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CHEMISTRY (656 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 350)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 189)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 280)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 392)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 228)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 92)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.764
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 3  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1423-0445 - ISSN (Online) 0937-7409
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Functional characterization of two novel peptides and their analogs
           identified from the skin secretion of Indosylvirana aurantiaca , an
           endemic frog species of Western Ghats, India
    • Abstract: Two new antimicrobial peptides belonging to brevinin 1 (B1) and brevinin 2 (B2) families were identified from the skin secretion of Indosylvirana aurantiaca, an endemic frog of Western Ghats, India, through shotgun cloning. Antibacterial, antibiofilm and cytotoxic effects of these peptides were evaluated and compared with their C-terminally amidated forms. Both the amidated peptides (B1-NH2 and B2-NH2) showed significantly enhanced broad-spectrum activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the latter was found to have potent biofilm inhibition properties against Klebsiella pneumoniae over other peptides. Both forms of B2 were less cytotoxic against human red blood cells (hRBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC). Hence, B2 and its amidated analog have good therapeutic value and these peptides could be considered as potential lead molecules for further development.
      PubDate: 2019-08-19
  • 3-Methyl-1-(methylthio)-2-butene: a component in the foul-smelling
           defensive secretion of two Ceroglossus species (Coleoptera: Carabidae)
    • Abstract: A sulfur-containing compound causes the foul smell of the defensive pygidial gland fluid of Ceroglossus buqueti Laporte and Ceroglossus magellanicus Gehin. This compound was identified as 3-methyl-1-(methylthio)-2-butene by a comparison of its mass spectrum, and chromatographic properties with those of a chemically synthesized standard. Although a few sulfur compounds are known from insect secretions, this sulfur-bearing isoprene derivative has not been characterized previously from any arthropod source. Additional components in the defensive section include acetic, propanoic, isobutyric, butanoic, methacrylic, ethacrylic, tiglic and benzoic acids, and 11-tricosene. Samples prepared from specimens of Ceroglossus chilensis Eschscholtz showed methacrylic, ethacrylic, and other acids. However, 3-methyl-1-(methylthio)-2-butene was not detected in the defensive fluid of C. chilensis.
      PubDate: 2019-07-11
  • Ammonia as a puddling site-marshaling substance for Japanese Papilio
    • Abstract: Butterflies, especially the males, often come to dumping grounds to sip water. This behavior is called “puddling”. The aim of the present study was to identify the key substances marshaling eight species of Japanese Papilio butterfly to their puddling sites. We conducted behavioral field experiments and found that ammonia is one of these marshaling compounds. We examined the olfactory sensilla on the antennae of four Papilio species by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the single-cell response recording method. We found sensilla responding to ammonia on the ventral surfaces of the antennae of male and female Papilio xuthus and male P. maackii, P. protenor, and P. memnon. We also identified sensilla responding to humidity on the dorsal surfaces of the antennae of male and female P. xuthus. As members of this genus are primarily herbivores, they do not normally approach natural sources of this compound, namely, decomposing urine and dead animal carcasses. However, there was evidence to indicate that water sources emitting ammonia attractant were also often sources of vital Na+ cation that is frequently deficient in the diets of herbivorous butterflies.
      PubDate: 2019-05-30
  • A beetle biocontrol agent of rice-field weeds recognizes its host plants
           by surface wax long-chain alkanes and free fatty acids
    • Abstract: The importance of long-chain alkanes and free fatty acids present in leaf surface waxes of two Commelinaceae rice-field weeds, Commelina benghalensis L. and Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan, was evaluated as short-range attractant and oviposition stimulant in the Lema praeusta (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Surface waxes were extracted by dipping leaves in n-hexane for 1 min at 27 ± 1 °C. Thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography–flame ionization detection analyses of n-hexane extracts revealed 20 n-alkanes from C14 to C36 and 13 free fatty acids from C12:0 to C22:0. Pentacosane and palmitoleic acid were predominant among n-alkanes and free fatty acids, respectively. Females showed attraction to one leaf equivalent surface wax of both weeds against the control solvent (petroleum ether) in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. However, the insect could not discriminate between one leaf equivalent surface waxes of two weeds, suggesting that both weeds were equally attractive to females. Among all identified alkanes and fatty acids, females showed attraction towards individual docosane, tricosane, pentacosane and heptacosane, and tridecanoic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid, and arachidic acid, resembling in amounts as present in one leaf equivalent surface wax of C. benghalensis and M. nudiflora, respectively. A synthetic blend of either docosane, tricosane, pentacosane, and heptacosane, resembling in amounts as present in one leaf equivalent surface wax of C. benghalensis, or tridecanoic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid, and arachidic acid, resembling in amounts as present in one leaf equivalent surface wax of M. nudiflora, served as short-range attractant and oviposition stimulant in L. praeusta.
      PubDate: 2019-05-30
  • Sequestration of the plant secondary metabolite, colchicine, by the
           noctuid moth Polytela  gloriosae (Fab.)
    • Abstract: Colchicine, a well-known alkaloid, is a potent inhibitor of polymerization of tubulin leading to mitotic arrest. It is highly toxic to eukaryotic cells but also widely used in the field of medicine and plant breeding. Gloriosa superba (family: Colchicaceae) is an important natural source of colchicine. The seeds, tubers and leaves of this plant contain about 0.8, 1.2 and 0.014% colchicine by dry weight respectively. A noctuid moth, Polytela gloriosae (family: Noctuidae), feeds voraciously on leaves of G. superba without any adverse effect. However, the fate of colchicine and the mechanisms by which the insect is able to overcome the toxicity of the metabolite is not known. Here, we trace the fate of colchicine in both, the larva and moth of P. gloriosae. Colchicine was quantified in different body parts of the larvae and moth by high performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography mass spectrophotometry and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Of the total colchicine taken in by the larva, a larger portion was excreted, while the rest was sequestered in its cuticle. In the moths however, the wings, legs and antennae were found to accumulate high amount of colchicine. The sequestered colchicine, in both the larva and adult, were chemically identical to that found in the plant. Negligible amounts of demethyl-(−)-colchicine, a less toxic derivative of colchicine was also detected. We discuss the probable adaptive significance of sequestration of colchicine by the insect.
      PubDate: 2019-05-29
  • Habitats shape the cuticular chemical profiles of stingless bees
    • Abstract: Stingless bees are highly social pollinators in tropical ecosystems. Besides floral pollen and nectar, they collect substantial amounts of plant resins, which are used for nest construction/maintenance and defence against antagonists. Moreover, some stingless bees extract chemical compounds from resins and incorporate them in their cuticular chemical profiles, rendering this trait directly dependent on the plant community of the surrounding environment. While previous studies have investigated how variation in the composition and diversity of available resin sources affect resin storages inside hives, subsequent effects on the bees’ cuticular chemistry have not been studied. To fill this gap, we investigated the number, proportion and composition of compounds in the cuticular chemical profile of an Australian stingless bee using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. We analysed whether and (if so) how the cuticular chemistry was affected by habitat (i.e., plantations, forests, and gardens) and tree species richness. We found that overall numbers and proportions of self-produced and resin-derived compounds in the cuticular chemical profiles of Tetragonula carbonaria were similar across habitats, while the composition of all compounds (i.e., both self-produced and resin-derived) and of resin-derived compounds differed between habitats. This indicates that the surrounding tree species community and thus available resin chemistry affected the composition of particularly resin-derived compounds on the bees’ cuticle. As the number and composition of resin-derived cuticular compounds were not affected by tree species richness, stingless bees appear to selectively incorporate specific compounds available in the surrounding environment in their cuticular chemical profiles, which may increase their defensive properties.
      PubDate: 2019-05-27
  • The aggregation-sex pheromones of the cerambycid beetles Anaglyptus
           mysticus and Xylotrechus antilope ssp. antilope : new model species for
           insect conservation through pheromone-based monitoring
    • Abstract: We studied the pheromone chemistry of the cerambycids Anaglyptus mysticus and Xylotrechus antilope ssp. antilope with the goal of identifying attractants that could be used as tools for pheromone-based monitoring of these two species, which are rare and red-listed in parts of northern Europe. Beetles were reared from naturally colonized branches of hazel (Corylus avellana) or oak (Quercus robur), respectively, and used for headspace sampling. The extracts of volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Males of A. mysticus consistently produced large quantities of (R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone and 2-nonanone, minor amounts of 2,3-hexanedione, and trace amounts of six other compounds. The average proportion of 2-nonanone to (R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone was 70:100. Males of X. antilope produced large quantities of (S)-2-hydroxy-3-octanone, and minor quantities of 2,3-octanedione. None of these compounds were present in the corresponding extracts of females from either species. The attractiveness of the dominant compounds produced by each species was determined in field bioassays. Lures with racemic 3-hydroxy-2-hexanone and 2-nonanone as single compounds were not attractive to A. mysticus. However, the compounds acted synergistically in blends of 100:100 and 160:100 of 2-nonanone to the hydroxyketone’s (R)-enantiomer, but not in a 40:100 blend. Similarly (S)-2-hydroxy-3-octanone and its racemate attracted significantly more X. antilope than controls. Males and females of both species were captured in approximately equal numbers. The aggregation-sex pheromones of A. mysticus and X.antilope have high potential to serve as sensitive and efficient tools for detection and monitoring of local populations, and in studies of the species’ ecology and conservation requirements.
      PubDate: 2019-04-09
  • Identification of sesquisabinene B in carrot ( Daucus carota L.) leaves as
           a compound electrophysiologically active to the carrot psyllid ( Trioza
           apicalis Förster)
    • Abstract: The Carrot psyllid, Trioza apicalis Förster (Homoptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae) is one of the major insect pests of carrots (Daucus carota L.) in parts of northern and central Europe. Gas chromatography–single-sensillum recording (GC–SSR) previously confirmed several active compounds in a carrot leaf extract, but the most active compound remained unidentified. Mass fragmentation patterns observed from the unidentified active compound when analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to propose β-sesquiphellandrene and α-cis-bergamotene to be candidates as the unidentified compound. The compounds were synthesized and their mass spectra were nearly identical with the unknown active compound. But, the retention times differed from the compound in the carrot leaf extract. Thus, to obtain the unidentified compound pure enough and in adequate amounts for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, preparative gas chromatography was applied to separate and concentrate this biologically active compound. Analysis by liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC–QTOF) confirmed the unidentified compound to be a compound with the formula of C15H24 and together with GC–MS, 1H and 13C NMR analysis sesquisabinene B was identified as the unidentified compound in the extract. GC–SSR was then used to finally confirm the biological activity of sesquisabinene B isolated from the carrot leaf extract via preparative GC.
      PubDate: 2019-03-14
  • Caterpillar-induced plant volatiles attract conspecific and heterospecific
           adults for oviposition within a community of lepidopteran stemborers on
           maize plant
    • Abstract: Olfactory cues may influence host plant preferences for oviposition of female moths within a community of stemborers that utilise the same resource. This study aimed to evaluate plant preferences for oviposition of gravid females of noctuid stemborers, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamistis, and the crambid Chilo partellus for uninfested maize plants and plants infested by conspecific or heterospecific larvae. The involvement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by uninfested and maize plants infested by conspecific or heterospecific larvae on moth orientation was studied in Y-tube olfactometer assays and in the field. All gravid female moths significantly preferred VOCs emitted by plants infested by conspecific or heterospecific larvae over those from uninfested plants, and female moths did not systematically prefer VOCs emitted by plants infested by conspecifics. Field trials confirmed these results. Chemical analysis by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that VOCs emitted by larvae-infested plants, regardless of the stemborer species, were compositionally richer than those released by uninfested plants but their emission intensity varied with species involved in the infestation. Busseola fusca larvae induced a compositionally richer VOCs profile than S. calamistis and C. partellus larvae. Eight candidate attractants were associated with larvae-infested plants. These results open new avenues to develop attractants specific to trap female stemborer moths in the field.
      PubDate: 2019-03-07
  • Behavioural responses of bean flower thrips ( Megalurothrips sjostedti )
           to vegetative and floral volatiles from different cowpea cultivars
    • Abstract: Bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) is a key pest of cowpea (Vigna unguicalata) in Africa. To better understand the interaction of M. sjostedti to cowpea cultivars to improve management efforts, we investigated the repellent properties of volatiles of four cowpea cultivars, namely Ex-Luanda, Machakos, Ken Kunde 1 and Katumani 80 at different phenological stages. Bioassays were conducted to study host preference and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for chemical analysis of volatiles. Our results showed no significant preference of females M. sjostedti for any cowpea cultivars tested in preference assays. However, in olfactometer, the volatiles emitted during the vegetative stage of only Ex-Luanda, Machakos and Katumani 80 cultivars were repellent to females, while only Ken Kunde 1 was repellent to males. Volatiles from flowers of Ken Kunde 1 were attractive to females, whereas volatiles from the flowers of Katumani 80 were repellent, respectively. Ex-Luanda and Machakos elicited neutral response. Flowers of Machakos 66 and Ex-Luanda cultivars were repellent to males, while Katumani 80 and Ken Kunde 1 were neutral. The volatile analysis showed that (E)-β-ocimene and 1-octen-3-ol were unique to the volatile profile of Katumani 80 flowers. Previous study showed that (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal were only abundant in the vegetative stage of Katumani 80. (E)-2-hexenal was repellent to the females at a concentration of 0.01% but not at 1%. Hexanal, (E)-β-ocimene and 1-octen-3-ol elicited a neutral response from females at 0.01% and 1%. Our study indicates that (E)-2-hexenal could be useful in the development of semiochemical-based repellent tools for M. sjostedti management.
      PubDate: 2019-02-28
  • The future of Chemoecology : part II
    • PubDate: 2019-02-27
  • Iridoids and volatile pheromones of Tapinoma darioi ants: chemical
           differences to the closely related species Tapinoma magnum
    • Authors: D. D’Eustacchio; M. Centorame; A. Fanfani; G. Senczuk; G. H. Jiménez-Alemán; A. Vasco-Vidal; Y. Méndez; A. Ehrlich; L. Wessjohann; A. Francioso
      Abstract: Tapinoma species, and more general dolichoderine ants, are able to produce a variety of volatile compounds they use as chemical defense, alarm, and communication pheromones. Among these, iridoids and volatile ketones are the predominant molecule classes produced by the anal glands of these ants. A recent taxonomic revision of the genus Tapinoma in Europe revealed that the supercolonial species Tapinoma nigerrimum consists of a complex of four cryptic species. Two of them, Tapinoma magnum and the newly described Tapinoma darioi, are closely related species that evolutionary diverged recently. In this work, we determine and characterize the chemical profile of pheromones and volatile compounds of two Tapinoma species. From a chemical point of view, T. darioi and T. magnum show both qualitative and quantitative differences in the pheromones produced, supporting the taxonomic revision of the T. nigerrimum complex. Our data confirm T. darioi and T. magnum as separate species also from a biochemical point of view demonstrating the value of chemotaxonomy as a suitable tool for integrative studies of species differentiation even for closely related taxa.
      PubDate: 2019-01-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-018-00275-9
  • Identification of aqueous extracts from Artemisia ordosica and their
           allelopathic effects on desert soil algae
    • Authors: Xiangjun Zhou; Yurui Zhang; Xiaoliang An; Roberto De Philippis; Xinyue Ma; Chaoran Ye; Lanzhou Chen
      Abstract: Desert vascular plants coexist extensively with biological soil crusts (BSCs) in arid lands, but limited information is known about the impacts of shrub litterfall on soil microalgae. In this study, the components of aqueous extracts (AEs) from Artemisia ordosica leaves were identified, and the growth and physiological responses of two BSC-dominated algae, namely, Chlorella vulgaris and Nostoc sp., to AEs were investigated. The AEs contained humic and fulvic acid-like fluorescence components with high aromaticity. They also comprised four main chemical components, namely alcohols, phenols, organic acids and saccharides. Low AE concentrations enhanced the growth rate and chlorophyll fluorescence yield of C. vulgaris. Conversely, high AE concentrations inhibited the growth and photosynthetic activities of both soil microalgae, resulting from the decrease of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde contents. The tolerance concentration of the green alga C. vulgaris to the AEs was greater than that of the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. The AEs from A. ordosica exerted different degrees of stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the growth rates and physiological activities of Nostoc sp. and C. vulgaris, which might affect soil microalgal community structure and BSC formation in drylands. This study reveals the response mechanisms of soil algae to shrub leachates and improves our understanding of the role of vascular plants in shaping BSC communities.
      PubDate: 2019-01-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-018-00276-8
  • Chemical ecology traits in an adaptive radiation: TPA-sensitivity and
           detoxification in Hyles and Hippotion (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) larvae
    • Authors: Anna K. Hundsdoerfer; Katja Buchwalder; Mark A. O’Neill; Susanne Dobler
      Abstract: The larvae of several species in the hawk moth genus Hyles, including H. euphorbiae, feed on plants of the genus Euphorbia containing phorbol esters and are insensitive to addition of the standard phorbol ester, tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) to their artificial diet. Specialised non-Euphorbia feeding larvae were sensitive, whereas polyphagous ones were insensitive if their natural food plant spectrum also includes Euphorbia. Larvae of Hippotion celerio, an out-group species with polyphagous larvae not using Euphorbia as food plants, were sensitive. A highly conserved sequence of the TPA binding site of the protein kinase C in H. euphorbiae and Hippotion celerio demonstrates that intoxication by phorbol esters is not avoided by preventing target binding. H. euphorbiae larvae showed no vitality loss after chemical destruction of their peritrophic matrix and subsequent TPA treatment. TPA fed larvae that had putatively piperonyl butoxide (PBO)-inhibited cytochrome P450 enzymes also showed no deficits, indicating that this is not the only detoxification pathway in H. euphorbiae. Based on these qualitative results, we postulate that proto-Hyles was polyphagous with the ability to use Euphorbia as food plants. The most ancestral Hyles species presumably remained polyphagous, with the ability to switch to the toxic food plants if necessary. Within the youngest, Palearctic radiation, the species specialised on non-Euphorbia plants subsequently lost detoxification abilities, albeit not to 100%. The species in South America, the origin of Hyles, can detoxify TPA, indicating this ability to be a plesiomorphic character state within the genus that enabled its adaptive radiation in the Palearctic, the distribution and diversity centre of Euphorbia.
      PubDate: 2019-01-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-018-0274-4
  • Phenylpropanoid sex pheromone component in hemolymph of male Carambola
           fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    • Authors: Wei-Wei Hiap; Suk-Ling Wee; Keng-Hong Tan; Alvin Kah-Wei Hee
      Abstract: Males of the Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to, and feed on methyl eugenol (ME) that exists as a plant secondary compound in over 480 plant species worldwide. Upon feeding on this highly potent attractant, the males convert ME into a phenylpropanoid, (E)-coniferyl alcohol (ECF), that is stored in the rectal gland prior to its release as a sex pheromone component during calling and courtship. Here, using a series of chemical and behavioural assays, we provide evidence for the presence of ECF in the hemolymph and suggest the latter’s involvement in transport of ECF to the male rectal gland following consumption of ME. The greatest concentration of ECF was detected in the hemolymph at 3 h after feeding on ME and subsequently decreased, whereas accumulation of ECF in the rectal gland reached a maximum at 2 days post-feeding. Using male flies as biodetectors, fractions of 1.5–9.2 kDa from fractionated hemolymph of ME-fed males were found to be attractive and contained ECF as sex pheromone. In addition, the significant increase in the total concentration of protein in hemolymph from ME-fed males compared with that of ME-deprived males suggests a direct protein carrier involvement in hemolymph transport of the sex pheromone in B. carambolae. All these results are further discussed in comparison with previous results obtained from its sibling species, the Oriental fruit fly—B. dorsalis.
      PubDate: 2018-11-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-018-0273-5
  • Mistletoe effects on the host tree Tapirira guianensis : insights from
           primary and secondary metabolites
    • Authors: Fernanda Anselmo-Moreira; Luíza Teixeira-Costa; Gregório Ceccantini; Cláudia Maria Furlan
      Abstract: Mistletoes are parasitic plants that are capable of penetrating the living tissue of another plant’s stems and branches and extracting the necessary resources for their survival. This study aimed to compare the leaves and branches of parasitized and non-parasitized Tapirira guianensis host trees to gain insights of reciprocal effects of Phoradendron perrottetii (mistletoe) infection and profiles of primary metabolites and phenolic compounds of T. guianensis. Our hypothesis was that either the host’s chemical profile determines mistletoe infestation, or that the mistletoe infestation leads to fundamental changes in the metabolite profile of the host. Plant material was collected from T. guianensis parasitized by P. perrottetii, yielding samples from infested and non-infested host branches and their respective leaves. Infested branches were divided into two regions, the proximal region and the host-parasite interface (gall) region. Leaves and branches of non-parasitized plants were also collected. Statistical analyses revealed negative effects of the parasite on infested branches regarding most of the analyzed primary metabolites, especially soluble carbohydrates. This suggests a flow of carbohydrates towards the mistletoe, indicating a partially heterotrophic nutrition. Additionally, we observed a positive effect on the tannin contents of non-infested host branches caused by the mistletoe, which might suggest that this parasitic relationship induces a systemic response in T. guianensis. Finally, high contents of flavonoids at the gall region could indicate a mechanism of ROS quenching.
      PubDate: 2018-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-018-0272-6
  • A pheromone that coordinates parental care is evolutionary conserved among
           burying beetles (Silphidae: Nicrophorus )
    • Authors: Katharina C. Engel; Wenbe Hwang; Sandra Steiger
      Abstract: Pheromones regulating mating behavior are diverse in structure and typically show high species specificity. However, depending on their information content they can also be quite conserved across species. Here, we demonstrate that methyl geranate, an anti-aphrodisiac produced during brood care, is a conserved volatile organic compound within the genus Nicrophorus (burying beetles). Burying beetles are well known for their elaborate biparental care. They reproduce on small vertebrate carcasses and typically it is a pair of beetles, a male and a female, which cooperate in feeding and defending their young. During the intensive period of parental care, female Nicrophorus vespilloides have been shown to emit a volatile substance, methyl geranate, which acts as an anti-aphrodisiac and deters males from copulating. Methyl geranate is biosynthetically linked to juvenile hormone III, a hormone mediating a temporary infertility in this species. By investigating volatile emission of seven geographically and phylogenetically distinct burying beetle species, we provide evidence that methyl geranate is a conserved substance released by parenting adults throughout the genus. We, furthermore, show that there is high quantitative variation (1) between species, which can partly be explained by species differences in body size and (2) within species, which can be attributed to sex differences and individual brood size differences. Moreover, we demonstrate that a species of the genus Ptomascopus, which is closely related to Nicrophorus, but shows no elaborate post-hatching parental behavior, emits only trace amounts of methyl geranate during breeding. Our results, therefore, suggest that the synthesis of an anti-aphrodisiac was an important step in the evolution of concerted parental care in burying beetles. However, behavioral experiments are needed to further corroborate our hypothesis.
      PubDate: 2018-11-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-018-0271-7
  • Chemical tactic of facultative myrmecophilous lycaenid pupa to suppress
           ant aggression
    • Authors: Takafumi Mizuno; Yasuo Hagiwara; Toshiharu Akino
      Abstract: Myrmecophilous lycaenid caterpillars have close relationships with their ant hosts by means of various myrmecophilous organs, most of which are usually lost after pupation. However, some lycaenid species, including Lycaeides argyrognomon, maintain such relationships at the pupal stage and go so far as to pupate in ant nests. This invokes the hypothesis that these myrmecophilous lycaenid pupae might have alternative tactics to retain myrmecophilous interactions without ant attacks. Camponotus japonicus, Formica japonica, and Lasius japonicus exhibited distinctive aggressive behaviors against ant cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from different colonies of the same species but few attacks against the crude extract of L. argyrognomon pupae. GC–MS analysis revealed that the pupal cuticular lipids contain not only CHCs but also several long-chained aliphatic aldehydes, including 1-octacosanal and 1-triacontanal, which are absent from larval cuticular lipids. With the addition of synthesized 1-octacosanal and 1-triacontanal to ant CHCs from different colonies of the same species, the aggressive behavior decreased in C. japonicus, and the duration of physical contact shortened in C. japonicus and F. japonica. However, the behavior of L. japonicus remained unaffected after the addition of those aldehydes. These results suggest that the pupae-specific cuticular aldehydes of L. argyrognomon suppress ant aggression even after the loss of certain myrmecophilous organs, though the effects varied depending on the attending ant species. Since L. argyrognomon occasionally pupate in the nests of C. japonicus in the field, the lycaenids might be better adapted to associations with C. japonicus than with the other two ant species studied.
      PubDate: 2018-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-018-0270-8
  • Grazer deterrence and fungal inhibition by the invasive marsh grass
           Phragmites australis and the native sedge Bolboschoenus robustus in a
           mesohaline marsh
    • Authors: C. E. Kicklighter; S. Duca; A. K. S. Jozwick; H. Locke; C. Hundley; B. Hite; G. Hannifin
      Abstract: Tidal marsh habitats provide many important functions to coastal areas and are a valuable economic resource. Polyhaline marshes dominated by Spartina alterniflora can experience top-down control by the snail Littoraria irrorata who primarily impact Spartina through facilitating fungal growth on wounds they create. This grazing pressure may have selected for the production of chemical defenses in Spartina and other polyhaline marsh plants that deter snail feeding and fungal growth. Both Spartina and Littoraria can co-occur in mesohaline marshes that line the Chesapeake Bay, but little is known about interactions between this snail and plants in this habitat. Plant diversity, identity, and consumer abundance can differ between poly- and mesohaline marshes, and this may yield different patterns in the two marsh types. We investigated whether two abundant plants in a Chesapeake Bay mesohaline marsh of salinity ~ 13ppt deterred snail feeding and inhibited fungal growth. Through a bioassay-guided fractionation approach, we assessed palatability to snails and growth of the fungus Phaeosphaeria spartinae in response to chemical components in the invasive marsh grass Phragmites australis and the native sedge Bolboschoenus robustus. Both plants possessed chemicals that significantly deterred snail feeding compared to Spartina chemicals. In addition, both plants inhibited fungal growth, mediated by multiple metabolites. Snail density in this marsh was low (25 snails m−2), but may be enough to select for defenses in Bolboschoenus, or deterrent and inhibitory metabolites may be selected for by other consumers or factors. Chemical defenses in invasive Phragmites may contribute to its success in the Chesapeake Bay.
      PubDate: 2018-10-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-018-0269-1
  • Weed suppression by Canadian spring cereals: relative contribution of
           competition for resources and allelopathy
    • Authors: Antje Reiss; Inge S. Fomsgaard; Solvejg K. Mathiassen; Harpinder Singh Randhawa; Per Kudsk
      Abstract: Integrated and more sustainable weed management practices are in great demand all around the globe. The adoption of more weed-suppressive cereal cultivars could be part of an integrated weed management strategy. Recently, a study was published analysing the relative contribution of above-ground competition and allelopathy to weed suppression of Scandinavian winter cereals at the field level. The present study used the same approach with Canadian spring wheat and triticale cultivars, and confirmed the results of the previous study. The competitive traits such as leaf area index, crop height and early vigour, and the allelochemicals belonging to the chemical group of benzoxazinoids measured in the root zone were of equal importance to explain the variance of weed biomass at the field level. In addition, a dendogram showed large genetic variability for competitive and allelopathic traits in the Canadian spring cereals, providing the genetic basis for the initiation of breeding programmes for more weed-suppressive cultivars.
      PubDate: 2018-10-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00049-018-0267-3
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