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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 847 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (47 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (598 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (598 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 153)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access  
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access  
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 148)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 197)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Chemistry & Biodiversity
  [SJR: 0.723]   [H-I: 40]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-1872 - ISSN (Online) 1612-1880
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Frankincense Revisited, Part II: Volatiles in Rare Boswellia Species and
           Hybrids
    • Authors: Johannes Niebler; Jason Eslamieh, Andrea Buettner
      Abstract: In this second part of the investigation of volatiles and semivolatiles in Boswellia gum resins, an additional five less common species were analyzed by (SPME‐)GC‐MS, namely B. ameero, B. elongata, B. neglecta, B. popoviana and B. rivae. Moreover, the results of hybridization experiments are reported in combination with the volatile composition of their gum resins. Our study shows that B. sacra benefits from an intra‐specific cross‐pollination, as the resulting hybrid B. sacra var. supersacra has a far higher seed germination rate and viability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T03:41:05.445331-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500339
       
  • Frankincense Revisited, Part I: Comparative Analysis of Volatiles in
           Commercially Relevant Boswellia Species
    • Authors: Johannes Niebler; Andrea Buettner
      Abstract: The genus Boswellia comprises a number of species which are famous for their production of frankincense, a fragrant gum resin. In the published literature, manifold studies on the volatiles and semivolatiles in individual samples of these gum resins exist, yet very few studies have investigated multiple samples. Contradictory results with regard to the volatile composition exist in literature. In this first part of the study, a large sample set (n=46) of mostly commercially obtained gum resins and essential oils was investigated by solid phase micro‐extraction gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (SPME‐GC‐MS) or GC‐MS. In the four commercially relevant species, namely B. sacra, B. serrata, B. papyrifera and B. frereana, 216 compounds were identified or tentatively identified, and the statistical evaluation of the resulting chemical profiles allowed a clear distinction between the species by their volatile profile. With only few exceptions, the designated species was found to be in accordance with the composition reported in reliable literature sources and detected in botanically identified samples. Chemotaxonomic marker substances were suggested to facilitate the differentiation of commercial gum resins or essential oils based on their volatile profile. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25T03:40:52.984659-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500329
       
  • Identification and Biological Activities of Long‐Chain Peptaibols
           Produced by a Marine‐Derived Strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum
    • Abstract: Six long‐chain peptaibols, 1 – 6, were identified from agar cultures of a marine‐derived Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai strain (MMS151) isolated from blue mussels. Structure elucidation was carried out using electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI‐IT‐MS) and GC/EI‐MS. The long‐chain peptaibols exhibited the general building scheme Ac‐Aib‐Ala‐Aib‐Ala‐Aib‐XXX‐Gln‐Aib‐Vxx‐Aib‐Gly‐XXX‐Aib‐Pro‐Vxx‐Aib‐XXX‐Gln‐Gln‐Pheol and were similar or identical to recurrent 20‐residue peptaibols produced by Trichoderma spp. Three sequences were new and called longibrachins A‐0, A‐II‐a, and A‐IV‐b. The isolated peptaibols were assayed for cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities, and acute toxicity on Dipteran larvae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-24T01:10:34.781094-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500159
       
  • New Alkaloids and α‐Glucosidase Inhibitory Flavonoids from
           Ficus hispida
    • Abstract: Two new pyrrolidine alkaloids, ficushispimines A (1) and B (2), a new ω‐(dimethylamino)caprophenone alkaloid, ficushispimine C (3), and a new indolizidine alkaloid, ficushispidine (4), together with the known alkaloid 5 and eleven known isoprenylated flavonoids 6 – 16, were isolated from the twigs of Ficus hispida. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Isoderrone (8), 3’‐(3‐methylbut‐2‐en‐1‐yl)biochanin A (11), myrsininone A (12), ficusin A (13), and 4’,5,7‐trihydroxy‐6‐[(1R*,6R*)‐3‐methyl‐6‐(1‐methylethenyl)cyclohex‐2‐en‐1‐yl]isoflavone (14) showed inhibitory effects on α‐glucosidase in vitro. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-22T09:25:31.637768-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500142
       
  • Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Heracleum
           verticillatum Pančić and H. ternatum Velen. (Apiaceae) Essential
           Oils
    • Abstract: In this work, the chemical composition, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Heracleum verticillatum Pančić and H. ternatum Velen. root, leaf and fruit essential oils were investigated. The composition was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Heracleum verticillatum and H. ternatum root oils were dominated by monoterpenes, mostly β‐pinene (23.5 and 47.3%, respectively). Heracleum verticillatum leaf oil was characterized by monoterpenes, mainly limonene (20.3%), and sesquiterpenes, mostly (E)‐caryophyllene (19.1%), while H. ternatum leaf oil by the high percentage of phenylpropanoids, with (Z)‐isoelemicin (35.1%) being dominant constituent. Both fruit oils contained the majority of aliphatic esters, mostly octyl acetate (42.3% in H. verticillatum oil and 49.0% in H. ternatum oil). The antimicrobial activity of the oils was determined by microdilution method against eight bacterial and eight fungal strains. The strongest effect was exhibited by H. verticillatum root oil, particularly against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium (MICs=0.14 mg/ml, MBCs=0.28 mg/ml) and Trichoderma viride (MIC=0.05 mg/ml, MFC=0.11 mg/ml). Cytotoxic effect was determined by MTT test against malignant HeLa, LS174 and A549 cells (IC50=5.9‐146.0 μg/ml), and against normal MRC‐5 cells (IC50>120.1 μg/ml). The best effect was exhibited by H. verticillatum root oil on A549 cells (IC50=5.9 μg/ml), and H. ternatum root oil against LS174 cells (IC50=6.7 μg/ml). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-14T08:37:10.120096-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500151
       
  • Chemotaxonomic Approach to the Central Balkan Sedum Species Based on
           Distribution of Triterpenoids in Their Cuticular Waxes
    • Abstract: Triterpenoid distribution in cuticular waxes of 20 central Balkan Sedum L. species and 4 out‐groups of genera: Hylotelephium H. Ohba, Crassula L., Echeveria DC. and Kalanchoe Adans. were investigated for chemotaxonomic purposes. Identification and quantification of wax triterpenoids were performed by GC‐MS and GC‐FID analyses. Distribution of identified triterpenoids (oleanane, lupane and taraxerane series), as a pattern in statistical analysis, indicated very good agreement with phylogeny and systematics, except members of series Rupestria Berger, in which case distribution of triterpenoids did not support known classification in a satisfactory manner. According to obtained clustering, Kalanchoe is shown as similar to Sedum samples, while the other out‐groups were clearly separated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-14T08:31:23.908643-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500148
       
  • Fatty Acid Patterns of Seeds of some Salvia Species from Iran – A
           Chemotaxonomic Approach
    • Authors: Seyed Hamed Moazzami Farida; Tayebeh Radjabian, Massoud Ranjbar, Seyed Alireza Salami, Nosrat Rahmani, Abdolbaset Ghorbani
      Abstract: In the present study, the seed oil content and fatty acid (FA) profile of 21 populations from 16 wild Salvia species of Iran were analyzed by GC. Patterns of chemical variations of the oils among species were identified via numerical analyses and also the taxonomic status of the infrageneric grouping was outlined in the genus. Salvia species were scored based on the contents of main FAs using principal coordinate analysis (PCO). Results showed that the total oil content in the seeds varied significantly, and ranged from 6.68 to 38.53% dry weight. α‐Linolenic (18:3ω3, 1.69 – 53.56%), linoleic (18:2ω6, 13.04 – 60.64%), oleic (18:1ω9, 6.15 – 27.06%), palmitic (16:0, 3.77 – 9.27%), and stearic (18:0, 1.78 – 3.05%) acid were identified as five major FAs in the oils. The amount of ω‐3 and ω‐6 FAs ranged between 1.90 – 53.80% and 13.46 – 60.83% of total FAs in the seed oils, respectively. The results confirmed that FA profiles were distinctive among species and that they can be used as chemotaxonomic markers. The discrimination of Salvia species according to their botanical classification at intersectional level was supported. In general, seed oils of Salvia species were rich sources of poly‐unsaturated FAs, exceptionally linoleic and α‐linolenic acid and may be valuable for food and pharmaceutical industries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-14T08:31:16.220801-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500147
       
  • Advances in Chemistry and Bioactivity of the Genus Chisocheton Blume
    • Authors: Jamil A. Shilpi; Sanjib Saha, Chong Soon Lim, Lutfun Nahar, Satyajit D. Sarker, Khalijah Awang
      Abstract: Chisocheton is one of the genera of the family Meliaceae, and consists of ca. 53 species; the distribution of most of those are confined to Indo‐Malay region. Species of broader geographic distribution have undergone extensive phytochemical investigations. Previous phytochemical investigations of this genus resulted in the isolation of mainly limonoids, apotirucallane, tirucallane and dammarane triterpenes. Reported bioactivities of the isolated compounds include cytotoxic, anti‐inflammatory, antifungal, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antifeedant, and lipid droplet inhibitory activities. Apart from chemistry and biological activities, this review also deals briefly with botany, distribution, and uses of various species of this genus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11T04:25:41.113876-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400373
       
  • Comparison of the Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of the
           Essential Oils of Green Branches and Leaves of Egyptian Navel Orange
           (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var. Malesy)
    • Authors: Omayma A. Eldahshan; Ahmed F. Halim
      Abstract: The essential oils isolated from the leaves and green branches of the Egyptian navel orange trees were analyzed by GC and GC‐MS. Thirty three and twenty four compounds were identified from the oils of the leaves and branches accounting for 96.0 and 97.9% respectively of the total detected constituents. The major ones were: sabinene (36.5; 33.0%), terpinen‐4‐ol (8.2; 6.2%), δ‐3‐carene (7.0; 9.4%), limonene (6.8; 18.7%), trans‐ocimene (6.7; 6.1%) and β‐myrcene (4.5; 4.4%). The antimicrobial activities of both oils were evaluated using the agar well diffusion method towards three representatives for each of Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. The oil of leaves was more effective as antimicrobial agent than that of the branches. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most sensitive bacteria and fungi by the leaves oil. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07T04:44:09.492647-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500139
       
  • Herbicidal and Cytotoxic Constituents from Aralia armata (Wall.) Seem
    • Authors: Hui Miao; Yongyan Sun, Yunfei Yuan, Huanhuan Zhao, Jiao Wu, Weiyun Zhang, Lijuan Zhou
      Abstract: Two new triterpenoids, 3β‐hydroxy‐olean‐11, 13(18)‐diene‐28, 30‐dioic acid (1) and 3‐oxoolean‐11, 13(18)‐diene‐28, 30‐dioic acid (2), one novel triterpenoid glycoside, 3β‐O‐(6’‐O‐methyl‐β‐D‐glucurono‐pyranosyl)‐hydroxy‐oleana‐11, 12(18)‐dien‐28‐oic acid (3) along with six known compounds (4‐9) were isolated from the stem bark of Aralia armata (Wall.) Seem.. Their structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic methods. The herbicidal activities of these compounds against Bidens pilosa L., an invasive weed in China, were evaluated. Compounds 3, 5 and 6 exhibited more significant herbicidal activities on B. pilosa than the positive control pendimethalin. Their possible use as herbicidal chemicals or model compounds deserved more attention. The effects of compounds 1‐9 on Spodoptera litura cultured cell line Sl‐1 cell proliferation and its morphology were also evaluated. The results indicated that compounds 1‐5 affected Sl‐1 cell proliferation. Compound 3 showed more obvious proliferation inhibition activities on Sl‐1 cell than the positive control rotenone. In regarding to the effect on morphology, compound 2 significantly changed Sl‐1 cell, resulting in cell blebbing and vacuole forming. Triterpenoids was usually medicinally and agriculturally important and cytotoxicity of the three new compounds 1‐3 deserved further studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07T04:43:57.763733-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500130
       
  • Antioxidant Properties and Flavonoid Profile in Leaves of Calabrian
           Lavandula multifida L., an Autochthon Plant of Mediterranean Southern
           regions
    • Authors: Maria Rosaria Panuccio; Angela Fazio, Teresa Papalia, Davide Barreca
      Abstract: L. multifida is a rare short‐lived plant characteristic of Mediterranean basin able to survive in hot and arid climatic conditions on poorly‐evolved limestone soils. In this work we characterize the enzymatic antioxidant system and phenolic composition, as well as the antioxidant properties of L. multifida fresh leaves. Enzymatic patterns show high level of peroxidases, ascorbate peroxidase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities, if compared to L. angustifolia. The same trend is evident in total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione and in the total antioxidant capacity assay. Moreover, RP‐DAD‐HPLC analyses of ethanol extract, obtained by fresh leaves, reveal, as main components, carvacrol, vitexin and 7‐ or 8‐glucoside derivatives of hypolaetin, scutellarein, luteolin, isoscutellarein, apigenin and chrysoeriol. The analysis of this autochthon plant depicted a series of strategies adopted by L. multifida to survive in its stressful natural habitat and a richness in health‐promoting compounds that can be a resource for the preservation of this variety in dangerous of extinction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07T04:40:03.917976-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500115
       
  • New Caledonia: A Hot Spot for Valuable Chemodiversity
    • Authors: Paul Coulerie; Cyril Poullain
      Abstract: The flora of New Caledonia encompasses more than 3000 plant species and an endemism of almost 80%. New Caledonia is even considered as one of the 34 ‘hot spots’ for biodiversity. Considering the current global loss of biodiversity and the fact that several drugs and pesticides become obsolete, there is an urgent need to increase sampling and research on new natural products. In this context, we here reviewed the chemical knowledge available on New Caledonian native flora from economical perspectives. We expect that a better knowledge of the economic potential of plant chemistry will encourage the plantation of native plants for the development of a sustainable economy which will participate in the conservation of biodiversity. This review is divided into three parts, and the third part which is presented here summarizes the scientific literature related to the chemistry of endemic santalales, caryophyllales, and asterids. We show that the high rate of endemism is correlated with the originality of phytochemicals encountered in New Caledonian plants. 176 Original natural compounds have been identified from these plants whereas a lot of species have not been investigated so far. We also discuss the economic potential of plants and molecules with consideration of their medicinal and industrial perspectives. This review finally highlights several groups, such as Sapotaceae, that are unexplored in New Caledonia despite the high chemical interest in them. These plants are considered to have priority in future chemical investigations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-03T09:45:52.107231-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500101
       
  • Lasiolactols A and B Produced by the Grapevine Fungal Pathogen
           Lasiodiplodia mediterranea
    • Authors: Anna Andolfi; Sara Basso, Selene Giambra, Gaetano Conigliaro, Sandra Lo Piccolo, Artur Alves, Santella Burruano
      Abstract: A strain of Lasiodiplodia mediterranea, a fungus associated with grapevine decline in Sicily, produced several metabolites in liquid medium. Two new dimeric γ‐lactols, lasiolactols A and B (1 and 2), were characterized as (2S*,3S*,4R*,5R*,2’S*,3’S*,4’R*,5’R*)‐ and (2R*,3S*,4R*,5R*,2’R*,3’S*,4’R*,5’R*)‐(5‐(4‐hydroxymethyl‐3,5‐dimethyl‐tetrahydro‐furan‐2‐yloxy)‐2,4‐dimethyl‐tetrahydro‐furan‐3‐yl]‐methanols by IR, 1D‐ and 2D‐NMR and HR‐ESI‐MS. Other four metabolites were identified as botryosphaeriodiplodin, (5R)‐5‐hydroxylasiodiplodin, (–)‐(1R,2R)‐jasmonic acid, (–)‐(3S,4R,5R)‐4‐hydroxymethyl‐3,5‐dimethyldihydro‐2‐furanone (3 – 6, resp.). The absolute configuration (R) at hydroxylated secondary C‐atom C(7) was also established for compound 3. The compounds 1 – 3, 5 and 6, tested for their phytotoxic activities to grapevine cv. Inzolia leaves at different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/ml), were phytotoxic and compound 5 showed the highest toxicity. All metabolites did not show in vitro antifungal activity against four plant pathogens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-03T09:38:51.522456-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500104
       
  • Chaephilones A and B, Two New Azaphilone Derivatives Isolated from
           Chaetomium globosum
    • Authors: Chunmei Chen; Jing Wang, Hucheng Zhu, Jianping Wang, Yongbo Xue, Guangzheng Wei, Yi Guo, Dongdong Tan, Jinwen Zhang, Chunping Yin, Yonghui Zhang
      Abstract: Two new azaphilone derivatives, chaephilones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the fungus Chaetomium globosum, together with four structural related analogs 3 – 6. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses including HR‐ESI‐MS and NMR. The known compounds were identified as chaetomugilin Q (3), chaetomugilin D (4), 11‐epichaetomugilin A (5), and chaetomugilin S (6) by comparing their NMR data and optical rotation values with those reported in literature. Compound 2 represents the first example of azaphilone with the furan ring opened. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HL‐60, SMMC‐7721, A‐549, MCF‐7, and SW480) by the MTS method. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-03-03T09:31:43.646785-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500117
       
  • Dehalogenation Activity of Selected Fungi Towards
           δ‐Iodo‐γ‐Lactone Derived from trans,
           trans‐Farnesol
    • Abstract: Time‐course of biotransformation of racemic trans‐4‐((E)‐4’,8’‐dimethylnona‐3’,7’‐dien‐1‐yl)‐5‐iodomethyl‐4‐methyldihydrofuran‐2‐one (1) in fungal and yeast cultures was investigated. In these conditions the substrate 1 was enantioselectively dehalogenated yielding 4‐((E)‐4’,8’‐dimethylnona‐3’,7’‐dien‐1‐yl)‐4‐methyl‐5‐methylenedihydrofuran‐2‐one (2), which structure was established based on the spectroscopic data. The most effective biocatalyst was Didymosphaeria igniaria, which catalyzed the process with highest rate and enantioselectivity (ee of product =76%). The antiproliferative activity of δ‐iodo‐γ‐lactone 1, product of its biotransformation 2 and starting substrate – farnesol has been evaluated towards two cancer cell lines: A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) and HL‐60 (human promyelocytic leukaemia). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-02-29T06:14:40.562934-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500127
       
  • Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil and
           Methanol Extract of Hypericum aegypticum subsp. webbii (Spach) N. Robson
    • Abstract: Hypericum aegypticum subsp. webbii is evergreen shrub spread in Mediterranean part of Central and Southeastern Europe. The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and methanol extract of H. aegypticum subsp. webbii were investigated. The monoterpenes α‐pinene (63.4 ‐ 68.5%) and β‐pinene (16.9 ‐ 17.0%) were main compounds in the volatile oil from aerial parts. In the cluster analysis the essential oil of H. aegypticum subsp. webbii was separated and chemically different than the oil of other subspecies of H. aegypticum as well as other Hypericum species from Greece. SIMPER analysis revealed that α‐pinene (24.79%) was the component that contributed the most to differences between all oils. Also there was extremely high overall dissimilarity between three subspecies of H. aegypticum. Methanol extract of aerial parts of H. aegypticum subsp. webbii contained flavonoids rutin (56.4 ± 0.9 mg/g), hyperoside and quercetin and phenolic acids chlorogenic and caffeic acid, while naphthodianthrones were not detected. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil was moderate (100‐>200 μg/ml), while methanol extract inhibited the growth of Gram‐positive bacteria B. subtilis, E. faecalis, S. epidermidis, and M. luteus (MIC 50‐100 μg/ml), more pronounced than the extract of H. perforatum (MIC 200‐ >200 μg/ml). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-02-29T06:14:06.35594-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500119
       
  • Chemical composition of the essential oil and diethyl ether extract of
           Trinia glauca (L.) Dumort. (Apiaceae) and the chemotaxonomic significance
           of 5‐O‐methylvisamminol
    • Abstract: Analyses by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy (1D and 2D experiments) of the essential oil and diethyl ether extract of Trinia glauca (L.) Dumort. (Apiaceae) aerial parts allowed a successful identification of 220 constituents, in total. The major identified compounds of the essential oil were (Z)‐falcarinol (10.6%), bicyclogermacrene (8.0%), germacrene D (7.4%), δ‐cadinene (4.3%) and β‐caryophyllene (3.2%); whereas (Z)‐falcarinol (47.2%), nonacosane (7.4%) and 5‐O‐methylvisamminol (4.0%) were the dominant constituents of the extract of T. glauca. One significant difference between the compositions of the herein and previously analyzed T. glauca essential oils (only two reports) was noted. (Z)‐Falcarinol was the major constituent in our case, whereas germacrene D (14.4 and 19.6%) was the major component of the previously studied oils. Possible explanations for this discrepancy were discussed. 5‐O‐Methylvisamminol, a (furo)chromone identified in the extract of T. glauca, has a limited occurrence in the plant kingdom and is a possible excellent chemotaxonomic marker (family and/or subfamily level) for Apiaceae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T07:34:34.593118-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500111
       
  • Correlation between the chemical and genetic relationships among Thymus
           ■saturejoides■ genotypes cultured under in vitro and in vivo
           environments
    • Authors: Aicha Nordine; Sripada M. Udupa, Driss Iraqi, Khalid Meksem, Mohamed Hmamouchi, Abdelmalek El Meskaoui
      Abstract: In this study, the in vitro and in vivo essential oil (EO) composition and genetic variability of six micropropagated genotypes of Thymus saturejoides Coss., a Mediterranean medicinal and aromatic plant, were analyzed by GC/MS and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Yield and composition of the EO varied between genotypes. Cluster analysis based on RAPD data and EO grouped the six genotypes in three groups in both culture conditions, thus showing considerable intraspecific genetic and chemical variations. Applying the Mantel test, the result showed a significant correlation between the two proximity matrices; RAPD and EO obtained from in vitro genotypes whereas this correlation was not observed when using the EO obtained from the in vivo genotypes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T06:57:05.757669-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500102
       
  • Diterpenoids of Gorgonian Corals: Chemistry and Bioactivity
    • Authors: Hui Lei
      Abstract: During the past seven years, many complex and structurally unique secondary metabolites have been isolated from gorgonian corals. In this review, we report diterpenoids isolated from gorgonian corals complete with their structure, names, references and biological activities. The article covers the literature published during the period from 2008 to 2014, with 95 citations and 244 compounds from gorgonian corals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T06:54:01.419625-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500030
       
  • Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus
           halepensis growing in Corsica
    • Abstract: The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS, 13C‐NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77‐100% of the whole composition have been identified. α‐Pinene, myrcene and (E)‐β‐caryophyllene were the major component followed by α‐humulene and 2‐phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. Forty seven oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M= 28.1g/100g; SD = 10.6) and (E)‐β‐caryophyllene (M = 19.0g/100g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)‐β‐caryophyllene (M = 28.7g/100g; SD = 7.9), α‐pinene (M = 12.3g/100g; SD = 3.6) and myrcene (M = 11.7g/100g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T06:42:25.243814-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500097
       
  • Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus
           halepensis growing in Corsica
    • Abstract: The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno, and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS and 13C‐NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77 – 100% of the whole composition have been identified. α‐Pinene, myrcene, and (E)‐β‐caryophyllene were the major component followed by α‐humulene and 2‐phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. 47 Oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M = 28.1 g/100 g; SD = 10.6) and (E)‐β‐caryophyllene (M = 19.0 g/100 g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)‐β‐caryophyllene (M = 28.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.9), α‐pinene (M = 12.3 g/100 g; SD = 3.6), and myrcene (M = 11.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule.
       
  • Contents: C&B 4/2016
    •  
  • Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Origanum libanoticum,
           Origanum ehrenbergii and Origanum syriacum Growing Wild in Lebanon
    • Abstract: The essential oils (EOs) of the aerial parts of Origanum libanoticum and O. ehrenbergii, endemic of Lebanon, and O. syriacum, endemic of the Levantine, were obtained by distillation with a Clevenger apparatus. GC and GC/MS allowed identification of 96.4%, 93.5% and 95.2% of their constituents, respectively. Carvacrol was the major component of both O. syriacum EO (79%) and O. ehrenbergii EO (60.8%). This compound was absent in O. libanoticum EO, the major compounds of which were β‐caryophyllene (26.8%), caryophyllene oxide (22.6%) and germacrene‐D (17.2%). Assessment of their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and six pathogenic bacteria revealed that O. libanoticum EO was inactive while O. syriacum and O. ehrenbergii showed moderate antimicrobial activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations varying from 400 to 1200 μg/ml. These results support the traditional use of these last two species in traditional herbal preparations in Lebanon. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • A Potent Phytotoxic Substance in Aglaia odorata Lour
    • Abstract: Aglaia odorata Lour. (Meliaceae) was found to have very strong allelopathic activity and an bio‐herbicide PORGANIC™ was developed from its leaf extracts. However, the phytotoxic substances causing the strong allelopathic activity of the plants have not yet been determined. Therefore, we investigated allelopathic properties and phytotoxic substances in A. odorata. Aqueous ethanol extracts of A. odorata leaves inhibited root and shoot growth of garden cress (Lepidum sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), timothy (Phleum pratense), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and Echinochloa crus‐galli with the extract concentration‐dependent manner. The extracts were then purified and a major phytotoxic substance with allelopathic activity was isolated and identified by spectral data as rocaglaol. Rocaglaol inhibited the growth of garden cress and E. crus‐galli at concentrations greater than 0.3 and 0.03 μM, respectively. The concentrations required for 50% inhibition ranged from 0.09 to 2.5 μM. The inhibitory activity of rocaglaol on the weed species, E. crus‐galli, was much greater than that of abscisic acid. These results suggest that rocaglaol may be a major contributor to the allelopathic effect of A. odorata and bio‐herbicide PORGANIC™. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Phenolic Compounds from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O.Kuntze and Their
           Inhibitory Effects on α‐Glucosidase and Vascular Endothelial
           Cells Injury
    • Abstract: Following an in vitro bioactivity‐guided fractionation procedure, 14 compounds including eight flavonoids and six phenylpropanoids were isolated and identified from the AcOEt fraction of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O.Kuntze. All constituents were tested for α‐glucosidase and high glucose–induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) inhibitory activities. All constituents exhibited varying degrees α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity and protective activity on HUVECs. Among them, luteolin (2), eriodictyol (5), ethyl rosmarinate (13), clinopodic acids B(14)were proved to be potent α‐glucosidase inhibitors with IC50 value ranging from 0.6 to 2.0 μM. Additionally, luteolin (2), naringenin (4), eriodictyol (5), ethyl (2R)‐3‐(3, 4‐dihydroxyphenyl)‐2‐hydroxypropanate (9), caffeic acid (11), ethyl rosmarinate (13) and clinopodic acids B (14) significantly ameliorate HUVECs injury induced by high glucose with an approximated EC50 value of 3‐36 μM. These results suggest that the 14 bioactive constituents were responsible for hypoglycemic and protective vascular endothelium effect of C. chinense (Benth.) O.Kuntze and their structure–activity relationship was also analyzed briefly. While, eriodictyol, luteolin, ethyl rosmarinate and clinopodic acids B were the potential lead compounds of antidiabetic drugs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Measurement of some Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids in Different Organs of
           Persian Poppy during Ontogenetical Stages
    • Abstract: Papaver bracteatum, a perennial species, has known as a rich source of thebaine and a potential alternative to Papaver somniferum for production of codeine and some semi‐synthetic antagonist drugs. In the current study, Ion Mobility Spectrum (IMS) of the root, leaf, bottom part of stem, upper part of stem, capsule wall, petal and capsule content during developmental stages of P. bracteatum including annual rosette, perennial rosette, bud initiation, pendulous bud, pre‐flowering and lancing were investigated. The ion mobility spectrum revealed thebaine, papaverine and noscapine as the major components of the extracted alkaloids. Based on the results of the study it appears that, at least in part, there are competition among the biosynthesis pathways of papaverine, noscapine and morphinan alkaloids from a common source. Root and capsule wall were the most potent organs for extraction of thebaine, while lancing stage was the best developmental stage for thebaine exploitation. However it seems that total biomass of root and capsule wall plays a key role in the final selection of favorite organ. Although papaverine and noscapine in the stem at pre‐flowering stage had the most quantity, however, significant amounts were found in the capsule wall. In general total alkaloid content of leaf was lower than the other plant parts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Diversity of sterol composition in Tunisian Pistacia lentiscus seed oil
    • Abstract: Pistacia lentiscus L. seed oil is used in some Mediterranean forest area for culinary and medicinal purposes. In this study, we aim to examine, for the first time, the effect of growing area on sterol content of Pistacia lentiscus seed oil. Fruits were harvested from thirteen different sites located in northern and central Tunisia. Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detection (GC–FID) was used to quantify sterols and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to identify them. The major sterol identified was β‐sitosterol with a value ranging from 854.12 to 1224.09 mg/kg of oil, thus making up more than 54% of the total sterols. The other two main sterols were cycloartenol (11%) and 24‐methylene‐cycloartenol (5%). Statistical results revealed that growing location significantly (P < 0.001) affected phytosterol levels in these oils. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Inhibitory Kinetics of Azachalcones and their Oximes on Mushroom
           Tyrosinase: a Facile Solid‐State Synthesis
    • Abstract: A solid‐state based mechanochemical process was used to synthesize novel azachalcones and their oximes as tyrosinase inhibitors. Their inhibitory activities on mushroom tyrosinase using L‐DOPA as a substrate were investigated. Two of the novel oxime derivatives synthesized were seen to be more potent than the positive control, kojic acid. Both the compounds 1b and 2b inhibited the diphenolase activity of tyrosinase in a dose dependent manner with their IC50values of 15.3 μM and 12.7 μM, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that their inhibition mechanism was reversible. Both the novel oxime compounds displayed competitive inhibition with their Ki values of 5.1 μM and 2.5 μM, respectively. This method minimizes waste disposal problems and provides a simple, efficient and benign method for the synthesis of novel tyrosinase inhibitors for use as skin whitening agents or as anti‐browning food additives. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Medicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Origanum onites (L.): A
           Review
    • Abstract: Origanum onites L., known as Turkish oregano, has great traditional, medicinal, preservative and commercial importance. It is used for the treatment of several kinds of ailments such as gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, high cholesterol, leukemia, bronchitis, etc. In this review, traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology of O. onites reported between 1988‐2014 were discussed. This review was prepared based on literature survey on scientific journals and books from libraries and electronic sources such as Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, etc. All databases were searched up to June 2014. Several different classes of terpenoids, triterpene acids, phenolic acids, hydroquinones, flavonoids, hydrocarbons, sterols, pigments, fatty acids, tocopherols, and inorganic compounds were detected mainly in the aerial parts of this plant. Pharmacological studies revealed that extracts obtained by several solvents and individual compounds exhibited antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, insecticidal, anti‐cancer, hepatoprotective, genotoxic, anti‐diabetic, cholinesterase inhibitory, anti‐inflammatory, analgesic activities etc. O. onites, in general, exhibited remarkable activity potential in almost all test systems. The results of toxicity studies indicated that O. onites did not show any significant toxicity and mutagenicity on Drosophila and Salmonella. Toxicity of the extracts/essential oils and also individual compounds should be evaluated on mammalian cells to ensure their safety on mammalian cells. The bioactivity of individual compounds apart from terpenoids should also be assessed in detail. Additionally, mode of action for the bioactive compounds should be evaluated to understand the complex pharmacological effects of these phytochemicals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • 1‐Acetyl‐3‐[(3R)‐hydroxyfatty
           acyl]‐glycerols: lipid compounds from Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne
           and E. tetraquetra (Bréb.) Arrond
    • Abstract: Five homologous acetylated acylglycerols of 3‐hydroxyfatty acids (chain lengths C14‐C18), named euphrasianins A‐E, were characterized for the first time in Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne (Orobanchaceae) by gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and high performance liquid chromatography‐atmospheric pressure chemical ionization‐mass spectrometry (HPLC‐APCI‐MSn). In addition to mass spectrometric data, structures of euphrasianins were verified via a three‐step total synthesis of one representative homologue (euphrasianin A). The structure of the latter was confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as high resolution electrospray ionization‐mass spectrometry (HR‐ESI‐MS). The absolute configuration of the 3‐hydroxyfatty acid moiety at C(3) was found to be R in the natural euphrasianins, which was determined by alkaline hydrolysis and methylation of a purified fraction, followed by chiral GC analysis. Furthermore, in extracts of E. tetraquetra (Bréb.) Arrond. exclusively euphrasianins C and E were detected, indicating that this subclass of lipid constituents is possibly valuable for fingerprinting methods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical Diversity and Antimicrobial Activity of Salvia multicaulis Vahl
           Essential Oils
    • Abstract: The chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) of aerial parts of Salvia multicaulis Vahl, collected during the same week from two different Lebanese regions, were investigated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger‐type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of these EOs were determined against one Gram‐negative and two Gram‐positive bacteria, one yeast, and five dermatophytes using the broth microdilution technique. One EO was notably active against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin‐resistant S. aureus and all of the Trichophyton species tested. Nerolidol was found to be the major compound in the active oil; nerolidol was also absent from the inactive oil. This study demonstrated that nerolidol shows antimicrobial activity and therefore significantly contributes to the antimicrobial potential of the oil. The chemical diversity of worldwide S. multicaulis EOs was analyzed, revealing that the EOs of the present study belong to two different chemotypes found in the literature. The nerolidol chemotype appears to be restricted to Lebanon and can be used as antimicrobial against external bacterial and fungal infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
 
 
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