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CHEMISTRY (596 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 216)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 267)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 106)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 11)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 170)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 183)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Science : Nano     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Chemistry and Materials Research
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2224-3224 - ISSN (Online) 2225-0956
   Published by IISTE Homepage  [37 journals]
  • Journal coverpage

    • Authors: Journal Editor
      Issue No: Vol. 9
  • Advances in Inorganic Ion Exchangers and Their Applications: A Review

    • Authors: Fisseha Gebrewold
      Abstract: This material is a brief review of ion exchange materials with emphasis of inorganic ion exchangers aimed at giving a short and precise discussion of the role of separation, the preference of inorganic ion exchangers than that of organic once and advances of inorganic ion exchangers. Thus, it begins with brief introduction of ion-exchange materials and their types as well as their many derivatives and describes inorganic ion exchangers to nanocomposite cation exchange materials and their technological improvement from old era to latest age of nano. In addition, this review tries to address so many applications of ion-exchange materials such as, antimicrobial activity, catalysis, hydrometallurgy, bimolecular separations, chromatography and environmental science engineering etc., which are directly related with green chemistry and making processes easier for humans well being. Keywords: Inorganic ion exchangers, cation exchange materials, nanocomposite cation exchangers.
      Issue No: Vol. 9
  • Studying the Effect of Oxidation Reagent on Preoaration of Zinc Chromate

    • Authors: Fwoad Altaleb
      Abstract: Zinc Chromate was synthesised by Co-precipitation method, we have been using several oxidizing agents and found that the best one water oxygen because of the nice jamming least compared to the rest of the spectrum, The synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction technology (XRD).Set temperature synthesis at 250 ℃ . Muller indexes (h k l) were calculated for the production, and it was clear that, the compound crystallized according to orthorhombic lattice with following parameters a = 5.2022 (Å), b = 8.5214 (Å), c = 6.3660 (Å) The space group of symmetry is (R3C). The IR spectroscopy encourage our results during the bonding vibrations of Zn-O, Cr-O . Keywords: Coprecipitation, Znic chromate, orthorhombic
      Issue No: Vol. 9
  • Synthesis and Study of an Azo-azomethine Dyes with N,O Donor Set of Atoms
           and Their Cu (II), Co (II) and Ni(II) Complexes

    • Authors: Zuhria Salem
      Abstract: The Synthesis of azo-azomethine ligand H2L, 2,2'(1,2-phenylenebis(azanylidene)bis (methanylyidene) bis(4-phenyldiazenyl) phenol were carried out by the condensation of phenyl -1,2-diamine with 2-Hydroxy -5-(phenyldiazenyl)benzaldehyde. Reaction of this ligand with Nickel (II), Cobalt (II) and Cooper (II) ions were carried out by using metal chloride salts by the 1:1 molar ratio. Three new organometallic complexes were obtained, the Cu (II), and Ni (II) are tetracoordinate binding to two phenolic oxygens and two imine nitrogen in approximate square planar geometry. Co (II) also coordinates using the same sites like other metals but gave octahedral configuration.The structure of the ligand and its metal complexes were elucidated by elemental analyses, IR, 1H 13C NMR, electronic spectra. Keywords: Azo-azomethine, tetracoordinate, phenolic, imine.  
      Issue No: Vol. 9
  • DFT Study of Small Gold Clusters Aun (n=2-13): The Structural, Electronic,
           Thermodynamic and Spectral Properties

    • Authors: Noha Jabr
      Abstract: The structures and relative stabilities of small gold clusters Aun (n=2-13) have been investigated at The B3LYP/ CEP-121G level of density functional theory with exploitation Gaussian09 program. Relative stabilities of these clusters have been analyzed based on the variation of their binding energies (Eb), fragmentation energies (Efrag), ionization energies (VIP), electron affinities (EA), the energy gap (Egap) and IR spectrum with cluster size (n). We note that the gold clusters Aun (n=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) have a special values of Egap, VIP and Efrag, these indicates that these clusters are more stable than their neighbouring clusters. Binding Enthalpy (ΔHb), Entropy (ΔSb) and Gibbs free energy (ΔGb) of Aun clusters were computed at 298.15K.We note that these amounts decrease with increasing cluster size. We calculate IR spectra for gold clusters and compared our results with experimental data and we note that the clusters Aun (n=6, 8, 10, 12) absorbed at lower wave length. Keywords: Gold clusters, Density Functional theory (DFT), Bending energy, Fragmentation energy, Ionization energy, Electron affinity, Energy gap, Enthalpy, Entropy, Gibbs free energy, IR spectrum.
      Issue No: Vol. 9
  • Effects of Physical Activation Procedure on the Production Yield, Surface
           Chemistry and Surface Pores of Coconut Shells Based Activated Carbons

    • Authors: John. Bentil, William Kwame Buah
      Abstract: Activated carbons are produced either by physical or chemical activation or both. However, due to different experimental protocols used in preparing and characterising these carbons, it has been difficult in comparing their yields, surface chemistry and pore developments. In this study the effects of physical activation procedure on yields, surface chemistry and surface pore developments of activated carbons prepared by three physical activation procedures using the same protocols were compared. The results of the yields revealed that during the production of activated carbons better yields are obtained when the particle size of the precursor is reduced to the required size of the expected activated carbon prior to carbonisation and activation. The spectra produced by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy demonstrated shift in bands and changes in wavelength numbers and absorbance between the raw and the derived activated carbons  during pyrolysis or activation. Comparing the micrographs of the Scanning electron microscope of the derived carbons also showed an irregular and heterogeneous surface morphology with a well-developed porous structure. Keywords: porosity, micrographs, surface area, yield, activation, spectroscopy
      Issue No: Vol. 9
  • Isolation, Structural Elucidation of Alkaloid Constituent and
           Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extract from Berries of Embelia

    • Authors: Tariku Nefo Duke
      Abstract: The main target of this project is that to investigate chemical constituent and evaluating antibacterial activities of methanol extract from berries of Embelia schimperi. Chromatographic separation of a methanol extract from berries of the plant led to isolation of 2-(pent-4-ol)-N-methyl cyclohexylamine (F3). The study revealed that the crude extracted berries of the plant have a wide MIC range of 4.22 to 20.14 mg/mL against all tested bacteria strains. Keywords: Embelia schimperi, 2-(pent-4-ol)-N-methyl cyclohexylamine, antimicrobial activity and methanol
      Issue No: Vol. 9
  • High Sensitive C-reactive Protein for Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk
           Level in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome in Sulaimania-Iraq

      Abstract: Background and objective: Metabolic syndrome is a group of characteristics, which include obesity, high blood pressure, elevated blood sugar levels, and high triglycerides (fat-like substances in the blood). Having a combination of these characteristics increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and heart disease. People with central obesity have an increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, a substantial number of obese individuals have no other cardiovascular risk factors, besides their obesity. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein produced predominantly by hepatocytes under the influence of cytokines such as IL -6 and TNF-α. Determination of hs-CRP was carried out in this study to discriminate between centrally obese people with and without metabolic syndrome. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty subject with central obesity aged 20-70 years underwent a physical examination and laboratory assays to determine the presence of metabolic syndrome (NCEP ATP III criteria). The subjects were categorized into metabolic syndrome and non -metabolic syndrome group to decide whether CRP has an impact on the development of metabolic syndrome, and further subdivision have made to sub classify them to five sub-groups according to the existence of components of metabolic syndrome. Results: Mean hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in individuals with central obesity with metabolic syndrome (n = 101; 72.1%) compared to individuals with central obesity without metabolic syndrome (3.64 mg/L versus 1.75 mg/L (IQR 1.25-2.24); p < 0.0001). Mean hs-CRP levels increased with increasing number of metabolic syndrome components present. In univariable linear regression analyses, hs-CRP was significantly correlated positively with body mass index, waist circumference, and atherogenic index, while a significant negative correlations was found with HDL-C level. All the obese participants were at risk of cardiovascular events. Conclusions: The degree of central obesity (waist circumference) and BMI seemed to be the main determinant of an increased hs-CRP level. Serum hs-CRP was significantly correlated with the presence of metabolic syndrome; strong relationship between serum hs-CRP and various features of metabolic syndrome. The addition of serum hs-CRP to the present definition of the metabolic syndrome may help to identify patients at high risk for future cardiovascular disease. Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Metabolic syndrome, High sensitive C-reactive protein.
      Issue No: Vol. 9
  • The Preparation of Some 1,2,4-Triazole Ester and Benzotriazole Ester

    • Authors: Joanna Toumani
      Abstract: We have prepared a 1-chloro ester by a reaction between 4-methoxy Benzaldehyde and Benzoyl chloride, and we have checked the Structure of the produced Compound by IR (Infra Red) and then we have studied the reaction of this compound with Benzotriazole and 1H-1,2,4-Triazole to get the following compounds: (1H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazol-1-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl)methyl benzoate and (4-methoxyphenyl)(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl benzoate   Then we have purified the produced compounds by re-crystallization, and their  structures have been checked by (1H-NMR ,13C-NMR ) and FT-IR, Triazole derivatives have a variety of biological applications,  therefore the produced compounds should have many important applications. Keywords: Triazole, esterification, chloro esters.
      Issue No: Vol. 9
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Silica from Ragi Husk Ash (Finger
           Millet) by a Sol-gel Method

    • Authors: A. Ananthi, D. Geetha, P.S. Ramesh
      Abstract: Silica aerogel, a mesoporous material, was prepared from ragi husk ash by sol–gel method and dried under atmospheric pressure. In this method, ragi  husk ash, which is rich in silica, was extracted with sodium hydroxide solution to produce a sodium silicate solution. This solution was neutralized with acid to form a silica aerogel. The aged gel was washed carefully by de ionized water and ethanol and finally dried under atmospheric air. A temperature of 7000C was found to be optimum ashing temperature with maximum amorphous silica content. From a morphological analysis obtained by SEM and diffraction patterns (XRD), a longitudinal fibrous and amorphous structure was observed for Ragi Husk. FTIR characterization indicated the presence of silanol and siloxane groups. Thermo gravimetric was used to characterize burning behaviour and also to determine the activation energies. This economic technology, as applied to waste material, also provides many benefits to the local agro-industry. Keywords: Ragi husk Ash, Sol- gel method, Amorphous silica, Aerogel
      Issue No: Vol. 9
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