatibility assessment of tissue engineering scaffolds and implants is an important issue in regenerative medicine. The present study aims to defining changes of skin microcirculation parameters in the area above scaffold implantation and using them as the criteria of dynamic estimation of biocompatibility. The experiment was performed and statistically approved with 45 white rats. The animals were exposed to subcutaneous scaffold implantation with both biocompatible and non-biocompatible scaffolds (polycaprolactone scaffolds and polycaprolactone scaffolds with adsorbed foreign protein respectively). Skin microcirculation changes in the above-scaffold area were estimated using Laser Doppler flowmetry. The investigation of morphological changes occurred after the implantation was also performed. It has been found that the dynamics of microcirculatory changes correlate with the intensity of the inflammatory reaction occurring in the tissues after scaffold implantation. These facts substantiate the use of tissue perfusion as the criteria of scaffold biocompatibility assessment in subcutaneous implantation tests. The potential and future prospects of non-invasive assessment of biocompatibility by Laser Doppler flowmetry for the optimization of scaffold biocompatibility assessment in subcutaneous implantation tests have received detailed explanation.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-019-00613-3
       
  • Binding Parameters of Magnetite Nanoparticles Interaction with Anticancer
           Drug Doxorubicin
    • Authors: Ekaterina G. Bereznyak; Evgen V. Dukhopelnikov; Daryna A. Pesina; Natalia A. Gladkovskaya; Arthur S. Vakula; Tatyana D. Kalmykova; Sergey I. Tarapov; Stanislav D. Polozov; Nikolay V. Krasnoselsky; Anatoliy G. Belous; Sergey A. Solopan
      Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles have received great interest for their use in cancer diagnostics and therapy. They can be loaded with the chemotherapeutic agents and used for the targeted delivery to the tumor and the retention of the drugs there under the external magnetic field. In the present paper, we investigated the interaction between magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, both bare and coated with trisodium citrate, and anticancer drug doxorubicin in the base and acidic forms, respectively. The changes in the drug absorption spectra in the visible region and the shift of ferromagnetic resonance spectra taking place at the drug-nanoparticle interaction were analyzed. The spectrophotometric titration data were processed using the Langmuir model of equilibrium binding. For both systems, we report the calculated thermodynamic binding parameters including the drug-nanoparticle binding constants and binding site sizes. We show that in order to interact with the doxorubicin molecules in acidic form, the surface of the nanoparticles needs to be modified with trisodium citrate which provides their surface with the negative charge. At the same time, the bare magnetite nanoparticles are able to interact with the base form of the drug. The comparison of the binding parameters in both systems has shown that the nanoparticle-citrate-doxorubicin system is more promising in terms of biomedical application.
      PubDate: 2019-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-019-00614-2
       
  • Anticonvulsant Activity of Dimephosphonum
    • Authors: T. R. Abakumova; A. I. Karpenko; V. N. Khaziakhmetova; L. E. Ziganshina
      Abstract: A novel Russian medicine dimephosphonum at its therapeutic doses of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg showed anti-seizure activity on models of primary generalized seizures caused by corazolum or by maximal electroshock in rats and mice. Dimephosphonum prevented death of rats and mice in both seizure models like reference preparations phenazepam, valproic acid, and levetiracetam. The effects of dimephosphonum were less pronounced compared to phenazepam or valproic acid, but were comparable to those of levetiracetam.
      PubDate: 2019-02-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-019-0609-9
       
  • Comprehensive Analysis of the Major ATPase Activities in the Cow Milk and
           Their Correlations
    • Authors: Sergei Yu. Zaitsev; Elena Yu Fedorova; Vladimir I. Maximov
      Abstract: The major milk proteins are well-studied but the particular activities of some important enzymes (such as milk ATPases) are largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of age and lactation time (in comparison, for the black-and-white and Simmental breeds) on the activity levels of the most important ATPases in the milk fat globule membranes (MFGM), as well as those with season parameters, etc. The significant increases were found for the total- and Na+, K+–ATPase activities in MFGM (21–22% and 51–53% for the abovementioned breeds) with the cow age, whereas only small changes in Mg2+-ATPase activity were obtained (6–7%). The activities of all ATPases studied had the pronounced maximum almost in the middle of lactation time. The major correlations of the ATPase activities in MFGM during all four seasons were found. According to the data obtained, the enzyme activities for all MFGM ATPases studied (of both breeds) could be arranged in the following order: Na+, K+–ATPase > Ca2+-ATPase > HCO3−-ATPase ≥ Mg2+-ATPase. The novel regression equations and data obtained can be used to estimate the MFGM ATPase activities without making all the biochemical measurements.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-019-00610-6
       
  • Green Synthesis of Silver (Ag) Nanoparticles Using Extract of Apple and
           Grape and with Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity
    • Authors: M. Parthibavarman; S. Bhuvaneshwari; M. Jayashree; R. BoopathiRaja
      Abstract: Silver nanoparticles of 15–25-nm size with spherical shape were synthesized from green synthesis method using apple and grape fruits extract. Synthesized Ag NPs were systematically investigated their optical, surface morphological, photocatalytic, and antibacterial properties. Powder XRD results reveals that Ag nanoparticles with face-centered cubic crystal structure and the results are matched well with the standard value (JCPDS no. 04-0783). The spherical shaped morphology and the average diameter of around 15–25 nm were confirmed through SEM and TEM images. The photocatalytic activities of the catalysts were investigated through the degradation of phenol and congo-red (CR) dye aqueous solutions under visible light irradiation. The results demonstrated that grape extract assisted AgNPs showed more recyclability, high stability (only loss ~ 3%), and superior photocatalytic efficiency towards phenol (95%) and CR (98%) dyes than compared to apple extract assisted AgNPs. The AgNPs were further evaluated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and the results accomplished that AgNPs were more active against all pathogenic bacteria. Hence, it can be used for medical applications.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-019-0605-0
       
  • Green Silver Nanoparticles Based Multi-Technique Sensor for Environmental
           Hazardous Cu(II) Ion
    • Authors: Maria Sebastian; Archana Aravind; Beena Mathew
      Abstract: In the present work, we report green synthesized unmodified silver nanoparticles from Moringa oleifera’s bark extract (AgNP-MO) as multifunctional sensor for hazardous Cu(II) ion with high selectivity. The optical and fluorescent sensing of Cu(II) ion in presence of AgNP-MO was investigated and optimized. The intensity of SPR absorption band of AgNP-MO dramatically reduced with Cu(II) ion concentration as a result of complex formation, and it could be recognized by naked eye with a visual detection. The electrochemical activity of silver nanoparticles was explored for the sensing of Cu(II) ion by AgNP-MO-modified platinum electrode (AgNP-MO/PE). The Cu(II) ion selectivity of the developed system was investigated by both techniques. The applicability of developed electrochemical sensor was checked with water samples collected from Vembanad Lake, Kumarakom, Kottayam, Kerala, and electroplating industry. The limit of detection of a developed sensor for Cu(II) ion detection was found at 0.530 μM. The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles from Moringa oleifera was checked against with two waterborne bacteria extracted from the same lake water sample. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports for the electrochemical sensing of Cu(II) ion by AgNP-MO/PE. We expect our present approach to have multifunctional applications in various areas.
      PubDate: 2019-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-019-0608-x
       
  • Terminalia belerica Mediated Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles of Copper,
           Iron and Zinc Metal Oxides as the Alternate Antibacterial Agents Against
           some Common Pathogens
    • Authors: Syed Md Humayun Akhter; Faiz Mohammad; Shamim Ahmad
      Abstract: The present work aims at the green synthesis of metal oxides of zinc, iron, and copper using the aqueous extract of Terminalia belerica as a reductant and stabilizer. The entire reaction process was simple, cost-effective, and convenient to handle without use of any other stabilizing or reducing agents. The successful formation of the metal oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. For thus-prepared nanoparticles were characterized, a series of techniques were employed including Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We used these nanoparticles to demonstrate their antibacterial efficacy against some common standard bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-6538), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-441), Escherichia coli (ATCC-8739), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC-43816), and Salmonella enterica (MTCC-3858). The results indicate that these metal oxide nanoparticles may become a potential candidate for use in biological and pharmaceutical areas to fight against multi-drug resistant superbugs.
      PubDate: 2019-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-019-0601-4
       
  • Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Investigation Antibacterial
           Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pistacia atlantica Leaf Extract
    • Authors: Roonak Golabiazar; Karwan Ismael Othman; Karzan Mohammed Khalid; Dlgash Hammad Maruf; Sharmin Mustafa Aulla; Pshtiwan Abdullah Yusif
      Abstract: The present article reports on a simple, economical, and green preparative strategy for synthesis silver nanoparticle with Pistacia atlantica leaf extract as a reductant, stabilizer, and capping agent. The green AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer, energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. The XRD pattern provided evidence for the formation of face-centered cubic structure with an average size of 17–18 nm. UV-Vis and FTIR were used to identify the biomolecules and capping reagents in the Pistacia atlantica leaf extract that may be responsible for the reduction of silver ions and the stability of the bioreduced nanoparticles. This work proved the capability of using biomaterial towards the synthesis of silver nanoparticle, by adopting the principles of green chemistry. In addition, the antibacterial activity of biologically synthesized nanoparticles was proved against gram-positive (Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Salmonella paratyphi B, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria.
      PubDate: 2019-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-019-0606-z
       
  • Screening Assessment of Renal Function Status in Healthy Smoking
           Volunteers
    • Authors: Sayar R. Abdulkhakov; Evgenii V. Arkhipov; Rashat I. Faizullin; Irina V. Sidorova; Alina A. Ibragimova; Leila R. Gaysina; Julia V. Oslopova; Ekaterina Ju. Pronina; Dilyara D. Safina; Ildaria Kh. Valeeva; Vadim A. Salomatin; Evgeniya V. Gnuchikh; Evgeniya E. Arinina; Andrey P. Kiassov
      Abstract: The study objective was to evaluate the renal function status in overall healthy smokers. Renal function status was studied in 61 apparently healthy smokers aged 21–64 years (49 males and 12 females). The evaluation included taking a history with the smoking status assessment, a physical examination with assessment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood and urine biochemistry, and calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR; CKD-EPI, 2009). The period of observation lasted for 7 days. High blood pressure and obesity had no impact on the kidney function (p > 0.05). Healthy smoking volunteers initially had a high GFR and a “high-normal” urine albumin level as compared to the group of healthy non-smokers (р = 0.000 and р = 0.012, respectively). The risk analysis showed that smoking increased 11-fold the risk of hyperfiltration (RR = 11.1, CI 95% 1.57–76.51, p = 0.001) and 5-fold the occurrence of albuminuria (RR = 5.1, CI 95% 0.71–36.99, p = 0.009) in smokers without initial renal pathology as compared to never-smokers. Those who abstained from smoking showed a moderate decrease of albuminuria (p = 0.049). Systematic tobacco consumption contributes to the development of a renal dysfunction with the occurrence of albuminuria and hyperfiltration (GFR ≥ 125 ml/min/1.73 m2). Timely smoking cessation promotes the regression of albuminuria.
      PubDate: 2019-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s12668-019-0602-3
       
 
 
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