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CHEMISTRY (597 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 155)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 115)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 206)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 4)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 10)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 136)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 113)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 137)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Elements     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Chemistry & Biodiversity
  [SJR: 0.723]   [H-I: 40]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-1872 - ISSN (Online) 1612-1880
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Geographic Distribution of Natural Products Produced by Red Algae
           Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh
    • Abstract: In order to evaluate the chemical diversity of Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh, a wide distributed seaweed in Brazilian coast, a phytochemical study was carried out with algae collected from six different locations along Southeast Brazilian coast. Purified compounds were identified by MS and NMR techniques. The chemical profiles of lipophilic extracts were obtained by GC/MS for each population. In total, fifteen compounds were described. The sesquiterpene composition accounted for 49‐63% of the GC/MS chromatogram area. The discrimination of three chemotypes was done by the use of HCA on GC/MS chromatograms. They were also analyzed by PCA and, together with peak area analysis, it was possible to discriminate all populations by the main variation of elatol, obtusol, rogiolol and triquinane. The results revealed the high diversity of sesquiterpene composition among populations of L. dendroidea. Curiously, the within and among population variation of elatol and obtusol suggested a biochemical interplay on the content of these compounds. More studies are necessary to understand the patterns of chemical diversity and compound variation within and among populations of L. dendroidea. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-24T08:05:30.388196-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500246
  • Geographically‐related variation in epicuticular wax traits of Pinus
           nigra populations from Southern Carpathians and Central Balkans –
           taxonomic considerations
    • Abstract: The chemical composition of epicuticular waxes of nine populations from three Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold subspecies (determined as ssp. nigra, ssp. banatica (Borbás) Novák, and ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe), from Southern Carpathians and central Balkan Peninsula were analyzed using GC‐MS and GC‐FID chromatography, and multivariate statistical techniques in respect of biogeography and taxonomy. In the needle waxes, four primary alcohols and fourteen n‐alkanes ranging from C21 to C33 were identified, and the most abundant compounds were the four odd numbered n‐alkanes C27, C25, C23, and C29. Multivariate statistical analyses (CDA and CA) have shown existence of three P. nigra groups and suggested clinal differentiation as a mechanism of genetic variation across a geographic area: the one group consisted of the southernmost populations of ssp. pallasiana from Macedonia, the second of northernmost ssp. banatica populations from Romania, while all populations in Serbia described as three different subspecies (nigra, banatica, and pallasiana) formed the third group together with ssp. nigra population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to simple linear regression, geographic latitude and four bioclimatic parameters were moderately correlated with the contents of epicuticular wax compounds that are important in population discrimination, while stepwise multiple regression showed that latitude participated in most of the regression models for predicting the composition of the epicuticular waxes. These results are in agreement with CDA and CA analysis and confirmed the possibility of recognition of fine geographic differentiation of the analyzed P. nigra populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-23T07:45:23.362898-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500322
  • Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Psychotria
    • Authors: Hongmei Yang; Hongmei Zhang, Caiqiong Yang, Yegao Chen
      Abstract: The genus Psychotria is one of the largest genera of flowering plants and the largest within Rubiaceae, with ca. 1500 species distributing in tropical and subtropical regions, with 17 species being endemic in China [1]. Different parts of several species have been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments. For example, P. viridis and P. carthagenensis are often discussed in relation to the hallucinogenic beverage ayahuasca, used for religious, medicinal and social purposes throughout the Amazon [2]. The whole herbs of P. serpens are used as an antirheumatic, analgesic, muscles relaxing, and circulation promoting drug in folklore [3]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-23T07:30:38.123824-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500259
  • Chemical Constituents in Hybrids of Ligularia tongolensis and L.
           cymbulifera: Chemical Introgression in L. tongolensis
    • Abstract: Two samples with morphologies intermediate between L. tongolensis and L. cymbulifera were collected in Desha, Sichuan Province, and one, in Pachahai, Yunnan Province, P. R. China. DNA Sequencing confirmed that the samples were hybrids of the two species. Tetradymol (1), the major compound of L. cymbulifera not found in L. tongolensis, was isolated from the hybrid samples collected at both locations, while furanoeremophilan‐15‐oic acid derivative 4, a compound characteristic to L. tongolensis, was found in the Pachahai hybrid but not in the Desha hybrids. Thus, the chemical consequence of hybridization can be variable. In addition, analysis of L. tongolensis samples at Pachahai indicated that introgression has been a mechanism of generating chemical diversity in the plant. Eleven compounds including three new ones were isolated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-23T07:30:27.611097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500227
  • New Cyclohexadepsipeptides from an Entomogenous Fungus Fusarium
    • Abstract: Five new cyclohexadepsipeptides, termed as enniatins R‐V (1‐5), and seven known cyclohexadepsipeptides (6‐12) were isolated from the solid culture of Fusarium proliferatum, a fungus isolated from the cadaver of an unidentified insect collected in Tibet. Their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. The X‐ray single‐crystal structure of 6 was reported for the first time. Enniatins R and S represented the first enniatins incorporating with an unusual 2, 3‐dihydroxy‐isovaleric acid (Div) residue. The cytotoxicity and autophagy induction activities of 1‐12 were evaluated in vitro. Beauvenniatin F (11) exhibited strong cytotoxicity against K562/A (adriamycin‐resistant K562) with IC50 value of 3.78 μM, and also autophagy inducing activity at the concentration of 20 μM in GFP‐LC3 stable HeLa cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-16T07:02:24.740259-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500262
  • Antimicrobial Compounds from Drypetes staudtii
    • Authors: David Grace; Madiha S. Khan, Kenneth Friesen, Athar Ata
      Abstract: Antimicrobial‐directed phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extracts of Drypetes staudtii afforded two new compounds, (2E)‐N‐(4‐aminobutyl)‐3‐(6‐hydroxy‐1,3‐benzodioxol‐5‐yl)prop‐2‐enamide (1), (2E)‐N‐(4‐aminobutyl)‐3‐(6‐hydroxy‐1,3‐benzodioxol‐5‐yl)‐N‐methylprop‐2‐enamide (2) along with seven known natural products 4α‐​hydroxyeremophila‐​1,​9‐​diene‐​3,​8‐​dione (3), drypemolundein B (4), friedelan‐3β‐ol (5), erythrodiol (6), ursolic acid (7), p‐coumaric acid (8) and β‐sitosterol (9). Structures of compounds 1‐9 were elucidated with the aid of extensive NMR and mass spectral studies. All of the isolates exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 8‐128 μg/ml. Compounds 1‐2 were also moderately active against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 32 μg/ml. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-11T08:40:24.551189-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500298
  • Chemical Composition and Interpopulation Variability of Essential Oils of
           Taxus baccata L. from Serbia
    • Abstract: The composition of the essential oil of the twigs and needles of Taxus baccata L. from three natural populations in Serbia has been determined by GC/MS analysis. Of the 91 detected compounds, 87 were identified. The most abundant compound classes were aliphatic alcohols, terpenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic aldehydes, which together comprised ca. 86.92% of the total oil composition. The dominant constituents were oct‐1‐en‐3‐ol (23.48%), (3Z)‐hex‐3‐en‐1‐ol (11.46%) (aliphatic alcohols), and myrtenol (11.38%) (oxygenated monoterpene). The PCA of 22 selected compounds revealed differentiations of populations based on geographic distribution. The CA showed that Populations I and II from the Dinaric Alps were similar, and that Population III from the Balkan mountain system was distinct. This was the first investigation of interpopulation variability of T. baccata populations based on essential oil composition. The results of the present study were compared with those of previous studies concerning volatile compounds produced by Taxus species. The results indicate that the essential oil content of T. baccata populations from this study is unique, mostly resembling the population from South‐East Serbia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T10:45:29.567082-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500326
  • Genetic Diversity and Structure of Populations of Annona Crassiflora Mart.
           of Brazilian Savanna and Its Association with Chemical Variability
    • Abstract: Annona crassiflora Mart. is a native tree from Brazilian savanna. Isoquinoline alkaloids are characteristic of species of Annonaceae. The present work aimed to assess the magnitude of genetic diversity among different populations of A. crassiflora using AFLP markers, and verify the existence of any correlation between the AFLP data and previous reported alkaloid composition. Annona crassiflora from eight populations in the states of São Paulo, Goiás, Minas Gerais and Distrito Federal were analyzed. The data suggest a low, moderate and high level of genetic diversity from different populations of A. crassiflora. Concentration of alkaloids was significantly correlated to AFLP data, suggesting interaction between chemical and molecular markers in Annona crassiflora. The data of association between the chemical and genetic differentiation of A. crassiflora may be useful to establish cultivation areas allowing the definition of strategies to preserve their genetic diversity with an interest in specific chemotypes for genetic improvement programs focused on sustainable utilization of this specie. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T10:45:25.72733-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500320
  • Contents: C&B 6/2016
    • PubDate: 2016-06-09T07:59:50.150347-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201670061
  • Nanoporous Structures Similar to those Reported from Squid Sucker Teeth
           are also Present in Egg Shells of a Terrestrial Flatworm from Hachijojima
           (Izu Islands; Japan)
    • Abstract: In 2009 the cover of “Advanced Materials”, volume21 (4), January 26 featured a photo of squid sucker rings and a scanning electron micrograph of nanoporous structures of a sucker tooth. The article that the cover picture was connected with, stated that the nanoporous material was entirely proteinaceous and did not contain chitin.[1] The arrangement of parallel tubes in the structure was considered to increase the bending stiffness of the tooth and to reduce “the probability of catastrophic structural failure by intrdoducuing a potential crash‐arresting mechanism at the boundaries between two constituent materials (in this case, protein and seawater).”[1] It was further stated that a structure such as that with its “unique set of characteristics [had] not [been] reported previously for any other biological material” and, we can add, not thereafter either.[1] This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T07:58:18.180097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600050
  • Patterns in Volatile Emission of Different Aerial Parts of Caper (Capparis
           spinosa L.)
    • Authors: Roberta Ascrizzi; Pier Luigi Cioni, Giulia Giusti, Luisa Pistelli, Guido Flamini
      Abstract: We analyzed the spontaneous volatile emission of different aerial parts of the caper (Capparis spinosa L.) by means of HS‐SPME‐GC/MS. We identified 178 different compounds of which, in different proportions based on the sample type, the main ones were (E)‐β‐ocimene, methyl benzoate, linalool, β‐caryophyllene, α‐guaiene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene B, (E)‐nerolidol, isopropyl tetradecanoate, and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone. The multivariate statistical analyses seem to point out that the parameter leading the emission patterns is the function of the analyzed sample: the flower samples showed differences in the emission profile between their fertile and sterile portions and between the other parts of the plant. The green parts emission profiles group together in a cluster and are different from those of seeds and fruits. We also hydrodistilled fully bloomed caper flowers, whose volatile oil showed significant differences in the composition from those of other parts of the plant reported in the literature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T09:50:56.917926-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500292
  • Physico‐chemical profiling of α‐lipoic acid and related
    • Abstract: Lipoic acid, the biomolecule of vital importance following glycolysis, shows diversity in its thiol‐disulfide equilibria and also in its eight different protonation forms of the reduced molecule. In this paper, lipoic acid, lipoamide and their dihydro derivatives were studied to quantify their solubility, acid‐base, and lipophilicity properties at a submolecular level. The acid‐base properties are characterized in terms of 6 macroscopic, 12 microscopic protonation constants and 3 interactivity parameters. The species‐specific basicities, the pH‐dependent distribution of the microspecies and lipophilicity parameters are interpreted by means of various intramolecular effects, and contribute to understanding the antioxidant, chelate‐forming and enzyme cofactor behavior of the molecules observed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T06:41:28.303505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500272
  • Unveiling the Pathways of Dioxygen Through the C2 Component of the
           Environmentally Relevant Monooxygenase p‐Hydroxyphenylacetate
           Hydroxylase from Acinetobacter baumannii. A Molecular Dynamics
    • Authors: Francesco Pietra
      Abstract: Models were built in this work of the homotetrameric C2 component of the monooxygenase p‐hydroxyphenylacetate hydroxylase (HPAH) from Acinetobacter baumannii in complex with dioxygen (O2) and, or not, the substrate p‐hydroxyphenylacetate (HPA). Both models proved to be amenable to random‐acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations, whereby a tiny randomly oriented external force, acting on O2 at the active site in front of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH–), accelerated displacement of O2 toward the bulk solvent. This allowed carrying out RAMD simulations in a number to approach statistical significance. The two systems behaved very similarly under RAMD, except for O2 leaving the active site more easily in the absence of HPA, but then finding similar obstacles in getting to the gate as when the active site was sheltered by HPA. This challenges previous conclusions that HPA can only reach the active center after that the C4aOOH derivative of FMNH– is formed, requiring uptake of O2 at the active site before HPA. According to these RAMD simulations, O2 could well get to FMNH– also in the presence of the substrate at the active site. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T06:39:54.104469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500355
  • Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi
           Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea
           purpurea (Asteraceae)
    • Abstract: The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, being Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 the most frequent colonisers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by GC‐FID analysis. The compounds (‐)‐5‐methylmellein and (‐) (3R)‐8‐hydroxy‐6‐methoxy‐3,5‐dimethyl‐3,4‐dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterranea EPU38CA crude extract. (‐)‐5‐Methylmellein showed weak activity against P. obscurans, P. viticola and F. oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides and B. cinerea. (‐) (3R)‐8‐Hydroxy‐6‐methoxy‐3,5‐dimethyl‐3,4‐dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5‐methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T06:39:23.998978-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500299
  • Cytotoxic Constituents and Mechanism from Peganum harmala
    • Authors: Chunhua Wang; Zhenxue Zhang, Yihai Wang, Xiangjiu He
      Abstract: Peganum harmala L. is a traditional Chinese and Uygur medicine used to treat cancer. Bioactivity‐guided fractionation was applied to determine the cytotoxic constituents from P. harmala. A novel triterpenoid and a phenolic glycoside were isolated and identified, as well as seven known compounds. The novel metabolites were elucidated to be 3α‐acetoxy‐27‐hydroxyolean‐12‐en‐28‐oic acid methyl ester (1, OA) and N‐acetyl‐9‐syringinoside (9). Some compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human tumor cells. Among them, OA showed the highest cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cells A549 with an IC50 value of 8.03 ± 0.81 μm. OA had a potent anti‐NSCLC cell activity by interfering with the EGFR activation and its downstream signaling, and could exert an antiproliferative effect by inactivation of EGFR‐driven antiapoptotic pathway followed by the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, which might prove to be a promising leading compound for the development of an anti‐lung cancer drug. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T06:30:11.648798-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500384
  • Bioactive secondary metabolites from Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae)
           endemic to Canary Islands
    • Abstract: Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) is a species endemic to the Canary Islands and traditionally employed as analgesic, astringent, anti‐inflammatory and vulnerary. A comprehensive phytochemical investigation was conducted on the flowering aerial parts by analyzing both essential oil constituents and polar compounds. The essential oil was dominated by p‐cymene, with the noteworthy occurrence of β‐pinene and thymol esters. From the ethanolic extract eight compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated. Essential oil, polar fractions and isolates (2), (4) and (5) were separately in vitro assayed for antiproliferative activity on human tumor cell lines (A375, MDA‐MB 231, HCT 116) by MTT assay, for antioxidant potential by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, and for antimicrobial activity by the agar disc diffusion method. Results revealed that essential oil and compounds 1 and 2 exert a strong inhibition on tumor cells, in some cases higher than that of cisplatin. Fractions containing thymol derivatives (1 and 2) and compounds 4 and 5 displayed antioxidant activity comparable to that of Trolox, making S. sericea extract an interesting natural product with potential applications as preservative or in the treatment of diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important role. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T06:29:47.653716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500222
  • 13,14‐seco‐Withanolides from Physalis minima with Potential
           Anti‐inflammatory Activity
    • Abstract: Four new 13,14‐seco‐withanolides, minisecolides A‐D (1–4), together with three known analogues 5–7, were isolated from the whole plants of Physalis minima. The structures of new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1H‐, 13C‐NMR, 2D‐NMR (HMBC, HSQC, ROESY), and HR‐ESI‐MS. Evaluation of all isolates for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production were conducted on lipopolysaccaride(LPS)‐activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 showed inhibitory activities, especially for compound 5 with IC50 value of 3.87 μm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T09:26:17.432743-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500282
  • Study of the Vapor Phase Over Fusarium Fungi Cultured on Various
    • Authors: Elena I. Savelieva; Ludmila K. Gustyleva, Elizaveta D. Kessenikh, Natalya S. Khlebnikova, John Leffingwell, Olga P. Gavrilova, Tatiana Yu. Gagkaeva
      Abstract: The compositions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by Fusarium fungi (F. langsethiae, F. sibiricum, F. poae, and F. sporotrichioides) grown on two nutritive substrates: potato sucrose agar (PSA) and autoclaved wheat kernels (WK) were investigated. The culturing of fungi and study of their VOC emissions were performed in chromatographic vials at room temperature (23 – 24 °C) and the VOCs were sampled by solid‐phase microextraction on a 85 μm Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane fiber. GC/MS was performed using a 60‐m HP‐5 capillary column. Components of the VOC mixture were identified by electron impact mass spectra and chromatographic retention indices (RIs). The most abundant components of the VOC mixture emitted by Fusarium fungi are ethanol, ethyl acetate, isobutanol, 3‐methylbutan‐1‐ol, 2‐methylbutan‐1‐ol, ethyl 3‐methylbutanoate, terpenes with M 136, sesquiterpenes with M 204 (a total of about 25), and trichodiene. It was found that the strains grown on PSA emit a wider spectrum and larger amount of VOCs compared with those grown on wheat kernels. F. langsethiae strain is the most active VOC producer on both substrates. The use of SPME and GC/MS also offers the potential for differentiation of fungal species and strains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02T07:58:37.911784-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500284
  • Radiosynthesis and in vivo Evaluation of Carbon‐11
           an Attempt to Visualize Brain Formyl Peptide Receptors in Mouse Models of
    • Abstract: Here, we describe the very first attempt to visualize in vivo formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) in mouse brain by positron emission tomography (PET). FPRs are expressed on microglial cells where they mediate chemotactic activity of β‐amiloid peptide in Alzheimer disease and, thus, are involved in neuroinflammatory processes. To this purpose, we have selected (2S)‐3‐(1H‐Indol‐3‐yl)‐2‐{[(4‐methoxyphenyl)carbamoyl]amino}‐N‐{[1‐(5‐methoxypyridin‐2‐yl)cyclohexyl]methyl}propanamide ((S)‐1), that we have previously identified as a potent non peptidic FPRs agonist. (S)‐[11C]‐1 has been prepared in high radiochemical yield. (S)‐[11C]‐1 showed very low penetration of blood‐brain barrier and, thus, was unable to accumulate into the brain. In addition, (S)‐[11C]‐1 was not able to label FPRs receptors in brain slices of PS19 and APP23 mice, two animal models of Alzheimer disease. Although [11C](S)‐1 was not suitable to visualize FPRs in the brain, this study provides useful information for the design and characterization of future potential PET radioligands for visualization of brain FPRs by PET. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02T04:20:49.719723-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500281
  • Synthesis and Antileishmanial Activity of Natural Dehydrodieugenol and Its
           Mono and Dimethyl Ethers
    • Abstract: The study of the chemistry of naturally occurring compounds and the synthesis of their derivatives is fundamentally important for the development of new drugs. In this work, dehydrodieugenol (DHDE) was obtained through oxidative coupling of eugenol, promoted by an aqueous mixture of potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]) and NH3 · H2O. The partial methoxylation of DHDE with MeI and K2CO3 mainly resulted in the molecular‐shaped monomethyl ether (DHDE‐1MeO) and its dimethyl ether derivative (DHDE‐2MeO). The products from the reactions were characterized by 1H‐ and 13C‐NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, studies have reported the antileishmanial activity of DHDE against Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 value of 42.20 μg ml−1) and shown that partial methoxylation of DHDE results in a significant increase in its antiparasitic activity (IC50 value of 13.68 μg ml−1). Based on in vitro bioassays, DHDE‐1MeO has shown the highest leishmanicidal activity in promastigota form. Production by direct one‐step synthesis of this monomethoxylated compound can be considered to be a cost‐effective and environmentally‐friendly method with a short reaction time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T19:45:27.570505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500280
  • Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus
           halepensis growing in Corsica
    • Abstract: The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS, 13C‐NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77‐100% of the whole composition have been identified. α‐Pinene, myrcene and (E)‐β‐caryophyllene were the major component followed by α‐humulene and 2‐phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. Forty seven oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M= 28.1g/100g; SD = 10.6) and (E)‐β‐caryophyllene (M = 19.0g/100g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)‐β‐caryophyllene (M = 28.7g/100g; SD = 7.9), α‐pinene (M = 12.3g/100g; SD = 3.6) and myrcene (M = 11.7g/100g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T06:42:25.243814-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500097
  • Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from Genus Ligularia
    • Authors: Ling Wu; Zhixin Liao, Chao Liu, Haiyang Jia, Jinyue Sun
      First page: 645
      Abstract: Ligularia speices are widely used in Asian folk medicines for the treatment of various human diseases. Eremophilane‐type sesquiterpenes are abundant and typical secondary metabolites in this genus. Over 500 eremophilanes reported from members of Ligularia are reviewed in this article together with bioactivity data in an effort to highlight the development in this field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T05:11:24.40012-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500169
  • The genus Myrtus L. in Algeria: composition and biological aspects of
           essential oils from M. communis and M. nivellei. A Review
    • First page: 672
      Abstract: enus Myrtus L. (Myrtaceae family) comprises two species, Myrtus communis L. (Known as Common myrtle) growing wild all around the Mediterranean basin and Myrtus nivellei Batt. and Trab. (Known as Saharan myrtle), found in Central Sahara. Only one country, Algeria, hosts both species, M. communis in the North, M. nivellei in the South. The aim of the present review was to collect, summarize and compare the main results reported in the literature relative to the essential oils isolated from aerial parts of both species: botanical aspects, habitat, traditional use, chemical composition, new compounds, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, anti‐inflammatory effect, insecticidal activity. Both essential oils have potential applications in human health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-04T02:40:26.744224-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500342
  • Comparison of the Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the
           Essential Oils of Green Branches and Leaves of Egyptian Navel Orange
           (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var. Malesy)
    • Authors: Omayma A. Eldahshan; Ahmed F. Halim
      First page: 681
      Abstract: The essential oils isolated from the leaves and green branches of the Egyptian navel orange trees were analyzed by GC and GC‐MS. Thirty three and twenty four compounds were identified from the oils of the leaves and branches accounting for 96.0 and 97.9% respectively of the total detected constituents. The major ones were: sabinene (36.5; 33.0%), terpinen‐4‐ol (8.2; 6.2%), δ‐3‐carene (7.0; 9.4%), limonene (6.8; 18.7%), trans‐ocimene (6.7; 6.1%) and β‐myrcene (4.5; 4.4%). The antimicrobial activities of both oils were evaluated using the agar well diffusion method towards three representatives for each of Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. The oil of leaves was more effective as antimicrobial agent than that of the branches. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most sensitive bacteria and fungi by the leaves oil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07T04:44:09.492647-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500139
  • The Use of NMR Metabolite Profiling and in vivo Hypoglycemic Assay for
           Comparison of Unfractionated Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Two Ocimum Species
    • First page: 686
      Abstract: Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae) are used to treat diabetes mellitus in Africa. In a previous work, we identified chicoric acid as a hypoglycemic substance in O. gratissimum. This study aims to compare the chemical metabolite profile and the hypoglycemic activity of unfractionated aqueous extracts from leaves of both Lamiaceae species. The metabolite composition of OB and OG decoctions (10% w/v) was analyzed using HPLC‐DAD and NMR tools. Chicoric acid showed to be the major phenolic in both extracts, besides caftaric, caffeic, and rosmarinic acids; nevertheless, there is approximately three times more of this substance in OG. From 1D‐ and 2D‐NMR analyses, 19 substances were identified in OB, while 12 in OG. The in vivo acute hypoglycemic activity of the extracts was assessed intraperitoneally in streptozotocin (STZ)‐induced diabetic mice. The doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg of both extracts significantly reduced their glycemia, compared to controls (P < 0.05). OB was a little more effective than OG, despite the lower content of chicoric acid in OB. This result strongly suggests that components other than chicoric acid contribute to the hypoglycemic activity of the two extracts. Despite the abundance of caffeic and rosmarinic acids in OB, their hypoglycemic activity observed at 8.3 μmol/kg was low. This is the first chemical profile of crude extracts from Ocimum species by NMR. Our findings confirmed the potential of both species in DM treatment in spite of marked differences in their chemical composition. However, long‐term studies are necessary in order to identify the most promising of the two species for the development of an herbal medicine. The Use of NMR Metabolite Profiling and in vivo Hypoglycemic Assay for Comparison of Unfractionated Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Two Ocimum Species L. M. Casanova, J. M. Espíndola‐Netto, L. W. Tinoco, M. Sola‐Penna, S. S. Costa*
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T07:30:32.667346-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500180
  • Method for Attaining Caraway Seed Oil Fractions with Different Composition
    • Authors: Santosh Shiwakoti; Shital Poudyal, Osama Saleh, Tess Astatkie, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov
      First page: 695
      Abstract: Caraway (Carum carvi L.) is a medicinal and aromatic plant, its seeds (fruits) are used as spice and contain essential oil. We hypothesized that by collecting caraway oil at different time points during the extraction process, we could obtain oil fractions with distinct chemical composition. A hydrodistillation time (HDT) study was conducted to test the hypothesis. The caraway seed oil fractions were collected at eight different HDT (at 0‐2, 2‐7, 7‐15, 15‐30, 30‐45, 45‐75, 75‐105, and 105‐135 min). Additionally, a non‐stop HD for 135 min was conducted as a control. Most of the oil was eluted early in the HD process. The non‐stop HDT treatment yielded 2.76% oil by weight. Of the 24 essential oil constituents, limonene (77‐19% of the total oil) and carvone (20‐79%) were the major ones. Other constituents included myrcene (0.72‐0.16%), trans‐carveol (0.07‐0.39%), and β‐caryophyllene (0.07‐0.24%). Caraway seed oil with higher concentration of limonene can be obtained by sampling oil fractions early in HD process; conversely, oil with high concentration of carvone can be obtained by excluding the fractions eluted early in the HD process. We demonstrated a method of obtaining caraway seed oil fractions with various and unique composition. These novel oil fractions with unique composition are not commercially available and could have much wider potential uses, and also target different markets compared to the typical caraway essential oil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-27T04:00:59.104505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500190
  • Profiling of Coumarins in Peucedanum palustre (L.) Moench Populations
           Growing in Finland
    • First page: 700
      Abstract: The coumarin composition of Peucedanum palustre (L.) Moench populations growing in Finland was investigated. 132 flowering P. palustre specimens from 43 locations in southern and central Finland were collected, divided into root, stem, leaf and umbel samples, and analyzed by HPLC. HPLC coupled to high‐resolution mass spectrometry was used to aid the identification of coumarins. 13 coumarin‐structured compounds were quantitatively analyzed from the samples. The coumarin profile of root samples was found to differ from the aerial plant parts. The main coumarins in roots were oxypeucedanin and columbianadin. In aerial parts peulustrin isomers were the most abundant coumarin components. Umbels and leaves contained also a considerable amount of umbelliprenin, which was only found in traces in roots. Based on hierarchical cluster analysis of the coumarin profiles some populations shared common characteristics. The most distinct property connecting certain populations was their high peulustrin content. Another notable common property between some populations was the high umbelliprenin content in aerial plant parts. Some populations were clustered together due to their low overall coumarin content. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T07:40:29.044229-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500198
  • Compositae Plants Differed in Leaf Cuticular Waxes between High and Low
    • Authors: Na Guo; Jianhua Gao, Yuji He, Yanjun Guo
      First page: 710
      Abstract: We sampled eight Compositae species at high altitude (3482 m) and seven species at low altitude (220 m), analyzed the chemical compositions and contents of leaf cuticular wax, and calculated the values of average chain length (ACL), carbon preference index (CPI), dispersion (d), dispersion/weighted mean chain length (d/N), and C31/(C31+C29) (Norm31). The amounts of total wax and compositions were significantly higher at high altitude than at low altitude, except for primary alcohol, secondary alcohol and ketone. The main n‐alkanes in most samples were C31, C29 and C33. Low altitude had more C31 and C33, whereas more C29 occurred at high altitude. The ACL, CPI, d, d/N, and Norm31 were higher at low altitude than at high altitude. The fatty acid and primary alcohol at low altitude contained more C26 homologous than at high altitude. More short chain primary alcohols were observed at high altitude. At low altitude, the primary alcohol gave on average the largest amount, while it was n‐alkane at high altitude. These results indicated that the variations of leaf cuticular waxes benefited Compositae plants to adapt to various environmental stresses and enlarge their distribution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-27T06:15:47.657096-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500208
  • Short‐Term Water Deficit Changes Cuticular Sterol Profile in the
           Eggplant (Solanum melongena)
    • First page: 719
      Abstract: Crop irrigation uses a majority of a total world water supply, in the same time displaying low efficiency. As the expected future water requirements are higher than the current ones, there is a risk of a growing deficit of water for the agricultural use. Hence, there is an arising need for better understanding the effects of water deprivation on the crop plants. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is a vegetable crop cultivated in arid and semi‐arid parts of the world. Because of its high water demands, the eggplant is a convenient model organism in studies concerning the effects of water deficit on the plant growth. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of short‐term water deficit on eggplant leaf cuticular waxes and total sterols. Water deprivation did not affect the amount and composition of aliphatic components of cuticular waxes. Significant decrease in the total cuticular sterols and the increase in cuticular cholesterol were observed as an effect of water deficit. In contrast, some of the free internal sterols were more abundant in water‐deprived plants. The possible importance of these observations, including increased biosynthesis of defensive compounds and the need to maintain the cell membrane stability, is discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-23T03:25:22.653104-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500214
  • Endophytic Actinobacteria from the Brazilian Medicinal Plant Lychnophora
           ericoides Mart. and the Biological Potential of Their Secondary
    • First page: 727
      Abstract: Endophytic actinobacteria from the Brazilian medicinal plant Lychnophora ericoides were isolated for the first time, and the biological potential of their secondary metabolites was evaluated. A phylogenic analysis of isolated actinobacteria was accomplished with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the predominance of the genus Streptomyces was observed. All strains were cultured on solid rice medium, and ethanol extracts were evaluated with antimicrobial and cytotoxic assays against cancer cell lines. As a result, 92% of the extracts showed a high or moderate activity against at least one pathogenic microbial strain or cancer cell line. Based on the biological and chemical analyses of crude extracts, three endophytic strains were selected for further investigation of their chemical profiles. Sixteen compounds were isolated, and 3‐hydroxy‐4‐methoxybenzamide (9) and 2,3‐dihydro‐2,2‐dimethyl‐4(1H)‐quinazolinone (15) are reported as natural products for the first time in this study. The biological activity of the pure compounds was also assessed. Compound 15 displayed potent cytotoxic activity against all four tested cancer cell lines. Nocardamine (2) was only moderately active against two cancer cell lines but showed strong activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Our results show that endophytic actinobacteria from L. ericoides are a promising source of bioactive compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-20T00:01:29.267753-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500225
  • Metabolomics for the Authentication of Natural Extracts Used in Flavours
           and Fragrances: the Case Study of Violet Leaf Absolutes from Viola odorata
    • First page: 737
      Abstract: Natural extracts used in fine fragrances (alcoholic perfumes) are rare and precious. As such, they represent an interesting target for fraudulent practices called adulterations. Absolutes, important materials used in the creation of perfumes, are obtained by organic solvent extraction of raw plant materials. Because the non‐volatile part of these natural extracts is not normalized and scarcely reported in the literature, highlighting potential adulterations present in this fraction appears highly challenging. For the first time, we investigated the use of non‐targeted UHPLC‐ToFMS metabolomics for this purpose, considering Viola odorata L., a plant largely used in the perfume industry, as a model. Significant differences in the metabolic fingerprints of the violet leaf absolutes were evidenced according to geographical locations, and/or adulterations. Additionally, markers of the geographical origin were detected through their molecular weight/most probable molecular formula and retention time while adulterations were statistically validated. In this study, we thus clearly demonstrated the efficiency of UHPLC‐ToFMS based metabolomics in accelerating both the identification of the origin of raw materials as well as the search for potential adulterations in absolutes, natural products of high added value. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T02:10:35.467954-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500230
  • Influence of Cultivation Parameters on the Mineral Composition of Kiwi
           Fruit from Corsica
    • First page: 748
      Abstract: The effect of four cultivation parameters (postmaturity harvest date, storage period at 0 °C and input of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) on the mineral composition of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward) from Corsica were evaluated. The kiwi fruit were harvested on three dates at two‐week intervals and some fruit were stored for three and four months. The kiwi fruit orchard was fertilized with controlled levels of nitrogen (five levels) and potassium (three levels) during one growing season. The concentrations of 67 elements in kiwi fruit were measured using various analytical methods, such as flow injection spectrophotometry (FIA), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), flame atomic emission spectrometry (FAES), electrothermal atomic–absorption spectrometry (ET–AAS), inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP–MS) and filtration. The main elements in kiwi fruit are potassium, nitrogen, chloride ion, phosphorus and silicon and, to a lesser amount, calcium, magnesium, sodium and iron. This study demonstrates a high degree of difference in the amount of 23 mineral elements depending on the harvest date, the time of storage and the input of fertilizers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T01:55:26.112411-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500236
  • Inhibitory Effect on Lipid Absorption and Variability of Chemical
           Constituents from Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis
    • Authors: Mariangela Marrelli; Maria Pia Argentieri, Pinarosa Avato, Francesco Menichini, Filomena Conforti
      First page: 755
      Abstract: In continuation of our research program on Mediterranean dietary plants, a bioassay guided fractionation of extracts from several accessions of Capparis sicula subsp. sicula and Capparis orientalis aerial parts was carried out. Anti‐lipidemic activity of samples was assayed using inhibition of pancreatic lipase. To study the metabolic variability in Capparis species HPTLC analyses were performed in order to characterize the species through the detection, isolation and quantitative evaluation of rutin taken as significative chemical marker. The best activity was exerted by C. orientalis accession n.10 and C. sicula subsp. sicula accession n.6. The bioactivity evaluation of specific chemical markers, rutin and glucocapparin, led to the identification of a potent anti‐lipidemic compound: rutin. HPTLC analysis showed large variation among the different analyzed samples with respect to rutin concentration. The chemical investigation showed a different composition between the species and between the collection zones. The variations showed by the studied accessions of caper could be attributed to exogenous factors. Capparis species contained predominantly quercetin rutinoside (rutin), accompanied by other constituents such as the glucosinolate glucocapparin. These rutin‐rich extracts exhibited pronounced dose‐dependent enzyme inhibitory activities towards pancreatic lipase. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T02:55:53.665185-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500240
  • Fatty Acid Derived Pro‐toxicants of the Rat Selective Toxicant
    • First page: 762
      Abstract: Norbormide [5‐(α‐hydroxy‐α‐2‐pyridylbenzyl)‐7‐(α‐2‐pyridylbenzylidene)‐5‐norbornene‐2,3‐dicarboximide] (NRB), an existing but infrequently used rodenticide, is known to be uniquely toxic to rats but relatively harmless to other rodents and mammals. However, as an acute vasoactive, NRB has a rapid onset of action which makes it relatively unpalatable to rats, often leading to sub‐lethal uptake and accompanying bait shyness. A series of NRB‐derived pro‐toxicants (3a‐i, 4a‐i and 5a‐i) were prepared in an effort to ‘mask’ this acute response and improve both palatability and efficacy. Their synthesis, in vitro biological evaluation (vasocontractile response in rat vasculature, stability in selected rat media) and palatability/efficacy in Sprague Dawley, wild Norway and wild ship rats is described. Most notably, pro‐toxicant 3d was revealed to be free of all pre‐cleavage vasoconstrictory activity in rat caudal artery and was subsequently demonstrated to release NRB in the presence of rat blood, liver and pancreatic enzymes. Moreover, it consistently displayed a high level of acceptance by rats in a two‐choice bait‐palatability and efficacy trial, with accompanying high mortality. On this evidence, fatty acid ester prodrugs would appear to offer a promising platform for the further development of NRB‐derived toxicants with enhanced palatability and efficacy profiles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02T07:03:31.473256-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500241
  • Chemical and genetic comparative analysis of Gentiana crassicaulis and
           Gentiana macrophylla
    • Authors: Yaping Wang; Bashir Ahmad, Baozhong Duan, Rui Zeng, Linfang Huang
      First page: 776
      Abstract: Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk. and Gentiana macrophylla Pall. are two main sources of Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae (Qinjiao) available in markets, which has a wide range of anti‐inflammatory effects and has been extensively used for fighting rheumatoid arthritis. However, they vary in terms of chemical compositions, pharmacological activities and biomass. In this study, a combined chemical and genetic (HPLC and DNA barcoding) approach was used to compare these two plants. Four predominant bioactive compounds, namely, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, swertiamarin and sweroside, were used to assess the chemical variations. Based on the chemical variations, 15 samples were clustered into two groups through PCA analyses. DNA barcoding utilizing the variable nuclear ITS2 regions were sequenced, aligned and compared. Together with 61 sequences collected from GenBank, 76 batches of Qinjiao were clustered in two groups according to species origin. The genetic relationships indicated by the ITS2‐based NJ tree were consistent with the chemical variations. Thus, the chemical profiles determined by HPLC and DNA profiles obtained from ITS2 region could be applied for the quality control of Qinjiao. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T05:20:27.559943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500247
  • Chemical Composition of Ballota macedonica Vandas and Ballota nigra L.
           ssp. foetida (Vis.) Hayek Essential Oils – The Chemotaxonomic
    • First page: 782
      Abstract: The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total, 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia) and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida, accounting for 93.9%, 98.4% and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7‐52.1%), germacrene D (8.6‐24.6%) and (E)‐caryophyllene (6.5‐16.5%) while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)‐phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%) and (E)‐caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. Chemical composition of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T06:30:27.251838-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500254
  • Positional‐species composition of diacylglycerol acetates from
           mature euonymus seeds
    • Authors: Roman A. Sidorov; Vasily P. Pchelkin, Anatoly V. Zhukov, Vladimir D. Tsydendambaev
      First page: 789
      Abstract: Positional‐species composition (PSC) of 1,2‐diacyl‐3‐acetyl‐sn‐glycerols (AcDAGs) from the seeds of mature fruits of 14 species of Euonymus L. genus was established. The residues of six major fatty acids (FAs), palmitic, stearic, hexadecenoic (H), octadecenoic (O), linoleic (L), and linolenic, were present in the AcDAGs. Here we demonstrated, that profile of PSC of AcDAGs could serve as chemotaxonomic factor to divide euonymus species studied here into groups which completely correlate with the present‐day systematic of the genus. In particular, the Euonymus section greatly exceeded other sections of the Euonymus subgenus as well as the Kalonymus one in the total levels of AcDAGs positional species having one and two O residues and was characterized by significantly lesser concentrations of species with one and two L residues. Moreover, in seed AcDAGs of almost all Euonymus species EFL values were slightly higher than EFO ones, but all EFL and EFO values were higher than 1.0 and therefore it can be concluded that both FAs mainly esterified sn‐2‐position of the glycerol moiety and saturated FAs residues were always virtually absent in the sn‐2 position of Euonymus seed AcDAGs, as it is also the case in nearly all TAGs molecules of plant origin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-04T03:05:25.690838-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500269
  • On the Permeation by Dioxygen of Urate Oxidase from Aspergillus flavus in
           Complex with Xanthine Anion. Dioxygen Pathways and a Portrait of the
           Enzyme Cavities from Molecular Dynamics Simulations in Water Solution
    • Authors: Francesco Pietra
      First page: 798
      Abstract: This work describes molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in aqueous media for the complex of the homotetrameric urate oxidase (UOX) from Aspergillus flavus with xanthine anion (5) in the presence of dioxygen (O2). After 196.6 ns of trajectory from unrestrained MD, a O2 molecule was observed leaving the bulk solvent to penetrate the enzyme between two subunits, A/C. From here, the same O2 molecule was observed migrating, across subunit C, to the hydrophobic cavity that shares residue V227 with the active site. The latter was finally attained, after 378.3 ns of trajectory, with O2 at a bonding distance from 5. The reverse same O2 pathway, from 5 to the bulk solvent, was observed as preferred pathway under random acceleration MD (RAMD), where an external, randomly oriented force was acting on O2. Both MD and RAMD simulations revealed a number of cavities populated by O2 during its migration from the bulk solvent to the active site, or backwards. Paying attention to the last hydrophobic cavity, that apparently serves as O2 reservoir for the active site, it was noticed that its volume undergoes ample fluctuations during the MD simulation, as expected from the thermal motion of a flexible protein, independently from the particular subunit and no matter whether the cavity is filled or not by O2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-05-25T05:50:36.565987-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500293
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