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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 825 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (47 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (575 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (575 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 368)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Advanced Science Focus     Free  
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access  
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Afrique Science : Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Alchemy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AMB Express     Open Access  
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Applied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 223)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 277)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Autophagy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 283)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access  
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover   Chemistry & Biodiversity
  [SJR: 0.723]   [H-I: 40]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-1872 - ISSN (Online) 1612-1880
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1608 journals]
  • Contents: C&B 4/2015
    • PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:04.189584-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201590004
       
  • Secondary Metabolites of Plants from the Genus Chloranthus: Chemistry and
           Biological Activities
    • Authors: An‐Ran Wang; Hong‐Chuan Song, Hong‐Mei An, Qian Huang, Xie Luo, Jin‐Yan Dong
      Pages: 451 - 473
      Abstract: Chloranthus, a genus of the family Chloranthaceae, which is mainly distributed in eastern and southern Asia, has been used in Chinese folk medicine due to its antitumor, antifungal, and anti‐inflammatory activities. This review compiles the research on isolation, structure elucidation, structural diversity, and bioactivities of Chloranthus secondary metabolites reported between 2007 and 2013. The metabolites listed encompass 82 sesquiterpenoids, 50 dimeric sesquiterpenoids, 15 diterpenoids, one coumarin, and five other compounds. Among them, dimeric sesquiterpenoids, the characteristic components of plants from the genus Chloranthus, have attracted considerable attention due to their complex structures and significant biological features, e.g., antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, anti‐inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities, and potent and selective inhibition of the delayed rectifier (IK) K+ current and tyrosinase.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:04.341216-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201300376
       
  • Chemical and Pharmacological Progress on Polyacetylenes Isolated from the
           Family Apiaceae
    • Authors: Yuemei Chen; Shiyi Peng, Qiongzhi Luo, Juan Zhang, Qiang Guo, Yuan Zhang, Xingyun Chai
      Pages: 474 - 502
      Abstract: This review presents an up‐to‐date survey of natural polyacetylenes isolated from the family Apiaceae, and their biosynthesis and biological activities up to May 2013, with 107 references. A total of 103 polyacetylenes from 72 species of 41 genera of Apiaceae have been isolated so far, among which falcarinol‐type polyacetylenes are most widely distributed.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:04.872895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201300396
       
  • Restoring Histone Deacetylase Activity by Waste Product Release. A View
           from Molecular Mechanics Simulations with Mammalian HDAC8
    • Authors: Francesco Pietra
      Pages: 503 - 512
      Abstract: HDAC8 is a ZnII‐based, single‐peptide mammalian histone deacetylase that is localized mainly in the cytoskeleton of smooth muscle cells, thus regulating muscle contractility. HDACs are also widely involved in cellular processes, ranging from cell differentiation to proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis; in particular, protecting a telomerase activator from ubiquitin‐mediated degradation. How HDACs can eliminate the hydrolytic reaction products, in order that the process of deacetylation of the acetyllysine moiety of histones can take place again, has long been debated in the scientific literature, without reaching any firm conclusion, however. This question is the subject of the present work, carried out along a theoretical line that is capable of describing the whole pathway followed by the acetate product (ACT). A model was built here on the crystal data for the Y306F‐mutated HDAC8 complex with a diacetylated peptide of the p53‐tumor‐suppressor class. That was followed by manually hydrolyzing the acetylated moiety bound to ZnII and discharging the monoacetylated peptide product (MAP). The latter was replaced by a H2O molecule bound to ZnII, while ACT was left free in the reaction cage. This ZnII cluster was DFT‐parameterized for the ff99SB force field without any further bias. As the result of random‐acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations, egress of ACT from the reaction cage toward the aqueous environment can follow three pathways. Two of them utilize the channel for peptide (or histone) uptake and are preferred, if ACT leaves the reaction center before MAP (or the deacetylated histone). The third pathway, developing along the internal channel, is available to ACT even if MAP is still in place.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:09.106576-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400314
       
  • 4‐Cyano‐α‐methyl‐l‐phenylalanine as a
           Spectroscopic Marker for the Investigation of PeptaibioticMembrane
           Interactions
    • Authors: Marta De Zotti; Sara Bobone, Annalisa Bortolotti, Edoardo Longo, Barbara Biondi, Cristina Peggion, Fernando Formaggio, Claudio Toniolo, Andrea Dalla Bona, Bernard Kaptein, Lorenzo Stella
      Pages: 513 - 527
      Abstract: Two analogs of the ten‐amino acid residue, membrane‐active lipopeptaibiotic trichogin GA IV, mono‐labeled with 4‐cyano‐α‐methyl‐L‐phenylalanine, a potentially useful fluorescence and IR absorption probe of the local microenvironment, were synthesized by the solid‐phase methodology and conformationally characterized. The single modification was incorporated either at the N‐terminus (position 1) or near the C‐terminus (position 8) of the peptide main chain. In both cases, the replaced amino acid was the equally helicogenic α‐aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) residue. We performed a solution conformational analysis by use of FT‐IR absorption, CD, and 2D‐NMR spectroscopies. The results indicate that both labeled analogs essentially maintain the overall helical propensity of the naturally occurring lipopeptaibiotic. Peptidemembrane interactions were assessed by fluorescence and ATR‐IR absorption techniques. Analogies and differences between the two peptides were highlighted. Taken together, our data confirm literature results that some of the spectroscopic parameters of the 4‐cyanobenzyl chromophore are sensitive markers of the local microenvironment.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:06.518026-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400404
       
  • Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel
           Oxazolo[5,4‐d]pyrimidines as Potent VEGFR‐2 Inhibitors
    • Authors: Ya‐Hui Deng; Dan Xu, Ye‐Xiang Su, Yi‐Juan Cheng, Yan‐Li Yang, Xiu‐Yun Wang, Juan Zhang, Qi‐Dong You, Li‐Ping Sun
      Pages: 528 - 537
      Abstract: Tumor angiogenesis is mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and other protein kinases. Inhibition of these kinases presents an attractive approach for developing anticancer therapeutics. In this work, a series of 2,5,7‐trisubstituted oxazolo[5,4‐d]pyrimidines were synthesized, and their inhibitory activities were investigated against VEGFR‐2 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. Compound 9n exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 0.33 and 0.29 μM for VEGFR‐2 kinase and HUVEC, respectively. A further kinase selectivity assay revealed that these compounds exhibit good VEGFR and moderate EGFR inhibitory activities. Docking analysis suggested a common mode of interaction at the ATP‐binding site of VEGFR‐2.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:08.565366-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400270
       
  • Suppression of Splenic Lymphocyte Proliferation by Eucommia ulmoides and
           Genipin
    • Authors: Gabsik Yang; Eun Kyoung Seo, Je‐Hyun Lee, Joo Young Lee
      Pages: 538 - 546
      Abstract: We investigated the modulation of innate and adaptive immune cell activation by Eucommia ulmoides Oliver extract (EUE) and its ingredient genipin. As an innate immunity indicator, the phagocytic activity of macrophages was determined by measuring engulfed, fluorescently labeled Escherichia coli. As a surrogate marker for the respective activation of cellular and humoral adaptive immunity, concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction of primary splenocyte proliferation was assayed in in vitro and ex vivo systems. EUE and genipin suppressed the proliferation of primary splenic lymphocytes induced by Con A or LPS, but not macrophage phagocytosis. Oral administration of EUE and genipin to mice decreased splenic lymphocyte proliferation induced by Con A or LPS. These results revealed that E. ulmoides and genipin suppressed cellular and humoral adaptive immunity, and they suggest that E. ulmoides and genipin are promising candidates for immunosuppressive drugs that target diseases that involve excessive activation of adaptive immunity.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:09.65557-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400376
       
  • Melanogenesis‐Inhibitory Activity and Cancer Chemopreventive Effect
           of Glucosylcucurbic Acid from Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) Kernels
    • Authors: Jie Zhang; Masahiro Kurita, Kodai Ebina, Motohiko Ukiya, Harukuni Tokuda, Ken Yasukawa, Eliot T. Masters, Naoto Shimizu, Momoko Akihisa, Feng Feng, Toshihiro Akihisa
      Pages: 547 - 558
      Abstract: Two jasmonate derivatives, glucosylcucurbic acid (1) and methyl glucosylcucurbate (2), were isolated from the MeOH extract of defatted shea (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae) kernels. These and their deglucosylated derivatives, cucurbic acid (3) and methyl cucurbate (4), were evaluated for their melanogenesis‐inhibitory and cancer chemopreventive potencies. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 exhibited potent melanogenesis‐inhibitory activities in α‐melanocyte‐stimulating hormone (α‐MSH)‐stimulated B16 melanoma cells. Western‐blot analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 3 reduced the protein levels of MITF (=microphthalmia‐associated transcription factor), tyrosinase, TRP‐1 (=tyrosine‐related protein 1), and TRP‐2 mostly in a concentration‐dependent manner. In addition, compound 1 exhibited inhibitory effects against EpsteinBarr virus early antigen (EBV‐EA) activation induced with 12‐O‐tetradecanoylphorbol‐13‐acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, against TPA‐induced inflammation in mice, and against skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two‐stage mouse skin carcinogenesis test based on 7,12‐dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as initiator, and with TPA as promoter.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:07.034812-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400424
       
  • Bis‐ and Tetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) Complexes with Mixed
           Axial Ligands – Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity
    • Authors: Björn R. Hoffmeister; Michaela Hejl, Mahsa S. Adib‐Razavi, Michael A. Jakupec, Markus Galanski, Bernhard K. Keppler
      Pages: 559 - 574
      Abstract: A series of twelve novel diamminetetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) and 18 novel bis(carboxylato)dichlorido(ethane‐1,2‐diamine)platinum(IV) complexes with mixed axial carboxylato ligands was synthesized and characterized by multinuclear 1H‐, 13C‐, 15N‐, and 195Pt‐NMR spectroscopy. Their cytotoxic potential was evaluated (by MTT assay) against three human cancer cell lines derived from ovarian teratocarcinoma (CH1/PA‐1), lung (A549), and colon carcinoma (SW480). In the cisplatin‐sensitive CH1/PA‐1 cancer cell line, diamminetetrakis(carboxylato)platinum(IV) complexes showed IC50 values in the low micromolar range, whereas, for the most lipophilic compounds of the bis(carboxylato)dichlorido(ethane‐1,2‐diamine)platinum(IV) series, IC50 values in the nanomolar range were found.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:07.650658-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400291
       
  • Identification and Biological Evaluation of Secondary Metabolites from the
           Endolichenic Fungus Aspergillus versicolor
    • Authors: Xiao‐Bin Li; Yan‐Hui Zhou, Rong‐Xiu Zhu, Wen‐Qiang Chang, Hui‐Qing Yuan, Wei Gao, Lu‐Lu Zhang, Zun‐Tian Zhao, Hong‐Xiang Lou
      Pages: 575 - 592
      Abstract: A chemical investigation of the endolichenic fungus Aspergillus versicolor (125a), which was found in the lichen Lobaria quercizans, resulted in the isolation of four novel diphenyl ethers, named diorcinols F–H (1–3, resp.) and 3‐methoxyviolaceol‐II (4), eight new bisabolane sesquiterpenoids, named (−)‐(R)‐cyclo‐hydroxysydonic acid (5), (−)‐(7S,8R)‐8‐hydroxysydowic acid (6), (−)‐(7R,10S)‐10‐hydroxysydowic acid (7), (−)‐(7R,10R)‐iso‐10‐hydroxysydowic acid (8), (−)‐12‐acetoxy‐1‐deoxysydonic acid (9), (−)‐12‐acetoxysydonic acid (10), (−)‐12‐hydroxysydonic acid (11), and (−)‐(R)‐11‐dehydrosydonic acid (12), two new tris(pyrogallol ethers), named sydowiols D (13) and E (14), and fifteen known compounds, 15–29. All of the structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses, and a number of them were further identified through chemical transformations and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Preliminary bioassays of these isolates for the determination of their inhibitory activities against the fungus Candida albicans, and their cytotoxicities against the human cancer cell lines PC3, A549, A2780, MDA‐MB‐231, and HEPG2 were also evaluated.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:05.310092-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400146
       
  • Insecticidal and Repellant Activities of Polyacetylenes and Lactones
           Derived from Atractylodes lancea Rhizomes
    • Authors: Hai‐Ping Chen; Li‐Shi Zheng, Kai Yang, Ning Lei, Zhu‐Feng Geng, Ping Ma, Qian Cai, Shu‐Shan Du, Zhi‐Wei Deng
      Pages: 593 - 598
      Abstract: During a screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the petroleum ether (PE) extract of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) rhizomes was found to possess repellent and contact activities against Tribolium castaneum adults. Bioactivity‐directed chromatographic separation of PE extract on repeated silica‐gel columns led to the isolation of two polyacetylenes, atractylodin and atractylodinol (1 and 2, resp.), and two lactones, atractylenolides II and III (3 and 4, resp.). The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on NMR spectra. The four isolated compounds were evaluated for their insecticidal and repellent activities against T. castaneum. Atractylodin exhibited strong contact activity against T. castaneum adults with a LD50 value of 1.83 μg/adult. Atractylodin and atractylenolide II also possessed strong repellenct activities against T. castaneum adults. After 4‐h exposure, >90% repellency was achieved with atractylodin at a low concentration of 0.63 μg/cm2. The results indicated that atractylodin (1) and atractylenolide II (3) have a good potential as a source for natural repellents, and 1 has the potential to be developed as natural insecticide.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:08.393724-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400161
       
  • Sesquiterpenoids with Anti‐MDR Staphylococcus aureus Activities from
           Ferula ferulioides
    • Authors: Tao Liu; Shuangying Wang, Lili Xu, Wei Fu, Simon Gibbons, Qing Mu
      Pages: 599 - 614
      Abstract: Seven new sesquiterpenoids together with 21 known sesquiterpenoid derivatives were isolated from the medicinal plant Ferula ferulioides (Steud.) Korovin. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical transformations. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against a panel of bacteria including multidrug‐resistant (MDR) and methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), displaying minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 0.5–128 mg/l.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:07.988466-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400150
       
  • Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils Obtained
           from Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Cultivated in Tunisia
    • Authors: Asma El Ayeb‐Zakhama; Lamia Sakka‐Rouis, Afifa Bergaoui, Guido Flamini, Hichem Ben Jannet, Fethia Harzallah‐Skhiri
      Pages: 615 - 626
      Abstract: Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (Fabaceae), synonym Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. L.Wendl., native to West Australia and naturalized in North Africa and South Europe, was introduced in Tunisia for rangeland rehabilitation, particularly in the semiarid zones. In addition, this evergreen tree represents a potential forage resource, particularly during periods of drought. A. cyanophylla is abundant in Tunisia and some other Mediterranean countries. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant parts, viz., roots, stems, phyllodes, flowers, and pods (fully mature fruits without seeds), was characterized for the first time here. According to GC‐FID and GC/MS analyses, the principal compound in the phyllode and flower oils was dodecanoic acid (4), representing 22.8 and 66.5% of the total oil, respectively. Phenylethyl salicylate (8; 34.9%), heptyl valerate (3; 17.3%), and nonadecane (36%) were the main compounds in the root, stem, and pod oils, respectively. The phyllode and flower oils were very similar, containing almost the same compounds. Nevertheless, the phyllode oil differed from the flower oil for its higher contents of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (6), linalool (1), pentadecanal, α‐terpineol, and benzyl benzoate (5) and its lower content of 4. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into four groups, each characterized by its main constituents. Furthermore, the allelopathic activity of each oil was evaluated using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as a plant model. The phyllode, flower, and pod oils exhibited a strong allelopathic activity against lettuce.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:08.81651-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400184
       
  • Variations of the Composition of the Leaf Cuticular Wax among Chinese
           Populations of Plantago major
    • Authors: Yanjun Guo; Yuji He, Na Guo, Jianhua Gao, Yu Ni
      Pages: 627 - 636
      Abstract: Plantago major L. grows in a very wide range of regions in China and exhibits great variations among populations. The analysis of the cuticular‐wax composition provides a potential approach to classify populations of P. major confronting different environmental conditions. Twelve populations of P. major and five populations of P. depressa Willd., distributed over regions with average annual temperatures ranging from −2.0 to 18.4°, were sampled, the variation of the composition of their cuticular waxes was analyzed, and their values of average chain length (ACL) and carbon preference index (CPI) were calculated. Great intra‐ and interspecies variations were observed for the total wax contents. The average annual temperature of the habitats was significantly correlated with the relative contents of the dominant n‐alkanes with an odd number of C‐atoms, but not with the wax contents. With an increasing average annual temperature, the relative contents of n‐alkanes C29 and C31 decreased, whereas those of C33 and C35 as well as the values of ACLtotal and ACL27–33 increased. Cluster analysis based on the pattern of the n‐alkane distribution allowed to clearly separate the populations of P. major according to the average annual temperature of their habitats, but not to separate the populations of the two species. Hence, the pattern of the n‐alkane distribution might be a good taxonomic marker for P. major at the intraspecies level, but not at the interspecies level. Nevertheless, a small difference between the populations of the two species was observed concerning the values of ACLtotal and CPItotal, implying the potential use of these indices for the classification of the populations of the two species at the interspecies level.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:05.728541-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400216
       
  • Chemodiversity of Volatile Oils in Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae)
    • Authors: Imed Hassen; Yassine M'Rabet, Chaouki Belgacem, Ons Kesraoui, Hervé Casabianca, Karim Hosni
      Pages: 637 - 651
      Abstract: The chemical composition of the volatile oils obtained from the roots, leaves, flowers, and stems of Thapsia garganica of Tunisian origin was investigated by GC‐FID and GC/MS analyses. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes were predominant in the oils of all plant parts. Bicyclogermacrene (21.59–35.09%) was the main component in the former compound class, whereas geranial (3.31–14.84%) and linalool (0.81–10.9%) were the most prominent ones in the latter compound class. Principal‐component (PCA) and hierarchical‐cluster (HCA) analyses revealed some common constituents, but also significant variability amongst the oils of the different plant parts. This organ‐specific oil composition was discussed in relation to their biological and ecological functions. For the evaluation of the intraspecific chemical variability in T. garganica, the composition of the flower volatile oils from four wild populations was investigated. Bicyclogermacrene, linalool, and geranial were predominant in the oils of three populations, whereas epicubenol, β‐sesquiphellandrene, and cadina‐1,4‐diene were the most prominent components of the oil of one population. PCA and HCA allowed the separation of the flower oils into three distinct groups, however, no relationship was found between the volatile‐oil composition and the geographical distribution and pedoclimatic conditions of the studied populations.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:07.359932-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400218
       
  • The Scope for Using the Volatile Profiles of Pinus caribaea var.
           bahamensis as Indicators of Susceptibility to Pine Tortoise Scale and as
           Predictors of Environmental Stresses
    • Authors: Paul W. C. Green; Martin A. Hamilton, Michele D. Sanchez, Marcella R. Corcoran, Bryan N. Manco, Chris P. Malumphy
      Pages: 652 - 661
      Abstract: Climate change, unseasonal fire and urbanization are contributing to the decline of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis populations in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI). Infestation of pines with the invasive pine tortoise scale (PTS, Toumeyella parvicornis) is accelerating this decline. Pine trees in the Bahamas are larger and healthier and are not infested with PTS although they are subject to some of the same environmental pressures as the trees in TCI. Volatile compounds were collected from wild and nursery‐reared P. caribaea var. bahamensis from TCI and the Bahamas and characterized using GC/MS analysis, to look for differences between the compounds detected in insect‐infested pines of TCI and the healthy pines of the Bahamas. Ten compounds contributing at least 1% of the total detected peak areas in any one of the samples were selected for further study. Eight of these compounds were identified using authentic standards and mass spectral libraries. The main constituents in the samples were α‐ and β‐pinene as well as β‐phellandrene, and, together with β‐myrcene, their contents varied the most between samples collected at different locations. Principal‐component analysis showed that the two structural isomers of pinene, together with β‐myrcene and β‐phellandrene, contributed 98.4% of the variance between samples. There was a positive relationship between the concentrations of the two structural isomers of pinene and between levels of β‐myrcene and β‐phellandrene. The results are discussed in relation to the biology and adaptations of invasive scale insects, the importance of monoterpenes in pine as a defense against insect predation, whether these compounds can be used as indicators of tree health, and future directions for research into conserving the Caicos pine.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:09.355637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400219
       
  • Peptaibol, Secondary‐Metabolite, and Hydrophobin Pattern of
           Commercial Biocontrol Agents Formulated with Species of the Trichoderma
           harzianum Complex
    • Authors: Thomas Degenkolb; Kristian Fog Nielsen, Ralf Dieckmann, Fabiano Branco‐Rocha, Priscila Chaverri, Gary J. Samuels, Ulf Thrane, Hans von Döhren, Andreas Vilcinskas, Hans Brückner
      Pages: 662 - 684
      Abstract: The production of bioactive polypeptides (peptaibiotics) in vivo is a sophisticated adaptation strategy of both mycoparasitic and saprotrophic Trichoderma species for colonizing and defending their natural habitats. This feature is of major practical importance, as the detection of peptaibiotics in plant‐protective Trichoderma species, which are successfully used against economically relevant bacterial and fungal plant pathogens, certainly contributes to a better understanding of these complex antagonistic interactions. We analyzed five commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs), namely Canna®, Trichosan®, Vitalin®, Promot® WP, and TrichoMax®, formulated with recently described species of the Trichoderma harzianum complex, viz. T. afroharzianum, T. simmonsii, and T. guizhouense. By using the well‐established, HPLC/MS‐based peptaibiomics approach, it could unequivocally be demonstrated that all of these formulations contained new and recurrent peptaibols, i.e., peptaibiotics carrying an acetylated N‐terminus, the C‐terminus of which is reduced to a 1,2‐amino alcohol. Their chain lengths, including the amino alcohol, were 11, 14, and 18 residues, respectively. Peptaibols were also to be the dominating secondary metabolites in plate cultures of the four strains obtained from four of the Trichoderma‐ based BCAs, contributing 95% of the UHPLC‐UV/VIS peak areas and 99% of the total ion count MS peak area from solid media. Furthermore, species‐specific hydrophobins, as well as non‐peptaibiotic secondary metabolites, were detected, the latter being known for their antifungal, siderophore, or plant‐growth‐promoting activities. Notably, none of the isolates produced low‐molecular weight mycotoxins.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:05.966789-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400300
       
  • Novel Daidzein Analogs and Their in Vitro Anti‐Influenza Activities
    • Authors: Shu‐Ting Chung; Yi‐Ting Huang, Hsin‐Yi Hsiung, Wen‐Hsin Huang, Chen‐Wen Yao, An‐Rong Lee
      Pages: 685 - 696
      Abstract: A series of novel isoflavonoids were synthesized based on structural modifications of daidzein, an active ingredient of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and evaluated for their anti‐influenza activity, in vitro, against H1N1 Tamiflu‐resistant (H1N1 TR) virus in the MDCK cell line. Among them, 4‐oxo‐4H‐1‐benzopyran‐8‐carbaldehydes 11a–11g were most promising, and they demonstrated better activities and selectivities comparable to those the reference ribarivin, a nucleoside antiviral agent. 3‐(4‐Bromophenyl)‐7‐hydroxy‐4‐oxo‐4H‐1‐benzopyran‐8‐carboxaldehyde (11c) displayed the best inhibitory activity (EC50, 29.0 μM) and selectivity index (SI>10.3). Analysis of the structureactivity relationships (SAR) indicated that both the non‐naturally‐occurring Br‐substituted B‐ring and appropriate CHO and OH groups on the A‐ring might be critical for the activity and selectivity against H1N1 TR influenza viruses.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16T07:49:04.550445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201400337
       
 
 
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