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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 845 journals)
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    - CHEMISTRY (596 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (596 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 153)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 108)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 156)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 195)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 79)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Central European Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 10)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 126)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 102)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 134)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Elements     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Chemistry & Biodiversity
  [SJR: 0.723]   [H-I: 40]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-1872 - ISSN (Online) 1612-1880
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Frankincense Revisited, Part II: Volatiles in Rare Boswellia Species and
           Hybrids
    • Authors: Johannes Niebler; Jason Eslamieh, Andrea Buettner
      Abstract: In this second part of the investigation of volatiles and semivolatiles in Boswellia gum resins, an additional five less common species were analyzed by (SPME‐)GC‐MS, namely B. ameero, B. elongata, B. neglecta, B. popoviana and B. rivae. Moreover, the results of hybridization experiments are reported in combination with the volatile composition of their gum resins. Our study shows that B. sacra benefits from an intra‐specific cross‐pollination, as the resulting hybrid B. sacra var. supersacra has a far higher seed germination rate and viability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T03:41:05.445331-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500339
       
  • Frankincense Revisited, Part I: Comparative Analysis of Volatiles in
           Commercially Relevant Boswellia Species
    • Authors: Johannes Niebler; Andrea Buettner
      Abstract: The genus Boswellia comprises a number of species which are famous for their production of frankincense, a fragrant gum resin. In the published literature, manifold studies on the volatiles and semivolatiles in individual samples of these gum resins exist, yet very few studies have investigated multiple samples. Contradictory results with regard to the volatile composition exist in literature. In this first part of the study, a large sample set (n=46) of mostly commercially obtained gum resins and essential oils was investigated by solid phase micro‐extraction gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (SPME‐GC‐MS) or GC‐MS. In the four commercially relevant species, namely B. sacra, B. serrata, B. papyrifera and B. frereana, 216 compounds were identified or tentatively identified, and the statistical evaluation of the resulting chemical profiles allowed a clear distinction between the species by their volatile profile. With only few exceptions, the designated species was found to be in accordance with the composition reported in reliable literature sources and detected in botanically identified samples. Chemotaxonomic marker substances were suggested to facilitate the differentiation of commercial gum resins or essential oils based on their volatile profile. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T03:40:52.984659-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500329
       
  • Identification and Biological Activities of Long‐Chain Peptaibols
           Produced by a Marine‐Derived Strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum
    • Abstract: Six long‐chain peptaibols, 1 – 6, were identified from agar cultures of a marine‐derived Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai strain (MMS151) isolated from blue mussels. Structure elucidation was carried out using electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI‐IT‐MS) and GC/EI‐MS. The long‐chain peptaibols exhibited the general building scheme Ac‐Aib‐Ala‐Aib‐Ala‐Aib‐XXX‐Gln‐Aib‐Vxx‐Aib‐Gly‐XXX‐Aib‐Pro‐Vxx‐Aib‐XXX‐Gln‐Gln‐Pheol and were similar or identical to recurrent 20‐residue peptaibols produced by Trichoderma spp. Three sequences were new and called longibrachins A‐0, A‐II‐a, and A‐IV‐b. The isolated peptaibols were assayed for cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities, and acute toxicity on Dipteran larvae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-24T01:10:34.781094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500159
       
  • Advances in Chemistry and Bioactivity of the Genus Chisocheton Blume
    • Authors: Jamil A. Shilpi; Sanjib Saha, Chong Soon Lim, Lutfun Nahar, Satyajit D. Sarker, Khalijah Awang
      Abstract: Chisocheton is one of the genera of the family Meliaceae, and consists of ca. 53 species; the distribution of most of those are confined to Indo‐Malay region. Species of broader geographic distribution have undergone extensive phytochemical investigations. Previous phytochemical investigations of this genus resulted in the isolation of mainly limonoids, apotirucallane, tirucallane and dammarane triterpenes. Reported bioactivities of the isolated compounds include cytotoxic, anti‐inflammatory, antifungal, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antifeedant, and lipid droplet inhibitory activities. Apart from chemistry and biological activities, this review also deals briefly with botany, distribution, and uses of various species of this genus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T04:25:41.113876-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400373
       
  • Comparison of the Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the
           Essential Oils of Green Branches and Leaves of Egyptian Navel Orange
           (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var. Malesy)
    • Authors: Omayma A. Eldahshan; Ahmed F. Halim
      Abstract: The essential oils isolated from the leaves and green branches of the Egyptian navel orange trees were analyzed by GC and GC‐MS. Thirty three and twenty four compounds were identified from the oils of the leaves and branches accounting for 96.0 and 97.9% respectively of the total detected constituents. The major ones were: sabinene (36.5; 33.0%), terpinen‐4‐ol (8.2; 6.2%), δ‐3‐carene (7.0; 9.4%), limonene (6.8; 18.7%), trans‐ocimene (6.7; 6.1%) and β‐myrcene (4.5; 4.4%). The antimicrobial activities of both oils were evaluated using the agar well diffusion method towards three representatives for each of Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. The oil of leaves was more effective as antimicrobial agent than that of the branches. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most sensitive bacteria and fungi by the leaves oil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07T04:44:09.492647-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500139
       
  • Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus
           halepensis growing in Corsica
    • Abstract: The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS, 13C‐NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77‐100% of the whole composition have been identified. α‐Pinene, myrcene and (E)‐β‐caryophyllene were the major component followed by α‐humulene and 2‐phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. Forty seven oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M= 28.1g/100g; SD = 10.6) and (E)‐β‐caryophyllene (M = 19.0g/100g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)‐β‐caryophyllene (M = 28.7g/100g; SD = 7.9), α‐pinene (M = 12.3g/100g; SD = 3.6) and myrcene (M = 11.7g/100g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T06:42:25.243814-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500097
       
  • Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Psychotria
    • Abstract: The genus Psychotria is one of the largest genera of flowering plants and the largest within Rubiaceae, with ca. 1500 species distributing in tropical and subtropical regions, with 17 species being endemic in China [1]. Different parts of several species have been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments. For example, P. viridis and P. carthagenensis are often discussed in relation to the hallucinogenic beverage ayahuasca, used for religious, medicinal and social purposes throughout the Amazon [2]. The whole herbs of P. serpens are used as an antirheumatic, analgesic, muscles relaxing, and circulation promoting drug in folklore [3]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Contents: C&B 5/2016
    •  
  • Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Genus Ligularia
    • Abstract: Ligularia speices are widely used in Asian folk medicines for the treatment of various human diseases. Eremophilane‐type sesquiterpenes are abundant and typical secondary metabolites in this genus. Over 500 eremophilanes reported from members of Ligularia are reviewed in this article together with bioactivity data in an effort to highlight the development in this field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • The genus Myrtus L. in Algeria: composition and biological aspects of
           essential oils from M. communis and M. nivellei. A Review
    • Abstract: enus Myrtus L. (Myrtaceae family) comprises two species, Myrtus communis L. (Known as Common myrtle) growing wild all around the Mediterranean basin and Myrtus nivellei Batt. and Trab. (Known as Saharan myrtle), found in Central Sahara. Only one country, Algeria, hosts both species, M. communis in the North, M. nivellei in the South. The aim of the present review was to collect, summarize and compare the main results reported in the literature relative to the essential oils isolated from aerial parts of both species: botanical aspects, habitat, traditional use, chemical composition, new compounds, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, anti‐inflammatory effect, insecticidal activity. Both essential oils have potential applications in human health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • On the Permeation by Dioxygen of Urate Oxidase from Aspergillus flavus in
           Complex with Xanthine Anion. Dioxygen Pathways and a Portrait of the
           Enzyme Cavities from Molecular Dynamics Simulations in Water Solution
    • Abstract: This work describes molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in aqueous media for the complex of the homotetrameric urate oxidase (UOX) from Aspergillus flavus with xanthine anion (5) in the presence of dioxygen (O2). After 196.6 ns of trajectory from unrestrained MD, a O2 molecule was observed leaving the bulk solvent to penetrate the enzyme between two subunits, A/C. From here, the same O2 molecule was observed migrating, across subunit C, to the hydrophobic cavity that shares residue V227 with the active site. The latter was finally attained, after 378.3 ns of trajectory, with O2 at a bonding distance from 5. The reverse same O2 pathway, from 5 to the bulk solvent, was observed as preferred pathway under random acceleration MD (RAMD), where an external, randomly oriented force was acting on O2. Both MD and RAMD simulations revealed a number of cavities populated by O2 during its migration from the bulk solvent to the active site, or backwards. Paying attention to the last hydrophobic cavity, that apparently serves as O2 reservoir for the active site, it was noticed that its volume undergoes ample fluctuations during the MD simulation, as expected from the thermal motion of a flexible protein, independently from the particular subunit and no matter whether the cavity is filled or not by O2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Positional‐species composition of diacylglycerol acetates from
           mature euonymus seeds
    • Abstract: Positional‐species composition (PSC) of 1,2‐diacyl‐3‐acetyl‐sn‐glycerols (AcDAGs) from the seeds of mature fruits of 14 species of Euonymus L. genus was established. The residues of six major fatty acids (FAs), palmitic, stearic, hexadecenoic (H), octadecenoic (O), linoleic (L), and linolenic, were present in the AcDAGs. Here we demonstrated, that profile of PSC of AcDAGs could serve as chemotaxonomic factor to divide euonymus species studied here into groups which completely correlate with the present‐day systematic of the genus. In particular, the Euonymus section greatly exceeded other sections of the Euonymus subgenus as well as the Kalonymus one in the total levels of AcDAGs positional species having one and two O residues and was characterized by significantly lesser concentrations of species with one and two L residues. Moreover, in seed AcDAGs of almost all Euonymus species EFL values were slightly higher than EFO ones, but all EFL and EFO values were higher than 1.0 and therefore it can be concluded that both FAs mainly esterified sn‐2‐position of the glycerol moiety and saturated FAs residues were always virtually absent in the sn‐2 position of Euonymus seed AcDAGs, as it is also the case in nearly all TAGs molecules of plant origin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Compositae Plants Differed in Leaf Cuticular Waxes between High and Low
           Altitudes
    • Abstract: We sampled eight Compositae species at high altitude (3482 m) and seven species at low altitude (220 m), analyzed the chemical compositions and contents of leaf cuticular wax, and calculated the values of average chain length (ACL), carbon preference index (CPI), dispersion (d), dispersion/weighted mean chain length (d/N), and C31/(C31+C29) (Norm31). The amounts of total wax and compositions were significantly higher at high altitude than at low altitude, except for primary alcohol, secondary alcohol and ketone. The main n‐alkanes in most samples were C31, C29 and C33. Low altitude had more C31 and C33, whereas more C29 occurred at high altitude. The ACL, CPI, d, d/N, and Norm31 were higher at low altitude than at high altitude. The fatty acid and primary alcohol at low altitude contained more C26 homologous than at high altitude. More short chain primary alcohols were observed at high altitude. At low altitude, the primary alcohol gave on average the largest amount, while it was n‐alkane at high altitude. These results indicated that the variations of leaf cuticular waxes benefited Compositae plants to adapt to various environmental stresses and enlarge their distribution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Influence of Cultivation Parameters on the Mineral Composition of Kiwi
           Fruit from Corsica
    • Abstract: The effect of four cultivation parameters (postmaturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °C and input of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) on the mineral composition of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward) from Corsica were evaluated. The kiwi fruit were harvested on three dates at two‐week intervals and some fruit were stored for three and four months. The kiwi fruit orchard was fertilized with controlled levels of nitrogen (five levels) and potassium (three levels) during one growing season. The concentrations of 67 elements in kiwi fruit were measured using various analytical methods, such as flow injection spectrophotometry (FIA), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), flame atomic emission spectrometry (FAES), electrothermal atomic–absorption spectrometry (ET–AAS), inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP–MS) and filtration. The main elements in kiwi fruit are potassium, nitrogen, chloride ion, phosphorus and silicon and, to a lesser amount, calcium, magnesium, sodium and iron. This study demonstrates a high degree of difference in the amount of 23 mineral elements depending on the harvest date, the time of storage and the input of fertilizers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Profiling of Coumarins in Peucedanum palustre (L.) Moench Populations
           Growing in Finland
    • Abstract: The coumarin composition of Peucedanum palustre (L.) Moench populations growing in Finland was investigated. 132 flowering P. palustre specimens from 43 locations in southern and central Finland were collected, divided into root, stem, leaf and umbel samples, and analyzed by HPLC. HPLC coupled to high‐resolution mass spectrometry was used to aid the identification of coumarins. 13 coumarin‐structured compounds were quantitatively analyzed from the samples. The coumarin profile of root samples was found to differ from the aerial plant parts. The main coumarins in roots were oxypeucedanin and columbianadin. In aerial parts peulustrin isomers were the most abundant coumarin components. Umbels and leaves contained also a considerable amount of umbelliprenin, which was only found in traces in roots. Based on hierarchical cluster analysis of the coumarin profiles some populations shared common characteristics. The most distinct property connecting certain populations was their high peulustrin content. Another notable common property between some populations was the high umbelliprenin content in aerial plant parts. Some populations were clustered together due to their low overall coumarin content. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Metabolomics for the Authentication of Natural Extracts Used in Flavours
           and Fragrances: the Case Study of Violet Leaf Absolutes from Viola odorata
           
    • Abstract: Natural extracts used in fine fragrances (alcoholic perfumes) are rare and precious. As such, they represent an interesting target for fraudulent practices called adulterations. Absolutes, important materials used in the creation of perfumes, are obtained by organic solvent extraction of raw plant materials. Because the non‐volatile part of these natural extracts is not normalized and scarcely reported in the literature, highlighting potential adulterations present in this fraction appears highly challenging. For the first time, we investigated the use of non‐targeted UHPLC‐ToFMS metabolomics for this purpose, considering Viola odorata L., a plant largely used in the perfume industry, as a model. Significant differences in the metabolic fingerprints of the violet leaf absolutes were evidenced according to geographical locations, and/or adulterations. Additionally, markers of the geographical origin were detected through their molecular weight/most probable molecular formula and retention time while adulterations were statistically validated. In this study, we thus clearly demonstrated the efficiency of UHPLC‐ToFMS based metabolomics in accelerating both the identification of the origin of raw materials as well as the search for potential adulterations in absolutes, natural products of high added value. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical and genetic comparative analysis of Gentiana crassicaulis and
           Gentiana macrophylla
    • Abstract: Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk. and Gentiana macrophylla Pall. are two main sources of Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae (Qinjiao) available in markets, which has a wide range of anti‐inflammatory effects and has been extensively used for fighting rheumatoid arthritis. However, they vary in terms of chemical compositions, pharmacological activities and biomass. In this study, a combined chemical and genetic (HPLC and DNA barcoding) approach was used to compare these two plants. Four predominant bioactive compounds, namely, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, swertiamarin and sweroside, were used to assess the chemical variations. Based on the chemical variations, 15 samples were clustered into two groups through PCA analyses. DNA barcoding utilizing the variable nuclear ITS2 regions were sequenced, aligned and compared. Together with 61 sequences collected from GenBank, 76 batches of Qinjiao were clustered in two groups according to species origin. The genetic relationships indicated by the ITS2‐based NJ tree were consistent with the chemical variations. Thus, the chemical profiles determined by HPLC and DNA profiles obtained from ITS2 region could be applied for the quality control of Qinjiao. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Inhibitory Effect on Lipid Absorption and Variability of Chemical
           Constituents from Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis
    • Abstract: In continuation of our research program on Mediterranean dietary plants, a bioassay guided fractionation of extracts from several accessions of Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis aerial parts was carried out. Anti‐lipidemic activity of samples was assayed using inhibition of pancreatic lipase. To study the metabolic variability in Capparis species HPTLC analyses were performed in order to characterize the species through the detection, isolation and quantitative evaluation of rutin taken as significative chemical marker. The best activity was exerted by C. orientalis accession n.10 and C. sicula subsp. sicula accession n.6. The bioactivity evaluation of specific chemical markers, rutin and glucocapparin, led to the identification of a potent anti‐lipidemic compound: rutin. HPTLC analysis showed large variation among the different analyzed samples with respect to rutin concentration. The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the species and between the collection zones. The variations showed by the studied accessions of caper could be attributed to exogenous factors. Capparis species contained predominantly quercetin rutinoside (rutin), accompanied by other constituents such as the glucosinolate glucocapparin. These rutin‐rich extracts exhibited pronounced dose‐dependent enzyme inhibitory activities towards pancreatic lipase. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Fatty Acid Derived Pro‐toxicants of the Rat Selective Toxicant
           Norbormide
    • Abstract: Norbormide [5‐(α‐hydroxy‐α‐2‐pyridylbenzyl)‐7‐(α‐2‐pyridylbenzylidene)‐5‐norbornene‐2,3‐dicarboximide] (NRB), an existing but infrequently used rodenticide, is known to be uniquely toxic to rats but relatively harmless to other rodents and mammals. However, as an acute vasoactive, NRB has a rapid onset of action which makes it relatively unpalatable to rats, often leading to sub‐lethal uptake and accompanying bait shyness. A series of NRB‐derived pro‐toxicants (3a‐i, 4a‐i and 5a‐i) were prepared in an effort to ‘mask’ this acute response and improve both palatability and efficacy. Their synthesis, in vitro biological evaluation (vasocontractile response in rat vasculature, stability in selected rat media) and palatability/efficacy in Sprague Dawley, wild Norway and wild ship rats is described. Most notably, pro‐toxicant 3d was revealed to be free of all pre‐cleavage vasoconstrictory activity in rat caudal artery and was subsequently demonstrated to release NRB in the presence of rat blood, liver and pancreatic enzymes. Moreover, it consistently displayed a high level of acceptance by rats in a two‐choice bait‐palatability and efficacy trial, with accompanying high mortality. On this evidence, fatty acid ester prodrugs would appear to offer a promising platform for the further development of NRB‐derived toxicants with enhanced palatability and efficacy profiles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical Composition of Ballota macedonica Vandas and Ballota nigra L.
           ssp. foetida (Vis.) Hayek Essential Oils – The Chemotaxonomic
           Approach
    • Abstract: The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total, 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia) and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida, accounting for 93.9%, 98.4% and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7‐52.1%), germacrene D (8.6‐24.6%) and (E)‐caryophyllene (6.5‐16.5%) while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)‐phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%) and (E)‐caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. Chemical composition of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Properties of Extracts and Essential Oils
           from Citrus x limon (L.) Burm. cv Femminello Comune
    • Abstract: Citrus x limon cv Femminello comune (Rutaceae) from Rocca Imperiale (Italy), one of the six PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) Italian lemon crops, has been recently received renewed interest. In this work, fresh and dried peels and leaves were extracted by using hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and Soxhlet apparatus. Chemical profile was assessed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS). Except for leaves extracts obtained by Soxhlet apparatus, the monoterpene hydrocarbons fraction dominated. Limonene, γ‐terpinene and β‐pinene were the main identified compounds. The antioxidant activity was investigated by using different in vitro assays namely DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and β‐carotene bleaching test. In DPPH test the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of fresh peel exhibited the highest activity (IC50 of 1.17 mg/ml). Leaves extracted by SFE showed a good activity in both DPPH and β‐carotene bleaching test with IC50 values of 2.20 and 6.66 mg/ml, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons fraction exhibited a positive Pearson's correlation coefficient with all antioxidant assays. Leaves, often considered waste material, should be considered from a different point because they represent a matrix of indisputable interest. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Removal of Selected Metals from Wastewater Using a Constructed Wetland
    • Abstract: Removal of selected metals from municipal wastewater using a constructed wetland with a horizontal subsurface flow was studied. The objective of the work was to determine the efficiency of Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Sr, Li, and Rb removal and to describe the main removal mechanisms. The highest removal efficiencies were attained for zinc and copper (89.8 and 81.5%, respectively). It is apparently due to the precipitation of insoluble sulfides (ZnS, CuS) in the vegetation bed where the sulfate reduction takes place. Significantly lower removal efficiencies (43.9, 27.7, and 21.5%) were observed for lithium, strontium, and rubidium, respectively. Rather low removal efficiencies were also attained for nickel and cobalt (39.8 and 20.9%). However, the concentrations of these metals in treated water were significantly lower compared to copper and zinc (e.g., 2.8 ± 0.5 and 1.7 ± 0.3 μg/l for nickel at the inflow and outflow from the wetland compared to 27.6 ± 12.0 and 5.1 ± 4.7 μg/l obtained for copper, respectively). The main perspective of the constructed wetland is the removal of toxic heavy metals forming insoluble compounds depositing in the wetland bed. Metal uptake occurs preferentially in wetland sediments and is closely associated with the chemism of sulfur and iron. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Essential Oils from Anthemis maritima Flowers: Infraspecific Variability
           along the Adriatic Coast (Italy)
    • Abstract: The hydrodistilled essential oils from flowers of five Adriatic populations of Anthemis maritima were analysed by GC‐FID and GC/MS. Anthemis maritima is a psammophilous plant living generally on coastal sand dunes but occasionally on sea cliffs and shingle beaches. 163 chemical compounds were identified in total, accounting for 90.5% of the oils. The main classes of compounds represented in the essential oils were monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes and terpene esters. In particular, cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis, the multivariate chemometric techniques used to classify the samples, highlighted three different chemotypes linked to a geographic origin. One group living in Northern Italy was characterised by the highest content of β‐pinene, γ‐terpinene and β‐caryophyllene, a second chemotype was in Central Italy with the highest amount of trans‐chrysanthenyl acetate and a third group living in Southern Italy with a more heterogeneous volatile profile was characterised by the highest values of cis‐chrysanthenyl acetate, trans‐chrysanthenyl isobutyrate, cis‐carveol propionate, α‐zingiberene and cubenol. Moreover, the comparison of the Adriatic populations with the Tyrrhenian samples, analysed in a previous research, showed that cubenol (absent in all the Tyrrhenian populations) and (E)‐β‐farnesene (absent in all the Adriatic samples) play a crucial role in discriminating the Italian populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Method for Attaining Caraway Seed Oil Fractions with Different Composition
    • Abstract: Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a medicinal and aromatic plant, its seeds (fruits) are used as spice and contain essential oil. We hypothesized that by collecting caraway oil at different time points during the extraction process, we could obtain oil fractions with distinct chemical composition. A hydrodistillation time (HDT) study was conducted to test the hypothesis. The caraway seed oil fractions were collected at eight different HDT (at 0‐2, 2‐7, 7‐15, 15‐30, 30‐45, 45‐75, 75‐105, and 105‐135 min). Additionally, a non‐stop HD for 135 min was conducted as a control. Most of the oil was eluted early in the HD process. The non‐stop HDT treatment yielded 2.76% oil by weight. Of the 24 essential oil constituents, limonene (77‐19% of the total oil) and carvone (20‐79%) were the major ones. Other constituents included myrcene (0.72‐0.16%), trans‐carveol (0.07‐0.39%), and β‐caryophyllene (0.07‐0.24%). Caraway seed oil with higher concentration of limonene can be obtained by sampling oil fractions early in HD process; conversely, oil with high concentration of carvone can be obtained by excluding the fractions eluted early in the HD process. We demonstrated a method of obtaining caraway seed oil fractions with various and unique composition. These novel oil fractions with unique composition are not commercially available and could have much wider potential uses, and also target different markets compared to the typical caraway essential oil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Short‐Term Water Deficit Changes Cuticular Sterol Profile in the
           Eggplant (Solanum melongena)
    • Abstract: Crop irrigation uses a majority of a total world water supply, in the same time displaying low efficiency. As the expected future water requirements are higher than the current ones, there is a risk of a growing deficit of water for the agricultural use. Hence, there is an arising need for better understanding the effects of water deprivation on the crop plants. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a vegetable crop cultivated in arid and semi‐arid parts of the world. Because of its high water demands, the eggplant is a convenient model organism in studies concerning the effects of water deficit on the plant growth. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of short‐term water deficit on eggplant leaf cuticular waxes and total sterols. Water deprivation did not affect the amount and composition of aliphatic components of cuticular waxes. Significant decrease in the total cuticular sterols and the increase in cuticular cholesterol were observed as an effect of water deficit. In contrast, some of the free internal sterols were more abundant in water‐deprived plants. The possible importance of these observations, including increased biosynthesis of defensive compounds and the need to maintain the cell membrane stability, is discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Endophytic Actinobacteria from the Brazilian Medicinal Plant Lychnophora
           ericoides Mart. and the Biological Potential of Their Secondary
           Metabolites
    • Abstract: Endophytic actinobacteria from the Brazilian medicinal plant Lychnophora ericoides were isolated for the first time, and the biological potential of their secondary metabolites was evaluated. A phylogenic analysis of isolated actinobacteria was accomplished with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the predominance of the genus Streptomyces was observed. All strains were cultured on solid rice medium, and ethanol extracts were evaluated with antimicrobial and cytotoxic assays against cancer cell lines. As a result, 92% of the extracts showed a high or moderate activity against at least one pathogenic microbial strain or cancer cell line. Based on the biological and chemical analyses of crude extracts, three endophytic strains were selected for further investigation of their chemical profiles. Sixteen compounds were isolated, and 3‐hydroxy‐4‐methoxybenzamide (9) and 2,3‐dihydro‐2,2‐dimethyl‐4(1H)‐quinazolinone (15) are reported as natural products for the first time in this study. The biological activity of the pure compounds was also assessed. Compound 15 displayed potent cytotoxic activity against all four tested cancer cell lines. Nocardamine (2) was only moderately active against two cancer cell lines but showed strong activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Our results show that endophytic actinobacteria from L. ericoides are a promising source of bioactive compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Origanum libanoticum,
           Origanum ehrenbergii and Origanum syriacum Growing Wild in Lebanon
    • Abstract: The essential oils (EOs) of the aerial parts of Origanum libanoticum and O. ehrenbergii, endemic of Lebanon, and O. syriacum, endemic of the Levantine, were obtained by distillation with a Clevenger apparatus. GC and GC/MS allowed identification of 96.4%, 93.5% and 95.2% of their constituents, respectively. Carvacrol was the major component of both O. syriacum EO (79%) and O. ehrenbergii EO (60.8%). This compound was absent in O. libanoticum EO, the major compounds of which were β‐caryophyllene (26.8%), caryophyllene oxide (22.6%) and germacrene‐D (17.2%). Assessment of their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and six pathogenic bacteria revealed that O. libanoticum EO was inactive while O. syriacum and O. ehrenbergii showed moderate antimicrobial activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations varying from 400 to 1200 μg/ml. These results support the traditional use of these last two species in traditional herbal preparations in Lebanon. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • A Potent Phytotoxic Substance in Aglaia odorata Lour
    • Abstract: Aglaia odorata Lour. (Meliaceae) was found to have very strong allelopathic activity and an bio‐herbicide PORGANIC™ was developed from its leaf extracts. However, the phytotoxic substances causing the strong allelopathic activity of the plants have not yet been determined. Therefore, we investigated allelopathic properties and phytotoxic substances in A. odorata. Aqueous ethanol extracts of A. odorata leaves inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress (Lepidum sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and Echinochloa crus‐galli with the extract concentration‐dependent manner. The extracts were then purified and a major phytotoxic substance with allelopathic activity was isolated and identified by spectral data as rocaglaol. Rocaglaol inhibited the growth of garden cress and E. crus‐galli at concentrations greater than 0.3 and 0.03 μM, respectively. The concentrations required for 50% inhibition ranged from 0.09 to 2.5 μM. The inhibitory activity of rocaglaol on the weed species, E. crus‐galli, was much greater than that of abscisic acid. These results suggest that rocaglaol may be a major contributor to the allelopathic effect of A. odorata and bio‐herbicide PORGANIC™. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Phenolic Compounds from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O.Kuntze and Their
           Inhibitory Effects on α‐Glucosidase and Vascular Endothelial
           Cells Injury
    • Abstract: Following an in vitro bioactivity‐guided fractionation procedure, 14 compounds including eight flavonoids and six phenylpropanoids were isolated and identified from the AcOEt fraction of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O.Kuntze. All constituents were tested for α‐glucosidase and high glucose–induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) inhibitory activities. All constituents exhibited varying degrees α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity and protective activity on HUVECs. Among them, luteolin (2), eriodictyol (5), ethyl rosmarinate (13), clinopodic acids B(14)were proved to be potent α‐glucosidase inhibitors with IC50 value ranging from 0.6 to 2.0 μM. Additionally, luteolin (2), naringenin (4), eriodictyol (5), ethyl (2R)‐3‐(3, 4‐dihydroxyphenyl)‐2‐hydroxypropanate (9), caffeic acid (11), ethyl rosmarinate (13) and clinopodic acids B (14) significantly ameliorate HUVECs injury induced by high glucose with an approximated EC50 value of 3‐36 μM. These results suggest that the 14 bioactive constituents were responsible for hypoglycemic and protective vascular endothelium effect of C. chinense (Benth.) O.Kuntze and their structure–activity relationship was also analyzed briefly. While, eriodictyol, luteolin, ethyl rosmarinate and clinopodic acids B were the potential lead compounds of antidiabetic drugs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Measurement of some Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids in Different Organs of
           Persian Poppy during Ontogenetical Stages
    • Abstract: Papaver bracteatum, a perennial species, has known as a rich source of thebaine and a potential alternative to Papaver somniferum for production of codeine and some semi‐synthetic antagonist drugs. In the current study, Ion Mobility Spectrum (IMS) of the root, leaf, bottom part of stem, upper part of stem, capsule wall, petal and capsule content during developmental stages of P. bracteatum including annual rosette, perennial rosette, bud initiation, pendulous bud, pre‐flowering and lancing were investigated. The ion mobility spectrum revealed thebaine, papaverine and noscapine as the major components of the extracted alkaloids. Based on the results of the study it appears that, at least in part, there are competition among the biosynthesis pathways of papaverine, noscapine and morphinan alkaloids from a common source. Root and capsule wall were the most potent organs for extraction of thebaine, while lancing stage was the best developmental stage for thebaine exploitation. However it seems that total biomass of root and capsule wall plays a key role in the final selection of favorite organ. Although papaverine and noscapine in the stem at pre‐flowering stage had the most quantity, however, significant amounts were found in the capsule wall. In general total alkaloid content of leaf was lower than the other plant parts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Diversity of sterol composition in Tunisian Pistacia lentiscus seed oil
    • Abstract: Pistacia lentiscus L. seed oil is used in some Mediterranean forest area for culinary and medicinal purposes. In this study, we aim to examine, for the first time, the effect of growing area on sterol content of Pistacia lentiscus seed oil. Fruits were harvested from thirteen different sites located in northern and central Tunisia. Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detection (GC–FID) was used to quantify sterols and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to identify them. The major sterol identified was β‐sitosterol with a value ranging from 854.12 to 1224.09 mg/kg of oil, thus making up more than 54% of the total sterols. The other two main sterols were cycloartenol (11%) and 24‐methylene‐cycloartenol (5%). Statistical results revealed that growing location significantly (P < 0.001) affected phytosterol levels in these oils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Inhibitory Kinetics of Azachalcones and their Oximes on Mushroom
           Tyrosinase: a Facile Solid‐State Synthesis
    • Abstract: A solid‐state based mechanochemical process was used to synthesize novel azachalcones and their oximes as tyrosinase inhibitors. Their inhibitory activities on mushroom tyrosinase using L‐DOPA as a substrate were investigated. Two of the novel oxime derivatives synthesized were seen to be more potent than the positive control, kojic acid. Both the compounds 1b and 2b inhibited the diphenolase activity of tyrosinase in a dose dependent manner with their IC50values of 15.3 μM and 12.7 μM, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that their inhibition mechanism was reversible. Both the novel oxime compounds displayed competitive inhibition with their Ki values of 5.1 μM and 2.5 μM, respectively. This method minimizes waste disposal problems and provides a simple, efficient and benign method for the synthesis of novel tyrosinase inhibitors for use as skin whitening agents or as anti‐browning food additives. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Medicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Origanum onites (L.): A
           Review
    • Abstract: Origanum onites L., known as Turkish oregano, has great traditional, medicinal, preservative and commercial importance. It is used for the treatment of several kinds of ailments such as gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, high cholesterol, leukemia, bronchitis, etc. In this review, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of O. onites reported between 1988‐2014 were discussed. This review was prepared based on literature survey on scientific journals and books from libraries and electronic sources such as Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, etc. All databases were searched up to June 2014. Several different classes of terpenoids, triterpene acids, phenolic acids, hydroquinones, flavonoids, hydrocarbons, sterols, pigments, fatty acids, tocopherols, and inorganic compounds were detected mainly in the aerial parts of this plant. Pharmacological studies revealed that extracts obtained by several solvents and individual compounds exhibited antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, insecticidal, anti‐cancer, hepatoprotective, genotoxic, anti‐diabetic, cholinesterase inhibitory, anti‐inflammatory, analgesic activities etc. O. onites, in general, exhibited remarkable activity potential in almost all test systems. The results of toxicity studies indicated that O. onites did not show any significant toxicity and mutagenicity on Drosophila and Salmonella. Toxicity of the extracts/essential oils and also individual compounds should be evaluated on mammalian cells to ensure their safety on mammalian cells. The bioactivity of individual compounds apart from terpenoids should also be assessed in detail. Additionally, mode of action for the bioactive compounds should be evaluated to understand the complex pharmacological effects of these phytochemicals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • 1‐Acetyl‐3‐[(3R)‐hydroxyfatty
           acyl]‐glycerols: lipid compounds from Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne
           and E. tetraquetra (Bréb.) Arrond
    • Abstract: Five homologous acetylated acylglycerols of 3‐hydroxyfatty acids (chain lengths C14‐C18), named euphrasianins A‐E, were characterized for the first time in Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Orobanchaceae) by gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and high performance liquid chromatography‐atmospheric pressure chemical ionization‐mass spectrometry (HPLC‐APCI‐MSn). In addition to mass spectrometric data, structures of euphrasianins were verified via a three‐step total synthesis of one representative homologue (euphrasianin A). The structure of the latter was confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as high resolution electrospray ionization‐mass spectrometry (HR‐ESI‐MS). The absolute configuration of the 3‐hydroxyfatty acid moiety at C(3) was found to be R in the natural euphrasianins, which was determined by alkaline hydrolysis and methylation of a purified fraction, followed by chiral GC analysis. Furthermore, in extracts of E. tetraquetra (Bréb.) Arrond. exclusively euphrasianins C and E were detected, indicating that this subclass of lipid constituents is possibly valuable for fingerprinting methods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Salvia multicaulis Vahl
           Essential Oils
    • Abstract: The chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) of aerial parts of Salvia multicaulis Vahl, collected during the same week from two different Lebanese regions, were investigated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger‐type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these EOs were determined against one Gram‐negative and two Gram‐positive bacteria, one yeast, and five dermatophytes using the broth microdilution technique. One EO was notably active against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin‐resistant S. aureus and all of the Trichophyton species tested. Nerolidol was found to be the major compound in the active oil; nerolidol was also absent from the inactive oil. This study demonstrated that nerolidol shows antimicrobial activity and therefore significantly contributes to the antimicrobial potential of the oil. The chemical diversity of worldwide S. multicaulis EOs was analyzed, revealing that the EOs of the present study belong to two different chemotypes found in the literature. The nerolidol chemotype appears to be restricted to Lebanon and can be used as antimicrobial against external bacterial and fungal infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
 
 
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