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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 846 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (48 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (599 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (22 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (25 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (41 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (66 journals)

CHEMISTRY (599 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 206)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 144)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 202)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 261)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 114)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 103)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 160)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 173)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science : Nano     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Chemistry & Biodiversity
  [SJR: 0.542]   [H-I: 49]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-1872 - ISSN (Online) 1612-1880
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1616 journals]
  • Variation in phenolic profile, β-carotene and flavonoid contents,
           biological activities of two Tagetes species from Pakistani flora
    • Authors: Muhammad Adnan Ayub; Abdullah Ijaz Hussain, Muhammad Asif Hanif, Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha, Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Muhammad Shahid, Omar Janneh
      Abstract: The objective of present study was to evaluate the variation in phenolic profile, β-carotene, flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Tagetes eracta and Tagetes patula (T. erecta and T. patula) through different in vitro assays.,Antioxidant activity was determined through 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays and antibacterial and antifungal activities studied using the disc diffusion and resazurin microtiter-plate assays against bacterial and fungal strains. Moreover, Total phenolics (TP), total carotenoids (TC) and total flavonoids (TF) were also determined. Highest (TP 35.8 mg GAE/g) and TF (16.9 mg CE/g) contents were found in methanolic extract of T. patula. T. erecta extract showed higher TC contents (6.45 mg/g) than T. patula extract (6.32 mg/g). T. erecta exhibited the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50) (5.73 μg/mL) and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (80.1%). RP-HPLC revealed the presence of caffeic acid, sinapic acid and ferulic acid in Tagetes extracts, m-coumaric acid in T. erecta whereas chlorogenic acid in T. patula extract only. Both extracts possessed promising antimicrobial activity compared to the ciprofloxacin and flumequine (+ve controls) against Bacillus subtilis and Alternaria alternate. Both extract were rich source of polyphenols exhibiting excellent biological activities.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:41:58.377226-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600463
       
  • Essential oils of Myrtaceae species growing wild in Tunisia: Chemical
           variability and antifungal activity against Biscogniauxia Mediterranea,
           the causative agent of charcoal canker
    • Authors: Islem Yangui; Meriem Zouaoui Boutiti, Mohamed Boussaid, Chokri Messaoud
      Abstract: The chemical composition of five Eucalyptus species and five Myrtus communis L. populations was investigated using GC-MS and GC-FID. For Eucalyptus essential oils, 32 compounds, representing 88.56-96.83% of the total oil according to species, were identified. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, ɤ-gurjunene, α-aromadendrene and β-phellandrene. For Myrtle essential oils, 26 compounds, representing 93.13-98.91% of the total oil were identified. α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, linalool and myrtenyl acetate were found to be the major compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed chemical differentiation between Eucalyptus species and between Myrtle populations.Biscogniauxia mediterranea, the causative agent of charcoal canker, was identified according to its morphological and molecular characteristics. Essential oils of the investigated Eucalyptus species and Myrtle populations were tested for their antifungal capacity against this fungus. The antifungal activity varied according to the essential oil composition. Biscogniauxia mediterranea exhibited powerful resistance to some essential oils including them of Eucalyptus lehmannii and Eucalyptus sideroxylon but it was very sensitive to Eucalyptus camaldulensis oil (IC50= 3.83 mg/ml) and Myrtus communis oil from Zaghouan (IC50= 1 mg/ml). This sensitivity was found to be correlated to some essential oil compounds such as p-cymene, carvacrol, cuminaldehyde and linalool.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T03:36:17.996021-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700058
       
  • Antioxidant capacity, phenolic constituents and toxicity of hot water
           extract from red maple buds
    • Authors: Naamwin R. Meda; Patrice E. Poubelle, Tatjana Stevanovic
      Abstract: The present study reports, for the first time, the results of the antioxidant capacity and the phenolic composition of a hot water extract from red maple buds (RMB), as well as its safety. In this regard and comparatively to antioxidant standards, this extract exhibits a significant antiradical capacity when tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and anion superoxide trapping assays. High-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analyses permitted to determine for the first time, in red maple species, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside and quercetin. Also, the quantification of individual phenolics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method revealed that ginnalin A at 117.0 mg/g is the major compound of RMB hot water extract. Finally, using flow cytometry evaluation, the extract of RMB was determined to have no toxicity neither to cause significant modification of apoptosis process, up to concentration of 100 μg / mL, on human peripheral blood neutrophils. These results allow anticipating various fields of application of RMB water extract.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T09:55:26.53123-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700028
       
  • Flavonoids from Potentilla parvifolia Fisch. and Their Neuroprotective
           Effects in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells In Vitro
    • Authors: Zhenzhen Yuan; Guangxiang Luan, Zhenhua Wang, Xueyan Hao, Ji Li, Yourui Suo, Gang Li, Honglun Wang
      Abstract: Potentilla parvifolia Fisch. (Rosaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant in China. In this study, seven flavonoids, ayanin (1), tricin (2), quercetin (3), tiliroside (4), miquelianin (5), isoquercitrin (6), and astragalin (7), were separated and purified from ethanol extractive fractions from ethanol extracts of P. parvifolia using a combination of sevaral chromatographic methods. The human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were differentiated with all trans-retinoic acid and treated with okadaic acid to induce tau protein phosphorylation and synaptic atrophy, which could establish an Alzheimer's disease cell model. The neuroprotective effects of these flavonoids in cellular were evaluated in vitro by this cell model. Results from the western blot and morphology analysis suggested that compounds 3 and 4 had the better neuroprotective effects.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T09:50:26.494413-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600487
       
  • Morphological, secondary metabolite and ITS (rDNA) variability within
           usnic acid containing lichen thalli of the genus Xanthoparmelia explored
           at the local scale of rock outcrop in Western Italian Alps
    • Authors: Enrica Matteucci; Andrea Occhipinti, Rosanna Piervittori, Massimo E. Maffei, Sergio E. Favero-Longo
      Abstract: Lichen secondary metabolites (LSMs) are regarded with interest for valuable biological properties, but chemical variability among/within lichen taxa has been only fragmentarily characterized by advanced analytical techniques. Knowledge of variability at a local geographic scale has been particularly neglected, while it should address the collection of chemically homogeneous materials to test and exploit LSMs. Here we evaluated the chemical variability of 48 Xanthoparmelia specimens from two rock outcrops in Western Italian Alps, representative of nine morphotypes and sixteen rDNA ITS haplotypes. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 and UPLC-HDR-DAD, respectively, and revealed the occurrence of 18 LSMs. Chemical partition allowed distinguishing six chemical groups, only partially overlapping with distinct morphotypes and three divergent haplotype groups, which, overall, accounted for the co-occurrence of different taxa only in part identifiable with species described for Europe. Some morphotypes were variable in presence and concentration of LSMs, and chemical divergences also characterized single ITS haplotypes. Accordingly, the collection of chemically homogeneous materials, even at a local scale, may be not properly addressed by morphological features and ITS barcoding, and should be confirmed by a specimen-level chemical characterization.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T09:40:23.102002-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600483
       
  • Integrated Exploitation of the Structural Diversity Space of Chemotherapy
           Drugs to Selectively Inhibit HER2 T798M Mutant in Lung Cancer
    • Authors: Ya-Wei Wang; Hai-Yan Zhang, Ji-Sheng Li, Xiu-Wen Wang
      Abstract: An acquired T798M gatekeeper mutation in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) kinase can cause drug resistance to anti-HER2 chemotherapy drugs in lung cancer. Previously, the reversible pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine has been found to selectively inhibit the HER2 T798M mutant over wild-type kinase, suggesting that the staurosporine scaffold is potentially to develop mutant-selective inhibitors. Here, we systematically evaluated the chemical space of staurosporine scaffold-based compounds in response to HER2 T798M mutation at structural, energetic and molecular levels by using an integrated analysis strategy. With this strategy, we were able to identify several novel wild-type sparing inhibitors with high or moderate selectivity, which are comparable to or even better than that of the parent compound staurosporine. Molecular modeling and structural analysis revealed that noncovalent contacts can form between the side chain of mutated residue Met798 and selective inhibitor ligands, which may improve the favorable interaction energy between the kinase and inhibitor and reduce the unfavorable desolvation penalty upon the kinase–inhibitor binding.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T03:15:32.139802-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600301
       
  • Terpenoids and More Polar Compounds from the Male Cones of Wollemia
           nobilis
    • Authors: Alessandro Venditti; Claudio Frezza, Fabio Sciubba, Sebastiano Foddai, Mauro Serafini, Armandodoriano Bianco
      Abstract: The analysis of metabolites contained in the male cones of Wollemia nobilis was investigated for the first time in this study. Several diterpenoids of chemosystematic relevance were recognized for the first time from the genus and/or from the Araucariaceae family, namely isocupressic acid (1), acetyl-isocupressic acid (2), methyl (E)-communate (3) and sandaracopimaric acid (4). All these terpenoids are also endowed with interesting biological activities and may play a primary role in the self defence toward herbivores. The presence of a new norlabdane (norlabda-8(16)-12-dien-14,17-diol) trivially named as wollemol (5) was also recognized. Norditerpenes are scarcely distributed in Plant Kingdom and in particular in Gymnosperms and this aspect was discussed. The structure of 5 was determined by extensive NMR analysis employing mono- and bidimensional experiments. The 7-4‴-dimethoxyagathisflavone (6), a biflavonoid already recognized in Araucariaceae and W. nobilis, was also isolated from male cones together with shikimic acid (7), a biogenetic precursor of polyphenolic compounds, besides carbohydrates such as glucose (8) and saccharose (9), and arginine (10) a quite common amino acid.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T03:15:25.896985-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600332
       
  • Metabolite Profiling in Withania somnifera Roots Hydroalcoholic Extract
           Using LC/MS, GC/MS and NMR Spectroscopy
    • Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi; Parthasarathi Panda, Kalyan Kumar Sethi, Snehasis Jana
      Abstract: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a very well-known herbal medicine and it was well studied for its active metabolites throughout the World. Although, nearly 40 withanolides were isolated from W. somnifera root extract, still there is remaining unidentified metabolites due to very low abundance and geographical variation. Advanced separation technology with online identification by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are nowadays used to find out the new compounds in the crude herbal extract. This article described the metabolite profiling of ashwagandha root hydroalcoholic extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry through gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and NMR spectroscopy. A total of 43 possible withanolides was identified and proposed their structures based on the mass of molecular and fragment ions. GC/MS and NMR analysis indicated the presence of several known withanolides including withaferin A, withanolide D, withanoside IV or VI, withanolide sulfoxide, etc. To the best of our knowledge, dihydrowithanolide D at m/z 473 (tR 7.86 min) and ixocarpalactone A at m/z 505 (tR 8.43 min) were first time identified in the ashwagandha root hydroalcoholic extract. The current study that described the identification of withanolides with summarized literature review might be helpful for designing the experiment to identify of the new chemical constituents in Withania species.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T03:07:04.174565-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600280
       
  • Identification of Predominant Phytochemical Compounds and Cytotoxic
           Activity of Wild Olive Leaves (Olea europaea L. ssp. sylvestris) Harvested
           in South Portugal
    • Authors: Justyna Makowska-Wąs; Agnieszka Galanty, Joanna Gdula-Argasińska, Małgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Agnieszka Szewczyk, Ricardo Nunes, Isabel S. Carvalho, Marta Michalik, Paweł Paśko
      Abstract: This study has been aimed at providing a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of selected phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, oleuropein, fatty acids profile, and volatile oil compounds, present in wild olive leaves harvested in Portugal, as well as at determining their antioxidant and cytotoxic potential against human melanoma HTB-140 and WM793, prostate cancer DU-145 and PC-3, hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cell lines, as well as normal human skin fibroblasts BJ and prostate epithelial cells PNT2. Gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic acids, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, and rutin were identified in olive leaves. The amount of oleuropein was equal to 22.64 g/kg dry weight. (E)-Anethole (32.35%), fenchone (11.89%), and (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol (8%) were found to be the main constituents of the oil volatile fraction, whereas palmitic, oleic, and alpha-linolenic acid were determined to be dominating fatty acids. Olive leaves methanol extract was observed to exerted a significant, selective cytotoxic effect on DU-145 and PC-3 cell lines. Except the essential oil composition, evaluated wild olive leaves, with regard to their quantitative and qualitative composition, do not substantially differ from the leaves of other cultivars grown for industrial purposes and they reveal considerable antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. Thus, the wild species may prove to be suitable for use in traditional medicine as cancer chemoprevention.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T02:55:31.292329-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600331
       
  • Glassworts as Possible Anticancer Agents Against Human Colorectal
           Adenocarcinoma Cells with Their Nutritive, Antioxidant and Phytochemical
           Profiles
    • Authors: Ahmet Altay; Gulcin Sagdicoglu Celep, Ahmet E. Yaprak, Isa Baskose, Faruk Bozoglu
      Abstract: In this study, the possible uses of glassworts as potential food ingredients and their antiproliferative activity against colorectal adenocarcinoma cells together with their antioxidant and phytochemical profiles were investigated for the first time. MeOH extracts of five different taxa collected from different localities were screened for their antioxidant capacities by DPPH (IC50 2.91 – 5.49 mg/ml) and ABTS (24.4 – 38.5 μmol TE/g extract) assays. Salicornia freitagii exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. LC/MS/MS analysis displayed that vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid were two main phenolic compounds in the extract. Salicornia freitagii extracts also exhibited high antiproliferative activity against HT-29 (IC50 1.67 mg/ml) and Caco-2 (IC50 3.03 mg/ml) cells for 72 h. Mineral analysis indicated that all the species with different proportions of elemental components contained high amount of cations. These results indicate that investigated glassworts, with their high phenolic and mineral contents and also notable antioxidant and cytotoxic properties, may be utilized as a promising source of therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2017-03-11T00:00:36.401729-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600290
       
  • Chemical Composition, Antibacterial, Antibiofilm and Synergistic
           Properties of Essential Oils from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Seven
           Mediterranean Aromatic Plants
    • Authors: Maria Vieira; Lucinda J. Bessa, M Rosário Martins, Sílvia Arantes, António P. S. Teixeira, Ângelo Mendes, Paulo Martins da Costa, Anabela D. F. Belo
      Abstract: Essential oils (EOs) from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus and from Mediterranean autochthonous aromatic plants - Thymus mastichina L., Mentha pulegium L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi ssp. nepeta, Cistus ladanifer L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter ssp. viscosa - were extracted by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and NMR spectroscopy. EOs were evaluated for antimicrobial properties against several bacterial strains, using diverse methods, namely, the agar disc-diffusion method, the microdilution method, the crystal violet assay and the Live/Dead staining for assessment of biofilm formation. Potential synergy was assessed by a checkerboard method. EOs of R. officinalis and C. ladanifer showed a predominance in monoterpene hydrocarbons (>60%); EOs of C. nepeta, M. pulegium, T. mastichina, E. globulus and F. vulgare were rich in oxygenated monoterpenes (62-96%) whereas EO of D. viscosa was mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (54%). All EOs showed antimicrobial activity; M. pulegium and E. globulus generally had the strongest antimicrobial activity. EO of C. nepeta was the most promising in hampering the biofilm formation. The combinations D. viscosa/C. nepeta and E. globulus/T. mastichina were synergistic against Staphylococcus aureus. These results support the notion that EOs from the aromatic plants herein reported should be further explored as potential pharmaceuticals and/or food preservatives.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T20:03:03.192566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700006
       
  • New coumarinyl ethers in Daphne oleoides Schreb. collected from Sardinia
           Island
    • Authors: Alessandro Venditti; Cinzia Sanna, Lorenzo M. Lorenzetti, Mauro Ballero, Armandodoriano Bianco
      Abstract: The phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract obtained from D. oleoides collected from Sardinia Island allowed the isolation of several new constituents for the species (3, 8 and 9) together with two new coumarinyl ethers (1 and 2) besides the chemotaxonomic markers of the Daphne genus (4 - 7 and 10) which are also known to possess interesting biological activities. The structure of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. The identification of these compounds gives an experimental evidence of the variability in the secondary metabolites pattern owned by populations growing in restricted area in respect to populations not confined by geographical barrier.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T19:56:02.693852-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700072
       
  • A New 4-methoxy-1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline from Scolopendra Subspinipes
           Mutilans
    • Authors: Y-R Guo; P-X Wu, H-M Xu, W-Y Qi
      Abstract: A new isoquinoline, 4-methoxy-1,5-dihydroxyisoquinoline (1), was obtained from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. Compound 1 showed moderate cytotoxicity on tumour cells with IC50 values ranging from 13-26 μM against five Esophageal Squamous Cancer Cells (ESCC) whereas low cytotoxicity against normal Human Esophageal Epithelial Cells (HEEC). Isoquinoline ring oxidized by C-1, C-4, and C-5 can enhance its cytotoxicity. In addition, compound 1 showed potent inhibitory effect (inhibition rate>50% at 13 μM) on cell migration in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). This paper mainly studies the structure and activity of 1, and more modification of 1 as a potential anti-cancer agent.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T19:51:57.481312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600478
       
  • Accumulation of Flavonoid Glycosides and UFGT Gene Expression in Mulberry
           Leaves (Morus alba L.) before and after Frost
    • Authors: Xiaofeng Yu; Yiling Zhu, Jingyi Fan, Dujun Wang, Xiaohui Gong, Zhen Ouyang
      Abstract: In order to determine the molecular mechanism underlying the influence of frost on chemical changes in mulberry leaves, the UFGT activity, expression level and accumulation of flavonoid glycosides in mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) were studied. The expression of UFGT gene was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the UFGT activity, accumulation of flavonoid glycosides were studied by high performance liquid chromatography. Then the correlation between the expression level of UFGT, the UFGT activity and the flavonoid glycosides accumulation, temperature was explored. The accumulation of isoquercitrin and astragalin is significantly positively correlated with UFGT gene expression and UFGT activity. On the contrary the average temperature was significantly negatively correlated with the level of UFGT gene expression and UFGT activity. The results show that after frost low temperature can induce the expression of UFGT gene in mulberry leaves, resulting in the accumulation of flavonoid glycosides.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T19:51:56.143998-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600496
       
  • Insecticidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Peperomia borbonensis
           Miq. (Piperaceae) and its major components against the melon fly
           Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    • Authors: Emmanuelle Dorla; Anne Bialecki, Zoé Deuscher, Agathe Allibert, Isabelle Grondin, Jean-Philippe Deguine, Philippe Laurent
      Abstract: The essential oil from leaves of Peperomia borbonensis from Réunion Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized using GC-FID, GC-MS and NMR. The main components were myristicin (39.5%) and elemicin (26.6%). The essential oil (EO) of Peperomia borbonensis and its major compounds (myristicin and elemicin), pure or in a mixture, were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a filter paper impregnated bioassay. The concentrations necessary to kill 50% (LC50) and 90% (LC90) of the flies in three hours were determined. The LC50 was 0.23 ± 0.009 mg/cm² and the LC90 was 0.34 ± 0.015 mg/cm² for the EO. The median lethal time (LT50) was determined to compare the toxicity of EO and the major constituents. The EO was the most potent insecticide (LT50 = 98 ± 2 min), followed by the mixture of myristicin and elemicin (1.4:1) (LT50 = 127± 2 min) indicating that the efficiency of the EO is potentiated by minor compounds and emphasizing one of the major assets of EOs against pure molecules.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T16:35:28.97131-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600493
       
  • Profiling of Compositions of Essential Oils and Volatiles of Salvia
           limbata Using Traditional and Advanced Techniques and Evaluation for
           Biological Activities of Their Extracts
    • Authors: Majid Mohammadhosseini; Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Guido Flamini
      Abstract: In the present work, the essential oils and volatiles from flowers, leaves and stems of Salvia limbata obtained using microwave assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD), solvent free microwave extraction (SFME), headspace assisted analysis (HSA) and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) have been characterized for the first time. The results have been also compared with those from traditional separation techniques involving hydrodistillation (HD) and steam distillation (SD). Regardless of some common compounds in all of the profiles, some dissimilarities were noted due to the use of different extracting approaches. Taking into account the chemical categories, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were found as the most represented group of natural compounds contributing to the chemical profiles. It was also noted that the methanol extracts obtained from the flowers of S. limbata showed a desirable antioxidant activity, comparable to the standard antioxidant BHT. Furthermore, using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods, all the tested bacteria demonstrated week to moderate and moderate to strong sensibilities to the MeOH extracts obtained from different plant parts of S. limbata.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T16:31:20.275327-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600361
       
  • Chemical composition of volatiles; antimicrobial, antioxidant and
           cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Chaerophyllum aromaticum L.
           (Apiaceae) essential oils and extracts
    • Authors: Goran M. Petrović; Jelena G. Stamenković, Ivana R. Kostevski, Gordana S. Stojanović, Violeta D. Mitić, Bojan K. Zlatković
      Abstract: The present study reports the chemical composition of the headspace volatiles (HS) and essential oil obtained from fresh Chaerophyllum aromaticumroot and aerial parts in full vegetative phase, as well as biological activities of their essential oils and methanol extracts. In HS samples, the most dominant components were monoterpene hydrocarbons. On the other hand, the essential oils consisted mainly of sesquiterpenoids, representing 73.4% of the root and 63.4% of the aerial parts essential oil. The results of antibacterial assay showed that aerial parts essential oil and MeOH extract have no antibacterial activity, while the root essential oil and extract showed some activity. Both of the tested essential oils exhibited anticholinesterase activity(47.65% and 50.88%, respectively); methanol extract of the root showed only 8.40% inhibition, while aerial part extract acted as an activator of cholinesterase. Regarding the antioxidant activity, extracts were found to be more effective than the essential oils.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T16:31:14.550004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600367
       
  • Antiangiogenic and Toxic Effects of Genistein, Usnic Acid, and Their
           Copper Complexes in Zebrafish Embryos at Different Developmental Stages
    • Authors: Heidrun Draut; Tobias Rehm, Gerrit Begemann, Rainer Schobert
      Abstract: Angiogenesis plays a major role in the normal embryonic development and in diseases such as cancer. Drugs that control angiogenesis are an alternative way to tackle this disease. The polyphenols usnic acid (3), genistein (5), and daidzein (6) were tested for antiangiogenic and unwanted effects in zebrafish embryos whose blood vessel system resembles that of mammals. The established tyrosine kinase inhibitors axitinib (1) and tyrphostin AG490 (2) were included for comparison. All compounds except 6 caused distinct antiangiogenic effects such as a concentration-dependent reduction of intersegmental vessels, dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessels, subintestinal veins and secondary sprouts. As side effects, pericardial oedema and the impairment of blood flow were observed. Usnic acid (3), genistein (5) and Cu(II)-genisteinate (7) gave rise to a curvature of the spine. Compounds 5 and 7 also induced cell death in the head of the embryos at higher doses. All effects were more pronounced when the compounds had been applied at an early stage (24 hpf) rather than at 48 hpf. The copper complexes 4 and 7 showed a stronger antiangiogenic effect than the free ligands 3 and 5. The genistein complex 7 was antiangiogenic at doses so low that side effects were tolerable, and thus it may be a potential anticancer drug candidate.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T23:50:31.444456-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600302
       
  • Diversity Profile and Dynamics of Peptaibols Produced by Green Mould
           Trichoderma Species in Interactions with Their Hosts Agaricus bisporus and
           Pleurotus ostreatus
    • Authors: Tamás Marik; Péter Urbán, Chetna Tyagi, András Szekeres, Balázs Leitgeb, Máté Vágvölgyi, László Manczinger, Irina S. Druzhinina, Csaba Vágvölgyi, László Kredics
      Abstract: Certain Trichoderma species are causing serious losses in mushroom production worldwide. Trichoderma aggressivum and Trichoderma pleuroti are among the major causal agents of the green mould diseases affecting Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus, respectively. The genus Trichoderma is well known for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites, including peptaibols, which are short, linear peptides containing unusual amino acid residues and being synthesised via non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). The aim of this study was to get more insight into the peptaibol production of T. aggressivum and T. pleuroti. HPLC-MS-based methods revealed the production of peptaibols closely related to hypomurocins B by T. aggressivum, while tripleurins representing a new group of 18-residue peptaibols were identified in T. pleuroti. Putative NRPS genes enabling the biosynthesis of the detected peptaibols could be found in the genomes of both Trichoderma species. In vitro experiments revealed that peptaibols are potential growth inhibitors of mushroom mycelia, and that the host mushrooms may have an influence on the peptaibol profiles of green mould agents.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T01:35:28.582411-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700033
       
  • Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B from Marine Natural Products
    • Authors: Yue Zhou; Weirui Zhang, Xiaoyu Liu, Haobing Yu, Xiaoling Lu, Binghua Jiao
      Abstract: The ocean is a huge treasure trove of natural products, from where 11 drugs has been developed for various diseases. (Table 1).Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) belongs to the protein tyrosine phosphatase family, which specifically hydrolyses the aromatic phosphate. On one hand, in insulin signaling, it plays a key role as a negative regulator through dephosphorylating activated insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate (1IRS-1)This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T01:35:23.373398-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600462
       
  • A New Iridoid Dimer and Other Constituents from the Traditional Kurdish
           Plant Pterocephalus nestorianus Nábělek
    • Authors: Fuad O. Abdullah; Faiq H. S. Hussain, Marco Clericuzio, Alessio Porta, Giovanni Vidari
      Abstract: Accompanied by other rare compounds, a new iridoid dimer, named kurdnestorianoside (1), showing an unprecedented secologanol configuration, has been isolated for the first time from the Kurdish medicinal plant Pterocephalus nestorianus, which is used in Kurdistan for treating oral diseases and inflammation. The structure of 1 was established from 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. Kaempferol 3-O-[3,6-di-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside (7) showed a remarkable antiproliferative activity against several human tumor cell lines.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04T04:15:27.39828-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600281
       
  • Identification of Glucosinolates in Seeds of Three Brassicaceae Species
           Known to Hyperaccumulate Heavy Metals
    • Authors: Sabine Montaut; Benjamin S. Guido, Claude Grison, Patrick Rollin
      Abstract: Plants from the Brassicaceae family are known to contain secondary metabolites called glucosinolates. Our goal was to establish by LC/MS the glucosinolate profile of seeds of three Brassicaceae species known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals. We investigated Alyssum fallacinum auct. non Hausskn., Iberis intermedia Guers., and Noccaea caerulescens (J. Presl & C. Presl) F. K. Mey. Our results indicate that A. fallacinum seeds contain glucoiberin and glucoibervirin, which had not been previously identified in this plant. Furthermore, we report for the first time the presence of glucoiberin, glucoibervirin, glucotropaeolin, and sinigrin in I. intermedia. We have detected for the first time glucoconringiin in N. caerulescens. In addition, glucosinalbin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, and glucomoringin were also detected.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04T04:00:30.823024-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600311
       
  • Exploratory Studies on the in Vitro Anti-inflammatory Potential of Two
           Herbal Teas (Annona muricata L. and Jasminum grandiflorum L.), and
           Relation with Their Phenolic Composition
    • Authors: Andreia P. Oliveira; Ivone Sá, David M. Pereira, Rui F. Gonçalves, Paula B. Andrade, Patrícia Valentão
      Abstract: The need of new anti-inflammatory drugs has led to the search for safer and more potent molecules in distinct sources, such as natural products. This work aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extracts from two herbal teas (Annona muricata L. and Jasminum grandiflorum L.) in RAW 264.7 macrophages cells and in cell-free assays. Furthermore, the phenolic composition of both extracts and of their hydrolysates was characterized by HPLC-DAD, in order to establish possible relationships with the biological activity. In a general way, A. muricata displayed a stronger capacity to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production and the activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), displaying an IC50 of 142 μg/mL against this enzyme. A deeper look at phenolic compounds revealed that aglycones had more capacity to inhibit NO and PLA2 than their corresponding glycosides, quercetin being clearly the most potent one (IC50 = 7.47 and 1.36 μM, respectively). In addition, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, at 1.56 μM, could also inhibit PLA2 (ca. 35%). Our findings suggest that the consumption of both herbal teas may be a preventive approach to inflammatory disorders.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T20:40:25.695704-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700002
       
  • Two New Pyripyropenes from the Marine Fungus Fusarium lateritium 2016F18-1
    • Authors: Qing-Xiang Cao; Jun-Hua Wei, Rong Deng, Gong-Kan Feng, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Wen-Jian Lan, Hou-Jin Li
      Abstract: Two new pyripyropenes, 13-dehydroxy-1,11-deacetylpyripyropene A (1) and 1-deacetylpyripyropene A (2), together with six known compounds, were isolated from a marine fungus Fusarium lateritium 2016F18-1 which was associated with the sponge Phyllospongia foliascens. Their structures were established mainly based on NMR and MS data. Their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cells CNE1, CNE2, HONE1, SUNE1, GLC82, and HL7702 were evaluated.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T23:40:31.480608-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600298
       
  • Composition and Biological Activity of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis
           Seed and Cone Essential Oils
    • Authors: Anna Wajs-Bonikowska; Łukasz Szoka, Ewa Karna, Anna Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Monika Sienkiewicz
      Abstract: The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC/MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils. The levorotary form of chiral monoterpene molecules was predominant over the dextrorotary form. The composition of oils from P. pungens seeds and cones was similar, while the hydrodistilled oils of P. orientalis seeds and cones differed from each other, mainly by a higher amount of oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes and by other higher molar mass terpenes in seed oil. The essential oils showed mild antimicrobial action, however P. orientalis cone oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial properties against tested bacterial species than those of P. pungens. Effects of the tested cone essential oils on human skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were similar: in a concentration of 0 – 0.075 μl/ml the oils were rather safe for human skin fibroblasts and 0 – 0.005 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. IC50 value of Picea pungens oils was 0.115 μl/ml, while that of Picea orientalis was 0.105 μl/ml. The value of IC50 of both oils were 0.035 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. The strongest effect on cell viability had the oil from Picea orientalis cones, while on DNA synthesis the oil from Picea pungens cones.Composition and Biological Activity of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis Seed and Cone Essential OilsA. Wajs-Bonikowska,* Ł. Szoka, E. Karna, A. Wiktorowska-Owczarek, M. Sienkiewicz
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T23:40:22.614925-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600264
       
  • Exploring the Least Studied Australian Eucalypt Genera: Corymbia and
           Angophora for Phytochemicals with Anticancer Activity against Pancreatic
           Malignancies
    • Authors: Deep Jyoti Bhuyan; Quan V. Vuong, Danielle R. Bond, Anita C. Chalmers, Ian A. Altena, Michael C. Bowyer, Christopher J. Scarlett
      Abstract: While the pharmacological and toxicological properties of eucalypts are well known in indigenous Australian medicinal practice, investigations of the bioactivity of eucalypt extracts against high mortality diseases such as pancreatic cancer in Western medicine have to date been limited, particularly amongst the genera Corymbia and Angophora. Four Angophora and Corymbia species were evaluated for their phytochemical profile and efficacy against both primary and secondary pancreatic cancer cell lines. The aqueous leaf extract of Angophora hispida exhibited statistically higher total phenolic content (107.85 ± 1.46 mg of gallic acid equiv. per g) and total flavonoid content (57.96 ± 1.93 mg rutin equiv. per g) and antioxidant capacity compared to the other tested eucalypts (P 
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:05:35.569926-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600291
       
  • Polar Constituents, Essential Oil and Antioxidant Activity of Marsh
           Woundwort (Stachys palustris L.)
    • Authors: Alessandro Venditti; Claudio Frezza, Armandodoriano Bianco, Mauro Serafini, Kevin Cianfaglione, David U. Nagy, Romilde Iannarelli, Giovanni Caprioli, Filippo Maggi
      Abstract: Stachys palustris, well-known as marsh woundwort, is a perennial herb growing in wet environments of Europe. Its tubers, leaves and seeds are eaten raw or cooked. Alike other Stachys species, the plant is also used as a traditional remedy. Despite S. palustris has been consumed for centuries, little is known about its chemical constituents. In this work the main secondary metabolites of S. palustris from Hungary and France have been analysed. From the plant ethanolic extracts, ethanoid glucosides, isoscutellarein derivatives, caffeoyl-quinic acids and iridoids have been isolated and structurally characterized by NMR. The essential oils were analysed by GC/MS and showed (E)-phytol, fatty acids and carbonylic compounds as the most abundant compounds. The radical scavenging capacity of plant ethanolic extracts, as evaluated by the DPPH assay, was noteworthy, with IC50 values of 92.08 – 105.42 μg/ml.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:00:23.49966-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600401
       
  • Pyrrole Derivatives and Diterpene Alkaloids from the South China Sea
           Sponge Agelas nakamurai
    • Authors: Mei-Jun Chu; Xu-Li Tang, Guo-Fei Qin, Yan-Ting Sun, Lei Li, Nicole J. de Voogd, Ping-Lin Li, Guo-Qiang Li
      Abstract: Two pairs of new non-brominated racematic pyrrole derivatives, (±)-nakamurine D (1) and (±)-nakamurine E (2), two new diterpene alkaloids, iso-agelasine C (16), and iso-agelasidine B (21), together with fifteen known pyrrole derivatives((±)-3 – 15), five known diterpene alkaloids (17 – 20, 22) were isolated from the South China Sea sponge Agelas nakamurai. The racemic mixtures, compounds 1 – 4, were resolved into four pairs of enantiomers, (+)-1 and (–)-1, (+)-2 and (–)-2, (+)-3 and (–)-3, and (+)-4 and (–)-4, by chiral HPLC. The structures and absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, quantum chemical calculations, quantitative measurements of molar rotations, application of van't Hoff's principle of optical superposition, and comparison with the literature data. The NMR and MS data of compound 3 are reported for the first time, as the structure was listed in SciFinder Scholar with no associated reference. These non-brominated pyrrole derivatives were found in this species for the first time. Compound 18 showed valuable cytotoxicities against HL-60, K562, and HCT-116 cell lines with IC50 values of 12.4, 16.0, and 19.8 μM, respectively. Compounds 16 – 19, 21, and 22 showed potent antifungal activities against Candida albicans with MIC values ranging from 0.59 to 4.69 μg/mL. Compounds 16 – 19 exhibited moderate antibacterial activities against Proteusbacillus vulgaris (MIC values ranging from 9.38 to 18.75 μg/mL).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T17:05:28.959608-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600446
       
  • Composition, Antifungal and Antiproliferative Activities of the
           Hydrodistilled Oils from Leaves and Flower Heads of Pterocephalus
           nestorianus Nab
    • Authors: Fuad O. Abdullah; Faiq H. S. Hussain, Barbara Mannucci, Rosamaria Lappano, Solveig Tosi, Marcello Maggiolini, Giovanni Vidari
      Abstract: This paper reports the first study of the chemical composition, and antifungal and antiproliferative properties of the volatile extracts obtained by hydrodistillation of the flower heads and leaves of the traditional Kurdish medicinal plant P. nestorianus Nab., collected in the wild. A total of fifty-five constituents, 43 of the flower heads’ oil (PFO) and 46 of the leaves’ oil (PLO), respectively, were identified by GC/MS, constituting 99.68% and 99.04% of the two oils, respectively. The oils were obtained in 0.15% and 0.10% yields (w/w), respectively, on air-dried vegetable material. The prevalent constituents of the PFO were α-terpineol (2.41%), α-linalool (6.42%), 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one (2.59%), myristic acid (24.65 %), and lauric acid (50.44%), while the major components of PLO were (E)-hex-2-enal (2.26%), (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (2.04), myristic acid (34.03%), and lauric acid (50.35%). The two oils showed significant inhibitory and fungicidal activities against the medically important fungi Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with MIC ranging from 0.7 to 3.3 mg/ml and MFC varying from 1.4 to 6.6 mg/ml. The antiproliferative activity of the two oils was assayed against one normal and six human tumor cell lines. Both oils showed selective cytotoxic activity, with IC50 values ranging from 1.4 to 3.3 μg/ml.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19T21:35:22.110123-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700009
       
  • Three New Iridoid Glycosides from the Aerial Parts of Asperula involucrata
    • Authors: Hasan Kırmızıbekmez; Kubilay Tiftik, Norbert Kúsz, Orsolya Orban-Gyapai, Zoltán Péter Zomborszki, Judit Hohmann
      Abstract: Three new iridoid glycosides, named involucratosides A – C (1 – 3), were isolated from the H2O subextract of crude MeOH extract prepared from the aerial parts of Asperula involucrata along with a known iridoid glycoside (adoxoside), three flavone glycosides (apigenin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-rutinoside) as well as two phenolic acid derivatives (chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid 4-O-β-glucopyranoside). Their chemical structures were established by UV, IR, 1D- (1H, 13C and JMOD) and 2D- (COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) NMR experiments and HR-ESI-MS. In addition, the crude extract, subextracts and isolates were evaluated for their xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities in in vitro tests. This is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactivities of A. involucrata.
      PubDate: 2017-02-18T02:50:27.815454-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600288
       
  • Biocidal Compounds from Mentha sp. Essential Oils and Their
           Structure–Activity Relationships
    • Authors: Athanasios C. Kimbaris; Azucena González-Coloma, Maria Fe Andrés, Veroniki P. Vidali, Moschos G. Polissiou, Omar Santana-Méridas
      Abstract: Essential oils from Greek Mentha species showed different chemical compositions for two populations of M. pulegium, characterized by piperitone and pulegone. Mentha spicata essential oil was characterized by endocyclic piperitenone epoxide, piperitone epoxide, and carvone. The bioactivities of these essential oils and their components have been tested against insect pests (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Spodoptera littoralis and Myzus persicae), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne, Solanum lycopersicum). The structure–activity relationships of these compounds have been studied including semi-synthetic endocyclic trans-carvone epoxide, exocyclic carvone epoxide, a new exocyclic piperitenone epoxide and trans-pulegone epoxide. Leptinotarsa decemlineata feeding was affected by piperitenone and piperitone epoxide. Spodoptera littoralis was affected by piperitone epoxide and pulegone. The strongest nematicidal agent was piperitenone epoxide, followed by piperitone epoxide, piperitenone and carvone. Germination of S. lycopersicum and L. perenne was significantly affected by piperitenone epoxide. This compound and carvone epoxide inhibited L. perenne root and leaf growth. Piperitenone epoxide also inhibited the root growth of S. lycopersicum. The presence of a C(1) epoxide resulted in strong antifeedant, nematicidal and phytotoxic compounds regardless of the C(4) substituent. New natural crop protectants could be developed through appropriate structural modifications in the p-menthane skeleton.
      PubDate: 2017-02-18T02:45:31.655589-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600270
       
  • Chemical Composition Variability of Essential Oils of Daucus gracilis
           Steinh. from Algeria
    • Authors: Batoul Benyelles; Hocine Allali, Mohamed El Amine Dib, Nassim Djabou, Julien Paolini, Jean Costa
      Abstract: The chemical compositions of 20 Algerian Daucus gracilis essential oils were investigated using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 47 compounds were identified, accounting for 90-99% of the total oil compositions. The main components were linalool (18; 12.5-22.6%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (20; 9.2-20.2%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (10; 4.2-12.2%), ammimajane (47; 2.6-37.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (15; 0.2-12.8%) and 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (19; 3.3-9.6%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs was also studied. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaves and flowers allowed identifying 47 compounds, amounting to 92.3% and 94.1% of total oil composition, respectively. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaf and flower oils allowed identifying linalool (22.7%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (18.9%), 2-methylbutyl isovalerate (13.6%), ammimajane (10.4%), 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (10.3%), (E)-β-ocimene (8.4%) and isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate (8.1%) as main components. The chemical variability of the Algerian oil samples was studied using statistical analysis, which allowed the discrimination of three main Groups. A direct correlation between the altitudes, nature of soils and the chemical compositions of the D. gracilis essential oils was evidenced.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T15:30:23.877382-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600490
       
  • Fatty acid composition of baobab seed and its relationship with the genus
           Adansonia taxonomy
    • Authors: Gaylor Razafimamonjison; Jean Michel Leong Pock Tsy, Manitriniaina Randriamiarinarivo, Panja Ramanoelina, Jean Rasoarahona, Fanjaniaina Fawbush, Pascal Danthu
      Abstract: Baobab seed oil contains specific fatty acids. Most of the studies on baobab fatty acids have been carried out singly and in isolation from each other, making it difficult to compare results through different species. The objective of the present study is to establish the seed fatty acid composition of each Adansonia species in order to evaluate and understand the relationships between the oil chemical compositions, the baobabs’ taxonomy and, the ecological and geographical origin of each seed lot. The seed oils have been analysed using gas chromatography (GC). The oils of all baobab species contain three major fatty acids: palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. They also contain specific fatty acids such as cyclopropenic and cyclopropanic acids, which are characteristic of the Malvaceae family seed oils. It was possible to distinguish three sections through principal components analysis using the 11 fatty acids identified by GC. The Adansonia section contains high rates of oleic acid (±35%), the Brevitubae section is rich in palmitic acid (±42%) and the Longitubae section contains high levels of dihydrosterculic acid (±5%). The oil fatty acid composition, however, does not enable a definitive characterization of profiles according to species. The fatty acid composition is not significantly influenced by the geographical, soil and climate conditions of the collection sites.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-17T13:15:24.254064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600441
       
  • Inhibitory activities of n-butanol fraction from Butea monosperma (Lam.)
           Taub. bark against free radicals, genotoxins and cancer cells
    • Authors: Varinder Kaur; Manish Kumar, Paramjeet Kaur, Sandeep Kaur, Satwinderjeet Kaur
      Abstract: The present study was undertaken to investigate antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antiproliferative activity of n-butanol fraction (Bmbu) from bark of medicinal plant Butea monosperma. Antioxidant potency of Bmbu was examined by various in vitro assays. It was also investigated for antigenotoxic activity using E. coli. PQ37 employing SOS chromotest. Further, cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing activity of Bmbu was evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Bmbu showed potent free radical scavenging ability in ABTS assay (IC50 56.70 μg/ml) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (IC50 40.39 μg/ml). 4NQO and H2O2 induced genotoxicity was suppressed by Bmbu in SOS chromotest by 74.26 and 82.02 % respectively. It also inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells with GI50 value of 158.71 μg/ml. Induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by Bmbu treatment was deciphered using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and neutral comet assay. Bmbu treatment increased cell population in sub-G1 phase (69.6 %) indicating apoptotic cells. Further, Bmbu treatment resulted in increased ROS generation and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential indicating involvement mitochondrial dependent pathway of apoptosis. HPLC profiling showed the presence of polyphenols such as ellagic acid, catechin, quercetin and gallic acid as major constituents. Consequently, it is suggested that the phytoconstituents from this plant may be further exploited for development of novel drug formulation with possible therapeutic implication.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:10:28.221555-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600484
       
  • Carbonic anhydrase and urease inhibitory potential of various plant
           phenolics using in vitro and in silico methods
    • Authors: Abdur Rauf; Muslim Raza, Muhammad Saleem, Ufuk Ozgen, Esen Sezen Karaoglan, Gulin Renda, Erhan Palaska, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan
      Abstract: Plant phenolics are known to display many pharmacological activities. In the current study, eight phenolic compounds [e.g. luteolin 5-O-β-glucoside (1), methyl rosmarinate (2), apigenin (3), vicenin 2 (4), lithospermic acid (5), soyasaponin II (6), rubiadin 3-O-β-primeveroside (7), 4(3,4dihydroxybenzoyloxymethyl)phenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8)] isolated from various plant species were tested at 0.2 mM against carbonic anhydrase-II (CA-II) and urease using microtiter assays. Urease inhibition rate for compounds 1-8 ranged between 5.0 - 41.7%, while only compounds 1, 2, and 4 showed a considerable inhibition over 50% against CA-II with the IC50 values of 73.5 ± 1.05, 39.5 ± 1.14, and 104.5 ± 2.50 μM, respectively, where IC50 of the reference (acetazolamide) was 21.0 ± 0.12 μM. In silico experiments were also performed through two docking softwares (Autodock Vina and i-GEMDOCK) in order to find out interactions between the compounds and CA-II. Actually, compounds 6 (30.0%) and 7 (42.0%) possessed a better binding capability toward the active site of CA-II. According to our results obtained in this study, among the phenolic compounds screened, particularly 1, 2, and 4 appear to be the promising inhibitors of CA-II and may be further investigated as possible leads for diuretic, anti-glaucoma, and antiepileptic agents.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T16:10:26.04958-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700024
       
  • Genetic and Phytochemical Analysis to Evaluate the Diversity and
           Relationships of Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) Elite Genetic
           Resources in a Germplasm Collection
    • Authors: Juliana Cristhina Friedrich; Adriana Gonela, Maria Celeste Gonçalves Vidigal, Pedro Soares Vidigal Filho, José Alfredo Sturion, Euclides Lara Cardozo Junior
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical and genetic diversity, relationships and identification of mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) elite genetic resources belonging to the Brazilian germplasm collection and mate breeding program. Mate has been studied due to the presence of phytochemical compounds, especially methylxanthines and phenolic compounds. The samples were collected from the leaves of 76 mate elite genetic resources (16 progenies × 5 localities). Total DNA was extracted from mate leaves and 20 random primers were used for DNA amplification. Methylxanthines (caffeine and theobromine) and phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, and criptochlorogenic acids) were quantified by HPLC. The genetic divergence estimated was higher within (92%) than among (8%) the different populations. Analysis of genetic distance between origins provided the formation of two groups by UPGMA cluster analysis, with higher polymorphism (94.9%). The average content of caffeine ranged from 0.01 to 1.38% and theobromine of 0.10 – 0.85% (w/w). The caffeoylquinic acids concentrations (1.43 – 5.38%) showed a gradient 3-CQA> 5-CQA> 4-CQA. The coefficient of genetic variation (CVg) was of low magnitude for all mono-caffeoylquinics acids. Significant correlations (positive and negative) were observed between the phytochemical compounds. Genetic diversity analysis performed by RAPD markers showed a greater intra-populational diversity; genetic resources with low caffeine and higher theobromine content were identified and can be used in breeding programs; the correlation between methylxanthines and phenolic compounds can be used as a good predictor in future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T07:25:31.024964-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600177
       
  • Pyranochromones from Dictyoloma vandellianum A. Juss and Their Cytotoxic
           Evaluation
    • Authors: Iura M. Alves; Lucas S. Abreu, Cinara O. S. Costa, Mireille Le Hyaric, Maria Lenise S. Guedes, Milena B. P. Soares, Daniel P. Bezerra, Eudes S. Velozo
      Abstract: One new chromone 3,3-dimethylallylspatheliachromene methyl ether (1), as well as five known chromones, 6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) allopteroxylin methyl ether (2), 6-(3-methylbut-2-enyl) allopteroxylin (3), 3,3-dimethylallylspatheliachromene (4), 5-O-methylcneorumchromone K (5) and spatheliabischromene (6), two alkaloids, 8-methoxy-N-methylflindersine (7) and 8-methoxyflindersine (8), and two limonoids, limonin diosphenol (9) and rutaevin (10), were isolated from Dictyoloma vandellianum A. Juss (Rutaceae). Cytotoxic activities towards tumor cell lines B16-F10, HepG2, K562 and HL60 and non-tumor cells PBMC were evaluated for compounds 1 – 6. Compound 1 was the most active showing IC50 values ranging from 6.26 to 14.82 μg/ml in B16-F10 and K562 cell lines, respectively, and presented IC50 value of 11.65 μg/ml in PBMC cell line.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T07:20:27.678423-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600276
       
  • Essential Oil of Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus from Algeria:
           Chemotypification and in vitro Biological Activities
    • Authors: Hamdi Bendif; Messaoud Boudjeniba, Mohamed Djamel Miara, Loreta Biqiku, Massimo Bramucci, Giulio Lupidi, Luana Quassinti, Luca A. Vitali, Filippo Maggi
      Abstract: Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus (Lamiaceae) is a small shrub endemic to Algeria and Morocco where is found in lawns, rockeries and mountainous regions. From a phytochemical point of view this taxon has never been characterized. In this work we have analysed the chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained from inflorescences and vegetative parts by GC/MS. A new chemotype, i.e. borneol-chemotype, was characterized for the first time in the species. Furthermore, we assessed the biological activities of essential oils, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity on tumor cells that were evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP, disc diffusion, and MTT methods, respectively. Biological assays highlighted a moderate inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans (inhibition zone diameter in the range 9 – 10 mm), and noteworthy cytotoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells (IC50 of 46.95 μg/ml).
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T00:30:27.720898-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600299
       
  • Chemical Variability of Ivoirian Xylopia rubescens Leaf Oil
    • Authors: Thierry Acafou Yapi; Jean Brice Boti, Zanahi Félix Tonzibo, Coffy Antoine Ahibo, Ange Bighelli, Joseph Casanova, Félix Tomi
      Abstract: Forty-two essential oil samples were isolated from leaves of Xylopia rubescens harvested in three forests of Southern Ivory Coast. All the samples have been submitted to GC-FID and the retention indices (RIs) of individual components have been measured on two capillary columns of different polarity. In addition, 20 oil samples, selected on the basis of their chromatographic profile, were also analyzed by 13C-NMR and 24 components (78.0 – 92.4% of the whole compositions) have been identified. The content of the main components varied drastically from sample to sample: furanoguaia-1,4-diene (5.7 – 54.1%), furanoguaia-1,3-diene (1.1 – 10.5%), (8Z,11Z,14Z)-heptadeca-8,11,14-trien-2-one (4.3 – 16.0%), and (E)-β-caryophyllene (1.7 – 17.3%). Hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis of the 42 oil compositions allowed the distinction of two well-differentiated groups of unequal importance within the oil samples. Oil samples of the main group (Group II) contained mainly furanoguaia-1,4-diene (mean [M] = 43.1%; standard deviation [SD] = 3.2%) while furanoguaia-1,3-diene (M = 8.4%; SD = 0.9%) and (8Z,11Z,14Z)-heptadeca-8,11,14-trien-2-one (M = 7.1%; SD = 1.5%) were present at appreciable contents. The composition of Group I was dominated by furanoguaia-1,4-diene (M = 17.0%; SD = 8.5%), (8Z,11Z,14Z)-heptadeca-8,11,14-trien-2-one (M = 10.2%; SD = 2.4%) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 9.5%; SD = 5.3%).
      PubDate: 2017-02-14T05:42:12.599497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600200
       
  • Cover Picture
    • PubDate: 2017-02-14T05:42:09.63034-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201770021
       
  • Chemical Characteristics, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of the
           Essential Oil of Egyptian Cinnamomum glanduliferum Bark
    • Authors: Al Shaimaa M. Taha; Omayma A. Eldahshan
      Abstract: The essential oil isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall) Meissn that grown in Egypt was screened for the first time. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC and GC/Mass. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was assessed using agar-well diffusion method toward representatives for each of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi. The cytotoxic activity was checked using three human cancer cell lines. Twenty seven compounds were identified, representing 99.07% of the total detected components. The major constituents were eucalyptol (65.87%), terpinen-4-ol (7.57%), α-terpineol (7.39%). The essential oil possessed strong antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, as the activity index (AI) equal to one and MIC is 0.49 μg/mL. Good antimicrobial activities were against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Geotrichum candidum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Helicobacter pylori, Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC: 7.81, 1.95, 7.81, 0.98, 31.25, and 32.5 μg/mL respectively). A considerable activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC; 32.5 and 31.25 μg/mL). It was toxic to colon (HCT-116), liver (HepG2), and breast (MCF-7) carcinoma cell lines at IC50 9.1, 42.4, and 57.3 μg/mL. These results revealed Egyptian Cinnamomum glanduliferum bark oil possess antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities mainly due to eucalyptol and other major compounds.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-11T20:45:28.47045-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600443
       
  • First Report on Rare Unifloral Honey of Endemic Moltkia petraea (Tratt.)
           Griseb. from Croatia: Detailed Chemical Screening and Antioxidant Capacity
           
    • Authors: Igor Jerković; Zvonimir Marijanović, Marina Zekić, Carlo I. G. Tuberoso
      Abstract: Rare Moltkia petraea (Tratt.) Griseb. honey from Croatia was first time characterised. The spectrophotometric assays on CIE L*a*b*Cab*hab° colour coordinates, total phenol content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, DPPH• and ABTS•+ assays) determined higher honey values generally close to dark honeys ranges. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) on two fibres after GC-FID and GC/MS revealed the major compounds 2-phenylacetaldehyde (12.8%; 15.6%), benzaldehyde (11.1%; 10.0%), octane (9.3%; 7.6%), nonane, propan-2-one, pentan-2-one, pentanal and nonanal (4.9%; 14.5%). Ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) mainly isolated non-specific higher molecular compounds characteristic of the comb environment. Targeted HLPC-DAD analysis of the honey determined higher concentration of phenylalanine (212.08 mg/kg) and lumichrome (16.25 mg/kg) along with tyrosine and kojic acid. The headspace composition (chemical fingerprint) and high concentration of lumichrome can be considered particular for M. petraea honey.
      PubDate: 2017-02-09T08:21:36.444667-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600268
       
  • 1-Aminobenzocyclobutene-1-phosphonic acid and related compounds as
           inhibitors of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
    • Authors: Jerzy Zoń; Piotr Miziak
      Abstract: Five new geminal aminocycloalkanephosphonic acids (4-8) containing both an aromatic ring and a cycloalkane ring were synthesized and evaluated as potential inhibitors of buckwheat phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). Within the set of compounds which are related to 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP, 3), a known powerful inhibitor of PAL, racemic 1-aminobenzocyclobutene-1-phosphonic acid (4), was six times weaker than AIP as an in vitro inhibitor of buckwheat PAL, but six times stronger than AIP as an in vivo inhibitor of phenylalanine-derived anthocyanin synthesis in buckwheat.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T12:30:28.011535-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600488
       
  • Inhibitory Activity and Chemical Characterization of Daucus carota subsp.
           maximus Essential Oils
    • Authors: Raimondo Gaglio; Marcella Barbera, Aurora Aleo, Ines Lommatzsch, Tommaso La Mantia, Luca Settanni
      Abstract: The essential oils (EOs) of green seeds from Daucus carota subsp. maximus growing wild in Pantelleria island (Sicily, Italy) were characterised. EOs were extracted by steam distillation, examined for their inhibitory properties against food-borne Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and analysed for the chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Undiluted EOs showed a large inhibition spectrum against Gram positive strains and also vs Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) was in the range 1.25 – 2.50 μl/ml for the most sensitive strains. The chemical analysis indicated that D. carota subsp. maximus EOs included 34 compounds (5 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 6 oxygenated monoterpenes, 14 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 oxygenated sesquiterpenes, camphorene and 4 other compounds), accounting for 95.48% of the total oil, and that the major chemicals were carotol, β-bisabolene and isoelemicin.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T12:30:25.052896-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600477
       
  • Essential oil and bioactive compounds variation in myrtle (Myrtus communis
           L.) as affected by seasonal variation and salt stress
    • Authors: Zeinab Vafadar Shoshtari; Mehdi Rahimmalek, Mohammad Reza Sabzalian, Hossein Hosseini
      Abstract: The effect of different NaCl concentrations (control, 2, 4 and 6 dS m-1) and three harvesting times in different seasons including spring (9 April), summer (5 July) and fall (23 September) was evaluated on essential oil yield, composition, phenolic, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of myrtle. Essential oil yield ranged from 0.2% in control and fall to 1.6% in moderate salinity (4 dS m-1) and spring season. The main constituents obtained from GC-MS analysis were α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, limonene, linalool, α-terpineol and linalyl acetate in which α-pinene ranged from 11.70% in moderate and fall to 30.99% in low salinity (2 dS m-1) and spring, while 1,8-cineole varied from 7.42% in high salinity (6 dS m-1) and summer to 15.45% in low salinity and spring, respectively. Salt stress also resulted in an increase in total phenolic, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power (FTC) and β-carotene-linoleic acid model systems was found in plants harvested in spring and summer in high stress condition. The lowest IC50 values obtained in 6 dS m-1 in spring (375.23 μg/ml) followed by summer (249.41 μg/ml) and fall (618.38 μg/ml). Eight major phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined in three harvesting times using HPLC analysis. In overall, late harvesting time of myrtle in fall can lead to reduce the most of major essential oil components, while it can improve the amount of phenolic acids.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T11:35:28.628595-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600365
       
  • Needle terpenes as chemotaxonomic markers in Pinus: subsections Pinus and
           Pinaster
    • Authors: Zorica S. Mitić; Snežana Č. Jovanović, Bojan K. Zlatković, Biljana M. Nikolić, Gordana S. Stojanović, Petar D. Marin
      Abstract: Chemical compositions of needle essential oils of 27 taxa from the section Pinus, including 20 and 7 taxa of the subsections Pinus and Pinaster, respectively, were compared in order to determine chemotaxonomic significance of terpenes at infrageneric level. According to analysis of variance, six out of 31 studied terpene characters were characterized by a high level of significance, indicating statistically significant difference between the examined subsections. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis has shown separation of eight groups, where representatives of subsect. Pinaster were distributed within the first seven groups on the dendrogram together with P. nigra subsp. laricio and P. merkusii from the subsect. Pinus. On the other hand, the eighth group included the majority of the members of subsect. Pinus. Our findings, based on terpene characters, complement those obtained from morphological, biochemical and molecular parameters studied over the past two decades. In addition, results presented in this paper confirmed that terpenes are good markers at infrageneric level.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T09:20:24.220474-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600453
       
  • Composition and Bioactivity of Lipophilic Metabolites from Needles and
           Twigs of Korean and Siberian Pines (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. and
           Pinus sibirica Du Tour)
    • Authors: Alexander V. Shpatov; Sergey A. Popov, Olga I. Salnikova, Tatyana P. Kukina, Emma N. Shmidt, Byung Hun Um
      Abstract: Lipophilic extractive metabolites in different parts of the shoot system (needles and defoliated twigs) of Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis, and Siberian pine, Pinus sibirica, were studied by GC/MS. Korean pine needles comprised mainly bornyl p-coumarate, heterocyclic 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids (lambertianic acid), 10-nonacosanol, sterols and their esters. While Siberian pine needles contained less bornyl p-coumarate, lambertianic acid, sterols and their esters, but were richer in other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids. The major components of the twig extract of P. koraiensis were lambertianic acid, abietane and isopimarane type acids, cembrane type alcohols, 8-O-functionalized labdanoids, sterols, sterol esters, and acylglycerols. The same extract of P. sibirica differed in larger amounts of other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids and pinolenic acid glycerides, but in less quantities of cembranoids and 8-O-functionalized labdanoids. The labdane type pinusolic acid was detected for the first time in Korean pine. P. koraiensis was found to be unique in the genus for an ability to synthesize phyllocladane diterpenoids. The content of bound Δ5-unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids in the twig extracts of the both pines was similar or superior to that in their seed oil. Among the pines’ metabolites tested isocembrol was strongest in inhibition of both α-glucosidase (IC50 2.9 μg/ml) and NO production in activated macrophages (IC50 3.6 μg/ml).
      PubDate: 2017-02-04T03:50:26.866332-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600203
       
  • Essential Oil Variability of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. Parts
           During Its Phenological Cycle and Incidence on the Antioxidant and
           Antimicrobial Activities
    • Authors: Abderrahmane Djouahri; Boualem Saka, Lynda Boudarene, Lynda Lamari, Nasserdine Sabaou, Aoumeur Baaliouamer
      Abstract: The impact of phenological stages (vegetative, flowering and fruiting stages) on chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. parts essential oils were investigated for the first time. GC and GC/MS analyses pointed to a quantitative variability of components; terpene hydrocarbons derivatives, represented by α-pinene (16.38 ± 0.19 – 31.78 ± 0.35%) and limonene (3.41 ± 0.07 – 9.49 ± 0.14%) as major components, predominate at the vegetative stage, whereas oxygenated derivatives, represented by camphor (16.11 ± 0.23 – 26.17 ± 0.29%) and bornyl acetate (15.21 ± 0.21 – 27.33 ± 0.33%) as major components, predominate at the fruiting stage. Furthermore, our findings showed that the plant parts collected at the fruiting stage possess the highest antioxidant activity and the best antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms, than plant parts collected at the vegetative and flowering stages. This highlighted variability reflects the high impact of phenological cycle on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on phenological stage, in order to have the highest effectiveness of essential oil in terms of biological activities for human health purposes.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04T03:40:29.271543-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600216
       
  • Essential Oils Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Six Conifers
           Harvested in Lebanon
    • Authors: Layal Fahed; Madona Khoury, Didier Stien, Naïm Ouaini, Véronique Eparvier, Marc El Beyrouthy
      Abstract: The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils (EOs) of six conifers harvested in Lebanon, Abies cilicica, Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus excelsa, Juniperus oxycedrus, Cedrus libani and Cupressus macrocarpa gold crest, were investigated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. A principal components analysis based on Pearson correlation between essential oils chemical analyses was also conducted. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these essentials oils were determined against a range of bacteria and fungi responsible for cutaneous infections in human, using the broth microdilution technique. The EOs showed the most interesting bioactivity on the dermatophytes species (MIC values 32 – 64 μg/ml). Each of the major compounds of C. macrocarpa as well as an artificial reconstructed EO were tested on Trichophyton rubrum showing a contribution of the minor components to the overall activity.
      PubDate: 2017-02-04T03:35:25.657178-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600235
       
  • A Screen for Swainsonine in Select North American Astragalus Species
    • Authors: Daniel Cook; Dale R. Gardner, James A. Pfister, Stephen T. Lee, Kevin D. Welch, Stanley L. Welsh
      Abstract: Swainsonine is found in several plant species worldwide, and causes severe toxicosis in livestock grazing these plants, leading to a chronic condition characterized by weight loss, altered behavior, depression, decreased libido, infertility, and death. Swainsonine has been detected in 13 North American Astragalus species of which eight belong to taxa in four taxonomic sections, the Densifolii, Diphysi, Inflati, and Trichopodi. These sections belong to two larger groups representing several morphologically related species, the Pacific Piptolobi and the small-flowered Piptolobi. The objective of this study was to screen the other 31 species for swainsonine in sections Densifolii, Diphysi, Inflati, and Trichopodi previously not known to contain swainsonine. Furthermore, to broaden the scope further, 21 species within the 8 sections of the Pacific Piptolobi and the small flowered Piptolobi were screened for swainsonine. Swainsonine was detected for the first time in 36 Astragalus taxa representing 29 species using liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Several taxonomic sections were highly enriched in species that contain swainsonine while others were not. A systematic examination for swainsonine in these species will provide important information on the toxic risk of these species and may be a valuable reference for diagnosticians and land managers.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T23:50:30.533934-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600364
       
  • Variation in chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the
           essential oil of wild populations of Phlomis olivieri
    • Authors: Iman Bajalan; Razieh Rouzbahani, Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Filippo Maggi
      Abstract: Various species of the genus Phlomis have been reported to produce metabolites demonstrating significant pharmacological efficiency. In this study, the essential oils from 12 populations of Phlomis olivieri collected from natural habitats were investigated for their chemical components. The hydrodistillated essential oil analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Analyses revealed 27 compounds, constituting 90.52–98.51% of the essential oils. Results indicated that the major components of the essential oils from various populations of P. olivieri were germacrene D (26.54 to 56.41%), bicyclogermacrene (6.38 to 30.55%), β-caryophyllene (5.32 to 24.52%) and α-pinene (1.29 to 15.53%). Principal component analyses (PCA) was used to identify any geographical variations in essential oil composition. Notably, three groups of Iranian P. olivieri populations were determined according to the major compounds. Results of the in vitro antibacterial activity indicated that P. olivieri essential oils showed good inhibitory activities against bacteria, especially Bacillus subtilis. The results of this study gave new insights for cultivation and industrial uses of P. olivieri in Iran.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T23:50:26.706637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600444
       
  • Chemical variability and biological activities of Brassica rapa var.
           rapifera parts essential oils depending on geographic variation and
           extraction technique
    • Authors: Boualem Saka; Abderrahmane Djouahri, Zineb Djerrad, Terfi Souhila, Sihem Aberrane, Nasserdine Sabaou, Aoumeur Baaliouamer, Lynda Boudarene
      Abstract: In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. GC and GC–MS analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T04:21:44.667547-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600452
       
  • Nitric Oxide Production-Inhibitory Activity of Limonoids from Azadirachta
           indica and Melia azedarach
    • Authors: Toshihiro Akihisa; Yuki Nishimoto, Eri Ogihara, Masahiro Matsumoto, Jie Zhang, Masahiko Abe
      Abstract: Seventy-three limonoids isolated from three Meliaceae plants, Azadirachta indica, A. indica var. siamensis, and Melia azedarach, or semi-synthesized from the Meliaceae limonoids, were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as a primary screening test for anti-inflammatory agents. Of the compounds tested, 21 compounds exhibited inhibitory activity (IC50 4.6–58.6 μM) without any significant toxicity (IC50>100 μM) which were more potent than L-NMMA (NO-production inhibitory activity, IC50 65.6 μM; cytotoxicity, IC50>100 μM), and among which, nine compounds, i.e., 17-hydroxy-15-methoxynimbocinol (6), ohchinin (20) 1-cis-cinnamoyl-1-decinnamoylohchinin (24), salannin (27), methyl nimbidate (32), isosalannin (55), nimbolinin D (58), mesendanin E (69), and 7-deacetylgedunin (73), exhibited potent inhibitory activity (IC50 4.6–29.3 μM). In particular, compounds 6 (IC50 7.3 μM), an azadirone-type limonoid, and 73 (IC50 4.6 μM), a gedunin-type limonoid, exhibited remarkable activity. Western blot analysis revealed that 27 and 73 reduced the expression levels of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that limonoids of A. indica, A. indica var. siamensis, and M. azedarach, and their semi-synthetic derivatives may be effective against inflammation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T04:15:32.529816-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600468
       
  • Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of 3-(Substituted
           Aroyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrrole Derivatives
    • Authors: Xiao-Ping Zhan; Lan Lan, Shuai Wang, Kai Zhao, Yu-Xuan Xin, Qi Qi, Yao-Lin Wang, Zhen-Min Mao
      Abstract: A series of 3-(substituted aroyl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrrole derivatives were synthesized and determined for their anticancer activity against eleven cancer cell lines and two normal tissue cell lines using MTT assay. Among the synthesized compounds, compound 3f was the most potent compound against A375, CT-26, HeLa, MGC80-3, NCI-H460 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 = 8.2 – 31.7 μm); 3g, 3n and 3a were the most potent compounds against CHO (IC50 = 8.2 μm), HCT-15 (IC50 = 21 μm) and MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 18.7 μm), respectively. Importantly, all the target compounds showed no cytotoxicity towards the normal tissue cell (IC50 > 100 μm). Thus, these compounds with the potent anticancer activity and low toxicity have potential for the development of new anticancer chemotherapy agents.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T03:41:32.772937-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600219
       
  • Comprehensive Research on Essential Oil and Phenolic Variation in
           Different Foeniculum vulgare Populations During Transition from Vegetative
           to Reproductive Stage
    • Authors: Maryam Salami; Mehdi Rahimmalek, Mohammad Hossein Ehtemam
      Abstract: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of four fennel populations (England, Spain, Poland and Iran) were investigated during six developmental stages including two vegetative and four reproductive phases. In reproductive phase, the essential oil content of fruits decreased and the maximum content (5.9%) was obtained in immediate fruits. The essential oils were analyzed using GC/MS. trans-Anethole was the main component of the leaves and the fruits oil. In leaves, it ranged from 41.28% in England at late vegetative stage to 56.6% in Poland population at early vegetative stage. Other major compounds of leaves were limonene, α-pinene and (Z)-β-ocimene. In reproductive phases the trans-anethole increased dramatically. It varied from 85.25% in immature fruits from Poland to 90.7% in pre-mature stage from Spain. The highest phenolic content in the extracts at different growth stages obtained 189 mg TAE/g DW at full mature stage of seed in Iran population. The flavonoid of leaves extract ranged from 3 to 7.5 mg QUE/g DW, while in fruits extract varied from 3 to 10.3 mg QUE/g DW. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and β-carotene model systems. Immature and full mature growth stages of fennel population from Spain indicated the highest activity in quenching of DPPH radical (74.2% and 74.5, respectively). Antioxidant activities of the extracts had high positive correlation with their phenolic contents in all fruit maturity stages. Finally, it might probably be suggested that in fennel the hot and humid condition can lead to increase trans-anethole, while the hot and dry one can produce higher amount of phenolics and flavonoids.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T00:25:40.698301-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600246
       
  • Chemical Constituents Isolated from Bletilla striata and Their Inhibitory
           Effects on Nitric Oxide Production in RAW 264.7 Cells
    • Authors: Joon Young Bae; Jin Woo Lee, Qinghao Jin, Hari Jang, Dongho Lee, Youngsoo Kim, Jin Tae Hong, Mi Kyeong Lee, Moon Soon Lee, Bang Yeon Hwang
      Abstract: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the tubers of Bletilla striata led to the isolation of two new C-methylated flavan-3-ols, bletillanols A (1) and B (2), along with ten known compounds (3 – 12). Their structures were determined by using extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and circular dichroism data. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory potential on the nitric oxide generation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T00:15:53.236128-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600243
       
  • A new depigmenting-antifungal methylated grindelane from Grindelia
           chiloensis
    • Authors: María de los A. Mesurado; María L. Arias Cassará, Rosana Misico, Alicia Bardón, María I. Ybarra, Elena Cartagena
      Abstract: The new methylated grindelane diterpenoid, 7β-hydroxy-8(17)-dehydrogrindelic acid (1b), together with the known 7α-hydroxy-8(17)-dehydrogrindelic acid (2a), 6-oxogrindelic acid (3a), 4β-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic (4a), 19-hydroxygrindelic acid (5a), 18-hydroxygrindelic acid (6a), 4α-carboxygrindelic acid (7a), 17-hydroxygrindelic acid (8a), 6α-hydroxy grindelic acid (9a), 8,17-bisnor-8-oxagrindelic acid (10a), 7α,8α-epoxygrindelic acid (11a), and strictanonic acid (12a) as methyl esters were obtained from an Argentine collection of Grindelia chiloensis Cabr. Their structures and relative configurations were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Chloroform extract from the aerial parts and their pure compounds were evaluated for their antifungal and depigmenting effects. Methyl ester derivative of 10a (10b) exhibited a remarkable mycelial growth inhibition against Botritis cinerea with an IC50 of 13.5 μg ml−1. While the new grindelane 1b exerted a clear color reduction of the yellow-orange pigment developed by Fusarium oxysporum against UV-induced damage.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T17:50:31.320023-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600426
       
  • Comprehensive Characterisation of n-Alkylresorcinols and Other Lipid
           Constituents of Mercurialis tomentosa L. from Alicante, Spain
    • Authors: Peter Lorenz; Miriam Heinrich, Jürgen Conrad, Annerose Heller, Florian C. Stintzing, Dietmar R. Kammerer
      Abstract: Mercurialis tomentosa L. has been used in Spanish ethnomedicine. In the present study the first phytochemical characterisation of a lipid fraction from M. tomentosa was performed. The CHCl3 extraction of aerial parts from M. tomentosa and GC/MS investigations revealed the occurrence of cuticular lipid and wax constituents, like long chain n-alcohols and n-aldehydes (C22 – C30), besides several aromatic constituents, i.e., phenylpropanoids and n-alkylresorcinols. The latter were further purified by CC and analysed by LC/MSn. In contrast to other Mercurialis species, i.e., M. annua, M. perennis, which exclusively contain 5-n-alkylresorcinols (1a – j, Cn), mainly 5-n-alkyl-2-methylresorcinols (2a – j, Cn*) with side chain lengths of C15 – C25 were found in M. tomentosa, in addition to 1a – j. Thus, the latter compounds may be utilised for analytical characterisation and authentication of M. tomentosa based on fingerprinting methods. For structure elucidation a novel facile total synthesis of one representative 5-n-alkyl-2-methylresorcinol homologue (2d, C19*) was developed, starting with a Grignard reaction from a substituted benzoic acid chloride (19). The compound obtained by synthesis was identical to the natural product 2d in terms of its chromatographic and spectroscopic features. Futhermore, 2d exhibited satisfactory DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 37.8 μm) when compared to trolox (IC50 = 21.0 μm), corroborating the antioxidant features of these amphipathic molecules.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T05:45:33.191949-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600255
       
  • Diterpenoids from Wedelia prostrata and Their Derivatives and Cytotoxic
           Activities
    • Authors: Xinhua Ma; Zhibiao Wang, Lei Zhang, Wei Li, Cuimin Deng, Tianhua Zhong, Guangyu Li, Weiming Zheng, Yonghong Zhang
      Abstract: One new ent-kaurane diterpenoid, 11β,16α-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), together with eight known analogues (2-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Wedelia prostrata. One of the acidic diterpenoids, kaurenoic acid (3), was converted to seven derivatives, 10-16. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity in vitro against human leukemia (K562), liver (HepG-2), and stomach (SGC-7901) cancer cell lines. Only four kaurenoic acid derivatives, 13-16, with 15-keto and substitutions at C-19 position, exhibited notable cytotoxic activities on these tumor cell lines with IC50 value ranging from 0.05 to 3.71 μM. Compounds 10-12, with oxime on C-15 showed moderate inhibitory effects and compounds 1-9 showed no cytotoxicities on them. Structure-activity relationships were also discussed based on the experimental data obtained. The known derivative, 15-oxo-kaurenoic acid piperdinebutyl ester (17), induced typical apoptotic cell death in colon SW480 cells upon evaluation of the apoptosis-inducing activity by flow-cytometric analysis.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-28T02:15:29.187319-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600423
       
  • Chemical constituents from the flowers of wild Gardenia jasminoides Ellis
    • Authors: Hu Zhang; Ning Feng, Yan-Tong Xu, Tian-Xiang Li, Xiu-Mei Gao, Yan Zhu, Yun Seon Song, Ya-Nan Wang, Hong-Hua Wu
      Abstract: Four new iridoids, 2’-O-trans-coumaroylshanzhiside (1), 6’-O-trans-coumaroyl- shanzhiside (2), 8α-butylgardenoside B (3), 6α-methoxygenipin (4), and one new phenylpropanoid glucoside, 4-methoxy-benzenepropanol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), together with sixteen known compounds, were isolated from the edible flowers of wild Gardenia jasminoides Ellis. Their chemical structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 1D/2D NMR, HRESIMS, and CD experiments. The absolute configurations of the new isolates’ sugar moiety were assigned by HPLC analysis of the acid hydrolysates. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of those isolates were preliminarily evaluated by DPPH scavenging experiment. And comparison of 1H NMR spectra for the ethanol extract of G. jasminoides Ellis, gardenoside B and geniposide revealed that the flowers of this plant have a considerable content of gardenoside B instead of geniposide in the fruits, indicating different activities and applications in people's daily life.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-28T02:05:30.534175-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600437
       
  • Chemical Composition and Behavioral Effects of Five Plant Essential Oils
           on the Green Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae)
           
    • Authors: Abir Kasmi; Majdi Hammami, Emmanuel G. Raoelison, Manef Abderrabba, Jalloul Bouajila, Christine Ducamp
      Abstract: Essential oils (EOs) from Schinus molle, Helichrysum gymnocephalum, Cedrelopsis grevei and Melaleuca viridiflora, four aromatic and medicinal plants, are commonly used in folk medicine. EOs were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID); then evaluated for their behavioral effects on adults of the green pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) using a Perspex four-armed olfactometer in order to test the compatibility of their use as phytoinsecticides to control this insect pest. Our results showed that the Eos from leaves of S. molle, M. viridiflora and C. grevei did not change aphids’ behavior. However, S. molle fruits EO seemed to be attractive while H. gymnocephalum leaves EO exhibited repellency towards aphids at a dose of 10 μl. The major compounds in S. molle fruits EO were 6-epi-shyobunol (16.22%) and d-limonene (15.35%). While, in H. gymnocephalum leaves EO, 1.8 cineole was the main compound (47.4%). The difference in aphids’ responses to these two EOs could be attributed to the differences in their compositions. Our findings suggest that these two EOs have potential applications for the integrated pest management (IPM) of A. pisum (Harris).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T15:45:25.029357-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600464
       
  • Physicochemical properties, antioxidant and anti-proliferative capacities
           of dried leaf and its extract from Xao tam phan (Paramignya trimera)
    • Authors: Van Tang Nguyen; Jennette A. Sakoff, Christopher J. Scarlett
      Abstract: Xao tam phan (P. trimera) has been used for the treatment of cancer and cancer-like aliments. Among different parts of P. trimera plant, leaf is considered as a residual part after harvesting of the root. This study aimed to determine the physiochemical properties, antioxidant and anti-proliferative capacities of P. trimera leaf (PTL) using microwave drying for the preparation of dry sample; methanol and microwave-assisted extraction for the preparation of crude extract; and freeze drying for the preparation of powdered extract. The results showed that total phenolic, total flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and saponin contents of PTL prepared by microwave drying at 450 W were 25.4 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), 86.3 mg rutin equivalents (RE), 5.6 mg catechin equivalents (CE), and 702.1 mg escin equivalents (EE) per g dried sample, respectively. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, ellagic acid, rutin, and quercetin were identified in the PTL methanolic extract. Dried PTL displayed potent antioxidant activity, while the powdered PTL extract exhibited great anti-proliferative capacity on various cancer cell lines including MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas), HT29 (colon), A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MCF-7 (breast), MCF-10A (normal breast), and U87, SJ-G2 and SMA (glioblastoma). Anti-proliferative capacity on pancreatic cancer cells (MiaCaPa2, BxPc3, and CFPAC1) of PTL extract (200 μg/mL) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of ostruthin (20 μg/mL) and gemcitabine (50 nM), and to be comparable to the powdered P. trimera root extract and a saponin-enriched extract from quillajia bark (a commercial product). The findings from this study allow us to conclude that the PTL is a rich source of phytochemicals that possess promising antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities, therefore it shows potential as lead compounds for application in the nutraceutical, medicinal and pharmaceutical industries.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T15:45:23.752003-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600498
       
  • Detection of Macromolecular Fractions in HCN Polymers Using
           Electrophoretic and Ultrafiltration Techniques
    • Authors: Margarita R. Marín-Yaseli; Cristina Cid, Ana I. Yagüe, Marta Ruiz-Bermejo
      Abstract: Elucidating the origin of life involves synthetic as well as analytical challenges. Herein, for the first time, we describe the use of gel electrophoresis and ultrafiltration to fractionate HCN polymers. Since the first prebiotic synthesis of adenine by Oró, HCN polymers have gained much interest in studies on the origins of life due to the identification of biomonomers and related compounds within them. Here, we demonstrate that macromolecular fractions with electrophoretic mobility can also be detected within HCN polymers. The migration of polymers under the influence of an electric field depends not only on their sizes (one-dimensional electrophoresis) but also their different isoelectric points (two-dimensional electrophoresis, 2-DE). The same behaviour was observed for several macromolecular fractions detected in HCN polymers. Macromolecular fractions with apparent molecular weights as high as 250 kDa were detected by tricine-SDS gel electrophoresis. Cationic macromolecular fractions with apparent molecular weights as high as 140 kDa were also detected by 2-DE. The HCN polymers synthesized were fractionated by ultrafiltration. As a result, the molecular weight distributions of the macromolecular fractions detected in the HCN polymers directly depended on the synthetic conditions used to produce these polymers. The implications of these results for prebiotic chemistry will be discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-21T03:10:52.125069-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600241
       
  • Composition and Chemical Variability of Cleistopholis patens Trunk Bark
           Oil from Côte d'Ivoire
    • Authors: Zana A. Ouattara; Jean Brice Boti, Coffy Antoine Ahibo, Yves-Alain Bekro, Mamyrbekova Janat, Joseph Casanova, Félix Tomi, Ange Bighelli
      Abstract: The chemical composition of trunk bark oil from Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. & Diels, growing wild in Côte d'Ivoire, has been investigated by GC (FID) in combination with retention indices, GC/MS and 13C-NMR. Moreover, one oil sample has been subjected to CC and all the fractions analyzed by GC (RI) and 13C-NMR. In total, 61 components have been identified, including various sesquiterpene esters scarcely found in essential oils. 13C-NMR was particularly efficient for the identification of a component not eluted on GC and for the quantification of heat-sensitive compounds. Then, 36 oil samples, isolated from trunk bark harvested in six Ivoirian forests have been analyzed. The content of the main components varied drastically from sample to sample: (E)-β-caryophyllene (0.4 – 69.1%), β-pinene (0 – 57%), α-phellandrene (0 – 33.2%), α-pinene (0.1 – 30.6%), β-elemol (0.1 – 29.9%), germacrene D (0 – 25.4%), juvenile hormone III (0 – 22.9%), germacrene B (0 – 20.6%) and sabinene (tr-20.3%). Statistical analysis, hierarchical clustering and principal components analysis, carried out on the 36 compositions evidenced a fair chemical variability of the stem bark oil of this species. Indeed, three clusters have been distinguished: the composition of group I (ten samples) was dominated by β-pinene and α-pinene, group II (nine samples) was represented by α-phellandrene and p-cymene and group III (16 samples) by β-elemol. A sample displayed an atypical composition dominated by (E)-β-caryophyllene.
      PubDate: 2017-01-21T03:10:47.784628-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600313
       
  • Bioprospecting of Turbinaria Macroalgae as a Potential Source of Health
           Protective Compounds
    • Authors: Milena Stranska-Zachariasova; Isma Kurniatanty, Helena Gbelcova, Monika Jiru, Josep Rubert, Tjokorda Gde Tirta Nindhia, Cosimo Walter D'Acunto, Sony Heru Sumarsono, Marselina Irasonia Tan, Jana Hajslova, Tomas Ruml
      Abstract: The present study aims to focus on the bioprospecting of marine macroalgae of Turbinaria species, plenteous biomass of the world ocean. Three types of solvents, i.e., H2O, MeOH/H2O (80:20, v/v) and hexane/i-PrOH (50:50, v/v), were used for extraction. Both the biological activity and the pattern of present chemicals were characterized. For the cell proliferation assay, the human embryonic kidney 293 cells, cervix/breast/pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and osteosarcoma cells were used. For the antioxidant activity determination, both intracellular assay with human embryonic kidney and cervix adenocarcinoma cells, as well as the biochemical DPPH test, were employed. To complete the information about macroalgae composition, organic compounds were characterized by the liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Attention was concentrated mainly on the lipidomic profile characterization. In spite the fact that any significant antiproliferative effect was not observed for cancer cells, both the Turbinaria species were shown to be good protectors against the oxidative stress of the non-cancer cells. Most of the antioxidants were determined in the hexane/i-PrOH extract. As regards the lipids identified, most of them belonged to the triacylglycerols followed by sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, and polar (lyso)phospholipids. Additionally to fatty acids with 14, 16 and 18 carbons, also those with odd carbon numbers were frequently present.
      PubDate: 2017-01-21T03:10:41.542648-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600192
       
  • Identification of Sternbin and Naringenin as Detoxified Metabolites from
           the Rice Flavanone Phytoalexin Sakuranetin by Pyricularia oryzae
    • Authors: Shun Katsumata; Kazuho Hamana, Kiyotaka Horie, Hiroaki Toshima, Morifumi Hasegawa
      Abstract: Sakuranetin (1) is a flavanone phytoalexin that has been reported to play an important role in disease resistance in rice plants. The rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae) has been reported to metabolize 1 to lower its antifungal activity. Here, two flavanones, sternbin (2) and naringenin (3), were identified as metabolites of 1 in P. oryzae suspension culture by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The inhibition of 1, 2, and 3 on P. oryzae mycelial growth were 45%, 19%, and 19%, respectively, at a concentration of 100 μm. Thus, 2 and 3 are detoxified metabolites of 1 by P. oryzae.
      PubDate: 2017-01-21T03:10:38.48589-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600240
       
  • Detection and Toxicity Evaluation of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Medicinal
           Plants Gynura bicolor and Gynura divaricata Collected from Different
           Chinese Locations
    • Authors: Jian Chen; Han Lü, Lian-Xiang Fang, Wei-Lin Li, Luc Verschaeve, Zheng-Tao Wang, Norbert De Kimpe, Sven Mangelinckx
      Abstract: Two edible plants in Southeast Asia, Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata, are not only known to be nutritive but also useful as medicinal herbs. Previous phytochemical investigation of Gynura species showed the presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), indicating the toxic risk of using these two plants. The present study was designed to analyze the distribution of PA components and tried to evaluate the preliminary toxicity of these two Gynura species. Eight samples of G. bicolor and G. divaricata from five different Chinese locations were collected and their specific PAs were qualitatively characterized by applying an UPLC/MS/MS spectrometry method. Using a pre-column derivatization HPLC method, the total retronecine ester-type PAs in their alkaloids extracts were quantitatively estimated as well. Finally, their genotoxicity was investigated with an effective high-throughput screening method referred to as Vitotox™ test and their potential cytotoxicity was tested on HepG2 cells. It was found that different types of PAs were widely present in Gynura species collected from south of China. Among them, no significant genotoxic effects were detected with serial concentrations through the present in vitro assay. However, the cytotoxicity assay of Gynura plants collected from Jiangsu displayed weak activity at the concentration of 100 mg/ml. It is important to note that this research validates in part the indication that the use of Gynura species requires caution.
      PubDate: 2017-01-21T03:10:29.317505-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600221
       
  • Chemical variability, antioxidant and antifungal activities of essential
           oils and hydrosol extract of Calendula arvensis L. from western Algeria
    • Authors: Rania Belabbes; Mohammed El Amine Dib, Nassim Djabou, Faiza Ilias, Boufeldja Tabti, Jean Costa, Alain Muselli
      Abstract: The chemical composition of the essential oils and hydrosol extract from aerial parts of Calendula arvensis L. was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of essential oils from 18 Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Chemical analysis allowed the identification of fifty-three compounds amounting to 92.3–98.5% with yields varied of 0.09-0.36% and the main compounds were zingiberenol 1 (8.7-29.8%), eremoligenol (4.2-12.5%), β-curcumene (2.1-12.5%), zingiberenol 2 (4.6-19.8%) and (E,Z)-farnesol (3.5-23.4%). The study of the chemical variability of essential oils allowed the discrimination of two main clusters confirming that there is a relation between the essential oil compositions and the harvest locations. Different concentrations of essential oil and hydrosol extract were prepared and their antioxidant activity were assessed using three methods (DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene). The results showed that hydrosol extract presented an interesting antioxidant activity. The in vitro antifungal activity of hydrosol extract produced the best antifungal inhibition against Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger, while, essential oil was inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. Results showed that the treatments of pear fruits with essential oil and hydrosol extract presented a very interesting protective activity on disease severity of pears caused by P. expansum.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-21T02:00:25.880832-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600482
       
  • Chemodiversity of the Essential Oil from Leaves of Abies nebrodensis
           (Lojac.) Mattei
    • Authors: Rosario Schicchi; Anna Geraci, Sergio Rosselli, Antonella Maggio, Maurizio Bruno
      Abstract: Abies nebrodensis (Lojac.) Mattei (Pinaceae) is a species occurring in a very small population only in a restricted area of Sicily. Its taxonomic classification as different species has been object of discussion. In this work the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves is presented for the first time and compared to the essential oils from other euroasiatic species reported in literature. Peculiar characteristics of the essential oil of A. nebrodensis are highlighted.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T00:05:28.035706-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600254
       
  • Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from
           Leaves and Flowers of Pulicaria incisa sub. candolleana Growing in Egypt
    • Authors: Esraa A. Shahat; Riham O. Bakr, Omayma A. Eldahshan, Nahla A. Ayoub
      Abstract: The composition of the essential oil isolated from leaves and flowers of Pulicaria incisa sub. candolleana E.Gamal-Eldin was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Forty-nine and sixty-eight compounds were identified from the oils of the leaves and flowers accounting for 86.69% and 84.29%, respectively of the total detected constituents. Both leaves and flowers oils were characterized by the high content of each carvotanacetone with 66.01%, 50.87% and chrysanthenone 13.26%, 24.3% respectively.The cytotoxic activity of both essential oils was evaluated against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HEPG-2, using MTT assay and vinblastine as a reference drug. Leaf oil showed higher activity with IC50 11.4 μg/mL compared with 37.4 μg/mL for flower oil.The antimicrobial activity of both oils was evaluated using agar well diffusion method towards two representatives for each of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as four representatives for fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both essential oils against bacterial and fungal strains was obtained in the range of 0.49 – 15.63 μg/mL.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-17T07:40:31.289381-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600156
       
  • Chemical composition of the essential oil of Nigeria grown Hoslundia
           opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) dried leaves and its bioactivity against cowpea
           seed bruchid
    • Authors: Samuel Adelani Babarinde; Olufemi Olutoyin Richard Pitan, Ganiyu Olatunji Olatunde, Michael Oluwole Ajala
      Abstract: Due to several ecological and human hazards of synthetic pesticides in postharvest crop protection, there is the need to search for eco-friendly alternatives. In this study, chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oil (EO) obtained from Hoslundia opposita dried leaves were evaluated against cowpea seed bruchid. Eight constituents, predominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.86%), were identified using GC-MS. The constituents were 1,8-cineole (1; 61.15%), followed by α-terpineol (2; 16.81%), β-phellandrene (3; 13.24%), β-farnesene (4; 3.55%), α-pinene (5; 1.89%), Germacrene D (6; 1.83%), cis-sabinene hydrate (7; 0.90%) and caryophyllene (8; 0.63%). In fumigation bioassay, at 6 hours after exposure (HAE), 0.78 mL EO/L air caused 35.33% mortality which was significantly lower than 60.90% and 63.6% observed at 3.15 and 6.25 mL/L air, respectively. Mortality reached 90.0% at 24 HAE regardless of the applied concentration. Lethal time for 50% of the bruchids (LT50) at concentration of 0.78 mL/L air (6.89 h) was higher than the LT50 at 3.15 and 6.25 mL/L air (4.72 and 4.44 h, respectively). H. opposita EO reduced C. maculatus oviposition, while progeny emergence observed in EO-treated seeds (2.42-25.73) was significantly (p
      PubDate: 2017-01-16T09:55:22.852578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600418
       
  • Phytochemical and Cytogenetic Characterization of Centaurea solstitialis
           L. (Asteraceae) from Croatia
    • Authors: Ivana Carev; Mirko Ruščić, Mirjana Skočibušić, Ana Maravić, Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev, Olivera Politeo
      Abstract: The cytogenetic characterization of Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae) showed a chromosome number of 2n = 16. Karyotype is composed by four pairs of metacentric, two pairs of submetacentric and two pairs of subtelocentric chromosomes. Physical mapping of two rDNA probes revealed two loci of 35S and one locus of 5S rRNA genes. Chromomycin fluorochrome banding revealed that all rDNA loci were GC rich. The genome size (2C-value) of 1.95 pg classes this species in the group of very small genomes. Chemical composition of C. solstitialis volatile oil (VO) from Croatia, studied with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry showed dominant components as it follows: hexadecanoic acid, α-linolenic acid, germacrene D and heptacosane. Antioxidant capacity, measured by ferric reducing power assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods, as well as inhibition of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase of VO was lower comparing to a standard solutions. Volatile oil tested with disc diffusion method showed good inhibitory potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and all tested fungi: Candida albicans, Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillus fumigatus. The microdilution method showed best activity against Chronobacter sakazakii and A. fumigatus.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T07:10:33.935217-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600213
       
  • Chemodiversity of Epicuticular n-Alkanes and Morphological Traits of
           Natural Populations of Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. along Dinaric
           Alps – Ecological and Taxonomic Aspects
    • Authors: Tanja Dodoš; Nemanja Rajčević, Vele Tešević, Petar D. Marin
      Abstract: Morphological characters and the composition of epicuticular leaf n-alkanes of two Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. subspecies (subsp. liburnica Šilić and subsp. subspicata) from nine natural populations along Dinaric Alps range were studied. Morphological characters were chosen based on Šilićʼs subspecies separation. Seventeen n-alkane homologues (C19 – C35) were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/flame ionisation detector (FID). The most abundant n-alkane in all populations was n-nonacosane (C29), followed by n-hentriacontane (C31), with the exception of Divača population where these two alkanes were co-dominant. Diversity and variability of n-alkane patterns and morphological characters and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters, including exposure, were analysed by several statistical multivariate methods (PCA, HCA, Discriminant Analysis, Mantel test). These tests showed clear separation of subsp. liburnica from subsp. subspicata, even though population Velebit showed separation from other subsp. liburnica populations based on phytochemical characters. Mantel test showed high correlation with geographical distribution in both investigated data sets. High correlation between morphological and phytochemical characters was also established. However, exposure can influence n-alkane profile, suggesting precaution while taking samples from natural habitats.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T07:10:30.439594-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600201
       
  • Recent Development of the Second and Third Generation Irreversible EGFR
           Inhibitors
    • Authors: Weiwei Han; Yongli Du
      Abstract: Recent reports suggested that essential directions for new lung cancer, breast carcinoma therapies, as well as the roomier realm of targeted cancer therapies were provided through targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Patients who carrying non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) with activating mutations in EGFR initially respond well to the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib, which were located the active site of the EGFR kinase and designed to act as competitive inhibitors of combining with the ATP. However, patients who treatment by the erlotinib and gefitinib will relapse because of the emergence of drug-resistant mutations,with T790M mutations accounting for approximately 60% of all resistance. In order to overcome drug resistance, Pharmaceutical chemistry experts recently devoted great endeavors to the development of second-generation irreversible selective inhibitors which covalently modify Cys797 or Cys773 at the ATP binding cleft. Nevertheless, these inhibitors have not reached ideal effect of experts in patients with T790M positive mutation and apparently because of the dose-limiting toxicities associated with inhibition of wild type EGFR. A novel class of “third generation” EGFR TKIs have been developed that is sensitising and T790M mutant-specific whilst sparing WT EGFR, representing a significant breakthrough in the treatment in NSCLC patients with acquired resistance harboring these genotypes. Herein, we provides an overview of the second and third generation inhibitors currently approved, in clinical trial and also encompasses novel structures of discovery .This review mainly focuses on drug resistance, their mechanisms of action, development of structure-activity relationships and binding modes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11T08:40:29.677174-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600372
       
  • Piptadenin, a Novel 3,4-Secooleanane Triterpene and Piptadenamide, a New
           
    • Authors: Amadou Dawé; Marius Mbiantcha, Yannick Fongang, William Yosseu Nana, Fawai Yakai, Gilbert Ateufack, Muhammad Ali Shaiq, Iqbal Lubna, Mehreen Lateef, Bonaventure Tchaleu Ngadjui
      Abstract: Piptadenin (1), a new triterpene along with piptadenamide (10), a new ceramide, have been isolated from the AcOEt-soluble fraction of the MeOH extract of the stem bark of Piptadeniastrum africanum along with nine known compounds, 1-O-[(3β,22β)-3,22-dihydroxy-28-oxoolean-12-en-28-yl]-β-d-glucopyranose (2), 22β-hydroxyoleanic acid (3), oleanic acid (4), lupeol (5), betulinic acid (6), 5α-stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β-ol (7), 5α-stigmasta-7,22-dien-3-one (8), (3β)-stigmast-5-en-3-yl β-d-glucopyranoside (9) and 2,3-dihydroxypropyl hexacosanoate (11). Except for compound 11, all the isolated compounds are reported for the first time from this plant. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR. The pure compounds 1 – 11 were subjected to the pharmacological screening and compounds 2, 5 – 7 and 9 exhibited potent urease inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 25.8, 28.9, 30.1, 31.8 and 32.7 μm, respectively, whereas compound 1 showed moderate activity (IC50 = 98.7 μm). The potent urease inhibitory activity supplemented the previous literature reports and medicinal uses of this plant.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T06:35:38.200595-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600215
       
  • Cytotoxic and Anti-inflammatory Sesquiterpenes from Ainsliaea henryi
    • Authors: Ren-Tao Zeng; Xue-Yun Dong, Xing Fang, Niao Yang, Zhi-Ran Shi, Zhi-Guo Zhuo, Yun-Heng Shen, Wei-Dong Zhang
      Abstract: Three new sesquiterpenoids, 4α-hydroxyeudesm-11(13)-en-12-yl 3-methylbutanoate (1), diaspanolide E (2), and (13α)-germacra-1(10),4-dien-12,8α-olid-15-oic acid (3), along with eight known sesquiterpenoids (4 – 11), were isolated from the aerial parts of Ainsliaea henryi. The chemical structures of compounds 1 – 3 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (1D-, 2D-NMR, MS and HR/MS). All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Compound 10 exhibited significantly inhibition against NO release with an IC50 value of 6.54 ± 0.16 μm. Also, all isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against three human tumor cell lines A549, MGC803, and HCT116, among which compound 5 significantly inhibited the proliferation of MGC803 cell lines with an IC50 value of 2.2 ± 0.2 μm.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T05:30:22.265314-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600210
       
  • Triterpenoid Saponins with Potential Cytotoxic Activities from the Root
           Bark of Ilex rotunda Thunb.
    • Authors: Wei-Jie Liu; Yu-Yuan Peng, Hao Chen, Xian-Fang Liu, Jing-Yu Liang, Jian-Bo Sun
      Abstract: A new 19-oxo-18,19-seco-ursane-type triterpeonoid saponin, laevigin E (8), together with 17 known compounds (1 – 7 and 9 – 18) were isolated from the root bark of Ilex rotunda Thunb. Their structures were determined by various spectroscopic analysis. Among them, compounds 6, 9, 11, and 18 were isolated from this species for the first time, while compounds 10 and 12 were firstly isolated from the family Aquifoliaceae. Biological activity assay showed that all triterpenoids exhibit moderate cytotoxic activities against MCF7, A549, HeLa and LN229 cell lines. The four triterpenoid saponins (3, 4, 6, and 8) exhibit slightly better activities compared to the four triterpenoid sapogenins (1, 2, 5, and 7). Compound 8 showed the best cytotoxicity against A549, HeLa and LN229 cell lines with IC50 of 17.83, 22.58 and 30.98 μm, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T04:55:22.932936-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600209
       
  • Antileishmanial activity and immunomodulatory effects of tricin isolated
           from leaves of Casearia arborea (Salicaceae)
    • Authors: Augusto L. Santos; Eduardo S. Yamamoto, Luiz Felipe D. Passero, Márcia D. Laurenti, Ligia F. Martins, Marta L. Lima, Miriam Uemi, Marisi G. Soares, João Henrique G. Lago, Andre G. Tempone, Patricia Sartorelli
      Abstract: Bioactivity-guided fractionation of antileishmanial active extract from leaves of Casearia arborea led to isolation of three metabolites: tricin (1), 1′,6′-di-O-β-D-vanilloyl glucopyranoside (2) and vanillic acid (3). Compound 1 demonstrated the highest activity against the intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum, with an IC50 value of 56 μM. Tricin (1) demonstrated selectivity in mammalian cells (SI> 7) and elicited immunomodulatory effect on host cells. The present work suggests that tricin modulated the respiratory burst of macrophages to a leishmanicidal state, contributing to the parasite elimination. Therefore, the natural compound tricin could be further explored in drug design studies for leishmaniasis treatment.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-05T08:05:23.02208-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600458
       
  • Cytotoxic Triterpenoids from the Barks of Betula platyphylla var. japonica
    • Authors: Hee Jeong Eom; Hee Rae Kang, Sang Un Choi, Ki Hyun Kim
      Abstract: Phytochemical investigation on the barks of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) was carried out, resulting in the isolation and identification of three new triterpenoids, 27-O-cis-caffeoylcylicodiscic acid (1), 27-O-cis-feruloylcylicodiscic acid (2), and 27-O-cis-caffeoylmyricerol (3), along with six known triterpenoids, obtusilinin (4), winchic acid (5), 27-O-trans-caffeoylcylicodiscic acid (6), uncarinic acid E (7), myriceric acid B (8), and 3-O-caffeoyloleanolic acid (9). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D, 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and Bt549). Compounds 2, 6, 8, and 9 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against all of the tumor cells tested (IC50 < 10.0 μM), while compounds 3, 4, 5, and 7 showed moderate cytotoxicity against all of the tumor cells tested (IC50 < 20.0 μM).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04T08:40:21.773991-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600400
       
  • Chemical composition and biological prospects of essential oils and
           extracts of Aphyllocladus spartioides growing in Northwest Argentina
    • Authors: Liliana Celaya; Carmen Viturro, Luís Silva
      Abstract: Aphyllocladus spartioides Weddell is a native and aromatic herb used in traditional medicine, however it is still poorly investigated. In this work, the volatile profile of A. spartioides growing in Hornillos-Northwest Argentina was determined by GC-MS/FID and the phenolic compounds of hydroethanolic and decoction extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The antibacterial potential, antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibition activity were checked by in vitro assays. The volatile profile allowed the identification of 68 compounds, being α-pinene and cadinene the main ones. Eighteen phenolics were identified, isorhamnetin derivatives and different phenolic acids were found in higher amounts, mainly in the hydroethanolic extract. A concentration-dependent activity was noticed against DPPH•, O2•—, •NO and α-glucosidase, these activities being reported for the first time. Hydroethanolic extract was most active against DPPH•, •NO and α-glucosidase (IC50 = 79, 206 and 181 μg/mL). Decoction extract proved to be better against O2•— (IC50 = 20 μg/mL). Regarding the antibacterial activity, hydroethanolic extract was more active compared with decoction and essential oil. MICs of 0.3-0.6 mg/mL were obtained against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus. Results suggest that the extracts of A. spartioides from Northwest Argentina may be interesting to use as a source of natural antioxidants/antimicrobials for pharmaceutical incorporations or food supplementation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-30T09:47:14.97734-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600227
       
  • Synthesis and in-vitro bioactivity evaluation of new galactose and
           fructose ester derivatives of 5-aminosalicylic acid
    • Authors: Samira Yousefi; Saadi Bayat, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman, Zalikha Ibrahim, Emilia Abdulmalek
      Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the main risk factor for developing colorectal cancer which is common in patients of all ages. 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), structurally related to the salicylates, is highly active in the treatment of IBD with minor side effects. In this study, the synthesis of galactose and fructose esters of 5-ASA was planned to evaluate the role of glycoconjugation on the bioactivity of the parent drug. The antibacterial activity of the new compounds were evaluated against two Gram-negative and two Gram-positive species of bacteria, with a notable effect observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in comparisons with the 5-ASA. Cytotoxicity testing over HT-29 and 3T3 cell lines indicated that the toxicity of the new products against normal cells was significantly reduced compared with the original drug, whereas their activity against cancerous cells was slightly decreased. The anti-inflammatory activity test in RAW264.7 macrophage cells indicated that the inhibition of nitric oxide by both of the monosaccharide conjugated derivatives was slightly improved in comparison with the non-conjugated drug.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-30T09:46:53.392342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600362
       
  • Physicochemical, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Xao tam phan
           (Paramignya trimera) root extract and its fractions
    • Authors: Nguyen Van Tang; Jennette A. Sakoff, Christopher J. Scarlett
      Abstract: Xao tam phan (Paramignya trimera (Oliv.) Guillaum) has been used as a medicinal plant for cancer prevention and treatment in recent years. The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of crude P. trimera root (PTR) extract and its fractions using methanol as a solvent and microwave-assisted extraction as an advanced technique for preparation of the PTR extract. The results showed that the PTR extract had high contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins (7731.05 mg escin equivalents, 238.13 mg gallic acid equivalents, 81.49 mg rutin equivalents and 58.08 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively). Antioxidant activity of PTR extract was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of four its fractions and ostruthin, a key bioactive compound in the P. trimera, while potent cytotoxic capacity of PTR extract on various cancer cell lines in terms of MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas), HT29 (colon), A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MCF-7 (breast), MCF-10A (normal breast), and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma) was observed with GI50 values ranging from 15-32 μg/mL. Cytotoxic potential on pancreatic cancer cells of PTR extract (100-200 μg/mL) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of four its fractions (50 μg/mL), ostruthin (20 μg/mL) and gemcitabine (50 nM), and being comparable to a saponin-enriched extract from quillajia bark, a commercial product. Based on the results achieved, we can conclude that the P. trimera root extract is a potential source for application of in the nutraceutical, medical and pharmaceutical industries.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T06:20:20.515993-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600396
       
  • Yield, Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of the Essential Oil of Sweet
           Basil and Holy Basil as Influenced by Distillation Methods
    • Authors: Santosh Shiwakoti; Osama Saleh, Shital Poudyal, Abdulssamad Barka, Yanping Qian, Valtcho D. Zheljazkov
      Abstract: The profile and bioactivity of essential oil (EO) depends on genetic, environmental, and other factors. We hypothesized that the basil EO may be influenced by the distillation methods. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate the effect of steam distillation (SD) and hydrodistillation (HD) extraction method on the yield, composition, and bioactivity of EO of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) and holy basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum). In both basil species, the EO yield (content) was significantly higher from SD than from HD. There were significant differences in the compounds’ concentrations of EO obtained from SD and HD as well, however, the same compounds were identified in the EO from HD and SD. In the EO of O. basilicum, the concentration of 74% of the identified compounds were higher in SD than HD, whereas in the EO of O. tenuiflorum, the concentration of 84% of identified compounds were higher in SD than in HD. However, the concentrations of two of the major compounds of O. basilicum EO (estragole and methyl cinnamate) and a major compound of O. tenuiflorum EO (methyl eugenol) were significantly higher in HD than in SD. The type of distillation did not affect the antioxidant capacity of basil EO within the species. This study demonstrated that the type of distillation may significantly affect oil yield and composition but not the antioxidant capacity of the EO from sweet and holy basil.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T02:35:24.745527-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600417
       
  • Differential accumulation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) by leaves
           and roots of two Guianese Philodendron species, P. fragrantissimum Kunth
           and P. melinonii Brongn
    • Authors: Nina Joffard; Laurent Legendre, Marc Gibernau, Laurence Pascal
      Abstract: Leaf and root essential oils of two closely related but ecologically distant Philodendron species were extracted in natural conditions in French Guyana and analysed by GC-MS to (i) describe the blends of Volatile Organic Compounds produced by those species and (ii) analyse species and environment-based variations in extracts composition. A total of 135 VOCs were detected with a majority of aliphatic sesquiterpenes. Philodendron fragrantissimum produced mainly β-bisabolene (on average 29.12% of the extract) as well as α- and β-selinene (14.52 and 17.50%, respectively) while in P. melinonii, four aliphatic sesquiterpenes could alternatively be the main component: E-β-farnesene (up to 91.42% of the extract), germacrene-D (73.74%), β-caryophyllene (51.63%) and trans-α-bergamotene (41.26%). A significant effect of species and organs on extracts composition was observed while the environment (sun exposure) only affected the relative proportions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in roots of P. melinonii. These results are discussed in the light of the potential role of leaf and root terpenes in Philodendron species.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T18:36:41.661004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600415
       
  • Species specificity of aldehyde and fatty acid profiles of four family
           group representatives within the insect infraorder Pentatomomorpha
           (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)
    • Authors: Aleš Tomčala; Anna Jirošová, Petr Žáček, Markéta Kaušková, Oldřich Hovorka, Bohumír Koutek
      Abstract: Reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, including 4-oxo-2-alkenals, are known to be present in volatile secretions of numerous heteropteran insect species. Because the aldehydes are likely to originate from metabolism of fatty acids, the present study aimed to examine and compare the aldehyde and fatty acid profiles of four model heteropteran species. The model species consisted of adult family group representatives within the infraorder Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): seed bug (Lygaeus equestris [Lygaeoidea]), dock leaf bug (Coreus marginatus [Coreoidea]), red firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus [Pyrrhocoroidea]), and European stink bug (Graphosoma lineatum [Pentatomoidea]). Solid-phase microextraction combined with two-dimensional gas-chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to establish the profiles of volatile secretions in stressed living insects. The fatty acid profiles of acylglyceride and phospholipid fractions deposited in fat body and/or hemolymph were obtained by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection techniques. Our results based on multivariate statistical analyses of the data imply that volatile secretion blends as well as fat body and/or hemolymph lipid profiles are species specific but the differences in volatile blends between different species do not mirror the changes in corresponding fat body and/or hemolymph lipid profiles of stressed and non-stressed individuals.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T18:36:34.037019-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600420
       
  • Pinecone of Pinus koraiensis Inducing Apoptosis in Human Lung Cancer Cells
           by Activating Caspase-3 and its Chemical Constituents
    • Authors: Tae Kyoung Lee; Hyun-Soo Roh, Jae Sik Yu, Jiwon Baek, Seul Lee, Moonjin Ra, Sun Young Kim, Kwan-Hyuck Baek, Ki Hyun Kim
      Abstract: Pinecones from Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. (Pinaceae), which have historically been treated as an undesired waste by-product in the processing of seeds, have recently been shown to contain ingredients with potent biological activities, such as polyphenols exhibiting anti-tumor activity. With this study, we seek to broaden our understanding of anti-tumor compounds contained in these pinecones beyond just polyphenols. We found that the water extract of P. koraiensis pinecones exhibits significant anti-cancer activity, with IC50 values ranging from 0.62 to 1.73 mg/mL in four human lung cancer cell lines, A549, H1264, H1299, and Calu-6, irrespective of their p53 status. We also demonstrate that pinecone water extract induces apoptosis associated with caspase-3 activation in the same cancer cell lines. Chemical investigation of the pinecone water extract revealed eight main components (1-8), and their structures were identified as dehydroabietic acid (1), 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietic acid (2), 7β,15-dihydroxydehydroabietic acid (3), β-D-glucopyranosyl labda-8(17,13)-diene-(15,16)-lactone-19-oate (4), 7α,15-dihydroxydehydroabietic acid (5), (1S,2S,4R)-(+)-limonene-1,2-diol (6), sobrerol (7), and 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (8). These findings suggest a novel biological application of P. koraiensis pinecones in combatting human lung cancer, and further identify the major compounds that could contribute to this anti-cancer activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-27T10:40:24.655262-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600412
       
  • Biologically Active Heterocyclic Hybrids Based on Quinazolinone,
           Benzofuran and Imidazolium Moieties: Synthesis, Characterization,
           Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Evaluation
    • Authors: Parvin Asadi; Ghadamali Khodarahmi, Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi, Lotfollah Saghaie, Farshid Hassanzadeh
      Abstract: Cytotoxic and antimicrobial agents structurally based on quinazolinone, benzofuran and imidazole pharmacophores, have been designed and synthesized. Spectral (IR, 1H NMR) and elemental analysis data established the structures of these novel 1-[[(1-(benzofuran-2-yl)-2-(quinazolin-4(3H)-one-3-yl)]ethyl-1-yl]-3- methyl imidazol-1-ium chloride hybrid derivatives. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities. Cytotoxic evaluation using MTT assay revealed that compounds 12c, 12g and 12i exhibited significant cytotoxicity with IC50 values 1, 1, 0.57 μM on this cell line, respectively. Biological activity of the synthesized compounds as antibacterial agent were also evaluated against three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi), three Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocitogenes) and one yeast-like fungi (Candida albicans) strains. All compounds (12a-i) showed slightly higher activity against Gram-positive bacteria than the Gram-negative one. Among the nine new compounds screened, 1-[[(1-(5-bromo benzofuran-2-yl) -2-(6-chloro quinazolin-4(3H)-one-3-yl)] ethyl-1-yl]-3- methyl imidazol-1-ium chloride (12e) has pronounced higher antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. These results demonstrated potential importance of molecular hybridization in the development of new lead molecules with major cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-21T15:56:41.168519-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600411
       
  • Chemical traits of hemiparasitism in Odontites luteus
    • Authors: Alessandro Venditti; Claudio Frezza, Sebastiano Foddai, Mauro Serafini, Marcello Nicoletti, Armandodoriano Bianco
      Abstract: The study of the monoterpene glycosides content of Odontites luteus has shown the presence of a total of fifteen iridoid glucosides. The presence of compounds (1-5) and (7-10) is perfectly on-line with both the biogenetic pathway for iridoids biosynthesis in Lamiales and the current botanical classification of the species. On the other side, the presence of compounds like agnuside (6), adoxosidic acid (11), monotropein (12), 6,7-dihydromonotropein (13), methyl oleoside (14) and methyl gluco-oleoside (15) is of high interest because, first of all, they have never been reported before in Lamiales. In second instance, the majority of the last compounds are formally derived from a different biogenetic pathway which involves desoxyloganic acid/loganin and led to the formation of decarboxylated iridoid showing the 8β-stereochemistry. Furthermore, a second abnormality was found during our study and this regards compounds (14) and (15) which are seco-iriodids and thus not typical for this family. The presence of these unusual compounds, biogenetically not related to species belonging to Lamiales, is a clear evidence of the metabolites transfer from the hosts. In fact, the collection area is also populated by species belonging to Oleaceae and Ericaceae which could be the possible hosts since the biosynthesis of seco-iridoids and or iridoids related to deoxyloganic acid/loganin pathway, with the 8β-stereochemistry, is well documented in these species.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-20T15:30:22.223971-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600416
       
  • Two New Ergosterol Derivatives from the Basidiomycete Cortinarius
           glaucopus
    • Authors: Hnin Thanda Aung; Alessio Porta, Marco Clericuzio, Yoshiaki Takaya, Giovanni Vidari
      Abstract: Two new (1, 2) and five (3-7) known sterols were isolated for the first time from the fruiting bodies of Cortinarius glaucopus. Their structures were established by 1- and 2D-NMR spectra and HR-FABS-MS. The relative configuration of 1 was firmly determined by comparison of the observed 1H-1H couplings and NOESY correlations, with those predicted for the computed geometries of the conformers. Calculations were performed by means of DFT with the B3LYP functional at 6-31+G(d,p) level of theory, in CHCl3 as the solvent. The structures of the new ergosterol derivatives, called glaucoposterol A (1) and B (2), were thus established as (3S, 5R, 7R, 10R, 13R, 17R, 20S, 22R, 23R, 24R)-5,6-epoxy-3,7,23-trihydroxystrophast-8-en-14-one and (22E, 3S, 5S, 9S, 10R, 13R, 17R, 20R, 24R)-3,5-dihydroxyergosta-6, 8(14), 22-trien-15-one, respectively. Moreover, the stereochemistry of known strophasterol C (3) was determined as 3S, 5R, 6S, 7R, 10R, 13R, 17R, 20S, 22S, 24R. Glaucoposterol A (1) and strophasterol C (3) represent the second finding in nature of steroids with the rare strophastane skeleton.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T05:55:52.412471-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600421
       
  • Laserpitium zernyi Hayek Flower and Herb Extracts: Phenolic Compounds, and
           Anti-edematous, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities
    • Authors: Višnja B. Popović; Maja A. Tomić, Radica M. Stepanović-Petrović, Ana M. Micov, Marina T. Milenković, Silvana D. Petrović, Ljuboš J. Ušjak, Marjan S. Niketić
      Abstract: Phenolic compounds and different biological activities of the dry methanol extracts of the flowers and the herb (aerial parts without flowers) of Laserpitium zernyi Hayek (Apiaceae) were investigated. The total phenolic contents in the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. In both extracts, apigenin, luteolin, their 7-O-glucosides and chlorogenic acid were detected by HPLC. Identified phenolics were quantified in both extracts, except luteolin in L. zernyi herb extract. The extracts (p.o.) were tested for anti-edematous activity in a model of carrageenan (i.pl.) induced rat paw edema. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed by FRAP assay and DPPH and 'OH radicals scavenging tests. Antimicrobial activity was investigated using broth microdilution test against five Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria, as well as against two strains of Candida albicans. The polyphenol-richer flower extract exerted higher anti-edematous and antioxidant activities. The herb extract exhibited better antimicrobial effect against Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while against other tested microorganisms the activity of both extracts was identical. Demonstrated biological activities of L. zernyi flower and herb extracts represent a good basis for their further investigation as potential new herbal medicinal raw materials.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T04:45:23.030796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600432
       
  • Natural products among brown algae: The case of Cystoseira schiffneri
           Hamel (Sargassaceae, Phaeophyceae)
    • Authors: Abdelkader Ben Salem; Graziano Di Giuseppe, Andrea Anesi, Saoussen Hammami, Zine Mighri, Graziano Guella
      Abstract: A chemotaxonomic study on the marine brown alga Cystoseira schiffneri collected from the Tunisian marine coast allowed us to identify kjellmanianone (1) and a new isololiolide derivative named schiffnerilolide (2). The structure elucidation and the assignment of relative configurations of the isolated natural products were based on advanced mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. This outcome suggested a close phylogenetic relationship of Cystoseira schiffneri with brown algae belonging to genus Sargassum C. Agardh.Molecular characterization using the nuclear small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene (18S) sequence as genetic marker was made.Pigment analysis showed a significant seasonal change of carotenoids, in particular of fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol. Also galactolipids, the main constituents of the thylakoid membranes, showed remarkable seasonal changes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-16T04:40:32.934195-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600333
       
  • Investigations on antioxidant, antiproliferative and COX-2 inhibitory
           potential of alkaloids from Anthocephalus Cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. leaves
    • Authors: Madhu Chandel; Manish Kumar, Upendra Sharma, Bikram Singh, Satwinderjeet Kaur
      Abstract: In the present study, an ayurvedic medicinal plant, Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. commonly known as “Kadamb” was explored for its potential against oxidative stress and cancer. The fractions namely AC-4 and ACALK (alkaloid rich fraction) were isolated from Anthocephalus cadamba leaves by employing two different isolation methods and evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The isolated molecule, AC-4 was characterized tentatively as dihydrocadambine by using various spectroscopic techniques such as ESI-QTOF-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC and HMBC. Results of various antioxidant assays viz. DPPH, ABTS cation radical, superoxide anion radical scavenging and plasmid nicking assay demonstrated that both the fractions viz. AC-4 and ACALK possess ability to scavenge DPPH, ABTS radicals and effectively protected plasmid pBR322 DNA from damage caused by hydroxyl radicals. Further, when both fractions were evaluated for their potential to suppress growth of HeLa and COLO 205 cells, only ACALK fraction showed antiproliferative effects. ACALK exhibited GI50 of 205.98 μg/ml and 99.54 μg/ml in HeLa and COLO 205 cell lines respectively. Results of Hoechst staining in cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells confirmed that ACALK induced cell death in HeLa cells via apoptotic mode. Both the fractions also inhibited COX-2 enzyme activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-14T10:50:32.16629-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600376
       
  • Variations in chemical composition, vasorelaxant and angiotensin
           I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of essential oil from aerial
           parts of Seseli pallasii Besser (Apiaceae)
    • Authors: Relja Suručić; Tatjana Kundaković, Branislava Lakušić, Dragana Drakul, Slobodan R. Milovanović, Nada Kovačević
      Abstract: The present paper describes environmental and seasonal-related chemical composition variations, vasorelaxant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activities of essential oil from aerial parts of Seseli pallasii Besser. The composition was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Monoterpens were found to be the most abundant chemical class with α-pinene (42.7-48.2%) as the most prevalent component. Seseli pallasi essential oil relaxed isolated endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries rings precontracted with phenylephrine with IC50= 3.10 nl/ml (IC50=2.70 μg/ml). Also, S. pallasii essential oil was found to exhibit a dose-dependent ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.33 mg/ml. In silico evaluation of ACE inhibitory activity of the individual components showed that spathulenol exhibited the best binding affinity with ACE, and the lowest binding energy of -7.5 kcal/mol. The results suggested that combination of vasorelaxing and ACE inhibitory effects of the analyzed S. pallasii essential oil might have the potential therapeutic significance in hypertension.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-10T08:20:39.199977-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600407
       
  • Chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and mode of action of
           essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae, etiological agent of American
           Foulbrood on Apis mellifera
    • Authors: María Celeste Pellegrini; Rosa María Alonso-Salces, María Laura Umpierrez, Carmen  Rossini, Sandra Rosa Fuselli
      Abstract: This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of Aloysia polystachia, Acantholippia seriphioides, Schinus molle, Solidago chilensis, Lippia turbinata, Minthostachys mollis, Buddleja globosa and Baccharis latifolia essential oils (EOs), and evaluate their antibacterial activities and their capacity to provoke membrane disruption in Paenibacillus larvae, the bacteria that causes the American Foulbrood disease on honey bee larvae. The relationship between the composition of the EOs and these activities on P. larvae was also analyzed. Monoterpenes were the most abundant compounds in all EOs. All EOs showed antimicrobial activity against P. larvae and disrupted the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of P. larvae provoking the leakage of cytoplasmic constituents (with the exception of B. latifolia EO). While, the EOs′ antimicrobial activity was correlated most strongly to the content of pulegone, carvone, (Z)-β-ocimene, δ-cadinene, camphene, terpinen-4-ol, elemol, β-pinene, β-elemene, γ-cadinene, α-terpineol and bornyl acetate; the volatiles that better explained the membrane disruption were carvone, limonene, cis-carvone oxide, pentadecane, trans-carvyl acetate, trans-carvone oxide, trans-limonene oxide, artemisia ketone, trans-carveol, thymol and γ-terpinene (positively correlated) and biciclogermacrene, δ-2-carene, verbenol, α-pinene and α-thujene (negatively correlated). The studied EOs are proposed as natural alternative means of control for the American Foulbrood disease.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-10T08:00:34.713965-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600382
       
  • Five new C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium tianshanicum W. T. Wang
    • Authors: by Ji-Fa Zhang; Lian-Hai Shan, Feng Gao, Shuai Huang, Xian-Li Zhou
      Abstract: Five new diterpenoid alkaloids tianshanitine A-E (1-5), along with ten known compounds (6-15), were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of the whole plant of Delphinium tianshanicum W. T. Wang. Their structures were determined based on extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D, 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and the structure of tianshanitine C (3) was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Tianshanitine A (1) is the first example of natural diterpenoid alkaloid containing a benzoyl group at C-1 position. Tianshanitine B (2) is a rare natural diterpenoid alkaloid including a hydroxyl group at C-16 position. Compounds 1-5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against HCT116, MCF-7 and HepG2 human cancer cell lines.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09T17:20:29.099703-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600297
       
  • Variability of Pinus halepensis Mill. essential oils and their antioxidant
           activities depending on the stage of growth during vegetative cycle
    • Authors: Zineb Djerrad; Abderrahmane Djouahri, Leila Kadik
      Abstract: The impact of growth stages during vegetative cycle (B0-B5) on chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Pinus halepensis Mill. needles essential oils was investigated for the first time. GC and GC–MS analyses pointed to a quantitative variability of components; terpene hydrocarbons derivatives, represented by α-pinene (8.5-12.9%), myrcene (17.5-21.6%), p-cymene (7.9-11.9%) and (Z)-β-caryophyllene (17.3-21.2%) as major components, decreased from 88.9% at B0 growth stage to 66.9% at B5 growth stage, whereas oxygenated derivatives, represented by caryophyllene oxide (5.4-12.6%) and terpinen-4-ol (0.4-3.3%) as major components, increased from 7% at B0 growth stage to 28.4% at B5 growth stage. Furthermore, our findings showed that essential oil of P. halepensis needles collected at B5 growth stage possess higher antioxidant activities by four different testing systems than those collected at B0-B4 growth stages. This highlighted variability led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on growth stage, in order to have the highest effectiveness of essential oil in terms of biological activities for human health purposes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09T15:35:23.836895-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600340
       
  • New furanone derivatives and alkaloids from the co-culture of
           marine-derived fungi Aspergillus sclerotiorum and Penicillium citrinum
    • Authors: Jie Bao; Jie Wang, Xiao-Yong Zhang, Xu-Hua Nong, Shu-Hua Qi
      Abstract: Six new compounds including two furanone derivatives sclerotiorumins A-B (1-2), one novel oxadiazin derivative sclerotiorumin C (3), one pyrrole derivative 1-(4-benzyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)ethanone (4), and two complexes of neoaspergillic acid aluminiumneohydroxyaspergillin (5) and ferrineohydroxyaspergillin (6) were isolated from the co-culture of marine-derived fungi Aspergillus sclerotiorum and Penicillium citrinum. Compound 3 was the first natural 1,2,4-oxadiazin-6-one. Compound 5 showed significant and selective cytotoxicity against human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cell line (IC50 = 4.2 μM) and strong toxicity towards brine shrimp (LC50 = 6.1 μM), and oppositely increased the growth and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09T15:25:23.092693-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600327
       
  • Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Different Morphological
           Parts of Pinus cembra L
    • Authors: Anna Lis; Aleksandra Kalinowska, Agnieszka Krajewska, Karolina Mellor
      Abstract: The essential oils from needles, twigs, bark, wood and cones of Pinus cembra were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. More than 130 compounds were identified. The oils differed in the quantitative composition. The principal components of the oil from twigs with needles wereα-pinene (36.3%), limonene (22.7%) and β-phellandrene (12.0%). The needle oil was dominated by α-pinene (48.4%), whereas in the oil from bark and in the oil from twigs without needles there were limonene (36.2% and 33.6%, respectively) andβ-phellandrene (18.8% and 17.1%, respectively). The main constituents of the wood oil as well as cone oil were α-pinene (35.2% and 39.0%, respectively) and β-pinene (10.4% and 18.9%, respectively). The wood oil and the cone oil contained large amounts of oxygenated diterpenes in comparison with needle, twig and bark oils.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2016-12-09T09:10:19.571764-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201600345
       
 
 
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