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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 847 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (47 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (598 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (598 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 162)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access  
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access  
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 210)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 11)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 139)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 147)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Chemistry & Biodiversity
  [SJR: 0.723]   [H-I: 40]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-1872 - ISSN (Online) 1612-1880
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Geographic Distribution of Natural Products Produced by Red Algae
           Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh
    • Abstract: In order to evaluate the chemical diversity of Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh, a wide distributed seaweed in Brazilian coast, a phytochemical study was carried out with algae collected from six different locations along Southeast Brazilian coast. Purified compounds were identified by MS and NMR techniques. The chemical profiles of lipophilic extracts were obtained by GC/MS for each population. In total, fifteen compounds were described. The sesquiterpene composition accounted for 49‐63% of the GC/MS chromatogram area. The discrimination of three chemotypes was done by the use of HCA on GC/MS chromatograms. They were also analyzed by PCA and, together with peak area analysis, it was possible to discriminate all populations by the main variation of elatol, obtusol, rogiolol and triquinane. The results revealed the high diversity of sesquiterpene composition among populations of L. dendroidea. Curiously, the within and among population variation of elatol and obtusol suggested a biochemical interplay on the content of these compounds. More studies are necessary to understand the patterns of chemical diversity and compound variation within and among populations of L. dendroidea. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-24T08:05:30.388196-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500246
       
  • Geographically‐related variation in epicuticular wax traits of Pinus
           nigra populations from Southern Carpathians and Central Balkans –
           taxonomic considerations
    • Abstract: The chemical composition of epicuticular waxes of nine populations from three Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold subspecies (determined as ssp. nigra, ssp. banatica (Borbás) Novák, and ssp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe), from Southern Carpathians and central Balkan Peninsula were analyzed using GC‐MS and GC‐FID chromatography, and multivariate statistical techniques in respect of biogeography and taxonomy. In the needle waxes, four primary alcohols and fourteen n‐alkanes ranging from C21 to C33 were identified, and the most abundant compounds were the four odd numbered n‐alkanes C27, C25, C23, and C29. Multivariate statistical analyses (CDA and CA) have shown existence of three P. nigra groups and suggested clinal differentiation as a mechanism of genetic variation across a geographic area: the one group consisted of the southernmost populations of ssp. pallasiana from Macedonia, the second of northernmost ssp. banatica populations from Romania, while all populations in Serbia described as three different subspecies (nigra, banatica, and pallasiana) formed the third group together with ssp. nigra population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to simple linear regression, geographic latitude and four bioclimatic parameters were moderately correlated with the contents of epicuticular wax compounds that are important in population discrimination, while stepwise multiple regression showed that latitude participated in most of the regression models for predicting the composition of the epicuticular waxes. These results are in agreement with CDA and CA analysis and confirmed the possibility of recognition of fine geographic differentiation of the analyzed P. nigra populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-23T07:45:23.362898-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500322
       
  • Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Psychotria
    • Authors: Hongmei Yang; Hongmei Zhang, Caiqiong Yang, Yegao Chen
      Abstract: The genus Psychotria is one of the largest genera of flowering plants and the largest within Rubiaceae, with ca. 1500 species distributing in tropical and subtropical regions, with 17 species being endemic in China [1]. Different parts of several species have been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments. For example, P. viridis and P. carthagenensis are often discussed in relation to the hallucinogenic beverage ayahuasca, used for religious, medicinal and social purposes throughout the Amazon [2]. The whole herbs of P. serpens are used as an antirheumatic, analgesic, muscles relaxing, and circulation promoting drug in folklore [3]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-23T07:30:38.123824-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500259
       
  • Chemical Constituents in Hybrids of Ligularia tongolensis and L.
           cymbulifera: Chemical Introgression in L. tongolensis
    • Abstract: Two samples with morphologies intermediate between L. tongolensis and L. cymbulifera were collected in Desha, Sichuan Province, and one, in Pachahai, Yunnan Province, P. R. China. DNA Sequencing confirmed that the samples were hybrids of the two species. Tetradymol (1), the major compound of L. cymbulifera not found in L. tongolensis, was isolated from the hybrid samples collected at both locations, while furanoeremophilan‐15‐oic acid derivative 4, a compound characteristic to L. tongolensis, was found in the Pachahai hybrid but not in the Desha hybrids. Thus, the chemical consequence of hybridization can be variable. In addition, analysis of L. tongolensis samples at Pachahai indicated that introgression has been a mechanism of generating chemical diversity in the plant. Eleven compounds including three new ones were isolated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-23T07:30:27.611097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500227
       
  • New Cyclohexadepsipeptides from an Entomogenous Fungus Fusarium
           
    • Abstract: Five new cyclohexadepsipeptides, termed as enniatins R‐V (1‐5), and seven known cyclohexadepsipeptides (6‐12) were isolated from the solid culture of Fusarium proliferatum, a fungus isolated from the cadaver of an unidentified insect collected in Tibet. Their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. The X‐ray single‐crystal structure of 6 was reported for the first time. Enniatins R and S represented the first enniatins incorporating with an unusual 2, 3‐dihydroxy‐isovaleric acid (Div) residue. The cytotoxicity and autophagy induction activities of 1‐12 were evaluated in vitro. Beauvenniatin F (11) exhibited strong cytotoxicity against K562/A (adriamycin‐resistant K562) with IC50 value of 3.78 μM, and also autophagy inducing activity at the concentration of 20 μM in GFP‐LC3 stable HeLa cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-16T07:02:24.740259-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500262
       
  • Antimicrobial Compounds from Drypetes staudtii
    • Authors: David Grace; Madiha S. Khan, Kenneth Friesen, Athar Ata
      Abstract: Antimicrobial‐directed phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extracts of Drypetes staudtii afforded two new compounds, (2E)‐N‐(4‐aminobutyl)‐3‐(6‐hydroxy‐1,3‐benzodioxol‐5‐yl)prop‐2‐enamide (1), (2E)‐N‐(4‐aminobutyl)‐3‐(6‐hydroxy‐1,3‐benzodioxol‐5‐yl)‐N‐methylprop‐2‐enamide (2) along with seven known natural products 4α‐​hydroxyeremophila‐​1,​9‐​diene‐​3,​8‐​dione (3), drypemolundein B (4), friedelan‐3β‐ol (5), erythrodiol (6), ursolic acid (7), p‐coumaric acid (8) and β‐sitosterol (9). Structures of compounds 1‐9 were elucidated with the aid of extensive NMR and mass spectral studies. All of the isolates exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 8‐128 μg/ml. Compounds 1‐2 were also moderately active against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 32 μg/ml. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-11T08:40:24.551189-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500298
       
  • Chemical Composition and Interpopulation Variability of Essential Oils of
           Taxus baccata L. from Serbia
    • Abstract: The composition of the essential oil of the twigs and needles of Taxus baccata L. from three natural populations in Serbia has been determined by GC/MS analysis. Of the 91 detected compounds, 87 were identified. The most abundant compound classes were aliphatic alcohols, terpenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic aldehydes, which together comprised ca. 86.92% of the total oil composition. The dominant constituents were oct‐1‐en‐3‐ol (23.48%), (3Z)‐hex‐3‐en‐1‐ol (11.46%) (aliphatic alcohols), and myrtenol (11.38%) (oxygenated monoterpene). The PCA of 22 selected compounds revealed differentiations of populations based on geographic distribution. The CA showed that Populations I and II from the Dinaric Alps were similar, and that Population III from the Balkan mountain system was distinct. This was the first investigation of interpopulation variability of T. baccata populations based on essential oil composition. The results of the present study were compared with those of previous studies concerning volatile compounds produced by Taxus species. The results indicate that the essential oil content of T. baccata populations from this study is unique, mostly resembling the population from South‐East Serbia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T10:45:29.567082-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500326
       
  • Genetic Diversity and Structure of Populations of Annona Crassiflora Mart.
           of Brazilian Savanna and Its Association with Chemical Variability
    • Abstract: Annona crassiflora Mart. is a native tree from Brazilian savanna. Isoquinoline alkaloids are characteristic of species of Annonaceae. The present work aimed to assess the magnitude of genetic diversity among different populations of A. crassiflora using AFLP markers, and verify the existence of any correlation between the AFLP data and previous reported alkaloid composition. Annona crassiflora from eight populations in the states of São Paulo, Goiás, Minas Gerais and Distrito Federal were analyzed. The data suggest a low, moderate and high level of genetic diversity from different populations of A. crassiflora. Concentration of alkaloids was significantly correlated to AFLP data, suggesting interaction between chemical and molecular markers in Annona crassiflora. The data of association between the chemical and genetic differentiation of A. crassiflora may be useful to establish cultivation areas allowing the definition of strategies to preserve their genetic diversity with an interest in specific chemotypes for genetic improvement programs focused on sustainable utilization of this specie. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-10T10:45:25.72733-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500320
       
  • Nanoporous Structures Similar to those Reported from Squid Sucker Teeth
           are also Present in Egg Shells of a Terrestrial Flatworm from Hachijojima
           (Izu Islands; Japan)
    • Abstract: In 2009 the cover of “Advanced Materials”, volume21 (4), January 26 featured a photo of squid sucker rings and a scanning electron micrograph of nanoporous structures of a sucker tooth. The article that the cover picture was connected with, stated that the nanoporous material was entirely proteinaceous and did not contain chitin.[1] The arrangement of parallel tubes in the structure was considered to increase the bending stiffness of the tooth and to reduce “the probability of catastrophic structural failure by intrdoducuing a potential crash‐arresting mechanism at the boundaries between two constituent materials (in this case, protein and seawater).”[1] It was further stated that a structure such as that with its “unique set of characteristics [had] not [been] reported previously for any other biological material” and, we can add, not thereafter either.[1] This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T07:58:18.180097-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600050
       
  • Patterns in Volatile Emission of Different Aerial Parts of Caper (Capparis
           spinosa L.)
    • Authors: Roberta Ascrizzi; Pier Luigi Cioni, Giulia Giusti, Luisa Pistelli, Guido Flamini
      Abstract: We analyzed the spontaneous volatile emission of different aerial parts of the caper (Capparis spinosa L.) by means of HS‐SPME‐GC/MS. We identified 178 different compounds of which, in different proportions based on the sample type, the main ones were (E)‐β‐ocimene, methyl benzoate, linalool, β‐caryophyllene, α‐guaiene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene B, (E)‐nerolidol, isopropyl tetradecanoate, and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone. The multivariate statistical analyses seem to point out that the parameter leading the emission patterns is the function of the analyzed sample: the flower samples showed differences in the emission profile between their fertile and sterile portions and between the other parts of the plant. The green parts emission profiles group together in a cluster and are different from those of seeds and fruits. We also hydrodistilled fully bloomed caper flowers, whose volatile oil showed significant differences in the composition from those of other parts of the plant reported in the literature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08T09:50:56.917926-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500292
       
  • Physico‐chemical profiling of α‐lipoic acid and related
           compounds
    • Abstract: Lipoic acid, the biomolecule of vital importance following glycolysis, shows diversity in its thiol‐disulfide equilibria and also in its eight different protonation forms of the reduced molecule. In this paper, lipoic acid, lipoamide and their dihydro derivatives were studied to quantify their solubility, acid‐base, and lipophilicity properties at a submolecular level. The acid‐base properties are characterized in terms of 6 macroscopic, 12 microscopic protonation constants and 3 interactivity parameters. The species‐specific basicities, the pH‐dependent distribution of the microspecies and lipophilicity parameters are interpreted by means of various intramolecular effects, and contribute to understanding the antioxidant, chelate‐forming and enzyme cofactor behavior of the molecules observed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T06:41:28.303505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500272
       
  • Unveiling the Pathways of Dioxygen Through the C2 Component of the
           Environmentally Relevant Monooxygenase p‐Hydroxyphenylacetate
           Hydroxylase from Acinetobacter baumannii. A Molecular Dynamics
           Investigation
    • Authors: Francesco Pietra
      Abstract: Models were built in this work of the homotetrameric C2 component of the monooxygenase p‐hydroxyphenylacetate hydroxylase (HPAH) from Acinetobacter baumannii in complex with dioxygen (O2) and, or not, the substrate p‐hydroxyphenylacetate (HPA). Both models proved to be amenable to random‐acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations, whereby a tiny randomly oriented external force, acting on O2 at the active site in front of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH–), accelerated displacement of O2 toward the bulk solvent. This allowed carrying out RAMD simulations in a number to approach statistical significance. The two systems behaved very similarly under RAMD, except for O2 leaving the active site more easily in the absence of HPA, but then finding similar obstacles in getting to the gate as when the active site was sheltered by HPA. This challenges previous conclusions that HPA can only reach the active center after that the C4aOOH derivative of FMNH– is formed, requiring uptake of O2 at the active site before HPA. According to these RAMD simulations, O2 could well get to FMNH– also in the presence of the substrate at the active site. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T06:39:54.104469-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500355
       
  • Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi
           Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea
           purpurea (Asteraceae)
    • Abstract: The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, being Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 the most frequent colonisers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by GC‐FID analysis. The compounds (‐)‐5‐methylmellein and (‐) (3R)‐8‐hydroxy‐6‐methoxy‐3,5‐dimethyl‐3,4‐dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterranea EPU38CA crude extract. (‐)‐5‐Methylmellein showed weak activity against P. obscurans, P. viticola and F. oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides and B. cinerea. (‐) (3R)‐8‐Hydroxy‐6‐methoxy‐3,5‐dimethyl‐3,4‐dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5‐methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T06:39:23.998978-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500299
       
  • Cytotoxic Constituents and Mechanism from Peganum harmala
    • Authors: Chunhua Wang; Zhenxue Zhang, Yihai Wang, Xiangjiu He
      Abstract: Peganum harmala L. is a traditional Chinese and Uygur medicine used to treat cancer. Bioactivity‐guided fractionation was applied to determine the cytotoxic constituents from P. harmala. A novel triterpenoid and a phenolic glycoside were isolated and identified, as well as seven known compounds. The novel metabolites were elucidated to be 3α‐acetoxy‐27‐hydroxyolean‐12‐en‐28‐oic acid methyl ester (1, OA) and N‐acetyl‐9‐syringinoside (9). Some compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human tumor cells. Among them, OA showed the highest cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cells A549 with an IC50 value of 8.03 ± 0.81 μm. OA had a potent anti‐NSCLC cell activity by interfering with the EGFR activation and its downstream signaling, and could exert an antiproliferative effect by inactivation of EGFR‐driven antiapoptotic pathway followed by the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, which might prove to be a promising leading compound for the development of an anti‐lung cancer drug. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T06:30:11.648798-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500384
       
  • Bioactive secondary metabolites from Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae)
           endemic to Canary Islands
    • Abstract: Schizogyne sericea (Asteraceae) is a species endemic to the Canary Islands and traditionally employed as analgesic, astringent, anti‐inflammatory and vulnerary. A comprehensive phytochemical investigation was conducted on the flowering aerial parts by analyzing both essential oil constituents and polar compounds. The essential oil was dominated by p‐cymene, with the noteworthy occurrence of β‐pinene and thymol esters. From the ethanolic extract eight compounds were isolated and structurally elucidated. Essential oil, polar fractions and isolates (2), (4) and (5) were separately in vitro assayed for antiproliferative activity on human tumor cell lines (A375, MDA‐MB 231, HCT 116) by MTT assay, for antioxidant potential by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, and for antimicrobial activity by the agar disc diffusion method. Results revealed that essential oil and compounds 1 and 2 exert a strong inhibition on tumor cells, in some cases higher than that of cisplatin. Fractions containing thymol derivatives (1 and 2) and compounds 4 and 5 displayed antioxidant activity comparable to that of Trolox, making S. sericea extract an interesting natural product with potential applications as preservative or in the treatment of diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important role. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07T06:29:47.653716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500222
       
  • 13,14‐seco‐Withanolides from Physalis minima with Potential
           Anti‐inflammatory Activity
    • Abstract: Four new 13,14‐seco‐withanolides, minisecolides A‐D (1–4), together with three known analogues 5–7, were isolated from the whole plants of Physalis minima. The structures of new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1H‐, 13C‐NMR, 2D‐NMR (HMBC, HSQC, ROESY), and HR‐ESI‐MS. Evaluation of all isolates for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production were conducted on lipopolysaccaride(LPS)‐activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 showed inhibitory activities, especially for compound 5 with IC50 value of 3.87 μm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T09:26:17.432743-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500282
       
  • Study of the Vapor Phase Over Fusarium Fungi Cultured on Various
           Substrates
    • Authors: Elena I. Savelieva; Ludmila K. Gustyleva, Elizaveta D. Kessenikh, Natalya S. Khlebnikova, John Leffingwell, Olga P. Gavrilova, Tatiana Yu. Gagkaeva
      Abstract: The compositions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by Fusarium fungi (F. langsethiae, F. sibiricum, F. poae, and F. sporotrichioides) grown on two nutritive substrates: potato sucrose agar (PSA) and autoclaved wheat kernels (WK) were investigated. The culturing of fungi and study of their VOC emissions were performed in chromatographic vials at room temperature (23 – 24 °C) and the VOCs were sampled by solid‐phase microextraction on a 85 μm Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane fiber. GC/MS was performed using a 60‐m HP‐5 capillary column. Components of the VOC mixture were identified by electron impact mass spectra and chromatographic retention indices (RIs). The most abundant components of the VOC mixture emitted by Fusarium fungi are ethanol, ethyl acetate, isobutanol, 3‐methylbutan‐1‐ol, 2‐methylbutan‐1‐ol, ethyl 3‐methylbutanoate, terpenes with M 136, sesquiterpenes with M 204 (a total of about 25), and trichodiene. It was found that the strains grown on PSA emit a wider spectrum and larger amount of VOCs compared with those grown on wheat kernels. F. langsethiae strain is the most active VOC producer on both substrates. The use of SPME and GC/MS also offers the potential for differentiation of fungal species and strains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02T07:58:37.911784-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500284
       
  • Radiosynthesis and in vivo Evaluation of Carbon‐11
           (2S)‐3‐(1H‐Indol‐3‐yl)‐2‐{[(4‐methoxyphenyl)carbamoyl]amino}‐N‐{[1‐(5‐methoxypyridin‐2‐yl)cyclohexyl]methyl}propanamide:
           an Attempt to Visualize Brain Formyl Peptide Receptors in Mouse Models of
           Neuroinflammation
    • Abstract: Here, we describe the very first attempt to visualize in vivo formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) in mouse brain by positron emission tomography (PET). FPRs are expressed on microglial cells where they mediate chemotactic activity of β‐amiloid peptide in Alzheimer disease and, thus, are involved in neuroinflammatory processes. To this purpose, we have selected (2S)‐3‐(1H‐Indol‐3‐yl)‐2‐{[(4‐methoxyphenyl)carbamoyl]amino}‐N‐{[1‐(5‐methoxypyridin‐2‐yl)cyclohexyl]methyl}propanamide ((S)‐1), that we have previously identified as a potent non peptidic FPRs agonist. (S)‐[11C]‐1 has been prepared in high radiochemical yield. (S)‐[11C]‐1 showed very low penetration of blood‐brain barrier and, thus, was unable to accumulate into the brain. In addition, (S)‐[11C]‐1 was not able to label FPRs receptors in brain slices of PS19 and APP23 mice, two animal models of Alzheimer disease. Although [11C](S)‐1 was not suitable to visualize FPRs in the brain, this study provides useful information for the design and characterization of future potential PET radioligands for visualization of brain FPRs by PET. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02T04:20:49.719723-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500281
       
  • Synthesis and Antileishmanial Activity of Natural Dehydrodieugenol and Its
           Mono and Dimethyl Ethers
    • Abstract: The study of the chemistry of naturally occurring compounds and the synthesis of their derivatives is fundamentally important for the development of new drugs. In this work, dehydrodieugenol (DHDE) was obtained through oxidative coupling of eugenol, promoted by an aqueous mixture of potassium ferricyanide (K3[Fe(CN)6]) and NH3 · H2O. The partial methoxylation of DHDE with MeI and K2CO3 mainly resulted in the molecular‐shaped monomethyl ether (DHDE‐1MeO) and its dimethyl ether derivative (DHDE‐2MeO). The products from the reactions were characterized by 1H‐ and 13C‐NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, studies have reported the antileishmanial activity of DHDE against Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 value of 42.20 μg ml−1) and shown that partial methoxylation of DHDE results in a significant increase in its antiparasitic activity (IC50 value of 13.68 μg ml−1). Based on in vitro bioassays, DHDE‐1MeO has shown the highest leishmanicidal activity in promastigota form. Production by direct one‐step synthesis of this monomethoxylated compound can be considered to be a cost‐effective and environmentally‐friendly method with a short reaction time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01T19:45:27.570505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500280
       
  • Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus
           halepensis growing in Corsica
    • Abstract: The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS, 13C‐NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77‐100% of the whole composition have been identified. α‐Pinene, myrcene and (E)‐β‐caryophyllene were the major component followed by α‐humulene and 2‐phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. Forty seven oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M= 28.1g/100g; SD = 10.6) and (E)‐β‐caryophyllene (M = 19.0g/100g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)‐β‐caryophyllene (M = 28.7g/100g; SD = 7.9), α‐pinene (M = 12.3g/100g; SD = 3.6) and myrcene (M = 11.7g/100g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25T06:42:25.243814-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201500097
       
  • Contents: C&B 7/2016
    •  
  • Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum)
           During Fruit Ripening
    • Abstract: The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound‐assisted extraction with methanol. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by UHPLC‐fluorescence and identified by UHPLC‐Q‐ToF‐MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg.g−1 FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg.g−1 FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before over‐ripening of the fruit is observed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Isoflavone Content in Subterranean Clover Germplasm from Sardinia
    • Abstract: Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) is an important pasture legume, and Sardinia is known as a major centre of diversification of this species. As other legumes, this clover produces biologically‐active flavonoids including the subclass of isoflavones, that are natural phytoestrogens with positive health effects. Present sources of isoflavones for medical/nutraceutical treatments are red clover (T. pratense) and soybean (Glycine max). This study assessed the content and composition of flavonoids in 14 subterranean clover genotypes from Sardinia, grown ex‐situ in comparison with two red clover ecotypes, to acquire information on the potential of the species as an alternative source of isoflavones for possible exploitation. Twenty compounds were tentatively identified across the two clovers after HPLC and LC/ESI‐MS analyses, including clovamide, four flavonols, and 15 isoflavones. Most compounds were present as glucosides or glucosyl malonates. Subterranean clover extracts mainly comprised derivatives of the isoflavones genistein, biochanin A, and formononetin. Compared to red clover, subterranean clover had higher content of total isoflavones and lower concentration of total flavonols. The isoflavone concentration in subterranean clover was higher than literature data for soybean or red clover. The existing genotypic variation warrants the possibility of selecting varieties with high isoflavone concentration for nutraceutical or pharmaceutical purposes This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Potent and Selective Monoamine Oxidase‐B Inhibitory Activity:
           Fluoro‐ vs. Trifluoromethyl‐4‐hydroxylated Chalcones
           Derivatives
    • Abstract: For various neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinsonism diseases, selective and reversible MAO B inhibitors have a great therapeutic value. In our previous study, we have shown that a series of methoxylated chalcones with F functional group exhibited high binding affinity towards for human monoamine oxidase‐B (hMAO‐B). In continuation with our earlier study and to extend the structure–activity relationships, a series of new five chalcones were studied for their inhibition of hMAO. The results demonstrated that these compounds are reversible and selective hMAO‐B inhibitors with a competitive mode of inhibition. The most active compound, (2E)‐1‐(4‐hydroxyphenyl)‐3‐[4‐(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]prop‐2‐en‐1‐one exhibited Ki value 0.33 ± 0.01 μm towards hMAO‐B with a selectivity index of 26.36. Molecular docking study revealed that the presence of a H‐bond network in hydroxylated chalcone with the N5 atom of FAD is crucial for MAO‐B selectivity and potency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Chemical Constituents of the Rare Cliff Plant Oresitrophe rupifraga and
           Their Anti‐neuroinflammatory Activity
    • Abstract: Four new (1−4) and thirteen known (5−17) compounds were isolated from a rare cliff plant, Oresitrophe rupifraga. Based on spectroscopic evidence, the new structures were established to be [(2S,3R,4R)‐4‐(4‐methoxybenzyl)‐2‐(4‐methoxyphenyl)tetrahydrofuran‐3‐yl]methanol (1), (3α)‐23‐(acetyloxy)‐3‐hydroxyolean‐12‐en‐29‐oic acid (2), 3α,23‐isopropylidenedioxyolean‐12‐en‐29‐oic acid (3, artifact of isolation), and (3β,15β)‐3‐hydroxycholest‐5‐en‐15‐yl β‐d‐glucopyranoside (4), respectively. Among the isolates, compounds 1, 4, epieudesmin (7), and 1‐O‐(9Z,12Z,15Z‐octadecatrienoate)glycerol (17) were found to show significant anti‐neuroinflammatory effects by inhibiting the nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐stimulated murine BV‐2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 7.21, 9.39, 4.96, and 8.51 μm, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Four New Steroidal Glycosides, Protolinckiosides A – D, from the
           Starfish Protoreaster linckii
    • Abstract: Four new steroidal glycosides, protolinckiosides A – D (1 – 4, resp.), were isolated along with four previously known glycosides, 5 – 8, from the MeOH/EtOH extract of the starfish Protoreaster linckii. The structures of 1 – 4 were elucidated by extensive NMR and ESI‐MS techniques as (3β,4β,5α,6β,7α,15α,16β,25S)‐4,6,7,8,15,16,26‐heptahydroxycholestan‐3‐yl 2‐O‐methyl‐β‐d‐xylopyranoside (1), (3β,5α,6β,15α,24S)‐3,5,6,8,15‐pentahydroxycholestan‐24‐yl α‐l‐arabinofuranoside (2), sodium (3β,6β,15α,16β,24R)‐29‐(β‐d‐galactofuranosyloxy)‐6,8,16‐trihydroxy‐3‐[(2‐O‐methyl‐β‐d‐xylopyranosyl)oxy]stigmast‐4‐en‐15‐yl sulfate (3), and sodium (3β,6β,15α,16β,22E)‐28‐(β‐d‐galactofuranosyloxy)‐6,8,16‐trihydroxy‐3‐[(2‐O‐methyl‐β‐d‐xylopyranosyl)oxy]ergosta‐4,22‐dien‐15‐yl sulfate (4). The unsubstituted β‐d‐galactofuranose residue at C(28) or C(29) of the side chains was found in starfish steroidal glycosides for the first time. Compounds 1 – 4 significantly decreased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages at induction by pro‐inflammatory endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Cytotoxic and Apoptosis‐inducing Activities of
           Taraxastane‐type Triterpenoid Derivatives in Human Cancer Cell Lines
           
    • Abstract: Twenty‐eight taraxastane‐type triterpenoid derivatives 4 – 31 were prepared from the naturally occurring triterpenoids faradiol (1) and heliantriol C (3). The cytotoxic activities of these compounds and arnidiol (2) were evaluated in leukemia (HL60), lung (A549), duodenal (AZ521), and breast (SK‐BR‐3) cancer cell lines. 21‐Oxoarnidiol (18) and faradiol 3,16‐di‐O‐l‐alaninate (31) exhibited potent cytotoxicity, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.5 – 2.7 μm. In particular, flow‐cytometric analysis indicated that compound 31 induced typical apoptotic cell death in HL60 cells. These results suggested that taraxastane‐type triterpenoid derivatives might provide useful antitumor agents with apoptosis‐inducing activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Amino‐substituted para‐Benzoquinones as Potential Herbicides
    • Abstract: Although quinones present a large array of biological activities, a few studies on the herbicidal potential of 2,5‐bis(alkyl/arylamino)‐1,4‐benzoquinones have been reported to date. In this work, starting from benzoquinone, thirteen 2,5‐bis(alkyl/arylamino)‐1,4‐benzoquinones were prepared in 46‐93% yields. The products were fully characterized by spectroscopic analyses and their phytotoxicity against Cucumis sativus and Sorgum bicolor seedlings was investigated. At 100 ppm, compounds caused 10‐88% growth inhibition of the dicotyledonous species, whereas the monocotyledon was less affected. Most compounds exerted little inhibitory effect on a cyanobacterial model strain. However, at 100 μm compounds 8‐10 caused about 50% inhibition of algal growth, and compounds 1 and 2 reduced cell viability in the 1‐10 μm range. Ability of benzoquinone derivatives to interfere with the light‐driven ferricyanide reduction by isolated spinach chloroplasts was evaluated. Some substances showed a moderate effect as uncouplers, but no relationship was found between this property and their biological activity, indicating that the herbicidal effect is not associated with the inhibition of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Phytotoxic compounds were not toxic to insects, strengthening the possibility that they may serve as lead for the development of eco‐friendly herbicides. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Biotransformations of Bile Acids with Bacteria from Cayambe Slaughterhouse
           (Ecuador): Synthesis of Bendigoles
    • Abstract: The biotransformations of cholic acid (1a), deoxycholic acid (1b) and hyodeoxycholic acid (1c) to bendigoles and other metabolites with bacteria isolated from the rural slaughterhouse of Cayambe (Pichincha Province, Ecuador) are reported. The more active strains have been characterized and belong to the genus Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus. Various biotransformation products have been obtained depending on bacteria and substrates. Cholic acid (1a) afforded the 3‐oxo and 3‐oxo‐4‐ene derivatives 2a and 3a (45 and 45%, respectively) with P. mendocina ECS10, 3,12‐dioxo‐4‐ene derivative 4a (60%) with Rh. erythropolis ECS25 and 9,10‐secosteroid 6 (15%) with Rh. erythropolis ECS12. Bendigole F (5a) was obtained in 20% with P. fragi ECS22. Deoxycholic acid (1b) gave 3‐oxo derivative 2b with P. prosekii ECS1 and Rh. erythropolis ECS25 (20 and 61%, respectively) while 3‐oxo‐4‐ene derivative 3b was obtained with P. prosekii ECS1 and P. mendocina ECS10 (22 and 95%, respectively). P. fragi ECS9, moreover, afforded bendigole A (8b; 80%). Finally, P. mendocina ECS10 biotransformed hyodeoxycholic acid (1c) to 3‐oxo derivative 2c (50%) and Rh. erythropolis ESC12 to 6α‐hydroxy‐3‐oxo‐23,24‐dinor‐5β‐cholan‐22‐oic acid (9c, 66%). Bendigole G (5c; 13%) with P. prosekii ECS1 and bendigole H (8c) with P. prosekii ECS1 and Rh. erythropolis ESC12 (20 and 16%, respectively) were obtained. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
  • Developmental and Environmental Effects on Sesquiterpene Lactones in
           Cultivated Arnica montana L
    • Abstract: The amount of sesquiterpene lactones and lactone profile of Arnica montana L. in flowering and seed formation stages, in vitro and in vivo propagated from seeds of German, Ukrainian and Austrian origin and grown in two experimental fields were studied. It was found that in vitro propagated two‐year plants in full flowering stage accumulated higher amount of lactones in comparison to in vivo propagated three‐year plants and to the seed formation stage, respectively. Helenalins predominated in in vivo propagated two‐year or in vitro propagated three‐year plants. 2‐Methylbutyrate (2MeBu) was the principal ester in the samples with prevalence of helenalins, while isobutyrate (iBu) was the major one in the samples with predominance of 11,13‐dihydrohelenalins. The results revealed that the environmental conditions on Vitosha Mt. are more suitable for cultivation of A. montana giving higher content of lactones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
       
 
 
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