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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 891 journals)
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    - CHEMISTRY (621 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (621 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 273)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 348)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 191)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 252)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery
  Number of Followers: 10  
    
   Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
   ISSN (Print) 2190-6815 - ISSN (Online) 2190-6823
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Thermochemical characterization of biochar from cocoa pod husk prepared at
           low pyrolysis temperature
    • Authors: Chi-Hung Tsai; Wen-Tien Tsai; Sii-Chew Liu; Yu-Quan Lin
      Pages: 237 - 243
      Abstract: In this work, cocoa pod husk (CPH), a processing by-product from the cocoa industry, was evaluated as a potential feedstock for preparing biochar fuel at relatively low pyrolysis temperature. First, its thermochemical characteristics, including the calorific value and mineral component analyses, were investigated, showing that the bioresource obviously contained a large percentage of volatile matter. It thus had a higher heating value of 17.8 MJ/kg but showed a higher potassium content in ash (i.e., 4.03 wt%). A series of CPH-based biochars (i.e., CPHBC) were produced at different temperatures (i.e., 190, 220, 250, 280, 310, 340, and 370 °C) and residence times (i.e., 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The resulting biochars were subject to the analyses of chemical and thermal properties. The calorific value of resulting biochar indicated an increasing trend with pyrolysis temperature, but there was slightly decreasing change at the longer residence time under the fixed pyrolysis temperature (i.e., 370 °C). The optimal biochar product had a thermochemical characteristics with high carbon (>60 wt%) and calorific value (>25 MJ/kg, dry basis). Furthermore, the CPH-based biochar showed a lignite-like feature based on the O/C and H/C molar ratios, but it would not be appropriate to be fired in boilers because of its high mineral contents (i.e., potassium).
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0259-5
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Miscanthus as biogas feedstock: influence of harvest time and stand age on
           the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of two different growing seasons
    • Authors: Axel Schmidt; Sébastien Lemaigre; Thorsten Ruf; Philippe Delfosse; Christoph Emmerling
      Pages: 245 - 254
      Abstract: The use of perennial crops instead of maize as feedstock in biogas plants can be associated with multiple environmental and economic benefits. One promising species in this domain is the C4-grass Miscanthus × giganteus. The use of its biomass can mitigate carbon dioxide emissions by substitution of fossil fuels, sequestration of carbon in soils and reduced fertilizing. We compared Miscanthus from two different old fields (established 1995 and 2008) at three different harvest dates over 2 years. While the harvest in spring, like usual for combustion purposes, led to relatively low methane yields per hectare, the harvest in autumn, when the biomass is still green, exceeded the average methane yields per hectare of maize. The comparison of different old Miscanthus fields showed that there is no significant difference in terms of biomass yield, specific BMP and BMP per hectare. Only the influence of repeated autumn harvest showed differences in the methane production per hectare between both stand ages. The methane yield of the younger stand did not change considerable, while in the older stand, the productivity decreased about 15% after 1 year.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0274-6
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Integral valorization of tagasaste ( Chamaecytisus proliferus ) under
           thermochemical processes
    • Authors: J. M. Loaiza; F. López; M. T. García; J. C. García; M. J. Díaz
      Pages: 265 - 274
      Abstract: The generation of compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass fractionation has a boost in recent years. An interesting plant could be tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus) due to its high biomass production and its leguminous nature. A sequence of acid hydrolysis, as pretreatment, and pyrolysis of the solid residue, as treatment, has been used in its valorization. An experimental design (H2SO4 acid concentration 0.5–2%, temperature 130–170 °C, and time 30–60 min) has been used to study the hydrolysis process. In the proposed acid hydrolysis process, under 170 °C as operational temperature, 0.5% of H2SO4 and 30 min for the operation time, 91.75% of the initial xylose have been extracted. The thermal behavior of both tagasaste trunks-large branches and some solid residues after hydrolysis (furthest and center points in the experimental design) process and raw material have been studied by thermogravimetric analysis under nitrogen atmosphere at different heating rates (5, 10, 15, and 20 °C min−1). The thermal degradation of the studied materials is influenced by its initial composition. Then, the higher reactivity of hemicelluloses can accelerate the pyrolysis degradation reaction. However, higher cellulose content implies lower activation energy in pyrolysis process.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0258-6
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Production of diesel from biomass and wind power – Energy storage by the
           use of the Fischer-Tropsch process
    • Authors: S. Müller; P. Groß; R. Rauch; R. Zweiler; C. Aichernig; M. Fuchs; H. Hofbauer
      Pages: 275 - 282
      Abstract: An increasing share of power production from sun and wind energy in Europe led to an increasing interest in novel energy storage technologies. The production of hydrogen from electricity via electrolysis enables the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy, which can be stored with high energy density, if further process steps are applied. The Fischer-Tropsch process is well-known for the production of diesel fuel from different fuel types. Within the present work, results of an experimental campaign with a laboratory-scale Fischer-Tropsch plant are illustrated. The described experimental campaign was executed to determine the performance of a diesel fuel production from biomass. Furthermore, the investigation included the integration of hydrogen from wind power promoting a combined power-to-gas and biomass-to-liquid process. As a result, the investigated process is aiming at the storage of wind energy by the use of a chemical process enabling high energy density. Therefore, extensive measurement data was collected illustrating the influence of load changes on the operated laboratory-scale Fischer-Tropsch plant. The experimental campaign showed that an increased gas stream feed, enabled by the addition of hydrogen from wind power, leads to an increased output of Fischer-Tropsch products. Furthermore, the executed experimental campaign proved the suitability of different catalysts with respect to fluctuating load changes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0287-1
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste: simplified process simulation
           model based on experimental results
    • Authors: Kyle McGaughy; M. Toufiq Reza
      Pages: 283 - 292
      Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was performed on homogenized food waste (FW) in a batch reactor at 200, 230, and 260 °C for 30 min. Solid product, called hydrochar, was characterized by means of ultimate analysis, proximate analysis, higher heating value (HHV), and ash content. On the other hand, liquid products were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), total carbon, and pH. HHV of FW was increased from 25.1 to 33.1 MJ kg−1 by HTC. Ash content is less than 3% for hydrochars as well as the raw FW. Fixed carbon increased from 18.8 to 22.4% with the increase of HTC temperature. Fuel characteristics indicate hydrochar as a potential solid fuel and carbon storage. Therefore, a simplified simulation model was created for a continuous process that performs HTC of 1 t of FW per day. It was determined that HTC of food waste has potential to be a viable process for the production of solid fuel, primarily due to ease of drying product char.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0276-4
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Investigation of the textural and adsorption properties of activated
           carbon from HTC and pyrolysis carbonizates
    • Authors: Catalina Rodríguez Correa; Chatri Ngamying; Dietmar Klank; Andrea Kruse
      Pages: 317 - 328
      Abstract: Bamboo was converted into a microporous activated carbon (AC) following either a one- or a two-step activation process with KOH. The main objective was to analyze the influence of the carbonization process (pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC)) and mixing method of KOH (dry mixing or impregnation) on the AC textural properties as well as on the adsorption capacity of water-soluble pollutants and hydrogen (H2) storage. The highest AC yields were obtained after a two-step activation process. These ACs presented the largest surface areas (2000–2500 m2 g−1) and the best adsorption capacities not only in aqueous media but also of H2. The type of carbonization process did not have a significant effect on yield and adsorption capacities, but it did affect the surface area and pore size distribution. HTC led to ACs with a larger total pore volume than ACs from pyrolysis, but the microporous surface area was smaller. KOH impregnation led to slightly but significantly higher yields than mixing KOH dry; yet, the textural and adsorption properties were not significantly improved. KOH impregnation led to slightly but significantly higher yields than mixing KOH dry; yet, the surface area and pore size distribution as well as adsorption properties were not significantly improved. H2 adsorption capacity was highest for ACs from impregnated hydrochar, followed closely by ACs from pyrochars. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0280-8
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Analysis of pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of Euphausia superba
           shell waste using TG-FTIR and distributed activation energy model
    • Authors: Yuhui Ma; Jing Wang; Yushan Zhang
      Pages: 329 - 337
      Abstract: Pyrolysis of Euphausia superba shell waste (ESW) was investigated by using a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG-FTIR). The kinetic parameters of pyrolysis reactions were obtained via the distributed activation energy model (DAEM). Experimental results showed that the temperature at which the highest weight loss rate occurred increased from 280 to 315 °C as the heating rate increased from 5 to 30 °C min−1. Almost all the volatiles were evolved between 300 and 350 °C, while CH4 and aliphatic C–H were also produced at higher-temperature regions. A large amount of CO2 was generated above 650 °C by the decomposition of carbonates, and it can be further reduced to CO by ESW char. CO2 was the main non-condensable product, and ketones were the dominating condensable products. The activation energy of pyrolysis reactions increased from 79 to 392 kJ mol−1 for conversion rates 0.13 to 0.54. The linear relationship between the natural logarithm of the frequency factor and activation energy was also established. The activation energy approximately followed Gaussian distribution, and the mean activation energy was 162 kJ mol−1.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0281-7
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Dilute acid hydrolysis of p -cresol-impregnated wood meal
    • Authors: Tomoyuki Hata; Hiroshi Nonaka
      Pages: 339 - 343
      Abstract: Dilute acid hydrolysis is typically conducted on wood to hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose into their compositional sugars, furfurals, or organic acids. However, lignin obtained in this process, also called hydrolysis lignin, cannot be generally used as a functional material. To overcome uncontrolled self-condensation of lignin, wood meal was impregnated with a small amount of p-cresol, and then, acid hydrolysis was performed with 1.1% sulfuric acid at 180 °C for 60 min. The cresol hardly changed the main products in the hydrolysate: glucose, formic acid, and levulinic acid. Much larger amount of lignin was extracted from the hydrolysis residue with tetrahydrofuran or by soda cooking than in the process without p-cresol impregnation. It seemed that the impregnated p-cresol was covalently bonded to lignin during acid hydrolysis and successfully prevented the self-condensation of lignin molecules, contributing improvement of the solubility of the resultant lignin in organic solvents or aqueous sodium hydroxide. Our hydrolysis process balances the valorization of carbohydrate with that of lignin.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0282-6
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Methyl β -cyclodextrin as a booster for the extraction for Olea europaea
           leaf polyphenols with a bio-based deep eutectic solvent
    • Authors: Vassilis Athanasiadis; Spyros Grigorakis; Stavros Lalas; Dimitris P. Makris
      Pages: 345 - 355
      Abstract: A novel deep eutectic solvent (DES) with optimised composition was used to evaluate the effect of methyl β-cyclodextrin (CD) on the efficiency of polyphenol extraction from Olea europaea leaves (OLLs). The process developed was based on a 23 full-factorial design and response surface methodology to assess the simultaneous effect of CD concentration (C CD), liquid-to-solid ratio (R L/S ) and temperature (T). Under optimised conditions (C CD = 9%, R L/S = 40 mL g−1, T = 51 °C), the yield in total polyphenols (Y TP) was 116.65 ± 3.60 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight. This value was significantly higher than that determined for the extraction performed with 60% aqueous ethanol. The extraction kinetics also showed that the extraction rate was slowed down in the presence of CD, yet the higher extraction capacity of the DES/CD medium was confirmed. Characterisation of the extracts obtained with DES/CD and DES by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated that there was no selective extraction of any particular polyphenol, suggesting that CD acted merely as an extraction booster.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0283-5
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A novel dual-bed for steam gasification of biomass
    • Authors: Y. H. Li; Z. Chen; P. Watkinson; X. Bi; J. Grace; C. J. Lim; N. Ellis
      Pages: 357 - 367
      Abstract: A unique indirect steam gasification system for biomass has been developed and tested. The unit features a bubbling bed gasifier equipped with a “sore thumb” and central standpipe, which circulate a mixture of bed material and char through a U-bend to a riser in which char combustion occurs. Re-circulated silica sand from the riser is returned to the bubbling bed through a trickle valve at sufficiently high temperatures to drive biomass gasification. Factors which govern re-circulation of solids are explored and pressure profiles demonstrated. Gasification tests using wood pellets fed at 10–15 kg/h showed that syngas with heating value of about 12 MJ/m3 and nitrogen contents < 5% can be produced. Trends of gas composition versus bed temperature are established. The char combustor required a continuous flow of auxiliary fuel (natural gas) to compensate for high heat losses in the system. Circulation rates were such that riser top temperatures roughly 100 °C above those of the bubbling bed were adequate to provide the gasification heat, without auxiliary fuel to the gasification stage.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0288-0
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Reduction of inorganics from macroalgae Laminaria digitata and spent
           mushroom compost (SMC) by acid leaching and selective hydrothermal
           liquefaction
    • Authors: Saqib Sohail Toor; Lukas Jasiunas; Chunbao Xu; Iulia M. Sintamarean; Donghong Yu; Asbjørn H. Nielsen; Lasse A. Rosendahl
      Pages: 369 - 377
      Abstract: Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising route for producing bio-crude from various biomass feedstocks. However, high content of inorganic constituents in biomass like macroalgae Laminaria digitata and spent mushroom compost (SMC) affect the conversion process and the resulting fuel products. This research studied the effects of different acid leaching treatments on such feedstocks, subsequent HTL, and bio-crude properties. Leaching treatments were performed using five different agents: deionized water, acetic acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid. Performance of leaching was evaluated by analyzing both leached biomass and HTL products by elemental analysis, ash content, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Catalytic and non-catalytic HTL of both feedstocks before and after treatment were performed in a 10-mL microreactor at 400 °C with a holding time of 15 min and pressures of 27–30 MPa. For macroalgae, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were found the most effective in reducing the ash content from 30.42 to 20.45 and 20.87%, respectively, followed by acetic and citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 21.5 and 22.15%, respectively. Similarly for SMC, citric acid and acetic acid were found the most effective in reducing the ash content from 50.34 to 37.04 and 39.94%, respectively. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for the leaching. The results from HTL of untreated and citric acid-treated biomass showed that the acid leaching resulted in an increase in bio-crude yields from 20.7 to 29.2% (dry ash-free basis) for macroalgae and from 22.9 to 25.1% for SMC.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0290-6
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Assessment of zeolite 13X and Lewatit® VP OC 1065 for application in a
           continuous temperature swing adsorption process for biogas upgrading
    • Authors: Elisabeth Sonnleitner; Gerhard Schöny; Hermann Hofbauer
      Pages: 379 - 395
      Abstract: Two commercially available CO2-adsorbent materials (i.e., zeolite 13X (13X) and Lewatit® VP OC 1065 (Lewatit)) were evaluated for their applicability in a continuous temperature swing adsorption (TSA) process for biogas upgrading. The equilibrium adsorption characteristics of carbon dioxide and methane were determined by fixed bed and TGA tests. While relatively high CO2 capacities were measured for both materials (3.6 and 2.5 mol kg−1), neither of them was found to adsorb significant amounts of CH4. Lewatit showed to be fully regenerable at 95 °C, whereas for 13X, the regeneration was not complete at this temperature. However, 13X showed no degradation up to 190 °C, whereas Lewatit started to degrade at 110 and 90 °C when exposed to N2 and air, respectively. Fluidization tests showed that Lewatit provides a high mechanical stability, while on the contrary, the tested 13X showed considerable attrition. An equilibrium adsorption model was fitted to the measured CO2 adsorption data. The adsorption model was then integrated into an existing simulation tool for the proposed TSA process to roughly estimate the expectable regeneration energy demand for both materials. It was found that depending on the operating conditions, the regeneration energy demand lies between 0.32–0.54 kWhth/m3prodgas for 13X and 0.71–1.10 kWhth/m3prodgas for Lewatit. Since heat integration measures were not considered in the simulations, it was concluded that the proposed TSA process has a great potential to reduce the overall energy demand for biogas upgrading and that both tested adsorbent materials may be suitable for application in the proposed TSA process.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0293-3
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of organosolv pretreatment for bioethanol production from
           lignocellulosic biomass: solvent recycle and process integration
    • Authors: André Rodrigues Gurgel da Silva; Massimiliano Errico; Ben-Guang Rong
      Pages: 397 - 411
      Abstract: The production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic feedstock has proven to be a complex task due to the recalcitrant structure of the biomass. Organosolv pretreatment is a promising alternative to remove nearly pure lignin from the biomass and make the sugars available for conversion. However, in order for the organosolv pretreatment to be technically feasible, an efficient solvent recycle is required. This work studied the complete process for lignocellulosic bioethanol production based on organosolv pretreatment method. First, process synthesis is applied to devise six process alternatives for the bioethanol production based on theoretical and experimental works. The analysis was focused on the solvent recovery and recirculation, integrating the pretreatment and product separation and purification areas. Technical and economic indicators were employed to reveal the best alternative among the proposed designs. The results showed that the minimum ethanol selling price for the process was US$1.27/kg of ethanol with a total energy consumption of 29.02 kWh per kilogram of ethanol produced, with 43% of that from hot utilities and 57% from cold utilities.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0292-4
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • A quick and effective method for evaluating substrate-enzyme systems in
           the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass
    • Authors: Javier Ulises Hernández-Beltrán; Karla Cervantes-Quintero; Héctor Hernández-Escoto
      Pages: 437 - 446
      Abstract: This work describes a microreaction technique to carry out hydrolysis of certain substrate by certain enzyme under several conditions, and reports its usefulness to determine effective process conditions and to compare performances between different systems substrate-enzyme, in a quick and economic way. The microreaction system consists of microtubes, as microreactors, that are placed into a thermomixer, allowing a set of 24 experiments at a certain constant temperature but with different pH and substrate-enzyme ratios. The outcomes of the numerous experiments are processed via response surface methodology and means analysis. In order to illustrate the technique effectiveness, it is discussed the comparison of two commercial enzyme complexes, and two delignification procedures of wheat straw.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0297-z
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • An integrated approach for extracting fuel, chemicals, and residual carbon
           using pine needles
    • Authors: Vinod Kumar; Manisha Nanda; Monu Verma; Ajay Singh
      Pages: 447 - 454
      Abstract: The present study describes an integrated method that can be used to sequentially extract five economically important fractions viz., essential oil, organic acids, resin, cellulose, and residual carbon from biomass of pine needles. It is a simple but very effective approach which can give consistent yields from the residual biomass with every successive extraction step. For example, aqueous extracts 0.2 ± 0.5 ml/g, essential oil 0.03 ± 0.1 ml/g, resin 64.125 ± 0.2 mg/g, and 302.20 ± 04 mg/g of sugar and 1 ± 0.3 g of residual carbon. Sugars were further fermented under optimized conditions for the production of ethanol (18.2 ± 0.4 g/l). These yields were compared to direct processing of the individual components. Residual carbon obtained after hydrolysis was used for the preparation of activated carbon. This combined ethanol production and chemical extraction approach may provide a compelling model for a biorefinery and increasing commercial viability.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0304-z
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Updates on the pretreatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy
           production–a review
    • Authors: Karthik Rajendran; Edward Drielak; V. Sudarshan Varma; Shanmugaprakash Muthusamy; Gopalakrishnan Kumar
      Pages: 471 - 483
      Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable energy bioresources available today. Due to its recalcitrant structure, lignocellulosic feedstocks cannot be directly converted into fermentable sugars. Thus, an additional step known as the pretreatment is needed for efficient enzyme hydrolysis for the release of sugars. Various pretreatment technologies have been developed and examined for different biomass feedstocks. One of the major concerns of pretreatments is the degradation of sugars and formation of inhibitors during pretreatment. The inhibitor formation affects in the following steps after pretreatments such as enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation for the release of different bioenergy products. The sugar degradation and formation of inhibitors depend on the types and conditions of pretreatment and types of biomass. This review covers the structure of lignocellulose, followed by the factors affecting pretreatment and challenges of pretreatment. This review further discusses diverse types of pretreatment technologies and different applications of pretreatment for producing biogas, biohydrogen, ethanol, and butanol.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0269-3
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Microreactor technology for biodiesel production: a review
    • Authors: Akansha Madhawan; Arzoo Arora; Jyoti Das; Arindam Kuila; Vinay Sharma
      Pages: 485 - 496
      Abstract: Due to a rise in global demand for energy and an increase in greenhouse gases, biodiesel has been accepted as an alternative fuel because of its biodegradability, low environment detrimental effect, better quality of exhaust gas emission, and renewability. Biodiesel is a mixture of monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids also known as fatty acid methyl esters. Transesterification is the most commonly adopted technique for the production process. But the conventional biodiesel technology has its own disadvantages. Process intensification technologies can overcome these drawbacks. Some novel reactors such as microchannel reactor, static mixers, oscillatory flow reactors, and spinning tube reactors have been developed so as to improve mass transfer and mixing. These technologies can achieve rapid and high reaction rates due to the high surface area/volume ratio and short diffusion distance thus intensifying the transesterification process. Various factors such as alcohol to triglyceride molar ratio, microchannel size, residence time, reaction temperature, mixing mechanism, and catalyst affect the production process. Although biodiesel production has been commercialized in several countries, it still requires a clean, effective, and environment-friendly technology to make it cost-effective and increase its competency against conventional fossil fuels. Microreactor technology, however, has proved to be a benchmark to serve this purpose. The current review paper provides an overview about different types of microreactors used in biodiesel production and the parameters affecting biodiesel production in microreactors. The microreactor technology discussed in this paper aims to improve the production process by decreasing the reaction time from hours to minutes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0296-0
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Rice straw and rice husks as energy sources—comparison of direct
           combustion and biogas production
    • Authors: Sven Baetge; Martin Kaltschmitt
      Abstract: Rice straw and rice husks occur in large quantities as side streams of the world wide rice production. These side streams can be used as a renewable source of energy via the biochemical as well as the thermochemical conversion route. Exemplarily for samples from various South-East Asian countries, the most important characterizing figures are measured analytically. Then, the two conversion routes—based on a thermochemical as well as on a biochemical conversion—are discussed in detail. Based on such technological solutions as well as the measured data, nine case studies for each conversion system are defined and assessed related to the levelized costs of electricity (LCOEl) and energy (LCOEn). Additionally, the specific substrate demands (SSDs) and specific land demands (SLDs) are calculated indicating the mass and area efficiency of chosen substrates and systems.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0321-y
       
  • Experimental design and economic analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
           synthesis from fructose in acetone-water system using niobium phosphate as
           catalyst
    • Abstract: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) production from fructose was studied by using niobium phosphate as solid acid catalyst. HMF selectivity was optimized in a water-acetone system and compared to a water system. The HMF optimal selectivity for process carried out in the water-acetone system was 62.94%. When the process was performed in water, the HMF selectivity achieved 55.73%. These results were used in a large-scale simulation and economic analysis of the two processes. The higher selectivity of system water-acetone affected the HMF minimum selling price (MSP). The MSP value was 2.21 USD/kg for process performed in water-acetone and 3.05 USD/kg for process in water. In the sensitivity analysis, we have found that in addition to process selectivity, the fructose cost was the most significant factor affecting HMF price.
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0319-5
       
  • A comparable study on the hot-water treatment of wheat straw and okra
           stalk prior to delignification
    • Authors: Saleem Ullah; Hannu Pakkanen; Joni Lehto; Raimo Alén
      Abstract: Wheat straw and okra stalk were studied to evaluate their potential use for integrated lignocellulosic biorefining. Besides chemical pulp, a wide spectrum of value-added by-products were prepared by hot-water extraction of the feedstocks under varying conditions (140 °C for 60 and 240 min and 150 °C for 25 and 100 min) prior to sulfur-free soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping (NaOH charge 15 and 20% by weight on o.d. feedstock for wheat straw and okra stalk, respectively, with an AQ charge of 0.05% by weight on o.d. for both feedstocks). During the hot-water pre-treatment, the most significant mass removal, respectively, 12% (w/w) and 23% (w/w) of the initial wheat straw and okra stalk was obtained at 150 °C with a treatment time of 100 min. The hydrolysates were characterized in terms of pH and the content of carbohydrates (6–20% (w/w) of the initial amount), volatile acids (acetic and formic acids), and furans. The pre-treatment stage also facilitated the delignification stage, and, for example, the pulp yields (w/w), 57% (145 °C, 15 min, and kappa number 18) and 41% (165 °C, 180 min, and kappa number 32) were obtained for the pre-treated (150 °C, P200) wheat straw and okra stalk, respectively. Results clearly indicated that both non-wood materials were suitable for this kind of biorefining approach.
      PubDate: 2018-03-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0306-x
       
 
 
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