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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 848 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (598 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 222)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 282)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 96)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 171)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 192)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Chemistry & Biodiversity
  [SJR: 0.542]   [H-I: 49]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-1872 - ISSN (Online) 1612-1880
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Chemical Composition and Allelopathic, Antibacterial, Antifungal and
           Antiacetylcholinesterase activity of Fish-mint (Houttuynia cordata Thunb.)
           from India
    • Authors: Ram S. Verma; Neeta Joshi, Rajendra C. Padalia, Ved R. Singh, Prakash Goswami, Ajay Kumar, Hina Iqbal, Rajesh K. Verma, Debabrata Chanda, Amit Chauhan, Dharmendra Saikia
      Abstract: Fish-mint (Houttuynia cordata Thunb.), belongs to family Saururaceae has long been used as food and traditional herbal medicine. The present study was framed to assess the changes occurring in the essential-oil composition of Houttuynia cordata during annual growth and to evaluate allelopathic, antibacterial, antifungal and antiacetylcholinesterase activities. The essential-oil content ranged from 0.06–0.14% and 0.08–0.16% in aerial-parts and underground-stem, respectively. The essential oils were analysed by GC-FID, GC-MS and NMR (1H & 13C). Major constituents of aerial-parts oil was 2-undecanone (19.4–56.3%), myrcene (2.6–44.3%), ethyl decanoate (0.0–10.6%), ethyl dodecanoate (1.1–8.6%), 2-tridecanone (0.5–8.3%) and n-decanal (1.1–6.9%). However, major constituents of underground-stem oil were 2-undecanone (29.5–42.3%), myrcene (14.4–20.8%), sabinene (6.0–11.1%), 2-tridecanone (1.8–10.5%), β-pinene (5.3–10.0%) and ethyl dodecanoate (0.8–7.3%). Cluster analysis revealed that essential-oil composition varied substantially due to the plant-parts and season of collection. The oils exhibited significant allelopathic (inhibition: 77.8–88.8%; LD50: 2.45–3.05 μL/plate), antibacterial (MIC: 0.52–2.08 μL/mL; MBC: bacteriostatic) and antifungal (MIC: 2.08–33.33 μL/mL; MFC: 4.16–33.33 μL/mL) activities. The results indicate that the essential-oil from H. cordata has a significant potential to allow future exploration and exploitation as a natural antimicrobial and allelopathic agent.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T11:20:58.906681-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700189
       
  • The interaction mode of groove binding between quercetin and calf thymus
           DNA based on spectrometry and simulation
    • Authors: Yijie Sha; Xu Chen, Bing Niu, Qin Chen
      Abstract: Quercetin, a ubiquitous flavanoid, has numerous pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and antitumor. Previous studies showed nucleic acids were the potential biological targets for antitumor medicine. For exploring the mechanism of DNA-target medicine, the interaction between quercetin and calf thymus DNA was studied based on the method of spectrometry and simulation in our study. Firstly, the interaction between quercetin and calf thymus DNA was confirmed by fluorescence spectrometry. Furthermore, circular dichroism, fluorescence polarization, competitive displacement assay and salt concentration dependence assay were applied to search the interaction mode of quercetin-calf thymus DNA, which proved the existence of groove binding and electrostatic interaction. Meanwhile, quenching constant Ksv, binding constant Ka and the number of binding sites n was calculated, inferring that the fluorescence quenching occurred by static quenching process, and the main acting force was hydrogen bond. Finally, molecular docking was used to simulate and analyze the interaction between quercetin and calf thymus DNA.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T06:25:30.766669-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700133
       
  • Chemistry of Two Distinct Aeolid Spurilla Species:Ecological Implications
    • Authors: M. Letizia Ciavatta; Stella García-Matucheski, Marianna Carbone, Guido Villani, Claudia Muniain, Margherita Gavagnin
      Abstract: The lipophilic extracts of two marine aeolid nudibranch molluscs of the genus Spurilla collected in distinct geographical areas have been chemically analysed. The Et2O extracts of the nudibranchs were dominated by the presence of usual fatty acids and sterols and contained terpenoid compounds 1-3 as minor metabolites. Spurillin A (1) and spurillin B (3) were new molecules whereas cis-γ-monocyclo-farnesol (2) was already reported in the literature as a synthesis product. Interestingly, bursatellin (4), previously isolated from anaspidean molluscs of the genus Bursatella, was found in the butanol extract of both Spurilla species. Compounds 1-4 were not detected in the extracts of the sea-anemone preys collected together with the molluscs.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T03:50:57.216716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700125
       
  • Derivatives of Holomycin and Cyclopropaneacetic Acid from Streptomyces sp.
           DT-A37
    • Authors: Hui Ding; Jianan Wang, Dashan Zhang, Zhongjun Ma
      Abstract: On the basis of the one strain–many compounds (OSMAC) strategy, five compounds including two new holomycin derivatives (2–3), two new cyclopropaneacetic acid derivatives (4–5), together with one known compound holomycin (1) were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium Streptomyces sp. DT-A37. Their structures were elucidated using NMR and HRESIMS analyses. All these compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic activity, and inhibitory activity against BRD4 protein. Compound 1 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against H1975 cells with IC50 value of 1 μM, and its MIC values against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were both 64 μM.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-19T02:12:29.965947-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700140
       
  • Chemical characterization and biological activities of phenolic-rich
           fraction from cauline leaves of Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) growing
           in Sicily, Italy
    • Authors: Natalizia Miceli; Angela Filocamo, Salvatore Ragusa, Francesco Cacciola, Paola Dugo, Luigi Mondello, Marilena Celano, Valentina Maggisano, Maria Fernanda Taviano
      Abstract: The present work focused on the evaluation of the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the phenolic-rich fraction (ItJ-EAF) obtained from cauline leaves collected in January from Isatis tinctoria L. (Brassicaceae) grown wild around Acireale (Sicily, Italy).The total phenolic, flavonoid and condensed tannin contents of the fraction were determined spectrophotometrically, whereas the phenolic profile was assessed by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analysis. A total of 20 compounds were positively identified and 12 out of them were never previously reported in I. tinctoria leaves.The fraction exhibited good radical scavenging activity in DPPH test (IC50 = 0.6657 ± 0.0024 mg/mL) and reducing power (3.87 ± 0.71 ASE/mL), whereas, it neither showed chelating activity nor was able to counteract H2O2 induced oxidative stress damage in Escherichia coli.The anti-proliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on two human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines (CAL-62 and 8505C) by MTT assay. At the highest tested concentration ItJ-EAF significantly reduced (80%) the growth of CAL-62 cells. No cytotoxicity against Artemia salina was observed.It can be concluded that I. tinctoria cauline leaves represent a source of phenolic compounds which could be potentially used as chemopreventive or adjuvant agents against cancer.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T11:20:35.61715-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700073
       
  • Bioactive Neolignans and Other Compounds from Magnolia grandiflora L.:
           Isolation and Antiplasmodial Activity
    • Authors: Abdul Latif; Yongle Du, Seema R. Dalal, Emilio F. Merino, Maria B. Cassera, Michael Goetz, David G. I. Kingston
      Abstract: Bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of Magnolia grandiflora against Plasmodium falciparum yielded two new (1 and 2) and six known (3 - 8) bioactive compounds. The structures of the new compounds were assigned by mass spectrometric and 1D and 2D NMR data. Known compounds were identified by comparison of 1H NMR and MS data with literature data. The two known neolignans 3 and 4 showed moderate antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 2.8 ± 0.1 and 3.4 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Weak antiplasmodial activity was recorded for compounds 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 and 8, with IC50 values of 38 ± 2, 23 ± 2, 16.5 ± 0.2, 86 ± 1, 44 ± 4 and 114 ± 9 μM, respectively.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T00:15:38.748037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700209
       
  • Cover Picture
    • PubDate: 2017-06-16T00:07:32.3507-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201770061
       
  • Retraction: ‘Systematic Identification and Competitive Disruption of
           Securin-Binding Partners in the Gene Diversity Space of Human Colorectal
           Cancer' by Yinguang Zhang, Yongwang Zhang and Yuxiang Zhang
    • Abstract: The above article, published as an Accepted Article online on May 6th 2017 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been withdrawn by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Richard J. Smith, and Wiley VHCA AG. The retraction has been agreed due to concerns about the authenticity of the paper. The journal has been unable to contact the authors.ReferenceY. Zhang, Y. Zhang and Y. Zhang, Systematic identification and competitive disruption of securin-binding partners in the gene diversity space of human colorectal cancer. Chem. Biodiversity. 2017, Accepted Author Manuscript. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201700086
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T00:07:27.404411-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700086
       
  • Chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of
           essential oil of Psidium guajava L. leaves from different geographic
           regions in China
    • Authors: Lu Wang; Yanan Wu, Tao Huang, Kan Shi, Zhenqiang Wu
      Abstract: Hydrodistilled essential oils (EO) of Psidium guajava L. leaves from different regions in China were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The samples from Guangdong province displayed high EO yields (0.61-0.75%, v/w). A total of 50 components, representing over 98.00% of the EOs, were identified and semi-quantitatived. The major constituents of EOs included β-caryophyllen (17.17-31.38%), γ-gurjunene (9.17-15.22%), τ-cadinol (1.35-10.02%) and calamenene (2.13-7.80%). The terpenoids in all sample oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (70.18-84.35%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (9.89-22.19%). The similarities and differences among EOs from different samples were evaluated by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods. The IC50 values of EOs from different regions were between 18.52-33.72 mg/mL (DPPH) and 13.12-25.15 mg/mL (ABTS+). The FRAP value of EO from Guangdong province was 7.34-9.13 mmol Vc/g DM, while the FRAP value of EO from Taiwan province was 2.29-2.36 mmol Vc/g DM. The antimicrobial tests revealed that EO had a higher antimicrobial activity against all Gram-positive bacteria and two fungi. Moreover, EO from P. guajava leaves of Guangdong province showed the highest antimicrobial activity. These properties can be considered in the design of industrial products and for further application in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15T15:15:22.58568-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700114
       
  • UHPLC-ESI-HR-MS/MS profiling of phenolics from Tunisian Lycium arabicum
           Boiss. Antioxidant and anti-lipase activities’ evaluation
    • Authors: Marwa Affes; Jawhar Fakhfakh, Ines Douad, Vincent Brieudes, Maria Halabalaki, Abdelfattah El Feki, Noureddine Allouche
      Abstract: This study was performed in the aim to evaluate 9 different extracts from Tunisian L. arabicum for their total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid (TFC) contents, phytochemical analyses as well as their antioxidant and anti-lipase activities. The in vitro antioxidant property was investigated using three complementary methods (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assays) while anti-lipase activity was evaluated using 4-methylumbelliferyl oleate method. From all of the tested extracts the most potent found to be the polar methanol extracts especially those of stems and leaves. In order to investigate the chemical composition of these extracts and possible correlation of their constituents with the observed activities an UHPLC-ESI-HR-MS/MS analysis was performed. Several compounds belonging to different chemical classes were tentatively identified such as rutin and kampferol rutinoside, the major constituents of the leaves, and N-caffeoyltyramine, lyciumide A, N-dihydrocaffeoyltyramine as well as fatty acids: trihydroxyoctadecedienoic acid and hydroxyoctadecedienoic acid isomers were detected abundantly in the stems. These results showed that the methanolic extracts of stems and leaves of L. arabicum can be considered as a potential source of biological active compounds.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T09:50:20.337231-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700095
       
  • Chemical composition and biological studies of the essential oil from
           aerial parts of beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) arcang. growing in
           Tunisia
    • Authors: Afifa Zardi-Bergaoui; Aymen Ben Nejma, Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri, Guido Flamini, Roberta Ascrizzi, Hichem Ben Jannet
      Abstract: The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic, anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Beta vulgaris subsp. Maritime (L.) Arcang. from Tunisia have been evaluated. The chemical composition of the oil (yield 0.037% (w/w)), determined by GC-FID and GC-MS is reported for the first time. Twenty five components, accounting for 98.1% of the total oil have been identified. The oil was characterized by a high proportion of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (39.2%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (30.3%) and one apocarotenoids (26.3%). The main compounds were γ-irone (26.3%), α-cadinol (12.1%), T-cadinol (10.6%), bicyclogermacrene (10.4%) and δ-cadinene (6.0%). The isolated oil was tested for its antioxidant activity using the DPPH., ABTS.+, catalase and paraoxonase assays and also for its cytotoxic, anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinaseactivities.The essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity (IC50= 0.055 ± 0.006 mg/mL)and important result oncatalase (524.447 ± 2.58 Units/mg protein). Furthermore, it exerted a significant cytotoxic effect against A549 cell line, with IC50= 42.44 ± 1.40 μg/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. aerial parts may be used in future as an alternative to synthetic antioxidant agents, with potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-14T09:45:19.787707-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700234
       
  • Utilization of UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomics and AFLP-based
           marker-assisted selection to facilitate/assist conventional breeding of
           Polygala tenuifolia
    • Authors: Juan Li; Dan-dan Wang, Xiao-shuang Xu, Lu Bai, Bing Peng, Ya-jie Pu, Hong-ling Tian, Xue-mei Qin, Fu-sheng Zhang, Cun-gen Ma
      Abstract: As one of the most important traditional Chinese medicine, the quality of Polygala tenuifolia is difficult to control and a new method must be established to facilitate/assist the breeding of P. tenuifolia. In this study, UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomics analysis was performed to determine the chemical composition and screen metabolite biomarkers according to agronomic traits. A total of 29 compounds and 18 metabolite biomarkers were found. AFLP-based marker-assisted selection (MAS) was used to identify molecular marker bands and screen characteristic bands associated with specific agronomic traits. 184 bands and 76 characteristic AFLP bands were found. The correlation network between compounds and characteristic AFLP bands was built, so we may directly breed certain P. tenuifolia herbs with special agronomic traits (or characteristic AFLP bands), which exhibit specific pharmacological functions depending on the content of the active compounds. The proposed method of metabolomics coupled with MAS could facilitate/assist the breeding of P. tenuifolia.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13T07:56:47.240553-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700163
       
  • Angupyrones A-E, α-pyrone analogues with ARE-activation from a
           sponge-associated fungus Truncatella angustata
    • Authors: Yang Zhao; Dong Liu, Peter Proksch, Siwang Yu, Wenhan Lin
      Abstract: TLC-DPPH guided fractionation of a sponge-associated fungus Truncatella angustata with a solid culture resulted in the isolation of five new α-pyrone-based analogues namely angupyrones A-E (1-5), and 3-enthyl-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-pyrone. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including the modified Mosher's method, bulkiness rule and specific rotation for the configurational assignments. Angupyrones A-E exhibited moderate antioxidant response element (ARE) activation in HepG2C8 cells, while the preliminary structure-activity relationship was discussed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T11:35:24.9018-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700236
       
  • Antioxidant and proteinase inhibitory activities of selected poppy
           (Papaver somniferum L.) genotypes
    • Authors: Erik Krošlák; Tibor Maliar, Peter Nemeček, Jana Viskupičová, Mária Maliarová, Michaela Havrlentová, Ján Kraic
      Abstract: Poppy seeds (Papaver somniferum L.) belong to tasty food ingredients however, they should be considered also as valuable source of biologically active compounds. Content of selected metabolites, antioxidant and proteinase inhibitory activities were analyzed in vitro in extracts from seeds of fifteen poppy genotypes. Considerable variation in all parameters was detected within the set of analyzed poppy genotypes. The genotype Major expressed the highest antioxidant activity determined by all four methodological approaches (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, RP). The genotype MS 423 exhibited the highest inhibitory activities against trypsin, thrombin and collagenase. Very specific position among all had the genotype Redy. Its grain extract reached significantly high levels in 9 out of 14 measured parameters (TPC, TFC, TTC, TAC, FRAP, RP, inhibitory activities against trypsin, thrombin, collagenase). Edible grains of poppy are valuable source of natural compounds which may be beneficial in pathological states associated with oxidative stress or increased proteinase activities.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09T11:35:19.347432-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700176
       
  • Qualitative HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS analysis, cytotoxic and apoptotic effects
           of Croatian endemic Centaurea ragusina L. aqueous extracts
    • Authors: Mila Radan; Ivana Carev, Vele Tešević, Olivera Politeo, Vedrana Čikeš Čulić
      Abstract: Centaurea ragusina L., an endemic Croatian plant species, revealed a good cytotoxic activity of aqueous extracts on human bladder (T24) and human glioblastoma (A1235) cancer cell lines. The chemical constituents were tentatively identified using high performance liquid chromatography HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS in negative ionization mode. The main compounds of herba extract were sesquiterpene lactones: solstitialin A-3, 13 diacetate and epoxyrepdiolide; organic acid: quinic acid. The main compounds of flower extract were organic acids: quinic acid, citric acid and malic acid; sesquiterpene lactone: cynaropicrin; phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid and phenylpropanoid: syringin. The aqueous extracts of C. ragusina were investigated for correlation of their effects on human bladder (T24) and human glioblastoma (A1235) cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. Although both extracts showed significant dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic activity against both cancer cell lines, the flower extract exhibited slightly higher activity. In order to determine type of cell death induced by treatment, cell lines were exposed subsequently to a treatment with both flower and herba aqueous extracts. The majority of the cells died by induced apoptosis treatment. Flower aqueous extract (26.25%), compared to a leaf aqueous extract (22.15%) showed slightly higher percentage of an apoptosis in T24 cells, when compared to a non-treated cells (0.04%).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T11:15:19.864295-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700099
       
  • Phytochemical Study of the Genus Salpichroa (Solanaceae). Chemotaxonomic
           Considerations and Biological Evaluation in Prostate and Breast Cancer
           Cells
    • Authors: Ana Valentina Basso; Segundo Leiva González, Gloria Estela Barboza, Valeria Pilar Careaga, Juan Carlos Calvo, Paula A. Sacca, Viviana Estela Nicotra
      Abstract: Twelve Salpichroa taxa have been phytochemically analyzed. From the aerial parts of S. scandens, the four known salpichrolides A, C, I, S, and an unreported withanolide named salpichrolide V (1), were isolated. In S. dependens, S. gayi, S. glandulosa subsp. glandulosa, S. glandulosa subps. weddellii, S. leucantha, S. micrantha, S. microloba, S. proboscidea, S. ramosissima, S. tristis var. tristis, and S. weberbauerii, no withanolides were found. The chemical content of ca. 85 % of the Salpichroa taxa is in agreement with molecular studies, which suggest that Salpichroa and Jaborosa, a genus considered morphologically close to Salpichroa, are distant in the systematic of the Solanoideae subfamily.Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of a set of natural salpichrolides and derivatives was examined against two prostate carcinoma cell lines (PC3 and LNCaP) and two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and T47D). Several compounds showed moderate activity (IC50 = 64.91 - 29.97 μM).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05T04:28:47.174674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700118
       
  • Hybrid Pharmacophoric Approach in the Design and Synthesis of Coumarin
           Linked Pyrazolinyl as Urease Inhibitors, Kinetic Mechanism and Molecular
           Docking
    • Authors: Aamer Saeed; Parvez Ali Mahesar, Pervaiz Ali Channar, Fayaz Ali Larik, Qamar Abbas, Mubashir Hassan, Hussain Raza, Sung-Yum Seo
      Abstract: The current research article reports the synthesis of coumarinyl pyrazolinyl thioamide derivatives and their biological activity as inhibitors of jack bean urease. The coumarinyl pyrazolinyl thioamides were synthesized by reacting thiosemicarbazide with newly synthesized chalcones to afford the products in good yields and the synthesized compounds were purified by recrystallization. Coumarinyl pyrazolinyl thioamide derivatives 5a-5q showed significant activity against Urease enzyme and also exhibited good antioxidant potential. The compound 3-(2-Oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)-5-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide 5n was found to be superior agent in the series with an IC50= 0.358±0.017μM compared to standard thiourea with an IC50= 4720±174μM. To undermine the binding mode of inhibition kinetic studies were performed for most potent derivative and it was found that compound 5n inhibits urease enzyme by non-competitive mode of inhibition. Molecular docking studies were carried out to delineate the binding affinity of the synthesized derivatives.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T10:55:31.544745-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700035
       
  • New prenylated ortho-dihydroxycoumarins from the fruits of Ficus nipponica
    • Authors: Yui Akihara; Emi Ohta, Tatsuo Nehira, Hisashi Ômura, Shinji Ohta
      Abstract: Two new prenylated ortho-dihydroxycoumarins, designated fipsomin (1) and fipsotwin (2), were isolated from the fruits of Ficus nipponica together with a known prenylated coumarin, apigravin (3). Their structures were established by spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 1 exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with an MIC value of 61 μM, while 2 and 3 showed very weak activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-06-02T10:55:29.185769-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700196
       
  • Allelopathic effects, physiological responses and phenolic compounds in
           litter extracts of Juniperus rigida Sieb. et Zucc
    • Authors: By Jing Liu; Dengwu Li, Dongmei Wang, Yu Liu, Huiying Song
      Abstract: The allelopathic effects of Juniperus rigida litter aqueous extract (LE) on wheat and Pinus tabuliformis were studied, as well as the physiological responses to the extract. High concentration LE (0.10 g Dw·mL−1) significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth in receptor plants. The chlorophyll content and root activity in the wheat seedlings were reduced significantly across all treatments; however, those were more prominently reduced at high concentration (0.10 g Dw·mL−1) but received little stimulation at low concentration (0.025 g Dw·mL−1) in P. tabuliformis. The content of malonaldehyde (MDA) increased with increasing concentrations of LE, except at 0.025 g Dw·mL−1. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (POD, CAT and SOD) in receptor plants were all significantly inhibited at high concentrations but stimulated at low concentrations. These results demonstrate that the aqueous extract from J. rigida litter has allelopathic potential. Various phenolic compounds were identified in litter aqueous extract and litter ethanol extract by HPLC. The phenolic compound content in the aqueous extract was significantly lower than that in the ethanol extract. Chlorogenic acid and podophyllotoxin were the predominant phenolic compounds in both types of litter extracts. These findings suggest that the seed germination and seedling growth of P. tabuliformis and wheat would be inhibited when planted near large amounts J. rigida litter.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-30T07:35:23.015357-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700088
       
  • Synthesis and Deprotection of Biodegradably and Thermally Protected
           Dinucleoside-2′,5′-Monophosphate Prodrug Model of 2-5A
    • Authors: Emilia Kiuru; Suvi Malmikare, Mikko Ora
      Abstract: Protected dinucleoside-2′,5′-monophosphate has been prepared to develop a prodrug strategy for 2-5A. The removal of enzymatically and thermally labile 4-acetylthio-2-ethoxycarbonyl-3-oxo-2-methylbutyl phosphate protecting group and enzymatically labile 3′-O-pivaloyloxymethyl group was followed at pH 7.5 and 37°C by HPLC from the fully protected dimeric adenosine-2′,5′-monophosphate 1 used as a model compound for 2-5A. The desired unprotected 2′,3′-O-isopropylideneadenosine-2′,5′-monophosphate (9) was observed to accumulate as a major product. Neither the competative isomerization of 2′,5′- to a 3′,5′-linkage nor the P-O5′ bond cleavage was detected. The phosphate protecting group removed faster than the 3′-O-protection and, hence, the attack of the neighbouring 3′-OH on phosphotriester moiety did not take place.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T07:30:24.091957-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700220
       
  • Acetazolamide inhibits the level of tyrosinase and melanin: An enzyme
           kinetic, in vitro, in vivo and in silico studies
    • Authors: Qamar Abbas; Hussain Raza, Mubashir Hassan, Abdul Rehman Phull, Song Ja Kim, Sung-Yum Seo
      Abstract: Melanin is the major factor that determines skin color and protects from ultraviolet radiation. In present study we evaluated the anti-melanogenesis effect of acetazolamide (ACZ) using four different approaches: enzyme kinetic, in vitro, in vivo and in silico. ACZ demonstrated significant inhibitory activity (IC50 7.895 ± 0.24 μM) against tyrosinase as compared to the standard drug kojic acid (IC50 16.84 ± 0.64 μM) and kinetic analyses showed that ACZ is a non-competitive inhibitor without cytotoxic effect. In in vitro experiments, A375 human melanoma cells were treated with 20 or 40 μM of ACZ with or without 50 μM of L-DOPA. Western blot results showed that ACZ significantly (p
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T07:25:29.055598-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700117
       
  • Diversity of polyhydroxynaphthoquinone pigments in North Pacific sea
           urchins
    • Authors: Elena A. Vasileva; Natalia P. Mishchenko, Sergey A. Fedoreyev
      Abstract: Using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) we investigated the composition of polyhydroxynaphthoquinone (PHNQ) pigments from sea urchins Strongylocentrotus pallidus, St. polyacanthus, St. droebachiensis, Brisaster latifrons and Echinarachnius parma, collected in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. Identification of PHNQ pigments from sea urchins St. polyacanthus, B. latifrons, and E. parma was performed for the first time. Among the usual PHNQ pigments, mono- and dimethoxy derivatives of spinochrome E, not previously found in other sea urchins, were discovered in St. polyacanthus and St. droebachiensis. In St. droebachiensis, two monomethoxy derivatives of echinochrome A were detected, isolated previously from only tropical sea urchins. It was found that the composition and total content of pigments of St. droebachiensis depends on the collection area of the sea urchins and its depth and varies from 88 to 331 μg per g of dry shells. Sea urchins St. pallidus, B. latifrons and E. parma had average values for PHNQ pigment content, approximately 30 μg/g, and St. polyacanthus had a low PHNQ content, 13 μg/g.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T07:25:24.371957-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700182
       
  • Lipid and Phenolic Constituents from Seeds of Hypericum perforatum L. and
           Hypericum tetrapterum Fr. and their Antioxidant Activity
    • Authors: Miriam Heinrich; Peter Lorenz, Rolf Daniels, Florian C. Stintzing, Dietmar R. Kammerer
      Abstract: Seeds of Hypericum perforatum and H. tetrapterum were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol and investigated by chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. Both species yielded a fatty oil fraction amounting to 30.5% and 18.0% of the seed weight, respectively. Linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) was shown to be the predominant fatty acid constituent. Moreover, xanthone derivatives, i.e. tetrahydroxyxanthones (THX), xanthone-glycosides and xanthone-sulfonates, were assigned in methanolic extracts. For structure elucidation, one representative xanthone, namely 1,3,6,7-THX, was synthesized and analyzed via HPLC-DAD-MSn and GC-MS. Total THX contents were quantitated applying a validated HPLC-DAD method, resulting in 1.25 g/kg (H. perforatum) and 0.27 g/kg (H. tetrapterum), respectively. Moreover, the free radical scavenging capacity of the methanol extracts was tested using the DPPH antioxidant assay. Both, H. perforatum (IC50 = 8.7 mg/L) and 1,3,6,7-THX (IC50 = 3.0 mg/L), exhibited good DPPH free radical scavenging activity compared to Trolox (IC50 = 6.6 mg/L).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-29T07:20:43.898008-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700100
       
  • Influence of Environmental Factors on Essential Oil Variability in
           Origanum compactum Benth. Growing Wild in Morocco
    • Authors: Kaoutar Aboukhalid; Chaouki Al Faiz, Ahmed Douaik, Mohamed Bakha, Karolina Kursa, Monika Agacka-Mołdoch, Nathalie Machon, Félix Tomi, Abdeslam Lamiri
      Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on essential oils (EOs) composition of O. compactum populations sampled all over the distribution area of the species in Morocco, and to determine the extent of the chemical profiles throughout the geographical distribution of the species. The chemical compositions were submitted to Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) that indicated a significant relationship between oil components and some environmental factors. According to their chemical composition and edapho-climatic characteristics, two major groups of populations were differentiated. The first group was composed of samples growing in regions with humid climate, clayey, sandy, and alkaline soils. These samples showed high thymol, α-terpineol, linalool, and carvacryl methyl oxide content. The second group consisted of plants belonging to semi-arid climate, and growing at high altitudes and silty soils. These samples were characterized by high carvacrol, α-thujene, α-terpinene and myrcene content. However, populations exposed to sub-humid climate, appeared less homogeneous and belong mainly either to the first or second group. A significant correlation between some edaphic factors (pH, K2O content, soil texture) and the EOs yield of O. compactum plants was evidenced. In spite of the correlation obtained for the oil composition with edapho-climatic factors and the variance explained by the environmental data set, the observed EO diversity might be also genetically determined.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T03:50:23.896753-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700158
       
  • A new anti-inflammatory alkaloid from roots of Heracleum dissectum
    • Authors: Hai-Long Zhang; Xin-Yuan Wu, Jie Mi, Ya-Jie Peng, Zhi-Gang Wang, Ying liu, Xiu-Li Wu, Yang Gao
      Abstract: Using various chromatographic methods, a new piperidinone alkaloid, (3S, 13E)-3-(4-(3-hydroxyprop-1-en-1-yl)-2-methoxyphenoxy) piperidin-2-one (1), together with ten known compounds, bergapten (2), xanthotoxol (3), isopimpinellin (4), isobergapten (5), heratomol-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), scopoletin (7), apterin (8), 3-methoxy-4-β-D-glucopyranosyloxypropiophenone, (praeroside) (9), tachioside (10) and coniferin (11), were isolated from roots of Heracleum dissectum Ledeb. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and the detailed interpretation of various spectroscopic data. All the isolated compounds were screened for anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. As the results, compound 1 and 8 showed significantly inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-27T02:35:23.855831-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700184
       
  • Composition, Antioxidant and Anticancer activities of the Essential Oil
           from Fresh and Air-Dried Aerial Parts of Pallenis spinosa
    • Authors: Mahmoud A. Al-Qudah; Ayman M. Saleh, Naif L. Alhawsawi, Hala I. Al-Jaber, Syed A. Rizvi, Fatma U. Afifi
      Abstract: This study was performed to determine the chemical composition, antioxidant and anticancer effects of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of fresh (F-PSEO) and air-dried (D-PSEO) Pallenis spinosa. The composition of the oils was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, the antioxidant activity by free radical scavenging and metal chelating assays, and their cytotoxicity by a flow cytometry analysis. The primary components in both oils were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygentated sesquiterpenes. F-PSEO contained 36 different compounds; α–cadinol (16.48%), germacra-1(10),5-dien-3,4-diol (14.45%), γ-cadinene (12.03%) and α-muurolol (9.89%) were the principal components. D-PSEO contained 53 molecules; α–cadinol (19.26%), δ-cadinene (13.93%), α-muurolol (12.88%) and germacra-1(10),5-dien-3,4-diol (8.41%) constituted the highest percentages. Although both oil exhibited a weak radical scavenging and chelating activity, compared to α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, D-PSEO showed a 2-fold greater antioxidant activity than F-PSEO. furthermore, low doses of F-PSEO were able to inhibit the growth of leukemic (HL-60, K562 and Jurkat) and solid tumor cells (MCF-7, HepG2, HT-1080 and Caco-2) with an IC50 range of 0.25-0.66 μg/mL and 0.50-2.35 μg/mL, respectively. F-PSEO showed a ~2-3-fold stronger cytotoxicity against the tested cells than D-PSEO. The potent anticancer activity of the plant essential oil encourages further studies to characterize the molecular mechanisms of its cytotoxicity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T10:20:59.208651-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700146
       
  • Chemical Composition, Antibacterial, Schistosomicidal, and Cytotoxic
           Activities of the Essential Oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin &
           Clemants (Chenopodiaceae)
    • Authors: Marina H. Soares; Herbert J. Dias, Tatiana M. Vieira, Maria G. M. de Souza, Ana F. F. Cruz, Fernanda R. Badoco, Heloiza D. Nicolella, Wilson R. Cunha, Milton Groppo, Carlos H. G. Martins, Denise C. Tavares, Lizandra G. Magalhães, Antônio E. M. Crotti
      Abstract: We have investigated the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (Chenopodiaceae) (DA-EO) against a representative panel of cariogenic bacteria. We have also assessed the in vitro schistosomicidal effects of DA-EO on Schistosoma mansoni and its cytotoxicity to GM07492-A cells in vitro. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that the monoterpenes cis-piperitone oxide (35.2%), p-cymene (14.5%) isoascaridole (14.1%), and α-terpinene (11.6%) were identified by as the major constituents of DA-EO. DA-EO displayed weak activity against Streptococcus sobrinus and Enterococcus faecalis (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 1000 μg/mL). On the other hand, DA-EO at 25 and 12.5 μg/mL presented remarkable schistosomicidal action in vitro and killed 100% of adult worm pairs within 24 and 72 h, respectively. The LC50 values of DA-EO were 6.50 ± 0.38, 3.66 ± 1.06, and 3.65 ± 0.76 μg/mL at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. However, DA-EO at concentrations higher than 312.5 μg/mL significantly reduced the viability of GM07492-A cells (IC50 = 207.1 ± 4.4 μg/mL). The selectivity index showed that DA-EO was 31.8 times more toxic to the adult S. mansoni worms than GM07492-A cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate the promising schistosomicidal potential of the essential oil of Dysphania ambrosioides.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T10:30:33.828788-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700149
       
  • Passive membrane penetration of the serotonin precursor
           5-hydroxytryptophan is controlled by its zwitterion
    • Authors: Károly Mazák; Béla Noszál
      Abstract: Species-specific partition coefficients in the octanol/water system were determined for the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) and its precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). The pH-independent partition coefficients (p) of the individual microspecies were determined by combination of experimentally measured distribution constants and a custom-tailored evaluation method, using highly similar auxiliary compounds. Experimental microscopic partition coefficients for triprotic molecules have only been reported before for thyroxine and its derivatives. The parabolic pH-distribution profile of 5-HT shows the dominance of the lipophilic non-charged microspecies, with a log p of 0.66. However, the most lipophilic non-charged form of 5-HTP, with a log p of 0.31, has no significant contribution to the distribution coefficient at any pH value. Instead, the less lipophilic zwitterionic protonation isomer dominates the distribution in the pH range 2.10–11.11. Although the non-charged microspecies of 5-HTP is 151 times more lipophilic than its zwitterionic protonation isomer, the overwhelming dominance of the zwitterionic form ensures that its contribution to the overall lipophilicity exceeds 1,320 times that of the non-charged one. This fact is another counter-example of the widespread belief that passive diffusion into lipophilic media is predominated by the non-charged species. The lipophilicity profile of 5-HT and 5-HTP is depicted in terms of species-specific lipophilicities.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-14T05:22:21.99518-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700162
       
  • Phenolic Composition, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial
           Activities of Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm
    • Authors: Gökçe Şeker Karatoprak; Selen İlgün, Müberra Koşar
      Abstract: The current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm. (Rosaceae) aerial parts extracts. Chemical composition was analyzed by spectrophotometric and chromatographic (HPLC) techniques. The antioxidant properties assessed included, DPPH● and ABTS●+ radical scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid co-oxidation assay. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated with disc diffusion and micro dilution method. In order to evaluate toxicity of the extracts with the sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric assay L929 cell line (mouse fibroblast) was used. The anti-inflammatory activities of the potent antioxidant extracts (methanol, 70% methanol and water extracts) were determined by measuring the inhibitory effects on NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α levels in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. 70% methanol and water extracts which were found to be rich in phenolic compounds (184.79 and 172.60 mgGAE/gextract) showed higher antioxidant activity. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was the main compound in the extracts. Ethyl acetate and 70% methanol extracts showed higher antibacterial activity against S. aureus and S. enteritidis with MIC value of 125 μg/mL. 70% methanol extract potentially inhibited the NO and TNF-α production (18.43 μM and 1556.22 pg/mL, respectively, 6h).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-14T05:22:19.467494-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700150
       
  • Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of peptidomimetic
           n-substituted cbz-4-hyp-hpa-amides as novel inhibitors of plasmodium
           falciparum
    • Authors: Valeriy A. Bacherikov; Amar G. Chittiboyina, Mitchell A. Avery
      Abstract: A new series of peptidomimetic N-substituted Cbz-4-Hyp-Hpa-amides was designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum. Substituents on the N atom of the amide group were selected. They are the following alkyl-, allyl-, aryl-, 2-hydroxyethyl-, 2-cyanoethyl-, cyanomethyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl-, 2,2-diethoxyethyl-, or 2-ethoxy-2-oxoethylamino groups, and about forty new compounds were synthesized and evaluated for anti-plasmodial activity in vitro. Antimalarial activity was investigated as for the final peptide mimetics, and their immediate predecessors, carrying TBDMS or TBDPS protecting groups on 4-hydroxyproline residue and eighteen derivatives exhibited toxicity against P. falciparum. Of these agents, compound 23e was shown to have potent antimalarial activity with IC50 528 ng/mL.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T10:56:05.775077-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700037
       
  • Essential oil variability in natural populations of Artemisia campestris
           (L.) and Artemisia herba-alba (Asso.) and incidence on
           antiacetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities
    • Authors: Faten Younsi; Sameh Mehdi, Oumayma Aissi, Najoua Rahali, Rym Jaouadi, Mohamed Boussaid, Chokri Messaoud
      Abstract: The intraspecific variability of A. herba-alba and A. campestris essential oils and the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities were determined.A. herba-alba essential oil was found rich in camphor (19.61%), α-thujone (19.40%), β-thujone (9.44%), chrysanthenone (9.26%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (8.43%). The major compounds of A. campestris essential oil were germacrene D (16.38%), β-pinene (16.33%) and limonene (9.17%). Significant variation in the essential oil composition was observed among populations of each species. The divergence between populations was attributed to the variation of some climatic factors such as altitude, annual rainfall, winter cold stress, summer precipitation, summer drought stress, evapotranspiration and humidity.A. herba-alba and A. campestris essential oils exhibited promising antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities. The level of activity varied significantly according to the species and the essential oil. The highest scavenging activity (IC50=0.14 mg/ml) and the uppermost capacity to prevent β-carotene bleaching (IC50=0.10 mg/ml) characterized A. campestris from population 6. A. campestris population 3 possessed the uppermost ability to reduce ferric ions (450.7μmol Fe2+/gEO). The population 2 of A. campestris showed the strongest antiacetylcholinesterase activity (IC50=0.02 mg/ml). The variation of these activities between the essential oils was explained by their composition differences.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T01:45:29.446542-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700017
       
  • Chemical profiling and assessment of antineurodegenerative and antioxidant
           properties of Veronica teucrium L. and Veronica jacquinii Baumg
    • Authors: Jelena Č. Živković; João C.M. Barreira, Katarina P. Šavikin, Ana Z. Alimpić, Dejan S. Stojković, Maria Inês Dias, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Sonja N. Duletić-Laušević, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
      Abstract: Neuroprotective potential of V. teucrium and V. jacquinii methanol extracts was analyzed. Chemical analysis of investigated extracts showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids and one secoiridoid. The detected flavonoids derived from flavones (luteolin and isoscutellarein in V. jacquinii; apigenin, isoscutellarein and luteolin in V. teucrium) and flavonol (quercetin in V. jacquinii). Acteoside was the dominant compound in V. jacquinii, while plantamajoside and isoscutellarein 7-O-(6′’’-O-acetyl)-β-allosyl (1′’’2′’’)-β-glucoside were the major phenolics in V. teucrium. Additionally, the antineurodegenerative activity was tested at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and tyrosinase (TYR) assays. The inhibition of both enzymes was achieved with the investigated extracts, ranging from 22.78 to 35.40% for AChE and from 9.57 to 16.38% for TYR. There was no statistical difference between the activities of the analyzed extracts. Our data indicate that V. teucrium and V. jacquinii may have beneficial effects against Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T01:45:23.055734-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700167
       
  • Melanogenesis-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Phenolics from
           Periploca forrestii
    • Authors: Cai-Ling Sun; Lei Chen, Jian Xu, Wei Qu, Li Guan, Wen-Yuan Liu, Toshihiro Akihisa, Feng Feng, Jie Zhang
      Abstract: Two new tetrahydrofuran-type lignans, (–)-gentioluteol-9-O-β-D-glucoside (1), (–)-berchemol 9-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(16)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with sixteen known compounds 3–18 were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of the stems of Periploca forrestii. The structures of new tetrahydrofuran-type lignans were determined by HR-ESI-MS and various NMR techniques in combination with CD method. Then, their antioxidant abilities were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazul (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Meanwhile, a similar trend was obtained in tripartite antioxidant assays, as compounds 7–9 and 11 exhibited potent abilities. Subsequently, the evaluation of all compounds against the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) induced melanogenesis on the B16F10 cell line, compounds 5–11, 15, and 16 exhibited inhibitory effects with no or weak toxicity to the cells at low concentration. Of these, compound 8 exhibited the strongest inhibition melanogenesis ability. Furthermore, western blot analysis suggested that the compound 8 could inhibit melanogenesis by suppressing the protein expressions of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T01:40:38.847732-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700083
       
  • Terpenes are useful markers in differentiation of natural populations of
           relict pines Pinus heldreichii, P. nigra and P. peuce
    • Authors: Zorica S. Mitić; , Biljana M. Nikolić, Mihailo S. Ristić, Vele V. Tešević, Srdjan R. Bojović, Petar D. Marin
      Abstract: Comparative analysis of terpene diversity and differentiation of relict pines Pinus heldreichii, P. nigra, and P. peuce from the central Balkans was performed at the population level. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that composition of needle terpenes reflects clear divergence among the pine species from different subgenera: P. peuce (subgenus Strobus) vs. P. nigra and P. heldreichii (subgenus Pinus). In addition, despite the described morphological similarities and the fact that P. nigra and P. heldreichii may spontaneously hybridize, our results indicated differentiation of their populations naturally growing in the same area. In accordance with recently proposed concept of “flavonic evolution” in the genus Pinus, we assumed that the terpene profile of soft pine P. peuce, defined by high amounts of six monoterpenes, is more basal than those of hard pines P. nigra and P. heldreichii, which were characterized by high content levels of mainly sesquiterpenes. In order to establish precise positions of P. heldreichii, P. nigra and P. peuce within the taxonomic and phylogenetic tree, as well as develop suitable conservation strategies and future breeding efforts, it is necessary to perform additional morphological, biochemical and genetic studies.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-06T04:08:34.928297-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700093
       
  • Salvia officinalis L. Essential Oil from Spain: Determination of
           Composition, Antioxidant Capacity, Antienzymatic and Antimicrobial
           Bioactivities
    • Authors: Ana-Belen Cutillas; Alejandro Carrasco, Ramiro Martinez-Gutierrez, Virginia Tomas, José Tudela
      Abstract: Four essential oils (EOs) from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Spain (Murcia province) were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine their relative and absolute composition. The main components were α-thujone (22.8-41.7%), camphor (10.7-19.8%), 1,8-cineole (4.7-15.6%) and β-thujone (6.1-15.6%). Enantioselective gas chromatography identified (-)-α-thujone and (+)-camphor as the main enantiomers in all the analyzed EOs. Furthermore, when the EOs were tested to determine their antioxidant activity against free radicals and as ferric reducing and ferrous chelating agents, all were seen to have moderate activity due to the compounds they contained, such as linalool or terpinene. Because of their known relation with inflammatory illnesses and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, lipoxygenase and acetylcholinesterase were studied in the EOs. Some individual compounds inhibited these enzymes. In addition, the studied SoEOs were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The characterization carried out increases our awareness of the possible uses of S. officinalis EO as natural additives in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-06T04:08:01.782623-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700102
       
  • Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the
           Aerial Parts of Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa
           (Lam.) DC.: Two Asteraceae Herbs Growing Wild in the Hoggar
    • Authors: Faiza Chaib; Hocine Allali, Malika Bennaceur, Guido Flamini
      Abstract: In recent years, antimicrobial activities of essential oils have been intensively explored, mainly in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents to overcome microbial resistance.The present study investigates the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from two Asteraceae: Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC. Chemical analysis was performed using a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC/MS analytical techniques. The major component of Asteriscus graveolens were cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (31.1%), myrtenyl acetate (15.1%) and kessane (11.5%), while for Pulicaria incisa the main components were chrysanthenone (45.3%) and 2,6-dimethylphenol (12.6%).The oils obtained from the aerial parts were tested against sixteen microbial strains by agar well diffusion technique and dilution methods and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 19–1250 μg/mL. A good antibacterial activity against a common nosocomial pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606 was observed, especially from Pulicaria incisa essential oil, with a MIC value up to 19 μg/mL.These results give significant information about the pharmacological activity of these essential oils, which suggest their benefits to human health, having the potential to be used for medical purposes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03T11:35:32.87723-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700092
       
  • New Eudesmane Sesquiterpenoids from Salvia plebeia R. Br
    • Authors: Lie-Feng Ma; Peng-Fei Wang, Ji-Dong Wang, Xiang-Min Tong, Wei-Guang Shan, Hui Zhang, Zha-Jun Zhan
      Abstract: Three new sesquiterpenoids salplebeones A-C (1-3), were isolated from the ethanol-soluble extract of the aerial part of Salvia plebeia R. Br. Their structures were established by detailed analysis of NMR and MS spectra. Salplebeone A was an eudesmane lactone, while salplebeones B-C were rare eudesmane sesquiterpenoids, containing 12, 8-lactam groups. Antiproliferative activities of salplebeones A-C to myeloid leukemia cell lines were evaluated.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T19:11:31.214797-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700127
       
  • Chemical characterization of Lodoicea Maldivica fruit
    • Authors: Bartolomeo Sebastiani; Martino Giorgini, Stefano Falcinelli
      Abstract: In the present study, we report the attempt to characterize the chemical composition of fruit kernel of “Lodoicea Maldivica” coco nucifera palm (commonly named as “Coco de mer”) by gas chromatographic method. The analysis was performed by HS-SPME and GC/MS techniques to determine volatile aroma, sterol and fatty acid composition profiles in the internal and external pulp of two distinct coconuts. Despite no qualitative differences in flavour composition were observed between the two analysed coconuts and the relative two pulp parts, variations in the abundance levels of the prominent compounds have been recorded. The averaged quantity of total phytosterols, resulting from the two analysed “Coco de mer” samples, was almost constant in both kernels coconut, being 24.5 μg/g (of dry net matter) for the external, and 26.9 μg/g (of dry net matter) for the internal portion. In both coconuts, the fatty acid pattern composition was characterized by seven saturated acids ranged from C14:0 (myristic) to C20:0 (arachidic) and two monounsaturated acids, the palmitoleic (C16:1, ω7) and the oleic (C18:1, ω9). Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant one with an average contribution of about 49.0%, followed by pentadecanoic 16.5%, stearic (C18:0) 11.6%, and myristic (C14:0) 9.9% acids in all two examined kernel portions.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-27T18:57:50.601406-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700109
       
  • New hydrazides and hydrazide-hydrazones of 2,3-dihalogen substituted
           
    • Authors: Łukasz Popiołek; Anna Biernasiuk
      Abstract: The main aim of this research was the synthesis, spectral identification and in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of new hydrazides and hydrazide-hydrazones of 2,3-dihalogen substituted propionic acids. New hydrazides were obtained by the substitution reaction of appropriate ethyl esters of 2,3-dihalogen substituted propionic acids with hydrazine hydrate. Then obtained hydrazides were subjected to condensation reaction with various aldehydes which yielded with new hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives. All obtained compounds were identified on the basis of spectral methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR) and in vitro screened against a panel of bacterial and fungal strains according to EUCAST and CLSI guidelines.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-26T10:46:23.269943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700075
       
  • Cytotoxic Triterpenoids from the Stalks of Microtropis triflora
    • Authors: Xiao-wei Zhang; Kui-wu Wang, Man-qing Zhou
      Abstract: Bioassay-guided phytochemcal investigation of the stalks of Microtropis triflora Merr. et Freem led to the isolation of ten triterpenes 1-10, including one novel compound 24-epoxy-2α, 24-dihydroxy-29-friedelanoic acid (1). Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including HRESI mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D NMR (1H, 13C, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY), and by comparison with the data reported. The cytotoxicities of the compounds 1-10 against a panel of cultured human tumor cell lines (Bcap37, SMMC7721, Hela, CNE) were evaluated. The new compound 1 showed moderate anti-tumor activities with IC50 values of 39.22, 29.24, 23.28, and 68.81 μM/mL, respectively. These results might helpful for explaining the use of M. triflora in traditional medicine. Triterpenes are characteristic of Microtropis genus and could be useful as potential chemotaxonomic markers.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-23T06:00:59.607979-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700066
       
  • Melanogenesis-Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Limonoids, Alkaloids,
           and Phenolic Compounds from Phellodendron amurense Bark
    • Authors: Toshihiro Akihisa; Satoru Yokokawa, Eri Ogihara, Masahiro Matsumoto, Jie Zhang, Takashi Kikuchi, Kazuo Koike, Masahiko Abe
      Abstract: Four limonoids, 1–4, five alkaloids, 5–9, and four phenolic compounds, 10–13, were isolated from a MeOH extract of the bark of Phellodendron amurense (Rutaceae). Among these, compound 13 was a new, and its structure was established as rel-(1R,2R,3R)-5-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-6-methoxy-1-(methoxycarbonylmethyl)indane-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (γ-di(methyl ferulate)) based on the spectrometric analysis. Upon evaluation of compounds 1–13 against the melanogenesis in the B16 melanoma cells induced with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), four compounds, limonin (1), noroxyhydrastinine (6), haplopine (7), and 4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-quiolone (8), exhibited potent melanogenesis-inhibitory activities with almost no toxicity to the cells. Western blot analysis revealed that compound 6 inhibited melanogenesis, at least in part, by inhibiting the expression of protein levels of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2 in α-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells. In addition, when compounds 1–13 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), duodenum (AZ521), and breast (SK-BR-3) cancer cell lines, five compounds, berberine (5), 8, canthin-6-one (9), α-di(methyl ferulate) (12), and 13, exhibited cytotoxicities against one or more cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 2.6–90.0 μM. In particular, compound 5 exhibited strong cytotoxicity against AZ521 (IC50 2.6 μM) which was superior to that of the reference cisplatin (IC50 9.5 μM).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T00:45:42.75173-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700105
       
  • Essential oils as biocides for the control of fungal infections and
           devastating pest (Tuta absoluta) of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
           
    • Authors: Samira Bouayad Alam; Mohammed El Amine Dib, Nassim Djabou, Boufeldja Tabti, Nassira Guaouar, Jean Costa, Alain Muselli
      Abstract: Thymus capitatus and Tetraclinis articulata essential oils as well their major components (carvacrol and α-pinene) were evaluated for their antifungal and insecticidal activities. Both oils showed good in vitro antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp, Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea, the fungi causing tomato rot. In vivo results indicate the efficacies of both essential oils and carvacrol of reduce postharvest fungal pathogens, such as B. cinerea and A. alternata that are responsible of black and gray rot of tomato fruit. Disease incidence of A. alternata and B. cinerea decreased on average from 55 to 80% with essential oil of T. capitatus and pure carcvacrol, while T. articulata essential oil exhibited inhibition of fungal growth of 55% and 25% against A. alternata and B. cinerea, respectively, with concentration of 0,4 μL/L air. The insecticidal activity of T. capitatus and T. articulata essential oils exhibited also a good insecticidal activity. At the concentration of 0.2 μL/mL air, the oils caused mortality over 80% for all larval stages of Tuta absoluta and 100% mortality for the first-instar after 1.5 h only of exposure. α-Pinene presented lower insecticidal and antifungal activities compared to essential oils of T. capitatus, T. articulata and pure carvacrol. Thus, these essential oils can be used as a potential source to develop control agents to manage some of the main pests and fungal diseases of tomato crops.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-19T06:58:44.803128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700065
       
  • Four new diterpene glucosides from Perovskia atriplicifolia
    • Authors: Lu Gao; Jun Zhou, Le-Yu Zhu, Juan-Rong Zhang, Yu-Xing Jing, Jia-Wen Zhao, Xiang-Zhong Huang, Gan-Peng Li, Zhi-Yong Jiang, Da-Yuan Xue
      Abstract: Four new diterpene glucosides, namely perovskiaditerpenosides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the butanol extract of Perovskia atriplicifolia. Their structures were well elucidated by chemical methods and comprehensive spectroscopic analyses including MS, IR, and NMR (1D and 2D). The newly isolated compounds were screened for their cytotoxic activity against HepG2, NB4 Hela, K562, HL60, MCF7 and HL60. The obtained results indicated that the new compounds possessed considerable cytotoxic activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17T12:35:24.575278-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700071
       
  • Hypaphorine, an Indole Alkaloid Isolated from Caragana korshinskii Kom.,
           Inhibites 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation and Improves Insulin
           Sensitivity in Vitro
    • Authors: Guangxiang Luan; Fangfang Tie, Zhenzhen Yuan, Gang Li, Jie He, Zhenhua Wang, Honglun Wang
      Abstract: Obesity, a major health problem worldwide, is a complex multifactorial chronic disease that increases the risk for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. In this study, we assessed methods to isolate hypaphorine, a potent drug candidate for obesity and insulin resistance. Semi-preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography (semi-preparative RPLC) was established as a method to separate three compounds, adenosine, L-tryptophan and hypaphorine, from the crude extracts of Caragana korshinskii Kom. Due to its specific chemical structure, the effect of hypaphorine on differentiation and dexamethasone (DXM) induced insulin resistance of 3T3-L1 cells was investigated. The structures of the three compounds were confirmed by UV, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR analysis and compared with published data. The activity results indicated that hypaphorine prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes by down-regulating hormone-stimulated protein expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα), and their downstream targets, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 c (SREBP1c) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Hypaphorine also alleviated DXM-induced insulin resistance in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes via increasing the phosphorylation level of Akt2, a key protein in the insulin signaling pathway. Taken together, we suggest that the method can be applied to large-scale extraction and large-quantity preparation of hypaphorine for treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T10:55:27.329355-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700038
       
  • Variation in essential oil and bioactive compounds of Curcuma kwangsiensis
           collected from natural habitats
    • Authors: Lanyue Zhang; Zhiwen Yang, Zebin Huang, Mincong Zhao, Penghui Li, Wei Zhou, Kun Zhang, Xi Zheng, Li Lin, Jian Tang, Yanxiong Fang, Zhiyun Du
      Abstract: The chemical compositions of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Curcuma kwangsiensis rhizomes collected from six natural habitats in China were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-seven components were identified from the six Eos; their main constituents were 8,9-dehydro-9-formyl-cycloisolongifolene (2.37-42.59%), germacrone (6.53-22.20%), and L-camphor (0.19-6.12%). The six EOs exhibited different DPPH radical-scavenging activities (IC50, 2.24-31.03 μg/mL), with the activity of most of the EOs being much higher than that of Trolox C (IC50, 10.49 μg/mL) and BHT (IC50, 54.13 μg/mL). Most EOs had potent antimicrobial effects against the tested bacteria and fungus. They also exhibited cytotoxicity in B16 (IC50, 4.44-147.4 μg/mL) and LNCaP cells (IC50, 73.94-429.25 μg/mL). The EOs showed excellent anti-inflammatory action by significantly downregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α. This study provides insight into relationship among growth location, phytoconstituents, and bioactivities; the results indicate the potential of C. kwangsiensis as natural nutrients, medicines, and others additives.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T10:55:25.74176-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700020
       
  • Four new nanaomycins produced by Streptomyces hebeiensis derived from
           lichen
    • Authors: Chengbin Liu; Yi Jiang, Hui Lei, Xiu Chen, Qingjuan Ma, Li Han, Xueshi Huang
      Abstract: Four new nanaomycins (1-4), together with two known compounds, nanaomycin αA (5) and nanaomycin βA (6) were isolated from a fermentation broth of Streptomyces hebeiensis derived from lichen. The structures of the new nanaomycins 1-4 were established using comprehensive NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as UV, IR, and MS data. The antimicrobial activities of 1-6 were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria and fungus. Compounds 5 and 6 showed antimicrobial activities against the test microorganisms, while 1-4 were inactive at 100 μg/mL.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-08T03:26:41.919436-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700057
       
  • Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activity of Dehydrozingerone based
           Cyclopropyl Derivatives
    • Authors: Adrijana Z. Burmudžija; Jovana M. Muškinja, Marijana M. Kosanić, Branislav R. Ranković, Slađana B. Novaković, Snežana B. Đorđević, Tatjana P. Stanojković, Dejan D. Baskić, Zoran R. Ratković
      Abstract: A small series of 1-acetyl-2-(4-alkoxy-3-methoxyphenyl)cyclopropanes was prepared, starting from dehydrozingerone [4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-buten-2-one] and its O-alkyl derivatives. Their microbiological activities toward some strains of bacteria and fungi were tested, as well as their in vitro cytotoxic activity against some cancer cell lines (HeLa, LS174 and A549). All synthesized compounds showed significant antimicrobial activity and expressed cytotoxic activity against tested carcinoma cell lines, but they showed no significant influence on normal cell line (MRC5). Butyl derivative is the most active on HeLa cells (IC50 = 8.63 μM), while benzyl one is active against LS174 and A549 cell lines (IC50 = 10.17 μM and 12.15 μM, respectively).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T11:55:39.865028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700077
       
  • New Avermectin Analogues from a Mutant Streptomyces avermectinius Strain
    • Authors: Yongjun Zhang; Cheng Zhang, Keke Wang, Guoliang Chen, Peng Sun
      Abstract: Two new avemectin analogues (1 and 2) belonging to “b” series of components were isolated from a ∆aveCDE mutant Streptomyces avermectinius strain. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed moderate cytotoxicities against B16, MG-63, and Saos-2 cell lines in an in vitro assay.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T00:40:31.537267-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700054
       
  • Superbanone, A New 2-Aryl-3-benzofuranone and Other Bioactive Constituents
           from the Tube Roots of Butea superba
    • Authors: Jutatip Boonsombat; Vilailak Prachyawarakorn, Acharavadee Pansanit, Chulabhorn Mahidol, Somsak Ruchirawat, Sanit Thongnest
      Abstract: Phytochemical investigation from the tube roots of Butea superba, led to the isolation and identification of a new 2-aryl-3-benzofuranone named superbanone (1), one benzoin, 2-hydroxyl-1-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxy-phenyl)ethanone (2), eight pterocarpans (3-10), and eleven isoflavonoids (11-21). Compound 2 was identified for the first time as a natural product. The structure of the isolated compounds was elucidated using spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. The isolated compounds and their derivatives were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory and antimalarial activities. Compounds 3, 7, 8, and 11 showed promising α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 13.71 ± 0.54, 23.54 ± 0.75, 28.83 ± 1.02, and 12.35 ± 0.36 μM, respectively). Compounds 3 and 11 were twofold less active than the standard drug acarbose (IC50 = 6.54 ± 0.04 μM). None of the tested compounds was found to be active against Plasmodium falciparum strain 94. On the basis of biological activity results, structure-activity relationships are discussed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:06:01.858671-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700044
       
  • New Resorcinol Derivatives from a Sponge-Derived Fungus Hansfordia
           sinuosae
    • Authors: Zehong Wu; Yuan Li, Dong Liu, Min Ma, Jianliang Chen, Wenhan Lin
      Abstract: Ten new resorcinol derivatives named Hansfordiols A‒J (1‒10) were isolated from the fermentation broth of the sponge-derived fungus Hansfordia sinuosae. High resolution electron ionization mass spectrometry, FT-IR spectroscopy, and NMR techniques were used to elucidate the structures of these compounds, and the absolute configurations were established by the modified Mosher's method and their specific optical rotation. The structures of compounds 8‒10 were featured with various chlorination at aromatic rings. Their antioxidant activities on ABTS, cytotoxicity on the HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, and A2780 cell lines, and antibacterial activities were evaluated.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T02:05:58.823523-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700059
       
  • New Cytotoxic Alkylated Chalcones from Fatoua villosa
    • Authors: Shi-Yun Su; Jing-Jing Xue, Guang-Yu Yang, Chun Lei, Ai-Jun Hou
      Abstract: Three new alkylated chalcones, villosins A-NDASH-C (1 – 3), five known analogues, together with ten known coumarins, were isolated from Fatoua villosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and MS data. Compounds 1 – 3 showed cytotoxicity against five kinds of human tumor cell lines (NB4, A549, SHSY5Y, PC3 and MCF7) with IC50 values ranging from 1.4±0.1 to 5.7±0.3 μM.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T17:50:28.347269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700076
       
  • Cytotoxic essential oils from Eryngium campestre and Eryngium amethystinum
           (Apiaceae) growing in central Italy
    • Authors: Kevin Cianfaglione; Evy E. Blomme, Luana Quassinti, Massimo Bramucci, Giulio Lupidi, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Filippo Maggi
      Abstract: Eryngium campestre and E. amethystinum are thorny herbs belonging to the Apiaceae family and spontaneously growing in stony pastures and dry meadows, preferentially on calcareous substrates. In the Mediterranean countries, these plants have been used as a food or traditional remedies to treat various ailments. In the present work, we have analysed the chemical composition of the essential oils distilled from the aerial parts by GC-FID and GC-MS, and evaluated their cytotoxic effects on a panel of human cancer cells, namely A375 (human malignant melanoma), MDA-MB 231 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HCT116 cells (human colon carcinoma), by the MTT assay. Furthermore, the Eryngium essential oils were evaluated for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities. The two essential oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, with germacrene D as the major compound, accompanied by allo-aromadendrene, β-elemene, spathulenol and ledol. They resulted highly cytotoxic on the tumor cells, with IC50 values (1.65-5.32 and 1.57-2.99 μg/ml for E. amethystinum and E. campestre, respectively) comparable or close to those of the anticancer drug cisplatin. The E. amethystinum essential oil exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity whereas that of E. campestre a weak AChE inhibition.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T06:26:20.789267-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700096
       
  • Chemical Components from Phaeanthus vietnamensis and Their Inhibitory NO
           Production in BV2 Cells
    • Authors: Nguyen Xuan Nhiem; Nguyen Trung Tuong, Pham Thanh Ky, Lalita Subedi, SeonJu Park, Tran Minh Ngoc, Pham Hai Yen, Bui Huu Tai, Tran Hong Quang, Phan Van Kiem, Sun Yeou Kim, Seung Hyun Kim
      Abstract: Phaeanthus vietnamensis Ban is a well-known medicinal plant which has been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases in traditional medicine. Using various chromatographic methods, three new compounds, (7S,8R,8’R)-3,5,3′,5’-tetramethoxy-9,9’-epoxylignan-4,4’,7-triol (1), 8α-hydroxyoplop-11(12)-en-14-one (5), and (1R,2S,4S)-2-E-cinnamoyloxy-4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexan-1-ol (12) along with twelve known compounds were isolated from the leaves of P. vietnamensis. Their chemical structures were elucidated by physical and chemical methods. All compounds were evaluated for the inhibitory activities of nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. As the results, compound 6 showed the most potent inhibitory activity on LPS-stimulated NO production in BV2 cells with the IC50 values of 15.7 ± 1.2 μM. Compounds 2, 7, and 8 significantly inhibited inflammatory NO production with IC50 values ranging from 22.6 to 25.3 μM.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T10:56:35.644274-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700013
       
  • Sarcophytrols G – L, Novel Minor Metabolic Components from South China
           Sea Soft Coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum Marenzeller
    • Authors: Lin-Fu Liang; Wen-Ting Chen, Ernesto Mollo, Li-Gong Yao, He-Yao Wang, Wei Xiao, Yue-Wei Guo
      Abstract: Minor metabolic components, six new cembranoids sarcophytrols G – L (1 – 6) along with two known related analogues 7 and 8, were isolated from the South China Sea soft coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D- and 2D-NMR, and ESI-MS.) as well as comparison with literature data. As part of our ongoing research project for discovering bioactive substances from Chinese marine invertebrates, compounds 1 – 8 were tested for their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a key target for the treatment of Type-II diabetes and obesity. However, none of them exhibited potent PTP1B inhibitory activities.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T10:46:26.937727-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700079
       
  • Six new acylphloroglucinols from Dryopteris championii
    • Authors: Neng-Hua Chen; Yi-Rui Qian, Wen Li, Yu-Bo Zhang, Yi-Duo Zhou, Guo-Qiang Li, Yao-Lan Li, Guo-Cai Wang
      Abstract: Six new acylphloroglucinols (1-6) were isolated from Dryopteris championii. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with reported data. The antibacterial activities of the isolates were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Dickeya zeae.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T10:46:25.678499-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700001
       
  • Differential in vitro antitumor activity of essential oil of Lippia
           citriodora from different regions in Morocco
    • Authors: Moulay Ali Oukerrou; Mounir Tilaoui, Hassan Ait Mouse, Najat Bouchmaa, Abdelmajid Zyad
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro anticancer effect of the essential oil of dried leaves of Lippia citriodora (H.B. & K.) harvested in different regions of Morocco. This effect was evaluated against the P815 murine mastocytoma cell line using the MTT assay. Interestingly, this work demonstrated for the first time that these essential oils exhibited a strong cytotoxic activity against the P815 cell line, with IC50 values ranging from 7.75 μg/ml to 13.25 μg/ml. This cytotoxicity began early and increased in a dose and time dependent manner. The chemical profile of these essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Importantly, the difference in terms of major components’ contents was not significant suggesting probably that the differential cytotoxicity between these essential oils could be attributed to the difference in the content of these essential oils in minor compounds, which could interact with each other or with the main molecules. Finally, this study demonstrated for the first time that essential oils of L. citriodora from different regions in Morocco induced apoptosis against P815 tumor cell line.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-19T20:21:03.31137-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600497
       
  • Phytochemical profile and biological activities of Helianthemum canum from
           Turkey
    • Authors: Ayşe Baldemir; Neslihan Gökşen, Nilay Ildız, Gökçe Şeker Karatoprak, Müberra Koşar
      Abstract: In the current study, antioxidant, antibacterial activities, and the phenolic compositions of extracts from Helianthemum canum L. Baumg (Apiaceae) aerial parts were investigated for the first time. The H. canum was extracted with 70% methanol (HCMeOH) and water (HCW). Both extracts were determined by total phenolic contents (3 mg/mL), flavonoids (1.5 mg/mL), flavonols (1.5 mg/mL), qualitative–quantitative compositions, iron (II) chelation activities (0.1-5 mg/mL), free radical scavenging activities (DPPH●: 0.01-0.6 mg/mL and ABTS•+: 0.125-0.5 mg/mL) and the effect upon inhibition of β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation (1 mg/mL). The peroxidation level was also determined using the thiobarbituric acid method (0.01-1.5 mg/mL). The results of the activity tests given as IC50 values were estimated from non-linear algorithm and compared with standards. Antibacterial activities of extracts and standards were evaluated against Gram negative and positive 10 standard strains using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The MIC results (312.5-2500 μg/mL) against tested microorganisms varied from 625 to 2500 μg/mL. In HPLC analysis, 3,5-di-OH-benzoic acid was found as the main substance in both extracts. These results showed that HCMeOH was richer in phenolic compounds (284.13 ± 0.30 mg GAE/g extract) from HCW (244.55 ± 0.35 mg GAE/g extract). In conclusion, H. canum extracts showed in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activities.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T09:50:25.65585-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700052
       
  • Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Iranian Lavandula x
           hybrida
    • Authors: Iman Bajalan; Razieh Rouzbahani, Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Filippo Maggi
      Abstract: Lavandin (Lavandula x hybrida) is an evergreen shrub and cultivated worldwide for its essential oil which possesses various biological activities. In this study, the essential oils were isolated from the leaves of ten lavandin populations in western Iran. The hydrodistilled essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID/MS. Results indicated significant differences (p ≤0.05) among the various populations for the main essential oil constituents. The major components from different populations were 1,8-cineole (31.64 to 47.94%), borneol (17.11 to 26.14%), and camphor (8.41 to 12.68%). In vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated against S. agalactiae, S. aureus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae. The inhibition zones were in the range of 09.36 mm for S. aureus to 23.30 mm for E. coli. Results indicated that there was a significant correlation between essential oil composition and level of antibacterial efficacy expressed as inhibition zones.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T09:50:24.590387-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700064
       
  • Variation in phenolic profile, β-carotene and flavonoid contents,
           biological activities of two Tagetes species from Pakistani flora
    • Authors: Muhammad Adnan Ayub; Abdullah Ijaz Hussain, Muhammad Asif Hanif, Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha, Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Muhammad Shahid, Omar Janneh
      Abstract: The objective of present study was to evaluate the variation in phenolic profile, β-carotene, flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Tagetes eracta and Tagetes patula (T. erecta and T. patula) through different in vitro assays.,Antioxidant activity was determined through 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays and antibacterial and antifungal activities studied using the disc diffusion and resazurin microtiter-plate assays against bacterial and fungal strains. Moreover, Total phenolics (TP), total carotenoids (TC) and total flavonoids (TF) were also determined. Highest (TP 35.8 mg GAE/g) and TF (16.9 mg CE/g) contents were found in methanolic extract of T. patula. T. erecta extract showed higher TC contents (6.45 mg/g) than T. patula extract (6.32 mg/g). T. erecta exhibited the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50) (5.73 μg/mL) and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (80.1%). RP-HPLC revealed the presence of caffeic acid, sinapic acid and ferulic acid in Tagetes extracts, m-coumaric acid in T. erecta whereas chlorogenic acid in T. patula extract only. Both extracts possessed promising antimicrobial activity compared to the ciprofloxacin and flumequine (+ve controls) against Bacillus subtilis and Alternaria alternate. Both extract were rich source of polyphenols exhibiting excellent biological activities.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:41:58.377226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600463
       
  • Essential oils of Myrtaceae species growing wild in Tunisia: Chemical
           variability and antifungal activity against Biscogniauxia Mediterranea,
           the causative agent of charcoal canker
    • Authors: Islem Yangui; Meriem Zouaoui Boutiti, Mohamed Boussaid, Chokri Messaoud
      Abstract: The chemical composition of five Eucalyptus species and five Myrtus communis L. populations was investigated using GC-MS and GC-FID. For Eucalyptus essential oils, 32 compounds, representing 88.56-96.83% of the total oil according to species, were identified. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, ɤ-gurjunene, α-aromadendrene and β-phellandrene. For Myrtle essential oils, 26 compounds, representing 93.13-98.91% of the total oil were identified. α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, linalool and myrtenyl acetate were found to be the major compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed chemical differentiation between Eucalyptus species and between Myrtle populations.Biscogniauxia mediterranea, the causative agent of charcoal canker, was identified according to its morphological and molecular characteristics. Essential oils of the investigated Eucalyptus species and Myrtle populations were tested for their antifungal capacity against this fungus. The antifungal activity varied according to the essential oil composition. Biscogniauxia mediterranea exhibited powerful resistance to some essential oils including them of Eucalyptus lehmannii and Eucalyptus sideroxylon but it was very sensitive to Eucalyptus camaldulensis oil (IC50= 3.83 mg/ml) and Myrtus communis oil from Zaghouan (IC50= 1 mg/ml). This sensitivity was found to be correlated to some essential oil compounds such as p-cymene, carvacrol, cuminaldehyde and linalool.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:36:17.996021-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700058
       
  • Antioxidant capacity, phenolic constituents and toxicity of hot water
           extract from red maple buds
    • Authors: Naamwin R. Meda; Patrice E. Poubelle, Tatjana Stevanovic
      Abstract: The present study reports, for the first time, the results of the antioxidant capacity and the phenolic composition of a hot water extract from red maple buds (RMB), as well as its safety. In this regard and comparatively to antioxidant standards, this extract exhibits a significant antiradical capacity when tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and anion superoxide trapping assays. High-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analyses permitted to determine for the first time, in red maple species, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside and quercetin. Also, the quantification of individual phenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method revealed that ginnalin A at 117.0 mg/g is the major compound of RMB hot water extract. Finally, using flow cytometry evaluation, the extract of RMB was determined to have no toxicity neither to cause significant modification of apoptosis process, up to concentration of 100 μg / mL, on human peripheral blood neutrophils. These results allow anticipating various fields of application of RMB water extract.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T09:55:26.53123-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700028
       
  • Flavonoids from Potentilla parvifolia Fisch. and Their Neuroprotective
           Effects in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells In Vitro
    • Authors: Zhenzhen Yuan; Guangxiang Luan, Zhenhua Wang, Xueyan Hao, Ji Li, Yourui Suo, Gang Li, Honglun Wang
      Abstract: Potentilla parvifolia Fisch. (Rosaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant in China. In this study, seven flavonoids, ayanin (1), tricin (2), quercetin (3), tiliroside (4), miquelianin (5), isoquercitrin (6), and astragalin (7), were separated and purified from ethanol extractive fractions from ethanol extracts of P. parvifolia using a combination of sevaral chromatographic methods. The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were differentiated with all trans-retinoic acid and treated with okadaic acid to induce tau protein phosphorylation and synaptic atrophy, which could establish an Alzheimer's disease cell model. The neuroprotective effects of these flavonoids in cellular were evaluated in vitro by this cell model. Results from the western blot and morphology analysis suggested that compounds 3 and 4 had the better neuroprotective effects.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T09:50:26.494413-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600487
       
  • Chemical Composition, Antibacterial, Antibiofilm and Synergistic
           Properties of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Seven
           Mediterranean Aromatic Plants
    • Authors: Maria Vieira; Lucinda J. Bessa, M Rosário Martins, Sílvia Arantes, António P. S. Teixeira, Ângelo Mendes, Paulo Martins da Costa, Anabela D. F. Belo
      Abstract: Essential oils (EOs) from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus and from Mediterranean autochthonous aromatic plants - Thymus mastichina L., Mentha pulegium L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi ssp. nepeta, Cistus ladanifer L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter ssp. viscosa - were extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and NMR spectroscopy. EOs were evaluated for antimicrobial properties against several bacterial strains, using diverse methods, namely, the agar disc-diffusion method, the microdilution method, the crystal violet assay and the Live/Dead staining for assessment of biofilm formation. Potential synergy was assessed by a checkerboard method. EOs of R. officinalis and C. ladanifer showed a predominance in monoterpene hydrocarbons (>60%); EOs of C. nepeta, M. pulegium, T. mastichina, E. globulus and F. vulgare were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (62-96%) whereas EO of D. viscosa was mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (54%). All EOs showed antimicrobial activity; M. pulegium and E. globulus generally had the strongest antimicrobial activity. EO of C. nepeta was the most promising in hampering the biofilm formation. The combinations D. viscosa/C. nepeta and E. globulus/T. mastichina were synergistic against Staphylococcus aureus. These results support the notion that EOs from the aromatic plants herein reported should be further explored as potential pharmaceuticals and/or food preservatives.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T20:03:03.192566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700006
       
  • New coumarinyl ethers in Daphne oleoides Schreb. collected from Sardinia
           Island
    • Authors: Alessandro Venditti; Cinzia Sanna, Lorenzo M. Lorenzetti, Mauro Ballero, Armandodoriano Bianco
      Abstract: The phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract obtained from D. oleoides collected from Sardinia Island allowed the isolation of several new constituents for the species (3, 8 and 9) together with two new coumarinyl ethers (1 and 2) besides the chemotaxonomic markers of the Daphne genus (4 - 7 and 10) which are also known to possess interesting biological activities. The structure of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. The identification of these compounds gives an experimental evidence of the variability in the secondary metabolites pattern owned by populations growing in restricted area in respect to populations not confined by geographical barrier.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T19:56:02.693852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700072
       
  • A New 4-methoxy-1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline from Scolopendra Subspinipes
           Mutilans
    • Authors: Y-R Guo; P-X Wu, H-M Xu, W-Y Qi
      Abstract: A new isoquinoline, 4-methoxy-1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline (1), was obtained from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. Compound 1 showed moderate cytotoxicity on tumour cells with IC50 values ranging from 13-26 μM against five Esophageal Squamous Cancer Cells (ESCC) whereas low cytotoxicity against normal Human Esophageal Epithelial Cells (HEEC). Isoquinoline ring oxidized by C-1, C-4, and C-5 can enhance its cytotoxicity. In addition, compound 1 showed potent inhibitory effect (inhibition rate>50% at 13 μM) on cell migration in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). This paper mainly studies the structure and activity of 1, and more modification of 1 as a potential anti-cancer agent.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T19:51:57.481312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600478
       
  • Accumulation of Flavonoid Glycosides and UFGT Gene Expression in Mulberry
           Leaves (Morus alba L.) before and after Frost
    • Authors: Xiaofeng Yu; Yiling Zhu, Jingyi Fan, Dujun Wang, Xiaohui Gong, Zhen Ouyang
      Abstract: In order to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the influence of frost on chemical changes in mulberry leaves, the UFGT activity, expression level and accumulation of flavonoid glycosides in mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) were studied. The expression of UFGT gene was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the UFGT activity, accumulation of flavonoid glycosides were studied by high performance liquid chromatography. Then the correlation between the expression level of UFGT, the UFGT activity and the flavonoid glycosides accumulation, temperature was explored. The accumulation of isoquercitrin and astragalin is significantly positively correlated with UFGT gene expression and UFGT activity. On the contrary the average temperature was significantly negatively correlated with the level of UFGT gene expression and UFGT activity. The results show that after frost low temperature can induce the expression of UFGT gene in mulberry leaves, resulting in the accumulation of flavonoid glycosides.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T19:51:56.143998-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600496
       
  • Insecticidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Peperomia borbonensis
           Miq. (Piperaceae) and its major components against the melon fly
           Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    • Authors: Emmanuelle Dorla; Anne Bialecki, Zoé Deuscher, Agathe Allibert, Isabelle Grondin, Jean-Philippe Deguine, Philippe Laurent
      Abstract: The essential oil from leaves of Peperomia borbonensis from Réunion Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized using GC-FID, GC-MS and NMR. The main components were myristicin (39.5%) and elemicin (26.6%). The essential oil (EO) of Peperomia borbonensis and its major compounds (myristicin and elemicin), pure or in a mixture, were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a filter paper impregnated bioassay. The concentrations necessary to kill 50% (LC50) and 90% (LC90) of the flies in three hours were determined. The LC50 was 0.23 ± 0.009 mg/cm² and the LC90 was 0.34 ± 0.015 mg/cm² for the EO. The median lethal time (LT50) was determined to compare the toxicity of EO and the major constituents. The EO was the most potent insecticide (LT50 = 98 ± 2 min), followed by the mixture of myristicin and elemicin (1.4:1) (LT50 = 127± 2 min) indicating that the efficiency of the EO is potentiated by minor compounds and emphasizing one of the major assets of EOs against pure molecules.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T16:35:28.97131-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600493
       
  • Diversity Profile and Dynamics of Peptaibols Produced by Green Mould
           Trichoderma Species in Interactions with Their Hosts Agaricus bisporus and
           Pleurotus ostreatus
    • Authors: Tamás Marik; Péter Urbán, Chetna Tyagi, András Szekeres, Balázs Leitgeb, Máté Vágvölgyi, László Manczinger, Irina S. Druzhinina, Csaba Vágvölgyi, László Kredics
      Abstract: Certain Trichoderma species are causing serious losses in mushroom production worldwide. Trichoderma aggressivum and Trichoderma pleuroti are among the major causal agents of the green mould diseases affecting Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively. The genus Trichoderma is well known for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites, including peptaibols, which are short, linear peptides containing unusual amino acid residues and being synthesised via non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). The aim of this study was to get more insight into the peptaibol production of T. aggressivum and T. pleuroti. HPLC-MS-based methods revealed the production of peptaibols closely related to hypomurocins B by T. aggressivum, while tripleurins representing a new group of 18-residue peptaibols were identified in T. pleuroti. Putative NRPS genes enabling the biosynthesis of the detected peptaibols could be found in the genomes of both Trichoderma species. In vitro experiments revealed that peptaibols are potential growth inhibitors of mushroom mycelia, and that the host mushrooms may have an influence on the peptaibol profiles of green mould agents.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T01:35:28.582411-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700033
       
  • Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B from Marine Natural Products
    • Authors: Yue Zhou; Weirui Zhang, Xiaoyu Liu, Haobing Yu, Xiaoling Lu, Binghua Jiao
      Abstract: The ocean is a huge treasure trove of natural products, from where 11 drugs has been developed for various diseases. (Table 1).Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) belongs to the protein tyrosine phosphatase family, which specifically hydrolyses the aromatic phosphate. On one hand, in insulin signaling, it plays a key role as a negative regulator through dephosphorylating activated insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate (1IRS-1)This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T01:35:23.373398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600462
       
  • Exploratory Studies on the in Vitro Anti-inflammatory Potential of Two
           Herbal Teas (Annona muricata L. and Jasminum grandiflorum L.), and
           Relation with Their Phenolic Composition
    • Authors: Andreia P. Oliveira; Ivone Sá, David M. Pereira, Rui F. Gonçalves, Paula B. Andrade, Patrícia Valentão
      Abstract: The need of new anti-inflammatory drugs has led to the search for safer and more potent molecules in distinct sources, such as natural products. This work aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extracts from two herbal teas (Annona muricata L. and Jasminum grandiflorum L.) in RAW 264.7 macrophages cells and in cell-free assays. Furthermore, the phenolic composition of both extracts and of their hydrolysates was characterized by HPLC-DAD, in order to establish possible relationships with the biological activity. In a general way, A. muricata displayed a stronger capacity to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production and the activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), displaying an IC50 of 142 μg/mL against this enzyme. A deeper look at phenolic compounds revealed that aglycones had more capacity to inhibit NO and PLA2 than their corresponding glycosides, quercetin being clearly the most potent one (IC50 = 7.47 and 1.36 μM, respectively). In addition, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, at 1.56 μM, could also inhibit PLA2 (ca. 35%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of both herbal teas may be a preventive approach to inflammatory disorders.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T20:40:25.695704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700002
       
  • Pyrrole Derivatives and Diterpene Alkaloids from the South China Sea
           Sponge Agelas nakamurai
    • Authors: Mei-Jun Chu; Xu-Li Tang, Guo-Fei Qin, Yan-Ting Sun, Lei Li, Nicole J. de Voogd, Ping-Lin Li, Guo-Qiang Li
      Abstract: Two pairs of new non-brominated racematic pyrrole derivatives, (±)-nakamurine D (1) and (±)-nakamurine E (2), two new diterpene alkaloids, iso-agelasine C (16), and iso-agelasidine B (21), together with fifteen known pyrrole derivatives((±)-3 – 15), five known diterpene alkaloids (17 – 20, 22) were isolated from the South China Sea sponge Agelas nakamurai. The racemic mixtures, compounds 1 – 4, were resolved into four pairs of enantiomers, (+)-1 and (–)-1, (+)-2 and (–)-2, (+)-3 and (–)-3, and (+)-4 and (–)-4, by chiral HPLC. The structures and absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, quantum chemical calculations, quantitative measurements of molar rotations, application of van't Hoff's principle of optical superposition, and comparison with the literature data. The NMR and MS data of compound 3 are reported for the first time, as the structure was listed in SciFinder Scholar with no associated reference. These non-brominated pyrrole derivatives were found in this species for the first time. Compound 18 showed valuable cytotoxicities against HL-60, K562, and HCT-116 cell lines with IC50 values of 12.4, 16.0, and 19.8 μM, respectively. Compounds 16 – 19, 21, and 22 showed potent antifungal activities against Candida albicans with MIC values ranging from 0.59 to 4.69 μg/mL. Compounds 16 – 19 exhibited moderate antibacterial activities against Proteusbacillus vulgaris (MIC values ranging from 9.38 to 18.75 μg/mL).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T17:05:28.959608-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600446
       
  • Composition, Antifungal and Antiproliferative Activities of the
           Hydrodistilled Oils from Leaves and Flower Heads of Pterocephalus
           nestorianus Nab
    • Authors: Fuad O. Abdullah; Faiq H. S. Hussain, Barbara Mannucci, Rosamaria Lappano, Solveig Tosi, Marcello Maggiolini, Giovanni Vidari
      Abstract: This paper reports the first study of the chemical composition, and antifungal and antiproliferative properties of the volatile extracts obtained by hydrodistillation of the flower heads and leaves of the traditional Kurdish medicinal plant P. nestorianus Nab., collected in the wild. A total of fifty-five constituents, 43 of the flower heads’ oil (PFO) and 46 of the leaves’ oil (PLO), respectively, were identified by GC/MS, constituting 99.68% and 99.04% of the two oils, respectively. The oils were obtained in 0.15% and 0.10% yields (w/w), respectively, on air-dried vegetable material. The prevalent constituents of the PFO were α-terpineol (2.41%), α-linalool (6.42%), 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one (2.59%), myristic acid (24.65 %), and lauric acid (50.44%), while the major components of PLO were (E)-hex-2-enal (2.26%), (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (2.04), myristic acid (34.03%), and lauric acid (50.35%). The two oils showed significant inhibitory and fungicidal activities against the medically important fungi Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with MIC ranging from 0.7 to 3.3 mg/ml and MFC varying from 1.4 to 6.6 mg/ml. The antiproliferative activity of the two oils was assayed against one normal and six human tumor cell lines. Both oils showed selective cytotoxic activity, with IC50 values ranging from 1.4 to 3.3 μg/ml.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19T21:35:22.110123-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700009
       
  • Chemical Composition Variability of Essential Oils of Daucus gracilis
           Steinh. from Algeria
    • Authors: Batoul Benyelles; Hocine Allali, Mohamed El Amine Dib, Nassim Djabou, Julien Paolini, Jean Costa
      Abstract: The chemical compositions of 20 Algerian Daucus gracilis essential oils were investigated using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 47 compounds were identified, accounting for 90-99% of the total oil compositions. The main components were linalool (18; 12.5-22.6%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (20; 9.2-20.2%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (10; 4.2-12.2%), ammimajane (47; 2.6-37.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (15; 0.2-12.8%) and 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (19; 3.3-9.6%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs was also studied. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaves and flowers allowed identifying 47 compounds, amounting to 92.3% and 94.1% of total oil composition, respectively. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaf and flower oils allowed identifying linalool (22.7%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (18.9%), 2-methylbutyl isovalerate (13.6%), ammimajane (10.4%), 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (10.3%), (E)-β-ocimene (8.4%) and isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate (8.1%) as main components. The chemical variability of the Algerian oil samples was studied using statistical analysis, which allowed the discrimination of three main Groups. A direct correlation between the altitudes, nature of soils and the chemical compositions of the D. gracilis essential oils was evidenced.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T15:30:23.877382-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600490
       
  • Fatty acid composition of baobab seed and its relationship with the genus
           Adansonia taxonomy
    • Authors: Gaylor Razafimamonjison; Jean Michel Leong Pock Tsy, Manitriniaina Randriamiarinarivo, Panja Ramanoelina, Jean Rasoarahona, Fanjaniaina Fawbush, Pascal Danthu
      Abstract: Baobab seed oil contains specific fatty acids. Most of the studies on baobab fatty acids have been carried out singly and in isolation from each other, making it difficult to compare results through different species. The objective of the present study is to establish the seed fatty acid composition of each Adansonia species in order to evaluate and understand the relationships between the oil chemical compositions, the baobabs’ taxonomy and, the ecological and geographical origin of each seed lot. The seed oils have been analysed using gas chromatography (GC). The oils of all baobab species contain three major fatty acids: palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. They also contain specific fatty acids such as cyclopropenic and cyclopropanic acids, which are characteristic of the Malvaceae family seed oils. It was possible to distinguish three sections through principal components analysis using the 11 fatty acids identified by GC. The Adansonia section contains high rates of oleic acid (±35%), the Brevitubae section is rich in palmitic acid (±42%) and the Longitubae section contains high levels of dihydrosterculic acid (±5%). The oil fatty acid composition, however, does not enable a definitive characterization of profiles according to species. The fatty acid composition is not significantly influenced by the geographical, soil and climate conditions of the collection sites.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T13:15:24.254064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600441
       
  • Inhibitory activities of n-butanol fraction from Butea monosperma (Lam.)
           Taub. bark against free radicals, genotoxins and cancer cells
    • Authors: Varinder Kaur; Manish Kumar, Paramjeet Kaur, Sandeep Kaur, Satwinderjeet Kaur
      Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antiproliferative activity of n-butanol fraction (Bmbu) from bark of medicinal plant Butea monosperma. Antioxidant potency of Bmbu was examined by various in vitro assays. It was also investigated for antigenotoxic activity using E. coli. PQ37 employing SOS chromotest. Further, cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing activity of Bmbu was evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Bmbu showed potent free radical scavenging ability in ABTS assay (IC50 56.70 μg/ml) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (IC50 40.39 μg/ml). 4NQO and H2O2 induced genotoxicity was suppressed by Bmbu in SOS chromotest by 74.26 and 82.02 % respectively. It also inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells with GI50 value of 158.71 μg/ml. Induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by Bmbu treatment was deciphered using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and neutral comet assay. Bmbu treatment increased cell population in sub-G1 phase (69.6 %) indicating apoptotic cells. Further, Bmbu treatment resulted in increased ROS generation and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential indicating involvement mitochondrial dependent pathway of apoptosis. HPLC profiling showed the presence of polyphenols such as ellagic acid, catechin, quercetin and gallic acid as major constituents. Consequently, it is suggested that the phytoconstituents from this plant may be further exploited for development of novel drug formulation with possible therapeutic implication.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:10:28.221555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600484
       
  • Carbonic anhydrase and urease inhibitory potential of various plant
           phenolics using in vitro and in silico methods
    • Authors: Abdur Rauf; Muslim Raza, Muhammad Saleem, Ufuk Ozgen, Esen Sezen Karaoglan, Gulin Renda, Erhan Palaska, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan
      Abstract: Plant phenolics are known to display many pharmacological activities. In the current study, eight phenolic compounds [e.g. luteolin 5-O-β-glucoside (1), methyl rosmarinate (2), apigenin (3), vicenin 2 (4), lithospermic acid (5), soyasaponin II (6), rubiadin 3-O-β-primeveroside (7), 4(3,4dihydroxybenzoyloxymethyl)phenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8)] isolated from various plant species were tested at 0.2 mM against carbonic anhydrase-II (CA-II) and urease using microtiter assays. Urease inhibition rate for compounds 1-8 ranged between 5.0 - 41.7%, while only compounds 1, 2, and 4 showed a considerable inhibition over 50% against CA-II with the IC50 values of 73.5 ± 1.05, 39.5 ± 1.14, and 104.5 ± 2.50 μM, respectively, where IC50 of the reference (acetazolamide) was 21.0 ± 0.12 μM. In silico experiments were also performed through two docking softwares (Autodock Vina and i-GEMDOCK) in order to find out interactions between the compounds and CA-II. Actually, compounds 6 (30.0%) and 7 (42.0%) possessed a better binding capability toward the active site of CA-II. According to our results obtained in this study, among the phenolic compounds screened, particularly 1, 2, and 4 appear to be the promising inhibitors of CA-II and may be further investigated as possible leads for diuretic, anti-glaucoma, and antiepileptic agents.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:10:26.04958-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700024
       
  • Chemical variability and biological activities of Brassica rapa var.
           rapifera parts essential oils depending on geographic variation and
           extraction technique
    • Authors: Boualem Saka; Abderrahmane Djouahri, Zineb Djerrad, Terfi Souhila, Sihem Aberrane, Nasserdine Sabaou, Aoumeur Baaliouamer, Lynda Boudarene
      Abstract: In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. GC and GC–MS analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T04:21:44.667547-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600452
       
  • Nitric Oxide Production-Inhibitory Activity of Limonoids from Azadirachta
           indica and Melia azedarach
    • Authors: Toshihiro Akihisa; Yuki Nishimoto, Eri Ogihara, Masahiro Matsumoto, Jie Zhang, Masahiko Abe
      Abstract: Seventy-three limonoids isolated from three Meliaceae plants, Azadirachta indica, A. indica var. siamensis, and Melia azedarach, or semi-synthesized from the Meliaceae limonoids, were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as a primary screening test for anti-inflammatory agents. Of the compounds tested, 21 compounds exhibited inhibitory activity (IC50 4.6–58.6 μM) without any significant toxicity (IC50>100 μM) which were more potent than L-NMMA (NO-production inhibitory activity, IC50 65.6 μM; cytotoxicity, IC50>100 μM), and among which, nine compounds, i.e., 17-hydroxy-15-methoxynimbocinol (6), ohchinin (20) 1-cis-cinnamoyl-1-decinnamoylohchinin (24), salannin (27), methyl nimbidate (32), isosalannin (55), nimbolinin D (58), mesendanin E (69), and 7-deacetylgedunin (73), exhibited potent inhibitory activity (IC50 4.6–29.3 μM). In particular, compounds 6 (IC50 7.3 μM), an azadirone-type limonoid, and 73 (IC50 4.6 μM), a gedunin-type limonoid, exhibited remarkable activity. Western blot analysis revealed that 27 and 73 reduced the expression levels of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that limonoids of A. indica, A. indica var. siamensis, and M. azedarach, and their semi-synthetic derivatives may be effective against inflammation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T04:15:32.529816-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600468
       
  • Chemical composition of the essential oil of Nigeria grown Hoslundia
           opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) dried leaves and its bioactivity against cowpea
           seed bruchid
    • Authors: Samuel Adelani Babarinde; Olufemi Olutoyin Richard Pitan, Ganiyu Olatunji Olatunde, Michael Oluwole Ajala
      Abstract: Due to several ecological and human hazards of synthetic pesticides in postharvest crop protection, there is the need to search for eco-friendly alternatives. In this study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oil (EO) obtained from Hoslundia opposita dried leaves were evaluated against cowpea seed bruchid. Eight constituents, predominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.86%), were identified using GC-MS. The constituents were 1,8-cineole (1; 61.15%), followed by α-terpineol (2; 16.81%), β-phellandrene (3; 13.24%), β-farnesene (4; 3.55%), α-pinene (5; 1.89%), Germacrene D (6; 1.83%), cis-sabinene hydrate (7; 0.90%) and caryophyllene (8; 0.63%). In fumigation bioassay, at 6 hours after exposure (HAE), 0.78 mL EO/L air caused 35.33% mortality which was significantly lower than 60.90% and 63.6% observed at 3.15 and 6.25 mL/L air, respectively. Mortality reached 90.0% at 24 HAE regardless of the applied concentration. Lethal time for 50% of the bruchids (LT50) at concentration of 0.78 mL/L air (6.89 h) was higher than the LT50 at 3.15 and 6.25 mL/L air (4.72 and 4.44 h, respectively). H. opposita EO reduced C. maculatus oviposition, while progeny emergence observed in EO-treated seeds (2.42-25.73) was significantly (p
      PubDate: 2017-01-16T09:55:22.852578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600418
       
  • Recent Development of the Second and Third Generation Irreversible EGFR
           Inhibitors
    • Authors: Weiwei Han; Yongli Du
      Abstract: Recent reports suggested that essential directions for new lung cancer, breast carcinoma therapies, as well as the roomier realm of targeted cancer therapies were provided through targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Patients who carrying non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with activating mutations in EGFR initially respond well to the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib, which were located the active site of the EGFR kinase and designed to act as competitive inhibitors of combining with the ATP. However, patients who treatment by the erlotinib and gefitinib will relapse because of the emergence of drug-resistant mutations,with T790M mutations accounting for approximately 60% of all resistance. In order to overcome drug resistance, Pharmaceutical chemistry experts recently devoted great endeavors to the development of second-generation irreversible selective inhibitors which covalently modify Cys797 or Cys773 at the ATP binding cleft. Nevertheless, these inhibitors have not reached ideal effect of experts in patients with T790M positive mutation and apparently because of the dose-limiting toxicities associated with inhibition of wild type EGFR. A novel class of “third generation” EGFR TKIs have been developed that is sensitising and T790M mutant-specific whilst sparing WT EGFR, representing a significant breakthrough in the treatment in NSCLC patients with acquired resistance harboring these genotypes. Herein, we provides an overview of the second and third generation inhibitors currently approved, in clinical trial and also encompasses novel structures of discovery .This review mainly focuses on drug resistance, their mechanisms of action, development of structure-activity relationships and binding modes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11T08:40:29.677174-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600372
       
 
 
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