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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 843 journals)
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    - CHEMISTRY (596 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (596 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 161)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 212)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 11)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 123)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 140)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Chemistry & Biodiversity
  [SJR: 0.723]   [H-I: 40]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-1872 - ISSN (Online) 1612-1880
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Genetic Diversity and Structure of Populations of Annona Crassiflora Mart.
           of Brazilian Savanna and Its Association with Chemical Variability
    • Abstract: Annona crassiflora Mart. is a native tree from Brazilian savanna. Isoquinoline alkaloids are characteristic of species of Annonaceae. The present work aimed to assess the magnitude of genetic diversity among different populations of A. crassiflora using AFLP markers, and verify the existence of any correlation between the AFLP data and previous reported alkaloid composition. Annona crassiflora from eight populations in the states of São Paulo, Goiás, Minas Gerais and Distrito Federal were analyzed. The data suggest a low, moderate and high level of genetic diversity from different populations of A. crassiflora. Concentration of alkaloids was significantly correlated to AFLP data, suggesting interaction between chemical and molecular markers in Annona crassiflora. The data of association between the chemical and genetic differentiation of A. crassiflora may be useful to establish cultivation areas allowing the definition of strategies to preserve their genetic diversity with an interest in specific chemotypes for genetic improvement programs focused on sustainable utilization of this specie. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T10:45:25.72733-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500320
       
  • The in vitro antimicrobial activity and chemometric modelling of 59
           commercial essential oils against pathogens of dermatological relevance
    • Abstract: This study reports on the inhibitory concentration of 59 commercial essential oils recommended for dermatological conditions, and identifies putative compounds responsible for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils were investigated for antimicrobial activity using minimum inhibitory concentration assays (MICs). Ten essential oils were identified as having superior antimicrobial activity in comparison to the other 49 oils. The essential oil compositions were determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and the data analysed with the antimicrobial activity using multivariate tools. Orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) models were created for seven of the pathogens. Eugenol was identified as the main biomarker responsible for antimicrobial activity in the majority of the essential oils. The essential oils mostly displayed noteworthy antimicrobial activity, with five oils displaying broad‐spectrum activity against the 13 tested micro‐organisms. The antimicrobial efficacies of the essential oils highlight their potential in treating dermatological infections and through chemometric modelling, bioactive volatiles have been identified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Xanthium spinosum L., an
           Invasive Species of Corsica
    • Abstract: Xanthium spinosum L. is a highly invasive plant originated from South America throughout the worlds as well as in Corsica Island. The chemical composition of X. spinosum essential oils from 25 Corsican locations was investigated using GC‐FID and GC‐MS. Seventy‐four components, which accounted for 96.2% of the total amount, were reported for the first time in the essential oil from aerial parts. The main compounds were eudesma‐4(15),7‐dien‐1‐β‐ol 61 (21.3%), germacrene D 36 (8.8%) and cadalene 60 (8.7%). Comparison with the literature highlighted the originality of the Corsican essential oil and eudesma‐4(15),7‐dien‐1‐β‐ol could be used as taxonomical marker to the systematics of the Xanthium genus. The essential oils obtained from separate organs and during the plant vegetative cycle were also studied to gain more knowledge about of correlations between the volatiles‐production and the phenological states of this weed. The production of oxygenated sesquiterpenes was predominant during the plant‐flowering process. The study focuses on direct correlation between the chemical composition of individual 25 oil samples and the morphological differences of the plant. Our results have gained more knowledge about the secondary metabolite production that occurs during the plant‐life, they could be interesting in order to manage the dispersal of X. spinosum. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • In vitro Activities of Pfaffia glomerata Root Extract, Its Hydrolyzed
           Fractions and Pfaffic Acid Against Trypanosoma cruzi Trypomastigotes
    • Abstract: This paper reports on the in vitro activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. glomerata roots, its hydrolyzed fractions, and pfaffic acid against Trypanosoma cruzi. The hydroalcoholic extract obtained from dried, milled P. glomerata roots was submitted to acid hydrolysis followed by partition with chloroform. The concentrated chloroform fraction was suspended in MeOH/H2O and partitioned with hexane (F1), chloroform (F2), and ethyl acetate (F3), in this sequence. The trypanocidal activity of the hydrolyzed extract and its fractions was evaluated in vitro. The hydroalcoholic extract displayed low activity, but fraction F1 was active against trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi, with IC50 = 47.89 μg/mL. The steroids campesterol (7.7%), stigmasterol (18.7%), β‐sitosterol (16.8%), Δ‐7‐estigmastenol (4.6%), and Δ‐7‐epinasterol (7.5%) were the major constituents of F1, along with fatty acid esters (7.6%) and eight aliphatic hydrocarbons (30.1%). Fractions F2 and F3 exhibited moderate activity, and pfaffic acid, one of the main chemical constituents of these fractions, displayed IC50 = 44.78 μM (21.06 μg/mL). On the other hand, the hydroalcoholic extract of P. glomerata roots, which is rich in pfaffosides, was inactive. Therefore, the main aglycone of pfaffosides, pfaffic acid, is much more active against trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi than its corresponding glycosides and should be further investigated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Insect antifeedant and ixodicidal compounds from Senecio adenotrichius
    • Abstract: Nine eremophilane sesquiterpenes 1‐9, two flavonoids 11 and 12, and two known pirrolizidine alkaloids 13 and 14, were isolated from Senecio adenotrichius DC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and by comparison with previously reported spectroscopic data of similar compounds. Compounds 5, 7 and 9 have not been previously reported as natural products. The antifeedant activity of these compounds was tested against Spodoptera litoralis and Myzus persicae. Eremophilanes 1, 3 and 8 were strong antifeedants to M. persicae, and 1 and 8 to S. littoralis. Their ixodicidal activity was tested against the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, with eremophilanes 1, 3 and 8, being strong ixodicidal agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Phytochemical and cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis
           L. (Asteraceae) from Croatia
    • Abstract: The cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) showed a chromosome number of 2n=16. Karyotype is composed by four pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric and two pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Physical mapping of two rDNA probes revealed two loci of 35S and one locus of 5S rRNA genes. Chromomycin fluorochrome banding revealed that all rDNA loci were GC rich. The genome size (2C‐value) of 1.95 pg classes this species in the group of very small genomes. Chemical composition of C. solstitialis volatile oil from Croatia, studied with gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry showed dominant components as it follows: hexadecanoic acid, α‐linolenic acid, germacrene D and heptacosane. Antioxidant capacity, measured by FRAP and DPPH methods, as well as inhibition of acetyl‐ and butyrylcholinesterase of VO was lower comparing to a standard solutions. Volatile oil tested with Disc diffusion method showed good inhibitory potential against P. aeruginosa, E. coli and all tested fungi: C. albicans, P. funiculosum and A. fumigatus. The microdilution method showed best activity against C. sakazakii and A. fumigatus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Artemisia arborescens Essential Oil Composition, Enantiomeric
           Distribution, and Antimicrobial Activity from Different Wild Populations
           from the Mediterranean Area
    • Abstract: Aerial parts of Artemisia arborescens were collected from different sites of the Mediterranean area (southwestern Algeria and southern Italy) and the chemical composition of their essential oil (EO) extracted by hydrodistillation was studied by both gas chromatography (GC) equipped with an enantioselective capillary column and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The EOs obtained were tested against several Listeria monocytogenes strains. Using GC and GC/MS, 41 compounds were identified, accounting for 96.0 – 98.8% of the total EO. All EOs showed a similar terpene profile, which was rich in chamazulene, β‐thujone, and camphor. However, the concentration of such compounds varied among the EOs. A. arborescens EO inhibited up to 83.3% of the L. monocytogenes strains, but the inhibitory spectrum varied among the EOs, with those from Algeria showing a higher inhibition degree than the Italian EOs. Such effect likely depended on the ketone (β‐thujone + camphor) content of the EO. The differences in the EO composition support the hypothesis that A. arborescens has at least two different chemotypes: a β‐thujone and a chamazulene type. The EO inhibitory spectrum indicates the A. arborescens EO as a valuable option in the control of the food‐borne pathogens.
       
  • Contents: C&B 8/2016
    •  
  • New Cytotoxic Bibenzyl and Other Constituents from Bauhinia ungulata L.
           (Fabaceae)
    • Abstract: A new bibenzyl, 3,5‐dimethoxy‐4‐methyl‐2′‐hydroxybibenzyl (1) and four known compounds identified as 3,5‐dimethoxy‐2’‐hydroxybibenzyl (2), liquiritigenin (3), guibourtinidol (4) and fisetinidol (5) were isolated from roots of Bauhinia ungulata L.. Phytochemical investigations of the stems of B. ungulata led to the isolation of the known compounds identified as liquiritigenin (3), guibourtinidol (4), fisetinidol (5), taraxerol (6), betulinic acid (7), taraxerone (8), glutinol, (9), a mixture of sitosterol (10) and stigmasterol (11), pacharin (12), naringenin (13) and eriodictyol (14). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). The cytotoxicity of the bibenzyl (1) has been evaluated against four human cancer cell lines, showing IC50 values of 4.3 and 6.5 μg ml−1 against pro‐myelocytic leukemia (HL‐60) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HEP‐2) cell lines, respectively. This paper also registers for the first time the 13C NMR data of the known bibenzyl (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Leaves of the Plum Tree (Prunus
           domestica)
    • Abstract: In cold extracts of senescent leaves of the plum tree (Prunus domestica ssp. domestica) six colorless non‐fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were characterized, named Pd‐NCCs. In addition, several minor NCC fractions were tentatively classified. The structure of the most polar one of the NCCs, named Pd‐NCC‐32, featured an unprecedented twofold glycosidation pattern. Three of the NCCs are also functionalized at their 32‐position by a glucopyranosyl group. In addition, two of these glycosidated NCCs carry a dihydroxyethyl group at their 18‐position. In the polar Pd‐NCC‐32 the latter group is further glycosidated at the terminal 182‐position. Four other major Pd‐NCCs and one minor Pd‐NCC were identified with known NCCs from higher plants, known to belong to the ‘epi’‐series. In addition tentative structures were derived for two minor fractions, classified as yellow chlorophyll catabolites (YCCs), which represented (formal) oxidation products of two of the observed Pd‐NCCs. The chlorophyll catabolites in leaves of plum feature the same basic structural pattern as those found in leaves of apple and pear trees. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Detection of macromolecular fractions in HCN polymers using
           electrophoretic and ultrafiltration techniques
    • Abstract: Elucidating the origin of life involves synthetic as well as analytical challenges. Herein, for the first time, we describe the use of gel electrophoresis and ultrafiltration to fractionate HCN polymers. Since the first prebiotic synthesis of adenine by Oró, HCN polymers have gained much interest in studies on the origins of life due to the identification of biomonomers and related compounds within them. Here, we demonstrate that macromolecular fractions with electrophoretic mobility can also be detected within HCN polymers. The migration of polymers under the influence of an electric field depends not only on their sizes (one‐dimensional electrophoresis) but also their different isoelectric points (two‐dimensional electrophoresis, 2‐DE). The same behaviour was observed for several macromolecular fractions detected in HCN polymers. Macromolecular fractions with apparent molecular weights as high as 250 kDa were detected by tricine‐SDS gel electrophoresis. Cationic macromolecular fractions with apparent molecular weights as high as 140 kDa were also detected by 2‐DE. The HCN polymers synthetized were fractionated by ultrafiltration. As a result, the molecular weight distributions of the macromolecular fractions detected in the HCN polymers directly depended on the synthetic conditions used to produce these polymers. The implications of these results for prebiotic chemistry will be discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Evaluation of antioxidant, anti‐cholinesterase, and antidiabetic
           potential of dry leaves and stems in Tamarix aphylla growing wild in
           Tunisia
    • Abstract: Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. has a wide geographic distribution and was employed in traditional medicine as astringent, anti‐rheumatic and to treat fever. T. aphylla leaves and stems extracts were studied from both chemical and biological points of view to assess the antidiabetic, anti‐cholinesterase and antioxidant potential of this species. The HPLC/DAD analysis showed the presence of 14 phenolic compounds (gallic, caffeic, p‐coumaric, ferulic and ellagic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin‐3‐O‐galactoside and six flavonol derivatives). This is the first study reporting a comparative study of the biological activities of different extracts from T. aphylla. High activities were obtained against DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical (O2●‐) and nitric oxide radical (●NO) in a concentration‐dependent manner, the most active extracts being the polar ones. T. aphylla also showed moderate protective effects against acetylcholinesterase, but no effects were observed against butyrylcholinesterase. Against α‐glucosidase the methanolic extracts displayed IC50 values from 8.41 to 24.81 μg/mL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Comparison of phytochemical composition and biological activities of Rubus
           ulmifolius extracts originating from four regions of Tunisia
    • Abstract: In the current study, the phenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts from Rubus ulmifolius Schott leaves harvested in four localities (Sejnen, Tabarka, Faija and Ain drahem) in Tunisia were investigated for the first time. Great differences were found for the chemical composition, total phenol contents and biological activities among the evaluated extracts. HPLC analysis of methanolic extracts showed that the dominant compounds were kaempferol 3‐O‐rutinoside and naringenine. In addition, significant correlations were observed between antioxidant activities and phenolic contents. In fact, leaves collected from Sejnen presented higher total phenol content (53.32 mg GAE/g DW) and antioxidant activities (IC50= 39.40 mg/l) than the others samples. All extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity against six used bacteria with the inhibition zones diameters and minimal inhibitory concentration values were in the range of 8‐16 mm and 6.25‐25 mg/ml, respectively. The highest antimicrobial activities were recorded in Sejnen extract against Gram‐positive bacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Phenotypic variations in the foliar chemical profile of Persea americana
           Mill cv Hass
    • Abstract: The Hass avocado tree Persea americana cv. Hass was derived from a single hybrid tree of P. americana var. drymifolia and P. americana var. guatemalensis, and it is propagated clonally by grafting. This cultivar is the most widely planted in the world but its profile of secondary metabolites has been studied rarely despite of its importance in plant protection. We illustrate the variability of the volatilome of mature leaves by describing the average chemical composition and the phenotypic variability found in 70 trees. Contrary to the uniformity expected in the Hass cultivar, high variability coefficients were found for most of the 36 detected foliar volatile compounds; furthermore we found six chemical chemotypes (CTs) grouping the foliar phenotypes of the sampled trees using hierarchical cluster analysis. 48% of trees were grouped in one chemotype; five CTs grouped the remaining trees. The compounds that determine chemotypes are: estragole, α‐farnesene, β‐caryophyllene, germacrene D, α‐cubebene and eugenol. This striking variation in a cultivar propagated clonally is discussed in terms of somatic mutation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical Constituents Isolated from Bletilla striata and Their Inhibitory
           Effects on Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Cells
    • Abstract: Bioassay‐guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the tubers of Bletilla striata led to the isolation of two new C‐methylated flavan‐3‐ols, bletillanols A (1) and B (2), along with ten known compounds (3‐12). Their structures were determined by using extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D‐, 2D‐NMR and circular dichroism data. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory potential on the nitric oxide generation in LPS‐stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Potent and Selective Monoamine Oxidase‐B Inhibitory Activity:
           Fluoro‐ vs. Trifluoromethyl‐4‐hydroxylated Chalcone
           Derivatives
    • Abstract: For various neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson’s diseases, selective and reversible MAO‐B inhibitors have a great therapeutic value. In our previous study, we have shown that a series of methoxylated chalcones with F functional group exhibited high binding affinity toward human monoamine oxidase‐B (hMAO‐B). In continuation of our earlier study and to extend the understanding of the structure–activity relationships, a series of five new chalcones were studied for their inhibition of hMAO. The results demonstrated that these compounds are reversible and selective hMAO‐B inhibitors with a competitive mode of inhibition. The most active compound, (2E)‐1‐(4‐hydroxyphenyl)‐3‐[4‐(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]prop‐2‐en‐1‐one, exhibited a Ki value of 0.33 ± 0.01 μm toward hMAO‐B with a selectivity index of 26.36. A molecular docking study revealed that the presence of a H‐bond network in hydroxylated chalcone with the N(5) atom of FAD is crucial for MAO‐B selectivity and potency. Potent and Selective Monoamine Oxidase‐B Inhibitory Activity: Fluoro‐ vs. Trifluoromethyl‐4‐hydroxylated Chalcone Derivatives B. Mathew*, G. E. Mathew, G. Uçar*, I. Baysal, J. Suresh, S. Mathew, A. Haridas, V. Jayaprakash
       
  • Biological Activities of Triterpenoids and Phenolic Compounds from Myrica
           cerifera Bark
    • Abstract: Seven triterpenoids, 1–7, two diarylheptanoids, 8 and 9, four phenolic compounds, 10–13, and three other compounds, 14–16, were isolated from the hexane and MeOH extracts of the bark of Myrica cerifera L. (Myricaceae). Among these compounds, betulin (1), ursolic acid (3), and myricanol (8) exhibited cytotoxic activities against HL60 (leukemia), A549 (lung), and SK‐BR‐3 (breast) human cancer cell lines (IC50 3.1–24.2 μM). Compound 8 induced apoptotic cell death in HL60 cells (IC50 5.3 μM) upon evaluation of the apoptosis‐inducing activity by flow cytometric analysis and by Hoechst 33342 staining method. Western blot analysis on HL60 cells revealed that 8 activated caspases‐3, ‐8, and ‐9 suggesting that 8 induced apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in HL60. Upon evaluation of the melanogenesis‐inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells induced with α‐melanocyte‐stimulating hormone (α‐MSH), erythrodiol (7), 1,4‐dihydroxy‐3‐methoxyphenyl‐4‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (13), and butyl quinate (15) exhibited inhibitory effects (65.4–86.0% melanin content) with no, or almost no, toxicity to the cells (85.9–107.4% cell viability) at 100 μM concentration. In addition, 8, myricanone (9), myricitrin (10), protocatechuic acid (11), and gallic acid (12) revealed potent DPPH radical‐scavenging activities (IC50 6.9–20.5 μM). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical Constituents of the Rare Cliff Plant Oresitrophe rupifraga and
           Their Antineuroinflammatory Activity
    • Abstract: Four new (1 – 4) and thirteen known (5 – 17) compounds were isolated from a rare cliff plant, Oresitrophe rupifraga. Based on spectroscopic evidence, the new structures were established to be [(2S,3R,4R)‐4‐(4‐methoxybenzyl)‐2‐(4‐methoxyphenyl)‐tetrahydrofuran‐3‐yl]methanol (1), (3α)‐23‐(acetyloxy)‐3‐hydroxyolean‐12‐en‐29‐oic acid (2), 3α,23‐(isopropylidenedioxy)olean‐12‐en‐29‐oic acid (3, artifact of isolation), and (3β,15β)‐3‐hydroxycholest‐5‐en‐15‐yl β‐d‐glucopyranoside (4), respectively. Among the isolates, compounds 1, 4, epieudesmin (7), and 1‐O‐(9Z,12Z,15Z‐octadecatrienoyl)glycerol (17) were found to show significant antineuroinflammatory effects by inhibiting the NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐stimulated murine BV‐2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 7.21, 9.39, 4.96, and 8.51 μm, respectively. Chemical Constituents of the Rare Cliff Plant Oresitrophe rupifraga and Their Antineuroinflammatory Activity X.‐Y. Wu, J. Xiong*, X.‐H. Liu, J.‐F. Hu
       
  • Isoflavone Content in Subterranean Clover Germplasm from Sardinia
    • Abstract: Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) is an important pasture legume, and Sardinia is known as a major centre of diversification of this species. As other legumes, this clover produces biologically active flavonoids including the subclass of isoflavones that are natural phytoestrogens with positive health effects. Present sources of isoflavones for medical/nutraceutical treatments are red clover (Trifolium pratense) and soybean (Glycine max). This study assessed the content and composition of flavonoids in 14 subterranean clover genotypes from Sardinia, grown ex‐situ in comparison with two red clover ecotypes, to acquire information on the potential of the species as an alternative source of isoflavones for possible exploitation. Twenty compounds were tentatively identified across the two clovers after HPLC and LC/ESI‐MS analyses, including clovamide, four flavonols, and 15 isoflavones. Most compounds were present as glucosides or glucosyl malonates. Subterranean clover extracts mainly comprised of derivatives of the isoflavones genistein, biochanin A, and formononetin. Compared to red clover, subterranean clover had higher content of total isoflavones and lower concentration of total flavonols. The isoflavone concentration in subterranean clover was higher than literature data for soybean or red clover. The existing genotypic variation warrants the possibility of selecting varieties with high isoflavone concentration for nutraceutical or pharmaceutical purposes. Isoflavone Content in Subterranean Clover Germplasm from SardiniaA. Tava*, A. Stochmal, L. Pecetti
       
  • Chemodiversity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Abies nebrodensis
           (Lojac.) Mattei
    • Abstract: Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei (Pinaceae) is a species occurring in a very small population only in a restricted area of Sicily. Its taxonomic classification as different species has been object of discussion. In this work the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves is presented for the first time and compared to the essential oils from other euroasiatic species reported in literature. Peculiar characteristics of the essential oil of A. nebrodensis are highlighted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum)
           During Fruit Ripening
    • Abstract: The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound‐assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n‐DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)‐fluorescence and identified by UHPLC‐Q‐ToF‐MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n‐DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed. Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) During Fruit Ripening G. F. Barbero*, A. C. de Aguiar, C. Carrera, Á. Olachea, M. Ferreiro‐González, J. Martínez, M. Palma, C. G. Barroso
       
  • Piptadenin, a Novel 3,4‐secooleanane Triterpene and Piptadenamide, a
           New Ceramide from the stem bark of Piptadeniastrum africana (Hook. f.)
           Brenan
    • Abstract: Piptadenin (1), a new triterpene along with piptadenamide (10), a new ceramide, have been isolated from the AcOEt soluble fraction of the MeOH extract of the stem bark of Piptadeniastrum africana along with nine known compounds, 28‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl‐3β,22β‐dihydroxyolean‐12‐en‐28‐oate (2), 22β‐hydroxyoleanic acid (3), oleanic acid (4), lupeol (5) betulinic acid (6), 5α‐stigmast‐7,22‐dien‐3β‐ol (7), 5α‐stigmast‐7,22‐dien‐3‐one (8), 5α‐stigmast‐5‐en‐3β‐ol 3‐O‐β‐D‐glucoside (9) and glyceryl‐1‐ hexacosanoate (11). Except for compound 11, all the isolated compounds are reported for the first time from this plant. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR. The pure compounds 1–11 were subjected to the pharmacological screening and compounds 2, 5‐7 and 9 exhibited potent urease inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 25.8, 28.9, 30.1, 31.8 and 32.7 μM respectively, whereas compounds 1 showed moderate activity (IC50 = 98.7 μM). The potent urease inhibitory activity supplemented the previous literature reports and medicinal uses of this plant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of leaf, stem and root extracts
           of Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart
    • Abstract: Despite the increase in recent decades in herbicide research on the potential of native plants, current knowledge is considered to be low. Very few studies have been carried out on the chemical profile or the biological activity of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) species. In the study reported here, the allelopathic activity of AcOEt and MeOH extracts of leaves, stems and roots from Ocotea pulchella Nees was evaluated. The extracts were assayed on etiolated wheat coleoptiles. The AcOEt leaf extract was the most active and this was tested on standard target species (STS). Lycopersicon esculentum and Lactuca sativa were the most sensitive species in this test. A total of eleven compounds have been isolated and characterized. Compounds 1, 2, 4 and 6 have not been identified previously from O. pulchella and ocoteol (9) is reported for the first time in the literature. Eight compounds were tested on wheat coleoptile growth and spathulenol, benzyl salicylate and benzyl benzoate showed the highest activities. These compounds showed inhibitory activity on L. esculetum. The values obtained correspond to the activity exhibited by the extract and these compounds may therefore be responsible for the allelopathic activity shown by O. pulchella. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Four New Steroidal Glycosides, Protolinckiosides A – D, from the
           Starfish Protoreaster lincki
    • Abstract: Four new steroidal glycosides, protolinckiosides A – D (1 – 4, resp.), were isolated along with four previously known glycosides, 5 – 8, from the MeOH/EtOH extract of the starfish Protoreaster lincki. The structures of 1 – 4 were elucidated by extensive NMR and ESI‐MS techniques as (3β,4β,5α,6β,7α,15α,16β,25S)‐4,6,7,8,15,16,26‐heptahydroxycholestan‐3‐yl 2‐O‐methyl‐β‐d‐xylopyranoside (1), (3β,5α,6β,15α,24S)‐3,5,6,8,15‐pentahydroxycholestan‐24‐yl α‐l‐arabinofuranoside (2), sodium (3β,6β,15α,16β,24R)‐29‐(β‐d‐galactofuranosyloxy)‐6,8,16‐trihydroxy‐3‐[(2‐O‐methyl‐β‐d‐xylopyranosyl)oxy]stigmast‐4‐en‐15‐yl sulfate (3), and sodium (3β,6β,15α,16β,22E,24R)‐28‐(β‐d‐galactofuranosyloxy)‐6,8,16‐trihydroxy‐3‐[(2‐O‐methyl‐β‐d‐xylopyranosyl)oxy]ergosta‐4,22‐dien‐15‐yl sulfate (4). The unsubstituted β‐d‐galactofuranose residue at C(28) or C(29) of the side chains was found in starfish steroidal glycosides for the first time. Compounds 1 – 4 significantly decreased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages at induction by proinflammatory endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli. Four New Steroidal Glycosides, Protolinckiosides A – D, from the Starfish Protoreaster lincki T. V. Malyarenko, A. A. Kicha*, A. I. Kalinovsky, N. V. Ivanchina, R. S. Popov, E. A. Pislyagin, E. S. Menchinskaya, K. P. Padmakumar, V. A. Stonik*
       
  • Amino‐substituted para‐Benzoquinones as Potential Herbicides
    • Abstract: Although quinones present a large array of biological activities, a few studies on the herbicidal potential of 2,5‐bis(alkyl/arylamino)‐1,4‐benzoquinones have been reported to date. In this work, starting from benzoquinone, 13 2,5‐bis(alkyl/arylamino)‐1,4‐benzoquinones were prepared in 46 – 93% yield. The products were fully characterized by spectroscopic analyses and their phytotoxicity against Cucumis sativus and Sorghum bicolor seedlings was investigated. At 100 ppm, compounds caused 10 – 88% growth inhibition of the dicotyledonous species, whereas the monocotyledon was less affected. Most compounds exerted little inhibitory effect on a cyanobacterial model strain. However, at 100 μm, compounds 8 – 10 caused about 50% inhibition of algal growth, and compounds 1 and 2 reduced cell viability in the 1 – 10 μm range. The ability of benzoquinone derivatives to interfere with the light‐driven ferricyanide reduction by isolated spinach chloroplasts was evaluated. Some substances showed a moderate effect as uncouplers, but no relationship was found between this property and their biological activity, indicating that the herbicidal effect is not associated with the inhibition of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Phytotoxic compounds were not toxic to insects, strengthening the possibility that they may serve as lead for the development of eco‐friendly herbicides. Amino‐substituted para‐Benzoquinones as Potential Herbicides A. Nain‐Perez, L. C. A. Barbosa*, M. C. Picanço, S. Giberti, G. Forlani*
       
  • Cytotoxic and Apoptosis‐inducing Activities of
           Taraxastane‐type Triterpenoid Derivatives in Human Cancer Cell Lines
           
    • Abstract: Twenty‐eight taraxastane‐type triterpenoid derivatives 4 – 31 were prepared from the naturally occurring triterpenoids faradiol (1) and heliantriol C (3). The cytotoxic activities of these compounds and arnidiol (2) were evaluated in leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), duodenal (AZ521), and breast (SK‐BR‐3) cancer cell lines. 21‐Oxoarnidiol (18) and faradiol 3,16‐di‐O‐l‐alaninate (31) exhibited potent cytotoxicity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.5 – 2.7 μm. In particular, flow cytometric analysis indicated that compound 31 induced typical apoptotic cell death in HL60 cells. These results suggested that taraxastane‐type triterpenoid derivatives might provide useful antitumor agents with apoptosis‐inducing activity. Cytotoxic and Apoptosis‐inducing Activities of Taraxastane‐type Triterpenoid Derivatives in Human Cancer Cell Lines M. Ukiya*, C. Ohkubo, M. Kurita, M. Fukatsu, T. Suzuki, T. Akihisa
       
  • Fatty acid diversity is not associated with neutral genetic diversity in
           native populations of the biodiesel plant Jatropha curcas L
    • Abstract: Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a shrub native to Mexico and Central America, which produces seeds with a high oil content that can be converted to biodiesel. The genetic diversity of this plant has been widely studied, but, it is not known whether the diversity of the seed oil chemical composition correlates with neutral genetic diversity. The total seed oil content, the diversity of profiles of fatty acids and phorbol esters were quantified, also, the genetic diversity obtained from simple sequence repeats (SSRs) was analyzed in native populations of J. curcas in Mexico. Using the fatty acids profiles, a discriminant analysis recognized three groups of individuals according to geographical origin. Bayesian assignment analysis revealed two genetic groups, while the genetic structure of the populations could not be explained by isolation‐by‐distance. Genetic and fatty acid profile data were not correlated based on Mantel test. Also, phorbol ester content and genetic diversity were not associated. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that total oil content was associated with altitude and seasonality of temperature. The content of unsaturated fatty acids was associated with altitude. Therefore, the cultivation planning of J. curcas should take into account chemical variation related to environmental factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Hexane extract of Echinops spinosissimus Turra subsp. spinosus from
           Tunisia: A potential source of acetylated sterols. Investigation of its
           biological activities
    • Abstract: The hexane extract of Echinops spinosissimus Turra subsp. spinosus flower heads was analyzed for its fatty acid and sterol composition. Its physicochemical characteristics were also studied. The saponification, iodine and peroxide values were determined as 255 mg KOH/g, 42.57 g I2/100g and 110 mequiv.O2/kg of oil, respectively. The oleic (C18:1; 61.14%), palmitic (C16:0; 21.36%) and linoleic (C18:2; 10.45%) acids were the dominant fatty acids. This extract was also found to contain high levels of β‐sitosterol and stigmasterol (44.97% and 34.95% of total sterols, respectively). On the other hand, the identification of terpenoid compounds was investigated by using GC/MS, which revealed fourteen major terpenoids mainly taraxasterol, lupeol, pseudotaraxasterol, lup‐22(29)‐en‐3‐yl acetate, taraxasteryl acetate, α‐amyrin, β‐amyrin, pseudotaraxasteryl acetate, hop‐20(29)‐en3‐β‐ol, α‐amirenone, along with β‐sitosterol and stigmasterol. Moreover, we have evaluated the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the unsaponifiable matter and a fraction isolated from this extract. These activities were conducted using the diffusion disc methods and broth microdilution assay. The resulted fraction from this extract showed the highest antibacterial activity with significant minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values 125.0 μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus cereus. However, it did exhibit no substantial antifungal activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical constituents and insecticidal activities of Ajania fruticulosa
           essential oil
    • Abstract: The insecticidal activity and chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ajania fruticulosa were investigated. Twelve constituents representing 91.0% of the essential oil were identified and the main constituents were 1,8‐cineole (41.4%), (+)‐camphor (32.1%), myrtenol (8.15%). The essential oil exhibited contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults with LD50 values of 105.67 μg/adult and 89.85 μg/cm2 respectively. The essential oil also showed fumigant toxicity against two species of insect with LC50 values of 11.52 mg/l and 0.65 mg/l respectively. 1,8‐Cineole exhibited excellent fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 5.47 mg/l) against T. castaneum. (+)‐Camphor showed obvious fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 0.43 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. Myrtenol showed contact toxicity (LD50 = 29.40 μg/cm2) and fumigant toxicity (LC50 = 0.50 mg/l) against L. bostrychophila. 1,8‐Cineole and (+)‐camphor showed strong insecticidal activity to some important insects, and they are main constituents of A. fruticulosa essential oil. The two compounds may be related to insectical activity of A. fruticulosa essential oil against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Effect of Conidiobolus coronatus on the cuticular and internal lipid
           composition of Tettigonia viridissima males
    • Abstract: Conidiobolus coronatus is an entomopathogennic fungus which has potential as a biological control agent of insects. The cuticular and internal lipid composition of infected and non‐infected Tettigonia viridissima males were analyzed by GC/MS. A total of 49 compounds were identified in the infected and non‐infected males, including fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, n‐alkanes, alcohols, sterols and other organic compounds. The most abundant components of the cuticular and internal lipids of the insects were fatty acids. After exposure to C. coronatus, the cuticular lipids of the T. viridissima males contained 17 free fatty acids from C8 to C22, while the cuticular lipids of the non‐infected insects contained only 15 fatty acids from C12 to C24. The cuticular and internal lipids of both the infected and the non‐infected males also contained 5 fatty acid methyl esters from C15 to C19, 7 n‐alkanes from C25 to C34, 5 alcohols from C16 to C25, 5 sterols and the following six other organic compounds: azelaic acid, phenylacetic acid, glutaric acid, benzoic acid, sebacic acid and glycerol. The compounds which were present only in the cuticular lipids of the infected males could be due to fungal infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Biotransformations of Bile Acids with Bacteria from Cayambe Slaughterhouse
           (Ecuador): Synthesis of Bendigoles
    • Abstract: The biotransformations of cholic acid (1a), deoxycholic acid (1b), and hyodeoxycholic acid (1c) to bendigoles and other metabolites with bacteria isolated from the rural slaughterhouse of Cayambe (Pichincha Province, Ecuador) were reported. The more active strains were characterized, and belong to the genera Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus. Various biotransformation products were obtained depending on bacteria and substrates. Cholic acid (1a) afforded the 3‐oxo and 3‐oxo‐4‐ene derivatives 2a and 3a (45% and 45%, resp.) with P. mendocina ECS10, 3,12‐dioxo‐4‐ene derivative 4a (60%) with Rh. erythropolis ECS25, and 9,10‐secosteroid 6 (15%) with Rh. erythropolis ECS12. Bendigole F (5a) was obtained in 20% with P. fragi ECS22. Deoxycholic acid (1b) gave 3‐oxo derivative 2b with P. prosekii ECS1 and Rh. erythropolis ECS25 (20% and 61%, resp.), while 3‐oxo‐4‐ene derivative 3b was obtained with P. prosekii ECS1 and P. mendocina ECS10 (22% and 95%, resp.). Moreover, P. fragi ECS9 afforded bendigole A (8b; 80%). Finally, P. mendocina ECS10 biotransformed hyodeoxycholic acid (1c) to 3‐oxo derivative 2c (50%) and Rh. erythropolis ECS12 to 6α‐hydroxy‐3‐oxo‐23,24‐dinor‐5β‐cholan‐22‐oic acid (9c, 66%). Bendigole G (5c; 13%) with P. prosekii ECS1 and bendigole H (8c) with P. prosekii ECS1 and Rh. erythropolis ECS12 (20% and 16%, resp.) were obtained. Biotransformations of Bile Acids with Bacteria from Cayambe Slaughterhouse (Ecuador): Synthesis of Bendigoles S. Costa, M. E. Maldonado Rodriguez, I. Rugiero, M. De Bastiani, A. Medici, E. Tamburini, P. Pedrini*
       
  • Iridoid glycosides from Tabebuia avellanedae
    • Abstract: Five novel iridoid glycosides, avellanedaesides A‐E (1‐5) were isolated from water extract of Tabebuia avellanedae. Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis. Isolated compounds suppressed inflammatory cytokine, tumor‐necrosis factor‐α and interleukin‐1β production in cultured human myeloma THP‐1 cells co‐stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, the study revealed iridoid glycosides inhibited the activity of cytochrome CYP3A4 enzyme. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • SPATIO‐TEMPORAL VARIATION OF TERPENOIDS IN WILD PLANTS OF Pentalinon
           andrieuxii
    • Abstract: Pentalinon andrieuxii (Müll. Arg.) b.f. Hansen & Wunderlin (Apocynaceae) is a vine native to the Yucatan peninsula, where is widely used in Mayan traditional to treat, among other ailments, the wounds caused by cutaneous leishmaniasis. Among the secondary metabolites isolated from P. andrieuxii are the triterpene betulinic acid and the chemically‐unusual tri‐norsesquiterpene urechitol A; however, to date, there is no existing knowledge about the accumulation dynamics of the ubiquitous betulinic acid or the novel urechitol A in the plant. In this article we report on the accumulation of both secondary metabolites in wild individuals of P. andrieuxii; our results show that while the content of betulinic acid in plant leaves bears no apparent relation to plant ontogeny, the content of urechitol A in root tissue is clearly related to plant development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Visible‐Light Microscopic Discovery of up to 150 μm Long
           Helical Amyloid Fibrils built of the Dodecapeptide
           H‐(Val‐Ala‐Leu)4‐OH and of Decapeptides Derived
           from Insulin
    • Abstract: In the formation of amyloid fibrils from small peptides the appearance of super‐helices of (P)‐ or (M)‐helicity has been observed for the first time; rather high concentrations of the peptides and extended periods of incubation at physiological pH appear to be important for this phenomenon. In view of the general importance of peptide and protein aggregation we give a brief overview with selected examples for demonstration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Prospecting anticancer compounds in actinomycetes recovered from the
           sediments of Saint Peter and Saint Paul's Archipelago, Brazil
    • Abstract: Saint Peter and Saint Paul's Archipelago is a collection of 15 islets and rocks remotely located in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. In this particular site, the present project intended to assess the biodiversity and biotechnological potential of bacteria from the actinomycete group. This study presents the first results of this assessment. From 21 sediment samples, 268 strains were isolated and codified as BRA followed by three numbers. Of those, 94 strains were grown in liquid media and submitted to chemical extractions with ethyl acetate (A), butanol (B) and methanol (M). A total of 224 extracts were screened for their cytotoxic activity and 41 were significantly active against HCT‐116 cancer cells. The obtained IC50 ranged from 0.04 μg/mL to 31.55 μg/mL. The HR‐LCMS dereplication analysis of the active extracts showed the occurrence of several known anticancer compounds. Individual compounds, identified using HRMS combined with analysis of the AntiMarin database, included saliniketals A and B, piericidins A and C and glucopiericidin A, staurosporine, N‐methyl‐staurosporine, hydroxyl‐dimethyl staurosporine and N‐ carboxamide‐staurosporine, salinisporamycin A, and rifamycins S and B. BRA‐199, identified as Streptomyces sp., was submitted to bioassay‐guided fractionation, leading to isolation of the bioactive piericidins A and C, glucopiericidin, and three known diketopiperazines, cyclo(L‐Phe‐trans‐4‐OH‐L‐ Pro), cyclo(L‐Phe‐L‐Pro), and cyclo(L‐Trp‐L‐Pro). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Constituents from the roots of Actinidia chinensis and their inhibitory
           activities toward cytochrome P450
    • Abstract: A newly discovered triterpenoid, 2α, 3β, 23‐trihydroxyurs‐13 (18)‐en‐28‐oic acid (1), along with 12 known compounds (2–13), was isolated from the roots of Actinidia chinensis Planch. Their chemical structures were determined by one‐ and two‐dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The crude extracts and six main constituents (8–13) were tested for inhibitory activity toward cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. The results showed that, with the exception of compound 8, compounds 9–13 had different degrees of inhibitory effects toward CYP enzymes, and compound 9 significantly inhibited the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 to less than 10% of its total activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Variation in essential oil yield and composition of Dorema aucheri Boiss,
           an endemic medicinal plant collected from wild populations in natural
           habitats
    • Abstract: In the present research, variability in essential oil composition of five D. aucheri populations collected from natural habitats in different regions of Iran, were investigated. The essential oil content of populations varied from 0.28% to 0.68%. According to GC–MS analysis, β‐caryophyllene (7.17–35.73%), thymol (23.45–29.64%), β‐gurjunene (2.58–5.89%), carvacrol (1.32–2.67%) and cuparene (1.97–2.98%) were the major components. Hierarchical cluster, principal component and canonical correspondence analyses classified the studied populations into three groups based on major essential oil components. The environmental parameters of the collected sites were also evaluated. According to the results, it might be suggested that sandy soils with high mean annual precipitation (M.A.P) were major environmental factors influencing the amount of β‐caryophyllene, while thymol, cuparene and caryophyllen oxide increased in silty and clay soils. Finally, the population collected in high altitudes and clay soils had higher amount of β‐gurjunene. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • On Dioxygen Permeation of MaL Laccase from the Thermophilic Fungus
           Melanocarpus albomyces. An all‐Atom Molecular Dynamics Investigation
           
    • Abstract: Described here are biased MD simulations of O2 egress from the active center of MaL laccase toward the bulk solvent. Parameterization of the set of four Cu(II) ions, in the framework of CHARMM‐36 FF, was carried out on a recent dummy‐atom model that takes into account the Jahn‐Teller effect. By carrying out a number of statistically relevant MD simulations, under a tiny randomly oriented external force applied to the molecule O2, what emerged were three preferred gates for O2 egress from the enzyme, and a few intermediate binding pockets (BPs) for O2, all located on two of the three domains. This wide distribution of preferred gates notwithstanding, the molecule O2 was seen to follow specific pathways, exploiting consistently the interstices created by the enzyme thermal fluctuations. These are features that can be imagined to have evolved to make MaL laccase extremely efficient as a catalysts in various reactions that require O2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemotaxonomic screening of seed oils from the family Saxifragaceae and
           comparison with data on seed oils from Grossulariaceae obtained from
           literature
    • Abstract: Seeds of 25 members of the family Saxifragaceae, 1 x Astilbe, 1 x Darmera, 1 x Leptarrhena, 1 x Tellima, 3 x Mitella and 18 x Sagifraga were investigated regarding oil content, as well as composition and content of fatty acids and vitamin E active compounds. The results were compared with results obtained from literature for members of the genus Ribes belonging to the closely related family Grossulariaceae to find chemometric differences between the different genera and between members of the family Saxifragaceae and Grossulariaceae, respectively. Members of the family Saxifragaceae are dominated by high amounts of linoleic and α‐linolenic acid which together account for about 80% of the total fatty acids. While α‐linolenic acid is characteristic for members of the genus Saxifraga, in other genera linoleic acid is predominant. In comparison to members of the family Saxifragaceae members of the family Grossulariaceae also contain γ‐linolenic acid and stearidonic acid which allow a significant differentiation between both families. By Principle Component Analysis members of both families were divided into three distinct groups, (1) species with a high content of α‐linolenic acid (genus Saxifraga), (2) species with high amounts of γ‐linolenic acid and stearidonic acid (genus Ribes) and (3) species with higher amounts of linoleic acid (other members of the family Saxifragaceae. The composition of the vitamin E active compounds was characterized by a high content of γ‐tocopherol in most members of the family Saxifragaceae, but no chemotaxonomic relevance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Phytochemical study of Juglans regia L. pericarps from Greece with a
           chemotaxonomic approach
    • Abstract: Phytochemical research of different polarity extracts from green Juglans regia L. pericarps from Greece afforded 32 compounds: four pentacyclic triterpenes (1‐4), three sesquiterpenes (5‐7), four tetralones (8‐11), two naphthoquinones (12‐13), seven phenolic acids (14‐20), one diarylheptanoid (21), one neo‐lignan (22), seven flavonoids (23‐29), two phenylethanoids (30‐31) and one hydrolysed tannin (32). Compounds 4 and 29 are isolated for the first time from the species, while compounds 3, 7, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30 are reported for the first time in Juglandaceae. Chemotaxonomic significance of isolated compounds into Junglandaceae family is thoroughly discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • The Tracing of VOC Composition of Acacia Honey during ripening stages by
           comprehensive two‐dimensional gas chromatography
    • Abstract: In this study, VOC profiles of acacia flowers, honey samples at different processing stages and related comb wax samples were studied using comprehensive two‐dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry. It was found that some monoterpene compounds like α‐pinene, myrcene, cis‐β‐ocimene and 4‐terpinelol were common for acacia flower and all acacia honey samples, and the presence of verbenone and ocimene was firstly established in acacia honey. The most enriched VOC profile was obtained for raw honey before cell capping, where the final composition of lactones was achieved. On the contrary, number of alcohols, esters, and variety of terpenes, as well as their concentration in the honey samples decrease through ripening processes. Strained honey was characterized by the absence of camphor, α‐bisabolol, 3‐carene, while isophorone, and hexanoic acid were identified only in this type of honey. The composition of final VOC profile of honey was also influenced by the age of comb wax. The additional aromatic and lactone compounds e.g. phenol, 1‐phenylethanol, δ‐hexalactone, γ‐heptalactone were observed for honey maturated in old dark comb wax. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Anti‐HSV‐1 and HSV‐2 flavonoids and a new kaempferol
           triglycoside from the medicinal plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana
    • Abstract: Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Crassulaceae) is a medicinal plant native to Madagascar. The aim of this study was to investigate the flavonoid content of an aqueous leaf extract from K. daigremontiana (Kd), and assess its antiherpetic potential. The major flavonoid, kaempferol‐3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl (1→2) α‐L‐rhamnopyranoside (1), was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction (Kd‐AC). The n‐butanol‐soluble fraction afforded quercetin‐3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl (1→2) α‐L‐rhamnopyranoside (2) and the new kaempferol‐3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl (1→2)‐α‐L‐rhamnopyranoside‐7‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (3), named daigremontrioside. The crude extract, Kd‐AC fraction, flavonoids 1 and 2 were evaluated using acyclovir‐sensitive strains of HSV‐1 and HSV‐2. Kd‐AC was highly active against HSV‐1 (EC50 = 0.97 μg/ml, SI > 206.1) and HSV‐2 (EC50 = 0.72 μg/ml, SI > 277.7). Flavonoids 1 and 2 showed anti‐ HSV‐1 (EC50 = 7.4 μg/ml; SI > 27and EC50 = 5.8 μg/ml; SI > 8.6, respectively) and anti‐HSV‐2 (EC50 = 9.0 μg/ml; SI > 22.2 and EC50 = 36.2 μg/ml; SI >5.5, respectively) activities, suggesting the contribution of additional substances to the antiviral activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Comparative Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and
           Antimicrobial Activities of the Volatile Oils of Hawk Tea from Six
           Botanical Origins
    • Abstract: In this study, volatile oils of six Hawk tea varieties were studied for their chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities to screen the most suitable botanical origins of Hawk tea. A total of 72 components were separated and identified from the six oils. The major constituents of the volatile oils were: α‐pinene, camphene, limonene, 1,8‐cineole, linalool, cis‐nerolidol, germacrene B. Moreover, the volatile oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. The results showed that all volatile oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, which suggested that these volatile oils may serve as natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants and preservatives to be applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. Principal component analysis results denoted that some major compounds may be closely related to the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. It also showed that the volatile oils from Litsea coreana Levl. var. lanuginose and Litsea pungens Hemsl were characterized by positive values of first two principal components, indicating higher active chemical compounds and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared with other species. Thus, they were temporarily considered as good sources of Hawk tea. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemodiversity of epicuticular n‐alkanes and morphological traits of
           natural populations of Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. along Dinaric
           Alps ‐ ecological and taxonomic aspects
    • Abstract: Morphological characters and the composition of epicuticular leaf n‐alkanes of two Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. subspecies (subsp. liburnica Šilić and subsp. subspicata) from nine natural populations along Dinaric Alps range were studied. Morphological characters were chosen based on Šilić's subspecies separation. Seventeen n‐alkane homologues (C19‐C35) were identified using GC/MS and GC/FID. The most abundant n‐alkane in all populations was n‐nonacosane (C29), followed by n‐hentriacontane (C31), with the exception of Divača population where these two alkanes were co‐dominant. Diversity and variability of n‐alkane patterns and morphological characters and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters, including exposure, were analysed by several statistical multivariate methods (PCA, HCA, Discriminant Analysis, Mantel test). These tests showed clear separation of subsp. liburnica from subsp. subspicata, even though population Velebit showed separation from other subsp. liburnica populations based on phytochemical characters. Mantel test showed high correlation with geographical distribution in both investigated data sets. High correlation between morphological and phytochemical characters was also established. However, exposure can influence n‐alkane profile, suggesting precaution while taking samples from natural habitats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Bioactive Coumarins from the Stems of Clausena emarginata
    • Abstract: Five new coumarins, clauemarmarins I‐M (1‐4), together with ten known analogues (5‐14), were isolated from the stems of Clausena emarginata. Compounds 8‐13 were obtained from this plant for the first time. Their structures were established and elucidated by comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1‐4 were further determined by their ECD spectroscopy. Compounds 5, 7, 12 and 14 exhibited inhibitory effects on LPS‐induced NO production, compounds 5‐7 showed selective neuroprotective effects in Aβ25‐35 model at 10μM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Phytochemical, ecological and antioxidant evaluation of wild Sicilian
           thyme: Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav
    • Abstract: In a broad survey conducted throughout the Sicily region, 45 different sites were identified where thyme grows wild. All the biotypes collected were classified as Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. [syn. Thymus capitatus (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link]. Cluster analysis based on the main morphological characteristics of the plant led to the division of the biotypes into 3 major groups. All samples were analyzed for their secondary phytochemical metabolites identified in the extracts and the essential oils. LC‐UV‐DAD/ESI‐MS and GC‐FID/GC‐MS have been applied to characterize the extracts and the essential oils, respectively. In the extracts, 15 flavonoid derivatives with taxifolin‐di‐O‐glucoside and thysmuin as main components, and 2 organic acids, with a large predominance of rosmarinic acid, were identified. On the whole 37 compounds were fully characterized in the essential oils, carvacrol was identified as the main component with an average value of 73.93%. The total phenol content and the antioxidant activity of all phytochemical mixtures were determined with the Folin‐Ciocalteu (FC) assay, the UV radiation‐induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV‐IP test), and the scavenging activity of superoxide radical (O2●‐). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities on
           Laserpitium carduchorum Hedge & Lamond essential oil and extracts
           during vary growing stages
    • Abstract: Laserpitium carduchorum is frequently used as a spice and in Bane folk medicine the aerial parts of this are used to treat urinary infections. Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil of Iranian Laserpitium carduchorum at different developmental growth stages including vegetative, flowering and seed ripening is reported. In total, 33 compounds were identified and quantified in the oils of vegetative, flowering and seed ripening stages, representing 97.8%, 98.8% and 98.7% of the oils, respectively. α‐pinene (45.1, 61.4, 46.4%), sabinene (16.5, 10.3, 17.5%) and limonene (6.4, 8.5, 20.4%) were the main compounds in all samples. The antioxidant activities of different extracts of L. carduchorum at different developmental growth stages were examined by employing various established in vitro experiments including DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays. The amounts of total phenolics were also determined spectrophotometerically. Antimicrobial activities of different extracts and essential oils of L. carduchorum at different developmental growth stages were examined against five Gram‐positive and four Gram‐negative bacteria, as well as two fungi. The results showed that maximum antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts were at the flowering stage of the plant. Maximum antimicrobial activity of essential oils was at seed ripening stage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Barks Essential oil, secondary metabolites and biological activities of
           four organs of Tunisian Calligonum azel Maire
    • Abstract: This study is the first to investigate the chemical composition of barks essential oil, secondary metabolites and biological activities of the methanolic and infusions extracts of seeds, leaves, barks and roots of Calligonum azel Maire (Polygonaceae) harvested from Tunisian desert. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) results showed the presence of fifty four compounds in barks essential oil. The major components were: viridiflorol (14.6%), α‐eudesmol (8.65%), trans‐caryophyllene (6.72%), elemol (6.63%), β‐eudesmol (6.21%). The obtained results showed that C. azel is a very rich plant in secondary metabolites. High contents in polyphenols, flavonoids and tanins were observed in both extracts of all studied organs. Significant differences were found between both extracts of the four organs. Thus, polyphenols and tannins were more abundant in leaves infusion extract, while, flavonoids showed a high level in barks extract. The antioxidant activity data demonstrated that all extracts showed strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. The methanolic extracts presented potential for antibacterial and antifungal activities against all tested microorganisms. The inhibition zones diameters and minimal inhibitrice concentration values were in the range of 9‐15 mm and 2.5‐20 μg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that C. azel can be regarded as an excellent plant source for natural antimicrobial agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Anti‐barnacle activity of isocyanides derived from amino acids
    • Abstract: Creation of new potent antifouling‐active compounds is important for the development of environmentally friendly antifouling agents. Fifteen isocyanide congeners derived from proteinogenic amino acids were synthesized, and the antifouling activity and toxicity of these compounds against cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite were investigated. All synthesized amino acid‐isocyanides exhibited potent anti‐barnacle activity with EC50 values of 0.07–10.34 μg ml−1 after 120‐h exposure without significant toxicity. In addition, seven compounds showed more than 95% settlement inhibition of the cypris larvae at 10 μg ml−1 after 120‐h exposure, without any mortality observed. Considering their structure, these amino acid‐isocyanides would eventually be biodegraded to their original non‐toxic amino acids. These should be useful for further research focused on the development of environmentally friendly antifoulants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from
           Aerial Parts and Roots of Eryngium barrelieri Boiss. and Eryngium
           glomeratum Lamk. from Tunisia
    • Abstract: The study of chemical composition and biological activity of unexplored essential oils may open new perspectives on their potential use in facing major health concerns such as drug‐resistant infections. The present study investigates the chemical composition and antimicrobial effects of previously unstudied essential oils obtained from genus Eryngium: Eryngium glomeratum Lamk. and Eryngium barrelieri Boiss. The chemical compositions of the essential oils from aerial parts and roots of both species were studied using GC and GC‐MS analytical technics. The analysis led to the identification of 102 compounds totalizing 85 to 94% of all detected compounds. Essential oils were characterized by the predominance of oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The oils obtained from aerial parts were tested against 36 microbial strains by agar dilution method and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 2–625 μg/mL. A strong antibacterial activity against multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed especially from Eryngium glomeratum essential oil with MIC value up to 2 μg/mL. These findings give significant information about the pharmacological activity of these essential oils, which suggest their potential use to develop new remedies, or as sources of active compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 3,5‐Dimethoxystilbene Analogs
    • Abstract: In our continuing effort to discover natural product‐based pest management agents, derivatives of 3,5‐dimethoxystilbene were synthesized yielding 27 new and 6 known compounds. Compounds 11 and 12 showed strong Aedes aegypti larvicidal activity (LC50 45.31 and 49.93 μM, respectively). Futhermore, 11 and 12 exhibited high effectiveness against larvae of pesticide‐susceptible and pyrethroid‐resistant strains of Ae. aegypti; activity against the adult mosquitoes was low. Compounds 6f, 6g, and 6i at either 83.3 or 166.7 μg/ml reduced the mobility of second‐stage juveniles (J2) of the root‐knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) that hatched from eggs immersed in the test compounds for 7 days. However, there was little or no effect on J2 placed directly into these compounds, and none of the analogs suppressed M. incognita egg hatch. The compounds were tested for inhibition of some agriculturally important fungi; 6a, 7a and 7e demonstrated strong inhibition of Colletotrichum species. Activity of the stilbenes against some human pathogens was also explored; 11, 12, and 16 showed moderate inhibitory activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin‐resistant S. aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Except for 11 and 12, which were active against mosquito larvae and some human pathogens, no single analog demonstrated activity in all the tests, indicating specific activities. Synthesis of the analogs and structure‐activity relationships are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical constituents from the stems of Daphne holosericea (Diels) Hamaya
    • Abstract: Two new compounds, one flavanol dimer dapholosericol A (1) and one tigliane diterpene dapholosericin A (2), together with ten known ones, were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Daphne holosericea (Diels) Hamaya. Their structures were elucidated by their spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate activities against acetylcholinesterase with inhibition ratio 36% and 29% at a concentration of 100 μmol L‐1, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Copaifera duckei Oleoresin and Its Main Non Volatile Terpenes: In Vitro
           Schistosomicidal Properties
    • Abstract: In this paper, the in vitro schistosomicidal effects of three Brazilian Copaifera oleoresins (C. duckei, C. langsdorffii, and C. reticulata) are reported. From these botanical sources, the oleoresin of C. duckei (OCd) demonstrated to be the most promising, displaying LC50 (lethal concentrations 50%) values of 75.8, 50.6 and 47.2 μg.mL−1 at 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, respectively against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni, with a selectivity index of 10.26. Therefore, the major compounds from OCd were isolated, and the diterpene (‐)‐polyalthic acid (PA) showed to be active (LC50 values of 41.7, 36.2 and 33.4 μg.mL−1, respectively at 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation). Moreover, OCd and PA affected the production and development of eggs, and OCd modified the functionality of the tegument of S. mansoni. Possible synergistic and/or additive effects of this balsam were also verified when a mixture of the two of its main compounds (PA and ent‐8(17)‐labden‐15,18‐dioic acid) in the specific proportion of 3:1 (w/w) was tested. The obtained results indicate that PA should be considered for further investigations against S. mansoni, such as, synergistic (combination with PZQ) and in vivo studies. It also shows that diterpenes are an important class of natural compounds for the investigation of agents capable of fighting the parasite responsible for human schistosomiasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of Scabiosa arenaria Forssk. extracts and pure
           compounds using bioguided fractionation
    • Abstract: The emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens threatened the clinical efficacy of many existing antibiotics. This situation has been recognized globally as a serious concern and justifies further research to discover antimicrobial agents from natural origins including plant extracts. The aim of our work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Scabiosa arenaria Forssk. extracts and pure compounds using a bioguided fractionation, and try to explain some traditional use of this genus. The best antimicrobial activity‐guided fractionation was obtained by butanolic fractions of flowers, fruits and (stems and leaves) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from 0.0195 mg/mL to 5 mg/mL. Escherichia coli was the most affected bug, thus the MIC of fruits butanolic extract showed the best anti‐ Escherichia coli activity (MIC = 0.0195 mg/mL), followed by the (stems and leaves) and flowers butanolic extracts; MIC = 0.078 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the subfractions obtained from these three mixed fractions showed also an important antimicrobial activity against the three microorganisms, with MIC values between 0.0195 and 0.312 mg/mL. The fractionation of the aerial part butanolic fraction led to the isolation of oleanolic acid (1) and luteolin‐7‐O‐glucoside (2) which are reported here for the first time from S. arenaria. Both compounds showed good antimicrobial activities with MIC values ranging from 170 μM to 683 μM and 86 μM to 347 μM, respectively. These results support the use of the Scabiosa genus to inhibit the growth of tested pathogenic bacteria and yeasts which may reduce illnesses associated with their exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Rational Molecular Design of Potent PLK1 PBD Domain‐binding
           Phosphopeptides using Preferential Amino Acid Building Blocks
    • Abstract: Polo‐like kinase 1 (PLK1) is an important regulator in diverse aspects of the cell cycle and proliferation. The protein has a highly conserved polo‐box domain (PBD) present in C‐terminal non‐catalytic region, which exhibits a relatively broad sequence specificity in recognizing and binding phosphorylated substrates to control substrate phosphorylation by the kinase. In order to elucidate the structural basis, thermodynamic property and biological implication underlying PBD–substrate recognition and association, a systematic amino acid preference profile of phosphopeptide interaction with PLK1 PBD domain was established via virtual mutagenesis analysis and mutation energy calculation, from which the contribution of different amino acids at each residue position of two reference phosphopeptides to domain–peptide binding was characterized comprehensively and quantitatively. With the profile we are able to determine the favorable, neutral and unfavorable amino acid types for each position of PBD‐binding phosphopeptides, and we also explored the molecular origin of the broad sequence specificity in PBD–substrate recognition. To practice computational findings, the profile was further employed to guide rational design of potent PBD binders; three 6‐mer phosphopeptides (i.e. IQSpSPC, LQSpTPF and LNSpTPT) were successfully developed, which can efficiently target PBD domain with high affinity (Kd = 5.7 ± 1.1, 0.75 ± 0.18 and 7.2 ± 2.6 μM, respectively) as measured by fluorescence anisotropy assay. The complex structure of PLK1 PBD domain with a newly designed, potent phosphopeptide LQSpTPF as well as diverse noncovalent chemical forces such as hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions at the complex interface were examined in detail to reveal the molecular mechanism of high affinity and stability of the complex system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Synthesis and biological evaluation of Matijin‐Su derivatives as
           potential anti‐hepatitis B virus and anti‐cancer agents
    • Abstract: A series of Matijin‐Su (MTS, (S)‐2‐((S)‐2‐benzamido‐3‐phenylpropanamido) ‐3‐phenylpropyl acetate) derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti‐HBV and anti‐cancer activities in vitro. Six compounds (4g, 4j, 5c, 5g, 5h and 5i) showed significant inhibition against HBV DNA replication with IC50 values in range of 2.18‐8.55 μM, which were much lower than that of positive control lamivudine (IC50 = 82.42 μM). In particular, compounds 5h (IC50: 2.18 μM, SI: 151.59) and 5j (IC50: 5.65 μM, SI: 51.16) displayed relatively low cytotoxicities, resulting in high SI values. Notably, besides the anti‐HBV DNA replication activity, compound 4j also exhibited more potent in vitro anti‐cancer activity than 5‐fluorouracil in two hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC) lines (QGY‐7701 and SMMC‐7721), indicating that 4j may be a promising lead for the exploration of drugs with dual therapeutic effects on HBV infection and HBV‐induced HCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Cytotoxic Oleanane‐Type Saponins from the Leaves of Albizia
           anthelmintica Brongn
    • Abstract: Two new oleanane‐type saponins: 3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl‐(1→2)‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl‐(1→4)‐α‐L‐rhamnopyranosyl‐(1→2)‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl‐(1→2)‐α‐L‐arabinopyranosyl‐(1→6)‐2‐acetamido‐2‐deoxy‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl ester (2), along with two known saponins: 3‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl‐(1→2)‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid (3) and 3‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl‐(1→2)‐[α‐L‐arabinopyranosyl‐(1→6)]‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid (4) were isolated from the acetone‐insoluble fraction obtained from the 80% aqueous methanol extract of Albizia anthelmintica Brongn. leaves. Their structures were identified using different NMR experiments including: 1H NMR, 13CNMR, HSQC, HMBC and 1H,1H COSY, together with HRESIMS/MS, as well as by acid hydrolysis. The four isolated saponins and the fractions of the extract exhibited cytotoxic activity against HepG‐2 and HCT‐116 cell lines. Compound 2 showed the most potent cytotoxic activity among the other tested compounds against the HepG2 cell line with an IC50 value of 3.60 μM. Whereas, compound 1 showed the most potent cytotoxic effect with an IC50 value of 4.75 μM on HCT‐116 cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • The phenolics of the Ornithogalum umbellatum L. (Hyacinthaceae):
           phytochemical and ecological characterization
    • Abstract: Ornithogalum umbellatum L. is a widely distributed species in Europe, that exhibit considerable variability at ecological, morpho‐anatomical, and karyological level. Previous reports of the chemical investigations among Ornithogalum species indicate significant diversity of the secondary metabolites, as well. Knowing that environment affects the phenolic composition in plants to a large extent, the main objective of the research was to define relationship between phytochemical and ecological characters. To estimate an environmental influence on these results, plant material was collected at four habitats that differ in ecological factors and belong to two biogeographical regions: Balkan Peninsula and Pannonian Plane. Measured phytochemical characters are yield of dry extract, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, presence of selected phenolic compounds as well as free radical scavenging activity (neutralization of DPPH and OH radicals). Results revealed that all analyzed phytochemical parameters differ between investigated O. umbellatum samples. The moisture level of habitat has the highest correlation, either positive or negative, with most of phytochemical characters, and is followed by temperature and soil reaction. Light intensity and nitrogen level have mostly moderate correlation coefficient with phytochemical characters. More complex correlation is revealed between ecological factors and nine phenolic compounds, with three observed patterns of relationship. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Phytochemical compounds from the crop by‐products of Tunisian globe
           artichoke cultivars
    • Abstract: The phytochemical composition in two Tunisian globe artichoke cultivars (bracts, leaves and floral stems) was evaluated in the plant by‐products. The results have indicated that the bracts contain the highest levels of total phenols, o‐diphenols and flavonoids, whereas tannins seem to be more abundant in the leaves. Bracts from the ‘Violet d'Hyéres’ cultivar possessed more total phenols (160.8 mg g‐1 DW), flavonoids (64.9 mg g‐1 DW) and anthocyanins (15.3 μg g‐1 DW) than the ‘Blanc d'Oran’ bracts (134.5 mg g‐1 DW, 51.2 mg g‐1 DW and 8.3 μg g‐1 DW, respectively). Sixty‐four volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of globe artichoke material, particularly in the bracts. The volatile profile showed that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and non‐terpene derivatives were the main volatiles emitted by the bracts in both cultivars. These results suggest that globe artichoke by‐products might represent a potential source of natural compounds, which could be used as nutraceuticals or as ingredients in the design of functional foods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Aroma profile of Rubus ulmifolius flowers and fruits during different
           ontogenetic phases
    • Abstract: The chemical composition of spontaneous volatile emission from Rubus ulmifolius flowers and fruits during different stages of development was evaluated by HS‐SPME‐GC/MS. In total, 155 chemical compounds were identified accounting 84.6‐99.4% of whole aroma profile of flowers samples and 92.4‐96.6% for fruit samples. The main constituents were α‐copaene, β‐caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)‐α‐farnesene, 1,7‐octadien‐3‐one,2‐methyl‐6‐methylene, tridecane, (E)‐2‐hexenol acetate, (E)‐3‐hexenol acetate and cyperene. The results give a chemotaxonomic contribution to the characterization of the VOCs emitted from flowers and fruits during their ontogenic development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical Composition and Content of Lipophilic Seed Extractives of Some
           Abies and Picea Species
    • Abstract: The chemical content and composition of the lipophilic extracts from seeds of some fir species: Abies alba, A. cephalonica, A. concolor and A. koreana, as well as of a few spruce species: Picea abies, P. orientalis and P. pungens, were examined. The amount of lipophilic extractives diverse among the tree species; from 9.8% to 41%. The chemical characterization showed significant differences, not only in the content, but also in the composition of extractives. However, most of the identified compounds like resin alcohols, ‐aldehydes, and ‐acids, as well as fatty acids, were detected in seed extracts of all the examined tree species. The dominating identified compound group was esterified fatty acids (2.5‐55.4% w/w of dry extract), occurring mainly as tri‐ and diglycerides, as well as free acids. The main representatives of this group were linoleic and oleic acids. The resin acids, among which the main were abietic, neoabietic, dehydroabietic and palustric acids, were also detected at high levels, from 1.8% to 16.9% of the dry seed extracts. Phytosterols, tocopherols, resin hydrocarbons and resin esters, as well as fatty alcohols were also identified. The coniferous tree seeds as a renewable natural material could represent a prospective raw material for producing valuable chemicals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Fusaproliferin, Terpestacin and their Derivatives Display Variable
           Allelopathic Activity Against some Ascomycetous Fungi
    • Abstract: Herbivorous mammal dung supports a large variety of fimicolous fungi able to produce different bioactive secondary metabolites to compete with other organisms. Recently, the organic extracts of the Solid State Fermentation (SSF) cultures of Cleistothelebolus nipigonensis and Neogymnomyces virgineus, showing strong antifungal activity, were preliminarily investigated. This manuscript reports the isolation of the main metabolites identified, using spectroscopic and optical methods, as fusaproliferin (1) and terpestacin (2). Furthermore, some key hemisynthetic derivatives were prepared and their antifungal activity was tested against the same fungi previously reported to be affected by the organic extracts obtained from SSF. These metabolites and their derivatives resulted able to reduce the growth of Alternaria brassicicola, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium graminearum in a variable extent strongly dependent from chemical modifications and test fungi. The hydroxy enolic group at C‐17 appeared to be a structural feature important to impart activity. This study represents the first report of these secondary metabolites produced by C. nipigonensis and N. virgineus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Melanogenesis‐Inhibitory Activities of Isomeric C‐seco
           Limonoids and Deesterififed Limonoids
    • Abstract: Treatment of eight C‐seco limonoids including six of salannin‐type, 1–6, and two of nimbin‐type, 7 and 8, with a combination of boron trifluoride etherate and iodide ion yielded the isomeric C‐seco derivatives, i.e., six isosalannins, 1a–6a, and two isonimbins, 7a and 8a, respectively. Ohchinin (1) was further subjected to lithium aluminum hydride reduction which yielded a deesterified trihydroxy limonoid, nimbidinol (9). In addition, ten limonoids including seven of azadirone‐type, 10–16, and three of gedunin‐type, 17–19, all of which possess no ester functionality in the molecule, were obtained from the neutral fraction of Azadirachta indica seed extract after alkaline hydrolysis. Among the above, 12 compounds, i.e., 1a–4a, 6a, 9, 13–16, 18, and 19, were new compounds, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Upon evaluation of all these limonoids for their inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with α‐melanocyte‐stimulating hormone (α‐MSH), five structurally modified limonoids, 3‐deacetyl‐28‐oxosalannin (6a), 9, 17‐epi‐17‐hydroxynimbocinol (14), 17‐epi‐17‐hydroxy‐15‐mehtoxynimbocinol (15), and 7‐deacetyl‐17‐epinimolicinol (18), in addition to a natural limonoid, 1, exhibited potent inhibitory activities with 26–66% reduction of melanin content at 100 μM concentration with almost no or low toxicity to the B16 melanoma cells (70–99% cell viability at 100 μM). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Quantification of Anti‐Addictive Alkaloids Ibogaine and Voacangine
           in in vivo‐ and in vitro‐Grown Plants of Two Mexican
           Tabernaemontana Species
    • Abstract: Tabernaemontana alba and T. arborea are Apocynaceae species used in Mexican traditional medicine for which little phytochemical information exists. In this study, preliminary GC‐MS analyses of different organs obtained from wild plants of both species identified a total of 10 monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) and one simple indole alkaloid, nine of which were reported for the first time in these species. Furthermore, callus cultures were established from T. alba leaf explants and regeneration of whole plants was accomplished via somatic embryogenesis. The anti‐addictive MIAs ibogaine and voacangine were then quantified by GC‐FID in wild plants of both species, as well as greenhouse‐grown plants, in vitro‐grown plantlets and embryogenic callus of T. alba. Ibogaine and voacangine were present in most samples taken from whole plants of both species, with stem and root barks showing the highest concentrations. No alkaloids were detected in callus samples. It was concluded that T. alba and T. arborea are potentially viable sources of ibogaine and voacangine, and that these MIAs can be produced through somatic embryogenesis and whole plant regeneration of T. alba. Approaches to increase MIA yields in whole plants and to achieve alkaloid production directly in cell cultures are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Influence of Morphological Variability and Habitat on the Chemical
           Composition of Essential Oils of an Algerian Endemic Origanum species
           (Origanum floribundum Munby)
    • Abstract: The genus Origanum L. (Lamiaceae) enjoys a socio‐economic interest and constitutes one of the most popular spices. In the literature, the study of this taxon is limited mainly to the chemical composition, antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oils. In Algeria few works have been done in this area, including the endemic and rare species: Origanum floribundum Munby. In this study, our contribution highlights the influence of the ecological parameters and of the variation of morphological traits on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of the essential oils of six populations. The major oils constituents are carvacrol, γ‐Terpinene and p‐cymene with carvacrol predominance (31.8‐60.8%) over five populations (MS1‐MS4 and MS6). However, the population of Ain Terraeur (MS5) of which individuals present a foliar polymorphism, distinguishes itself by p‐cymène predominance (42.6%). This would denote a new chemotype and/or variety which seem well differentiated on the dendrogram of the Ascending Hierarchical Classification (A.H.C) and its foliar morphology. The antioxidant activity of the six samples evaluated by the scavenging activity of free radicals DPPH• and ABTS•+ showed a potent efficiency for the sample with foliar polymorphism population (IC50=51.6 ± 0.31 μg/ml−1 and 12.71 ± 0.37 μg/ml−1, respectively). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Isocoumarin Derivatives from the Sponge‐Associated Fungus
           Peyronellaea glomerata with Antioxidant Activities
    • Abstract: Chemical examination of the solid culture of the sponge‐associated fungus Peyronellaea glomerata led to the isolation of five new isocoumarins, namely peyroisocoumarins A‐D (1‐4) and isocitreoisocoumarinol (5), together with 13 known analogues (6‐18). Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including the modified Mosher's method for the configurational assignments. Peyroisocoumarins A and B were characterized by the presence of chlorine atom at n‐pentane chain, which were unusual in isocoumarin derivatives. The ARE reporter assay revealed that peyroisocoumarins A, B, and D exerted potent ARE activation in HepG2C8 cells, while the preliminary analyses of structure‐activity relationship was discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemometric classification of different tree peony species native to China
           based on the assessment of major fatty acids of seed oil and phenotypic
           characteristics of the seeds
    • Abstract: In the present study, we quantitatively measured five major fatty acids (FAs) in seed oil using gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and examined four phenotypic characteristics of the seeds from 19 populations from nine wild tree peony species native to China. The results showed that the unsaturated FAs contents were dominant, of which α‐linolenic (ALA) acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid (OA) contents ranged from 14.84 to 42.54 g /100 g, 7.33 to 19.66 g /100 g, and 15.07‐35.31 g /100 g crude oil, respectively. The phenotypic seed characteristics, such as thousand seed weight (244.01‐1772.91 g), seed volume (91.31‐1000.79 mm3), weight rate of kernel and coat (1.29‐3.62) and oil extraction ratio (20.32‐34.69%), dramatically varied. Based on the contents of the five FAs, the nine species were classified into two groups. The species belonging to subsection Vagiatae were arranged in cluster I and were characterized by high ALA content. Cluster II, consistent with subsection Delavayanae, had a high OA content. From horizontal and vertical perspectives, the natural distribution areas of these two groups were different, reflecting differences in the FA contents and phenotypic seed characteristics. In conclusion, the FAs composition could be used as a chemotaxonomic marker for tree peony species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Four new tirucallane triterpenoids from the fruits of Melia azedarach and
           their cytotoxic activities
    • Abstract: Four new tirucallane triterpenoids, (21S, 23R)‐epoxy‐21β, 24S‐dihydroxy‐ 25‐methoxy‐tirucalla‐7‐en‐3‐one (2), (21S, 23R)‐epoxy‐3β, 24R‐dihydroxy‐21β, 25‐ dimethoxy‐tirucalla‐7‐en (8), (21S, 23R)‐epoxy‐ 24R‐hydroxy‐21β‐methoxy‐tirucalla‐ 7, 25‐dien‐3‐one (11), and (21S, 23R)‐epoxy‐21β, 24R‐dihydroxy‐tirucalla‐7, 25‐dien‐ 3‐one (12), along with 16 known analogues, 1, 3‐7, 9‐10, and 13‐20, were isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D‐ and 2D‐NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against HepG2 (liver), SGC7901 (stomach), K562 (leukemia), and HL60 (leukemia) cancer cell lines. Compound 20 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HepG2 and SGC7901 cancer cells with IC50 values of 6.9 μM and 6.9 μM, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • The loss of a sugar chain at C‐3 position enhances Stemucronatoside
           K‐induced apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and hedgehog pathway
           inhibition in HT‐29 cells
    • Abstract: Stemucronatoside K (SMK) and its aglycone stephanthraniline A (STA) are the most representative of a series of novel C21 steriodal compounds we have previously isolated from Asclepiadaceae plants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anti‐tumor activity of SMK and STA, and clarify the effect of the sugar chain at the C‐3 position. Our results showed that both SMK and STA decreased the growth of HT‐29 cells in a dose‐ and time‐dependent manner. Meanwhile, STA showed much stronger inhibitory effect than SMK. Treatment of HT‐29 cells with STA increased the apoptotic cell numbers and the protein expression of cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved‐PARP. G1 phase cell cycle arrest and decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin‐dependent kinases 4 were also observed after STA treatment. Furthermore, STA reduced the mRNA levels of four Hedgehog pathway components (GLI1, GLI2, GLI3 and PTCH1) and suppressed Shh‐induced Hedgehog pathway activation in a concentration‐dependent manner. These results indicated that SMK and STA could inhibit the growth of HT‐29 cells by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and hedgehog pathway inhibition. The loss of sugar chain at C‐3 position could enhance SMK's activity. This study is beneficial for understanding the use of natural C21 steroids as anti‐tumor lead compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Different Organs of
           Potentilla fruticosa L. from Two Main Production Areas of China
    • Abstract: This report compared the phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of the leaves, flowers and stems of P. fruticosa L. collected from two main production areas of China (Taibai Mountains and the Qinghai Huzhu Northern Mountains). The results indicated there were significant differences in the phenol contents and antioxidant activities among the different organs and between the two productions. High‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that hyperoside, (+)‐catechin, ellagic acid and rutin were the primary compounds in leaves and flowers, for stems of two productions, the content of 6 phenolic compounds were both the lowest. The DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, lipid peroxidation assays and microbial test system (MTS) were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The results demonstrated that the leaves from two productions exhibited powerful antioxidant activity than other organs, which did not significantly difference from that of the positive control (rutin), followed by the flowers and stems. The correlation between the content of phytochemicals and the antioxidant activities of different organs showed that the total phenol, tannin, hyperoside and (+)‐catechin contents may influence the antioxidant activity, and these compounds can be used as markers for the quality control of P. fruticosa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Natural flavonoids as promising analgesic candidates: a systematic review
    • Abstract: Pain is a universal public health problem. How to improve pain management is always a public health priority at the national level and undoubtedly important [1]. Perception and transmission of pain are complex processes that involve peripheral and central mechanisms. Different mediators, such as 5‐HT (5‐hydroxytryptamine), nitric oxide, prostaglandin, superoxide anion and cyclooxygenase are involved in pathogenesis of pain [2‐4]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Composition and Bioactivity of Lipophilic Metabolites from Needles and
           Twigs of Korean and Siberian Pines (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc.
           and P. sibirica Du Tour)
    • Abstract: Lipophilic extractive metabolites in different parts of the shoot system (needles and defoliated twigs) of Korean pine, P. koraiensis, and Siberian pine, P. sibirica, were studied by GC/MS. Korean pine needles comprised mainly bornyl p‐coumarate, heterocyclic 15‐O‐functionalized labdane type acids (lambertianic acid), 10‐nonacosanol, sterols and their esters. While Siberian pine needles contained less bornyl p‐coumarate, lambertianic acid, sterols and their esters, but were richer in other 15‐O‐functionalized labdane type acids. The major components of the twig extract of P. koraiensis were lambertianic acid, abietane and isopimarane type acids, cembrane type alcohols, 8‐O‐functionalized labdanoids, sterols, sterol esters, and acylglycerols. The same extract of P. sibirica differed in larger amounts of other 15‐O‐functionalized labdane type acids and pinolenic acid glycerides, but in less quantities of cembranoids and 8‐O‐functionalized labdanoids. The labdane type pinusolic acid was detected for the first time in Korean pine. P. koraiensis was found to be unique in the genus for an ability to synthesize phyllocladane diterpenoids. The content of bound Δ5‐unsaturated polymethylene‐interrupted fatty acids in the twig extracts of the both pines was similar or superior to that in their seed oil. Among the pines’ metabolites tested isocembrol was strongest in inhibition of both α‐glucosidase (IC50 2.9 μg/ml) and NO production in activated macrophages (IC50 3.6 μg/ml). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Improved Biological Activities of Isoepoxypteryxin by Biotransformation
    • Abstract: Isoepoxypteryxin is the major coumarin of a Japanese medicinal plant; Angelica shikokiana. This research was designed to study the effect of the structure change through fungal biotransformation on the reported biological activities of isoepoxypteryxin. Among the tested microorganisms, only Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) had enzymes that could catalyze the ester hydrolysis and the reductive cleavage of the epoxide ring of isoepoxypteryxin, separately, to give two more polar metabolites; (+) cis‐khellactone (P1) and a new coumarin derivative; (+)‐cis‐3’‐[2’’‐methyl‐3’’‐hydroxy‐butanoyloxy]‐4’‐acetoxy‐3’, 4’‐dihydroseselin (P2), respectively. P2 showed stronger cytotoxicity and higher selectivity than isoepoxypteryxin. On the molecular level, P2 showed more in vitro inhibition of both tubulin polymerization and histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). Similarly, P2 showed more neuroprotection against amyloid beta fragment 1‐42 (Aβ1‐42)‐induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells (SH‐SY5Y) and exhibited more inhibition of the in vitro aggregation of Aβ1‐42. Both metabolites showed stronger anti‐platelet aggregation through by more strongly inhibiting thromboxane‐A2 synthase (TXS) activity and thromboxane‐A2 (TXA2) production. This study is the first to describe the improved cytotoxic, neuroprotective and anti‐platelet aggregation activities of isoepoxypteryxin through its biotransformation by C. sinensis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical Composition and in vitro Biological Activities of Essential Oils
           from Conchocarpus fontanesianus (A. St.‐Hil.) Kallunki & Pirani
           (Rutaceae)
    • Abstract: The present study was aimed at assessing the chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves and fruits of Conchocarpus fontanesianus, an endemic Brazilian species of Rutaceae. The plant material was harvested from two regions of the Atlantic Rainforest in the State of São Paulo. The volatile compounds in the essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS, allowing the quantification and identification of 54 components in total, which comprise about 97% of the total oil composition. From the leaves collected in Caraguatatuba and Juréia‐Itatins, we identified the major volatile compounds as follows: sphatulenol (22.32% and 16.67%) and α‐cadinol (9.7% and 14.76%). Whereas β‐myrcene (34.56%), (+)‐epi‐bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8.71%) and bicyclogermacrene (5.80%) were dominant in the fruits collected only in Juréia‐Itatins. The in vitro biological activities were tested to evaluate the cytotoxic, antifungal and antioxidant potential of essential oils from leaves and fruits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Diarylureas and diarylamides with oxazolo[5,4‐d]pyrimidine scaffold
           as angiogenesis inhibitors
    • Abstract: A series of oxazolopyrimidine‐based ureas and amides were designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated for their anti‐proliferative and anti‐angiogenic activities. These compounds were identified to exhibit inhibitory activities against human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. Among these compounds, compound 22 effectively inhibited the migration and capillary like tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. It also exhibited a concentration‐dependent inhibition on capillary sprouting from the rat aorta rings. Preliminary mechanistic studies revealed that compound 22 suppressed protein kinases activation, by decreasing PI3K phosphorylation and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. These results support the further investigation of this class of compounds as potential anti‐cancer agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Variation of chemical composition in flowers and leaves essential oils
           among natural population of Tunisian Glebionis coronoria (L.) Tzvelev
           (Asteraceae)
    • Abstract: Percentage and constituents variations were registered in flowers and leaves essential oil of three Glebionis coronaria (L.) Tzvelev population growing wildly in three different ecotypes (Utique, M'saken and Sahara Lektar) in Tunisia. The chemical compositions of those essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS system. Qualitative and quantitative differences were recorded between essential oils extracted from plants collected from the three geographical provinces and between organs of the same plant (leaves and flowers). In fact, 161 components representing 87.2–96.5% of the whole oils were identified. Myrcene (3.2‐35.7%), (Z)‐β‐ocimene (0.6‐23.0%), camphor (0.6‐17.2%), cis‐chrysanthenol (0‐6.9%), cis‐chrysanthenyl acetate (1.1‐17.9%), isobornyl acetate (1.6‐3.5%), (E)‐β‐farnesene (0‐6.0%), germacrene D (0‐8.7%) and (E,E)‐α‐farnesene (0.7‐12.4%) were the predominant components in the oils. These major constituents occur in different amounts depending on the organs (leaves or flowers) and the geographical origin of the plant. The chemotaxonomic usefulness of these data was discussed according to results of principal component analysis (PCA). The scores, together with the loadings, revealed a different chemical pattern for each population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • A comparative study on essential oil intraspecific and seasonal
           variations: Melissa romana Mill and Melissa officinalis L. from Sardinia
    • Abstract: Two species of Melissa are currently present in Sardinia: Melissa officinalis L. and Melissa romana Mill. Our research can only count on a few supported evidences (reported on Flora Italiana and Moris) and some notes on new stations in Sardinia give us some information about morphology, distribution, bio‐ecological and ethno‐botanical characteristics of both species. In the present paper we present the results of the research about morphological aspects of Melissa romana vs. Melissa officinalis and their essential oils in different stations at different phenological periods. Moreover we compared the essential oil of M. romana with the one deriving from M. officinalis growing in the few naturalized stations still present in Sardinia. The most evident morphological differences between the two entities are regarding the long‐stalked capitate glandular trichomes, shorts and inclined capitate trichomes and peltate hairs. The chemical composition of essential oil presents several significant differences between the species. In fact, oils show that in none of the phenological stages, Melissa romana recalls in its composition Melissa officinalis. Major distinctions are also evident between dry and fresh plants and among essential oils distilled in different seasons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Four new kaurane diterpenoids from the Chinese liverwort Jungermannia
           comata Nees
    • Abstract: In our continuing program to find new bioactive compounds from the Chinese liverworts, four new kaurane‐type diterpenoids, 6β,9α‐dihydroxy‐kaur‐16‐ene (1), 6β,9α,12β‐trihydroxy‐kaur‐16‐ene (2), 5α,6β,9α‐trihydroxy‐kaur‐16‐ene (3), and 9α‐hydroxy‐kaur‐16‐en‐19‐ol (4), have been isolated from the Chinese liverwort Jungermannia comata Nees. Five known kaurane‐type diterpenoids (5−9) and four known trachylobane‐type diterpenoids (10−13) were also obtained. The structures of the new compounds were established unequivocally on the basis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by comparing experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Developmental and Environmental Effects on Sesquiterpene Lactones in
           Cultivated Arnica montana L
    • Abstract: The amount of sesquiterpene lactones and lactone profile of Arnica montana L. in flowering and seed formation stages, in vitro and in vivo propagated from seeds of German, Ukrainian and Austrian origin and grown in two experimental fields were studied. It was found that in vitro propagated two‐year plants in full flowering stage accumulated higher amount of lactones in comparison to in vivo propagated three‐year plants and to the seed formation stage, respectively. Helenalins predominated in in vivo propagated two‐year or in vitro propagated three‐year plants. 2‐Methylbutyrate (2MeBu) was the principal ester in the samples with prevalence of helenalins, while isobutyrate (iBu) was the major one in the samples with predominance of 11,13‐dihydrohelenalins. The results revealed that the environmental conditions on Vitosha Mt. are more suitable for cultivation of A. montana giving higher content of lactones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
 
 
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