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CHEMISTRY (632 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 75)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 378)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 73)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.493
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 10  
  Partially Free Journal Partially Free Journal
ISSN (Print) 2190-6815 - ISSN (Online) 2190-6823
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Utilization of biogas for generator set fuel: performance and emission
    • Authors: Khairul Muhajir; I. G. Badrawada; A. A. P. Susastriawan
      Abstract: The aim of the work is to investigate performance and exhaust gas emission of spark ignition generator set fueled with gasoline, biogas, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Engine speed, brake power, torque, brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE) CO2, and HC in exhaust gas of the generator are compared for each fuel at variation electric load. The result indicates engine speed decreases as increasing electric load for all fuel. The performances of the generator in terms of brake power and torque are almost similar when fed by gasoline, biogas, or LPG. From measured CO2 and HC in exhaust gas, gasoline burn more effective during combustion stage in present work. However, in terms of BSFC and BTE, biogas fuel gives better result than either gasoline or LPG.
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-00369-y
  • Impact of adhering soil and other extraneous impurities on the combustion
           and emission behavior of forest residue wood chips in an automatically
           stoked small-scale boiler
    • Authors: Thomas Zeng; Daniel Kuptz; Kathrin Schreiber; Claudia Schön; Fabian Schulmeyer; Volker Zelinski; Annett Pollex; Herbert Borchert; Achim Loewen; Hans Hartmann; Volker Lenz; Michael Nelles
      Abstract: Within six case studies, different drying and sieving process steps were employed for the removal of adhering soil and other extraneous impurities from wood chips. Consequently, it was systematically investigated to which extent this strategy can be used to jointly mitigate the risk of bottom ash slagging and high pollutant emission levels during combustion in an automatically stoked small-scale boiler. Throughout all combustion tests, slag and emission formation were recorded. Formation of agglomerates in the bottom ash was not observed in the fuel bed. However, fuel processing resulted in an increase of the ash shrinking–softening range up to 230 K indicating a lower slagging risk in the bottom ash. An asymptotic trend for the ash melting temperatures was observed as a function of the molar (Si + P + K)/(Ca + Mg) ratio. It was also found that potassium is less efficiently retained in the bottom ash with lower Si content in the fuel. Lower moisture contents in the wood chips typically resulted in lower CO emissions and higher boiler efficiencies for the investigated range of moisture content. The sieving of the unprocessed wood chips reduced NOx emission levels up to 28%. However, fuel processing did not necessarily reduce the level of particulate matter emissions.
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-00368-z
  • Maximization of fermentable sugar production from sweet sorghum bagasse
           (dry and wet bases) using response surface methodology (RSM)
    • Authors: Javier Guarneros-Flores; María Guadalupe Aguilar-Uscanga; José Luis Morales-Martínez; Leticia López-Zamora
      Abstract: Sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) is an agroindustrial waste with a high fiber composition (34–44% cellulose, 25–27% hemicellulose, and 18–20% lignin), widely used in the production of second-generation biofuels. In this study, a response surface design (Box-Behnken) was used to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis process, using Cellic CTec 3 enzyme. Treatment time (24–72 h), enzyme concentration (5–7% w/w), and liquid solid ratio (LSR) (5–9 v/w) were evaluated to maximize glucose production. The process was optimized both on a dry basis (solar radiation drying after each stage) and on a wet basis (continuous mode). The optimized conditions obtained in the enzymatic hydrolysis on a dry basis were 5% w/w enzyme concentration, 51-h treatment time, and 5: 1 v/w liquid solid ratio (LSR), obtaining 125.2 g/L glucose. For wet basis, the following results were obtained: 5% w/w enzyme concentration, 48-h treatment time, and 5: 1 v/w LSR, obtaining 148.64 g/L glucose. Optimized SSB on a wet basis showed an increase of 18.71% in glucose compared to that obtained on a dry basis, a reduction of 5.88% in process time, and elimination of 96-h solar drying, all of which favor continuous glucose production.
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-00366-1
  • Production and optimization of NaCl-activated carbon from mango seed using
           response surface methodology
    • Authors: Aaron Dzigbor; Annie Chimphango
      Abstract: Granular activated carbon (AC) produced from mango seed husk through chemical activation with NaCl has potential application in adsorption cooling system. The study investigated the relationship among process parameters and effects on physicochemical and functional properties of AC. Production conditions were optimized using response surface methodology for impregnation ratio (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75), soaking time (2 h, 4 h, and 6 h), and activation temperature (400 °C, 450 °C, and 500 °C). Surface area, ash content, and bulk density were response variables. The AC was produced with comparable quality to commercial AC. Impregnation ratio, soaking time, and carbonization temperature, but not their interaction, had significant effects (p < 0.05) on AC surface area, ash content, and bulk density. Optimum production conditions for soaking time, impregnation ratio, and carbonization temperature were 4 h, 0.25, and 500 °C, respectively, which gave BET surface area, ash content, and bulk density of 415 m2 g−1, 6.92%, and 243 kg m−3, respectively.
      PubDate: 2019-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0361-3
  • Influence of biochar application on growth of Oryza sativa and its
           associated soil microbial ecology
    • Authors: G. Swagathnath; S. Rangabhashiyam; S. Murugan; P. Balasubramanian
      Abstract: In this study, biochar was produced from three biomass feedstocks such as fruits of Cassia fistula and Caesalpinia sp. and barks of Eucalyptus globulus. The samples of the obtained biochar were characterized for pH, physiochemical properties, surface morphology, and surface functional groups. The obtained biochar samples were further studied with/without the combination of urea for their plant growth enhancement properties including the germination studies and effect on shoot and root growth of rice plants. Biochar produced from C. fistula fruits at 1.5% concentration increased the plant shoot height 18% higher than the control plants. Eucalyptus sp. barks’ biochar application at 0.5% concentration also increased the plant shoot height 12% longer than the control. However, the biochar produced from Caesalpinia sp. did not increase the shoot length. Yet, a generalized increase in root length was observed with the application of biochar. The combined application of nitrogen fertilizer (urea) and biochar together reverted the effect of biochar on the shoot length increase. Phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) characterization of soil revealed that soil biota shifts when soil was supplemented with the biochar. The bacterial community increased and a loss of fungal community was observed with the application of biochar.
      PubDate: 2019-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0365-z
  • Ultrasound-assisted microextraction of β, ε-carotene-3, 3′-diol
           (lutein) from marine microalgae Chlorella salina : effect of different
           extraction parameters
    • Authors: S. Gayathri; S. R. Rajasree Radhika; T. Y. Suman; L. Aranganathan
      Pages: 791 - 797
      Abstract: A fast and effective microextraction (ME) technique coupled with ultrasonication (US) was applied for extracting a commercially valuable antioxidant compound lutein, from marine microalgae Chlorella salina (C. salina). The extraction of lutein from C. salina was studied in detail under various operating conditions. Several variables influencing the relative response of the target analyte such as temperature (T = 20–60 °C), time (10–50 min), and frequency (15–55 kHz) were optimized. Results showed maximum yield at temperature 40 °C, extraction time of 30 min duration with 35-kHz frequency. Under optimal conditions, the concentration of lutein was 2.92 ± 0.40 mg/g D.W (dry weight). The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of Chlorella biomass, which also indicated that ultrasound-assisted microextraction (US-ME) is a very useful method for extracting lutein from microalgae.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0331-9
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
  • Characterization of alkali-extracted wood by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy
    • Authors: Joni Lehto; Jarmo Louhelainen; Teresa Kłosińska; Michał Drożdżek; Raimo Alén
      Pages: 847 - 855
      Abstract: Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy analyses were performed with silver/white birch (Betula pendula/B. pubescens) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) chips pretreated under alkaline (from 1 to 8% NaOH charge on wood dry solids) conditions to determine the suitability of this method in quickly determining chemical changes caused by varying treatment conditions on wood chemical structure. In addition to the alkali charge, pretreatment conditions varied with respect to temperature (130 and 150 °C) and treatment time (from 30 to 120 min). The spectral data of pretreated wood samples were compared to those of untreated reference samples, and the effects of the pretreatments conducted were determined based on these data. Results indicated that the most essential phenomena taking place during alkaline pretreatments could be detected by applying this simple and rapid spectral method requiring only a small sample amount. Such information included, for example, the cleavage of common lignin and carbohydrate bonds together with the significant removal of organics, especially hemicelluloses during pretreatments.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0327-5
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
  • Microwave-assisted conversion of novel biomass materials into levulinic
    • Authors: Katja Lappalainen; Nils Vogeler; Johanna Kärkkäinen; Yue Dong; Matti Niemelä; Annu Rusanen; Anna Liisa Ruotsalainen; Piippa Wäli; Annamari Markkola; Ulla Lassi
      Pages: 965 - 970
      Abstract: Levulinic acid is considered one of the most important platform chemicals. It is currently produced mainly from lignocellulosic biomasses. However, there are also other abundant biomass materials, which could be used as raw materials for levulinic acid production. In this work, levulinic acid was produced from two novel biomasses in the presence of Brønsted (H2SO4) and Lewis acid (CrCl3·6H2O or AlCl3·6H2O) catalysts. The studied materials were carbohydrate-rich potato peel waste and sporocarps of the fungus Cortinarius armillatus. Reaction conditions, i.e., time, temperature, H2SO4, and Lewis acid concentrations, were studied by utilizing full 24-factorial experimental designs. Microwave irradiation was used as the heating method. Based on the results, the reaction temperature and the H2SO4 concentration had the greatest impact on the yield of levulinic acid. The highest yield obtained in this study from potato peel waste was 49% with 180 °C for reaction temperature, 15 min for reaction time, and 0.5 and 0.0075 M for the concentrations of H2SO4 and CrCl3, respectively. When Cortinarius armillatus was used as the raw material, the highest yield was 62% with 180 °C for reaction temperature, 40 min for reaction time, and 0.5 and 0.0075 M for the concentrations of H2SO4 and CrCl3, respectively.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0334-6
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
  • Biosilica preparation from abundantly available African biomass Teff (
           Eragrostis tef ) straw ash by sol-gel method and its characterization
    • Authors: Ayana Bekana Bageru; Vimal Chandra Srivastava
      Pages: 971 - 978
      Abstract: This study reports preparation of biosilica from teff straw ash via sol-gel method. Teff straw ash prepared at different ashing temperatures (500, 700, and 900 °C) was treated with 2.5 N NaOH solution prior to acidification in order to extract biosilica in the form of sodium silicate solution (SSS). The effects of ashing temperatures on biosilica yield and physiochemical properties were studied. Physicochemical properties of extracted biosilica were determined by performing XRD, FE-SEM, EDX, and FTIR analysis. The carbon content and other impurities in extracted biosilica decreased with rise in ashing temperature. The biosilica yield increased with ashing temperature in the order 500 °C (49.5%) < 700 °C (70.2%) < 900 °C (84.5%). EDX, XRF, and FTIR analysis confirmed that the purity was > 99% for biosilica prepared from teff straw ash prepared at 900 °C.
      PubDate: 2018-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0335-5
      Issue No: Vol. 8, No. 4 (2018)
  • Use of waste Japonochytrium sp. biomass after lipid extraction as an
           efficient adsorbent for triphenylmethane dye applied in aquaculture
    • Authors: Eva Baldikova; Sindy Mullerova; Jitka Prochazkova; Milena Rouskova; Olga Solcova; Ivo Safarik; Kristyna Pospiskova
      Abstract: Comprehensive processing of Japonochytrium sp., one of marine fungi considered as a perspective source of functional lipids, was tested as an example of circular economy. Residual biomass after extraction of lipids (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and triacylglycerols) was magnetically modified using methanol suspension of microwave-synthesized magnetic iron oxides and tested as a potential biosorbent for triphenylmethane dye, crystal violet, used in aquaculture. Employing a batch experimental setup, influence of pH value (3–9), incubation time (0–270 min), initial dye concentration (400–1000 mg/L) of crystal violet, and temperature (282.15–313.15 K) on adsorption efficacy was studied. Adsorption equilibrium data were analyzed and fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips isotherm models. The monolayer maximum adsorption capacity of magnetically responsive spent biomass was found to be 329.22 mg/g at 294.15 K. The adsorption process agreed best with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and thermodynamic studies showed an endothermic nature of adsorption.
      PubDate: 2018-12-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0362-2
  • Physicochemical characteristics and FTIR-derived structural parameters of
           hydrochar produced by hydrothermal carbonisation of pea pod ( Pisum
           sativum Linn.) waste
    • Authors: Xiangyuan Dong; Shuqing Guo; Hongyan Wang; Zhezhe Wang; Xinjie Gao
      Abstract: Conversion of pea pod (Pisum sativum Linn.) waste into energy and chemical products is a sustainable waste treatment option. In this work, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of pea pod (Pisum sativum Linn.) waste was performed at 210–270 °C for 30–480 min. The effects of reaction severity (temperature and time) on the physicochemical and structural properties of hydrochar, including CHNO content, CHO recovery, higher heating value (HHV), structural parameters determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and O/C and N/C atomic ratios determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were investigated. The relationships among the properties of hydrochar were revealed. The results showed that the maximum variation rate of CHO recovery exhibited the trend O > H > C. The N recovery seemed to be independent on severity. With decrease in hydrochar yield, the O/C atomic ratio determined by elemental analysis decreased linearly and approached that of lignite and sub-bituminous coal at high severity, while the C recovery and HHV increased linearly. The O/C atomic ratio calculated by XPS approached that determined by elemental analysis as severity was equal to or greater than that at 230 °C for 480 min, while the N/C atomic ratio calculated by XPS is lower than that determined by elemental analysis at different severities. The structural parameters determined by FTIR (CH2/CH3, ‘C’ factor, C=O/Car and C–O–R/Car) trended down with rise in reaction severity. The results will provide more accurate information on the physicochemical characteristics and structural parameters of pea pod hydrochar to control its properties for use in diverse applications.
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0363-1
  • Hydrothermal pretreatment with sulfonated bentonite catalyst enhances
           potassium removal and bioconversion of oil palm empty fruit bunch to sugar
           and biohydrogen
    • Authors: Boonya Charnnok; Chularat Sakdaronnarong; Nusara Sinbuathong
      Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), a rich of polysaccharide and element as potassium, is being recognized as one of the most potential kinds of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy and biochemical production. In this study, EFB was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment in the absence (HT) and presence of a sulfonated bentonite catalyst (HTcat). The effect of pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion was investigated. The hydrothermal pretreatments were conducted at 160–200 °C for 5–25 min, while the effect of catalytic HTcat pretreatment of EFB was studied at 180–200 °C for 25 min. The results showed that temperature and catalyst in HTcat pretreatment were the main factors that could enhance both production of glucose and biohydrogen up to 1.04–1.14- and 3.32–4.36-fold, respectively, compared with those pretreated by HT at 180–200 °C for 25 min without catalyst. The catalyst specifically enhanced hemicellulose and lignin removal from EFB. During HT pretreatment, disruption of EFB cell wall also facilitated over 70% potassium dissolution from EFB to the liquid residue at 160–190 °C for 25 min, while poorer dissolution of potassium was found at 200 °C without or with catalyst addition. The HT pretreatment successfully improved the removal of potassium from EFB and its bioconversion yield. However, the potassium forms a sticky compound with other elements and soluble organic compound, and further study is required for the valorization of the potassium and liquid residue.
      PubDate: 2018-12-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0360-4
  • A comparative investigation of H 2 O 2 -involved pretreatments on
           lignocellulosic biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis
    • Authors: Maoyuan Luo; Dong Tian; Fei Shen; Jinguang Hu; Yanzong Zhang; Gang Yang; Yongmei Zeng; Shihuai Deng; Yaodong Hu
      Abstract: An effective pretreatment to improve cellulose accessibility and facilitate glucose release is crucial in a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. This work comparatively assessed four H2O2-involved pretreatments, i.e., concentrated H3PO4 plus H2O2 (PHP), H2O2–CH3COOH (HPAC), alkaline-H2O2 (AHP), and Fenton chemistry (FC), for their pretreatment performances on wheat straw, poplar, and birch biomass. Substrate characteristics before and after pretreatment were assessed using SEM, XRD, and LSCM. The hydrolytic potentials of the pretreated substrates were compared by Simons’ stain and cellulose–glucose conversion assessment. The results showed that acidic H2O2-involved pretreatments (PHP and HPAC) were more efficient in biomass delignification compared to AHP and FC. PHP pretreatment is more promising for cellulosic ethanol production due to its corresponding high glucose yield (368.0 mg g−1) after enzymatic hydrolysis.
      PubDate: 2018-12-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0364-0
  • Selective hemicellulose hydrolysis of Scots pine sawdust
    • Authors: Annu Rusanen; Katja Lappalainen; Johanna Kärkkäinen; Tero Tuuttila; Marja Mikola; Ulla Lassi
      Abstract: The depletion of fossil resources is driving forward the search for new and alternative renewable feedstocks in the production of renewable chemicals, which could replace the petroleum-based ones. One such feedstock is pine (Pinus sylvestris) sawdust, which is generated enormous amounts in Finnish sawmills yearly. However, prior to the utilization in high-value applications, it needs to be fractionated into its constituents. In this work, the objective was to produce monomeric hemicellulose sugars from pine sawdust without degrading cellulose or lignin simultaneously. The influence of the reaction temperature and time, as well as acid type and concentration, was studied. Based on the results, the temperature was the main distinguishing feature between cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis. Promising results were achieved with acid mixtures consisting of 0.5% sulfuric acid and 5.5 or 10% formic acid. At 120 °C with the reaction time of 2 h, the mixtures produced hemicellulose sugars with the yields of 62%. These yields were comparable to the yields achieved in similar conditions with 1.5% sulfuric acid or 40% formic acid. Therefore, by using an acid mixture, the concentration of a single acid could be reduced significantly. The solid fractions remaining after the hydrolysis consisted mainly of cellulose and lignin, which verified the selectivity of the hemicellulose hydrolysis. Also, the fractionation of the remaining solids confirmed that the utilization of all the sawdust components is feasible.
      PubDate: 2018-12-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0357-z
  • Effect of process conditions on the properties of castor oil maleate and
           styrene copolymer produced by bulk polymerization
    • Authors: Dayanne L. H. Maia; Fabiano A. N. Fernandes
      Abstract: This work evaluated the influence of process conditions on the chemical characteristics and yield of polymers based on castor oil. Castor oil maleate and styrene copolymers (MACO-Sty) were produced by bulk polymerization using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and cobalt naphthenate as free radical initiators and reaction accelerators, respectively. The effects of temperature (100 to 140 °C), molar ratio between styrene and castor oil maleate (2:1 to 4:1), BPO concentration (0.10 to 0.20 wt%), and cobalt naphthenate concentration (0.10 to 0.20 wt%) were evaluated on the number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw), dispersity (Đ), molar fraction of styrene in the copolymer, reaction yield, and viscosity of the copolymer. A wide range of molecular weights (Mw from 15,809 to 38,656) could be produced, with dispersity ranging from 2.0 to 4.8, and high yields into copolymers (> 80%). The physical characteristics ranged from resins of low viscosity (1.583 Pa s) to solid polymers.
      PubDate: 2018-12-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0359-x
  • Efficient metal-free conversion of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural
           using a boronic acid
    • Authors: Brian J. Graham; Ronald T. Raines
      Abstract: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which can be synthesized from hexose sugars without rearrangement of their carbon framework, is a key platform chemical that is readily convertible into fuels and chemicals that are now derived from petroleum. Methods to convert glucose, which is readily accessible from cellulose, to HMF typically rely on toxic heavy metals or harsh acidic conditions and often give low yields or low selectivity. Here, we report on a mild, efficient, and metal-free process that uses an organocatalyst, 2-carboxyphenylboronic acid, along with small amounts of chloride ion to effect the selective transformation of glucose to HMF.
      PubDate: 2018-12-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0346-2
  • Valorization of waste Indigofera tinctoria L. biomass generated from
           indigo dye extraction process—potential towards biofuels and compost
    • Authors: Lopa Pattanaik; Satya Narayan Naik; P. Hariprasad
      Abstract: The current study focuses on the valorization potential of Indigofera tinctoria L. waste biomass recovered from the indigo dye production process for biofuel and compost. In order to compare the potential of after dye extracted biomass (ADB) with before dye extracted biomass (BDB), different physical (proximate analysis, calorific value, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD)), chemical (ultimate analysis, inorganic elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)), and compositional characterization (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive content) were performed. With C/N ratio of 19.66 and high mineral contents (P = 1513.47 and K = 5672.63 ppm), ADB showed favorable potential for compost. Additionally, the ultimate composition (C = 44.23%, H = 6.62%, N = 2.25%, and O = 37.94%) and lignocellulosic composition (cellulose = 41.15%, hemicellulose = 28.9%) of ADB indicated comparable methane (498.94 L/kg VS) and ethanol (281.9 L/Mg) potential. Considering the overall biomass potential, an integrated approach has been suggested to utilize ADB for biofuels (biogas and bioethanol) and compost production. This approach may enhance the eco-sustainability by substituting the current energy and fertilizer need in Indigofera biomass cultivation and indigo dye production processes with a predicted energy equivalent of 3709.68 MJ (from biogas) or 1131.56 MJ (from bioethanol) per 240 kg dry weight of ADB. Graphical abstract ᅟ
      PubDate: 2018-12-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0354-2
  • Characterization of mesoporous biochar produced from biogas digestate
           implemented in an anaerobic process of large-scale hog farm
    • Authors: Wen-Tien Tsai; Yung-Yu Fang; Po-Hung Cheng; Yu-Quan Lin
      Abstract: Using a laboratory-scale pyrolyzer, porous biochars were produced at a wide operating temperature range from 300 to 800 °C for holding times of 30–120 min from biogas digestate (BD), which was derived from the anaerobic digestion unit in a large-scale pig farm. The resulting biochars were characterized by elemental analyzer, oxygen-bomb calorimeter, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), pycnometer, surface area and porosity analyzer, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The pore properties of the BD-based biochar products were on an increasing trend as pyrolysis temperature increased, indicating that operating temperature at about 800 °C seemed to be the optimal condition for producing biochar. The Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area of the optimal biochar was about 110 m2/g due to its mesoporous feature. Furthermore, the mineral elements of the optimal biochar were rich in calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si), iron (Fe), and potassium (K), which should be present in the forms of phosphates, carbonates, oxides, silicates, or their composites. Based on the pore properties and chemical characteristics, the BD-based biochar could be used as an excellent soil conditioner.
      PubDate: 2018-10-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0344-4
  • Exhaustive characterization on chemical and thermal treatment of sawdust
           for improved biogas production
    • Authors: Renu Bala; Monoj Kumar Mondal
      Abstract: This work is aimed to the effective chemical pretreatment of sawdust hydrolysis for enhanced biogas production. Various chemical reagents were used for sawdust hydrolysis. NaOH was found to be the best among all in order to produce highest yield of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and phenolic compounds. Therefore, NaOH prospective on delignification and rupture of cell wall of sawdust was determined experimentally using different approaches (NaOH addition, NaOH-microwave, and NaOH-autoclave). The NaOH-autoclave pretreatment showed pronounced effect on cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content of sawdust. XRD analysis revealed that 10% increase in crystallinity was observed after NaOH-autoclave treatment. SEM micrographs also depicted that cell wall surface was highly affected by NaOH-autoclave pretreatment. Optimum condition for highest lignin solubilization of 58.6% was found at 10% NaOH concentration and 90-min autoclaving time. Biogas yield was increased by 50.8% at optimum pretreatment condition in comparison to native sawdust. Rate constant and order of bioconversion into biogas was also increased after pretreatment. The maximum methane content in biogas for treated sawdust was found to be 62%.
      PubDate: 2018-10-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0342-6
  • Valorization of humins by phosphoric acid activation for activated carbon
    • Authors: Shimin Kang; Shaohui Jiang; Zhezhe Peng; Yue Lu; Jianfeng Guo; Jianwen Li; Wanxiang Zeng; Xiaoyuan Lin
      Abstract: Humins, the solid wastes from biomass acid hydrolysis, were value-added applied for activated carbon production through the phosphoric acid activation method with pyrolysis temperature ranging from 300 to 700 °C. Studies on structure and properties found that pyrolysis temperature is a key factor affecting pore formation of activated carbons. A good yield of 51.4 wt%, high BET surface area of 2375 m2/g, Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volume of 0.88 cm3/g, and an excellent Langmuir adsorption capacity of 1125 mg/g on methylene blue (MB) were obtained under the preferred temperature of 400 °C (AC400). The adsorption of MB was well explained by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the adsorption behavior complied with Langmuir isotherm model. Dichloromethane (DCM) was found a most effective extractant in AC400 regeneration by using Soxhlet apparatus. A comparable adsorption capacity of 680 mg/g MB was maintained for the fifth reusing of the AC400, illustrating the application potential of humins valorization for biomass residues recycling industry.
      PubDate: 2018-09-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s13399-018-0329-3
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