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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 886 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (55 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (619 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (43 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (49 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (619 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 367)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 263)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.493
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 2190-6815 - ISSN (Online) 2190-6823
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Ultrasonic pretreatment for low-temperature hydrothermal liquefaction of
           microalgae: enhancing the bio-oil yield and heating value
    • Authors: Mohammad Saber; Abooali Golzary; Hu Wu; Fumitake Takahashi; Kunio Yoshikawa
      Pages: 509 - 519
      Abstract: We investigated the effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on the bio-oil yield and heating value in the low-temperature hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. HTL is one of the thermochemical processes for bio-oil production. However, the high pressure of the process is one of the main challenges for commercialization. On the other hand, a decrease in the HTL pressure, and consequently a decrease in the temperature, results in a decrease in the bio-oil yield. In this work, we investigated a new method to increase the bio-oil yield at low pressures and temperatures. The microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp.) were first pretreated by ultrasonic waves for 30, 60, and 90 s at 100 W. After then, the bio-oil was produced using HTL at 210, 230, and 250 °C. According to the results, using ultrasonic-assisted HTL increased the bio-oil yield up to the maximum of 28.9% (90-s sonication time at 250 °C). Moreover, applying ultrasonic pretreatment resulted in a decrease in oxygen content of the bio-oil and consequently an increase in its heating value. However, the average nitrogen content did not change dramatically by using ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-017-0300-8
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Characterization of acid-leaching cocoa pod husk (CPH) and its resulting
           activated carbon
    • Authors: Wen-Tien Tsai; Po-Cheng Huang
      Pages: 521 - 528
      Abstract: In order to enhance the adsorption capacity of activated carbon (AC) from cocoa pod husk (CPH) and reuse the solution after the acid-leaching of CPH as a liquid fertilizer, CPH was first leached by acid and then used as a precursor (CPH-A) for preparing ACs by physical activation at a temperature range of 650–850 °C in this work. Based on the proximate analysis, mineral compositions, thermogravimetric analysis, and thermochemical properties, the differences between CPH and CPH-A were investigated. The chemical and pore properties of the resulting ACs were further studied. The results show that the pretreatment of CPH with hydrochloric acid led to removal of over 90% of the ash content in the CPH, mainly composed of potassium minerals. The Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area of the AC derived from CPH-A at 650 °C is 355.8 m2/g, significantly larger than that (i.e., 1.1 m2/g) of the AC derived from CPH. The higher activation temperature (e.g., 900 °C) is beneficial to the pore development of the resulting AC (e.g., BET surface area ˃ 1300 m2/g). In addition, the carbon (C) and sulfur (S) contents of the resulting ACs indicate an increasing trend as the temperature increased from 650 to 850 °C, but a decreasing trend in the hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and oxygen (O) contents.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0302-1
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Dilute acid and alkaline pretreatment of spent tea leaves to determine the
           potential of carbon sources
    • Authors: Mustafa Germec; Nour Ben Bader; Irfan Turhan
      Pages: 529 - 544
      Abstract: Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the worldwide. Therefore, spent tea leaves (STL) are abundant low-cost lignocellulosic materials and can be evaluated as a carbon source for the production of value-added products by fermentation. The aim of this study was to optimize the dilute acid and alkaline pretreatment conditions of STL. The optimal conditions were determined by response surface method (RSM) in terms of fermentable sugars concentration (FSC) and total phenolics concentration (PHC). Independent variables were selected as temperature (115–135 °C), pretreatment time (20–60 min), solid-to-liquid ratio (1:8–1:16 w/v), and dilute acid (1–5% v/v) or alkaline (1–3 N) ratio. It was found that the optimum conditions for dilute acid pretreatment were 131.67 °C, 20 min, 1:10.26 w/v, and 1.58% v/v, which yielded as 21.56 g/L, 0.228 g/g, and 1.53 g/L for FSC, FSY, and PHC, respectively. Nevertheless, the best dilute alkaline pretreatment conditions were 116.42 °C, 20 min, 1:11.23 w/v, and 1.68 N, which achieved as 28.18 g/L, 0.316 g/g, and 5.26 g/L for FSC, FSY, and PHC, respectively. Nevertheless, based on the statistical evaluation, it was found that RSM models victoriously fitted the experimental data related to the pretreatment of STL. Consequently, acid and alkaline pretreated-STL can be considered as suitable carbon source for value-added products’ production by fermentation.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0301-2
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Alkaline extraction of seaweed carrageenan hydrocolloids using cocoa pod
           husk ash
    • Authors: Nanna Rhein-Knudsen; Marcel Tutor Ale; Søren Rasmussen; Simon Kjær Kamp; Joseph A. Bentil; Anne S. Meyer
      Pages: 577 - 583
      Abstract: The cocoa industry in Ghana is the second largest in the world, and it generates huge amounts of cocoa pod husks, which currently represent a disposal problem as no significant use has been found for them. The husks are rich in potassium, which may be used for alkaline hydrocolloid extraction from red seaweeds. Chemical and rheological properties of κ-carrageenan from Kappaphycus alvarezii and the Ghanaian red seaweed Hypnea musciformis extracted by KOH (benchmark) or by a cocoa pod husk ash solution were compared. Similar extraction yields and successful modification of the seaweed hydrocolloids with 3,6-anhydro-galactopyranose and sulfate contents of 37–38 and 16–17%, respectively, were obtained with cocoa pod husk ash and KOH extraction. Gel strengths of the κ-carrageenans were also similar: G′ at 25 °C were 5780 Pa with cocoa pod husk ash and 5930 Pa with KOH. These findings have implications for industrial waste biomass utilization and sustainable green growth development of seaweed hydrocolloid processing in Ghana.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0305-y
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Hydrothermal liquefaction of kraft lignin in sub-critical water: the
           influence of the sodium and potassium fraction
    • Authors: Tallal Belkheiri; Sven-Ingvar Andersson; Cecilia Mattsson; Lars Olausson; Hans Theliander; Lennart Vamling
      Pages: 585 - 595
      Abstract: As a part of developing a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process to valorise lignin, it is important to consider integration possibilities with existing infrastructures in order to obtain an overall positive economic impact. One obvious example is to integrate the HTL process with the kraft pulp mill: transport and storage costs is reduced, the temperature levels on process streams can be matched (energy integration) and the recovery/use of alkali can be made efficient. In this study, softwood kraft lignin was depolymerised using sub-critical water (623 K; 25 MPa) in a continuous, small pilot unit with a flow rate of 2 kg/h. ZrO2, K2CO3/KOH and Na2CO3/NaOH were used as catalytic system, and phenol as the capping agent. The influence of the ratio between sodium and potassium in the feed on the yield and composition of the product stream was investigated. The results showed that bio-oil, water-soluble organics (WSO) and char yields were not remarkably influenced by shifting the catalytic system from potassium to sodium. Moreover, the yields of most phenolic compounds did not change significantly when the sodium fraction was varied in the feed. The amounts of suspended solids in the bio-oil produced showed, however, a diminishing trend, (decrease from 10.8 to 3.8%) when the sodium fraction was increased in the feed, whilst the opposite trend was observed for the heavy oil, which increased from 24.6 to 37.6%.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0307-9
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Production of volatile fatty acids from slaughterhouse blood by
           mixed-culture fermentation
    • Authors: Jersson Plácido; Yue Zhang
      Pages: 621 - 634
      Abstract: The volatile fatty acid (VFA) production potential from animal blood and the factors affecting this process were investigated in this study. In order to simulate an industrial process different operation modes, batch, fed batch and semi-continuous, were also evaluated. Due to high ammonia concentration in fermentation broth, VFA concentration up to 100 g L−1 was achieved without addition of buffer and methanogen inhibitor. In general, acetic, n-butyric and iso-valeric acids were the most predominant species, although different operational conditions affected the VFA concentration, profile, production rate and yield. The microbial community analysis was conducted on the reactors with the best performance, revealing that 70–90% of the microbial population was from the Clostridiales order with a strong presence from the Sporanaerobacter genus. These results demonstrated the feasibility of a VFA platform bio-refinery using high-protein wastes as substrate via mixed-culture fermentation under non-sterilised conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0313-y
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Single-stage ultrasound-assisted process to extract and convert
           α-solanine and α-chaconine from potato peels into β-solanine and
           β-chaconine
    • Authors: Elenilson G. Alves-Filho; Valéria M. Sousa; Paulo R. V. Ribeiro; Sueli Rodrigues; Edy S. de Brito; Brijesh K. Tiwari; Fabiano A. N. Fernandes
      Pages: 689 - 697
      Abstract: Potato peels are rich in α-solanine and α-chaconine, which are glycoalkaloids with known pharmacological activity but that have high cytotoxicity. Their aglycones (β-solanine and β-chaconine) have the same pharmacological activity but with a much lower cytotoxicity. In this work, we applied ultrasound technology to extract α-solanine and α-chaconine from potato peel and at the same time convert these molecules into β-solanine and β-chaconine, in a single-stage process without resorting to organic solvents. The extraction was studied varying ultrasonic power density (20, 35, and 50 W/L) and processing time (5, 10, 20, and 40 min) using an ultrasonic bath operating at 25 kHz. The chemical analysis was done by UHPLC-qTOF-MS and the results were evaluated by HCA, PCA, and PLS-DA chemometric analysis. The analysis of the single-stage procedure pointed to the viability of concomitant extraction and chemical conversion of α-solanine and α-chaconine into β-solanine and β-chaconine when operating at an ultrasonic power density of 35 and 50 W/L and subjecting the potato peel power to 20 and 40 min of ultrasound.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0317-7
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Correction to: Optimizing GHG emission and energy-saving performance of
           miscanthus-based value chains
    • Authors: Florian Meyer; Moritz Wagner; Iris Lewandowski
      Pages: 789 - 789
      Abstract: Two significant errors were found in this article: In Table 1, due to a missing decimal point, Dry Matter Yields are displayed ten times too high. In Figure 2, the caption of the y-axis should read kg CO2-equivalents ha−1 a−1 instead of t CO2-equivalents ha−1 a−1.
      PubDate: 2018-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0312-z
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Effects of storage under different conditions on the fuel properties of
           biodiesel admixtures derived from waste frying and canola oils
    • Authors: Youssef Kassem; Hüseyin Çamur
      Abstract: This study investigates the effects of storage conditions on the properties of transesterified methyl ester using waste frying (WFME) and waste canola (WCME) and their blends. Biodiesel samples were stored for 24 months at ambient temperature and also at 40 °C, and properties including oxidative stability, acid value, flash point, kinematic viscosity, density, cloud point (CP), and pour point (PP) were periodically measured. The variation of kinematic viscosity and density within a range temperature of − 10 to 300 °C were examined during the storage periods. The analysis showed that both viscosity and density increase because of the increase in the concentration of WFME in the blend, and both of them decrease as temperature increases. It is found that blending WCME with WFME has a significant improvement on the cold flow properties of WFME. Furthermore, oxidative stability and flash point were significantly reduced upon extended storage whereas acid value, kinematic viscosity, and density were increased by only small increments. Moreover, the CP and PP of blends were also affected by extended storage when the WCME concentration in those mixtures was under 35% by volume. In this work, 19 general correlations were presented for estimating kinematic viscosity, density, CP, and PP of the blends at several temperatures. These correlations depend on the temperature, volume fraction of WFME, storage temperature, and storage periods. The estimated values of biodiesel properties are in good agreement with the experimental data of this study and literature. The developed equations could be used as universal formulas to predict the biodiesel properties.
      PubDate: 2018-10-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0339-1
       
  • Hydrothermal liquefaction of protein-containing biomass: study of model
           compounds for Maillard reactions
    • Authors: Y. Fan; U. Hornung; N. Dahmen; A. Kruse
      Abstract: The potential application of bio-oil production from nitrogen-containing biomass via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) may be limited due to high nitrogen content, making this product oil unsuitable for fuel-related uses. The Maillard reaction is expected to play a most significant role in the interaction between proteins and carbohydrates during the hydrothermal treatment. To evaluate the Maillard reaction network in this process, lactose, maltose, and lysine were employed as model substances and tested individually and in binary mixtures. HTL experiments were conducted at temperatures between 250 and 350 °C and at 20 min reaction time. When treated individually, conversion of lysine leads to higher bio-oil yields (5–17 wt.%) than the model carbohydrates (6–10 wt.%) during HTL. In mixtures with carbohydrates, the measured bio-oil yields exceeded those obtained from conversion of the single substances (10–39 wt.%). Both yields and the relative nitrogen content of the bio-oil, increase with rising reaction temperature. The composition of the bio-oils obtained through HTL experiments was investigated in more detail: cyclopentenes and furfurals were obtained from disaccharide decomposition, piperidines and quinolines in the bio-oil originate from lysine, pyrazine and its derivatives are obtained from the mixture of lysine and disaccharides. A reaction scheme based on key chemical compounds accompanied with functional groups identified by FT-IR and NMR was developed to provide a better understanding of the Maillard reaction and its impact during HTL of protein-containing biomass.
      PubDate: 2018-10-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0340-8
       
  • Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of six perennial energy crops
           cultivated at three different locations in W-Germany
    • Authors: Axel Schmidt; Sébastien Lemaigre; Philippe Delfosse; Herbert von Francken-Welz; Christoph Emmerling
      Abstract: To mitigate the effects of climate change, the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) should be reduced. In the near future, an increased use of biomass for energy production will be prescribed by law in the European Union (EU) to achieve the target of emission reduction. One possibility to use biomass energetically is its transformation into biogas. The most widely grown crop for this purpose is maize. Although, the increased use of maize as biogas feedstock, due to generous subsidies, is linked to several ecological and (socio)economic problems. The most important are soil erosion, depletion and compaction, high demand and subsequent leaching of fertilizers/biocides, heavy workload, and competition for land between food and energy production. In contrast, the use of second-generation perennial energy crops (PECs) as biogas feedstock can be an auspicious approach to improve the environmental footprint of biomass production. Therefore, we evaluated and compared the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of five different perennial species (cup plant, virginia mallow, tall wheatgrass, giant knotweed, reed canary grass) and a wild plant mix (composite of 25 in parts perennial plants) on three different sites in West-Germany. In terms of methane production per area, tall wheatgrass and reed canary grass exceeded the productivity of maize under favorable conditions. Hence, we recommend both species as biogas feedstock for Central Europe or comparable climates. Additionally, other species might be suitable for biomethanation from an overall perspective, to enhance (agro)biodiversity in rural areas.
      PubDate: 2018-09-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0338-2
       
  • Valorization of humins by phosphoric acid activation for activated carbon
           production
    • Authors: Shimin Kang; Shaohui Jiang; Zhezhe Peng; Yue Lu; Jianfeng Guo; Jianwen Li; Wanxiang Zeng; Xiaoyuan Lin
      Abstract: Humins, the solid wastes from biomass acid hydrolysis, were value-added applied for activated carbon production through the phosphoric acid activation method with pyrolysis temperature ranging from 300 to 700 °C. Studies on structure and properties found that pyrolysis temperature is a key factor affecting pore formation of activated carbons. A good yield of 51.4 wt%, high BET surface area of 2375 m2/g, Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volume of 0.88 cm3/g, and an excellent Langmuir adsorption capacity of 1125 mg/g on methylene blue (MB) were obtained under the preferred temperature of 400 °C (AC400). The adsorption of MB was well explained by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the adsorption behavior complied with Langmuir isotherm model. Dichloromethane (DCM) was found a most effective extractant in AC400 regeneration by using Soxhlet apparatus. A comparable adsorption capacity of 680 mg/g MB was maintained for the fifth reusing of the AC400, illustrating the application potential of humins valorization for biomass residues recycling industry.
      PubDate: 2018-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0329-3
       
  • Techno-economic assessment of biomass-based natural gas substitutes
           against the background of the EU 2018 renewable energy directive
    • Authors: Michael Kraussler; Florian Pontzen; Matthias Müller-Hagedorn; Leopold Nenning; Markus Luisser; Hermann Hofbauer
      Abstract: This paper investigates biomethane and BioSNG production processes against the background of the 2018 renewable fuel directive of the European Union (EU). The investigated biomethane processes use manure, clover grass, and grass silage as feedstock, are based on membrane separation gas upgrading processes, and generate 1.0 and 4.8 MW of biomethane. The investigated BioSNG processes use wood chips as feedstock, are based on the dual fluidized bed steam gasification technology and the VESTA SNG process from Amec Foster Wheeler, and generate 6.1, 12.2, and 49.1 MW BioSNG. The techno-economic assessment shows that the biomethane processes have, in general, a lower break-even price for the generated natural gas substitute. However, their scalability is limited and at larger scale (49.1 MW BioSNG capacity), the BioSNG processes become competitive. The 1.0 MW biomethane and all BioSNG plants meet the 2018 renewable fuel directive of the EU. In contrast, the 4.8 MW biomethane process does not meet the directive as the feedstock, which is mainly based on energy crops, causes significant CH4 and CO2 emissions.
      PubDate: 2018-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0333-7
       
  • Thermogravimetric pyrolysis for neem char using novel agricultural waste:
           a study of process optimization and statistical modeling
    • Authors: M. T. H. Siddiqui; Sabzoi Nizamuddin; Humair Ahmed Baloch; N. M. Mubarak; M. M. Tunio; Sajid Riaz; Khaula Shirin; Zakiuddin Ahmed; Munir Hussain
      Abstract: Agricultural biomasses are the underutilized sources that have extraordinary potential to synthesize green and cost-effective chemicals. This research focuses on the utilization of novel agricultural residue, i.e., waste neem cake, to produce highly efficient, cost-effective, and environment-friendly fuel, i.e., neem char (NC), through thermogravimetric pyrolysis. To study the effects of process variable on char yield and higher heating value (HHV), statistical modeling was applied by central composite design of response surface methodology. Furthermore, chemical and structural characterization of neem cake and char were carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The reaction temperature was the most prominent variable found from the ANOVA (analysis of variances) to affect char yield and its HHV. The optimal result was achieved with 21.46% char yield and HHV value of 6371 kcal/kg at 600 °C, 60 min, and 3 mm. The heating value of char was highly improved indicating the potential application of char as a high-energy renewable fuel. Further, the carbon content and fixed carbon values increased, whereas hydrogen, oxygen, volatile matters, and moisture content decreased in char after the pyrolysis process.
      PubDate: 2018-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0336-4
       
  • The effect of corn varieties on the production of fiber-reinforced
           high-density polyethylene composites
    • Authors: Bo Chen; Zhangfeng Luo; Tingting Cai; Di Cai; Changwei Zhang; Peiyong Qin; Hui Cao
      Abstract: In this study, four different varieties of corn fibers were used as the reinforcing phase to produce corn fiber polyethylene composites (CFPC). Parameters including the chemical composition, performances of the corn fibers, and the mechanical properties, physical properties, and stabilities of the CFPCs were compared and evaluated. Generally, the CFPC’s properties were greatly influenced by the chemical composition of corn fiber. The results indicated that the CFPC specimens reinforced by Huangnuo 206 fiber, a sticky corn variety, showed the best mechanical properties (with 26.6 ± 1.6 MPa of tensile strength and 46.1 ± 2.1 MPa of flexural strength; 2397.1 ± 225 MPa of tensile modulus and 3456.8 ± 283 MPa flexural modulus). In addition, there is no obvious relatedness between mechanical properties and stabilities of the CFPCs. Compared with other fibers, Jingcheng 8616, a sweet corn variety, has the highest modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) retention rates.
      PubDate: 2018-09-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0337-3
       
  • Ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment to intensify enzymatic
           saccharification of Crotalaria juncea using a statistical method
    • Authors: Manasa P; Paramjeet Saroj; Narasimhulu Korrapati
      Abstract: Sunn hemp as a non-woody fiber crop was selected to determine the effect of ultrasound-assisted alkali pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis. We hypothesized that ultrasound-assisted alkali pretreatment (US-NaOH) was more efficient than alkali pretreatment alone; maximum fermentable sugars were released in US-NaOH-pretreated biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis. In this study, sunn hemp was pretreated with NaOH and US-NaOH at 121 °C. A higher cellulose content of 67% was obtained in US-NaOH-pretreated biomass (1% NaOH, 10-min sonication, 121 °C) as compared with that of the alkali-pretreated biomass. After ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment, the crystallinity index of cellulose and the solubilization of pentose and lignin increased from 39 to 53%, leading to a significant increase in enzyme accessibility to cellulose to release reducing sugars. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the biomass underwent erosion after ultrasound pretreatment. Response surface methodology was chosen to study the individual effects of variables on enzymatic hydrolysis and their inter-dependence. The quantity of reducing sugars released was optimized using a response surface methodology, and the experimental results with optimized process variables gave 5.17 mg/mL glucose and 2.08 mg/mL xylose.
      PubDate: 2018-07-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0324-8
       
  • Upgrading of biomass sourced pyrolysis oil review: focus on co-pyrolysis
           and vapour upgrading during pyrolysis
    • Authors: A. Krutof; K. A. Hawboldt
      Abstract: Fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO) from lignocellulosic feedstocks has been successfully used as a fuel for boilers in heating applications. However, the oil quality limits application as a transport fuel due in part to the high oxygen and resulting acid content of the pyrolysis oil which complicates storage, handling and use in traditional petroleum based systems. Reduction of the acid or oxygen content can be accomplished via a number of refinery approaches from catalytic upgrading of the liquid post production to co-pyrolysis. While past reviews have focused on catalytic upgrading of the post-production oil, this work compares studies in post-production catalytic processes, in situ and ex situ pyrolysis vapour upgrading and co-pyrolysis. The review includes studies of “natural” additives/catalysts, sourced from waste biomass, as the co-pyrolysis material or catalyst. Additive/catalysts sourced from waste biomass are potentially a more sustainable approach than commercial catalysts. In general, upgrading the liquid post pyrolysis can improve quality; however, the overall oil yield decreases and cost increases due to the additional upgrading step. Co-pyrolysis and/or in and ex situ vapour upgrading during pyrolysis potentially enhance FPBO quality while recovering high-value chemicals.
      PubDate: 2018-07-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0326-6
       
  • Mesoporous activated carbon produced from coconut shell using a
           single-step physical activation process
    • Authors: Wen-Tien Tsai; Tasi-Jung Jiang
      Abstract: In this work, the pore properties and textural characterization of resulting activated carbons (ACs) derived from dried coconut shell (DCS) were investigated in duplicate using a single-step physical activation process. Based on the thermochemical properties of DCS analyzed, the process features its carbonization temperature of 500 °C at a constant heating rate of 10 °C/min under nitrogen flow, subsequently switched to the gasification with CO2 gas in the ranges of 700–900 °C (activation temperature) and 0–60 min (holding time) in the same reactor. The results showed that the pore properties (including mesoporosity) of resulting AC products, obtained from nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and true density measurements, were on an increasing trend as activation temperature and holding time increased. These findings were attributable to the severe reactions of the lignocellulose-based char with CO2. According to the maximal Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area (˃ 1100 m2/g) and mesoporosity percentage (˃ 40%), the optimal activation conditions should be performed at 850 °C for a holding time of 60 min, but will result in relatively low yield. Furthermore, the textural structures and elemental compositions of DCS-based ACs were viewed using the scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and elemental analysis, showing consistent results as described above.
      PubDate: 2018-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0322-x
       
  • Optimization of the conventional hydrothermal carbonization to produce
           hydrochar from fish waste
    • Authors: Shrikalaa Kannan; Yvan Gariepy; G. S. Vijaya Raghavan
      Abstract: Fish waste disposal is a major cause for concern for the seafood processing industries. Fish processing generates enormous quantities of waste as almost 45% of the live weight of fish is regarded as waste. Current ways of managing fish waste involves dumping in oceans, landfills, or treating them with already established strategies. Dumping these wastes without any form of treatment is far from being environmental friendly. Current utilization strategies suffer from disadvantages such as incomplete utilization of solid and liquid wastes or generation of new waste effluents that needs further processing. Therefore, there is a need to find an alternate/supplemental method of seafood utilization. Previously, we have reported the use of microwave hydrothermal carbonization (MHTC) to carbonize fish waste to hydrochar. Here, a conventional heating method such as a custom autoclave reactor is reported that could also be used to carbonize fish waste to hydrochar. Upon response surface design optimization, it was found that a maximal yield of hydrochar (~ 35%) can be achieved at a holding temperature of 180 °C and at a holding time of 120 min. We have also characterized the elemental, proximate, energy, and surface properties of hydrochar produced by conventional hydrothermal carbonization (CHTC). It was found that the quality of the hydrochar produced by MHTC is largely comparable to CHTC. This further proves that HTC could be employed to generate energy from non-lignocellulosic wastes such as fish waste while getting rid of the waste in an eco-friendly manner.
      PubDate: 2018-06-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0323-9
       
  • Experimental design and economic analysis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
           synthesis from fructose in acetone-water system using niobium phosphate as
           catalyst
    • Abstract: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) production from fructose was studied by using niobium phosphate as solid acid catalyst. HMF selectivity was optimized in a water-acetone system and compared to a water system. The HMF optimal selectivity for process carried out in the water-acetone system was 62.94%. When the process was performed in water, the HMF selectivity achieved 55.73%. These results were used in a large-scale simulation and economic analysis of the two processes. The higher selectivity of system water-acetone affected the HMF minimum selling price (MSP). The MSP value was 2.21 USD/kg for process performed in water-acetone and 3.05 USD/kg for process in water. In the sensitivity analysis, we have found that in addition to process selectivity, the fructose cost was the most significant factor affecting HMF price.
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0319-5
       
 
 
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