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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 881 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (54 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (616 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (43 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (48 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (616 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 355)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 256)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.493
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 2190-6815 - ISSN (Online) 2190-6823
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2348 journals]
  • Enzymatic production of wheat and ryegrass derived xylooligosaccharides
           and evaluation of their in vitro effect on pig gut microbiota
    • Authors: Gleb Dotsenko; Anne S. Meyer; Nuria Canibe; Anders Thygesen; Michael Krogsgaard Nielsen; Lene Lange
      Pages: 497 - 507
      Abstract: This study examines enzymatic production of linear xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and branched arabinoxylooligosaccharides (AXOS) from monocotyledonous biomass, wheat straw and ryegrass, and compares the in vitro effects of these XOS and AXOS on pig gut microbiota. XOS and AXOS were obtained from the biomass by treatment with different endo-1,4-β-xylanases. XOS of DP2-6 from wheat straw, obtained after treatment with Aspergillus niger endo GH11, suppressed growth of Clostridium perfringens and resulted in a high level of lactic acid production when fermented in vitro by pig fecal microbiota. Analogously, XOS ryegrass produced in the same way also suppressed Cl. perfringens growth, and more so than the corresponding ryegrass AXOS, but AXOS exhibited a more pronounced stimulation of lactic acid bacteria growth than XOS. The prebiotic potential, i.e., suppression of Cl. perfringens and stimulation of lactic acid bacteria, for the ryegrass oligosaccharides was as follows: XOS, produced by A. niger endo-1,4-β-xylanase (GH 11) ≥ AXOS, produced by Thermotoga maritima and Cellvibrio mixtus endo-1,4-β-xylanase s (GH10) > AXOS, produced by Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus aculeatus endo-1,4-β-xylanase s (GH11). These results indicate that wheat straw as well as green grass biomass such as ryegrass have potential as new sources of putative prebiotics for pig feed.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0298-y
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Ultrasonic pretreatment for low-temperature hydrothermal liquefaction of
           microalgae: enhancing the bio-oil yield and heating value
    • Authors: Mohammad Saber; Abooali Golzary; Hu Wu; Fumitake Takahashi; Kunio Yoshikawa
      Pages: 509 - 519
      Abstract: We investigated the effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on the bio-oil yield and heating value in the low-temperature hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. HTL is one of the thermochemical processes for bio-oil production. However, the high pressure of the process is one of the main challenges for commercialization. On the other hand, a decrease in the HTL pressure, and consequently a decrease in the temperature, results in a decrease in the bio-oil yield. In this work, we investigated a new method to increase the bio-oil yield at low pressures and temperatures. The microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp.) were first pretreated by ultrasonic waves for 30, 60, and 90 s at 100 W. After then, the bio-oil was produced using HTL at 210, 230, and 250 °C. According to the results, using ultrasonic-assisted HTL increased the bio-oil yield up to the maximum of 28.9% (90-s sonication time at 250 °C). Moreover, applying ultrasonic pretreatment resulted in a decrease in oxygen content of the bio-oil and consequently an increase in its heating value. However, the average nitrogen content did not change dramatically by using ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0300-8
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Characterization of acid-leaching cocoa pod husk (CPH) and its resulting
           activated carbon
    • Authors: Wen-Tien Tsai; Po-Cheng Huang
      Pages: 521 - 528
      Abstract: In order to enhance the adsorption capacity of activated carbon (AC) from cocoa pod husk (CPH) and reuse the solution after the acid-leaching of CPH as a liquid fertilizer, CPH was first leached by acid and then used as a precursor (CPH-A) for preparing ACs by physical activation at a temperature range of 650–850 °C in this work. Based on the proximate analysis, mineral compositions, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermochemical properties, the differences between CPH and CPH-A were investigated. The chemical and pore properties of the resulting ACs were further studied. The results show that the pretreatment of CPH with hydrochloric acid led to removal of over 90% of the ash content in the CPH, mainly composed of potassium minerals. The Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area of the AC derived from CPH-A at 650 °C is 355.8 m2/g, significantly larger than that (i.e., 1.1 m2/g) of the AC derived from CPH. The higher activation temperature (e.g., 900 °C) is beneficial to the pore development of the resulting AC (e.g., BET surface area ˃ 1300 m2/g). In addition, the carbon (C) and sulfur (S) contents of the resulting ACs indicate an increasing trend as the temperature increased from 650 to 850 °C, but a decreasing trend in the hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O) contents.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0302-1
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Dilute acid and alkaline pretreatment of spent tea leaves to determine the
           potential of carbon sources
    • Authors: Mustafa Germec; Nour Ben Bader; Irfan Turhan
      Pages: 529 - 544
      Abstract: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the worldwide. Therefore, spent tea leaves (STL) are abundant low-cost lignocellulosic materials and can be evaluated as a carbon source for the production of value-added products by fermentation. The aim of this study was to optimize the dilute acid and alkaline pretreatment conditions of STL. The optimal conditions were determined by response surface method (RSM) in terms of fermentable sugars concentration (FSC) and total phenolics concentration (PHC). Independent variables were selected as temperature (115–135 °C), pretreatment time (20–60 min), solid-to-liquid ratio (1:8–1:16 w/v), and dilute acid (1–5% v/v) or alkaline (1–3 N) ratio. It was found that the optimum conditions for dilute acid pretreatment were 131.67 °C, 20 min, 1:10.26 w/v, and 1.58% v/v, which yielded as 21.56 g/L, 0.228 g/g, and 1.53 g/L for FSC, FSY, and PHC, respectively. Nevertheless, the best dilute alkaline pretreatment conditions were 116.42 °C, 20 min, 1:11.23 w/v, and 1.68 N, which achieved as 28.18 g/L, 0.316 g/g, and 5.26 g/L for FSC, FSY, and PHC, respectively. Nevertheless, based on the statistical evaluation, it was found that RSM models victoriously fitted the experimental data related to the pretreatment of STL. Consequently, acid and alkaline pretreated-STL can be considered as suitable carbon source for value-added products’ production by fermentation.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0301-2
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • High-grade activated carbon from pyrolytic biochar of Jatropha and Karanja
           oil seed cakes—Indian biodiesel industry wastes
    • Authors: Sonal Garg; Piyali Das
      Pages: 545 - 561
      Abstract: Most of the commercially available pyrolysis plants use fluidized bed technologies where bio-oil is the major product and the biochar produced is combusted for process heat. However, auger-based technologies are now gaining importance because of their small to medium scale of operation and decentralized nature where biochar is obtained as a by-product. One of the factors which may greatly influence the techno-economic viability of such decentralized plants is making high-grade carbon from pyrolytic biochar. In the present study, Jatropha and Karanja oil seed cake-based biochar is obtained as a by-product in a pilot-scale (20 kg/h) direct gas-fired auger pyrolysis process at 500 °C under fast pyrolysis conditions that is originally aimed at maximizing the bio-oil yield. The biochar has low surface area and porosity. To value add to this carbon, downstream physical and chemical activation are carried out in an externally heated laboratory-scale reactor. CO2 activation resulted in the formation of activated carbon with BET surface area up to ~ 200 m2/g with marginal improvement in porosity, while K2CO3 activation enhanced the surface area to as high as 2400 m2/g along with substantial enhancement of porosity.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0308-8
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Alkaline extraction of seaweed carrageenan hydrocolloids using cocoa pod
           husk ash
    • Authors: Nanna Rhein-Knudsen; Marcel Tutor Ale; Søren Rasmussen; Simon Kjær Kamp; Joseph A. Bentil; Anne S. Meyer
      Pages: 577 - 583
      Abstract: The cocoa industry in Ghana is the second largest in the world, and it generates huge amounts of cocoa pod husks, which currently represent a disposal problem as no significant use has been found for them. The husks are rich in potassium, which may be used for alkaline hydrocolloid extraction from red seaweeds. Chemical and rheological properties of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii and the Ghanaian red seaweed Hypnea musciformis extracted by KOH (benchmark) or by a cocoa pod husk ash solution were compared. Similar extraction yields and successful modification of the seaweed hydrocolloids with 3,6-anhydro-galactopyranose and sulfate contents of 37–38 and 16–17%, respectively, were obtained with cocoa pod husk ash and KOH extraction. Gel strengths of the κ-carrageenans were also similar: G′ at 25 °C were 5780 Pa with cocoa pod husk ash and 5930 Pa with KOH. These findings have implications for industrial waste biomass utilization and sustainable green growth development of seaweed hydrocolloid processing in Ghana.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0305-y
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Hydrothermal liquefaction of kraft lignin in sub-critical water: the
           influence of the sodium and potassium fraction
    • Authors: Tallal Belkheiri; Sven-Ingvar Andersson; Cecilia Mattsson; Lars Olausson; Hans Theliander; Lennart Vamling
      Pages: 585 - 595
      Abstract: As a part of developing a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process to valorise lignin, it is important to consider integration possibilities with existing infrastructures in order to obtain an overall positive economic impact. One obvious example is to integrate the HTL process with the kraft pulp mill: transport and storage costs is reduced, the temperature levels on process streams can be matched (energy integration) and the recovery/use of alkali can be made efficient. In this study, softwood kraft lignin was depolymerised using sub-critical water (623 K; 25 MPa) in a continuous, small pilot unit with a flow rate of 2 kg/h. ZrO2, K2CO3/KOH and Na2CO3/NaOH were used as catalytic system, and phenol as the capping agent. The influence of the ratio between sodium and potassium in the feed on the yield and composition of the product stream was investigated. The results showed that bio-oil, water-soluble organics (WSO) and char yields were not remarkably influenced by shifting the catalytic system from potassium to sodium. Moreover, the yields of most phenolic compounds did not change significantly when the sodium fraction was varied in the feed. The amounts of suspended solids in the bio-oil produced showed, however, a diminishing trend, (decrease from 10.8 to 3.8%) when the sodium fraction was increased in the feed, whilst the opposite trend was observed for the heavy oil, which increased from 24.6 to 37.6%.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0307-9
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Production of volatile fatty acids from slaughterhouse blood by
           mixed-culture fermentation
    • Authors: Jersson Plácido; Yue Zhang
      Pages: 621 - 634
      Abstract: The volatile fatty acid (VFA) production potential from animal blood and the factors affecting this process were investigated in this study. In order to simulate an industrial process different operation modes, batch, fed batch and semi-continuous, were also evaluated. Due to high ammonia concentration in fermentation broth, VFA concentration up to 100 g L−1 was achieved without addition of buffer and methanogen inhibitor. In general, acetic, n-butyric and iso-valeric acids were the most predominant species, although different operational conditions affected the VFA concentration, profile, production rate and yield. The microbial community analysis was conducted on the reactors with the best performance, revealing that 70–90% of the microbial population was from the Clostridiales order with a strong presence from the Sporanaerobacter genus. These results demonstrated the feasibility of a VFA platform bio-refinery using high-protein wastes as substrate via mixed-culture fermentation under non-sterilised conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0313-y
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Utilisation of a waste biomass, walnut shells, to produce bio-products via
           pyrolysis: investigation using ISO-conversional and neural network methods
           
    • Authors: Tanveer Rasool; Vimal Chandra Srivastava; M. N. S. Khan
      Pages: 647 - 657
      Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the kinetic, thermodynamics and the reaction mechanism of pyrolysis of native walnut shells of Kashmir, India. Thermal degradation experiments were performed at three heating rates of 10, 25, and 50 K min−1 to calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, using iso-conversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunrose (KAS) and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) models. The reaction mechanism was predicted by applying Coats-Redfern (CR) method. Moreover, an artificial neural network (ANN) simulation was used to obtain best fit points after comparing the experimental data with the predicted data points. Average activation energy was calculated from the thermogravimetric study was found to be in the range of 146.03–148.89 kJ mol−1, while the Gibbs free energy (ΔG) value for walnut shells was found to be ~180 kJ mol−1. The most appropriate degradation mechanism was found to be based on diffusion and chemical reaction for the temperature range under study. The broad characterisation along with the values of thermodynamic parameters show that the walnut shells can be used as an economical as well as eco-friendly bio-energy feed-stock for pyrolysis. The reaction mechanism of thermal degradation of walnut shells was found to be consisting of two broader zones based on conversion achieved, zone I (0.2 ≤ α ≤ 0.4) and zone II (0.4 ≤ α ≤ 0.8).
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0311-0
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Thermogravimetric study and evolved gas analysis of new microalga using
           TGA-GC-MS
    • Authors: Isah Yakub Mohammed; Zubainatu Abba; Hazel Monica Matias-Peralta; Yousif Abdalla Abakr; Siti Fatimah Zahrah Mohammad Fuzi
      Pages: 669 - 678
      Abstract: The growing concerns over the environmental challenges emanating from the use of fossil fuels continue to generate interest in finding competitive and sustainable alternatives. This study presents physicochemical characteristics, thermal decomposition profile and kinetics of a new Botryococcus sp. of microalga isolated from Endau-Rompin, Malaysia. The proximate and ultimate analyses were carried out using standard analytical techniques. Thermogravimetric study was conducted in nitrogen atmosphere using a thermogravimetric analyser coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The result revealed that the feedstock has high volatile matter (86.74 wt%) and calorific value of 17.18 MJ/kg. The thermal decomposition of the alga sample proceeded via dehydration, decomposition of extractives, hemicellulose, other carbohydrates and lipid evaporation. The kinetics of the alga sample evaluated using a distributed activation energy model showed that the model sufficiently described the pyrolysis of the feedstock with activation energy of 52.72–159.16 kJ/mol. The chemical composition of the evolved gas revealed high content of hydrocarbons, products of carbohydrate and protein decomposition. This suggests that the alga sample is a good candidate for production of valuable precursors for biofuel processing and production of biochemicals.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0314-x
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Zeolite MFI adsorbent for recovery of butanol from ABE fermentation broths
           produced from an inexpensive black liquor-derived hydrolyzate
    • Authors: Abrar Faisal; Ming Zhou; Jonas Hedlund; Mattias Grahn
      Pages: 679 - 687
      Abstract: In this work, high-silica MFI zeolite adsorbent was evaluated for selective recovery of butanol from a real ABE (acetone, butanol, and ethanol) fermentation broth by batch adsorption measurements. The fermentation broth was produced using a hydrolyzate originating from Kraft black liquor, an internal stream in pulp mills, i.e., a low-cost substrate. The adsorbent was very selective towards butanol and butyric acid and became nearly saturated with a mixture of butanol and butyric acid with relative amounts of butanol and butyric acid depending on the pH. The presence of phenolic compounds in significant amounts in the fermentation broths, originating from the black liquor hydrolyzate, did not affect the adsorption of butanol and butyric acid.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0315-9
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Single-stage ultrasound-assisted process to extract and convert
           α-solanine and α-chaconine from potato peels into β-solanine and
           β-chaconine
    • Authors: Elenilson G. Alves-Filho; Valéria M. Sousa; Paulo R. V. Ribeiro; Sueli Rodrigues; Edy S. de Brito; Brijesh K. Tiwari; Fabiano A. N. Fernandes
      Pages: 689 - 697
      Abstract: Potato peels are rich in α-solanine and α-chaconine, which are glycoalkaloids with known pharmacological activity but that have high cytotoxicity. Their aglycones (β-solanine and β-chaconine) have the same pharmacological activity but with a much lower cytotoxicity. In this work, we applied ultrasound technology to extract α-solanine and α-chaconine from potato peel and at the same time convert these molecules into β-solanine and β-chaconine, in a single-stage process without resorting to organic solvents. The extraction was studied varying ultrasonic power density (20, 35, and 50 W/L) and processing time (5, 10, 20, and 40 min) using an ultrasonic bath operating at 25 kHz. The chemical analysis was done by UHPLC-qTOF-MS and the results were evaluated by HCA, PCA, and PLS-DA chemometric analysis. The analysis of the single-stage procedure pointed to the viability of concomitant extraction and chemical conversion of α-solanine and α-chaconine into β-solanine and β-chaconine when operating at an ultrasonic power density of 35 and 50 W/L and subjecting the potato peel power to 20 and 40 min of ultrasound.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0317-7
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Correction to: Optimizing GHG emission and energy-saving performance of
           miscanthus-based value chains
    • Authors: Florian Meyer; Moritz Wagner; Iris Lewandowski
      Pages: 789 - 789
      Abstract: Two significant errors were found in this article: In Table 1, due to a missing decimal point, Dry Matter Yields are displayed ten times too high. In Figure 2, the caption of the y-axis should read kg CO2-equivalents ha−1 a−1 instead of t CO2-equivalents ha−1 a−1.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0312-z
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment to intensify enzymatic
           saccharification of Crotalaria juncea using a statistical method
    • Authors: Manasa P; Paramjeet Saroj; Narasimhulu Korrapati
      Abstract: Sunn hemp as a non-woody fiber crop was selected to determine the effect of ultrasound-assisted alkali pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis. We hypothesized that ultrasound-assisted alkali pretreatment (US-NaOH) was more efficient than alkali pretreatment alone; maximum fermentable sugars were released in US-NaOH-pretreated biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study, sunn hemp was pretreated with NaOH and US-NaOH at 121 °C. A higher cellulose content of 67% was obtained in US-NaOH-pretreated biomass (1% NaOH, 10-min sonication, 121 °C) as compared with that of the alkali-pretreated biomass. After ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment, the crystallinity index of cellulose and the solubilization of pentose and lignin increased from 39 to 53%, leading to a significant increase in enzyme accessibility to cellulose to release reducing sugars. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the biomass underwent erosion after ultrasound pretreatment. Response surface methodology was chosen to study the individual effects of variables on enzymatic hydrolysis and their inter-dependence. The quantity of reducing sugars released was optimized using a response surface methodology, and the experimental results with optimized process variables gave 5.17 mg/mL glucose and 2.08 mg/mL xylose.
      PubDate: 2018-07-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0324-8
       
  • Upgrading of biomass sourced pyrolysis oil review: focus on co-pyrolysis
           and vapour upgrading during pyrolysis
    • Authors: A. Krutof; K. A. Hawboldt
      Abstract: Fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO) from lignocellulosic feedstocks has been successfully used as a fuel for boilers in heating applications. However, the oil quality limits application as a transport fuel due in part to the high oxygen and resulting acid content of the pyrolysis oil which complicates storage, handling and use in traditional petroleum based systems. Reduction of the acid or oxygen content can be accomplished via a number of refinery approaches from catalytic upgrading of the liquid post production to co-pyrolysis. While past reviews have focused on catalytic upgrading of the post-production oil, this work compares studies in post-production catalytic processes, in situ and ex situ pyrolysis vapour upgrading and co-pyrolysis. The review includes studies of “natural” additives/catalysts, sourced from waste biomass, as the co-pyrolysis material or catalyst. Additive/catalysts sourced from waste biomass are potentially a more sustainable approach than commercial catalysts. In general, upgrading the liquid post pyrolysis can improve quality; however, the overall oil yield decreases and cost increases due to the additional upgrading step. Co-pyrolysis and/or in and ex situ vapour upgrading during pyrolysis potentially enhance FPBO quality while recovering high-value chemicals.
      PubDate: 2018-07-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0326-6
       
  • A review of recent research and developments in fast pyrolysis and bio-oil
           upgrading
    • Authors: Ali Khosravanipour Mostafazadeh; Olga Solomatnikova; Patrick Drogui; Rajeshwar Dayal Tyagi
      Abstract: The depletion of fossil fuels and the negative impacts of their extraction and combustion on the environment have encouraged scientists and industrial stakeholders to explore the development of alternative, renewable energy resources such as bio-oil, which can be produced from biomass by fast pyrolysis. The main disadvantages of crude bio-oils derived from fast pyrolysis are their poor quality caused by the presence of water and oxygen compounds, high viscosity, instability during storage, and their low heating value and high acidity (corrosiveness). To overcome these shortcomings and improve the properties of bio-oils, several techniques have been proposed. The present review provides an in-depth survey of recent studies in the field of fast pyrolysis of biomass and bio-oil upgrading. Different methods and various processes, including novel techniques such as those making use of plasma reactor and microwave-assisted approach, the use of algae as biomass, and pyrolysis under supercritical conditions, are reviewed to explore and critically assess the proposed improvements. We also examine recent advances in the field of bio-oil upgrading, focusing on chemical and catalytic processes such as the combination of fast pyrolysis, bio-oil upgrading utilizing zeolite and nonzeolite catalysts, and computational simulation methods. Finally, we assess recent progress in the improvement of the properties of the ultimate product and review the pros and cons of pyrolysis and upgrading techniques for bio-oils. We conclude with a section examining future challenges, perspectives, as well as the commercial feasibility/viability of fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading. Graphical abstract Due to energy crisis and environmental issues, biofuel production is inevitable in the near future. In this regard, one of the most significant methods is fast pyrolysis of biomass (lignocellulosic materials such as woody biomass, agricultural waste, and algae) and bio-oil upgrading. Various physical and chemical techniques such as hydrodeoxygenation, in situ and ex situ catalytic upgrading, plasma reactor, and microwave-assisted process are reviewed by taking a look at the challenges and solutions.
      PubDate: 2018-06-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0320-z
       
  • Mesoporous activated carbon produced from coconut shell using a
           single-step physical activation process
    • Authors: Wen-Tien Tsai; Tasi-Jung Jiang
      Abstract: In this work, the pore properties and textural characterization of resulting activated carbons (ACs) derived from dried coconut shell (DCS) were investigated in duplicate using a single-step physical activation process. Based on the thermochemical properties of DCS analyzed, the process features its carbonization temperature of 500 °C at a constant heating rate of 10 °C/min under nitrogen flow, subsequently switched to the gasification with CO2 gas in the ranges of 700–900 °C (activation temperature) and 0–60 min (holding time) in the same reactor. The results showed that the pore properties (including mesoporosity) of resulting AC products, obtained from nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and true density measurements, were on an increasing trend as activation temperature and holding time increased. These findings were attributable to the severe reactions of the lignocellulose-based char with CO2. According to the maximal Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area (˃ 1100 m2/g) and mesoporosity percentage (˃ 40%), the optimal activation conditions should be performed at 850 °C for a holding time of 60 min, but will result in relatively low yield. Furthermore, the textural structures and elemental compositions of DCS-based ACs were viewed using the scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and elemental analysis, showing consistent results as described above.
      PubDate: 2018-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0322-x
       
  • Optimization of the conventional hydrothermal carbonization to produce
           hydrochar from fish waste
    • Authors: Shrikalaa Kannan; Yvan Gariepy; G. S. Vijaya Raghavan
      Abstract: Fish waste disposal is a major cause for concern for the seafood processing industries. Fish processing generates enormous quantities of waste as almost 45% of the live weight of fish is regarded as waste. Current ways of managing fish waste involves dumping in oceans, landfills, or treating them with already established strategies. Dumping these wastes without any form of treatment is far from being environmental friendly. Current utilization strategies suffer from disadvantages such as incomplete utilization of solid and liquid wastes or generation of new waste effluents that needs further processing. Therefore, there is a need to find an alternate/supplemental method of seafood utilization. Previously, we have reported the use of microwave hydrothermal carbonization (MHTC) to carbonize fish waste to hydrochar. Here, a conventional heating method such as a custom autoclave reactor is reported that could also be used to carbonize fish waste to hydrochar. Upon response surface design optimization, it was found that a maximal yield of hydrochar (~ 35%) can be achieved at a holding temperature of 180 °C and at a holding time of 120 min. We have also characterized the elemental, proximate, energy, and surface properties of hydrochar produced by conventional hydrothermal carbonization (CHTC). It was found that the quality of the hydrochar produced by MHTC is largely comparable to CHTC. This further proves that HTC could be employed to generate energy from non-lignocellulosic wastes such as fish waste while getting rid of the waste in an eco-friendly manner.
      PubDate: 2018-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0323-9
       
  • Rice straw and rice husks as energy sources—comparison of direct
           combustion and biogas production
    • Authors: Sven Baetge; Martin Kaltschmitt
      Abstract: Rice straw and rice husks occur in large quantities as side streams of the world wide rice production. These side streams can be used as a renewable source of energy via the biochemical as well as the thermochemical conversion route. Exemplarily for samples from various South-East Asian countries, the most important characterizing figures are measured analytically. Then, the two conversion routes—based on a thermochemical as well as on a biochemical conversion—are discussed in detail. Based on such technological solutions as well as the measured data, nine case studies for each conversion system are defined and assessed related to the levelized costs of electricity (LCOEl) and energy (LCOEn). Additionally, the specific substrate demands (SSDs) and specific land demands (SLDs) are calculated indicating the mass and area efficiency of chosen substrates and systems.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0321-y
       
  • Experimental design and economic analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
           synthesis from fructose in acetone-water system using niobium phosphate as
           catalyst
    • Abstract: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) production from fructose was studied by using niobium phosphate as solid acid catalyst. HMF selectivity was optimized in a water-acetone system and compared to a water system. The HMF optimal selectivity for process carried out in the water-acetone system was 62.94%. When the process was performed in water, the HMF selectivity achieved 55.73%. These results were used in a large-scale simulation and economic analysis of the two processes. The higher selectivity of system water-acetone affected the HMF minimum selling price (MSP). The MSP value was 2.21 USD/kg for process performed in water-acetone and 3.05 USD/kg for process in water. In the sensitivity analysis, we have found that in addition to process selectivity, the fructose cost was the most significant factor affecting HMF price.
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0319-5
       
 
 
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