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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 849 journals)
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    - CHEMISTRY (603 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (603 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 178)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 240)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 110)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 10)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 141)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 159)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Chemistry & Biodiversity
  [SJR: 0.542]   [H-I: 49]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-1872 - ISSN (Online) 1612-1880
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1612 journals]
  • Phytochemical, Ecological and Antioxidant Evaluation of Wild Sicilian
           Thyme: Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav.
    • Authors: Antonella Saija; Antonio Speciale, Domenico Trombetta, Claudio Leto, Teresa Tuttolomondo, Salvatore La Bella, Mario Licata, Giuseppe Virga, Giuseppe Bonsangue, Maria Cristina Gennaro, Edoardo Napoli, Laura Siracusa, Giuseppe Ruberto
      Abstract: In a broad survey conducted throughout the Sicily region, 45 different sites were identified where thyme grows wild. All the biotypes collected were classified as Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. (syn. Thymus capitatus (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link). Cluster analysis based on the main morphological characteristics of the plant led to the division of the biotypes into 3 major groups. All samples were analyzed for their secondary phytochemical metabolites identified in the extracts and the essential oils. LC-UV-DAD/ESI-MS and GC-FID/GC-MS have been applied to characterize the extracts and the essential oils, respectively. In the extracts, 15 flavonoid derivatives with taxifolin-di-O-glucoside and thymusin as main components, and 2 organic acids, with a large predominance of rosmarinic acid, were identified. On the whole 37 compounds were fully characterized in the essential oils, carvacrol was identified as the main component with an average value of 73.93%. The total phenol content and the antioxidant activity of all phytochemical complexes were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) assay, the UV radiation-induced peroxidation in liposomal membranes (UV-IP test), and the scavenging activity of superoxide radical (O2∙−).
      PubDate: 2016-11-19T02:30:24.527155-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600072
       
  • Cytotoxic Oleanane-Type Saponins from the Leaves of Albizia anthelmintica
           Brongn.
    • Authors: Eman Al-Sayed; Omayma A. Eldahshan, Dina M. Bahgat, Abdel Nasser B. Singab
      Abstract: Two new oleanane-type saponins: β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 4)-6-deoxy-α-l-mannopyranosyl-(1 2)-1-O-{(3β)-28-oxo-3-[(2-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]olean-12-en-28-yl}-β-d-glucopyranose (1) and 1-O-[(3β)-28-oxo-3-{[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 6)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-yl]β-d-glucopyranose (2), along with two known saponins: (3β)-3-[(β-d-Glucopyranosyl-(1 2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]olean-12-en-28-oic acid (3) and (3β)-3-{[α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4) were isolated from the acetone-insoluble fraction obtained from the 80% aqueous MeOH extract of Albizia anthelmintica Brongn. leaves. Their structures were identified using different NMR experiments including: 1H- and 13C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC and 1H,1H-COSY, together with HR-ESI-MS/MS, as well as by acid hydrolysis. The four isolated saponins and the fractions of the extract exhibited cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 and HCT-116 cell lines. Compound 2 showed the most potent cytotoxic activity among the other tested compounds against the HepG2 cell line with an IC50 value of 3.60μm. Whereas, compound 1 showed the most potent cytotoxic effect with an IC50 value of 4.75μm on HCT-116 cells.
      PubDate: 2016-11-16T01:33:44.421514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600102
       
  • Contents: C&B 11/2016
    • PubDate: 2016-11-15T00:13:13.273691-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201670112
       
  • Chemical Profiling of the Essential Oils of Syzygium aqueum, Syzygium
           samarangense and Eugenia uniflora and Their Discrimination Using
           Chemometric Analysis
    • Authors: Mansour Sobeh; Markus Santhosh Braun, Sonja Krstin, Fadia S. Youssef, Mohamed L. Ashour, Michael Wink
      Abstract: The essential oil compositions of the leaves of three related Myrtaceae species, namely Syzygium aqueum, Syzygium samarangense and Eugenia uniflora, were investigated using GLC/MS and GLC/FID. Altogether, 125 compounds were identified: α-Selinene (13.85%), β-caryophyllene (12.72%) and β-selinene constitute the most abundant constituents in S. aqueum. Germacrene D (21.62%) represents the major compound in S. samarangense whereas in E. uniflora, spathulenol (15.80%) represents the predominant component. Multivariate chemometric analyses were used to discriminate the essential oils using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) based on the chromatographic results. The antimicrobial activity of the popularly used E. uniflora essential oil was assessed using broth microdilution method against six Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacteria and two fungi. The oil showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Bacillus licheniformis exhibiting MIC and MMC of 0.63 mg/ml. The cytotoxic activity of E. uniflora essential oil was investigated against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei) and MCF-7 cancer cell line using MTT assay. It showed moderate activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 76.40 μg/ml. On the other hand, T. brucei was highly susceptible to E. uniflora essential oil with IC50 of 11.20 μg/ml, and a selectivity index of 6.82.
      PubDate: 2016-11-02T07:23:48.122822-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600089
       
  • Two New Pyripyropenes from the Marine Fungus Fusarium lateritium 2016F18-1
    • Authors: Qing-Xiang Cao; Jun-Hua Wei, Rong Deng, Gong-Kan Feng, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Wen-Jian Lan, Hou-Jin Li
      Abstract: Two new pyripyropenes, 13-dehydroxy-1,11-deacetylpyripyropene A (1) and 1-deacetylpyripyropene A (2), together with six known compounds, were isolated from a marine fungus Fusarium lateritium 2016F18-1 which was associated with the sponge Phyllospongia foliascens. Their structures were established mainly based on NMR and MS data. Their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cells CNE1, CNE2, HONE1, SUNE1, GLC82 and HL7702 were evaluated.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-11-02T02:46:52.280262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600298
       
  • Pyranochromones from Dictyoloma vandellianum A. Juss and Their Cytotoxic
           Evaluation
    • Authors: Iura M. Alves; Lucas S. Abreu, Cinara O. S. Costa, Mireille Le Hyaric, Maria Lenise S. Guedes, Milena B. P. Soares, Daniel P. Bezerra, Eudes S. Velozo
      Abstract: One new chromone 3,3-dimethylallylspatheliachromene methyl ether 1, as well as five known chromones, 6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) allopteroxylin methyl ether 2, 6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) allopteroxylin 3, 3,3-dimethylallylspatheliachromene 4, 5-O-methylcneorumchromone K 5 and spatheliabischromen 6, two alkaloids, 8-methoxy-N-methylflindersine 7 and 8-methoxyflindersine 8, and two limonoids, limonin diosphenol 9 and rutaevin 10, were isolated from Dictyoloma vandellianum A. Juss (Rutaceae). Cytotoxic activities towards tumor cell lines B16-F10, HepG2, K562 and HL60 and non-tumor cells PBMC were evaluated for compounds 1-6. Compound 1 was the most active showing IC50 values ranging from 6.26 to 14.82 μg/mL in B16-F10 and K562 cell lines, respectively, and presented IC50 value of 11.65 μg/mL in PBMC cell line.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-10-31T09:26:29.852404-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600276
       
  • Barks Essential Oil, Secondary Metabolites and Biological Activities of
           Four Organs of Tunisian Calligonum azel Maire
    • Authors: Marwa Bannour; Chedia Aouadhi, Houssem Khalfaoui, Samira Aschi-Smiti, Ayda Khadhri
      Abstract: This study is the first to investigate the chemical composition of barks essential oil (EO), secondary metabolites and biological activities of the MeOH and infusions extracts of seeds, leaves, barks and roots of Calligonum azel Maire (Polygonaceae) harvested from Tunisian desert. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) results showed the presence of fifty-four compounds in barks EO. The major components were: viridiflorol (14.6%), α-eudesmol (8.65%), trans-caryophyllene (6.72%), elemol (6.63%), β-eudesmol (6.21%). The obtained results showed that C. azel is a very rich plant in secondary metabolites. High contents in polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins were observed in both extracts of all studied organs. Significant differences were found between both extracts of the four organs. Thus, polyphenols and tannins were more abundant in leaves infusion extract, while, flavonoids showed a high level in barks extract. The antioxidant activity data demonstrated that all extracts showed strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. The MeOH extracts presented potential for antibacterial and antifungal activities against all tested microorganisms. The inhibition zones diameters and minimal inhibitrice concentration values were in the range of 9 – 15 mm and 2.5 – 20 μg/ml, respectively. This study demonstrated that C. azel can be regarded as an excellent plant source for natural antimicrobial agents.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T01:55:31.040905-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600086
       
  • Biocidal compounds from Mentha sp essential oils and their
           structure-activity relationships
    • Authors: Omar Santana-Méridas; Azucena González-Coloma, Maria Fe Andrés, Veroniki P. Vidali, Moschos G. Polissiou, Athanasios C. Kimbaris
      Abstract: Essential oils from Greek Mentha species showed different chemical compositions for two populations of M. pulegium, characterized by piperitone and pulegone. M. spicata essential oil was characterized by endocyclic piperitenone epoxide, piperitone epoxide, and carvone. The bioactivities of these essential oils and their components have been tested against insect pests (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Spodoptera littoralis and Myzus persicae), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne, Solanum lycopersicum). The structure-activity relationships of these compounds has been studied including semi-synthetic endocyclic trans-carvone epoxide, exocyclic carvone epoxide, a new exocyclic piperitenone epoxide and trans pulegone epoxide. L. decemlineata feeding was affected by piperitenone and piperitone epoxide. S. littoralis was affected by piperitone epoxide and pulegone. The strongest nematicidal agent was piperitenone epoxide, followed by piperitone epoxide, piperitenone and carvone. Germination of S. lycopersicum and L. perenne was significantly affected by piperitenone epoxide. This compound and carvone epoxide inhibited L. perenne root and leaf growth. Piperitenone epoxide also inhibited the root growth of S. lycopersicum. The presence of a C-1 epoxide resulted in strong antifeedant, nematicidal and and phytotoxic compounds regardless of the C-4 substituent. New natural crop protectants could be developed through appropriate structural modifications in the p-menthane skeleton.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21T23:50:23.759444-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600270
       
  • Spatio-Temporal Variation of Terpenoids in Wild Plants of
           Pentalinon andrieuxii
    • Authors: Mickel R. Hiebert-Giesbrecht; Fabiola Escalante-Erosa, Karlina García-Sosa, Gabriel R. Dzib, Luz M. Calvo-Irabien, Luis M. Peña-Rodríguez
      Abstract: Pentalinon andrieuxii (Müll.Arg.) B.F.Hansen & Wunderlin (Apocynaceae) is a vine native to the Yucatan peninsula, where it is widely used in Mayan traditional medicine to treat, among other ailments, the wounds caused by cutaneous leishmaniasis. Among the secondary metabolites isolated from P. andrieuxii are the triterpene betulinic acid and the chemically unusual tri-norsesquiterpene urechitol A; however, to date, there is no existing knowledge about the accumulation dynamics of the ubiquitous betulinic acid or the novel urechitol A in the plant. In this article, we report on the accumulation of both secondary metabolites in wild individuals of P. andrieuxii; our results show that while the content of betulinic acid in plant leaves bears no apparent relation to plant ontogeny, the content of urechitol A in root tissue is clearly related to plant development.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19T07:30:25.717004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600085
       
  • Anti-barnacle Activity of Isocyanides Derived from Amino Acids
    • Authors: Takuya Fukuda; Hideki Wagatsuma, Yoshifumi Kominami, Yasuyuki Nogata, Erina Yoshimura, Kazuhiro Chiba, Yoshikazu Kitano
      Abstract: Creation of new potent antifouling active compounds is important for the development of environmentally friendly antifouling agents. Fifteen isocyanide congeners derived from proteinogenic amino acids were synthesized, and the antifouling activity and toxicity of these compounds against cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite were investigated. All synthesized amino acid-isocyanides exhibited potent anti-barnacle activity with EC50 values of 0.07 – 10.34 μg/ml after 120 h exposure without significant toxicity. In addition, seven compounds showed more than 95% settlement inhibition of the cypris larvae at 10 μg/ml after 120 h exposure without any mortality observed. Considering their structure, these amino acid-isocyanides would eventually be biodegraded to their original nontoxic amino acids. These should be useful for further research focused on the development of environmentally friendly antifoulants.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19T04:55:24.231945-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600063
       
  • Metabolite Profiling of Withania somnifera Roots Hydroalcoholic Extract
           Using LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy
    • Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi; Parthasarathi Panda, Kalyan Kumar Sethi, Snehasis Jana
      Abstract: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a very well-known herbal medicine and it was well studied for its active metabolites throughout the World. Although, nearly 40 withanolides were isolated from W. somnifera root extract, still there is remaining unidentified metabolites due to very low abundance and natural variation. Advanced separation technology with online identification by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are now-a-days used to find out the new compounds in the crude herbal extract. This article described the metabolite profiling of ashwagandha root hydroalcoholic extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry through gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and NMR analysis. A total of 43 possible withanolides was identified and proposed their structures based on the mass of molecular and fragment ions. GC-MS and NMR analysis indicated the presence of several known withanolides including withaferin A, withanolide D, withanoside IV or VI, withanolide sulfoxide, etc. To the best of our knowledge, dihydrowithanolide D at m/z 473 (Rt of 7.86 min) and ixocarpalactone A at m/z 505 (Rt of 8.43 min) were first time identified in the ashwagandha root hydroalcoholic extract. The current study that described the identification of withanolides with summarized literature review might be helpful for designing the experiment to identify of the new chemical constituents in Withania species.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-10-15T09:25:30.460024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600280
       
  • Terpenoids and more polar compounds from the male cones of Wollemia
           nobilis
    • Authors: Alessandro Venditti; Claudio Frezza, Fabio Sciubba, Sebastiano Foddai, Mauro Serafini, Armandodoriano Bianco
      Abstract: The analysis of metabolites contained in male cones of Wollemia nobilis was investigated for the first time in this study. Several diterpenoids of chemosystematic relevance were recognized for the first time from the genus and/or from the Araucariaceae family, namely isocupressic acid (1), acetyl-isocupressic acid (2), methyl-(E)-communate (3) and sandaracopimaric acid (4). All these terpenoids are also endowed with interesting biological activities and may play a primary role in the self defence toward herbivores. The presence of a new nor-labdane (nor-labda-8,(16)-12,13-dien-14,17-diol) trivially named as wollemol (5) was also recognized. Nor-diterpenes are scarcely distributed in Plant Kingdom and in particular in Gymnosperms and this aspect was discussed. The structure of (5) was determined by extensive NMR analysis employing mono- and bidimensional experiments. The 7-4’’’-dimethoxy-agathisflavone (6), a biflavonoid already recognized in Araucariaceae and W. nobilis, was also isolated from male cones together with shikimic acid (7), a biogenetic precursor of polyphenolic compounds, besides carbohydrates such as glucose (8) and saccharose (9), and arginine (10) a quite common amino acid.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T10:06:38.783603-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600332
       
  • Composition and biological activity of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis
           seed and cone essential oils
    • Authors: Anna Wajs-Bonikowska; Łukasz Szoka, Ewa Karna, Anna Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Monika Sienkiewicz
      Abstract: The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils. The levorotary form of chiral monoterpene molecules was predominant over the dextrorotary form. The composition of oils from P. pungens seeds and cones was similar, while the hydrodistilled oils of P. orientalis seeds and cones differed from each other, mainly by a higher amount of oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes and by other higher molar mass terpenes in seed oil. The essential oils showed mild antimicrobial action, however P. orientalis cone oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial properties against tested bacterial species than those of P. pungens. Effects of the tested cone essential oils on human skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were similar: in a concentration of 0-0.075 μl/ml the oils were rather safe for human skin fibroblasts and 0-0.005 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. IC50 value of Picea pungens oils was 0.115 μl/ml, while that of Picea orientalis was 0.105 μl/ml. The value of IC50 of both oils were 0.035 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. The strongest effect on cell viability had the oil from Picea orientalis cones, while on DNA synthesis the oil from Picea pungens cones.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-10-13T07:25:46.306203-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600264
       
  • First Report on Rare Unifloral Honey of Endemic Moltkia petraea (Tratt.)
           Griseb. from Croatia: Detailed Chemical Screening and Antioxidant Capacity
           
    • Authors: Igor Jerković; Zvonimir Marijanović, Marina Zekić, Carlo I. G. Tuberoso
      Abstract: Rare Moltkia petraea (Tratt.) Griseb. honey from Croatia was first time characterised. The spectrophotometric assays on CIE L*a*b*Cab*hab° colour coordinates, total phenol content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, DPPH● and ABTS●+ assays) determined higher honey values generally close to dark honeys ranges. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) on two fibres after GC-FID and GC-MS revealed the major compounds 2-phenylacetaldehyde (12.8%; 15.6%), benzaldehyde (11.1%; 10.0%), octane (9.3%; 7.6%), nonane, propan-2-one, pentan-2-one, pentanal and nonanal (4.9%; 14.5%). Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) mainly isolated non-specific higher molecular compounds characteristic of the comb environment. Targeted HLPC-DAD analysis of the honey determined higher concentration of phenylalanine (212.08 mg/kg) and lumichrome (16.25 mg/kg) along with tyrosine and kojic acid. The headspace composition (chemical fingerprint) and high concentration of lumichrome can be considered particular for M. petraea honey.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-10-08T03:35:31.912844-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600268
       
  • Variations in essential oil compositions of Lavandula pubescens
           (Lamiaceae) aerial parts growing wild in Yemen
    • Authors: Rowaida N. Al-Badani; Joyce Kelly R. Da Silva, William N. Setzer, Nasser A. Awadh Ali, Bushra A. Muharam, Ahmed J. A. Al-Fahad
      Abstract: Lavandula pubescens Decne. is one of five Lavandula species growing wild in Yemen. The plant is used in Yemeni traditional medicine, and the essential oil tends to be rich in carvacrol. In this work, L. pubescens was collected from eight different locations in Yemen, the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, and the oils analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to differentiate between the L. pubescens samples. The essential oils were rich in carvacrol (60.9-77-5%), with lesser concentrations of carvacrol methyl ether (4.0-11.4%), caryophyllene oxide (2.1-6.9%), and terpinolene (0.6-9.2%). The essential oil compositions in this study showed very high similarity, but it was possible to discern two separate groups based on minor components, in particular the concentrations of terpinolene, carvacrol methyl ether, m-cymen-8-ol, and caryophyllene oxide.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:15:45.708869-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600286
       
  • Glassworts as Possible Anticancer Agents Against Human Colorectal
           Adenocarcinoma Cells with their Nutritive, Antioxidant and Phytochemical
           Profiles
    • Authors: Ahmet Altay; Gulcin Sagdicoglu Celep, Ahmet E. Yaprak, Isa Basköse, Faruk Bozoglu
      Abstract: In this study, the possible uses of glassworts as potential food ingredients and their anti-proliferative activity against colorectal adenocarcinoma cells together with their antioxidant and phytochemical profiles were investigated for the fist time. Methanol extracts of five different taxa collected from different localities were screened for their antioxidant capacities by DPPH (IC50: 2.91-5.49 mg/ml) and ABTS (24.4-38.5 μmol TE/g extract) assays. Salicornia freitagii exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. LC-MS/MS analysis displayed that vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid were two main phenolic compounds in the extract. Salicornia freitagii extracts also exhibited high anti-proliferative activity against HT-29 (IC50:1.67 mg/ml) and Caco-2 (IC50: 3.03 mg/ml) cells for 72h. Mineral analysis indicated that all the species with different proportions of elemental components contained high amount of cations. These results indicate that investigated glassworts, with their high phenolic and mineral contents and also notable antioxidant and cytotoxic properties, may be utilized as a promising source of therapeutics.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T09:10:27.84663-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600290
       
  • Genetic and phytochemical analysis to evaluate the diversity and
           relationships of mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) elite genetic
           resources in a germplasm collection
    • Authors: Juliana Cristhina Friedrich; Adriana Gonela, Maria Celeste Gonçalves Vidigal, Pedro Soares Vidigal Filho, José Alfredo Sturion, Euclides Lara Cardozo
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical and genetic diversity, relationships and identification of mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) elite genetic resources belonging to the Brazilian germplasm collection and mate breeding program. Mate has been studied due to the presence of phytochemical compounds, especially methylxanthines and phenolic compounds. The samples were collected from the leaves of 76 mate elite genetic resources (16 progenies x 5 localities). Total DNA was extracted from mate leaves and twenty random primers were used for DNA amplification. Methylxanthines (caffeine and theobromine) and phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic and criptochlorogenic acids) were quantified by HPLC. The genetic divergence estimated was higher within (92%) than among (8%) the different populations. Analysis of genetic distance between origins provided the formation of two groups by UPGMA cluster analysis, with higher polymorphism (94.9%). The average content of caffeine ranged from 0.01 to 1.38% and theobromine of 0.10 to 0.85% (w/w). The caffeoylquinic acids concentrations (1.43 to 5.38%) showed a gradient 3-CQA>5-CQA>4-CQA. The coefficient of genetic variation (CVg) was of low magnitude for all mono-caffeoylquinics acids. Significant correlations (positive and negative) were observed between the phytochemical compounds. Genetic diversity analysis performed by RAPD markers showed a greater intra-populational diversity; genetic resources with low caffeine and higher theobromine content were identified and can be used in breeding programs; the correlation between methylxanthines and phenolic compounds can be used as a good predictor in future studies.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-10-04T08:56:46.400963-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600177
       
  • Synthesis and anticancer activity of 3-(substituted
           aroyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl)-1H-pyrrole derivatives
    • Authors: Xiaoping Zhan; Lan Lan, Shuai Wang, Kai Zhao, Yuxuan Xin, Qi Qi, Yaolin Wang, Zhenmin Mao
      Abstract: A series of 3-(substituted aroyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxy phenyl)-1H-pyrrole derivatives were synthesized and determined for their anticancer activity against eleven cancer cell lines and two normal tissue cell lines using MTT assay. Among the synthesized compounds, compound 3f was the most potent compound against A375, CT-26, Hela, MGC80-3, NCI-H460 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50s = 8.2-31.7 μM); 3g, 3n and 3a were the most potent compounds against CHO (IC50 = 8.2 μM), HCT-15 (IC50 = 21 μM) and MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 18.7 μM), respectively. Importantly, all the target compounds showed no cytotoxicity towards the normal tissue cell (IC50 > 100 μM). Thus, these compounds with the potent anticancer activity and low toxicity have potential for the development of new anticancer chemotherapy agents.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01T02:12:54.451572-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600219
       
  • Integrated Exploitation of the Structural Diversity Space of Chemotherapy
           Drugs to Selectively Inhibit HER2 T798M Mutant in Lung Cancer
    • Authors: Yawei Wang; Haiyan Zhang, Jisheng Li, Xiuwen Wang
      Abstract: An acquired T798M gatekeeper mutation in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) kinase can cause drug resistance to anti-HER2 chemotherapy drugs in lung cancer. Previously, the reversible pan-kinase inhibitor Staurosporine has been found to selectively inhibit the HER2 T798M mutant over wild-type kinase, suggesting that the Staurosporine scaffold is potentially to develop mutant-selective inhibitors. Here, we systematically evaluated the chemical space of Staurosporine scaffold-based compounds in response to HER2 T798M mutation at structural, energetic and molecular levels by using an integrated analysis strategy. With the strategy we were able to identify several novel wild-type sparing inhibitors with high or moderate selectivity, which are comparable to or even better than that of the parent compound Staurosporine. Molecular modeling and structural analysis revealed that noncovalent contacts can form between the side chain of mutated residue Met798 and selective inhibitor ligands, which may improve the favorable interaction energy between the kinase and inhibitor and reduce the unfavorable desolvation penalty upon the kinase–inhibitor binding.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01T02:12:50.425884-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600301
       
  • Essential oil of Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus from Algeria:
           chemotypification and in vitro biological activities
    • Authors: Hamdi Bendif; Messaoud Boudjeniba, Mohamed Djamel Miara, Loreta Biqiku, Massimo Bramucci, Giulio Lupidi, Luana Quassinti, Luca A. Vitali, Filippo Maggi
      Abstract: Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus (Lamiaceae) is a small shrub endemic to Algeria and Morocco where is found in lawns, rockeries and mountainous regions. From a phytochemical point of view this taxon has never been characterized. In this work we have analysed the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained from inflorescences and vegetative parts by GC-MS. A new chemotype, i.e. borneol-chemotype, was characterized for the first time in the species. Furthermore, we assessed the biological activities of essential oils, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity on tumor cells that were evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP, disc diffusion, and MTT methods, respectively. Biological assays highlighted a moderate inhibitory effect on S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans (IZD in the range 9-10 mm), and noteworthy cytotoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells (IC50 of 46.95 μg/ml).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-29T08:20:56.887581-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600299
       
  • Essential oils composition and antimicrobial activity of six conifers
           harvested in Lebanon
    • Authors: Layal Fahed; Madona Khoury, Didier Stien, Naïm Ouaini, Véronique Eparvier, Marc El Beyrouthy
      Abstract: The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils (EOs) of six conifers harvested in Lebanon, Abies cilicica, Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus oxycedrus, Cedrus libani and Cupressus macrocarpa gold crest, were investigated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC-MS analyses. A principal components analysis based on Pearson correlation between essential oils chemical analyses was also conducted. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these essentials oils were determined against a range of bacteria and fungi responsible for cutaneous infections in human, using the broth microdilution technique. The EOs showed the most interesting bioactivity on the dermatophytes species (MIC values 32-64 μg/ml). Each of the major compounds of C. macrocarpa as well as an artificial reconstructed EO were tested on Trichophyton rubrum showing a contribution of the minor components to the overall activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-29T08:10:46.735054-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600235
       
  • Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from
           Citharexylum spinosum L. grown in Tunisia
    • Authors: Asma El Ayeb-Zakhama; Lamia Sakka-Rouis, Guido Flamini, Hichem Ben Jannet, Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri
      Abstract: Citharexylum spinosum L. (Verbenaceae) also known as C. quadrangulare Jacq. or C. fruticosum L. is an exotic tree introduced many years ago in Tunisia, specially used as a street and park ornamental tree. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the different parts (roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits; drupes) collected from trees grown in the area of Monastir (Tunisia). In total, 84 compounds, representing 90.1-98.4% of the whole oil composition, were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was distinguished by its high content in monoterpene hydrocarbons (α-phellandrene; 30.8%) whereas that obtained from stems was dominated by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (cuparene; 16.4%). The leaf oil was rich in an apocarotenoid derivative (hexahydrofarnesyl acetone; 26%) and an aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-nonadecane; 14.5%). Flowers oil was rich in esters (2-phenylethyl benzoate; 33.5%). Finally, drupes oil was rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes (β-eudesmol; 33.1%). Flowers oil showed a significant phytotoxic effect against lettuce seeds germination, it induces a total inhibition when tested at 1 mg/ml. The highest inhibition of 100% was detected for flower oil tested at 1 mg/ml. Our in vitro studies suggest a possible and new alternative use of C. spinosum essential oils in herbicidal formulations, further experiments involving field conditions are necessary to confirm its herbicidal potential.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-29T08:10:42.8805-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600225
       
  • Chemical diversity and antimicrobial activity of volatile compounds from
           Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Lam. according to compound classes, plant
           organs and Senegalese sample locations
    • Authors: Yoro Tine; Abdoulaye Diop, William Diatta, Jean-Marie Desjobert, Cheikh Saad Bouh Boye, Jean Costa, Alassane Wélé, Julien Paolini
      Abstract: The chemical diversity of Z. zanthoxyloides growing wild in Senegal was studied according to volatile compound classes, plant organs and sample locations. The composition of fruit essential oil was investigated using an original targeted approach based on the combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) both coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). The volatile composition of Z. zanthoxyloides fruits exhibited relative high amounts of hydrocarbon monoterpenes (24.3-55.8%) and non-terpenic oxygenated compounds (34.5-63.1%). The main components were (E)-β-ocimene (12.1-39%), octyl acetate (11.6-21.8%) and decanol (9.7-15.4%). The GC and GC-MS profiling of fruit essential oils showed a chemical variability according to geographical locations of plant material. The LC-MS/MS analysis of fruit oils allowed the detection of seven coumarins in trace content. The chemical composition of fruit essential oils was compared with volatile fractions of leaves and barks (root and trunk) from the same plant station. Hexadecanoic acid, germacrene D and decanal were identified as the major constituents of leaves whereas the barks (root and trunk) were dominated by pellitorine (85.8% and 57%, respectively), an atypic linear compound with amide group. The fruit essential oil exhibited interesting microbial activities against S. aureus and C. albicans, particularly the alcohol fraction of the oil.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-28T23:27:44.172177-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600125
       
  • On Dioxygen and Substrate Access to Soluble Methane Monooxygenases. An
           all-Atom Molecular Dynamics Investigation in Water Solution
    • Authors: Francesco Pietra
      Abstract: In a preliminary exploration of the dummy model for diiron proteins, random-acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) revealed that a pure four-helix bundle structure, like hemerythrin, constitutes an efficient cage for dioxygen (O2), which can only leave from defined, albeit very broad, gates. However, this well ordered structure does not constitute an archetype on which to compare O2 permeation of other diiron proteins, like the complex of soluble methane monooxygenase hydroxylase with the regulatory protein (sMMOH-MMOB). The reason is that with this complex, unlike hemerythrin, the four helices of the four-helix bundle are heavily bent, and RAMD showed that most traps for O2 lie outside them. It was also observed that, in spite of a nearly identical van der Waals radius for O2 and the natural substrate CH4, the latter behaves under RAMD as a bulkier molecule than O2, requiring a higher external force to be brought out of sMMOH-MMOB along trajectories of viable length. All that determined with sMMOH-MMOB multiple gates and multiple pathways to each of them through several binding pockets, for both O2 and CH4. Of the two equally preferred pathways for O2, at right angle with one another, one proved to be in accordance with the Xe-atom mapping for sMMOH. In contrast, none of the pathways identified for CH4 proved to be in accordance with such mapping, CH4 looking for more open avenues instead.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-28T23:27:38.673522-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600158
       
  • Composition and chemical variability of Cleistopholis patens trunk bark
           oil from Côte d'Ivoire
    • Authors: Zana A. Ouattara; Jean Brice Boti, Coffy Antoine Ahibo, Yves-Alain Bekro, Janat Mamyrbekova, Joseph Casanova, Félix Tomi, Ange Bighelli
      Abstract: The chemical composition of trunk bark oil from Cleistopholis patens Engler and Diels, growing wild in Côte d'Ivoire, has been investigated by GC(FID) in combination with retention indices, GC/MS and 13C‐NMR. Moreover, one oil sample has been subjected to CC and all the fractions analyzed by GC(RI) and 13C‐NMR. In total, 61 components have been identified, including various sesquiterpene esters scarcely found in essential oils. 13C‐NMR was particularly efficient for the identification of a component not eluted on GC and for the quantification of heat‐sensitive compounds. Then, 36 oil samples, isolated from trunk bark harvested in six Ivoirian forests have been analyzed. The content of the main components varied drastically from sample to sample: (E)‐β‐caryophyllene (0.4‐69.1%), β‐pinene (0‐57%), α‐phellandrene (0‐33.2%), α‐pinene (0.1‐30.6%), β‐elemol (0.1‐29.9%), germacrene D (0‐25.4%), juvenile hormone III (0‐22.9%), germacrene B (0‐20.6%) and sabinene (tr‐20.3%). Statistical analysis, hierarchical clustering and principal components analysis, carried out on the 36 compositions evidenced a fair chemical variability of the stem bark oil of this species. Indeed, three clusters have been distinguished: the composition of group I (10 samples) was dominated by β‐pinene and α‐pinene, group II (9 samples) was represented by α‐phellandrene and p‐cymene and group III (16 samples) by β‐elemol. A sample displayed an atypical composition dominated by (E)‐β‐caryophyllene.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-24T05:50:21.663792-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600313
       
  • Identification of Sternbin and Naringenin as Detoxified Metabolites from
           the Rice Flavanone Phytoalexin Sakuranetin by Pyricularia oryzae
    • Authors: Shun Katsumata; Kazuho Hamana, Kiyotaka Horie, Hiroaki Toshima, Morifumi Hasegawa
      Abstract: Sakuranetin (1) is a flavanone phytoalexin that has been reported to play an important role in disease resistance in rice plants. The rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae) has been reported to metabolize 1 to lower its antifungal activity. Here, two flavanones, sternbin (2) and naringenin (3), were identified as metabolites of 1 in P. oryzae suspension culture by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The inhibition of 1, 2, and 3 on P. oryzae mycelial growth were 45%, 19%, and 19%, respectively, at a concentration of 100 μM. Thus, 2 and 3 are detoxified metabolites of 1 by P. oryzae.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-19T19:10:22.880879-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600240
       
  • Chemical Composition and in vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial, Antioxidant
           and Antigerminative Properties of the Seed Oil from the Tunisian Endemic
           Ferula tunetana Pomel ex Batt
    • Authors: Mansour Znati; Insaf Filali, Aymen Jabrane, Joseph Casanova, Jalloul Bouajila, Hichem Ben Jannet
      Abstract: Essential oil of the seeds from the endemic Tunisian plant Ferula tunetana Pomel ex Batt. was analyzed for its chemical composition and screened for its antimicrobial, antioxidant and antigerminative properties. The chemical composition of the isolated oil is reported for the first time. According to the GC/FID, GC‐MS and 13C NMR analysis results; eighteen compounds were identified accounting for 84.6% of the total oil. The chemical composition of this essential oil was characterized by the presence of a high proportion of monoterpene hydrocarbons (77.3%) followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (4.1%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.2%). α‐Pinene (39.8%), β‐pinene (11.5%) and (Z)‐β‐ocimene (7.5%) were the predominant compounds. Moreover, the isolated oil was tested for its antimicrobial activity using the disc‐diffusion and the microdilution assays against six Gram‐positive and five Gram‐negative bacteria as well as towards two Candida species. The isolated oil was tested also for its antioxidant activity against (DPPH, ABTS, O2. and H2O2) and for its antigerminative potential. It was found that it exhibited interesting antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium LT2 DT104 (IZ= 16.2±1.0mm) and Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 (IZ= 15.8±1.0 mm). However, it exerted a moderate antioxidant activity against H2O2 (IC50=78.2±2.98 μg/mL) and towards O2. (IC50= 89.2±3.82 μg/mL). The antigerminative effect of this oil was also evaluated in this work. Results showed a toxic effect.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-16T20:30:50.968381-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600116
       
  • Detection and toxicity evaluation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal
           plants Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata collected from different Chinese
           locations
    • Authors: Jian Chen; Han Lü, Lianxiang Fang, Weilin Li, Luc Verschaeve, Zhengtao Wang, Norbert De Kimpe, Sven Mangelinckx
      Abstract: Two edible plants in Southeast Asia, Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata, are not only known to be nutritive but also useful as medicinal herbs. Previous phytochemical investigation of G. species showed the presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), indicating the toxic risk of using these two plants. The present study was designed to analyse the distribution of PA components and tried to evaluate the preliminary toxicity of these two G. species. Eight samples of G. bicolor and G. divaricata from five different Chinese locations were collected and their specific PAs were qualitatively characterized by applying an UPLC‐MS/MS spectrometry method. Using a pre‐column derivatization HPLC method, the total retronecine ester‐type PAs in their alkaloids extracts were quantitatively estimated as well. Finally, their genotoxicity was investigated with an effective high‐throughput screening method referred to as Vitotox™ test and their potential cytotoxicity was tested on HepG2 cells. It was found that different types of PAs were widely present in G. species collected from south of China. Among them, no significant genotoxic effects were detected with serial concentrations through the present in vitro assay. However, the cytotoxicity assay of Gynura plants collected from Jiangsu displayed weak activity at the concentration of 100 mg/mL. It is important to note that this research validates in part the indication that the use of G. species requires caution.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T09:15:34.019365-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600221
       
  • Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster, P. pinea and P. sylvestris essential oils
           chemotypes and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomers, before and after
           inoculation with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
    • Authors: Ana M. Rodrigues; Marta D. Mendes, Ana S. Lima, Pedro M. Barbosa, Lia Ascensão, José G. Barroso, Luis G. Pedro, Manuel M. Mota, A. Cristina Figueiredo
      Abstract: Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time‐course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2‐year‐old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated. External symptoms of infection were observed only in P. pinaster and P. sylvestris 21 and 15 days after inoculation, respectively. The EO composition analysis of uninoculated and unwounded plants revealed the occurrence of chemotypes for P. pinaster, P. halepensis and P. sylvestris, whereas P. pinea showed a homogenous EO composition. When whole plants were evaluated for EO and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomeric chemical composition, no relevant qualitative and quantitative differences were found. Instead, EO analysis of inoculated and uninoculated wounded areas revealed an increase of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic compounds, especially in P. pinea and P. halepensis, comparatively to healthy whole plants EOs.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13T09:10:34.752848-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600153
       
  • Cytotoxic and Anti‐inflammatory Sesquiterpenes from Ainsliaea henryi
    • Authors: Ren‐Tao Zeng; Xue‐Yun Dong, Xing Fang, Niao Yang, Zhi‐Ran Shi, Zhi‐Guo Zhuo, Yun‐Heng Shen, Wei‐Dong Zhang
      Abstract: Three new sesquiterpenoids, 4α‐hydroxy‐eudesm‐11‐en‐12‐isovaleroxyl (1), diaspanolide E (2), and germacra‐1(10), 4‐diene‐11α‐methyl‐12,8α‐olide‐15‐acid (3), along with eight known sesquiterpenoids (4‐11), were isolated from the aerial parts of Ainsliaea henryi. The chemical structures of compounds 1‐3 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (1D‐, 2D‐NMR, MS and HRMS). All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against NO production in LPS‐induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Compound 10 exhibited significantly inhibition against NO release with an IC50 value of 6.54±0.16 μM. Also, all isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against three human tumor cell lines A549, MGC803, and HCT116, among which compound 5 significantly inhibited the proliferation of MGC803 cell lines with an IC50 value of 2.2± 0.2 μM.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-09T11:31:37.725041-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600210
       
  • Chemodiversity associated with cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of
           Piper aduncum var. ossanum
    • Authors: Yamilet Gutiérrez; Rodny Montes, Ramón Scull, Arturo Sánchez, Paul Cos, Lianet Monzote, William N. Setzer
      Abstract: Chemical analysis, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) from leaves of Piper aduncum var. ossanum from two localities Bauta (EO‐B) and Ceiba (EO‐C), Artemisa Province, Cuba were determined. EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. EO‐B demonstrated higher activity against S. aureus and L. amazonensis; while a lower cytotoxicity on mammalian cells was observed. Both EOs displayed same activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania infantum. Both EOs were inactive against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07T09:15:30.509604-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600133
       
  • The Chemical Diversity of Eucalyptus spp. Essential Oils from plants grown
           in Brazil
    • Authors: Claudinei Andrade Filomeno; Luiz Claudio Almeida Barbosa, José Luiz Pereira, Antônio Lelis Pinheiro, Paulo Henrique Fidêncio, Ricardo Marques Montanari
      Abstract: A chemical analysis of essential oils from leaves of eleven Eucalyptus L′Herit taxa, grown in Viçosa, Brazil were carried out. The identification and quantification of essential oils constituents were carried out by GC‐FID and GC‐MS. The leaves of E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis presented the highest oil content (3.00% and 2.30% respectively). In total, forty‐eight compounds were identified in the oils. Higher levels of 1,8‐cineole were found for oils produced by E. microcorys (66.2%), E. urophylla (65.4%) and E. camaldulensis (44.8%) and the hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis (33.0%). The oil from E. saligna was composed mainly by α‐pinene (92.3%). High concentrations of α‐phellandrene were found in the oils produced by E. camaldulensis (22.9%) and E. robusta (36.6%). The oils from E. grandis and E. pilularis were rich in p‐cymene (59.5% and 46.0%, respectively). Samples with high levels of 1,8‐cineol were classified by principal component analysis (PCA) using the accumulated variance of the PC1 and PC2 into major groups. Other samples were grouped based on their content of p‐cymene; α‐phellandrene, α‐ and β‐eudesmol; α‐pinene The PCA allowed the separation and classification of samples with the highest levels of different compounds, a procedure that can help in the decision of grouping oils from different sources for industrial use.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07T09:00:34.302037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600097
       
  • Comparison of chemical composition in Tuber aestivum Vittad. of different
           geographical origin
    • Authors: D. Hilszczańska; M. Siebyła, J. Horak, M. Król, P. Podsadni, P. Steckiewicz, M. Bamburowicz‐Klimkowska, M. Szutowski, J. Turło
      Abstract: Truffles are prized and nutrition‐rich edible hypogeous fungi. The aim of this study was a comprehensive investigation of chemical composition of Burgundy truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.). We tried to answer the question: what is the impact of the environment on the truffle quality. To know the nutritional value of Burgundy truffle we compared lipids, proteins, saccharides, polyphenolics, flavonoids, total sterols, ergosterol, volatile flavour and aroma compounds content in fruit bodies of the fungus collected in three different geographical regions, i.e. Poland, Slovakia and Italy. A comparison of the above mentioned compounds is especially interesting due to environmental and climatic differences among the studied geographical regions. Results revealed that fruit bodies of T. aestivum from Poland and Slovakia possessed nearly similar content of proteins, total sterols, and saccharides.The fruiting bodies from Italy contained significantly larger amounts of most of the investigated compounds. In turn, Polish specimens had higher content of lipids and polyphenolics than Slovak and Italian ones. We have found higher similarity of volatile compounds composition between Polish and Italian specimens than those of Polish and Slovak origin.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07T08:50:23.278251-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600041
       
  • Quercus ilex L.: How season, plant organ and extraction procedure can
           influence chemistry and bioactivities
    • Authors: Lila Hadidi; Louiza Babou, Farid Zaidi, Patrícia Valentão, Paula B. Andrade, Clara Grosso
      Abstract: Quercus species have a plethora of applications, either in wine and wood industries, in human and animal nutrition or in human health. In order to improve the knowledge on this genus, the aim of the present study was to correlate, for the first time, the phenolic composition of different Quercus ilex L. vegetal tissues (leaves in two maturation stages, acorns, teguments and cotyledons) and different extraction procedures with scavenging and anticholinesterase activities. The hydromethanolic (HMEs) and aqueous extracts (AEs) obtained showed strong radical scavenging activity against DPPH, superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide radical, leaves exhibiting higher total phenolic content and revealing the best antioxidant properties, followed by tegument and acorns. Concerning the phenolic profile, fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC‐DAD, ranging from 1568.43 to 45803.16 mg/Kg dried extract.The results indicate that Q. ilex can be a source of strong antioxidant phenolic compounds with possible interest for food and pharmaceutical industries.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T10:45:26.677482-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600187
       
  • An unusual tetrahydrofuran lignan from the roots of Zanthoxylum
           planispinum and the potential anti‐inflammatory effects
    • Authors: Guang‐yao Su; Yu‐chun Cheng, Kui‐wu Wang, Xiang‐yang Wang, Bin Wu
      Abstract: An unusual tetrahydrofuran lignin, zanthplanispine (1), together with fourteen known lignans (2‐15) were isolated from the EtOAc‐soluble fraction from the MeOH extract of Z. planispinum roots. The structures of 1 was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as HR‐ESI–MS analysis. The known compounds were identified by the comparison of their NMR data with previously reported in the literatures. Bioassay showed that compounds 1‐4 could inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In particular, compound 1 showed significant inhibitory activitie with IC50 value of 36.8 μM.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T10:35:26.295816-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600214
       
  • Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Satureja, Thymus and
           Thymbra species grown in Lebanon
    • Authors: Monay Al Hafi; Marc El Beyrouthy, Naim Ouaini, Didier Stien, Douglas Rutledge, Sylvain Chaillou
      Abstract: The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from Satureja cuneifolia, Satureja thymbra, Coridothymus capitatus, Thymus syriacus and Thymbra spicata growing wild in Lebanon. Their phytochemical analysis performed by GC/MS showed that the aforementioned species are characterized either by carvacrol (60.9%) or thymol (54.3%) or by a more or less equal amounts of these two phenols. Assessment of their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans and six pathogenic bacteria using the broth dilution method revealed that the tested oils have a broad activity spectrum with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.1 to 0.8 mg/ml. Among the tested species, S. thymbra EO showed the highest antimicrobial potential whereas T. syriacus showed the lowest inhibitory activity.These results give scientific evidence for the use of those species in the Lebanese folk medicine and lend support to implement them as natural alternatives for synthetic antimicrobials.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T10:35:24.43331-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600236
       
  • Six New Pentacyclic Triterpenoids from the Fruit of Camptotheca acuminata
    • Authors: Guo‐Qiang Li; Neng‐Hua Chen, Yu‐Bo Zhang, Pan Li, Xiao‐Jun Huang, Ren‐Wang Jiang, Guo‐Cai Wang, Yao‐Lan Li
      Abstract: Six new pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated from the fruit of Camptotheca acuminata. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis including HR‐ESI‐MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Dickeya zeae. All these tested compounds showed moderate antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Dickeya zeae.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T10:35:21.437767-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600180
       
  • Chemical composition of roots Flemingia philippinensis and their
           inhibitory kinetics on aromatase
    • Authors: Fang Sun; Qin Li, Jin Xu
      Abstract: Aromatase is the key enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of C19 steroids to estrogens. Its inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer therapy. The DCM partition of a crude ethanolic extract from the roots of Flemingia philippinensis showed potent inhibitory activity of aromatase. The constituents of the extract were analyzed and identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Five purified prenylated isoflavones were evaluated for aromatase inhibition and their IC50 values ranged between 2.98 and 58.08 μM. In kinetic studies, all tested compounds behaved as reversible competitive inhibitors and their Ki values were calculated by Dixon plots. The most potent inhibitor (6, 8‐diprenylorobol) had a Ki value of 1.42 μM. Furthermore, using UPLC and LC‐MS, 6, 8‐diprenylorobol was proven to be present in the native roots in high quantities.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T10:30:43.976383-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600193
       
  • Essential oil variability of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters parts
           during its phenological cycle and incidence on the antioxidant and
           antimicrobial activities
    • Authors: Abderrahmane Djouahri; Saka Boualem, Lynda Boudarene, Lynda Lamari, Nasserdine Sabaou, Aoumeur Baaliouamer
      Abstract: The impact of phenological stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages) on chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters parts essential oils were investigated for the first time. GC and GC–MS analyses pointed to a quantitative variability of components; terpene hydrocarbons derivatives, represented by α‐pinene (16.38 ± 0.19 ‐ 31.78 ± 0.35%) and limonene (3.41 ± 0.07 ‐ 9.49 ± 0.14%) as major components, predominate at the vegetative stage, whereas oxygenated derivatives, represented by camphor (16.11 ± 0.23 ‐ 26.17 ± 0.29%) and bornyl acetate (15.21 ± 0.21 ‐ 27.33 ± 0.33%) as major components, predominate at the fruiting stage. Furthermore, our findings showed that the plant parts collected at the fruiting stage possess the highest antioxidant activity and the best antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms, than plant parts collected at the vegetative and flowering stages. This highlighted variability reflects the high impact of phenological cycle on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on phenological stage, in order to have the highest effectiveness of essential oil in terms of biological activities for human health purposes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T09:35:21.967154-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600216
       
  • Comprehensive Characterisation of n‐Alkylresorcinols and other Lipid
           Constituents of Mercurialis tomentosa L. from Alicate, Spain
    • Authors: Peter Lorenz; Miriam Heinrich, Jürgen Conrad, Annerose Heller, Florian C. Stintzing, Dietmar R. Kammerer
      Abstract: Mercurialis tomentosa L. has been used in Spanish ethnomedicine. In the present study the first phytochemical characterisation of a lipid fraction from M. tomentosa was performed. The CHCl3 extraction of aerial parts from M. tomentosa and GC‐MS investigations revealed the occurrence of cuticular lipid and wax constituents, like long chain n‐alcohols and n‐aldehydes (C22‐C30), besides several aromatic constituents, i.e. phenylpropanoids and n‐alkylresorcinols. The latter were further purified by CC and analysed by LC‐MSn. In contrast to other Mercurialis species, i.e. M. annua, M. perennis, which exclusively contain 5‐n‐alkylresorcinols (1a‐j, Cn), mainly 5‐n‐alkyl‐2‐methylresorcinols (2a‐j, Cn*) with side chain lengths of C15‐C25 were found in M. tomentosa, in addition to 1a‐j. Thus, the latter compounds may be utilised for analytical characterisation and authentication of M. tomentosa based on fingerprinting methods. For structure elucidation a novel facile total synthesis of one representative 5‐n‐alkyl‐2‐methylresorcinol homologue (2d, C19*) was developed, starting with a Grignard reaction from a substituted benzoic acid chloride (19). The compound obtained by synthesis was identical to the natural product 2d in terms of its chromatographic and spectroscopic features. Futhermore, 2d exhibited satisfactory DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 37.8 μM) when compared to trolox (IC50 = 21.0 μM), corroborating the antioxidant features of these amphipathic molecules.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T09:15:25.132112-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600255
       
  • Bergamotane Sesquiterpenes with Alpha‐Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity
           from the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Penicillium expansum
    • Authors: You‐Min Ying; Cheng‐An Fang, Feng‐Qi Yao, Yuan Yu, Ying Shen, Zhuo‐Ni Hou, Zhen Wang, Wei Zhang, Wei‐Guang Shan, Zha‐Jun Zhan
      Abstract: Two new bergamotane sesquiterpene lactones, named expansolides C and D (1‐2), together with two known compounds expansolides A and B (3‐4), were isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Penicillium expansum ACCC37275. The structures of the new compounds were established by detailed analyses of the spectroscopic data, especially 1D‐ and 2D‐NMR, and HR‐ESI‐MS. In an in‐vitro bioassay, the epimeric mixture of expansolides C and D (1‐2) (in a ratio of 2:1 at the temprature of the bioassay) exhibited more potent α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.50 ± 0.02 mM) as compared with the positive control acarbose (IC50 = 1.90 ± 0.05 mM). To the best of our knowledge, it was the first report on the α‐glucosidase inhibitory activity of bergamotane sesquiterpenes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T03:20:24.133569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600184
       
  • Essential oil variability and biological activities of Tetraclinis
           articulata (Vahl) Masters wood according to the extraction time
    • Authors: Abderrahmane Djouahri; Saka Boualem, Lynda Boudarene, Aoumeur Baaliouamer
      Abstract: In the present work, the hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave‐assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) kinetics of essential oil extracted from Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Masters wood was conducted, in order to assess the impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities. GC and GC–MS analyses showed significant differences between the extracted essential oils, where each family class or component presents a specific kinetic according to extraction time, technique and especially for the major components: camphene, linalool, cedrol, carvacrol and α‐acorenol. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activities, where each activity has a specific effect according to extraction time and technique. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on extraction time and technique, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-27T09:41:16.322454-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600124
       
  • Betulinic acid, the first lupane‐type triterpenoid isolated from both a
           Phomopsis sp. and its host plant Diospyros carbonaria Benoist
    • Authors: Laure‐Anne Peyrat; Véronique Eparvier, Cécilia Eydoux, Jean‐Claude Guillemot, Marc Litaudon, Didier Stien
      Abstract: Following a biological screening using a dengue replicon virus‐cell‐based assay, Diospyros carbonaria ethyl acetate extract was investigated, affording six known lupane‐type triterpenoids endowed with anti‐DENV‐2 NS5 polymerase activity. The study of the associated microbial community of this species permitted us to identify 38 endophytes belonging to five different orders. Nine out of these 38 strains showed significant activity on the dengue replicon assay. The chemical investigation of the most active one, Phomopsis sp. SNB‐LAP1‐7‐32, led to the isolation of betulinic acid, an anti‐viral secondary metabolite isolated previously from the host plant. This result is the first example of a lupane‐type triterpenoid isolated from both an endophyte and its host plant. Its presence in the Phomopsis strain may result from gene transfer and/or specific niche selection.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-27T09:20:22.965642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600171
       
  • Comprehensive research on essential oil and phenolic variation in
           different Foeniculum vulgare populations during transition from vegetative
           to reproductive stage
    • Authors: Maryam Salami; Mehdi Rahimmalek, Mohammad Hossein Ehtemam
      Abstract: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of four fennel populations (England, Spain, Poland and Iran) were investigated during six developmental stages including two vegetative and four reproductive phases. In reproductive phase, the essential oil content of fruits decreased and the maximum content (5.9%) was obtained in immediate fruits. The essential oils were analyzed using GC‐MS. Trans‐anethole was the main component of the leaves and the fruits oil. In leaves, it ranged from 41.28% in England at late vegetative stage to 56.6% in Poland population at early vegetative stage. Other major compounds of leaves were limonene, α‐pinene and (Z)‐ß‐ocimene. In reproductive phases the trans‐anethole increased dramatically. It varied from 85.25% in immature fruits from Poland to 90.7% in pre‐mature stage from Spain. The highest phenolic content in the extracts at different growth stages obtained 189 mg TAEg−1 DW at full mature stage of seed in Iran population. The flavonoid of leaves extract ranged from 3 to 7.5 mg QUEg−1DW, while in fruits extract varied from 3 to 10.3 mg QUEg−1DW. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using 1,1‐diphenyl‐2‐picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and ß‐carotene model systems. Immature and full mature growth stages of fennel population from Spain indicated the highest activity in quenching of DPPH radical (74.2% and 74.5% respectively). Antioxidant activities of the extracts had high positive correlation with their phenolic contents in all fruit maturity stages. Finally, it might probably be suggested that in fennel the hot and humid condition can lead to increase trans‐anethole, while the hot and dry one can produce higher amount of phenolics and flavonoids.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T03:25:28.388525-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600246
       
  • Phytochemical and cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis
           L. (Asteraceae) from Croatia
    • Authors: Ivana Carev; Mirko Ruščić, Mirjana Skočibušić, Ana Maravić, Sonja Siljak‐Yakovlev, Olivera Politeo
      Abstract: The cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) showed a chromosome number of 2n=16. Karyotype is composed by four pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric and two pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Physical mapping of two rDNA probes revealed two loci of 35S and one locus of 5S rRNA genes. Chromomycin fluorochrome banding revealed that all rDNA loci were GC rich. The genome size (2C‐value) of 1.95 pg classes this species in the group of very small genomes. Chemical composition of C. solstitialis volatile oil from Croatia, studied with gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry showed dominant components as it follows: hexadecanoic acid, α‐linolenic acid, germacrene D and heptacosane. Antioxidant capacity, measured by FRAP and DPPH methods, as well as inhibition of acetyl‐ and butyrylcholinesterase of VO was lower comparing to a standard solutions. Volatile oil tested with Disc diffusion method showed good inhibitory potential against P. aeruginosa, E. coli and all tested fungi: C. albicans, P. funiculosum and A. fumigatus. The microdilution method showed best activity against C. sakazakii and A. fumigatus.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-23T08:55:24.021296-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600213
       
  • Insect antifeedant and ixodicidal compounds from Senecio adenotrichius
    • Authors: Liliana Ruiz‐Vásquez; Angeles Sonia Olmeda, Gustavo Zúñiga, Luis Villarroel, Luis Fernando Echeverri, Azucena González‐Coloma, Matías Reina
      Abstract: Nine eremophilane sesquiterpenes 1‐9, two flavonoids 11 and 12, and two known pirrolizidine alkaloids 13 and 14, were isolated from Senecio adenotrichius DC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and by comparison with previously reported spectroscopic data of similar compounds. Compounds 5, 7 and 9 have not been previously reported as natural products. The antifeedant activity of these compounds was tested against Spodoptera litoralis and Myzus persicae. Eremophilanes 1, 3 and 8 were strong antifeedants to M. persicae, and 1 and 8 to S. littoralis. Their ixodicidal activity was tested against the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, with eremophilanes 1, 3 and 8, being strong ixodicidal agents.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T02:40:20.894349-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600155
       
  • In vitro Activities of Pfaffia glomerata Root Extract, Its Hydrolyzed
           Fractions and Pfaffic Acid Against Trypanosoma cruzi Trypomastigotes
    • Authors: Márcio L. A. e Silva; Ana C. Pereira, Daniele S. Ferreira, Viviane R. Esperandim, Guilherme V. Símaro, Thaís C. Lima, Ana H. Januário, Patrícia M. Pauletti, Vera L. G. Rehder, Eduardo J. Crevelin, Wilson R. Cunha, Antônio E. M. Crotti, Jairo K. Bastos
      Abstract: This paper reports on the in vitro activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of P. glomerata roots, its hydrolyzed fractions, and pfaffic acid against Trypanosoma cruzi. The hydroalcoholic extract obtained from dried, milled P. glomerata roots was submitted to acid hydrolysis followed by partition with chloroform. The concentrated chloroform fraction was suspended in MeOH/H2O and partitioned with hexane (F1), chloroform (F2), and ethyl acetate (F3), in this sequence. The trypanocidal activity of the hydrolyzed extract and its fractions was evaluated in vitro. The hydroalcoholic extract displayed low activity, but fraction F1 was active against trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi, with IC50 = 47.89 μg/mL. The steroids campesterol (7.7%), stigmasterol (18.7%), β‐sitosterol (16.8%), Δ‐7‐estigmastenol (4.6%), and Δ‐7‐epinasterol (7.5%) were the major constituents of F1, along with fatty acid esters (7.6%) and eight aliphatic hydrocarbons (30.1%). Fractions F2 and F3 exhibited moderate activity, and pfaffic acid, one of the main chemical constituents of these fractions, displayed IC50 = 44.78 μM (21.06 μg/mL). On the other hand, the hydroalcoholic extract of P. glomerata roots, which is rich in pfaffosides, was inactive. Therefore, the main aglycone of pfaffosides, pfaffic acid, is much more active against trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi than its corresponding glycosides and should be further investigated.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T02:30:37.710265-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600175
       
  • Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Xanthium spinosum L., an
           Invasive Species of Corsica
    • Authors: Stéphane Andreani; Julien Paolini, Jean Costa, Alain Muselli
      Abstract: Xanthium spinosum L. is a highly invasive plant originated from South America throughout the worlds as well as in Corsica Island. The chemical composition of X. spinosum essential oils from 25 Corsican locations was investigated using GC‐FID and GC‐MS. Seventy‐four components, which accounted for 96.2% of the total amount, were reported for the first time in the essential oil from aerial parts. The main compounds were eudesma‐4(15),7‐dien‐1‐β‐ol 61 (21.3%), germacrene D 36 (8.8%) and cadalene 60 (8.7%). Comparison with the literature highlighted the originality of the Corsican essential oil and eudesma‐4(15),7‐dien‐1‐β‐ol could be used as taxonomical marker to the systematics of the Xanthium genus. The essential oils obtained from separate organs and during the plant vegetative cycle were also studied to gain more knowledge about of correlations between the volatiles‐production and the phenological states of this weed. The production of oxygenated sesquiterpenes was predominant during the plant‐flowering process. The study focuses on direct correlation between the chemical composition of individual 25 oil samples and the morphological differences of the plant. Our results have gained more knowledge about the secondary metabolite production that occurs during the plant‐life, they could be interesting in order to manage the dispersal of X. spinosum.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T02:30:35.251446-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600148
       
  • The in vitro antimicrobial activity and chemometric modelling of 59
           commercial essential oils against pathogens of dermatological relevance
    • Authors: Ané Orchard; Maxleene Sandasi, Guy Kamatou, Alvaro Viljoen, Sandy Vuuren
      Abstract: This study reports on the inhibitory concentration of 59 commercial essential oils recommended for dermatological conditions, and identifies putative compounds responsible for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils were investigated for antimicrobial activity using minimum inhibitory concentration assays (MICs). Ten essential oils were identified as having superior antimicrobial activity in comparison to the other 49 oils. The essential oil compositions were determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) and the data analysed with the antimicrobial activity using multivariate tools. Orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) models were created for seven of the pathogens. Eugenol was identified as the main biomarker responsible for antimicrobial activity in the majority of the essential oils. The essential oils mostly displayed noteworthy antimicrobial activity, with five oils displaying broad‐spectrum activity against the 13 tested micro‐organisms. The antimicrobial efficacies of the essential oils highlight their potential in treating dermatological infections and through chemometric modelling, bioactive volatiles have been identified.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-22T02:30:23.957982-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600218
       
  • New Cytotoxic Bibenzyl and Other Constituents from Bauhinia ungulata L.
           (Fabaceae)
    • Authors: Leôncio M. de Sousa; Jarbas L. de Carvalho, Horlando C. da Silva, Telma L. G. Lemos, Angela M. C. Arriaga, Raimundo Braz‐Filho, Gardênia C. G. Militão, Thiago D. S. Silva, Paulo R. V. Ribeiro, Gilvandete M. P. Santiago
      Abstract: A new bibenzyl, 3,5‐dimethoxy‐4‐methyl‐2′‐hydroxybibenzyl (1) and four known compounds identified as 3,5‐dimethoxy‐2’‐hydroxybibenzyl (2), liquiritigenin (3), guibourtinidol (4) and fisetinidol (5) were isolated from roots of Bauhinia ungulata L.. Phytochemical investigations of the stems of B. ungulata led to the isolation of the known compounds identified as liquiritigenin (3), guibourtinidol (4), fisetinidol (5), taraxerol (6), betulinic acid (7), taraxerone (8), glutinol, (9), a mixture of sitosterol (10) and stigmasterol (11), pacharin (12), naringenin (13) and eriodictyol (14). The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR). The cytotoxicity of the bibenzyl (1) has been evaluated against four human cancer cell lines, showing IC50 values of 4.3 and 6.5 μg ml−1 against pro‐myelocytic leukemia (HL‐60) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HEP‐2) cell lines, respectively. This paper also registers for the first time the 13C NMR data of the known bibenzyl (2).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-18T11:05:42.698391-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600058
       
  • Detection of macromolecular fractions in HCN polymers using
           electrophoretic and ultrafiltration techniques
    • Authors: Margarita R. Marín‐Yaseli; Cristina Cid, Ana I. Yagüe, Marta Ruiz‐Bermejo
      Abstract: Elucidating the origin of life involves synthetic as well as analytical challenges. Herein, for the first time, we describe the use of gel electrophoresis and ultrafiltration to fractionate HCN polymers. Since the first prebiotic synthesis of adenine by Oró, HCN polymers have gained much interest in studies on the origins of life due to the identification of biomonomers and related compounds within them. Here, we demonstrate that macromolecular fractions with electrophoretic mobility can also be detected within HCN polymers. The migration of polymers under the influence of an electric field depends not only on their sizes (one‐dimensional electrophoresis) but also their different isoelectric points (two‐dimensional electrophoresis, 2‐DE). The same behaviour was observed for several macromolecular fractions detected in HCN polymers. Macromolecular fractions with apparent molecular weights as high as 250 kDa were detected by tricine‐SDS gel electrophoresis. Cationic macromolecular fractions with apparent molecular weights as high as 140 kDa were also detected by 2‐DE. The HCN polymers synthetized were fractionated by ultrafiltration. As a result, the molecular weight distributions of the macromolecular fractions detected in the HCN polymers directly depended on the synthetic conditions used to produce these polymers. The implications of these results for prebiotic chemistry will be discussed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-12T10:41:34.035253-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600241
       
  • Evaluation of antioxidant, anti‐cholinesterase, and antidiabetic
           potential of dry leaves and stems in Tamarix aphylla growing wild in
           Tunisia
    • Authors: Adel Mahfoudhi; Clara Grosso, Rui F. Gonçalves, Eltaief Khelifi, Saoussen Hammami, Sami Achour, Malika Trabelsi Ayadi, Patrícia Valentão, Paula B. Andrade, Zine Mighri
      Abstract: Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. has a wide geographic distribution and was employed in traditional medicine as astringent, anti‐rheumatic and to treat fever. T. aphylla leaves and stems extracts were studied from both chemical and biological points of view to assess the antidiabetic, anti‐cholinesterase and antioxidant potential of this species.The HPLC/DAD analysis showed the presence of 14 phenolic compounds (gallic, caffeic, p‐coumaric, ferulic and ellagic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin‐3‐O‐galactoside and six flavonol derivatives).This is the first study reporting a comparative study of the biological activities of different extracts from T. aphylla. High activities were obtained against DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical (O2●‐) and nitric oxide radical (●NO) in a concentration‐dependent manner, the most active extracts being the polar ones. T. aphylla also showed moderate protective effects against acetylcholinesterase, but no effects were observed against butyrylcholinesterase.Against α‐glucosidase the methanolic extracts displayed IC50 values from 8.41 to 24.81 μg/mL.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-12T10:21:05.714644-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600157
       
  • Comparison of phytochemical composition and biological activities of Rubus
           ulmifolius extracts originating from four regions of Tunisia
    • Authors: Sonia Tabarki; Chedia Aouadhi, Kaouther Mechergui, Khaoula Mkadmini Hammi, Riadh Ksouri, Aly Raies, Lamjed Toumi
      Abstract: In the current study, the phenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts from Rubus ulmifolius Schott leaves harvested in four localities (Sejnen, Tabarka, Faija and Ain drahem) in Tunisia were investigated for the first time. Great differences were found for the chemical composition, total phenol contents and biological activities among the evaluated extracts. HPLC analysis of methanolic extracts showed that the dominant compounds were kaempferol 3‐O‐rutinoside and naringenine. In addition, significant correlations were observed between antioxidant activities and phenolic contents. In fact, leaves collected from Sejnen presented higher total phenol content (53.32 mg GAE/g DW) and antioxidant activities (IC50= 39.40 mg/l) than the others samples. All extracts showed significant antimicrobial activity against six used bacteria with the inhibition zones diameters and minimal inhibitory concentration values were in the range of 8‐16 mm and 6.25‐25 mg/ml, respectively. The highest antimicrobial activities were recorded in Sejnen extract against Gram‐positive bacteria.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-12T00:40:30.984607-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600168
       
  • Phenotypic variations in the foliar chemical profile of Persea americana
           Mill cv Hass
    • Authors: García‐Rodríguez Yolanda Magdalena; Torres‐Gurrola Guadalupe, Meléndez‐González Claudio, Francisco J Espinosa‐García
      Abstract: The Hass avocado tree Persea americana cv. Hass was derived from a single hybrid tree of P. americana var. drymifolia and P. americana var. guatemalensis, and it is propagated clonally by grafting. This cultivar is the most widely planted in the world but its profile of secondary metabolites has been studied rarely despite of its importance in plant protection. We illustrate the variability of the volatilome of mature leaves by describing the average chemical composition and the phenotypic variability found in 70 trees. Contrary to the uniformity expected in the Hass cultivar, high variability coefficients were found for most of the 36 detected foliar volatile compounds; furthermore we found six chemical chemotypes (CTs) grouping the foliar phenotypes of the sampled trees using hierarchical cluster analysis. 48% of trees were grouped in one chemotype; five CTs grouped the remaining trees. The compounds that determine chemotypes are: estragole, α‐farnesene, β‐caryophyllene, germacrene D, α‐cubebene and eugenol. This striking variation in a cultivar propagated clonally is discussed in terms of somatic mutation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-09T09:25:56.697224-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600169
       
  • Chemical Constituents Isolated from Bletilla striata and Their Inhibitory
           Effects on Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Cells
    • Authors: Bae Joon Young; Lee Jin Woo, Jin Qinghao, Jang Hari, Lee Dongho, Kim Youngsoo, Hong Jin Tae, Lee Mi Kyeong, Lee Moon Soon, Hwang Bang Yeon
      Abstract: Bioassay‐guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the tubers of Bletilla striata led to the isolation of two new C‐methylated flavan‐3‐ols, bletillanols A (1) and B (2), along with ten known compounds (3‐12). Their structures were determined by using extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D‐, 2D‐NMR and circular dichroism data. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory potential on the nitric oxide generation in LPS‐stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-09T09:17:37.460543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600243
       
  • Piptadenin, a Novel 3,4‐secooleanane Triterpene and Piptadenamide, a New
           
    • Authors: Amadou Dawé; Marius Mbiantcha, Yannick Fongang, William Yosseu Nana, Fawai Yakai, Gilbert Ateufack, Muhammad Ali Shaiq, Iqbal Lubna, Mehreen Lateef, Bonaventure Tchaleu Ngadjui
      Abstract: Piptadenin (1), a new triterpene along with piptadenamide (10), a new ceramide, have been isolated from the AcOEt soluble fraction of the MeOH extract of the stem bark of Piptadeniastrum africana along with nine known compounds, 28‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranosyl‐3β,22β‐dihydroxyolean‐12‐en‐28‐oate (2), 22β‐hydroxyoleanic acid (3), oleanic acid (4), lupeol (5) betulinic acid (6), 5α‐stigmast‐7,22‐dien‐3β‐ol (7), 5α‐stigmast‐7,22‐dien‐3‐one (8), 5α‐stigmast‐5‐en‐3β‐ol 3‐O‐β‐D‐glucoside (9) and glyceryl‐1‐ hexacosanoate (11). Except for compound 11, all the isolated compounds are reported for the first time from this plant. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR. The pure compounds 1–11 were subjected to the pharmacological screening and compounds 2, 5‐7 and 9 exhibited potent urease inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 25.8, 28.9, 30.1, 31.8 and 32.7 μM respectively, whereas compounds 1 showed moderate activity (IC50 = 98.7 μM). The potent urease inhibitory activity supplemented the previous literature reports and medicinal uses of this plant.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-05T02:41:42.760796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600215
       
  • Chemodiversity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Abies nebrodensis
           (Lojac.) Mattei
    • Authors: Rosario Schicchi; Anna Geraci, Sergio Rosselli, Antonella Maggio, Maurizio Bruno
      Abstract: Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei (Pinaceae) is a species occurring in a very small population only in a restricted area of Sicily. Its taxonomic classification as different species has been object of discussion. In this work the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves is presented for the first time and compared to the essential oils from other euroasiatic species reported in literature. Peculiar characteristics of the essential oil of A. nebrodensis are highlighted.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-04T08:52:45.826367-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600254
       
  • Fatty acid diversity is not associated with neutral genetic diversity in
           native populations of the biodiesel plant Jatropha curcas L
    • Authors: Yesenia Martínez‐Díaz; Antonio González‐Rodríguez, Héctor Rómulo Rico‐Ponce, Víctor Rocha‐Ramírez, Isidro Ovando‐Medina, Francisco J. Espinosa‐García
      Abstract: Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a shrub native to Mexico and Central America, which produces seeds with a high oil content that can be converted to biodiesel. The genetic diversity of this plant has been widely studied, but, it is not known whether the diversity of the seed oil chemical composition correlates with neutral genetic diversity. The total seed oil content, the diversity of profiles of fatty acids and phorbol esters were quantified, also, the genetic diversity obtained from simple sequence repeats (SSRs) was analyzed in native populations of J. curcas in Mexico. Using the fatty acids profiles, a discriminant analysis recognized three groups of individuals according to geographical origin. Bayesian assignment analysis revealed two genetic groups, while the genetic structure of the populations could not be explained by isolation‐by‐distance. Genetic and fatty acid profile data were not correlated based on Mantel test. Also, phorbol ester content and genetic diversity were not associated. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that total oil content was associated with altitude and seasonality of temperature. The content of unsaturated fatty acids was associated with altitude. Therefore, the cultivation planning of J. curcas should take into account chemical variation related to environmental factors.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01T02:30:48.924927-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600188
       
  • Hexane extract of Echinops spinosissimus Turra subsp. spinosus from
           Tunisia: A potential source of acetylated sterols. Investigation of its
           biological activities
    • Authors: Emna Bouattour; Jawhar Fakhfakh, Donyez Frikha Dammak, Khaled Jabou, Mohamed Damak, Raoudha Mezghani Jarraya
      Abstract: The hexane extract of Echinops spinosissimus Turra subsp. spinosus flower heads was analyzed for its fatty acid and sterol composition. Its physicochemical characteristics were also studied. The saponification, iodine and peroxide values were determined as 255 mg KOH/g, 42.57 g I2/100g and 110 mequiv.O2/kg of oil, respectively. The oleic (C18:1; 61.14%), palmitic (C16:0; 21.36%) and linoleic (C18:2; 10.45%) acids were the dominant fatty acids. This extract was also found to contain high levels of β‐sitosterol and stigmasterol (44.97% and 34.95% of total sterols, respectively). On the other hand, the identification of terpenoid compounds was investigated by using GC/MS, which revealed fourteen major terpenoids mainly taraxasterol, lupeol, pseudotaraxasterol, lup‐22(29)‐en‐3‐yl acetate, taraxasteryl acetate, α‐amyrin, β‐amyrin, pseudotaraxasteryl acetate, hop‐20(29)‐en3‐β‐ol, α‐amirenone, along with β‐sitosterol and stigmasterol. Moreover, we have evaluated the in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the unsaponifiable matter and a fraction isolated from this extract. These activities were conducted using the diffusion disc methods and broth microdilution assay. The resulted fraction from this extract showed the highest antibacterial activity with significant minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values 125.0 μg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus cereus. However, it did exhibit no substantial antifungal activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-31T23:45:23.653447-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600118
       
  • Chemodiversity of epicuticular n‐alkanes and morphological traits of
           natural populations of Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. along Dinaric
           Alps ‐ ecological and taxonomic aspects
    • Authors: Tanja Dodoš; Nemanja Rajčević, Vele Tešević, Petar D. Marin
      Abstract: Morphological characters and the composition of epicuticular leaf n‐alkanes of two Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. subspecies (subsp. liburnica Šilić and subsp. subspicata) from nine natural populations along Dinaric Alps range were studied. Morphological characters were chosen based on Šilić's subspecies separation. Seventeen n‐alkane homologues (C19‐C35) were identified using GC/MS and GC/FID. The most abundant n‐alkane in all populations was n‐nonacosane (C29), followed by n‐hentriacontane (C31), with the exception of Divača population where these two alkanes were co‐dominant. Diversity and variability of n‐alkane patterns and morphological characters and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters, including exposure, were analysed by several statistical multivariate methods (PCA, HCA, Discriminant Analysis, Mantel test). These tests showed clear separation of subsp. liburnica from subsp. subspicata, even though population Velebit showed separation from other subsp. liburnica populations based on phytochemical characters. Mantel test showed high correlation with geographical distribution in both investigated data sets. High correlation between morphological and phytochemical characters was also established. However, exposure can influence n‐alkane profile, suggesting precaution while taking samples from natural habitats.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T10:50:27.720728-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600201
       
  • Anti‐HSV‐1 and HSV‐2 flavonoids and a new kaempferol triglycoside
           from the medicinal plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana
    • Authors: Fernanda Gouvêa Gomes Ürményi; Georgia do Nascimento Saraiva, Livia Marques Casanova, Amanda dos Santos Matos, Luiza Maria de Magalhães Camargo, Maria Teresa Villela Romanos, Sônia Soares Costa
      Abstract: Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Crassulaceae) is a medicinal plant native to Madagascar. The aim of this study was to investigate the flavonoid content of an aqueous leaf extract from K. daigremontiana (Kd), and assess its antiherpetic potential. The major flavonoid, kaempferol‐3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl (1→2) α‐L‐rhamnopyranoside (1), was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction (Kd‐AC). The n‐butanol‐soluble fraction afforded quercetin‐3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl (1→2) α‐L‐rhamnopyranoside (2) and the new kaempferol‐3‐O‐β‐D‐xylopyranosyl (1→2)‐α‐L‐rhamnopyranoside‐7‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (3), named daigremontrioside. The crude extract, Kd‐AC fraction, flavonoids 1 and 2 were evaluated using acyclovir‐sensitive strains of HSV‐1 and HSV‐2. Kd‐AC was highly active against HSV‐1 (EC50 = 0.97 μg/ml, SI > 206.1) and HSV‐2 (EC50 = 0.72 μg/ml, SI > 277.7). Flavonoids 1 and 2 showed anti‐ HSV‐1 (EC50 = 7.4 μg/ml; SI > 27and EC50 = 5.8 μg/ml; SI > 8.6, respectively) and anti‐HSV‐2 (EC50 = 9.0 μg/ml; SI > 22.2 and EC50 = 36.2 μg/ml; SI >5.5, respectively) activities, suggesting the contribution of additional substances to the antiviral activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T10:45:26.806547-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600127
       
  • Phytochemical study of Juglans regia L. pericarps from Greece with a
           chemotaxonomic approach
    • Authors: Gerasimia Tsasi; Tanja Milošević‐Ifantis, Helen Skaltsa
      Abstract: Phytochemical research of different polarity extracts from green Juglans regia L. pericarps from Greece afforded 32 compounds: four pentacyclic triterpenes (1‐4), three sesquiterpenes (5‐7), four tetralones (8‐11), two naphthoquinones (12‐13), seven phenolic acids (14‐20), one diarylheptanoid (21), one neo‐lignan (22), seven flavonoids (23‐29), two phenylethanoids (30‐31) and one hydrolysed tannin (32). Compounds 4 and 29 are isolated for the first time from the species, while compounds 3, 7, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30 are reported for the first time in Juglandaceae. Chemotaxonomic significance of isolated compounds into Junglandaceae family is thoroughly discussed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T10:50:26.544704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600067
       
  • Variation in essential oil yield and composition of Dorema aucheri Boiss,
           an endemic medicinal plant collected from wild populations in natural
           habitats
    • Authors: Abolghasem Akbarian; Mehdi Rahimmalek, Mohammad Reza Sabzalian
      Abstract: In the present research, variability in essential oil composition of five D. aucheri populations collected from natural habitats in different regions of Iran, were investigated. The essential oil content of populations varied from 0.28% to 0.68%. According to GC–MS analysis, β‐caryophyllene (7.17–35.73%), thymol (23.45–29.64%), β‐gurjunene (2.58–5.89%), carvacrol (1.32–2.67%) and cuparene (1.97–2.98%) were the major components. Hierarchical cluster, principal component and canonical correspondence analyses classified the studied populations into three groups based on major essential oil components. The environmental parameters of the collected sites were also evaluated. According to the results, it might be suggested that sandy soils with high mean annual precipitation (M.A.P) were major environmental factors influencing the amount of β‐caryophyllene, while thymol, cuparene and caryophyllen oxide increased in silty and clay soils. Finally, the population collected in high altitudes and clay soils had higher amount of β‐gurjunene.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-26T09:15:30.039886-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600160
       
  • Iridoid glycosides from Tabebuia avellanedae
    • Authors: Mao‐rong Suo; Sheng‐ying Yan
      Abstract: Five novel iridoid glycosides, avellanedaesides A‐E (1‐5) were isolated from water extract of Tabebuia avellanedae. Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis. Isolated compounds suppressed inflammatory cytokine, tumor‐necrosis factor‐α and interleukin‐1β production in cultured human myeloma THP‐1 cells co‐stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, the study revealed iridoid glycosides inhibited the activity of cytochrome CYP3A4 enzyme.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-25T11:25:21.209021-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600018
       
  • Four new tirucallane triterpenoids from the fruits of Melia azedarach and
           their cytotoxic activities
    • Authors: Fang Zhou; Xinhua Ma, Zhijun Li, Wei Li, Weimin Zheng, Zhibiao Wang, Xianming Zeng, Kaihui Sun, Yonghong Zhang
      Abstract: Four new tirucallane triterpenoids, (21S, 23R)-epoxy-21β, 24S-dihydroxy- 25-methoxy-tirucalla-7-en-3-one (2), (21S, 23R)-epoxy-3β, 24R-dihydroxy-21β, 25- dimethoxy-tirucalla-7-en (8), (21S, 23R)-epoxy- 24R-hydroxy-21β-methoxy-tirucalla- 7, 25-dien-3-one (11), and (21S, 23R)-epoxy-21β, 24R-dihydroxy-tirucalla-7, 25-dien- 3-one (12), along with 16 known analogues, 1, 3-7, 9-10, and 13-20, were isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against HepG2 (liver), SGC7901 (stomach), K562 (leukemia), and HL60 (leukemia) cancer cell lines. Compound 20 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HepG2 and SGC7901 cancer cells with IC50 values of 6.9 μM and 6.9 μM, respectively.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T10:40:21.554516-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600149
       
  • Chemometric classification of different tree peony species native to China
           based on the assessment of major fatty acids of seed oil and phenotypic
           characteristics of the seeds
    • Authors: Xiaoxiao Zhang; Yanlong Zhang, Lixin Niu, Jiayi Sun, Linhao Li, Jing Zhang, Jian Li
      Abstract: In the present study, we quantitatively measured five major fatty acids (FAs) in seed oil using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and examined four phenotypic characteristics of the seeds from 19 populations from nine wild tree peony species native to China. The results showed that the unsaturated FAs contents were dominant, of which α-linolenic (ALA) acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid (OA) contents ranged from 14.84 to 42.54 g /100 g, 7.33 to 19.66 g /100 g, and 15.07-35.31 g /100 g crude oil, respectively. The phenotypic seed characteristics, such as thousand seed weight (244.01-1772.91 g), seed volume (91.31-1000.79 mm3), weight rate of kernel and coat (1.29-3.62) and oil extraction ratio (20.32-34.69%), dramatically varied. Based on the contents of the five FAs, the nine species were classified into two groups. The species belonging to subsection Vagiatae were arranged in cluster I and were characterized by high ALA content. Cluster II, consistent with subsection Delavayanae, had a high OA content. From horizontal and vertical perspectives, the natural distribution areas of these two groups were different, reflecting differences in the FA contents and phenotypic seed characteristics. In conclusion, the FAs composition could be used as a chemotaxonomic marker for tree peony species.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T10:20:39.402365-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600111
       
  • Quantification of Anti-Addictive Alkaloids Ibogaine and Voacangine in in
           vivo- and in vitro-Grown Plants of Two Mexican Tabernaemontana Species
    • Authors: Felix Krengel; Josefina Herrera Santoyo, Teresa de Jesús Olivera Flores, Víctor Manuel Chávez Ávila, Francisco Javier Pérez Flores, Ricardo Reyes Chilpa
      Abstract: Tabernaemontana alba and T. arborea are Apocynaceae species used in Mexican traditional medicine for which little phytochemical information exists. In this study, preliminary GC-MS analyses of different organs obtained from wild plants of both species identified a total of 10 monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) and one simple indole alkaloid, nine of which were reported for the first time in these species. Furthermore, callus cultures were established from T. alba leaf explants and regeneration of whole plants was accomplished via somatic embryogenesis. The anti-addictive MIAs ibogaine and voacangine were then quantified by GC-FID in wild plants of both species, as well as greenhouse-grown plants, in vitro-grown plantlets and embryogenic callus of T. alba. Ibogaine and voacangine were present in most samples taken from whole plants of both species, with stem and root barks showing the highest concentrations. No alkaloids were detected in callus samples. It was concluded that T. alba and T. arborea are potentially viable sources of ibogaine and voacangine, and that these MIAs can be produced through somatic embryogenesis and whole plant regeneration of T. alba. Approaches to increase MIA yields in whole plants and to achieve alkaloid production directly in cell cultures are discussed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T10:20:35.748609-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600146
       
  • Aroma profile of Rubus ulmifolius flowers and fruits during different
           ontogenetic phases
    • Authors: Rose Vanessa Bandeira Reidel; Bernardo Melai, Pierluigi Cioni, Guido Flamini, Luisa Pistelli
      Abstract: The chemical composition of spontaneous volatile emission from Rubus ulmifolius flowers and fruits during different stages of development was evaluated by HS-SPME-GC/MS. In total, 155 chemical compounds were identified accounting 84.6-99.4% of whole aroma profile of flowers samples and 92.4-96.6% for fruit samples. The main constituents were α-copaene, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)-α-farnesene, 1,7-octadien-3-one,2-methyl-6-methylene, tridecane, (E)-2-hexenol acetate, (E)-3-hexenol acetate and cyperene. The results give a chemotaxonomic contribution to the characterization of the VOCs emitted from flowers and fruits during their ontogenic development.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T09:50:23.487968-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600170
       
  • Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from
           Aerial Parts and Roots of Eryngium barrelieri Boiss. and Eryngium
           glomeratum Lamk. from Tunisia
    • Authors: Ameni Landoulsi; Vincent Roumy, Nathalie Duhal, Fethia Harzallah Skhiri, Céline Rivière, Sevser Sahpaz, Christel Neut, Jeannette Benhamida, Thierry Hennebelle
      Abstract: The study of chemical composition and biological activity of unexplored essential oils may open new perspectives on their potential use in facing major health concerns such as drug-resistant infections. The present study investigates the chemical composition and antimicrobial effects of previously unstudied essential oils obtained from genus Eryngium: Eryngium glomeratum Lamk. and Eryngium barrelieri Boiss. The chemical compositions of the essential oils from aerial parts and roots of both species were studied using GC and GC-MS analytical technics. The analysis led to the identification of 102 compounds totalizing 85 to 94% of all detected compounds. Essential oils were characterized by the predominance of oxygenated sesquiterpenes.The oils obtained from aerial parts were tested against 36 microbial strains by agar dilution method and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 2–625 μg/mL. A strong antibacterial activity against multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed especially from Eryngium glomeratum essential oil with MIC value up to 2 μg/mL.These findings give significant information about the pharmacological activity of these essential oils, which suggest their potential use to develop new remedies, or as sources of active compounds.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T03:15:29.312486-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600136
       
  • Composition and Bioactivity of Lipophilic Metabolites from Needles and
           Twigs of Korean and Siberian Pines (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. and
           P. sibirica Du Tour)
    • Authors: Alexander V. Shpatov; Sergey A. Popov, Olga I. Salnikova, Tatyana P. Kukina, Emma N. Shmidt, Byung Hun Um
      Abstract: Lipophilic extractive metabolites in different parts of the shoot system (needles and defoliated twigs) of Korean pine, P. koraiensis, and Siberian pine, P. sibirica, were studied by GC/MS. Korean pine needles comprised mainly bornyl p-coumarate, heterocyclic 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids (lambertianic acid), 10-nonacosanol, sterols and their esters. While Siberian pine needles contained less bornyl p-coumarate, lambertianic acid, sterols and their esters, but were richer in other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids. The major components of the twig extract of P. koraiensis were lambertianic acid, abietane and isopimarane type acids, cembrane type alcohols, 8-O-functionalized labdanoids, sterols, sterol esters, and acylglycerols. The same extract of P. sibirica differed in larger amounts of other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids and pinolenic acid glycerides, but in less quantities of cembranoids and 8-O-functionalized labdanoids. The labdane type pinusolic acid was detected for the first time in Korean pine. P. koraiensis was found to be unique in the genus for an ability to synthesize phyllocladane diterpenoids. The content of bound Δ5-unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids in the twig extracts of the both pines was similar or superior to that in their seed oil. Among the pines’ metabolites tested isocembrol was strongest in inhibition of both α-glucosidase (IC50 2.9 μg/ml) and NO production in activated macrophages (IC50 3.6 μg/ml).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T02:16:21.968247-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600203
       
  • Four new kaurane diterpenoids from the Chinese liverwort Jungermannia
           comata Nees
    • Authors: Rui-Juan Li; Song Wang, Gang Li, Jin-Chuan Zhou, Jiao-Zhen Zhang, You-Ming Zhang, Guo-Sheng Shi, Hong-Xiang Lou
      Abstract: In our continuing program to find new bioactive compounds from the Chinese liverworts, four new kaurane-type diterpenoids, 6β,9α-dihydroxy-kaur-16-ene (1), 6β,9α,12β-trihydroxy-kaur-16-ene (2), 5α,6β,9α-trihydroxy-kaur-16-ene (3), and 9α-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-ol (4), have been isolated from the Chinese liverwort Jungermannia comata Nees. Five known kaurane-type diterpenoids (5−9) and four known trachylobane-type diterpenoids (10−13) were also obtained. The structures of the new compounds were established unequivocally on the basis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was established by comparing experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-23T01:00:28.171779-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600123
       
  • Triterpenoid saponins with potential cytotoxic activities from the root
           bark of Ilex rotunda Thunb
    • Authors: Wei-jie Liu; Yu-yuan Peng, Hao Chen, Xian-fang Liu, Jing-yu Liang, Jian-bo Sun
      Abstract: A new 19-oxo-18,19-seco-ur-sane-type triterpeonoid saponin, laevigin E (8), together with 17 known compounds (1-7 and 9-18) were isolated from the root bark of Ilex rotunda Thunb.. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic analysis. Among them, compounds 6, 9, 11 and 18 were firstly isolated from this species, while compounds 10 and 12 were firstly isolated from the family Aquifoliaceae. Biological activity assay showed that all triterpenoids exhibit moderate cytotoxic activities against MCF7, A549, Hela and LN229 cell lines. The four triterpenoid saponins (3, 4, 6 and 8) exhibit slightly better activities compared to the four triterpenoid sapogenins (1, 2, 5 and 7). Compound 8 showed the best cytotoxicity against A549, Hela and LN229 cell lines with IC50 of 17.83, 22.58 and 30.98 μM, respectively.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T07:45:28.720708-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600209
       
  • Three New Ergot Alkaloids from the Fruiting Bodies of Xylaria nigripes
           (Kl.) Sacc
    • Authors: Dongbao Hu; Ming Li
      Abstract: Three new ergot alkaloids,xylanigripones A-C (1−3) together with three known compounds, agroclavine (4), 8,9-Dehydro-l0-hydroxyergolin (5), and 6S-agroclavine N-oxide (6) were isolated from the fungus Xylaria nigripes (Kl.) Sacc. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as by comparison with the literature. The absolute stereochemistry was determined by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation methods. In addition, all of the compounds were evaluated for bioactivity via a cytotoxicity assay、an acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay and a cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibition assay.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T07:45:23.965796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600173
       
  • Natural Flavonoids as Promising Analgesic Candidates: A Systematic Review
    • Authors: Xiao Xiao; Xiaoyu Wang, Xuan Gui, Lu Chen, Baokang Huang
      First page: 1427
      Abstract: Due to the chemical structural diversity and various analgesic mechanisms, an increasing number of studies indicated that some flavonoids from medicinal plants could be promising candidates for new natural analgesic drugs, which attract high interests of advanced users and academic researchers. The aim of this systematic review is to report flavonoids and its derivatives as new analgesic candidates based on the pharmacological evidences. Sixty-four papers were found concerning the potential analgesic activity of 46 flavonoids. In this case, the evidence for analgesic activity of flavonoids and total flavonoids was investigated. Meanwhile, the corresponding analgesic mechanism of flavonoids was discussed by generalizing and analyzing the current publications. Based on this review, the conclusion can be drawn that some flavonoids are promising candidates for painful conditions and deserve particular attention in further research and development.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T00:10:24.857504-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600060
       
  • Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Leaves of the Plum Tree (Prunus
           domestica)
    • Authors: Theresia Erhart; Cecilia Mittelberger, Clemens Vergeiner, Gerhard Scherzer, Barbara Holzner, Peter Robatscher, Michael Oberhuber, Bernhard Kräutler
      First page: 1441
      Abstract: In cold extracts of senescent leaves of the plum tree (Prunus domestica ssp. domestica) six colorless non‐fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were characterized, named Pd‐NCCs. In addition, several minor NCC fractions were tentatively classified. The structure of the most polar one of the NCCs, named Pd‐NCC‐32, featured an unprecedented twofold glycosidation pattern. Three of the NCCs are also functionalized at their 32‐position by a glucopyranosyl group. In addition, two of these glycosidated NCCs carry a dihydroxyethyl group at their 18‐position. In the polar Pd‐NCC‐32 the latter group is further glycosidated at the terminal 182‐position. Four other major Pd‐NCCs and one minor Pd‐NCC were identified with known NCCs from higher plants, known to belong to the ‘epi’‐series. In addition tentative structures were derived for two minor fractions, classified as yellow chlorophyll catabolites (YCCs), which represented (formal) oxidation products of two of the observed Pd‐NCCs. The chlorophyll catabolites in leaves of plum feature the same basic structural pattern as those found in leaves of apple and pear trees.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-17T09:10:25.258963-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600181
       
  • Constituents from the roots of Actinidia chinensis and their inhibitory
           activities toward cytochrome P450
    • Authors: Yi‐Xin Xu; Zhao‐Bao Xiang, Yong‐Sheng Jin, Wen Xu, Lian‐Na Sun, Wan‐Sheng Chen, Hai‐Sheng Chen
      First page: 1454
      Abstract: A newly discovered triterpenoid, 2α, 3β, 23‐trihydroxyurs‐13 (18)‐en‐28‐oic acid (1), along with 12 known compounds (2–13), was isolated from the roots of Actinidia chinensis Planch. Their chemical structures were determined by one‐ and two‐dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The crude extracts and six main constituents (8–13) were tested for inhibitory activity toward cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. The results showed that, with the exception of compound 8, compounds 9–13 had different degrees of inhibitory effects toward CYP enzymes, and compound 9 significantly inhibited the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 to less than 10% of its total activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-26T09:15:30.993686-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500518
       
  • Variations of leaf cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs
    • Authors: Yuji HE; Jianhua GAO, Na GUO, Yanjun GUO
      First page: 1460
      Abstract: Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. As the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n‐alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C29 was the most abundant n‐alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n‐alkane was C31 or C33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n‐alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n‐alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n‐alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-26T09:45:24.044597-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600030
       
  • Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Daphne holosericea (Diels)
           Hamaya
    • Authors: Qing-Yun Ma; Yi-Chun Chen, Sheng-Zhuo Huang, Fan-Dong Kong, Li-Man Zhou, Hao-Fu Dai, Yan Hua, You-Xing Zhao
      First page: 1469
      Abstract: Two new compounds, one flavanol dimer dapholosericol A (1) and one tigliane diterpene dapholosericin A (2), together with ten known ones, were isolated from the AcOEt extract of Daphne holosericea (Diels) Hamaya. Their structures were elucidated by their spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate activities against acetylcholinesterase with inhibition ratio of 36% and 29% at a concentration of 100 μmol/l, respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-10-08T03:05:55.137927-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600040
       
  • Phytochemical Compounds from the Crop Byproducts of Tunisian Globe
           Artichoke Cultivars
    • Authors: Sihem Dabbou; Samia Dabbou, Guido Flamini, Gaetano Pandino, Laura Gasco, Ahmed Noureddine Helal
      First page: 1475
      Abstract: The phytochemical composition in two Tunisian globe artichoke cultivars (bracts, leaves, and floral stems) was evaluated in the plant byproducts. The results indicated that the bracts contain the highest levels of total phenols, o-diphenols, and flavonoids, whereas tannins seem to be more abundant in the leaves. Bracts from the ‘Violet d'Hyères’ cultivar possessed more total phenols (160.8 mg/g DW), flavonoids (64.9 mg/g DW), and anthocyanins (15.3 μg/g DW) than the ‘Blanc d'Oran’ bracts (134.5 mg/g DW, 51.2 mg/g DW, and 8.3 μg/g DW, resp.). Sixty-four volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of globe artichoke material, particularly in the bracts. The volatile profile showed that sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and non-terpene derivatives were the main volatiles emitted by the bracts in both cultivars. These results suggest that globe artichoke byproducts might represent a potential source of natural compounds, which could be used as nutraceuticals or as ingredients in the design of functional foods.
      PubDate: 2016-10-08T02:10:35.687589-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600046
       
  • The Loss of a Sugar Chain at C(3) Position Enhances Stemucronatoside
           K-Induced Apoptosis, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition in
           HT-29 Cells
    • Authors: Xia Zhou; Li-Fei Zhou, Bo Yang, Hua-Jun Zhao, Yi-Qi Wang, Xiao-Yu Li, Yi-Ping Ye, Feng-Yang Chen
      First page: 1484
      Abstract: Stemucronatoside K (SMK) and its aglycone stephanthraniline A (STA) are the most representative of a series of novel C21 steriodal compounds that we have previously isolated from Asclepiadaceae plants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antitumor activity of SMK and STA, and clarify the effect of the sugar chain at the C(3) position. Our results showed that both SMK and STA decreased the growth of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, STA showed much stronger inhibitory effect than SMK. Treatment of HT-29 cells with STA increased the apoptotic cell numbers and the protein expression of cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved-PARP. G1 phase cell cycle arrest and decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinases 4 were also observed after STA treatment. Furthermore, STA reduced the mRNA levels of four Hedgehog pathway components (GLI1, GLI2, GLI3, and PTCH1) and suppressed Shh-induced Hedgehog pathway activation in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicated that SMK and STA could inhibit the growth of HT-29 cells by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and hedgehog pathway inhibition. The loss of sugar chain at C(3) position could enhance SMK's activity. This study is beneficial to understand the use of natural C21 steroids as antitumor lead compounds.
      PubDate: 2016-10-08T02:50:42.204221-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600054
       
  • On Dioxygen Permeation of MaL Laccase from the Thermophilic Fungus
           Melanocarpus albomyces. An all‐Atom Molecular Dynamics Investigation
    • Authors: Francesco Pietra
      First page: 1493
      Abstract: Described here are biased MD simulations of O2 egress from the active center of MaL laccase toward the bulk solvent. Parameterization of the set of four Cu(II) ions, in the framework of CHARMM‐36 FF, was carried out on a recent dummy‐atom model that takes into account the Jahn‐Teller effect. By carrying out a number of statistically relevant MD simulations, under a tiny randomly oriented external force applied to the molecule O2, what emerged were three preferred gates for O2 egress from the enzyme, and a few intermediate binding pockets (BPs) for O2, all located on two of the three domains. This wide distribution of preferred gates notwithstanding, the molecule O2 was seen to follow specific pathways, exploiting consistently the interstices created by the enzyme thermal fluctuations. These are features that can be imagined to have evolved to make MaL laccase extremely efficient as a catalysts in various reactions that require O2.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-27T09:45:20.492815-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600062
       
  • Chemotaxonomic screening of seed oils from the family Saxifragaceae and
           comparison with data on seed oils from Grossulariaceae obtained from
           literature
    • Authors: Bertrand Matthäus; Choijiljav Otgonbayar
      First page: 1511
      Abstract: Seeds of 25 members of the family Saxifragaceae, 1 x Astilbe, 1 x Darmera, 1 x Leptarrhena, 1 x Tellima, 3 x Mitella and 18 x Sagifraga were investigated regarding oil content, as well as composition and content of fatty acids and vitamin E active compounds. The results were compared with results obtained from literature for members of the genus Ribes belonging to the closely related family Grossulariaceae to find chemometric differences between the different genera and between members of the family Saxifragaceae and Grossulariaceae, respectively.Members of the family Saxifragaceae are dominated by high amounts of linoleic and α‐linolenic acid which together account for about 80% of the total fatty acids. While α‐linolenic acid is characteristic for members of the genus Saxifraga, in other genera linoleic acid is predominant. In comparison to members of the family Saxifragaceae members of the family Grossulariaceae also contain γ‐linolenic acid and stearidonic acid which allow a significant differentiation between both families.By Principle Component Analysis members of both families were divided into three distinct groups, (1) species with a high content of α‐linolenic acid (genus Saxifraga), (2) species with high amounts of γ‐linolenic acid and stearidonic acid (genus Ribes) and (3) species with higher amounts of linoleic acid (other members of the family Saxifragaceae.The composition of the vitamin E active compounds was characterized by a high content of γ‐tocopherol in most members of the family Saxifragaceae, but no chemotaxonomic relevance.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-27T02:50:20.164316-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600077
       
  • The Phenolics of the Ornithogalum umbellatum L. (Hyacinthaceae):
           Phytochemical and Ecological Characterization
    • Authors: Milica M. Rat; Neda S. Gavaric, Nebojsa V. Kladar, Andrijana M. Andric, Goran T. Anackov, Biljana N. Bozin
      First page: 1551
      Abstract: Ornithogalum umbellatum L. is a widely distributed species in Europe, that exhibits considerable variability at ecological, morphological, anatomical, and karyological level. Previous reports of the chemical investigations among Ornithogalum species indicate significant diversity of the secondary metabolites, as well. Knowing that environment affects the phenolic composition in plants to a large extent, the main objective of the research was to define relationship between phytochemical and ecological characters. To estimate an environmental influence on these results, plant material was collected at four habitats that differ in ecological factors and belong to two biogeographical regions: the Balkan Peninsula and the Pannonian Plane. Measured phytochemical characters are yield of dry extract, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, the presence of selected phenolic compounds as well as free-radical scavenging activity (neutralization of DPPH and OH radicals). Results revealed that all analyzed phytochemical parameters differ between investigated O. umbellatum samples. The moisture level of habitat has the highest correlation, either positive or negative, with most of phytochemical characters, and is followed by temperature and soil reaction. Light intensity and nitrogen level have mostly moderate correlation coefficient with phytochemical characters. More complex correlation is revealed between ecological factors and nine phenolic compounds, with three observed patterns of relationship.
      PubDate: 2016-10-26T05:15:31.827922-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600090
       
  • Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Essential Oils of
           Micromeria inodora (Desf.) Benth. from Algeria
    • Authors: Fatima Zahra Benomari; Nassim Djabou, Ali Medbouhi, Abdelmounaim Khadir, Mourad Bendahou, Chaouki Selles, Jean-Marie Desjobert, Jean Costa, Alain Muselli
      First page: 1559
      Abstract: The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of Micromeria inodora (Desf.) Benth. collected in 24 Algerian localities was investigated from the first time using GC-FID, GC/MS and 13C-NMR. Altogether, 83 components which accounted for 94.7% of the total oil composition were identified. The main compounds were trans-sesquisabinene hydrate (1; 20.9%), α-terpinyl acetate (2; 19.8%), globulol (3; 4.9%), caryophyllene oxide (4; 4.3%), β-bisabolol (5; 2.9%) and trans-7-epi-sesquisabinene hydrate (6; 2.6%). Comparison with the literature highlighted the originality of the Algerian M. inodora oil and indicated that 1 might be used as taxonomical marker. The study of the chemical variability allowed the discrimination of two main clusters confirming that there is a relation between the essential-oil compositions and the soil nature of the harvest locations. Biological activity of M. inodora essential oil was assessed against fourteen species of microorganisms involved in nosocomial infections using paper disc diffusion and dilution agar assays. The in vitro study demonstrated a good activity against Gram-positive strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus faecalis, and moderate activity against Candida albicans. These results might be useful for the future commercial valorization of M. inodora essential oil as a promising source of natural products with potential against various nosocomial community and toxinic infections.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T01:40:49.405896-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600098
       
  • Comparative Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and
           Antimicrobial Activities of the Volatile Oils of Hawk Tea from Six
           Botanical Origins
    • Authors: Bao Yu; Dan Zhang, Xue‐Wei Yan, Jian‐Wei Wang, Ling Yao, Li‐Hong Tan, Sheng‐Ping Zhao, Na Li, Wei‐Guo Cao
      First page: 1573
      Abstract: In this study, volatile oils of six Hawk tea varieties were studied for their chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities to screen the most suitable botanical origins of Hawk tea. A total of 72 components were separated and identified from the six oils. The major constituents of the volatile oils were: α‐pinene, camphene, limonene, 1,8‐cineole, linalool, cis‐nerolidol, germacrene B. Moreover, the volatile oils were evaluated for antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. The results showed that all volatile oils exhibited acceptable antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, which suggested that these volatile oils may serve as natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants and preservatives to be applied in food and pharmaceutical industries. Principal component analysis results denoted that some major compounds may be closely related to the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. It also showed that the volatile oils from Litsea coreana Levl. var. lanuginose and Litsea pungens Hemsl were characterized by positive values of first two principal components, indicating higher active chemical compounds and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared with other species. Thus, they were temporarily considered as good sources of Hawk tea.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29T10:50:26.229485-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600099
       
  • Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Matijin-Su Derivatives as Potential
           Antihepatitis B Virus and Anticancer Agents
    • Authors: Jingying Qiu; Bixue Xu, Qineng Gong, Weidong Pan, Changxiao Liu, Zhengming Huang, Xiaoke Gu, Guangyi Liang
      First page: 1584
      Abstract: A series of Matijin-Su (MTS, (2S)-2-{[(2S)-2-benzamido-3-phenylpropanoyl]amino}-3-phenylpropyl acetate) derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HBV and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Six compounds (4g, 4j, 5c, 5g, 5h and 5i) showed significant inhibition against HBV DNA replication with the IC50 values in range of 2.18 – 8.55 μm, which were much lower than that of positive control lamivudine (IC50 82.42 μm). In particular, compounds 5h (IC50 2.18 μm; SI 151.59) and 5j (IC50 5.65 μm; SI 51.16) displayed relatively low cytotoxicities, resulting in high SI values. Notably, besides the anti-HBV DNA replication activity, compound 4j also exhibited more potent in vitro cytotoxic activity than 5-fluorouracil in two hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HCC) lines (QGY-7701 and SMMC-7721), indicating that 4j may be a promising lead for the exploration of drugs with dual therapeutic effects on HBV infection and HBV-induced HCC.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T02:53:36.90508-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600113
       
  • Fusaproliferin, Terpestacin and Their Derivatives Display Variable
           Allelopathic Activity Against Some Ascomycetous Fungi
    • Authors: Alessio Cimmino; Sabrina Sarrocco, Marco Masi, Stefania Diquattro, Marco Evidente, Giovanni Vannacci, Antonio Evidente
      First page: 1593
      Abstract: Herbivorous mammal dung supports a large variety of fimicolous fungi able to produce different bioactive secondary metabolites to compete with other organisms. Recently, the organic extracts of the Solid State Fermentation (SSF) cultures of Cleistothelebolus nipigonensis and Neogymnomyces virgineus, showing strong antifungal activity, were preliminarily investigated. This manuscript reports the isolation of the main metabolites identified, using spectroscopic and optical methods, as fusaproliferin (1) and terpestacin (2). Furthermore, some key hemisynthetic derivatives were prepared and their antifungal activity was tested against the same fungi previously reported to be affected by the organic extracts obtained from SSF. These metabolites and their derivatives resulted able to reduce the growth of Alternaria brassicicola, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium graminearum in a variable extent strongly dependent from chemical modifications and test fungi. The hydroxy enolic group at C(17) appeared to be a structural feature important to impart activity. This study represents the first report of these secondary metabolites produced by C. nipigonensis and N. virgineus.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T04:11:02.165161-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600145
       
  • Biological Activities of Triterpenoids and Phenolic Compounds from Myrica
           cerifera Bark
    • Authors: Jie Zhang; Satoshi Yamada, Eri Ogihara, Masahiro Kurita, Norihiro Banno, Wei Qu, Feng Feng, Toshihiro Akihisa
      First page: 1601
      Abstract: Seven triterpenoids, 1–7, two diarylheptanoids, 8 and 9, four phenolic compounds, 10–13, and three other compounds, 14–16, were isolated from the hexane and MeOH extracts of the bark of Myrica cerifera L. (Myricaceae). Among these compounds, betulin (1), ursolic acid (3), and myricanol (8) exhibited cytotoxic activities against HL60 (leukemia), A549 (lung), and SK‐BR‐3 (breast) human cancer cell lines (IC50 3.1–24.2 μM). Compound 8 induced apoptotic cell death in HL60 cells (IC50 5.3 μM) upon evaluation of the apoptosis‐inducing activity by flow cytometric analysis and by Hoechst 33342 staining method. Western blot analysis on HL60 cells revealed that 8 activated caspases‐3, ‐8, and ‐9 suggesting that 8 induced apoptosis via both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways in HL60. Upon evaluation of the melanogenesis‐inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells induced with α‐melanocyte‐stimulating hormone (α‐MSH), erythrodiol (7), 1,4‐dihydroxy‐3‐methoxyphenyl‐4‐O‐β‐D‐glucopyranoside (13), and butyl quinate (15) exhibited inhibitory effects (65.4–86.0% melanin content) with no, or almost no, toxicity to the cells (85.9–107.4% cell viability) at 100 μM concentration. In addition, 8, myricanone (9), myricitrin (10), protocatechuic acid (11), and gallic acid (12) revealed potent DPPH radical‐scavenging activities (IC50 6.9–20.5 μM).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-08-05T02:41:51.502904-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600247
       
 
 
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