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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 848 journals)
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    - CHEMISTRY (602 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (602 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 164)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 220)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 92)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 11)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 63)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 125)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 142)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Chemistry & Biodiversity
  [SJR: 0.542]   [H-I: 49]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-1872 - ISSN (Online) 1612-1880
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1609 journals]
  • Contents: C&B 9/2016
    • PubDate: 2016-09-22T06:42:46.715835-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201670091
       
  • Identification of Sternbin and Naringenin as Detoxified Metabolites from
           the Rice Flavanone Phytoalexin Sakuranetin by Pyricularia oryzae
    • Authors: Shun Katsumata; Kazuho Hamana, Kiyotaka Horie, Hiroaki Toshima, Morifumi Hasegawa
      Abstract: Sakuranetin (1) is a flavanone phytoalexin that has been reported to play an important role in disease resistance in rice plants. The rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae) has been reported to metabolize 1 to lower its antifungal activity. Here, two flavanones, sternbin (2) and naringenin (3), were identified as metabolites of 1 in P. oryzae suspension culture by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The inhibition of 1, 2, and 3 on P. oryzae mycelial growth were 45%, 19%, and 19%, respectively, at a concentration of 100 μM. Thus, 2 and 3 are detoxified metabolites of 1 by P. oryzae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19T19:10:22.880879-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600240
       
  • Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Centaurea baseri: New
           Species from Turkey
    • Abstract: The genus Centaurea L. is one of the largest and important genera of Asteraceae family. Centaurea species have been widely used as herbal remedies in folk medicine for their antidandruff, antidiarrheic, antirheumatic, anti‐inflammatory, choleretic, diuretic, digestive, stomachic, astringent, antipyretic, cytotoxic, and antibacterial properties. Centaurea baseri Kose & Alan is a recently described local endemic species in Turkey and this is the first study on the chemical composition and bioactivity of its hydrodistilled essential oil and the crude extract. According to chromatospectral analysis, hexadecanoic acid (42.3%), nonacosane (8.2%), and heptacosane (8.0%) were the main compounds of the essential oil, while 16 compounds were determined in the MeOH extract using LC/MS. Furthermore, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effects of the essential oil and the extract were evaluated in comparison with the standard agents. The extract showed strong antifungal effect against Candida utilis at the concentration of 60 μg/ml (MIC) where the EO showed growth inhibition at the concentration of 47.00 μg/ml (MIC) against pathogen Bacillus cereus. Both the essential oil and the extract did not show any selective antioxidant properties. The extract showed remarkably selective cytotoxic properties against MCF‐7, PANC‐1, A549, and C6 glioma cells.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19T06:30:44.746774-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600070
       
  • Lignans from the Twigs of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold and Their
           Biological Evaluation
    • Authors: Seulah Lee; Eunjung Moon, Sang Un Choi, Ki Hyun Kim
      Abstract: A new sesquilignan, euonymolin A (1), and six known lignans, (−)‐de‐O‐methylmagnolin (2), (+)‐de‐O‐methylepimagnolin A (3), (+)‐syringaresinol (4), (+)‐pinoresinol (5), (+)‐medioresinol (6), and (+)‐lariciresinol 4′‐O‐β‐d‐glucopyranoside (7), were isolated from the twigs of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold (Celastraceae). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic analyses, including extensive 1D‐ and 2D‐NMR techniques, HR‐MS analysis and circular dichroism (CD) data, and the literature data. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for antiproliferative activity against A549, SK‐OV‐3, SK‐MEL‐2, and HCT‐15 cell lines and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐activated BV2 cell line. All compounds showed cytotoxicity against the SK‐MEL‐2 cell line with IC50 values of 23.24 – 48.14 μm and inhibited NO production in LPS‐activated BV‐2 cells with IC50 values of 6.75 – 23.53 μm.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19T06:15:26.904725-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600083
       
  • Chemical Composition and in vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial, Antioxidant
           and Antigerminative Properties of the Seed Oil from the Tunisian Endemic
           Ferula tunetana Pomel ex Batt
    • Authors: Mansour Znati; Insaf Filali, Aymen Jabrane, Joseph Casanova, Jalloul Bouajila, Hichem Ben Jannet
      Abstract: Essential oil of the seeds from the endemic Tunisian plant Ferula tunetana Pomel ex Batt. was analyzed for its chemical composition and screened for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and antigerminative properties. The chemical composition of the isolated oil is reported for the first time. According to the GC/FID, GC‐MS and 13C NMR analysis results; eighteen compounds were identified accounting for 84.6% of the total oil. The chemical composition of this essential oil was characterized by the presence of a high proportion of monoterpene hydrocarbons (77.3%) followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.1%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.2%). α‐Pinene (39.8%), β‐pinene (11.5%) and (Z)‐β‐ocimene (7.5%) were the predominant compounds. Moreover, the isolated oil was tested for its antimicrobial activity using the disc‐diffusion and the microdilution assays against six Gram‐positive and five Gram‐negative bacteria as well as towards two Candida species. The isolated oil was tested also for its antioxidant activity against (DPPH, ABTS, O2. and H2O2) and for its antigerminative potential. It was found that it exhibited interesting antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium LT2 DT104 (IZ= 16.2±1.0mm) and Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 (IZ= 15.8±1.0 mm). However, it exerted a moderate antioxidant activity against H2O2 (IC50=78.2±2.98 μg/mL) and towards O2. (IC50= 89.2±3.82 μg/mL). The antigerminative effect of this oil was also evaluated in this work. Results showed a toxic effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-16T20:30:50.968381-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600116
       
  • Improved Biological Activities of Isoepoxypteryxin by Biotransformation
    • Abstract: Isoepoxypteryxin is the major coumarin of a Japanese medicinal plant Angelica shikokiana. This research was designed to study the effect of structural changes through fungal biotransformation on the reported biological activities of isoepoxypteryxin. Among the tested microorganisms, only Cordyceps sinensis had enzymes that could catalyze the ester hydrolysis and the reductive cleavage of the epoxide ring of isoepoxypteryxin, separately, to give two more polar metabolites (+)‐cis‐khellactone (P1) and a new coumarin derivative (+)‐cis‐3′‐[(2‐methyl‐3‐hydroxybutanoyl)oxy]‐4′‐acetoxy‐3′,4′‐dihydroseselin (P2), respectively. The polar metabolite P2 showed stronger cytotoxicity and higher selectivity than isoepoxypteryxin. On the molecular level, P2 showed more in vitro inhibition of both tubulin polymerization and histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8). Similarly, P2 showed more neuroprotection against amyloid beta fragment 1 – 42 (Aβ1 – 42)‐induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells (SH‐SY5Y) and exhibited more inhibition of the in vitro aggregation of Aβ1 – 42. Both metabolites showed stronger antiplatelet aggregation by increased inhibition of thromboxane‐A2 synthase (TXS) activity and thromboxane‐A2 (TXA2) production. This study is the first to describe the improved cytotoxic, neuroprotective, and antiplatelet aggregation activities of isoepoxypteryxin through its biotransformation by C. sinensis.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15T07:27:27.652939-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600049
       
  • Variation of Chemical Composition in Flowers and Leaves Essential Oils
           Among Natural Population of Tunisian Glebionis coronaria (L.) Tzvelev
           (Asteraceae)
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the percentage and constituents variations in flowers and leaves essential oil of three Glebionis coronaria (L.) Tzvelev population, growing wildly in three different ecotypes (Utique, M'saken, and Sahara Lektar) in Tunisia. The chemical compositions of these essential oils were analyzed by the GC and GC/MS systems. Qualitative and quantitative differences were recorded between essential oils extracted from plants collected from the three geographical provinces and between organs of the same plant (leaves and flowers). In fact, 161 components representing 87.2 – 96.5% of the whole oils were identified. Myrcene (3.2 – 35.7%), (Z)‐β‐ocimene (0.6 – 23.0%), camphor (0.6 – 17.2%), cis‐chrysanthenol (0 – 6.9%), cis‐chrysanthenyl acetate (1.1 – 17.9%), isobornyl acetate (1.6 – 3.5%), (E)‐β‐farnesene (0 – 6.0%), germacrene D (0 – 8.7%), and (E,E)‐α‐farnesene (0.7 – 12.4%) were the predominant components in the oils. These major constituents occur in different amounts depending on the organs (leaves or flowers) and the geographical origin of the plant. The chemotaxonomic usefulness of these data was discussed according to results of principal component analysis (PCA). The scores, together with the loadings, revealed a different chemical pattern for each population.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15T06:25:52.937634-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600026
       
  • Chemical Composition and in vitro Biological Activities of Essential Oils
           from Conchocarpus fontanesianus (A. St.‐Hil.) Kallunki & Pirani
           (Rutaceae)
    • Authors: Rodrigo S. Cabral; Ivana B. Suffredini, Maria C. M. Young
      Abstract: This study aimed at assessing the chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves and fruits of Conchocarpus fontanesianus, an endemic Brazilian species of Rutaceae. The plant material was harvested from two regions of the Atlantic rainforest in the State of São Paulo. The volatile compounds in the essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation (HD), and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS, allowing the quantification and identification of 54 components in total, which comprise about 97% of the total oil composition. From the leaves collected in Caraguatatuba and Juréia‐Itatins, the major volatile compounds identified were as follows: spathulenol (22.32% and 16.67%) and α‐cadinol (9.7% and 14.76%). However, β‐myrcene (34.56%), (+)‐epi‐bicyclosesquiphellandrene (8.71%), and bicyclogermacrene (5.80%) were dominant in the fruits collected only in Juréia‐Itatins. The in vitro biological activities were tested to evaluate the cytotoxic, antifungal, and antioxidant potential of essential oils from leaves and fruits.
      PubDate: 2016-09-14T05:05:47.753476-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600036
       
  • Phytochemical Profile, Chemotaxonomic Studies, and In Vitro Antioxidant
           Activities of Two Endemisms from Madeira Archipelago:
           Melanoselinum decipiens and Monizia edulis (Apiaceae)
    • Abstract: Melanoselinum decipiens and Monizia edulis (Apiaceae) are two endemic plants from Madeira archipelago, phytochemical compositions of which remains little explored, despite their use in folk medicine. Using liquid chromatography with diode array and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry analysis, their polyphenolic profile was established for the first time. Fifty‐six compounds were identified with 5‐O‐caffeoylquinic acid, quercetin‐O‐(malonyl)hexoside, luteolin diacetyl, and quercetin‐O‐hexoside being the major constituents in the leaves of both plant species (≥ 0.76 mg/g of dry extract). Principal component analysis provided a suitable tool to differentiate targeted plants. Naringenin‐6,8‐di‐C‐glucoside, quercetin 3‐O‐pentosylhexoside, and 1,5‐O‐dicaffeoylquinic acid can be used as discriminatory taxonomic/geographical markers for M. edulis subspecies from Madeira and Porto Santo populations. This methodology of using polyphenols as chemotaxonomic markers proved to be useful for identification of plant species since the results are consistent with previous taxonomical data. The free‐radical scavenging activities of the M. decipiens extracts proved to be higher than those of M. edulis, which correlated well with their phenolic content (R2 > 0.906).
      PubDate: 2016-09-14T05:00:38.240471-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600039
       
  • Further Thymol Derivatives from Ageratina cylindrica
    • Abstract: From the leaves of Ageratina cylindrica, in addition to the described [(2S)‐2‐{4‐formyl‐5‐hydroxy‐2‐[(2‐methylpropanoyl)oxy]phenyl}oxiran‐2‐yl]methyl benzoate (cylindrinol A, 8), seven new thymol derivatives were isolated and named cylindrinols B – H (1 – 7). The structures of these compounds were established as (2‐{4‐(hydroxymethyl)‐2‐[(2‐methylpropanoyl)oxy]phenyl}oxiran‐2‐yl)methyl benzoate (1), (2‐{4‐formyl‐2‐[(2‐methylpropanoyl)oxy]phenyl}oxiran‐2‐yl)methyl benzoate (2), (2‐{4‐[(acetyloxy)methyl]‐2‐[(2‐methylpropanoyl)oxy]phenyl}oxiran‐2‐yl)methyl benzoate (3), [2‐(2‐[(2‐methylpropanoyl)oxy]‐4‐{[(2‐methylpropanoyl)oxy]methyl}phenyl)oxiran‐2‐yl]methyl benzoate (4), [2‐(5‐hydroxy‐2‐[(2‐methylpropanoyl)oxy]‐4‐{[(2‐methylpropanoyl)oxy]methyl}phenyl)oxiran‐2‐yl]methyl benzoate (5), 2‐{4‐(hydroxymethyl)‐2‐[(2‐methylpropanoyl)oxy]phenyl}prop‐2‐en‐1‐yl benzoate (6), and 2‐hydroxy‐2‐[2‐hydroxy‐4‐(hydroxymethyl)‐phenyl]‐3‐[(2‐methylpropanoyl)oxy]propyl benzoate (7), by spectroscopic means. Compounds 1 showed moderate antiprotozoal activity on both protozoa. Compounds 4 and 5 showed selectivity on Giardia lamblia trophozoites. All isolated compounds were less active than two antiprotozoal drugs, metronidazole and emetine, used as positive controls. Compound 5 exhibited a high inhibitory effect on hyperpropulsive movement of the small intestine in rats; its effect was best than loperamide, antidiarrheal drug used as a positive control.
      PubDate: 2016-09-14T04:50:32.024082-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600038
       
  • Detection and toxicity evaluation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal
           plants Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata collected from different Chinese
           locations
    • Abstract: Two edible plants in Southeast Asia, Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata, are not only known to be nutritive but also useful as medicinal herbs. Previous phytochemical investigation of G. species showed the presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), indicating the toxic risk of using these two plants. The present study was designed to analyse the distribution of PA components and tried to evaluate the preliminary toxicity of these two G. species. Eight samples of G. bicolor and G. divaricata from five different Chinese locations were collected and their specific PAs were qualitatively characterized by applying an UPLC‐MS/MS spectrometry method. Using a pre‐column derivatization HPLC method, the total retronecine ester‐type PAs in their alkaloids extracts were quantitatively estimated as well. Finally, their genotoxicity was investigated with an effective high‐throughput screening method referred to as Vitotox™ test and their potential cytotoxicity was tested on HepG2 cells. It was found that different types of PAs were widely present in G. species collected from south of China. Among them, no significant genotoxic effects were detected with serial concentrations through the present in vitro assay. However, the cytotoxicity assay of Gynura plants collected from Jiangsu displayed weak activity at the concentration of 100 mg/mL. It is important to note that this research validates in part the indication that the use of G. species requires caution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T09:15:34.019365-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600221
       
  • Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster, P. pinea and P. sylvestris essential oils
           chemotypes and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomers, before and after
           inoculation with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
    • Abstract: Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time‐course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2‐year‐old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated. External symptoms of infection were observed only in P. pinaster and P. sylvestris 21 and 15 days after inoculation, respectively. The EO composition analysis of uninoculated and unwounded plants revealed the occurrence of chemotypes for P. pinaster, P. halepensis and P. sylvestris, whereas P. pinea showed a homogenous EO composition. When whole plants were evaluated for EO and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomeric chemical composition, no relevant qualitative and quantitative differences were found. Instead, EO analysis of inoculated and uninoculated wounded areas revealed an increase of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic compounds, especially in P. pinea and P. halepensis, comparatively to healthy whole plants EOs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T09:10:34.752848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600153
       
  • Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and
           Methanol Extracts of Different Parts from Juniperus rigida Siebold & Zucc.
           
    • Authors: Qiaoxiao Liu; Dengwu Li, Wei Wang, Dongmei Wang, Xiaxia Meng, Yongtao Wang
      Abstract: The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils and MeOH extracts of stems, needles, and berries from Juniperus rigida were studied. The results indicated that the yield of essential oil from stems (2.5%) was higher than from needles (0.8%) and berries (1.0%). The gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis indicated that 21, 17, and 14 compounds were identified from stems, needles, and berries essential oils, respectively. Caryophyllene, α‐caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide were primary compounds in both stems and needles essential oils. However, α‐pinene and β‐myrcene mainly existed in berries essential oils and α‐ionone only in needles essential oils. The high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the phenolic profiles of three parts exhibited significant differences. Needles extracts had the highest content of chlorogenic acid, catechin, podophyllotoxin, and amentoflavone, and for berries extracts, the content of those compounds was the lowest. Meanwhile, three in vitro methods (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Stems essential oil and needles extracts exhibited the powerful antioxidant activity than other parts. This is the first comprehensive study on the different parts of J. rigida. The results suggested that stems and needles of J. rigida are useful supplements for healthy products as new resources.
      PubDate: 2016-09-12T07:45:35.208636-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600048
       
  • Essential Oil Composition of Centaurea atropurpurea and Centaurea
           orientalis Inflorescences from the Central Balkans – Ecological
           Significance and Taxonomic Implications
    • Abstract: The essential oil composition of Centaurea atropurpurea and Centaurea orientalis flowering heads (capitula) from Central Balkans have been determined by GC‐FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 121 compounds were identified, representing on average 97.7% of the oil composition. In all samples, sesquiterpenes were most abundant group, representing 53.9 – 74.0% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominated in all studied populations of C. orientalis and C. atropurpurea, except C. atropurpurea f. flava in which essential oil was characterized with high level of oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The dominant components differed between species, and also between typical C. atropurpurea and C. atropurpurea f. flava. The most abundant compounds of essential oil of C. orientalis were germacrene D and α‐cadinol. In C. atropuruprea, germacrene D and β‐caryophyllene were the most abundant, while caryophyllene oxide and β‐caryophyllene were dominant in C. atropurpurea f. flava oil. Taxonomical and ecological implications are further discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-09-10T03:00:24.851523-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600029
       
  • New Thymoquinol Glycosides and Neuroprotective Dibenzocyclooctane Lignans
           from the Rattan Stems of Schisandra chinensis
    • Abstract: Three new lignans (1 – 3), together with four new thymoquinol glycosides (4 – 7), were isolated from 70%‐EtOH extract of the rattan stems of Schisandra chinensis. The structures of 1 – 7 were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses, and these new compounds were identified as pinobatol‐9‐O‐β‐d‐glucopyranoside (1), 1,2,13,14‐tetramethoxydibenzocyclooctadiene 3,12‐O‐β‐d‐diglucopyranoside (2), 3,7‐dihydroxy‐1,2,13,14‐tetramethoxydibenzocyclooctadiene 12‐O‐β‐d‐glucopyranoside (3), thymoquinol 2‐O‐β‐d‐apiofuranosyl‐(1→6)‐β‐d‐glucopyranoside (4), thymoquinol 2‐O‐α‐d‐arabinofuranosyl‐(1→6)‐β‐d‐glucopyranoside (5), thymoquinol 5‐O‐β‐d‐apiofuranosyl‐(1→6)‐β‐d‐glucopyranoside (6), and thymoquinol 5‐O‐α‐d‐arabinofuranosyl‐(1→6)‐β‐d‐glucopyranoside (7). The neuroprotective activity of 1 – 7 was evaluated on PC12 cells with neurotoxicity induced by amyloid‐beta 1 – 42 (Aβ1 – 42). Compounds 2 and 3 showed protecting activity against Aβ‐induced toxicity in PC12 cells.
      PubDate: 2016-09-10T02:45:28.914459-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500311
       
  • Identification and Synthesis of Branched Wax‐type Esters, Novel Surface
           Lipids from the Spider Argyrodes elevatus (Araneae: Theridiidae)
    • Authors: Satya Prabhakar Chinta; Stephan Goller, Gabriele Uhl, Stefan Schulz
      Abstract: The analysis of cuticular extracts from the kleptoparasitic spider Argyrodes elevatus revealed the presence of unusual esters, new for arthropods. These novel compounds proved to be methyl‐branched long‐chain fatty acid esters with methyl branches located either close or remote from the internally located ester group. The GC/MS analysis of the prosoma lipid blend from the male cuticle contained one major component, undecyl 2‐methyltridecanoate (1). In contrast, four major wax‐type esters, 2‐methylundecyl 2,8‐dimethylundecanoate (2), 2,8‐dimethylundecyl 2,8‐dimethylundecanoate (3), heptadecyl 4‐methylheptanoate (4), and 14‐methylheptadecyl 4‐methylheptanoate (5), were identified in the lipid blend of female prosomata. Structure assignments were based on mass spectra, gas chromatographic retention indices, and microderivatization. Unambiguous proof of postulated structures was ensured by an independent synthesis of all five esters. Preferentially, odd‐numbered carbon chains pointed to a distinct biosynthetic pathway, different from that of common fatty acids, because one or two C3 starter units are incorporated during the biosynthesis of all acid and alcohol building blocks present in the five esters. The striking sexual dimorphism together with the unique biosynthesis points to a function of the esters in chemical communication of the spiders, although no behavioral data are currently available to test this assumption.
      PubDate: 2016-09-10T02:10:30.129966-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600020
       
  • Cytotoxic and Anti‐inflammatory Sesquiterpenes from Ainsliaea henryi
    • Abstract: Three new sesquiterpenoids, 4α‐hydroxy‐eudesm‐11‐en‐12‐isovaleroxyl (1), diaspanolide E (2), and germacra‐1(10), 4‐diene‐11α‐methyl‐12,8α‐olide‐15‐acid (3), along with eight known sesquiterpenoids (4‐11), were isolated from the aerial parts of Ainsliaea henryi. The chemical structures of compounds 1‐3 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (1D‐, 2D‐NMR, MS and HRMS). All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against NO production in LPS‐induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Compound 10 exhibited significantly inhibition against NO release with an IC50 value of 6.54±0.16 μM. Also, all isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against three human tumor cell lines A549, MGC803, and HCT116, among which compound 5 significantly inhibited the proliferation of MGC803 cell lines with an IC50 value of 2.2± 0.2 μM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-09T11:31:37.725041-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600210
       
  • Chemodiversity associated with cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of
           Piper aduncum var. ossanum
    • Abstract: Chemical analysis, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) from leaves of Piper aduncum var. ossanum from two localities Bauta (EO‐B) and Ceiba (EO‐C), Artemisa Province, Cuba were determined. EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. EO‐B demonstrated higher activity against S. aureus and L. amazonensis; while a lower cytotoxicity on mammalian cells was observed. Both EOs displayed same activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania infantum. Both EOs were inactive against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07T09:15:30.509604-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600133
       
  • The Chemical Diversity of Eucalyptus spp. Essential Oils from plants grown
           in Brazil
    • Abstract: A chemical analysis of essential oils from leaves of eleven Eucalyptus L′Herit taxa, grown in Viçosa, Brazil were carried out. The identification and quantification of essential oils constituents were carried out by GC‐FID and GC‐MS. The leaves of E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis presented the highest oil content (3.00% and 2.30% respectively). In total, forty‐eight compounds were identified in the oils. Higher levels of 1,8‐cineole were found for oils produced by E. microcorys (66.2%), E. urophylla (65.4%) and E. camaldulensis (44.8%) and the hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis (33.0%). The oil from E. saligna was composed mainly by α‐pinene (92.3%). High concentrations of α‐phellandrene were found in the oils produced by E. camaldulensis (22.9%) and E. robusta (36.6%). The oils from E. grandis and E. pilularis were rich in p‐cymene (59.5% and 46.0%, respectively). Samples with high levels of 1,8‐cineol were classified by principal component analysis (PCA) using the accumulated variance of the PC1 and PC2 into major groups. Other samples were grouped based on their content of p‐cymene; α‐phellandrene, α‐ and β‐eudesmol; α‐pinene The PCA allowed the separation and classification of samples with the highest levels of different compounds, a procedure that can help in the decision of grouping oils from different sources for industrial use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07T09:00:34.302037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600097
       
  • Comparison of chemical composition in Tuber aestivum Vittad. of different
           geographical origin
    • Abstract: Truffles are prized and nutrition‐rich edible hypogeous fungi. The aim of this study was a comprehensive investigation of chemical composition of Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.). We tried to answer the question: what is the impact of the environment on the truffle quality. To know the nutritional value of Burgundy truffle we compared lipids, proteins, saccharides, polyphenolics, flavonoids, total sterols, ergosterol, volatile flavour and aroma compounds content in fruit bodies of the fungus collected in three different geographical regions, i.e. Poland, Slovakia and Italy. A comparison of the above mentioned compounds is especially interesting due to environmental and climatic differences among the studied geographical regions. Results revealed that fruit bodies of T. aestivum from Poland and Slovakia possessed nearly similar content of proteins, total sterols, and saccharides. The fruiting bodies from Italy contained significantly larger amounts of most of the investigated compounds. In turn, Polish specimens had higher content of lipids and polyphenolics than Slovak and Italian ones. We have found higher similarity of volatile compounds composition between Polish and Italian specimens than those of Polish and Slovak origin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07T08:50:23.278251-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600041
       
  • Quercus ilex L.: How season, plant organ and extraction procedure can
           influence chemistry and bioactivities
    • Abstract: Quercus species have a plethora of applications, either in wine and wood industries, in human and animal nutrition or in human health. In order to improve the knowledge on this genus, the aim of the present study was to correlate, for the first time, the phenolic composition of different Quercus ilex L. vegetal tissues (leaves in two maturation stages, acorns, teguments and cotyledons) and different extraction procedures with scavenging and anticholinesterase activities. The hydromethanolic (HMEs) and aqueous extracts (AEs) obtained showed strong radical scavenging activity against DPPH, superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide radical, leaves exhibiting higher total phenolic content and revealing the best antioxidant properties, followed by tegument and acorns. Concerning the phenolic profile, fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC‐DAD, ranging from 1568.43 to 45803.16 mg/Kg dried extract. The results indicate that Q. ilex can be a source of strong antioxidant phenolic compounds with possible interest for food and pharmaceutical industries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T10:45:26.677482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600187
       
  • An unusual tetrahydrofuran lignan from the roots of Zanthoxylum
           planispinum and the potential anti‐inflammatory effects
    • Abstract: An unusual tetrahydrofuran lignin, zanthplanispine (1), together with fourteen known lignans (2‐15) were isolated from the EtOAc‐soluble fraction from the MeOH extract of Z. planispinum roots. The structures of 1 was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as HR‐ESI–MS analysis. The known compounds were identified by the comparison of their NMR data with previously reported in the literatures. Bioassay showed that compounds 1‐4 could inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In particular, compound 1 showed significant inhibitory activitie with IC50 value of 36.8 μM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T10:35:26.295816-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600214
       
  • Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Satureja, Thymus and
           Thymbra species grown in Lebanon
    • Authors: Monay Al Hafi; Marc El Beyrouthy, Naim Ouaini, Didier Stien, Douglas Rutledge, Sylvain Chaillou
      Abstract: The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from Satureja cuneifolia, Satureja thymbra, Coridothymus capitatus, Thymus syriacus and Thymbra spicata growing wild in Lebanon. Their phytochemical analysis performed by GC/MS showed that the aforementioned species are characterized either by carvacrol (60.9%) or thymol (54.3%) or by a more or less equal amounts of these two phenols. Assessment of their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and six pathogenic bacteria using the broth dilution method revealed that the tested oils have a broad activity spectrum with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.1 to 0.8 mg/ml. Among the tested species, S. thymbra EO showed the highest antimicrobial potential whereas T. syriacus showed the lowest inhibitory activity. These results give scientific evidence for the use of those species in the Lebanese folk medicine and lend support to implement them as natural alternatives for synthetic antimicrobials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T10:35:24.43331-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600236
       
  • Six New Pentacyclic Triterpenoids from the Fruit of Camptotheca acuminata
    • Abstract: Six new pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated from the fruit of Camptotheca acuminata. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis including HR‐ESI‐MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Dickeya zeae. All these tested compounds showed moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Dickeya zeae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T10:35:21.437767-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600180
       
  • Chemical composition of roots Flemingia philippinensis and their
           inhibitory kinetics on aromatase
    • Authors: Fang Sun; Qin Li, Jin Xu
      Abstract: Aromatase is the key enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of C19 steroids to estrogens. Its inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer therapy. The DCM partition of a crude ethanolic extract from the roots of Flemingia philippinensis showed potent inhibitory activity of aromatase. The constituents of the extract were analyzed and identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Five purified prenylated isoflavones were evaluated for aromatase inhibition and their IC50 values ranged between 2.98 and 58.08 μM. In kinetic studies, all tested compounds behaved as reversible competitive inhibitors and their Ki values were calculated by Dixon plots. The most potent inhibitor (6, 8‐diprenylorobol) had a Ki value of 1.42 μM. Furthermore, using UPLC and LC‐MS, 6, 8‐diprenylorobol was proven to be present in the native roots in high quantities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T10:30:43.976383-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600193
       
  • Essential oil variability of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters parts
           during its phenological cycle and incidence on the antioxidant and
           antimicrobial activities
    • Authors: Abderrahmane Djouahri; Saka Boualem, Lynda Boudarene, Lynda Lamari, Nasserdine Sabaou, Aoumeur Baaliouamer
      Abstract: The impact of phenological stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages) on chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters parts essential oils were investigated for the first time. GC and GC–MS analyses pointed to a quantitative variability of components; terpene hydrocarbons derivatives, represented by α‐pinene (16.38 ± 0.19 ‐ 31.78 ± 0.35%) and limonene (3.41 ± 0.07 ‐ 9.49 ± 0.14%) as major components, predominate at the vegetative stage, whereas oxygenated derivatives, represented by camphor (16.11 ± 0.23 ‐ 26.17 ± 0.29%) and bornyl acetate (15.21 ± 0.21 ‐ 27.33 ± 0.33%) as major components, predominate at the fruiting stage. Furthermore, our findings showed that the plant parts collected at the fruiting stage possess the highest antioxidant activity and the best antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms, than plant parts collected at the vegetative and flowering stages. This highlighted variability reflects the high impact of phenological cycle on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on phenological stage, in order to have the highest effectiveness of essential oil in terms of biological activities for human health purposes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T09:35:21.967154-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600216
       
  • Comprehensive Characterisation of n‐Alkylresorcinols and other Lipid
           Constituents of Mercurialis tomentosa L. from Alicate, Spain
    • Abstract: Mercurialis tomentosa L. has been used in Spanish ethnomedicine. In the present study the first phytochemical characterisation of a lipid fraction from M. tomentosa was performed. The CHCl3 extraction of aerial parts from M. tomentosa and GC‐MS investigations revealed the occurrence of cuticular lipid and wax constituents, like long chain n‐alcohols and n‐aldehydes (C22‐C30), besides several aromatic constituents, i.e. phenylpropanoids and n‐alkylresorcinols. The latter were further purified by CC and analysed by LC‐MSn. In contrast to other Mercurialis species, i.e. M. annua, M. perennis, which exclusively contain 5‐n‐alkylresorcinols (1a‐j, Cn), mainly 5‐n‐alkyl‐2‐methylresorcinols (2a‐j, Cn*) with side chain lengths of C15‐C25 were found in M. tomentosa, in addition to 1a‐j. Thus, the latter compounds may be utilised for analytical characterisation and authentication of M. tomentosa based on fingerprinting methods. For structure elucidation a novel facile total synthesis of one representative 5‐n‐alkyl‐2‐methylresorcinol homologue (2d, C19*) was developed, starting with a Grignard reaction from a substituted benzoic acid chloride (19). The compound obtained by synthesis was identical to the natural product 2d in terms of its chromatographic and spectroscopic features. Futhermore, 2d exhibited satisfactory DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 37.8 μM) when compared to trolox (IC50 = 21.0 μM), corroborating the antioxidant features of these amphipathic molecules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T09:15:25.132112-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600255
       
  • Bergamotane Sesquiterpenes with Alpha‐Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity
           from the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Penicillium expansum
    • Abstract: Two new bergamotane sesquiterpene lactones, named expansolides C and D (1‐2), together with two known compounds expansolides A and B (3‐4), were isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Penicillium expansum ACCC37275. The structures of the new compounds were established by detailed analyses of the spectroscopic data, especially 1D‐ and 2D‐NMR, and HR‐ESI‐MS. In an in‐vitro bioassay, the epimeric mixture of expansolides C and D (1‐2) (in a ratio of 2:1 at the temprature of the bioassay) exhibited more potent α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.50 ± 0.02 mM) as compared with the positive control acarbose (IC50 = 1.90 ± 0.05 mM). To the best of our knowledge, it was the first report on the α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity of bergamotane sesquiterpenes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T03:20:24.133569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600184
       
  • Essential oil variability and biological activities of Tetraclinis
           articulata (Vahl) Masters wood according to the extraction time
    • Authors: Abderrahmane Djouahri; Saka Boualem, Lynda Boudarene, Aoumeur Baaliouamer
      Abstract: In the present work, the hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave‐assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) kinetics of essential oil extracted from Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters wood was conducted, in order to assess the impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities. GC and GC–MS analyses showed significant differences between the extracted essential oils, where each family class or component presents a specific kinetic according to extraction time, technique and especially for the major components: camphene, linalool, cedrol, carvacrol and α‐acorenol. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities, where each activity has a specific effect according to extraction time and technique. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on extraction time and technique, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-27T09:41:16.322454-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600124
       
  • Betulinic acid, the first lupane‐type triterpenoid isolated from both a
           Phomopsis sp. and its host plant Diospyros carbonaria Benoist
    • Abstract: Following a biological screening using a dengue replicon virus‐cell‐based assay, Diospyros carbonaria ethyl acetate extract was investigated, affording six known lupane‐type triterpenoids endowed with anti‐DENV‐2 NS5 polymerase activity. The study of the associated microbial community of this species permitted us to identify 38 endophytes belonging to five different orders. Nine out of these 38 strains showed significant activity on the dengue replicon assay. The chemical investigation of the most active one, Phomopsis sp. SNB‐LAP1‐7‐32, led to the isolation of betulinic acid, an anti‐viral secondary metabolite isolated previously from the host plant. This result is the first example of a lupane‐type triterpenoid isolated from both an endophyte and its host plant. Its presence in the Phomopsis strain may result from gene transfer and/or specific niche selection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-27T09:20:22.965642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600171
       
  • Variations of leaf cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs
    • Authors: Yuji HE; Jianhua GAO, Na GUO, Yanjun GUO
      Abstract: Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. As the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n‐alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C29 was the most abundant n‐alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n‐alkane was C31 or C33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n‐alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n‐alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n‐alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-26T09:45:24.044597-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600030
       
  • Comprehensive research on essential oil and phenolic variation in
           different Foeniculum vulgare populations during transition from vegetative
           to reproductive stage
    • Authors: Maryam Salami; Mehdi Rahimmalek, Mohammad Hossein Ehtemam
      Abstract: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of four fennel populations (England, Spain, Poland and Iran) were investigated during six developmental stages including two vegetative and four reproductive phases. In reproductive phase, the essential oil content of fruits decreased and the maximum content (5.9%) was obtained in immediate fruits. The essential oils were analyzed using GC‐MS. Trans‐anethole was the main component of the leaves and the fruits oil. In leaves, it ranged from 41.28% in England at late vegetative stage to 56.6% in Poland population at early vegetative stage. Other major compounds of leaves were limonene, α‐pinene and (Z)‐ß‐ocimene. In reproductive phases the trans‐anethole increased dramatically. It varied from 85.25% in immature fruits from Poland to 90.7% in pre‐mature stage from Spain. The highest phenolic content in the extracts at different growth stages obtained 189 mg TAEg−1 DW at full mature stage of seed in Iran population. The flavonoid of leaves extract ranged from 3 to 7.5 mg QUEg−1DW, while in fruits extract varied from 3 to 10.3 mg QUEg−1DW. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and ß‐carotene model systems. Immature and full mature growth stages of fennel population from Spain indicated the highest activity in quenching of DPPH radical (74.2% and 74.5% respectively). Antioxidant activities of the extracts had high positive correlation with their phenolic contents in all fruit maturity stages. Finally, it might probably be suggested that in fennel the hot and humid condition can lead to increase trans‐anethole, while the hot and dry one can produce higher amount of phenolics and flavonoids. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T03:25:28.388525-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600246
       
  • Phytochemical and cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis
           L. (Asteraceae) from Croatia
    • Abstract: The cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) showed a chromosome number of 2n=16. Karyotype is composed by four pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric and two pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Physical mapping of two rDNA probes revealed two loci of 35S and one locus of 5S rRNA genes. Chromomycin fluorochrome banding revealed that all rDNA loci were GC rich. The genome size (2C‐value) of 1.95 pg classes this species in the group of very small genomes. Chemical composition of C. solstitialis volatile oil from Croatia, studied with gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry showed dominant components as it follows: hexadecanoic acid, α‐linolenic acid, germacrene D and heptacosane. Antioxidant capacity, measured by FRAP and DPPH methods, as well as inhibition of acetyl‐ and butyrylcholinesterase of VO was lower comparing to a standard solutions. Volatile oil tested with Disc diffusion method showed good inhibitory potential against P. aeruginosa, E. coli and all tested fungi: C. albicans, P. funiculosum and A. fumigatus. The microdilution method showed best activity against C. sakazakii and A. fumigatus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-23T08:55:24.021296-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600213
       
  • Insect antifeedant and ixodicidal compounds from Senecio adenotrichius
    • Abstract: Nine eremophilane sesquiterpenes 1‐9, two flavonoids 11 and 12, and two known pirrolizidine alkaloids 13 and 14, were isolated from Senecio adenotrichius DC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and by comparison with previously reported spectroscopic data of similar compounds. Compounds 5, 7 and 9 have not been previously reported as natural products. The antifeedant activity of these compounds was tested against Spodoptera litoralis and Myzus persicae. Eremophilanes 1, 3 and 8 were strong antifeedants to M. persicae, and 1 and 8 to S. littoralis. Their ixodicidal activity was tested against the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, with eremophilanes 1, 3 and 8, being strong ixodicidal agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T02:40:20.894349-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600155
       
  • In vitro Activities of Pfaffia glomerata Root Extract, Its Hydrolyzed
           Fractions and Pfaffic Acid Against Trypanosoma cruzi Trypomastigotes
    • Abstract: This paper reports on the in vitro activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. glomerata roots, its hydrolyzed fractions, and pfaffic acid against Trypanosoma cruzi. The hydroalcoholic extract obtained from dried, milled P. glomerata roots was submitted to acid hydrolysis followed by partition with chloroform. The concentrated chloroform fraction was suspended in MeOH/H2O and partitioned with hexane (F1), chloroform (F2), and ethyl acetate (F3), in this sequence. The trypanocidal activity of the hydrolyzed extract and its fractions was evaluated in vitro. The hydroalcoholic extract displayed low activity, but fraction F1 was active against trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi, with IC50 = 47.89 μg/mL. The steroids campesterol (7.7%), stigmasterol (18.7%), β‐sitosterol (16.8%), Δ‐7‐estigmastenol (4.6%), and Δ‐7‐epinasterol (7.5%) were the major constituents of F1, along with fatty acid esters (7.6%) and eight aliphatic hydrocarbons (30.1%). Fractions F2 and F3 exhibited moderate activity, and pfaffic acid, one of the main chemical constituents of these fractions, displayed IC50 = 44.78 μM (21.06 μg/mL). On the other hand, the hydroalcoholic extract of P. glomerata roots, which is rich in pfaffosides, was inactive. Therefore, the main aglycone of pfaffosides, pfaffic acid, is much more active against trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi than its corresponding glycosides and should be further investigated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T02:30:37.710265-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600175
       
  • Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Xanthium spinosum L., an
           Invasive Species of Corsica
    • Abstract: Xanthium spinosum L. is a highly invasive plant originated from South America throughout the worlds as well as in Corsica Island. The chemical composition of X. spinosum essential oils from 25 Corsican locations was investigated using GC‐FID and GC‐MS. Seventy‐four components, which accounted for 96.2% of the total amount, were reported for the first time in the essential oil from aerial parts. The main compounds were eudesma‐4(15),7‐dien‐1‐β‐ol 61 (21.3%), germacrene D 36 (8.8%) and cadalene 60 (8.7%). Comparison with the literature highlighted the originality of the Corsican essential oil and eudesma‐4(15),7‐dien‐1‐β‐ol could be used as taxonomical marker to the systematics of the Xanthium genus. The essential oils obtained from separate organs and during the plant vegetative cycle were also studied to gain more knowledge about of correlations between the volatiles‐production and the phenological states of this weed. The production of oxygenated sesquiterpenes was predominant during the plant‐flowering process. The study focuses on direct correlation between the chemical composition of individual 25 oil samples and the morphological differences of the plant. Our results have gained more knowledge about the secondary metabolite production that occurs during the plant‐life, they could be interesting in order to manage the dispersal of X. spinosum. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T02:30:35.251446-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600148
       
  • The in vitro antimicrobial activity and chemometric modelling of 59
           commercial essential oils against pathogens of dermatological relevance
    • Abstract: This study reports on the inhibitory concentration of 59 commercial essential oils recommended for dermatological conditions, and identifies putative compounds responsible for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils were investigated for antimicrobial activity using minimum inhibitory concentration assays (MICs). Ten essential oils were identified as having superior antimicrobial activity in comparison to the other 49 oils. The essential oil compositions were determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and the data analysed with the antimicrobial activity using multivariate tools. Orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) models were created for seven of the pathogens. Eugenol was identified as the main biomarker responsible for antimicrobial activity in the majority of the essential oils. The essential oils mostly displayed noteworthy antimicrobial activity, with five oils displaying broad‐spectrum activity against the 13 tested micro‐organisms. The antimicrobial efficacies of the essential oils highlight their potential in treating dermatological infections and through chemometric modelling, bioactive volatiles have been identified. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T02:30:23.957982-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600218
       
  • New Cytotoxic Bibenzyl and Other Constituents from Bauhinia ungulata L.
           (Fabaceae)
    • Abstract: A new bibenzyl, 3,5‐dimethoxy‐4‐methyl‐2′‐hydroxybibenzyl (1) and four known compounds identified as 3,5‐dimethoxy‐2’‐hydroxybibenzyl (2), liquiritigenin (3), guibourtinidol (4) and fisetinidol (5) were isolated from roots of Bauhinia ungulata L.. Phytochemical investigations of the stems of B. ungulata led to the isolation of the known compounds identified as liquiritigenin (3), guibourtinidol (4), fisetinidol (5), taraxerol (6), betulinic acid (7), taraxerone (8), glutinol, (9), a mixture of sitosterol (10) and stigmasterol (11), pacharin (12), naringenin (13) and eriodictyol (14). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). The cytotoxicity of the bibenzyl (1) has been evaluated against four human cancer cell lines, showing IC50 values of 4.3 and 6.5 μg ml−1 against pro‐myelocytic leukemia (HL‐60) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HEP‐2) cell lines, respectively. This paper also registers for the first time the 13C NMR data of the known bibenzyl (2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T11:05:42.698391-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600058
       
  • Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Leaves of the Plum Tree (Prunus
           domestica)
    • Abstract: In cold extracts of senescent leaves of the plum tree (Prunus domestica ssp. domestica) six colorless non‐fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were characterized, named Pd‐NCCs. In addition, several minor NCC fractions were tentatively classified. The structure of the most polar one of the NCCs, named Pd‐NCC‐32, featured an unprecedented twofold glycosidation pattern. Three of the NCCs are also functionalized at their 32‐position by a glucopyranosyl group. In addition, two of these glycosidated NCCs carry a dihydroxyethyl group at their 18‐position. In the polar Pd‐NCC‐32 the latter group is further glycosidated at the terminal 182‐position. Four other major Pd‐NCCs and one minor Pd‐NCC were identified with known NCCs from higher plants, known to belong to the ‘epi’‐series. In addition tentative structures were derived for two minor fractions, classified as yellow chlorophyll catabolites (YCCs), which represented (formal) oxidation products of two of the observed Pd‐NCCs. The chlorophyll catabolites in leaves of plum feature the same basic structural pattern as those found in leaves of apple and pear trees. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-17T09:10:25.258963-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600181
       
  • Detection of macromolecular fractions in HCN polymers using
           electrophoretic and ultrafiltration techniques
    • Abstract: Elucidating the origin of life involves synthetic as well as analytical challenges. Herein, for the first time, we describe the use of gel electrophoresis and ultrafiltration to fractionate HCN polymers. Since the first prebiotic synthesis of adenine by Oró, HCN polymers have gained much interest in studies on the origins of life due to the identification of biomonomers and related compounds within them. Here, we demonstrate that macromolecular fractions with electrophoretic mobility can also be detected within HCN polymers. The migration of polymers under the influence of an electric field depends not only on their sizes (one‐dimensional electrophoresis) but also their different isoelectric points (two‐dimensional electrophoresis, 2‐DE). The same behaviour was observed for several macromolecular fractions detected in HCN polymers. Macromolecular fractions with apparent molecular weights as high as 250 kDa were detected by tricine‐SDS gel electrophoresis. Cationic macromolecular fractions with apparent molecular weights as high as 140 kDa were also detected by 2‐DE. The HCN polymers synthetized were fractionated by ultrafiltration. As a result, the molecular weight distributions of the macromolecular fractions detected in the HCN polymers directly depended on the synthetic conditions used to produce these polymers. The implications of these results for prebiotic chemistry will be discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-12T10:41:34.035253-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600241
       
  • Evaluation of antioxidant, anti‐cholinesterase, and antidiabetic
           potential of dry leaves and stems in Tamarix aphylla growing wild in
           Tunisia
    • Abstract: Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. has a wide geographic distribution and was employed in traditional medicine as astringent, anti‐rheumatic and to treat fever. T. aphylla leaves and stems extracts were studied from both chemical and biological points of view to assess the antidiabetic, anti‐cholinesterase and antioxidant potential of this species. The HPLC/DAD analysis showed the presence of 14 phenolic compounds (gallic, caffeic, p‐coumaric, ferulic and ellagic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin‐3‐O‐galactoside and six flavonol derivatives). This is the first study reporting a comparative study of the biological activities of different extracts from T. aphylla. High activities were obtained against DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical (O2●‐) and nitric oxide radical (●NO) in a concentration‐dependent manner, the most active extracts being the polar ones. T. aphylla also showed moderate protective effects against acetylcholinesterase, but no effects were observed against butyrylcholinesterase. Against α‐glucosidase the methanolic extracts displayed IC50 values from 8.41 to 24.81 μg/mL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-12T10:21:05.714644-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600157
       
  • Comparison of phytochemical composition and biological activities of Rubus
           ulmifolius extracts originating from four regions of Tunisia
    • Authors: Sonia Tabarki; Chedia Aouadhi, Kaouther Mechergui, Khaoula Mkadmini Hammi, Riadh Ksouri, Aly Raies, Lamjed Toumi
      Abstract: In the current study, the phenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts from Rubus ulmifolius Schott leaves harvested in four localities (Sejnen, Tabarka, Faija and Ain drahem) in Tunisia were investigated for the first time. Great differences were found for the chemical composition, total phenol contents and biological activities among the evaluated extracts. HPLC analysis of methanolic extracts showed that the dominant compounds were kaempferol 3‐O‐rutinoside and naringenine. In addition, significant correlations were observed between antioxidant activities and phenolic contents. In fact, leaves collected from Sejnen presented higher total phenol content (53.32 mg GAE/g DW) and antioxidant activities (IC50= 39.40 mg/l) than the others samples. All extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity against six used bacteria with the inhibition zones diameters and minimal inhibitory concentration values were in the range of 8‐16 mm and 6.25‐25 mg/ml, respectively. The highest antimicrobial activities were recorded in Sejnen extract against Gram‐positive bacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-12T00:40:30.984607-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600168
       
  • Phenotypic variations in the foliar chemical profile of Persea americana
           Mill cv Hass
    • Abstract: The Hass avocado tree Persea americana cv. Hass was derived from a single hybrid tree of P. americana var. drymifolia and P. americana var. guatemalensis, and it is propagated clonally by grafting. This cultivar is the most widely planted in the world but its profile of secondary metabolites has been studied rarely despite of its importance in plant protection. We illustrate the variability of the volatilome of mature leaves by describing the average chemical composition and the phenotypic variability found in 70 trees. Contrary to the uniformity expected in the Hass cultivar, high variability coefficients were found for most of the 36 detected foliar volatile compounds; furthermore we found six chemical chemotypes (CTs) grouping the foliar phenotypes of the sampled trees using hierarchical cluster analysis. 48% of trees were grouped in one chemotype; five CTs grouped the remaining trees. The compounds that determine chemotypes are: estragole, α‐farnesene, β‐caryophyllene, germacrene D, α‐cubebene and eugenol. This striking variation in a cultivar propagated clonally is discussed in terms of somatic mutation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-09T09:25:56.697224-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600169
       
  • Chemical Constituents Isolated from Bletilla striata and Their Inhibitory
           Effects on Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Cells
    • Authors: Bae Joon Young; Lee Jin Woo, Jin Qinghao, Jang Hari, Lee Dongho, Kim Youngsoo, Hong Jin Tae, Lee Mi Kyeong, Lee Moon Soon, Hwang Bang Yeon
      Abstract: Bioassay‐guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the tubers of Bletilla striata led to the isolation of two new C‐methylated flavan‐3‐ols, bletillanols A (1) and B (2), along with ten known compounds (3‐12). Their structures were determined by using extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D‐, 2D‐NMR and circular dichroism data. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory potential on the nitric oxide generation in LPS‐stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-09T09:17:37.460543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600243
       
  • Biological Activities of Triterpenoids and Phenolic Compounds from Myrica
           cerifera Bark
    • Authors: Jie Zhang; Satoshi Yamada, Eri Ogihara, Masahiro Kurita, Norihiro Banno, Wei Qu, Feng Feng, Toshihiro Akihisa
      Abstract: Seven triterpenoids, 1–7, two diarylheptanoids, 8 and 9, four phenolic compounds, 10–13, and three other compounds, 14–16, were isolated from the hexane and MeOH extracts of the bark of Myrica cerifera L. (Myricaceae). Among these compounds, betulin (1), ursolic acid (3), and myricanol (8) exhibited cytotoxic activities against HL60 (leukemia), A549 (lung), and SK‐BR‐3 (breast) human cancer cell lines (IC50 3.1–24.2 μM). Compound 8 induced apoptotic cell death in HL60 cells (IC50 5.3 μM) upon evaluation of the apoptosis‐inducing activity by flow cytometric analysis and by Hoechst 33342 staining method. Western blot analysis on HL60 cells revealed that 8 activated caspases‐3, ‐8, and ‐9 suggesting that 8 induced apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in HL60. Upon evaluation of the melanogenesis‐inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells induced with α‐melanocyte‐stimulating hormone (α‐MSH), erythrodiol (7), 1,4‐dihydroxy‐3‐methoxyphenyl‐4‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (13), and butyl quinate (15) exhibited inhibitory effects (65.4–86.0% melanin content) with no, or almost no, toxicity to the cells (85.9–107.4% cell viability) at 100 μM concentration. In addition, 8, myricanone (9), myricitrin (10), protocatechuic acid (11), and gallic acid (12) revealed potent DPPH radical‐scavenging activities (IC50 6.9–20.5 μM). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-05T02:41:51.502904-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600247
       
  • Piptadenin, a Novel 3,4‐secooleanane Triterpene and Piptadenamide, a New
           
    • Abstract: Piptadenin (1), a new triterpene along with piptadenamide (10), a new ceramide, have been isolated from the AcOEt soluble fraction of the MeOH extract of the stem bark of Piptadeniastrum africana along with nine known compounds, 28‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl‐3β,22β‐dihydroxyolean‐12‐en‐28‐oate (2), 22β‐hydroxyoleanic acid (3), oleanic acid (4), lupeol (5) betulinic acid (6), 5α‐stigmast‐7,22‐dien‐3β‐ol (7), 5α‐stigmast‐7,22‐dien‐3‐one (8), 5α‐stigmast‐5‐en‐3β‐ol 3‐O‐β‐D‐glucoside (9) and glyceryl‐1‐ hexacosanoate (11). Except for compound 11, all the isolated compounds are reported for the first time from this plant. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR. The pure compounds 1–11 were subjected to the pharmacological screening and compounds 2, 5‐7 and 9 exhibited potent urease inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 25.8, 28.9, 30.1, 31.8 and 32.7 μM respectively, whereas compounds 1 showed moderate activity (IC50 = 98.7 μM). The potent urease inhibitory activity supplemented the previous literature reports and medicinal uses of this plant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-05T02:41:42.760796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600215
       
  • Chemodiversity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Abies nebrodensis
           (Lojac.) Mattei
    • Authors: Rosario Schicchi; Anna Geraci, Sergio Rosselli, Antonella Maggio, Maurizio Bruno
      Abstract: Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei (Pinaceae) is a species occurring in a very small population only in a restricted area of Sicily. Its taxonomic classification as different species has been object of discussion. In this work the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves is presented for the first time and compared to the essential oils from other euroasiatic species reported in literature. Peculiar characteristics of the essential oil of A. nebrodensis are highlighted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T08:52:45.826367-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600254
       
  • Fatty acid diversity is not associated with neutral genetic diversity in
           native populations of the biodiesel plant Jatropha curcas L
    • Abstract: Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a shrub native to Mexico and Central America, which produces seeds with a high oil content that can be converted to biodiesel. The genetic diversity of this plant has been widely studied, but, it is not known whether the diversity of the seed oil chemical composition correlates with neutral genetic diversity. The total seed oil content, the diversity of profiles of fatty acids and phorbol esters were quantified, also, the genetic diversity obtained from simple sequence repeats (SSRs) was analyzed in native populations of J. curcas in Mexico. Using the fatty acids profiles, a discriminant analysis recognized three groups of individuals according to geographical origin. Bayesian assignment analysis revealed two genetic groups, while the genetic structure of the populations could not be explained by isolation‐by‐distance. Genetic and fatty acid profile data were not correlated based on Mantel test. Also, phorbol ester content and genetic diversity were not associated. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that total oil content was associated with altitude and seasonality of temperature. The content of unsaturated fatty acids was associated with altitude. Therefore, the cultivation planning of J. curcas should take into account chemical variation related to environmental factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01T02:30:48.924927-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600188
       
  • Hexane extract of Echinops spinosissimus Turra subsp. spinosus from
           Tunisia: A potential source of acetylated sterols. Investigation of its
           biological activities
    • Authors: Emna Bouattour; Jawhar Fakhfakh, Donyez Frikha Dammak, Khaled Jabou, Mohamed Damak, Raoudha Mezghani Jarraya
      Abstract: The hexane extract of Echinops spinosissimus Turra subsp. spinosus flower heads was analyzed for its fatty acid and sterol composition. Its physicochemical characteristics were also studied. The saponification, iodine and peroxide values were determined as 255 mg KOH/g, 42.57 g I2/100g and 110 mequiv.O2/kg of oil, respectively. The oleic (C18:1; 61.14%), palmitic (C16:0; 21.36%) and linoleic (C18:2; 10.45%) acids were the dominant fatty acids. This extract was also found to contain high levels of β‐sitosterol and stigmasterol (44.97% and 34.95% of total sterols, respectively). On the other hand, the identification of terpenoid compounds was investigated by using GC/MS, which revealed fourteen major terpenoids mainly taraxasterol, lupeol, pseudotaraxasterol, lup‐22(29)‐en‐3‐yl acetate, taraxasteryl acetate, α‐amyrin, β‐amyrin, pseudotaraxasteryl acetate, hop‐20(29)‐en3‐β‐ol, α‐amirenone, along with β‐sitosterol and stigmasterol. Moreover, we have evaluated the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the unsaponifiable matter and a fraction isolated from this extract. These activities were conducted using the diffusion disc methods and broth microdilution assay. The resulted fraction from this extract showed the highest antibacterial activity with significant minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values 125.0 μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus cereus. However, it did exhibit no substantial antifungal activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-31T23:45:23.653447-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600118
       
  • Chemodiversity of epicuticular n‐alkanes and morphological traits of
           natural populations of Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. along Dinaric
           Alps ‐ ecological and taxonomic aspects
    • Abstract: Morphological characters and the composition of epicuticular leaf n‐alkanes of two Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. subspecies (subsp. liburnica Šilić and subsp. subspicata) from nine natural populations along Dinaric Alps range were studied. Morphological characters were chosen based on Šilić's subspecies separation. Seventeen n‐alkane homologues (C19‐C35) were identified using GC/MS and GC/FID. The most abundant n‐alkane in all populations was n‐nonacosane (C29), followed by n‐hentriacontane (C31), with the exception of Divača population where these two alkanes were co‐dominant. Diversity and variability of n‐alkane patterns and morphological characters and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters, including exposure, were analysed by several statistical multivariate methods (PCA, HCA, Discriminant Analysis, Mantel test). These tests showed clear separation of subsp. liburnica from subsp. subspicata, even though population Velebit showed separation from other subsp. liburnica populations based on phytochemical characters. Mantel test showed high correlation with geographical distribution in both investigated data sets. High correlation between morphological and phytochemical characters was also established. However, exposure can influence n‐alkane profile, suggesting precaution while taking samples from natural habitats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T10:50:27.720728-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600201
       
  • Comparative Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and
           Antimicrobial Activities of the Volatile Oils of Hawk Tea from Six
           Botanical Origins
    • Abstract: In this study, volatile oils of six Hawk tea varieties were studied for their chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities to screen the most suitable botanical origins of Hawk tea. A total of 72 components were separated and identified from the six oils. The major constituents of the volatile oils were: α‐pinene, camphene, limonene, 1,8‐cineole, linalool, cis‐nerolidol, germacrene B. Moreover, the volatile oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. The results showed that all volatile oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, which suggested that these volatile oils may serve as natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants and preservatives to be applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. Principal component analysis results denoted that some major compounds may be closely related to the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. It also showed that the volatile oils from Litsea coreana Levl. var. lanuginose and Litsea pungens Hemsl were characterized by positive values of first two principal components, indicating higher active chemical compounds and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared with other species. Thus, they were temporarily considered as good sources of Hawk tea. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T10:50:26.229485-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600099
       
  • Anti‐HSV‐1 and HSV‐2 flavonoids and a new kaempferol triglycoside
           from the medicinal plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana
    • Abstract: Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Crassulaceae) is a medicinal plant native to Madagascar. The aim of this study was to investigate the flavonoid content of an aqueous leaf extract from K. daigremontiana (Kd), and assess its antiherpetic potential. The major flavonoid, kaempferol‐3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl (1→2) α‐L‐rhamnopyranoside (1), was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction (Kd‐AC). The n‐butanol‐soluble fraction afforded quercetin‐3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl (1→2) α‐L‐rhamnopyranoside (2) and the new kaempferol‐3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl (1→2)‐α‐L‐rhamnopyranoside‐7‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (3), named daigremontrioside. The crude extract, Kd‐AC fraction, flavonoids 1 and 2 were evaluated using acyclovir‐sensitive strains of HSV‐1 and HSV‐2. Kd‐AC was highly active against HSV‐1 (EC50 = 0.97 μg/ml, SI > 206.1) and HSV‐2 (EC50 = 0.72 μg/ml, SI > 277.7). Flavonoids 1 and 2 showed anti‐ HSV‐1 (EC50 = 7.4 μg/ml; SI > 27and EC50 = 5.8 μg/ml; SI > 8.6, respectively) and anti‐HSV‐2 (EC50 = 9.0 μg/ml; SI > 22.2 and EC50 = 36.2 μg/ml; SI >5.5, respectively) activities, suggesting the contribution of additional substances to the antiviral activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T10:45:26.806547-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600127
       
  • Phytochemical study of Juglans regia L. pericarps from Greece with a
           chemotaxonomic approach
    • Abstract: Phytochemical research of different polarity extracts from green Juglans regia L. pericarps from Greece afforded 32 compounds: four pentacyclic triterpenes (1‐4), three sesquiterpenes (5‐7), four tetralones (8‐11), two naphthoquinones (12‐13), seven phenolic acids (14‐20), one diarylheptanoid (21), one neo‐lignan (22), seven flavonoids (23‐29), two phenylethanoids (30‐31) and one hydrolysed tannin (32). Compounds 4 and 29 are isolated for the first time from the species, while compounds 3, 7, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30 are reported for the first time in Juglandaceae. Chemotaxonomic significance of isolated compounds into Junglandaceae family is thoroughly discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T10:50:26.544704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600067
       
  • The Tracing of VOC Composition of Acacia Honey during ripening stages by
           comprehensive two‐dimensional gas chromatography
    • Abstract: In this study, VOC profiles of acacia flowers, honey samples at different processing stages and related comb wax samples were studied using comprehensive two‐dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry. It was found that some monoterpene compounds like α‐pinene, myrcene, cis‐β‐ocimene and 4‐terpinelol were common for acacia flower and all acacia honey samples, and the presence of verbenone and ocimene was firstly established in acacia honey. The most enriched VOC profile was obtained for raw honey before cell capping, where the final composition of lactones was achieved. On the contrary, number of alcohols, esters, and variety of terpenes, as well as their concentration in the honey samples decrease through ripening processes. Strained honey was characterized by the absence of camphor, α‐bisabolol, 3‐carene, while isophorone, and hexanoic acid were identified only in this type of honey. The composition of final VOC profile of honey was also influenced by the age of comb wax. The additional aromatic and lactone compounds e.g. phenol, 1‐phenylethanol, δ‐hexalactone, γ‐heptalactone were observed for honey maturated in old dark comb wax. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-27T09:45:22.657758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600056
       
  • On Dioxygen Permeation of MaL Laccase from the Thermophilic Fungus
           Melanocarpus albomyces. An all‐Atom Molecular Dynamics Investigation
    • Authors: Francesco Pietra
      Abstract: Described here are biased MD simulations of O2 egress from the active center of MaL laccase toward the bulk solvent. Parameterization of the set of four Cu(II) ions, in the framework of CHARMM‐36 FF, was carried out on a recent dummy‐atom model that takes into account the Jahn‐Teller effect. By carrying out a number of statistically relevant MD simulations, under a tiny randomly oriented external force applied to the molecule O2, what emerged were three preferred gates for O2 egress from the enzyme, and a few intermediate binding pockets (BPs) for O2, all located on two of the three domains. This wide distribution of preferred gates notwithstanding, the molecule O2 was seen to follow specific pathways, exploiting consistently the interstices created by the enzyme thermal fluctuations. These are features that can be imagined to have evolved to make MaL laccase extremely efficient as a catalysts in various reactions that require O2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-27T09:45:20.492815-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600062
       
  • Chemotaxonomic screening of seed oils from the family Saxifragaceae and
           comparison with data on seed oils from Grossulariaceae obtained from
           literature
    • Abstract: Seeds of 25 members of the family Saxifragaceae, 1 x Astilbe, 1 x Darmera, 1 x Leptarrhena, 1 x Tellima, 3 x Mitella and 18 x Sagifraga were investigated regarding oil content, as well as composition and content of fatty acids and vitamin E active compounds. The results were compared with results obtained from literature for members of the genus Ribes belonging to the closely related family Grossulariaceae to find chemometric differences between the different genera and between members of the family Saxifragaceae and Grossulariaceae, respectively. Members of the family Saxifragaceae are dominated by high amounts of linoleic and α‐linolenic acid which together account for about 80% of the total fatty acids. While α‐linolenic acid is characteristic for members of the genus Saxifraga, in other genera linoleic acid is predominant. In comparison to members of the family Saxifragaceae members of the family Grossulariaceae also contain γ‐linolenic acid and stearidonic acid which allow a significant differentiation between both families. By Principle Component Analysis members of both families were divided into three distinct groups, (1) species with a high content of α‐linolenic acid (genus Saxifraga), (2) species with high amounts of γ‐linolenic acid and stearidonic acid (genus Ribes) and (3) species with higher amounts of linoleic acid (other members of the family Saxifragaceae. The composition of the vitamin E active compounds was characterized by a high content of γ‐tocopherol in most members of the family Saxifragaceae, but no chemotaxonomic relevance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-27T02:50:20.164316-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600077
       
  • Constituents from the roots of Actinidia chinensis and their inhibitory
           activities toward cytochrome P450
    • Abstract: A newly discovered triterpenoid, 2α, 3β, 23‐trihydroxyurs‐13 (18)‐en‐28‐oic acid (1), along with 12 known compounds (2–13), was isolated from the roots of Actinidia chinensis Planch. Their chemical structures were determined by one‐ and two‐dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The crude extracts and six main constituents (8–13) were tested for inhibitory activity toward cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. The results showed that, with the exception of compound 8, compounds 9–13 had different degrees of inhibitory effects toward CYP enzymes, and compound 9 significantly inhibited the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 to less than 10% of its total activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-26T09:15:30.993686-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500518
       
  • Variation in essential oil yield and composition of Dorema aucheri Boiss,
           an endemic medicinal plant collected from wild populations in natural
           habitats
    • Authors: Abolghasem Akbarian; Mehdi Rahimmalek, Mohammad Reza Sabzalian
      Abstract: In the present research, variability in essential oil composition of five D. aucheri populations collected from natural habitats in different regions of Iran, were investigated. The essential oil content of populations varied from 0.28% to 0.68%. According to GC–MS analysis, β‐caryophyllene (7.17–35.73%), thymol (23.45–29.64%), β‐gurjunene (2.58–5.89%), carvacrol (1.32–2.67%) and cuparene (1.97–2.98%) were the major components. Hierarchical cluster, principal component and canonical correspondence analyses classified the studied populations into three groups based on major essential oil components. The environmental parameters of the collected sites were also evaluated. According to the results, it might be suggested that sandy soils with high mean annual precipitation (M.A.P) were major environmental factors influencing the amount of β‐caryophyllene, while thymol, cuparene and caryophyllen oxide increased in silty and clay soils. Finally, the population collected in high altitudes and clay soils had higher amount of β‐gurjunene. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-26T09:15:30.039886-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600160
       
  • Iridoid glycosides from Tabebuia avellanedae
    • Abstract: Five novel iridoid glycosides, avellanedaesides A‐E (1‐5) were isolated from water extract of Tabebuia avellanedae. Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis. Isolated compounds suppressed inflammatory cytokine, tumor‐necrosis factor‐α and interleukin‐1β production in cultured human myeloma THP‐1 cells co‐stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, the study revealed iridoid glycosides inhibited the activity of cytochrome CYP3A4 enzyme. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-25T11:25:21.209021-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600018
       
  • SPATIO‐TEMPORAL VARIATION OF TERPENOIDS IN WILD PLANTS OF Pentalinon
           andrieuxii
    • Abstract: Pentalinon andrieuxii (Müll. Arg.) b.f. Hansen & Wunderlin (Apocynaceae) is a vine native to the Yucatan peninsula, where is widely used in Mayan traditional to treat, among other ailments, the wounds caused by cutaneous leishmaniasis. Among the secondary metabolites isolated from P. andrieuxii are the triterpene betulinic acid and the chemically‐unusual tri‐norsesquiterpene urechitol A; however, to date, there is no existing knowledge about the accumulation dynamics of the ubiquitous betulinic acid or the novel urechitol A in the plant. In this article we report on the accumulation of both secondary metabolites in wild individuals of P. andrieuxii; our results show that while the content of betulinic acid in plant leaves bears no apparent relation to plant ontogeny, the content of urechitol A in root tissue is clearly related to plant development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-25T11:20:22.68773-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600085
       
  • Four new tirucallane triterpenoids from the fruits of Melia azedarach and
           their cytotoxic activities
    • Authors: Fang Zhou; Xinhua Ma, Zhijun Li, Wei Li, Weimin Zheng, Zhibiao Wang, Xianming Zeng, Kaihui Sun, Yonghong Zhang
      Abstract: Four new tirucallane triterpenoids, (21S, 23R)‐epoxy‐21β, 24S‐dihydroxy‐ 25‐methoxy‐tirucalla‐7‐en‐3‐one (2), (21S, 23R)‐epoxy‐3β, 24R‐dihydroxy‐21β, 25‐ dimethoxy‐tirucalla‐7‐en (8), (21S, 23R)‐epoxy‐ 24R‐hydroxy‐21β‐methoxy‐tirucalla‐ 7, 25‐dien‐3‐one (11), and (21S, 23R)‐epoxy‐21β, 24R‐dihydroxy‐tirucalla‐7, 25‐dien‐ 3‐one (12), along with 16 known analogues, 1, 3‐7, 9‐10, and 13‐20, were isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D‐ and 2D‐NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against HepG2 (liver), SGC7901 (stomach), K562 (leukemia), and HL60 (leukemia) cancer cell lines. Compound 20 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HepG2 and SGC7901 cancer cells with IC50 values of 6.9 μM and 6.9 μM, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T10:40:21.554516-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600149
       
  • Chemometric classification of different tree peony species native to China
           based on the assessment of major fatty acids of seed oil and phenotypic
           characteristics of the seeds
    • Authors: Xiaoxiao Zhang; Yanlong Zhang, Lixin Niu, Jiayi Sun, Linhao Li, Jing Zhang, Jian Li
      Abstract: In the present study, we quantitatively measured five major fatty acids (FAs) in seed oil using gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and examined four phenotypic characteristics of the seeds from 19 populations from nine wild tree peony species native to China. The results showed that the unsaturated FAs contents were dominant, of which α‐linolenic (ALA) acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid (OA) contents ranged from 14.84 to 42.54 g /100 g, 7.33 to 19.66 g /100 g, and 15.07‐35.31 g /100 g crude oil, respectively. The phenotypic seed characteristics, such as thousand seed weight (244.01‐1772.91 g), seed volume (91.31‐1000.79 mm3), weight rate of kernel and coat (1.29‐3.62) and oil extraction ratio (20.32‐34.69%), dramatically varied. Based on the contents of the five FAs, the nine species were classified into two groups. The species belonging to subsection Vagiatae were arranged in cluster I and were characterized by high ALA content. Cluster II, consistent with subsection Delavayanae, had a high OA content. From horizontal and vertical perspectives, the natural distribution areas of these two groups were different, reflecting differences in the FA contents and phenotypic seed characteristics. In conclusion, the FAs composition could be used as a chemotaxonomic marker for tree peony species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T10:20:39.402365-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600111
       
  • Quantification of Anti‐Addictive Alkaloids Ibogaine and Voacangine in in
           vivo‐ and in vitro‐Grown Plants of Two Mexican Tabernaemontana Species
           
    • Abstract: Tabernaemontana alba and T. arborea are Apocynaceae species used in Mexican traditional medicine for which little phytochemical information exists. In this study, preliminary GC‐MS analyses of different organs obtained from wild plants of both species identified a total of 10 monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) and one simple indole alkaloid, nine of which were reported for the first time in these species. Furthermore, callus cultures were established from T. alba leaf explants and regeneration of whole plants was accomplished via somatic embryogenesis. The anti‐addictive MIAs ibogaine and voacangine were then quantified by GC‐FID in wild plants of both species, as well as greenhouse‐grown plants, in vitro‐grown plantlets and embryogenic callus of T. alba. Ibogaine and voacangine were present in most samples taken from whole plants of both species, with stem and root barks showing the highest concentrations. No alkaloids were detected in callus samples. It was concluded that T. alba and T. arborea are potentially viable sources of ibogaine and voacangine, and that these MIAs can be produced through somatic embryogenesis and whole plant regeneration of T. alba. Approaches to increase MIA yields in whole plants and to achieve alkaloid production directly in cell cultures are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T10:20:35.748609-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600146
       
  • Melanogenesis‐Inhibitory Activities of Isomeric C‐seco Limonoids and
           Deesterififed Limonoids
    • Authors: Toshihiro Akihisa; Maiko Horiuchi, Masahiro Matsumoto, Eri Ogihara, Kenta Ishii, Jie Zhang
      Abstract: Treatment of eight C‐seco limonoids including six of salannin‐type, 1–6, and two of nimbin‐type, 7 and 8, with a combination of boron trifluoride etherate and iodide ion yielded the isomeric C‐seco derivatives, i.e., six isosalannins, 1a–6a, and two isonimbins, 7a and 8a, respectively. Ohchinin (1) was further subjected to lithium aluminum hydride reduction which yielded a deesterified trihydroxy limonoid, nimbidinol (9). In addition, ten limonoids including seven of azadirone‐type, 10–16, and three of gedunin‐type, 17–19, all of which possess no ester functionality in the molecule, were obtained from the neutral fraction of Azadirachta indica seed extract after alkaline hydrolysis. Among the above, 12 compounds, i.e., 1a–4a, 6a, 9, 13–16, 18, and 19, were new compounds, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Upon evaluation of all these limonoids for their inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with α‐melanocyte‐stimulating hormone (α‐MSH), five structurally modified limonoids, 3‐deacetyl‐28‐oxosalannin (6a), 9, 17‐epi‐17‐hydroxynimbocinol (14), 17‐epi‐17‐hydroxy‐15‐mehtoxynimbocinol (15), and 7‐deacetyl‐17‐epinimolicinol (18), in addition to a natural limonoid, 1, exhibited potent inhibitory activities with 26–66% reduction of melanin content at 100 μM concentration with almost no or low toxicity to the B16 melanoma cells (70–99% cell viability at 100 μM). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T10:05:26.017133-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600100
       
  • Fusaproliferin, Terpestacin and their Derivatives Display Variable
           Allelopathic Activity Against some Ascomycetous Fungi
    • Authors: Alessio Cimmino; Sabrina Sarrocco, Marco Masi, Stefania Diquattro, Marco Evidente, Giovanni Vannacci, Antonio Evidente
      Abstract: Herbivorous mammal dung supports a large variety of fimicolous fungi able to produce different bioactive secondary metabolites to compete with other organisms. Recently, the organic extracts of the Solid State Fermentation (SSF) cultures of Cleistothelebolus nipigonensis and Neogymnomyces virgineus, showing strong antifungal activity, were preliminarily investigated. This manuscript reports the isolation of the main metabolites identified, using spectroscopic and optical methods, as fusaproliferin (1) and terpestacin (2). Furthermore, some key hemisynthetic derivatives were prepared and their antifungal activity was tested against the same fungi previously reported to be affected by the organic extracts obtained from SSF. These metabolites and their derivatives resulted able to reduce the growth of Alternaria brassicicola, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium graminearum in a variable extent strongly dependent from chemical modifications and test fungi. The hydroxy enolic group at C‐17 appeared to be a structural feature important to impart activity. This study represents the first report of these secondary metabolites produced by C. nipigonensis and N. virgineus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T09:55:25.551995-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600145
       
  • Aroma profile of Rubus ulmifolius flowers and fruits during different
           ontogenetic phases
    • Authors: Rose Vanessa Bandeira Reidel; Bernardo Melai, Pierluigi Cioni, Guido Flamini, Luisa Pistelli
      Abstract: The chemical composition of spontaneous volatile emission from Rubus ulmifolius flowers and fruits during different stages of development was evaluated by HS‐SPME‐GC/MS. In total, 155 chemical compounds were identified accounting 84.6‐99.4% of whole aroma profile of flowers samples and 92.4‐96.6% for fruit samples. The main constituents were α‐copaene, β‐caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)‐α‐farnesene, 1,7‐octadien‐3‐one,2‐methyl‐6‐methylene, tridecane, (E)‐2‐hexenol acetate, (E)‐3‐hexenol acetate and cyperene. The results give a chemotaxonomic contribution to the characterization of the VOCs emitted from flowers and fruits during their ontogenic development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T09:50:23.487968-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600170
       
  • The phenolics of the Ornithogalum umbellatum L. (Hyacinthaceae):
           phytochemical and ecological characterization
    • Authors: Milica M Rat; Neda S Gavaric, Nebojsa V Kladar, Andrijana M Andric, Goran T Anackov, Biljana N Bozin
      Abstract: Ornithogalum umbellatum L. is a widely distributed species in Europe, that exhibit considerable variability at ecological, morpho‐anatomical, and karyological level. Previous reports of the chemical investigations among Ornithogalum species indicate significant diversity of the secondary metabolites, as well. Knowing that environment affects the phenolic composition in plants to a large extent, the main objective of the research was to define relationship between phytochemical and ecological characters. To estimate an environmental influence on these results, plant material was collected at four habitats that differ in ecological factors and belong to two biogeographical regions: Balkan Peninsula and Pannonian Plane. Measured phytochemical characters are yield of dry extract, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, presence of selected phenolic compounds as well as free radical scavenging activity (neutralization of DPPH and OH radicals). Results revealed that all analyzed phytochemical parameters differ between investigated O. umbellatum samples. The moisture level of habitat has the highest correlation, either positive or negative, with most of phytochemical characters, and is followed by temperature and soil reaction. Light intensity and nitrogen level have mostly moderate correlation coefficient with phytochemical characters. More complex correlation is revealed between ecological factors and nine phenolic compounds, with three observed patterns of relationship. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T09:45:21.944723-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600090
       
  • Phytochemical compounds from the crop by‐products of Tunisian globe
           artichoke cultivars
    • Authors: Sihem Dabbou; Samia Dabbou, Guido Flamini, Gaetano Pandino, Laura Gasco, Ahmed Noureddine Helal
      Abstract: The phytochemical composition in two Tunisian globe artichoke cultivars (bracts, leaves and floral stems) was evaluated in the plant by‐products. The results have indicated that the bracts contain the highest levels of total phenols, o‐diphenols and flavonoids, whereas tannins seem to be more abundant in the leaves. Bracts from the ‘Violet d'Hyéres’ cultivar possessed more total phenols (160.8 mg g‐1 DW), flavonoids (64.9 mg g‐1 DW) and anthocyanins (15.3 μg g‐1 DW) than the ‘Blanc d'Oran’ bracts (134.5 mg g‐1 DW, 51.2 mg g‐1 DW and 8.3 μg g‐1 DW, respectively). Sixty‐four volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of globe artichoke material, particularly in the bracts. The volatile profile showed that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and non‐terpene derivatives were the main volatiles emitted by the bracts in both cultivars. These results suggest that globe artichoke by‐products might represent a potential source of natural compounds, which could be used as nutraceuticals or as ingredients in the design of functional foods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T09:35:21.272717-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600046
       
  • Synthesis and biological evaluation of Matijin‐Su derivatives as
           potential anti‐hepatitis B virus and anti‐cancer agents
    • Authors: Jingying Qiu; Bixue Xu, Qineng Gong, Weidong Pan, Changxiao Liu, Zhengming Huang, Xiaoke Gu, Guangyi Liang
      Abstract: A series of Matijin‐Su (MTS, (S)‐2‐((S)‐2‐benzamido‐3‐phenylpropanamido) ‐3‐phenylpropyl acetate) derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti‐HBV and anti‐cancer activities in vitro. Six compounds (4g, 4j, 5c, 5g, 5h and 5i) showed significant inhibition against HBV DNA replication with IC50 values in range of 2.18‐8.55 μM, which were much lower than that of positive control lamivudine (IC50 = 82.42 μM). In particular, compounds 5h (IC50: 2.18 μM, SI: 151.59) and 5j (IC50: 5.65 μM, SI: 51.16) displayed relatively low cytotoxicities, resulting in high SI values. Notably, besides the anti‐HBV DNA replication activity, compound 4j also exhibited more potent in vitro anti‐cancer activity than 5‐fluorouracil in two hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC) lines (QGY‐7701 and SMMC‐7721), indicating that 4j may be a promising lead for the exploration of drugs with dual therapeutic effects on HBV infection and HBV‐induced HCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T09:30:21.560172-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600113
       
  • Cytotoxic Oleanane‐Type Saponins from the Leaves of Albizia
           anthelmintica Brongn
    • Abstract: Two new oleanane‐type saponins: 3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl‐(1→2)‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl‐(1→4)‐α‐L‐rhamnopyranosyl‐(1→2)‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl ester (1) and 3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl‐(1→2)‐α‐L‐arabinopyranosyl‐(1→6)‐2‐acetamido‐2‐deoxy‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid 28‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl ester (2), along with two known saponins: 3‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl‐(1→2)‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid (3) and 3‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl‐(1→2)‐[α‐L‐arabinopyranosyl‐(1→6)]‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl oleanolic acid (4) were isolated from the acetone‐insoluble fraction obtained from the 80% aqueous methanol extract of Albizia anthelmintica Brongn. leaves. Their structures were identified using different NMR experiments including: 1H NMR, 13CNMR, HSQC, HMBC and 1H,1H COSY, together with HRESIMS/MS, as well as by acid hydrolysis. The four isolated saponins and the fractions of the extract exhibited cytotoxic activity against HepG‐2 and HCT‐116 cell lines. Compound 2 showed the most potent cytotoxic activity among the other tested compounds against the HepG2 cell line with an IC50 value of 3.60 μM. Whereas, compound 1 showed the most potent cytotoxic effect with an IC50 value of 4.75 μM on HCT‐116 cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T09:25:25.998692-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600102
       
  • Antimicrobial activity of Scabiosa arenaria Forssk. extracts and pure
           compounds using bioguided fractionation
    • Authors: Malek Besbes Hlila; Habib Mosbah, Kaouther Majouli, Aymen Ben Nejma, Hichem Ben Jannet, Maha Mastouri, Mahjoub Aouni, Boulbaba Selmi
      Abstract: The emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens threatened the clinical efficacy of many existing antibiotics. This situation has been recognized globally as a serious concern and justifies further research to discover antimicrobial agents from natural origins including plant extracts. The aim of our work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Scabiosa arenaria Forssk. extracts and pure compounds using a bioguided fractionation, and try to explain some traditional use of this genus. The best antimicrobial activity‐guided fractionation was obtained by butanolic fractions of flowers, fruits and (stems and leaves) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from 0.0195 mg/mL to 5 mg/mL. Escherichia coli was the most affected bug, thus the MIC of fruits butanolic extract showed the best anti‐ Escherichia coli activity (MIC = 0.0195 mg/mL), followed by the (stems and leaves) and flowers butanolic extracts; MIC = 0.078 mg/mL and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the subfractions obtained from these three mixed fractions showed also an important antimicrobial activity against the three microorganisms, with MIC values between 0.0195 and 0.312 mg/mL. The fractionation of the aerial part butanolic fraction led to the isolation of oleanolic acid (1) and luteolin‐7‐O‐glucoside (2) which are reported here for the first time from S. arenaria. Both compounds showed good antimicrobial activities with MIC values ranging from 170 μM to 683 μM and 86 μM to 347 μM, respectively. These results support the use of the Scabiosa genus to inhibit the growth of tested pathogenic bacteria and yeasts which may reduce illnesses associated with their exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T09:25:23.513064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600028
       
  • Chemical constituents from the stems of Daphne holosericea (Diels) Hamaya
    • Abstract: Two new compounds, one flavanol dimer dapholosericol A (1) and one tigliane diterpene dapholosericin A (2), together with ten known ones, were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Daphne holosericea (Diels) Hamaya. Their structures were elucidated by their spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate activities against acetylcholinesterase with inhibition ratio 36% and 29% at a concentration of 100 μmol L‐1, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T04:40:21.742997-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600040
       
  • Copaifera duckei Oleoresin and Its Main Non Volatile Terpenes: In Vitro
           Schistosomicidal Properties
    • Abstract: In this paper, the in vitro schistosomicidal effects of three Brazilian Copaifera oleoresins (C. duckei, C. langsdorffii, and C. reticulata) are reported. From these botanical sources, the oleoresin of C. duckei (OCd) demonstrated to be the most promising, displaying LC50 (lethal concentrations 50%) values of 75.8, 50.6 and 47.2 μg.mL−1 at 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, respectively against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni, with a selectivity index of 10.26. Therefore, the major compounds from OCd were isolated, and the diterpene (‐)‐polyalthic acid (PA) showed to be active (LC50 values of 41.7, 36.2 and 33.4 μg.mL−1, respectively at 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation). Moreover, OCd and PA affected the production and development of eggs, and OCd modified the functionality of the tegument of S. mansoni. Possible synergistic and/or additive effects of this balsam were also verified when a mixture of the two of its main compounds (PA and ent‐8(17)‐labden‐15,18‐dioic acid) in the specific proportion of 3:1 (w/w) was tested. The obtained results indicate that PA should be considered for further investigations against S. mansoni, such as, synergistic (combination with PZQ) and in vivo studies. It also shows that diterpenes are an important class of natural compounds for the investigation of agents capable of fighting the parasite responsible for human schistosomiasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T03:15:35.711359-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600065
       
  • Anti‐barnacle activity of isocyanides derived from amino acids
    • Authors: Takuya Fukuda; Hideki Wagatsuma, Yoshifumi Kominami, Yasuyuki Nogata, Erina Yoshimura, Kazuhiro Chiba, Yoshikazu Kitano
      Abstract: Creation of new potent antifouling‐active compounds is important for the development of environmentally friendly antifouling agents. Fifteen isocyanide congeners derived from proteinogenic amino acids were synthesized, and the antifouling activity and toxicity of these compounds against cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite were investigated. All synthesized amino acid‐isocyanides exhibited potent anti‐barnacle activity with EC50 values of 0.07–10.34 μg ml−1 after 120‐h exposure without significant toxicity. In addition, seven compounds showed more than 95% settlement inhibition of the cypris larvae at 10 μg ml−1 after 120‐h exposure, without any mortality observed. Considering their structure, these amino acid‐isocyanides would eventually be biodegraded to their original non‐toxic amino acids. These should be useful for further research focused on the development of environmentally friendly antifoulants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T03:15:33.637047-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600063
       
  • Visible‐Light Microscopic Discovery of up to 150 μm Long Helical
           Amyloid Fibrils built of the Dodecapeptide H‐(Val‐Ala‐Leu)4‐OH and
           of Decapeptides Derived from Insulin
    • First page: 1111
      Abstract: In the formation of amyloid fibrils from small peptides the appearance of super‐helices of (P)‐ or (M)‐helicity has been observed for the first time; rather high concentrations of the peptides and extended periods of incubation at physiological pH appear to be important for this phenomenon. In view of the general importance of peptide and protein aggregation we give a brief overview with selected examples for demonstration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-31T07:55:27.944484-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600167
       
  • Chemical Polymorphism of Origanum compactum Grown in All Natural
           Habitats in Morocco
    • First page: 1126
      Abstract: Origanum compactum L. (Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal species in term of ethnobotany in Morocco. It is considered as a very threatened species as it is heavily exploited. Its domestication remains the most efficient way to safeguard it for future generations. For this purpose, wide evaluation of the existing variability in all over the Moroccan territory is required. The essential oils of 527 individual plants belonging to 88 populations collected from the whole distribution area of the species in Morocco were analyzed by GC/MS. The dominant constituents were carvacrol (0 – 96.3%), thymol (0 – 80.7%), p‐cymene (0.2 – 58.6%), γ‐terpinene (0 – 35.2%), carvacryl methyl ether (0 – 36.2%), and α‐terpineol (0 – 25.8%). While in the Middle Atlas region and the Central Morocco mainly carvacrol type samples were found, much higher chemotypic diversity was encountered within samples from the north part of Morocco (occidental and central Rif regions). The high chemical polymorphism of plants offers a wide range for selection of valuable chemotypes, as a part of breeding and domestication programs of this threatened species.
      PubDate: 2016-09-06T08:00:28.384208-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500511
       
  • Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Different Organs of
           Potentilla fruticosa L. from Two Main Production Areas of China
    • Authors: Danmeng Yu; Wenjun Pu, Dengwu Li, Dongmei Wang, Qiaoxiao Liu, Yongtao Wang
      First page: 1140
      Abstract: This report compared the phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of the leaves, flowers and stems of P. fruticosa L. collected from two main production areas of China (Taibai Mountains and the Qinghai Huzhu Northern Mountains). The results indicated there were significant differences in the phenol contents and antioxidant activities among the different organs and between the two productions. High‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that hyperoside, (+)‐catechin, ellagic acid and rutin were the primary compounds in leaves and flowers, for stems of two productions, the content of 6 phenolic compounds were both the lowest. The DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, lipid peroxidation assays and microbial test system (MTS) were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The results demonstrated that the leaves from two productions exhibited powerful antioxidant activity than other organs, which did not significantly difference from that of the positive control (rutin), followed by the flowers and stems. The correlation between the content of phytochemicals and the antioxidant activities of different organs showed that the total phenol, tannin, hyperoside and (+)‐catechin contents may influence the antioxidant activity, and these compounds can be used as markers for the quality control of P. fruticosa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-17T08:30:25.670306-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500512
       
  • Prospecting anticancer compounds in actinomycetes recovered from the
           sediments of Saint Peter and Saint Paul's Archipelago, Brazil
    • First page: 1149
      Abstract: Saint Peter and Saint Paul's Archipelago is a collection of 15 islets and rocks remotely located in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. In this particular site, the present project intended to assess the biodiversity and biotechnological potential of bacteria from the actinomycete group. This study presents the first results of this assessment. From 21 sediment samples, 268 strains were isolated and codified as BRA followed by three numbers. Of those, 94 strains were grown in liquid media and submitted to chemical extractions with ethyl acetate (A), butanol (B) and methanol (M). A total of 224 extracts were screened for their cytotoxic activity and 41 were significantly active against HCT‐116 cancer cells. The obtained IC50 ranged from 0.04 μg/mL to 31.55 μg/mL. The HR‐LCMS dereplication analysis of the active extracts showed the occurrence of several known anticancer compounds. Individual compounds, identified using HRMS combined with analysis of the AntiMarin database, included saliniketals A and B, piericidins A and C and glucopiericidin A, staurosporine, N‐methyl‐staurosporine, hydroxyl‐dimethyl staurosporine and N‐ carboxamide‐staurosporine, salinisporamycin A, and rifamycins S and B. BRA‐199, identified as Streptomyces sp., was submitted to bioassay‐guided fractionation, leading to isolation of the bioactive piericidins A and C, glucopiericidin, and three known diketopiperazines, cyclo(L‐Phe‐trans‐4‐OH‐L‐ Pro), cyclo(L‐Phe‐L‐Pro), and cyclo(L‐Trp‐L‐Pro). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-10T02:35:26.429256-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500514
       
  • Antifungal Effect and Protective Role of Ursolic Acid and Three Phenolic
           Derivatives in the Management of Sorghum Grain Mold Under Field Conditions
           
    • Authors: Shaik Ameer Basha; Ahil Sajeli Begum, Ragavendra Govardhanam, Mahibalan Senthi, Rukaiyya Khan, Ravi Sojitra, Santhosh Kumar, Asalla Srinivas
      First page: 1158
      Abstract: In this study, investigation was carried out under in vitro as well as field conditions to explore inhibitors of sorghum grain mold. Phytochemicals, viz., methyl trans‐p‐coumarate (AIC‐1), methyl caffeate (AIC‐2), syringic acid (AIC‐3), and ursolic acid (UA), at different concentrations (500, 750, and 1000 ppm) were tested on spore germination of Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme, F. pallidoroseum, and Helminthosporium sp. Significant growth inhibition (P < 0.001) was observed against all fungi except A. alternata which was found to be resistant to AIC‐3. Further, two separate sets of field experiments involving spraying of water and F. moniliforme suspension over chemicals treated (1000 ppm) sorghum panicles were done. The levels of protection varied with different treatments which were graded using a standard 1 – 9 rating scale. The Fusarium‐challenged panicles (FCP) showed lesser susceptibility and decreased the rate of infection of grain mold (grade 7.0), compared to simple UA, AIC‐2, and AIC‐1 treatments (7.4, 7.6, and 8.0 grade, resp.). The HPLC quantification of differentially induced phenolic acids in treated sorghum grains substantiated this effect disclosing the higher accumulation of chlorogenic, vanillic, and salicylic acids in FCP. This might be due to defensive induction of these acids by the plants. Although mold control by examined chemicals were lesser than the standard Tilt (grade 5.9), they were found to be nontoxic to mammalian cells under cytotoxicity assay.
      PubDate: 2016-08-31T08:05:24.206342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500515
       
  • Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 3,5‐Dimethoxystilbene Analogs
    • First page: 1165
      Abstract: In our continuing effort to discover natural product‐based pest management agents, derivatives of 3,5‐dimethoxystilbene were synthesized yielding 27 new and 6 known compounds. Compounds 11 and 12 showed strong Aedes aegypti larvicidal activity (LC50 45.31 and 49.93 μM, respectively). Futhermore, 11 and 12 exhibited high effectiveness against larvae of pesticide‐susceptible and pyrethroid‐resistant strains of Ae. aegypti; activity against the adult mosquitoes was low. Compounds 6f, 6g, and 6i at either 83.3 or 166.7 μg/ml reduced the mobility of second‐stage juveniles (J2) of the root‐knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) that hatched from eggs immersed in the test compounds for 7 days. However, there was little or no effect on J2 placed directly into these compounds, and none of the analogs suppressed M. incognita egg hatch. The compounds were tested for inhibition of some agriculturally important fungi; 6a, 7a and 7e demonstrated strong inhibition of Colletotrichum species. Activity of the stilbenes against some human pathogens was also explored; 11, 12, and 16 showed moderate inhibitory activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin‐resistant S. aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Except for 11 and 12, which were active against mosquito larvae and some human pathogens, no single analog demonstrated activity in all the tests, indicating specific activities. Synthesis of the analogs and structure‐activity relationships are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-08T08:10:27.015958-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500516
       
  • Bioactive Coumarins from the Stems of Clausena emarginata
    • First page: 1178
      Abstract: Five new coumarins, clauemarmarins I‐M (1‐4), together with ten known analogues (5‐14), were isolated from the stems of Clausena emarginata. Compounds 8‐13 were obtained from this plant for the first time. Their structures were established and elucidated by comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1‐4 were further determined by their ECD spectroscopy. Compounds 5, 7, 12 and 14 exhibited inhibitory effects on LPS‐induced NO production, compounds 5‐7 showed selective neuroprotective effects in Aβ25‐35 model at 10μM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-31T08:00:39.087298-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500519
       
  • Isocoumarin Derivatives from the Sponge‐Associated Fungus Peyronellaea
           glomerata with Antioxidant Activities
    • Authors: Yang Zhao; Dong Liu, Peter Proksch, Siwang Yu, Wenhan Lin
      First page: 1186
      Abstract: Chemical examination of the solid culture of the sponge‐associated fungus Peyronellaea glomerata led to the isolation of five new isocoumarins, namely peyroisocoumarins A‐D (1‐4) and isocitreoisocoumarinol (5), together with 13 known analogues (6‐18). Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including the modified Mosher's method for the configurational assignments. Peyroisocoumarins A and B were characterized by the presence of chlorine atom at n‐pentane chain, which were unusual in isocoumarin derivatives. The ARE reporter assay revealed that peyroisocoumarins A, B, and D exerted potent ARE activation in HepG2C8 cells, while the preliminary analyses of structure‐activity relationship was discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-03T02:20:25.329874-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600012
       
  • Chemical Composition and Content of Lipophilic Seed Extractives of Some
           Abies and Picea Species
    • First page: 1194
      Abstract: The chemical content and composition of the lipophilic extracts from seeds of some fir species: Abies alba, A. cephalonica, A. concolor and A. koreana, as well as of a few spruce species: Picea abies, P. orientalis and P. pungens, were examined. The amount of lipophilic extractives diverse among the tree species; from 9.8% to 41%. The chemical characterization showed significant differences, not only in the content, but also in the composition of extractives. However, most of the identified compounds like resin alcohols, ‐aldehydes, and ‐acids, as well as fatty acids, were detected in seed extracts of all the examined tree species. The dominating identified compound group was esterified fatty acids (2.5‐55.4% w/w of dry extract), occurring mainly as tri‐ and diglycerides, as well as free acids. The main representatives of this group were linoleic and oleic acids. The resin acids, among which the main were abietic, neoabietic, dehydroabietic and palustric acids, were also detected at high levels, from 1.8% to 16.9% of the dry seed extracts. Phytosterols, tocopherols, resin hydrocarbons and resin esters, as well as fatty alcohols were also identified. The coniferous tree seeds as a renewable natural material could represent a prospective raw material for producing valuable chemicals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-04T22:20:10.827248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600014
       
  • Diarylureas and Diarylamides with Oxazolo[5,4‐d]pyrimidine Scaffold
           as Angiogenesis Inhibitors
    • First page: 1230
      Abstract: A series of oxazolopyrimidine‐based ureas and amides were designed, synthesized, and biologically evaluated for their antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activities. These compounds were identified to exhibit inhibitory activities against human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. Among these compounds, compound 22 effectively inhibited the migration and capillary‐like tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. It also exhibited a concentration‐dependent inhibition on capillary sprouting from the rat aorta rings. Preliminary mechanistic studies revealed that compound 22 suppressed protein kinases activation, by decreasing PI3K and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. These results support the further investigation of this class of compounds as potential anticancer agents.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15T06:26:06.803888-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600035
       
 
 
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