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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 844 journals)
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    - CHEMISTRY (594 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (594 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 245)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access  
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 313)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 122)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 89)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 179)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 227)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Chemistry & Biodiversity
  [SJR: 0.542]   [H-I: 49]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1612-1872 - ISSN (Online) 1612-1880
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Phytochemical Composition and Biological Activities of Dyssodia
           tagetiflora Lag
    • Authors: Ana María García-Bores; Amira Arciniegas-Arciniegas, Alma Reyna Campos, Carlos Céspedes-Acuña, Betsaida Avila-Suárez, Julio Alarcón-Enos, Saul Flores-Maya, Adriana Montserrat Espinosa-González, Alfonso Romo de Vivar-Romo, Carlos Pérez Plasencia, José Guillermo Avila-Acevedo
      Abstract: While plants of the genus Dyssodia are used by man to a certain extent, few phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been performed with species of this genus. D. tagetiflora is an endemic plant of Mexico and has been used as fodder. The aim of this research was to isolate and identify the main bioactive components and evaluate the insecticidal, antioxidant, genotoxic and cytoprotective activities of D. tagetiflora. The isolated substances included an essential oil composed of six monoterpenes, and extracts containing two flavonols, three flavonol-glycosides and four thiophenes. The compounds were characterised using spectroscopic and spectrometric methods, including GC/MS, MS and NMR. The essential oil showed insecticidal activity against Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The methanolic extract of D. tagetiflora (DTME) had strong antioxidant activity against DPPH and ABTS radicals; DTME showed no evidence of genotoxic or cytotoxic effects. In contrast, DTME showed a cytoprotective effect attenuating the formation of H2O2-induced micronuclei in Vicia faba roots. This report is the first to describe the phytochemical and biological activity of D. tagetiflora.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-12-10T02:40:41.972296-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700415
       
  • Chagosendines A-C, New Metal Complexes of Imidazole Alkaloids from the
           Calcareous Sponge Leucetta chagosensis
    • Authors: Bang An; Fuling Yin, Nicole J. de Voogd, Xiaoguang Chen, Wei Cheng, Wenhan Lin
      Abstract: Chemical examination of the bright yellow sponge Leucetta chagosensis resulted in the isolation of three new imidazole-based alkaloid complexes namely chagosendines A-C (1-3), together with known analogues pyronaamidine, naamidine J, and naamine C. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (IR, MS, NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction) analysis in association with the chemical conversion. The isolated alkaloids together with three synthesized new homodimer complexes were evaluated for the antitumor activities. The copper complexes of imidazole alkaloids 2 and 3, as found from nature for the first time, exerted selective and remarkable activities against the tumor cell lines K562, HepG2 and Hela.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T08:00:39.438421-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700481
       
  • Chemical composition and in vitro anthelmintic activity of extracts of
           Tagetes patula against a multidrug-resistant isolate of Haemonchus
           contortus
    • Authors: Flávio Augusto Sanches Politi; Amauri Alves Souza, Rafaela Regina Fantatto, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues Pietro, Waldomiro Barioni, Márcio Dias Rabelo, Humberto Ribeiro Bizzo, Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas, Maysa Furlan
      Abstract: Sheep breeding has suffered economic losses due to parasitism by gastrointestinal nematodes, particularly Haemonchus contortus. The use of natural products, specifically Tagetes patula, has been suggested as an alternative method of combatting this issue. Chemical analyses of the extracts of this species described in the literature report the presence of important classes of secondary metabolites such as thiophenes, flavonoids, alkaloids and benzofurans, some of which were identified and isolated in this study. The aim of this work was to test the effect of the essential oil (EO) and the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts (TpEtOH) of T. patula on eggs and larvae of H. contortus, through an egg hatch test (EHT) and a larval development test (LDT). In the EHT, the EO showed 100% inhibition at 0.75 mg.mL−1 (LC50 = 0.0780 mg.mL−1), and the TpEtOH showed 100% inhibition at 100 mg.mL−1 (LC50 = 12.8 mg.mL−1). In the LDT, the EO showed 100% inhibition at 0.375 mg.mL−1 (LC50 = 0.0400 mg.mL−1), and the TpEtOH showed 100% inhibition at 1.56 mg mL−1 (LC50 = 0.340 mg.mL−1). Compared to available literature data, the results presented here suggest that the crude extracts of T. patula have substantial potential for controlling this nematode by interrupting its life cycle and/or preventing it from reaching the infective stage.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27T03:10:47.080352-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700507
       
  • Bioactive Pimarane Diterpenes from the Arctic Fungus Eutypella sp. D-1
    • Authors: Xiaoli Wang; Kunlai Sun, Bin Wang
      Abstract: Two new pimarane diterpenes, libertellenone M (1) and libertellenone N (2), together with five known compounds were isolated from the culture extract of Eutypella sp. D-1 derived from high-latitude soil of the Arctic. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic data as well as experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analysis. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated. Compound 3 exhibited weak antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Vibrio vulnificus, each with MIC values of 16 μg/mL. Compounds 2 and 3 showed moderate cytotoxic activity against K562 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values of 7.67 and 9.57 μM, respectively.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:11:07.68289-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700501
       
  • Cytotoxic Triterpenoids from Roots of Actinidia chinensis
    • Authors: Liu-Bin Wei; Si-Yuan Ma, Hong-xing Liu, Chu-Sheng Huang, Na Liao
      Abstract: Phytochmical investigation of roots of Actinidia chinensis PLANCH led to the isolation triterpenoids 1 - 16, including a new compound 2α,3α,23,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid (1). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-ESI mass spectrometry, and by comparison with the literatures. The cytotoxicities of triterpenoids 1 - 16 against a panel of cultured human cancer cell lines (HepG2, A549, MCF-7, SK-OV-3, and HeLa) were evaluated. The new compound 1 exhibited moderate antitumor activities with IC50 values of 19.62 ± 0.81, 18.86 ± 1.56, 45.94 ± 3.62, 62.41 ± 2.29, and 28.74 ± 1.07 μM, respectively. The experiment data might be available to explain the use of roots of A. chinensis to treat various cancers in traditional Chinese medicine.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:36:34.71745-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700454
       
  • Chemical Polymorphism of Essential Oils of Artemisia vulgaris Growing Wild
           in Lithuania
    • Authors: Asta Judzentiene; Jurga Budiene
      Abstract: Compositional variability of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) essential oils has been investigated in the study. Plant material (over ground parts at full flowering stage) was collected from forty-four wild populations in Lithuania. The oils from aerial parts were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC(FID) and GC/MS. In total, up to 111 components were determined in the oils. As the major constituents were found: sabinene, 1,8-cineole, artemisia ketone, both thujone isomers, camphor, cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, davanone and davanone B.The compositional data were subjected to statistical analysis. The application of PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and AHC (Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering) allowed grouping the oils into six clusters. AHC permitted to distinguish an artemisia ketone chemotype, which, to the best of our knowledge, is very scarce. Additionally, two rare cis-chrysanthenyl acetate and sabinene oil types were determined for the plants growing in Lithuania. Besides, davanone was found for the first time as a principal component in mugwort oils.The performed study revealed significant chemical polymorphism of essential oils in mugwort plants native to Lithuania; it has expanded our chemotaxonomic knowledge both of A. vulgaris species and Artemisia genus.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:36:23.617937-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700257
       
  • Four New Acylated Iridoid Glycosides from the Aerial Part of Veronicastrum
           sibiricum and Their Antioxidant Response Element-Inducing Activity
    • Authors: Myeong Il Kim; Chul Young Kim
      Abstract: Four new (1 − 4) and one known (5) acylated iridoid glycosides were isolated from aerial parts of Veronicastrum sibiricum (L.) Pennell. The chemical structures of isolated compounds were determined to be 3′′,4′′-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosyl-10-O-bergaptol-5,7-bisdeoxycynanchoside (1), 3′′,4′′-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosylpaulownioside (2), 2′′,4′′-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (3), 3′′,4′′-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosylaucubin (4), and 3′′,4′′-dicinnamoyl-6-O-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (5) using spectroscopic techniques. Among these compounds, compound 5 increased antioxidant response element (ARE) luciferase activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:30:45.606524-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700447
       
  • Inter- and intraspecific variability of nitrogenated compounds in
           gorgonian corals via application of a fast one-step analytical protocol
    • Authors: Chiara Samorì; Federica Costantini, Paola Galletti, Emilio Tagliavini, Marco Abbiati
      Abstract: Gorgonian corals play a structural role in temperate and tropical biogenic reefs, forming animal forests and creating biodiversity hot spots. In the Mediterranean Sea, slow-growing and long-lived gorgonian species are threatened by human disturbances and global environmental changes and concern about their conservation is rising. Alkaloid metabolites have proven to be essential in protecting these species from environmental stressors.. Traditional profiling methodologies to detect these metabolites require a large quantity of living tissue. Here, the chemodiversity of gorgonian alkaloids was investigated by applying a fast and effective protocol combining extraction and derivatization using small-scale tissue samples and GC-MS analysis. The method was effective in identifying and quantifying alkaloids and guanine-based compounds. Eight N-heterocyclic compounds were found in six Mediterranean gorgonians differing for types and quantity. The metabolomic profile was conservative in species of the Eunicella genus, with three species sharing the same pattern. Conversely, Paramuricea clavata displayed a noticeable spatial pattern of variation among colonies collected in different locations. The analytical approach presented here proved to be effective, allowing rare, endangered, and small-sized species to be screened rapidly for detection of new compounds in order to explore their biological and ecological functions.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:30:27.482279-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700449
       
  • Comparative Study of Fatty Acids Profile in Eleven Wild Mushrooms of
           Boletacea and Russulaceae Families
    • Authors: Marija V. Dimitrijevic; Violeta D. Mitic, Olga P. Jovanovic, Vesna P. Stankov Jovanovic, Jelena S. Nikolic, Goran M. Petrovic, Gordana S. Stojanovic
      Abstract: Eleven species of wild mushrooms which belong to Boletaceae and Russulaceae families were examined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for the presence of fatty acids. As far as we know, the fatty acid profiles of B. purpureus and B. rhodoxanthus were described for the first time. Twenty-six fatty acids were determined. Linoleic (19.5 – 72%), oleic (0.11 – 64%), palmitic (5.9 – 22%) and stearic acids (0.81 – 57%) were present in the highest contents. In all samples, unsaturated fatty acids dominate. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was used to display the correlation between the fatty acids and their relationships with the mushroom species. Based on the fatty acids profile in the samples, the mushrooms can be divided into two families: Boletaceae and Russulaceae families, using cluster analysis.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T22:25:25.854904-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700434
       
  • The relationship between endogenous β-glucuronidase activity and
           biologically active flavones-aglycone contents in hairy roots of Baikal
           skullcap
    • Authors: V.S Dikaya; A.I Solovyeva, R. A Sidorov, P. A Solovyev, A.Yu Stepanova
      Abstract: Here we examine the relationship between contents of principal flavones in hairy roots of Scutellaria baicalensis with the activity of the β-glucuronidase (sGUS) enzyme during a culturing cycle. Using RP-HPLC, we show that the highest contents of aglycones, baicalin and wogonin is observed at the growth days 8, 14 and 71 and reach 45, 41 and 62% (based on the total weight of hairy roots of the Baikal skullcap), correspondingly. Their accumulation is accompanied by increase of the sGUS activity, which we determined fluorometrically. Moreover, the enzyme activity is characterized by significant and reasonable correlation only with the wogonin contents. Our results confirm a significant role of sGUS at the final steps of the metabolism in root-specific flavones of Baikal skullcap and suggest how one can optimize the conditions of culturing the hairy roots for biotechnological production of individual flavonoids. For example, at the culturing day 71 wogonin constituted over 80% of all flavones extracted from cells.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T12:00:24.582865-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700409
       
  • Cover Picture
    • Abstract: Alisma orientale (Sam.) Juzep. (Alismataceae), known as ‘Zexie’ in China, is a common traditional Chinese medicine used for diuretic, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic purposes, as well as the treatment of diabetes. Protostane-type triterpenoids were reported as the principal constituents of this species. Ten new and sixteen known protostane triterpenoids were discovered from A. orientale in current study. Alismaketone-B 23-acetate exhibit significant vasorelaxant activity at 100 μm, as reported by Li et al. in their full paper https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201700452.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T02:15:43.132717-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201770120
       
  • Cross-Reactivity of Polyclonal Antibodies against Canavalia Ensiformis
           (Jack Bean) Urease and H. Pylori Urease Subunit A Fragments
    • Authors: Zbigniew Jerzy Kaminski; Inga Relich, Iwona Konieczna, Wieslaw Kaca, Beata Kolesinska
      Abstract: Overlapping decapeptide fragments of H. pylori urease subunit A (UreA) were synthesized and tested with polyclonal antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean) urease. The linear epitopes of UreA identified using the dot blot method were then examined using epitope mapping. For this purpose, series of overlapping fragments of UreA, frameshifted +/- 4 amino acid residues were synthesized. Most of the UreA epitopes which reacted with the Jack bean urease polyclonal antibodies had been recognized in previous studies by monoclonal antibodies against H. pylori urease. Fragments 11-24, 21-33, and 31-42 were able to interact with the Jack bean urease antibodies, giving stable immunological complexes. However, the lack of recognition by these antibodies of all the components in the peptide map strongly suggests that a non-continuous (nonlinear) epitope is located on the N-terminal domain of UreA.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T18:45:50.073336-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700444
       
  • Melanogenesis-inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of chemical constituents
           from the leaves of Sauropus androgynus L. Merr. (Euphorbiaceae)
    • Authors: Jie Zhang; Wan-Fang Zhu, Wei-Yuan Zhu, Pan Pan Yang, Jian Xu, Jiradej Manosroi, Takashi Kikuchi, Masahiko Abe, Toshihiro Akihisa, Feng Feng
      Abstract: A new steroid, 20-hydroxyisofucosterol (stigmasta-5,24(28)-diene-3β,20β-diol) (7), along with six known compounds 1 – 6 were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Sauropus androgynus L. Merr. (Euphorbiaceae). The structure of new steroid was determined by HR-APCI-MS and various NMR techniques in combination with literature data. Subsequently, their anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic activities against five human cell lines, as well as inhibitory activities against the α-MSH induced melanogenesis on the B16 cell line were evaluated. As the results, steroid compounds, 6 and 7 exhibited moderate cytotoxic to HL60, AZ521, SKBR3, and A549 tumor cell lines (IC50 26.9 – 45.1 μM) with high tumor selectivity for A549 relative to WI38 cell lines (SI 2.6 and 3.0, resp.). And, flavonoid compounds, 4 and 5 exhibited superior inhibitory activities against melanogenesis (67.0 – 94.7% melanin content), even with no or low toxicity to the cells (90.1 – 99.6% cell viability) at the concentrations from 10 to 100 μM. Furthermore, western blot analysis suggested that the compound 5 could inhibit melanogenesis by suppressing the protein expressions of MITF, TRP-1, TRP-2, and tyrosinase.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T11:00:59.654183-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700486
       
  • Varicuothiols A and B, New Fungal Metabolites from Aspergillus versicolor
           with Anti-inflammatory Activities
    • Authors: Ran Chen; Dong Liu, Peng Guo, Wenhan Lin
      Abstract: Chemical examination of a coral-associated fungus Aspergillus versicolor LZD-44-03 resulted in the isolation of two new compounds with the trivial names of varicuothiols A (1) and B (2) as a unique scaffold. Their structures were determined through extensive spectroscopic analyses in association with the modified Mosher's method and chemical conversion. Both 1 and 2 exhibited significant inhibition against LPS-induced RAW24.7 cell proliferation, in association with the down regulation of nitrite production and cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T10:57:02.835772-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700445
       
  • Protostane-Type Triterpenoids from Alisma orientale
    • Authors: Hong-Mei Li; Xue-Jiao Chen, Dan Luo, Min Fan, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Li-Yan Peng, Xing-De Wu, Rong-Tao Li, Xu Ji, Qin-Shi Zhao
      Abstract: Twenty-eight protostane triterpenoids, including a new degraded one (1), nine new ones (2-10) and two new natural ones (11 and 12), have been isolated from the dried rhizomes of Alisma orientale. Alisol R (1) was the first 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27-octanorprotostane triterpenoid. The absolute configurations of 25-methoxyalisol F (2) and 16β-hydroperoxyalisol B 23-acetate (3) were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, alismaketone-B 23-acetate (28) showed potent vasorelaxant activity on endothelium-intact thoracic aorta rings precontracted with KCl.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15T01:10:28.698747-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700452
       
  • Total synthesis and antibacterial study of cyclohexapeptides Desotamide B,
           Wollamide B and their analogs
    • Authors: Yixing Chen; Chao Liu, Nan Liu, Ye Wu, Qingjie Zhao, Honggang Hu, Xiang Li, Yan Zou
      Abstract: As natural-product-derived antibiotics, Desotamides A-D and wollamides exhibit growth inhibitory activity against Gram-posivite bacteria (IC50 0.6-7 μM) and are noncytotoxic to mammalian cells (IC50>30 μM). Herein we firstly report the total synthesis of above two cyclohexapeptides as well as a series of structural variants through solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), of which DE-3 displayed a 2-fold increase of anti-bacterial activity when compared with the original peptide DE-1. This strategy may offer good improvements for the synthesis of other cyclic peptides.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T06:55:24.706517-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700414
       
  • Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe: a novel source of flavones with
           α-glycosidase inhibitory activity
    • Authors: Ana P. de Oliveira; Juliana S. Coppede, Bianca W. Bertoni, Antônio E. M. Crotti, Suzelei C. França, Ana Maria S. Pereira, Silvia H. Taleb-Contini
      Abstract: Costus spiralis, a plant used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of complications in diabetes, was investigated. Assay of hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous fractions obtained by partition of a crude methanol extract of dried leaves of C. spiralis revealed that AGI activity was confined to the ethyl acetate fraction. Purification of this fraction yielded schaftoside and isoschaftoside. The AGI activities of the two flavones were lower than, but comparable with, that of the anti-diabetic drug acarbose. In contrast, the IC50 value of the ethyl acetate fraction was 1.95-, 2.34- and 2.22-fold higher than those of acarbose, schaftoside and isoschaftoside, respectively. The results demonstrate for the first time that schaftoside and isoschaftoside are responsible, in part, for the AGI activity of C. spiralis. Our study suggests that further investigations into C. spiralis may lead to the discovery of additional compounds with antihyperglycemic activity.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-10T04:06:14.364943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700421
       
  • In-vitro, in silico elucidation of antiurease activity, kinetic mechanism
           and COX-2 inhibitory efficacy of Coagulansin-A of Withania coagulans
    • Authors: Abdul Rehman Phull; Mubshir Hassan, Qamar Abbas, Hussain Raza, Ihsan ul Haq, Sung Yum Seo, Song Ja kim
      Abstract: Urease enzyme plays a crucial role in the survival of Helicobacter pylori that contributes to different diseases, including peptic ulcer. Coagulansin-A is the steroidal lactone found in plants of solanaceae family such Withania coagulans. The current study was carried out to examine the in vitro urease, COX-2 inhibitory activity and effect on type II collagen expression of coagulansin-A. Moreover, we investigated cytotoxic effects on rabbit articular chondrocytes through MTT assay. COX-2 and type II collagen expressions were determined through a western blotting. Molecular docking and simulation studies of urease and COX-2 proteins were also performed as an in silico approach. Results showed that COX-2 expression was decreased dose dependably, significantly higher expression of type II collagen was observed at higher doses. In the current study coagulansin-A was found as non-toxic, and showed notable urease inhibitory activity in non-competitive manner with IC50 23.14 μM in comparison to reference drug thiourea 17.81 μM. Significant decrease in COX-2 and increase in type II collagen were observed as compared to control. In silico results unveiled the strong binding affinities of cagulansin-A with both of these urease and COX-2 proteins. Therefore, herein we proposed the significant antiurease potential of this compound that could be used in treating different diseases such as ulcers. Moreover, detailed in vivo studies and molecular mechanism based studies are suggested.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09T14:15:19.685364-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700427
       
  • Tricalycoside, a New Cerebroside from Tricalysia coriacea (Rubiaceae)
    • Authors: Maurice D. Awouafack; Pierre Tane, Hiroyuki Morita
      Abstract: A new cerebroside, named as tricalycoside (1), was isolated from the CH2Cl2 / MeOH (1:1) extract of twigs and leaves of Tricalysia coriacea using repeated silica gel open column chromatography followed by Prep. TLC and Sephadex LH-20, together with six known compounds (2 - 7). The structure of the new compound was determined by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR, MS data, chemical conversion, and by comparison of these data with those from the literature. Tricalycoside (1) possessed a weak antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC = 75 μg/mL).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08T20:15:31.701596-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700472
       
  • Neuroprotective effects of butanol fraction of Cordyceps cicadae on
           glutamate-induced damage in PC12 cells involving oxidative toxicity
    • Authors: Dan Wang; Jibiao Wang, Dujun Wang, Xiaofeng Yu, Opeyemi Joshua Olatunji, Zhen Ouyang, Yuan Wei
      Abstract: The current study was aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effects of the butanol fraction from C. cicadae (CBU), which was responsible for the anti-aging effect of this medicine. Glutamate-induced PC12 cells were used as a model to determine the neuroprotective effect against oxidative cell death. Cell viability, cytotoxicity, flow cytometry, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were analyzed to assess neuronal cell survival or death. The results obtained from the above evaluations showed that CBU was the most effective fraction and even better than pure compounds present in C. cicadae. in terms of suppressing glutamate-induced damage in PC12 cells, increasing cell viability, decreasing lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and reduction of apoptosis induced by exposure to glutamate. Furthermore, CBU protected cells against mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress as indicated by the suppression of ROS accumulation and up regulation of the levels of GSH-Px and SOD. In summary, the above results showed that CBU exerted neuroprotective effect against oxidative damage, and this activity could be partly due to the action of nucleosides present in the CBU.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T18:55:31.423197-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700385
       
  • Athenolide A, a New Steroidal Lactone from the Leaves of Athenaea martiana
           (Solanacea) Determined by means of HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR Analysis
    • Authors: Eder L. Silva; Rita C. Almeida-Lafetá, Ricardo M. Borges, Dan Staerk
      Abstract: Athenaea (Solanaceae) is an endemic genus belonging to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Recently, botanical investigations suggested the re-evaluation of the generic status of the genus Athenaea as a synonym of Aureliana. In this study, the first investigation of the Athenaea genus performed on Athenaea martiana by means of HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR combined with high-resolution radical scavenging profile led to identification of several phenolic acids as radical scavengers: protocatechuic acid (1), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), vanillic acid (4) and ferulic acid (6). Additional analysis revealed a new steroidal lactone, named athenolide A (9). Their structures were elucidated by extensive use of NMR spectroscopy as well as HRMS. Chemotaxonomic considerations based on these results supported the chemical relationships between the Athenaea and Aureliana genus, in agreement with the recent botanical findings.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T21:21:10.841611-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700455
       
  • Isolation and Antifouling activity of Azulene Derivatives from the
           Antarctic Gorgonian Acanthogorgia laxa
    • Authors: Laura P. Patiño C; Rodrigo Quintana Manfredi, Miriam Pérez, Mónica García, Guillermo Blustein, Ralf Cordeiro, Carlos D. Pérez, Laura Schejter, Jorge A. Palermo
      Abstract: Three azulenoid sesquiterpenes (1- 3) were isolated from the Antarctic gorgonian Acanthogorgia laxa collected by bottom trawls at –343 m. Besides linderazulene (1), and the known ketolactone 2, a new brominated C-16 linderazulene derivative (3) was also identified. This compound has an extra carbon atom at C-7 of the linderazulene framework. The antifouling activity of compounds 1 and 2 was assayed in the laboratory with Artemia salina larvae, and also in field tests, by incorporation in soluble-matrix experimental antifouling paints. The results obtained after a 45 days field trial of the paints, showed that compounds 1 and 2 displayed good antifouling potencies against a wide array of organisms. Compound 3, a benzylic bromide, was unstable and for this reason was not submitted to bioassays. Two known cembranolides: pukalide and epoxypukalide, were also identified as minor components of the extract.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T11:25:24.911784-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700425
       
  • Phytochemical Investigation of Male and Female Hedyosmum scabrum (Ruiz &
           Pav.) Solms leaves from Ecuador
    • Authors: Claudia Herrera; Vladimir Morocho, Giovanni Vidari, Carlo Bicchi, Gianluca Gilardoni
      Abstract: This paper reports the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of male and female H. scabrum fresh leaves. The essential oils, HSMO and HSFO, respectively, were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A total of 93 components were detected, accounting for 94.8% and 95.3% of HSMO and HSFO, respectively. The prevalent constituents of HSMO were pinocarvone (13.1%), D-germacren-4-ol (12.6%), 1,8-cineole (10.8%), α-pinene (6.4%), and β-pinene (4.8%), whereas the major components of HSFO were 1,8-cineole (20.5%), linalool (16.5%), α-pinene (15.0%), β-pinene (6.4%), and sabinene (6.3%). The different enantiomeric distribution of β-pinene, sabinene, limonene, linalool in the two oils, was determined. The non-volatile esters of p-coumaric and ferulic acids with borneol (1 and 4), cis-chrysanthenol (2 and 5), and cis-pinocarveol (3 and 6) were identified in the leaves after basic hydrolysis and analysis of the NMR spectra of the free acids, and GC-MS spectra of the monoterpene alcohols, respectively. Compounds 2, 3, 5, 6 have been found in nature for the first time. These findings demonstrated that, from a chemical point of view, male and female individuals of H. scabrum collected in Ecuador seem quite differentiated between each other and from samples of the same species growing in Bolivia and in Peru.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T07:05:24.301055-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700423
       
  • Identification of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in Sophora
           japonica through transcriptome sequencing
    • Authors: Fu-sheng Zhang; Qian-yu Wang, Ya-jie Pu, Tong-yao Chen, Xue-mei Qin, Jie Gao
      Abstract: Sophora japonica is a traditional Chinese medicinal ingredient that is widely used in the medicine, food, and industrial dye industries. Since flavonoids are the main components of S. japonica, studying the flavonoid composition and content of this plant is important. This study aimed to identify molecules involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in S. japonica. Deep sequencing was performed, and 85,877,352 clean reads were filtered from 86,095,152 raw reads. The clean reads were spliced to obtain 111,382 unigenes, which were then annotated with NR, GO, KEGG, eggNOG. Differential expression analysis and NR function prediction revealed 18 differentially expressed unigenes associated with 13 enzymes in flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. Our results reveal new insights on secondary metabolite biosynthesis-related genes in S. japonica and enhance the potential applications of S. japonica in genetic engineering.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T09:35:21.134984-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700369
       
  • Chemical Composition and Biological Investigations of Eryngium triquetrum
           Essential Oil from Algeria
    • Authors: Ali Medbouhi; Nadjiya Merad, Abdelmounaim Khadir, Mourad Bendahou, Nassim Djabou, Jean Costa, Alain Muselli
      Abstract: The chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil obtained from Eryngium triquetrum from Algeria were studied. The chemical composition of sample oils from 25 locations was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Twenty-four components representing always more than 87% were identified in essential oils from total aerial parts of plants, stems, flowers and roots. Falcarinol is highly dominant in the essential oil from the roots (95.5%). The relative abundance of falcarinol in the aerial parts correlates with the phenological stages of the plant. Aerial parts of E. triquetrum produce an essential oil dominated by falcarinol during the early flowering stage, and then there is a decrease in falcarinol and rebalancing of octanal during the flowering stage. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the chemical composition of E. triquetrum essential oil. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity by means of the paper disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays, showed a moderate efficiency of E. triquetrum essential oil. Using the DPPH method, the interesting antioxidant activity of E. triquetrum essential oil was established. These activities could be attributed to the dominance of falcarinol. The outcome of our literature search on the occurrence of falcarinol in essential oils suggests that E. triquetrum from Algeria could be considered as a possible source of natural falcarinol.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-30T09:30:24.140455-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700343
       
  • Allelopathic activity and chemical composition of Rhynchosia minima (L.)
           DC. essential oil from Egypt
    • Authors: Ahmed M. Abd El-Gawad; Yasser A. El-Amier, Giuliano Bonanomi
      Abstract: Aromatic plants attract the attention of many researchers worldwide due to their worthy applications in agriculture, human prosperity, and the environment. Essential oil (EO) could be exploited as effective alternatives to synthetic compounds as it has several biological activities including allelopathy. The EO from the aerial parts of Rhynchosia minima was extracted by hydro-distillation and investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Different concentrations (50, 100, 150 and 200 μL L−1) of the EO were prepared for investigation of their allelopathic potential on two weeds; Dactyloctenium aegyptium and Rumex dentatus. Twenty-eight compounds, mainly sesquiterpenes (69.13%) were determined. The major compounds are α-eudesmol, 2-allyl-5-t-butylhydroquinone, caryophyllene oxide, trans-caryophyllene, and .tau.-cadinol. The VOCs from the R. minima showed a significant inhibition of D. aegyptium and R. dentatus germination, while the seedling growth was stimulated. Therefore, it is not recommended to treat these noxious weeds with the EO of R. minima before the germination. In contrast, the apparent stimulatory effect on the seedling growth offers further studies to use the EO of R. minima to enhance the fitness of different economic crops. However, characterization of green bio-herbicides such as EO (allelochemicals) from wild plants raises a new opportunity for the incorporation of new technology of bio-control against the noxious weeds.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-24T08:50:27.141031-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700438
       
  • Quick identification of piperidine alkaloid from roots of Grewia nervosa
           and their glucosidase inhibitory activity
    • Authors: Surya N. Meena; Mahesh S. Majik, Sanjeev C. Ghadi, Santosh G. Tilve
      Abstract: Grewia nervosa is herbal plant used as traditional medicine for different purposes. Bioassay-guided chemical fractionation of G. nervosa roots resulted in an identification of two known and one new compound, named Microgrewiapine A, Homomicrogrewiapine and N-methyl-microcosamine respectively. Their structures were determined using combination of LC-HRMS, 1H NMR and IR spectra analyses followed by comparison with those reported in the literature. The problematic separation of these alkaloids on traditional column chromatography (Silica gel, Octadecyl silane (ODS), Sephadex) was resolved by using HPLC method. Structurally identical compounds from the piperidine family have been characterized by using HRMS analysis in combination with NMR data of crude sample. The major constituent i.e. N-methyl-microcosamine in n-butanol fraction of methanol root extract (MRE) was found to possess the dose dependent α-glucosidase inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 53.40 μM. Furthermore, N-Methyl-microcosamine showed maximum α-glucosidase inhibition was 97.48 ±0.7% at 107.5 μM, which is approximately 1.3 x 103 fold higher than the activity shown by acarbose (97.72% inhibition at 61.95 mM), a standard anti-diabetic drug available commercially. This work also reports the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the major alkaloids isolated from G. nervosa for the first time.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T14:42:11.860983-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700400
       
  • Synthesis and characterization of the hemi-salen ligands and their
           
    • Authors: Ahmet Kilic; Ismail Koyuncu, Mustafa Durgun, Ismail Ozaslan, İbrahim Halil Kaya, Ataman Gönel
      Abstract: The synthesis, spectroscopic properties and in vitro cytotoxicity activity of a series of various salen-based triboron complexes have been designed and prepared from hemi-salen (L1H3-L4H3) ligands and BF3.Et2O or BPh3 under simple reaction conditions. The hemi-salen (L1H3-L4H3) ligands and their BF2 or BPh2 chelating triboron complexes were characterized by means of NMR (1H, 13C, 19F and 11B) spectra, FT-IR spectra, UV-Vis spectra, fluorescence spectra, mass spectra, melting point as well as elemental analysis. The triboron [L(1-4)(BF2)3] and [L(1-4)(BPh2)3] complexes were investigated for their absorption and emission properties and these complexes are also good chelates towards boron(III) fragments such as BF2 or BPh2 quantum yield in solution reaching up to 38%. The hemi-salen (L1H3-L4H3) ligands and their BF2 or BPh2 chelating triboron complexes were tested for the in vitro anticancer activity against various the cancer and normal cells (HeLa, DLD-1, ECC-1, PC-3, PNT-1A, and CRL-401O) and it was found that the cell viability of cancer cells was decreased while most of the healthy cells could still be viable. Also, the cytotoxicity studies showed that anti-cancer activity of hemi-salen (L1H3-L4H3) ligands is higher than that of triboron [L(1-4)(BF2)3] and [L(1-4)(BPh2)3] complexes. The hemi-salen (L1H3-L4H3) ligands showing the strongest cytotoxic effect in PC-3 cells were found to exhibit anticancer activity with apoptosis by increasing the level of ROS in the PC-3 cells.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-15T03:40:22.91368-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700428
       
  • Hispanane-type Diterpenoid and Secoiridoid Glucosides from Viburnum
           cylindricum
    • Authors: Li-Xia Wang; Yin-Dong Fang, Rui-Han Zhang, Fu-Cai Ren, Xing-Jie Zhang, Fei Wang, Wei-Lie Xiao
      Abstract: Three hitherto unknown compounds, including one new hispanane-type diterpenoid glucoside, namely viburnumoside (1), two new secoiridoid glucosides, 7α-galloyloxysweroside (2), and 7β-galloyloxysweroside (3), together with ten known compounds (4 – 13) were isolated from the ethanol extract of twigs and leaves of Viburnum cylindricum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic studies, and the absolute configuration of compound 1 was confirmed by the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-15T03:35:23.679766-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700418
       
  • Cover Picture
    • Abstract: The search for bilin-type chlorophyll catabolites (phyllobilins) in extracts of leaves and fruit by modern hyphenated mass spectrometric technologies may identify isomers without establishing their structures. In order to contribute to this intriguing issue, a relevant mode of spontaneous isomerism of a colorless, nonfluorescent phyllobilin was investigated, as reported by Kräutler and coworkers in their full paper https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201700368.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T07:50:28.57908-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201770711
       
  • Constituents of the Argentine Liverwort Plagiochila diversifolia and their
           Insecticidal Activities
    • Authors: Marta Ramírez; Norma Kamiya, Susana Popich, Yoshinori Asakawa, Alicia Bardón
      Abstract: Three new compounds, a bicyclogermacrene (1) and two 2,3-secoaromadendrane esters (2 and 3), together with (13S)-13-hydroxy-8,14-labdadiene (4), fusicogigantone B (5), 3α, 14-diacetoxy-2-hydoxybicyclogermacrene (6), fusicogigantone A (7), neofuranoplagiochilal (8), plagiochiline B (9), furanoplagiochilal (10), trans-nerolidol, spathulenol, α-tocopherol and (+) globulol were isolated from an Argentine collection of Plagiochila diversifolia. Their structures were elucidated by extensive mono and bidimensional NMR studies. Compounds 4, 5 and 6, incorporated to the larval diet at 100 μg per g of diet, reduced the larval growth of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by 70 ± 25, 57 ± 23 and 33 ± 16%, respectively. Compounds 4 and 5 produced 70 and 60% larval mortality at early instars. The latter also showed antifeedant properties in the Choice Test, with a feeding ratio of 0.54 ± 0.16.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T10:40:25.371873-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700229
       
  • Larvicidal activity of essential oils of five Apiaceae taxa and some of
           their main constituents against Culex quinquefasciatus
    • Authors: Roman Pavela; Filippo Maggi, Kevin Cianfaglione, Maurizio Bruno, Giovanni Benelli
      Abstract: Apiaceae are aromatic herbs producing essential oils which are used on an industrial scale for various purposes. Notably, Apiaceae essential oils may replace synthetic insecticides keeping most of their efficacy and avoiding environmental pollution and human poisoning. In the present work, we explored the insecticidal potential of the essential oils from five Apiaceae taxa, namely Sison amomum, Echinophora spinosa, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sphondylium, Heracleum sphondylium subsp. ternatum and Trachyspemum ammi, as well as their major constituents (sabinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, myristicin and thymol), against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. For the purpose, the essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and their composition was achieved by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Their acute toxicity on third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus was determined. The two most active essential oils were those from T. ammi fruits and E. spinosa roots, showing LC50 below 20 μl/l and LD90 below 50 μl/l. These oils were dominated by the monoterpene phenol thymol and the phenylpropanoid myristicin, respectively, which showed the strongest larvicidal activity (LC50 OF 15.1 and 16.3 μl/l, respectively) among the pure compounds tested. These results showed that Apiaceae may be useful as source of larvicidal compounds to be used for the development of cheap, effective and eco-friendly insecticidal formulations.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T03:34:40.061731-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700382
       
  • Antimalarial and antileishmanial activities of phytophenolics and their
           synthetic analogues
    • Authors: Masanori Morimoto; Charles L. Cantrell, Shabana Khan, Babu L. Tekwani, Stephen O. Duke
      Abstract: Thirty-seven phytophenolics and their synthetic analogues were evaluated for activity against two protozoal pathogens, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum (D6 and W2 clones), respectively. 4,6-Dimethoxyaurone demonstrated the highest activity with IC50 values of 13.2 μM and 16.9 μM against L. donovani and P. falciparum (W2 clone), respectively, without undesired cytotoxicity against VERO cells. The moiety having two benzene rings was critical to maintain the antiprotozoal activities based on the observation that both coumaranones and chromones were inactive while other test compounds, including coumarans and aurones, remained active. There was no correlation between antiprotozoal activities and previously evaluated insect antifeedant activity against common cutworms (Spodoptera litura). Flavonoids, including aurones, pterocarpans, and lignan like dihydrobenzofurans, structural analogues of coumarans, are abundant in fruits and vegetables, so these phytophenolics may act as natural antiprotozoal agents in humans.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T03:31:44.927535-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700324
       
  • Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity and Docking Studies of
           New Triazolic Tripodal Ligands
    • Authors: Tarik Harit; Reda Bellaouchi, Yahya Rokni, Abdelkhalek Riahi, Fouad Malek, Abdeslam Asehraou
      Abstract: The synthesis and characterization of new N-donor bitriazolic tripods were reported. The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of these products were screened against fungal strain (Candida pelliculosa) and against four bacterial strains (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli). Biological data revealed the effect of the chemical structure on antimicrobial activity. Molecular docking studies of some compounds showed that they could act as inhibitors for the biotin carboxylase enzyme.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09T03:30:56.661536-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700351
       
  • Is the profile of fatty acids, tocopherols and amino acids suitable to
           differentiate Pinus armandii suspicious to be responsible for the Pine Nut
           syndrome (PNS) from other Pinus species'
    • Authors: Bertrand Matthäus; Peiwu Li, Fei Ma, Haiyan Zhou, Jun Jiang, Mehmet Musa Özcan
      Abstract: Pinus armandii is suspicious to be responsible for the Pine Nut Syndrome, a long lasting bitter and metallic taste after the consumption of pine nuts. To find chemical characteristic features for the differentiation of P. armandii from other Pinus species 41 seed samples of the genus Pinus from 22 plant species were investigated regarding the content and the composition of fatty acids, tocopherols and amino acids. The predominant fatty acids in the seed oils were linoleic acid (35.2 – 58.2 g/100 g), oleic acid (14.6 – 48.5 g/100 g) and pinolenic acid (0.2 – 22.4 g/100 g, while the vitamin-E-active compounds were dominated by γ-tocopherol. The amino acid composition was mainly characterized by arginine and glutamic acid with amounts between 0.9 and 8.9 g/100 g as well as 2.1 g/100 g and 8.3 g/100 mg.On basis of this investigation a Principle Component Analysis has been used to identify most important components for the differentiation of P. armandii from other Pinus species. Using the data for glutamic acid, 20:2Δ5,11, 18:3Δ5,9,12, 18:1Δ9, and oil content a classification of the 41 samples into four different groups by cluster analysis was possible, but the characteristic features of P. armandii were too close to some other members of the genus Pinus making a clear differentiation of this species difficult. Nevertheless the investigation showed the similarities of different members of the genus Pinus with regard to fatty acids, vitamin-E-acitve compounds and amino acids.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T13:40:22.613569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700323
       
  • Bifunctional Platinum(II) Complexes with Bisphosphonates Substituted
           Diamine Derivatives: Synthesis and in vitro Cytotoxicity
    • Authors: Yanyan Sun; Jian Zhao, Zhongling Ji
      Abstract: A series of N,N’-dibisphosphonate-containing 1,3-propanediamine derivatives (L1-L6) and their corresponding dichloridoplatinum(II) complexes (1-6) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR and HRMS spectra. The in vitro antitumor activities of compounds L1-L6 and 1-6 were tested by WST-8 assay with Cell Counting Kit-8, indicating that platinum-based complexes 1-6 showed higher cytotoxicity than corresponding ligands L1-L6 against A549 and MG-63, especially complex 2 which displayed comparable cytotoxicity to those of cisplatin and zoledronate after 48 h incubation. In addition, complexes 1-6 were more active in vitro on osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 than normal osteoblast cell line hFOB 1.19. The structure-activity relationship has been summarized based on the in vitro cytotoxicity of three series of platinum complexes from this and our previous studies. The in vitro bone affinity of platinum complexes was also tested by hydroxyapatite chromatography in terms of capacity factor K’. Besides, in this paper, representative complex 2, which has been proved to be a promising antitumor agent with high cytotoxicity and bone hydroxyapatite binding property, was investigated for its mechanism of action producing cell death against MG-63.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-10-04T01:30:20.963721-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700348
       
  • Novel flavones from the root of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb
    • Authors: Xiao-Pan Ma; Wen-Fang Zhang, Ping Yi, Jun-Jie Lan, Bin Xia, Sai Jiang, Hua-Yong Lou, Wei-Dong Pan
      Abstract: Two new flavones, 6, 7-methylenedioxy-4-hydroxypeltogynan-7′-one (1), cochliophilin B (2), as well as two known ones, cochliophilin A (3) and 6-methoxy-7-hydroxy flavone (4), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the root of Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Compound 1 is a flavanol framework with one δ-lactone unit, which is rather rare in nature. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (IR, MS, and 1D- and 2D-NMR) analyses, the absolute configuration of 1 was established by comparing experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The structures of known compounds were fixed by comparison with literatures data. Compounds 2 and 4 showed modest inhibitory activities against BEL-7402 cell line, with IC50 values of 28.22 and 39.16 μmol/L, respectively.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T03:35:20.018682-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700361
       
  • Biological Activities of Phenolics from the Fruits of Phyllanthus emblica
           Linn. (Euphorbiaceae)
    • Authors: Jie Zhang; Dan Miao, Wan-Fang Zhu, Jian Xu, Wen-Yuan Liu, Worapong Kitdamrongtham, Jiradej Manosroi, Masahika Abe, Toshihiro Akihisa, Feng Feng
      Abstract: Seven phenolic compounds, 1 – 7, including a new organic acid gallate, mucic acid 1-ethyl 6-methyl ester 2-O-gallate (7) were isolated from the MeOH extract of the fruits of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae). The structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Upon evaluated for their antioxidant abilities by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced by α-MSH, as well as cytotoxic activities against four human cancer cell lines were also evaluated. All phenolic compounds, 1 – 7, exhibited potent antioxidant abilities (DPPH: IC50 5.6 – 12.9 μM; ABTS: 0.87 – 8.43 μM Trolox/μM; FARP: 1.01 – 5.79 μM Fe2+/μM, respectively). Besides, 5 – 7, also exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against melanogenesis (80.7 – 86.8% melanin content), even with no or low toxicity to the cells (93.5 – 101.6% cell viability) at a high concentration of 100 μm. Compound 1 – 3 exhibited cytotoxic activity against one or more cell lines (IC50 13.9 – 68.4%), and compound 1 with high tumor selectivity for A549 (SI 3.2).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T06:20:30.438517-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700404
       
  • Three new triterpenoid saponins from notoginseng medicinal fungal
           substance
    • Authors: Wei Xu; Qing-Xia Yan, Ying-Ying Liu, Bai-Jin Chang, Xin Liu, Zhi-dong Qiu
      Abstract: Three new triterpenoid saponins, named ginsenoside-Rh23 (1), ginsenoside-Rh24 (2) and ginsenoside-Rh25 (3), were isolated from notoginseng medicinal fungal substance. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR, MS and chemical analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and NCI-H460 cancer cell lines.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T03:28:50.927286-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700195
       
  • On the Nature of Isomeric Nonfluorescent Chlorophyll Catabolites in Leaves
           and Fruit - A Study with a Ubiquitous Phylloleucobilin and its Main
           Isomerization Product
    • Authors: Simone Moser; Gerhard Scherzer, Bernhard Kräutler
      Abstract: The typical main products of chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown in higher plants are non-fluorescent, colorless phyllobilins, named phylloleucobilins. These long elusive Chl-catabolites are linear tetrapyrroles, whose structure elucidation has required thorough spectroscopic analyses. Interestingly, in recent LC/MS studies of leaf extracts, isomeric forms of phylloleucobilins were detected. The existence of isomeric phyllobilins may suggest incomplete stereo-selectivity of catabolic processes, or isomerization processes in plant cells or in the analytes. Here we report a study with the phylloleucobilin NCC-1, a basic Chl-catabolite in extracts of leaves and fruit. NCC-1 and its main isomerization product in aqueous solution were identified as 82-epimers. Formation of 82-epi-NCC-1 from NCC-1 implies an unstable enol(ate)-intermediate, which reverts to NCC-1 or converts to 82-epi-NCC-1. Such reversible epimerization reactions are a non-biological in-vitro feature of typical phylloleucobilins, and probably also take place in-vivo.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T08:10:35.57923-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700368
       
  • Chemical components, biological activities, and toxicological evaluation
           of the fruit (aril) of two precious plant species from genus Taxus
    • Authors: Na Li; Zheng Pan, Dan Zhang, Huaxing Wang, Bao Yu, Shengping Zhao, Jiajia Guo, Jianwei Wang, Ling Yao, Weiguo Cao
      Abstract: The fruit (aril) of the endangered genus Taxus plants is an abandoned herbal resource. Traditionally, people enthusiasticly focus on its bark, its renewable, tremendous arils fall into the soil with seeds after they are mature. The present research investigated the fruit of two species from the genus Taxus, Taxus chinensis var. mairei and Taxus media, with regards to their antioxidant and antihyperglycaemic activities, safety, and bioactive constituents. Results showed that T. chinensis var. mairei and T. media both had certain biological activities with T. chinensis var. mairei better in antioxidant activity and T. media better in antihyperglycaemic activity. Correlation analysis revealed that the differences in bioactivities depended on content of their mainly chemical components. The mice acute oral toxicity test indicated that the methanol extracts of the two biotypes of Taxus were safe. And nineteen compounds were tentatively assigned from the two varieties, via tandem mass spectrometry using a LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS instrument, which included phenols, flavonoids and terpenes. These results indicate a possible application of Taxus fruit extracts in various fields like in food industry, however this still needs further investigations.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T03:35:55.704988-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700305
       
  • Synthesis and biological evaluation of new natural phenolic 2E, 4E, 6E
           octatrienoic esters
    • Authors: Raffaella Gandolfi; Alessandro Contini, Daniela Pinto, Barbara Marzani, Stefano Pandini, Donatella Nava, Elena Pini
      Abstract: In the present study the esterification of the hydroxyl groups of resveratrol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and ß-sitosterol with an antioxidant polyconjugated fatty acid, 2E,4E,6E-octatrienoic acid, was achieved. As the selective esterification of hydroxyl groups of natural compounds can affect their biological activity, a selective esterification of resveratrol and caffeic acid was performed by an enzymatic approach. The new resulting compounds were characterized spectroscopically (FT-IR, NMR mono and bidimensional techniques); when necessary the experimental data were integrated by quantum chemical calculations. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and proliferative activity was evaluated. The good results encourage the use of these molecules as antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory agents. in dermocosmetic application.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-13T10:30:42.031272-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700294
       
  • Synergistic Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Artichoke, Fig,
           Mulberry Herbal Mixture on HepG2 Cells and their Metabolic Profiling Using
           NMR Coupled with Chemometrics
    • Authors: Fadia S. Youssef; Rola M. Labib, Omayma A. Eldahshan, Abdel Nasser B. singab
      Abstract: The edible plants have long been reported to possess a lot of biological activities. Herein, the hepatoprotective and the antioxidant activity of the aqueous infusion of the edible parts of Cynara cardunculus, Ficus carica and Morus nigra and their herbal mixture (CFM) was investigated in vitro using CCl4 induced damage in HepG2 cells. The highest amelioration was observed via the consumption of CFM at 1 mg/ml showing 47.00, 37.09% decline in AST (Aspartate Transaminase) and ALT (Alanine Transaminase) and 77.32 and 101.02% increase in GSH (Reduced Glutathione) and SOD (Superoxide dismutase) comparable to CCl4 treated cells. Metabolic profiling of their aqueous infusions was done using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic experiments coupled with chemometrics particularly HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analysis). The structural closeness of the various metabolites existing in black berry and the mixture as reflected in the PCA score plot and HCA processed from the 1H NMR spectral data could eventually explained the close values in their biological behavior. For fig and artichoke the existence of different phenolic metabolites that act synergistically could greatly interpret their potent biological behavior. Thus, it can be concluded that a herbal mixture composed of black berry, artichoke and fig could afford an excellent natural candidate to combat oxidative stress and counteract hepatic toxins owing to its phenolic compounds.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-12T11:00:31.567504-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700206
       
  • Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. Chemotypes in Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Essential
           Oil Variation and Relation with Ecological Factors
    • Authors: J. A. Llorens-Molina; C. Rivero, S. Vacas, H. Boira
      Abstract: The genus Mentha (Labiatae) is a paleotemplate taxon including aromatic perennial herbs long cultived as flavouring, mint sauce and jelly, spearmint oil, antiparasitic and insecticide [1], [2], etc. Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. (“apple or woolly menthe”, “mentastro” in vernacular name), is one of the five basic Eurosiberian and Mediterranean mentha species, common in grasslands on periodically flooded soils (Cl. Phragmitetea Tx. Et Presing, 1942), or moist soils with high phreatic level (Cl. Molinio Arrhenatheretea Tx., 1957). It is included, as a characteristic, in the association Mentho suaveolentis-Juncetum inflexi, [3].This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08T12:05:24.34811-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700320
       
  • Comparision of chemical profile and antioxidant capacity of seeds and oils
           from Salvia sclarea and Salvia officinalis
    • Authors: Jelena Živković; Mihailo Ristić, Josephine Kschonsek, Anna Westphal, Milica Mihailović, Vladimir Filipović, Volker Böhm
      Abstract: Composition of tocopherols, tocotrienols, carotenoids, fatty acids as well as hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities were determined in seeds of two Salvia species and oils obtained from them. Both seeds contained a large amount of oil (around 20%) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. While S. officinalis seed oil can be classified as oleic-linoleic oil, the predominant fatty acid in S. sclarea was α-linolenic acid (around 54%). Among tocols, the main isomers in both seeds and oils were γ-tocopherol, followed by α-tocopherol. Concerning carotenoids, their concentration was around 0.75 mg/100 g of seeds and 0.16 mg/100 g of oils, with a predominance of lutein. Oil and seeds of S. officinalis exhibited higher antioxidant potential compared to S. sclarea investigated samples which could be attributed to higher content of total vitamin E and carotenoids. This study provides results that enables use of two Salvia species as new alternative sources of vegetable oils.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-02T10:41:15.969591-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700344
       
  • Efficacy of the volatile oil from water celery (Helosciadium nodiflorum,
           Apiaceae) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus, the
           housefly Musca domestica, and the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera
           littoralis
    • Authors: Giovanni Benelli; Roman Pavela, Massimo Ricciutelli, Giulio Lupidi, Filippo Maggi
      Abstract: Water celery (Helosciadium nodiflorum, Apiaceae), is a common and invasive hydrophyte occurring in rivers and slow waters of Europe. In the past, it was consumed as a vegetable and spices, but currently it has mostly been abandoned. As a result, this plant produces an unexploited biomass occluding rivers and slow waters. With the aim to valorise water celery as an important biomass source for the development of botanical insecticides, in this work we investigated the inhibitory effects of the essential oil hydro-distilled from its aerial parts against larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus, adults of the housefly Musca domestica, and larvae of the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. The essential oil, that was characterized by the insecticidal limonene (39.8%) and myristicin (35.3%), exerted important toxic effects on 3rd instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and S. littoralis and on adults of M. domestica, with LD50 of 50.4 μl L−1, 116.7 μg larvae−1, and 45.1 (male) and 70.1 (female) μg larvae−1, respectively. The oil did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Our findings add scientific evidences highlighting water celery as an important biomass source to be used for the control of insect pests and vectors of high economic importance.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01T10:42:07.155951-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700376
       
  • On the Dynamical Behavior of the Cysteine Dioxygenase-L-Cysteine Complex
           in the Presence of Free Dioxygen and L-Cysteine
    • Authors: Francesco Pietra
      Abstract: In this work viable models of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and its complex with L-cysteine dianion were built for the first time, under strict adherence to the crystal structure from X-ray diffraction studies, for all atom molecular dynamics (MD). Based on the CHARMM36 FF, the active site, featuring an octahedral dummy Fe(II) model, allowed us observing water exchange, which would have escaped attention with the more popular bonded models. Free dioxygen (O2) and L-cysteine, added at the active site,could be observed being expelled toward the solvating medium under Random Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (RAMD) along major and minor pathways. Correspondingly, free dioxygen (O2), added to the solvating medium, could be observed to follow the same above pathways in getting to the active site under unbiased MD. For the bulky L-cysteine, 600 ns of trajectory were insufficient for protein penetration, and the molecule was stuck at the protein borders. These models pave the way to free energy studies of ligand associations, devised to better clarify how this cardinal enzyme behaves in human metabolism.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T09:15:32.328598-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700290
       
  • Chemical composition, enantiomeric analysis, AEDA sensorial evaluation and
           antifungal activity of the essential oil from the Ecuadorian plant
           Lepechinia mutica Benth (Lamiaceae)
    • Authors: Jorge Ramírez; Gianluca Gilardoni, Miriam Jácome, José Montesinos, Marinella Rodolfi, Maria Lidia Guglielminetti, Cecila Cagliero, Carlo Bicchi, Giovanni Vidari
      Abstract: This study describes the GC-FID, GC-MS, GC-O, and enantioselective GC analysis of the essential oil hydrodistilled from leaves of Lepechinica mutica (Lamiaceae), collected in Ecuador. GC-FID and GC-MS analyses allowed the characterization and quantification of 79 components, representing 97.3% of the total sample. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (38.50%) and monoterpene hydrocarbons (30.59%) were found to be the most abundant volatiles, while oxygenated sesquiterpenes (16.20%) and oxygenated monoterpenes (2.10%) were the minor components. In order to better characterize the oil aroma, the most important odorants, from the sensorial point of view, were identified by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (AEDA) GC-O. They were α-pinene, β-phellandrene, and dauca-5,8-diene, exhibiting the characteristic woody, herbaceus and earthy odors, respectively. Enantioselective GC analysis of L. mutica essential oil revealed the presence of twelve couples and two enantiomerically pure chiral monoterpenoids. Their enantiomeric excesses were from a few percent units to 100%. Moreover, the essential oil exhibited moderate in vitro activity against five fungal strains, being especially effective against M. canis, which is a severe zoophilic dermatophyte causal agent of pet and human infections.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T09:10:21.942099-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700292
       
  • Synthesis of 8-Substituted 2′-Deoxyisoguanosines, via Unprotected
           8-Brominated 2-Amino-2′-deoxyadenosine
    • Authors: Wen Zhang; Qian Gao, Shuxian Wei, Bicheng Fu, Qian Yang, Xin Ming
      Abstract: A variety of applications of 8-alkynylated nucleosides has prompted the synthesis of new purine analogues. Bromination of unprotected 2-amino-2′-deoxyadenosine with Br2/AcOH/NaOAc gives 8-bromo-2-amino-2′-deoxyadenosine (87%). Brominated derivative is converted to 8-alkynylated 2-amino-2′-deoxyadenosines by palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction via microwave assistance (81-95%). The resulting compounds are further transformed to 8-alkynylated 2′-deoxyisoguanosines (52-70%). The physical properties of new compounds are investigated.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T19:20:30.47873-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700335
       
  • Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus aria as a source of antioxidant phenolics,
           tocopherols and pigments
    • Authors: Katarina P. Šavikin; Gordana M. Zdunić, Dijana B. Krstić-Milošević, Helena J. Šircelj, Danijela D. Stešević, Dejan S. Pljevljakušić
      Abstract: Due to its nutritive and medicinal properties, berries of some Sorbus species are used for the preparation of jams and jelly as well as in traditional medicine. On the other hand, their chemical composition is not much studied especially of those grown in Balkan Peninsula. We have analyzed individual phenolics, tocopherols, carotenoids and chlorophylls using HPLC in berries from Sorbus aucuparia and S. aria collected in different localities in Serbia and Montenegro together with the amounts of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins as well as their radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical. Berries of S. aucuparia were richer source of polyphenolics in comparision with S. aria and, regardless the species and locality, caffeoylquinic acids such as neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acid were the most abundant compounds. Among analyzed tocopherols the most abundant in all samples was α-tocopherol (0.48 – 19.85 μg/g dw) as it was β-carotene among carotenoids (mean concentration of 0.98 μg/g dw in S. aucuparia and 0.40 μg/g dw in S. aria, respectively). Correlation between total phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging activity was noticed. Our study represents comprehensive report on chemical composition of S. aucuparia and S. aria which could contribute to a better understanding of their quality.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T04:05:33.126127-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700329
       
  • Fraxitoxin, a New Isochromanone Isolated from Diplodia fraxini
    • Authors: Alessio Cimmino; Lucia Maddau, Marco Masi, Benedetto T. Linaldeddu, Gennaro Pescitelli, Antonio Evidente
      Abstract: A new isochromanone, named fraxitoxin, was isolated together with (-)-mellein and tyrosol from liquid cultures of Diplodia fraxini a pathogen involved in the etiology of canker and dieback disease of Fraxinus spp. in Europe. It was characterized as 5-methoxy-3-methyl-isochroman-1-one using spectroscopic methods (essentially NMR and HREIMS). Its absolute configuration (R) at C-3 was assigned by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) measurements and calculations. Phytotoxic activity of the compound was evaluated on ash, cork and holm oak leaves at concentration of 1 mg/mL by the leaf-puncture assay. Interestingly, fraxitoxin caused necrotic lesions only on ash leaves.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T08:50:30.085401-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700325
       
  • Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking Studies of Novel
           4-Arylpyridin-1(4H)-yl) benzoic acid Derivatives as Anti-HIV-1 Agents
    • Authors: Saghi Sepehri; Sepehr Soleymani, Rezvan Zabihollahi, Mohammad R. Aghasadeghi, Mehdi Sadat, Lotfollah Saghaie, Afshin Fassihi
      Abstract: The structural similarities between N1 substituted 1,4-dihydropyridines and the known gp41 inhibitors, NB-2 and NB-64, were considered in the current research for the design of some novel anti-HIV-1 agents. A series of novel 4-arylpyridin-1(4H)-yl) benzoic acid derivatives were synthesized and after a comprehensive structural elucidation were screened for in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity. Most of the tested compounds displayed moderate to good inhibitory activity against HIV-1 growth and were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activity using XTT assay at the concentration of 100 μM. Among the tested compounds, 1c, 1d and 1e showed potent anti-HIV-1 activity against P24 expression at 100 μM with inhibition percentage of 84.00, 76.42 and 80.50%, respectively. All the studied compounds possessed no significant cytotoxicity on MT-2 cell line. The binding modes of these compounds to gp41 binding site were determined through molecular docking study. Docking studies proved 1a as the most potent compound and binding maps exhibited that the activities might be attributed to the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and additional H-bonds with the gp41 binding site. The Lipinski's ‘‘rule of five’’ and drug-likeness criteria were also calculated for the studied compounds. All derivatives obeyed the Lipinski's ‘‘rule of five’’ and had drug-like features. The findings of this study suggest that novel 4-arylpyridin-1(4H)-yl) benzoic acid might be a promising scaffold for the discovery and development of novel anti-HIV-1 agents.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T03:50:19.768004-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700295
       
  • The Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Responsible For The Production of
           Z-Norendoxifen In Vitro
    • Authors: Dabei Tang; Zhong Chu, Jessica Bo Li Lu, Jinzhong Liu, Qingyuan Zhang
      Abstract: BackgroundNorendoxifen, an active metabolite of tamoxifen, is a potent aromatase inhibitor. Little information is available regarding production of norendoxifen in vitro. Here, we conducted a series of kinetic and inhibition studies in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and expressed P450s to study the metabolic disposition of norendoxifen.MethodsTo validate that norendoxifen was the metabolite of endoxifen, metabolites in HLMs incubates of endoxifen were measured using a HPLC/MS/MS method. To further probe the specific isoforms involved in the metabolic route, endoxifen was incubated with recombinant P450s (CYP 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, 3A5 and CYP4A11). Formation rates of norendoxifen were evaluated in the absence and presence of P450 isoform specific inhibitors using HLMs.ResultsThe peak of norendoxifen was found in the incubations consisting of endoxifen, HLMs and cofactors. The retention times of norendoxifen, Endoxifen and the internal standard (diphenhydramine) were 7.81, 7.97 and 5.86 min, respectively. The Km (app) and Vmax (app) values of norendoxifen formation from endoxifen in HLM was 47.8 μM and 35.39 pmol/min/mg. The apparent hepatic intrinsic clearances [Clint app] of norendoxifen formation were 0.74 μl/ mg × min. CYP3A5 and CYP2D6 were the major enzymes capable of norendoxifen formation from endoxifen with rates of 0.26 and 0.86 pmol/pmol P450×min. CYP1A2, 3A2, 2C9 and 2C19 also contributed to norendoxifen formation, but the contributions were at least 6-fold lower.1μM ketoconazole (CYP3A inhibitor) showed an inhibitory effect on rates of norendoxifen formation by 45%, but 1μM quinidine (CYP2D6 inhibitor) does not show an inhibitory effect.ConclusionNorendoxifen, metabolism from endoxifen by multiple P450s that including CYP3A5.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T11:10:21.360533-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700287
       
  • Isolation of the New Antiplasmodial Butanolide Malleastrumolide A from a
           Malleastrum sp. (Meliaceae) from Madagascar
    • Authors: Yongle Du; Alexander K. Abedi, Ana Lisa Valenciano, Maria L. Fernández-Murga, Maria B. Cassera, Vincent E. Rasamison, Wendy L. Applequist, James S. Miller, David G. I. Kingston
      Abstract: An extract of a Malleastrum sp. (Meliaceae) collected in Madagascar by the Madagascar International Cooperative Biodiversity Group was found to have antimalarial activity, with an IC50 value between 2.5 and 5 μg/mL. After purification by liquid-liquid partition, chromatography on a Diaion open column, C-18 SPE and C-18 reverse phase HPLC, the new butanolide malleastrumolide A was isolated. The structure of malleastrumolide A was determined by mass spectrometry, NMR and ECD. The double bond position was determined by cross-metathesis and mass spectrometry. The compound has antiproliferative activity against the A2780 ovarian cancer cell line with an IC50 value of 17.4 μM and antiplasmodial activity against the drug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 value of 2.74 μM.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T10:00:20.156007-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700331
       
  • Constituents from Scutellaria barbata Inhibiting Nitric Oxide Production
           in LPS-stimulated Microglial Cells
    • Authors: So Ra Lee; Min-Suk Kim, Sunggun Kim, Kwang Woo Hwang, So-Young Park
      Abstract: The arial parts of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (Lamiaceae) efficiently inhibited NO production in BV2 microglial cells, and the active constituents were further isolated based on activity-guided isolation using silica-gel column chromatography, RP-C18 MPLC and prep-HPLC. As the results, 2 flavonoids including 6-methoxynaringenin (1) and 6-O-methylscutellarein (5), and 6 neo-clerodane diterpenes such as scutebarbatine W (2), scutebatas B (3), scutebarbatine B (4), scutebarbatine A (6), 6-O-nicotinolylscutebarbatine G (7) and scutebarbatine X (8) were isolated. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on NMR and MS data, and the comparison of literature values. All the compounds except compound 7 inhibited NO production efficiently with IC50 values of lower than 50 μM. Particularly, compound 1 and 8 were the most efficient with IC50 values of 25.8 and 27.4 μM, respectively. This is the first report suggesting the potential of S. barbata on the reduction of neuroinflammation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T09:55:26.95271-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700231
       
  • Structural modification of stilbenoids from Acanthopanax leucorrhizus and
           their cytotoxic activity
    • Authors: Hu Hao-Bin; Liang Hai-Peng, Li Hai-Ming, Yuan Ru-Nan, Sun Jiao, Wu Yun, Zhang La-La, Han Ming-Hu
      Abstract: A new cis-stilbenoid, 1,9-dihydroxy-10-methoxy-6H-dibenzo [b, f] oxocin-6-one (2) was isolated from the EtOAc extract of the stem barks of Acanthopanax leucorrhizus, along with three known stilbenoids, 9-hydroxy-10- methoxy-6H-dibenzo [b, f] oxocin-6-one (1), 5-O-methyl-(E)-resveratrol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3) and (E)- resveratrol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (4). Two derivatives (2a and 2b) were synthesized by the structural modification of compound 2, which exhibited certain cytotoxic activities against HT-29 and Hela cell lines in vitro. All compounds were structurally characterized by comprehensive analysis of their spectroscopic data and comparison with literature information, and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human tumor cell lines (HL-60, HT-29 and Hela) by the standard MTT assay in vitro. The results showed that derivatives 2a and 2b exhibited strong activities than compounds 2 against HT-29 and Hela cell lines.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T09:45:33.94795-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700244
       
  • Biocidal potential and chemical composition of industrial essential oils
           from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula x intermedia var. super and Santolina
           chamaecyparissus
    • Authors: Gonzalo Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras; Raúl Sánchez-Vioque, María Isabel Berruga, David Herraiz-Peñalver, Azucena González-Coloma, María Fé Andrés, Omar Santana-Méridas
      Abstract: This work presents the biocidal (insecticidal, ixodicidal, nematicidal and phytotoxic) effects and chemical compositions of three essential oils obtained from the industrial steam distillation (IEOs) of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia or L. x hybrida var. Super) and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). Their chemical composition analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed 1,8-cineole (53%) and β-pinene (16%) as the major components of H. officinalis, linalyl acetate (38%) and linalool (29%) of L. x intermedia; and 1,8-cineole (10%) and 8-methylene-3-oxatricyclo[5.2.0.0(2.4)]nonane (8%) in S. chamaecyparissus. The biocidal tests showed that L. x intermedia IEO was the most active against the insect Spodoptera littoralis and toxic to the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, IEO of H. officinalis was strongly active against S. littoralis, and finally, S. chamaecyparissus IEO was a strong antifeedant against the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, toxic to H. lusitanicum and with moderate effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata, S. littoralis and Lolium perenne.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-12T03:05:21.380337-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700313
       
  • Chaetochromones A-C, Three New Polyketides from Mangrove Plant Derived
           Endophytic Fungus Phomopsis sp. SCSIO 41006
    • Authors: Zhi-Ran Ju; Xiu-Ping Lin, Minke Li, Ying Wang, Yong-Qi Tian, Jun-Feng Wang, Juan Liu, Zhengchao Tu, Shi-Hai Xu, Yonghong Liu
      Abstract: Three new polyketides, chaetochromones A-C (1-3), together with a chromone (4), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of mangrove-derived fungus Phomopsis sp. SCSIO 41006. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic techniques (1D and 2D NMR, MS, UV and IR). The absolute configurations of the new compounds were established by CD data.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T04:52:06.236268-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700266
       
  • Variation on composition and bioactivity of essential oils of four common
           Curcuma herbs
    • Authors: Lanyue Zhang; Zhiwen Yang, Dingkang Chen, Zebin Huang, Yongliang Li, Xinzi Lan, Ping Su, Wanyi Pan, Wei Zhou, Xi Zheng, Zhiyun Du
      Abstract: Chemical compositions, antioxidative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of essential oils extracted from four common Curcuma species (Curcuma longa, Curcuma phaeocaulis, Curcuma wenyujin and Curcuma kwangsiensis) rhizomes in China are comparatively studied. In total, 47, 49, 35 and 30 compounds are identified in C. longa, C. phaeocaulis, C. wenyujin and C. kwangsiensis essential oils by GC-MS, and their richest compounds are ar-turmerone (21.67%), elemenone (19.41%), curdione (40.23%) and (36.47%), respectively. Moreover, C. kwangsiensis essential oils display the strongest DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity (IC50, 3.47 μg/ml), much higher than ascorbic acid (6.50 μg/ml). C. phaeocaulis oils show the best antibacterial activities against E. coli (MIC, 235.54 μg/ml), P. aeruginosa (391.31 μg/ml) and S. aureus (378.36 μg/ml), while C. wenyujin and C. kwangsiensis oils show optimum activities against C. albicans (208.61 μg/ml) and S. cerevisiae (193.27 μg/ml), respectively. C. phaeocaulis (IC50, 4.63 μg/ml) and C. longa essential oils (73.05 μg/ml) have the best cytotoxicity against LNCaP and HepG2, respectively. C. kwangsiensis oils also exhibit the strongest anti-inflammatory activities by remarkably down-regulating expression of COX-2 and TNF-α. Therefore, due to their different chemical compositions and bioactivities, traditional Chinese Curcuma herbs should be differentially served as natural additives for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10T04:51:27.616435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700280
       
  • Highly Enantioselective Production of Chiral Secondary Alcohols using
           Lactobacillus paracasei BD101 as a New Whole Cell Biocatalyst and
           Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial Effects
    • Authors: Durmuşhan Yılmaz; Engin Şahin, Enes Dertli
      Abstract: Chiral secondary alcohols are valuable intermediates for many important enantiopure pharmaceuticals and biologically active molecules. In this work, we studied asymmetric reduction of aromatic ketones to produce the corresponding chiral secondary alcohols using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as new biocatalysts. Seven LAB strains were screened for their ability to reduce acetophenones to their corresponding alcohols. Among these strains Lactobacillus paracasei BD101, was found to be the most successful at reducing the ketones to the corresponding alcohols. The reaction conditions were further systematically optimized for this strain and high enantioselectivity (99%) and very good yields were obtained. These secondary alcohols were further tested for their antimicrobial activities against important pathogens and significant levels of antimicrobial activities were observed although these activities were altered depending on the secondary alcohols as well as their enantiomeric properties. The current methodology demonstrates a promising and alternative green approach for the synthesis of chiral secondary alcohols of biological importance in a cheap, mild and environmentally useful process.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T08:37:00.59011-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700269
       
  • Bioactive secondary metabolites from orchids (Orchidaceae)
    • Authors: Stefania Sut; Filippo Maggi, Stefano Dall'Acqua
      Abstract: The Orchidaceae family is the largest group of flowering plants in the Angiosperm monocotyledons spread on our planet. Its members, called orchids, are herbs or epiphytes with showy flowers distributed mainly in tropical regions. Several classes of phytoconstituents have been so far isolated from therapeutically-used orchids showing a great chemical diversity. Among them, phenolic derivatives have been studied for their biological activities, especially in the field of cancer, inflammation and neurodegeneration. On the other hand, limited information has been so far obtained on the numerous alkaloids and terpenoids isolated from several orchids species. Recent papers revealed pronounced effects of some alkaloids on the CNS. Published literature on orchids that are used in traditional medicine has been reviewed in this work indicating a great potential of such organisms as source of chemical entities for the development of new drugs.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T11:30:23.222623-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700172
       
  • Ecotype variation of methyl eugenol content in tea tree (Melaleuca
           alternifolia and M. linariifolia)
    • Authors: Mervyn Shepherd; Dale Savins, Ashley Dowell, Samantha Morrow, Gareth Allen, Ian Southwell
      Abstract: Methyl eugenol is a natural phenylpropanoid compound found in a wide range of plants used for food, flavouring, cosmetics and health-care. As a suspected rodent carcinogen, methyl eugenol may also be harmful to humans when present in significant concentrations. Consequently, its level has been restricted in some foodstuffs and cosmetics for some markets. In order to assess the potential to breed uniformly low methyl eugenol cultivars for an essential oil crop, tea tree, the source of “Oil of Melaleuca, terpinene-4-ol type”, we examine levels in individual trees (n= 30) from two geographic regions and six terpene chemotypes. Overall, methyl eugenol levels were low in this species (Mean (SD) 354 (239) ppm n=30), much lower than levels predicted to be of toxicological concern. Within each chemotype, there was a lack of evidence for correlations between terpenoid constituents and methyl eugenol levels. Further support for the independence of methyl eugenol and terpene biosynthesis was evident from similar mean levels in selected (Mean (SD) 586 (339) ppm n=12) and undomesticated M. alternifolia trees (Mean (SD) 480 (299) ppm n=5) with terpinen-4-ol type oils. By contrast, methyl eugenol level varied by geographic origin and chemotype. Trees from the upland region, where there is a prevalence of terpinolene type trees, had lower average methyl eugenol levels than trees from the coastal region, where there is a prevalence of terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole type trees.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27T06:15:21.714922-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700278
       
  • Characterization and influence of green synthesized of nano-sized zinc
           complex with 5-aminolevulinic acid on bioactive compounds of aniseed
    • Authors: Vahid Tavallali; Sadegh Rahmati, Vahid Rowshan
      Abstract: A new water soluble zinc-aminolevulinic acid nano complex (n[Zn(ALA)2]), which characterized by TEM, IR and EDX spectra, has been prepared via sonochemical method under green conditions in water. In the current study, the effectiveness of foliar Zn amendment using synthetic Zn-ALA nano complex, as a new introduced Zn-fertilizer here, was evaluated. As the model plant, Pimpinella anisum, the most valuable spice and medicinal plant grown in warm regions, was used. By using zinc nano complex, further twenty compounds were obtained in the essential oil of anise plants. Application of 0.2% (w/v) Zn-ALA nano complex increased the levels of E-Anethole, β-Bisabolene, Germacrene D, Methyl chavicol and α-Zingiberene in the essential oil. Nano Zn complex at the rate of 0.2% induced considerable high phenolic compounds and zinc content of shoots and seeds. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) had the highest level between four detected phenolic compounds. The maximum antioxidant activity was monitored through the application of Zn nano complex. According to the results, nanoscale nutrients can be provided with further decreased doses for medicinal plants. Using Zn-ALA nano complex is a new and efficient method to improve the pharmaceutical and food properties of anise plants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T11:46:08.328667-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700197
       
  • Evolution of volatile emission in Rhus coriaria organs during different
           stages of growth and evaluation of the essential oil composition
    • Authors: Rose Vanessa Bandeira Reidel; Pier Luigi Cioni, Luigi Majo, Luisa Pistelli
      Abstract: Rhus coriaria, also known as sumac, have been traditionally used in many countries as spice, condiment, dying agent and medicinal herb. The chemical composition of essential oils and the volatile emissions from different organs of this species collected in Sicily (Italy) were analyzed by GC–FID and GC–MS. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were the most abundant class in the volatile emissions with β-caryophyllene and α-pinene were the main constituents in the majority of the examined samples. The EO composition was characterized by high amount of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons together with diterpenes. The main compounds in the EO obtained from the leaves and both stages of fruit maturation were cembrene and β-caryophyllene, while α-pinene and tridecanoic acid were the key compounds in the flower EO. All the data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis showing many differences among the different plant parts and their ontogenetic stages.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-25T07:42:52.264916-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700270
       
  • Bioactive Pimarane-type Diterpenes from Marine Organisms
    • Authors: Xiaoli Wang; Haobing Yu, Yixin Zhang, Xiaoling Lu, Bin Wang, Xiaoyu Liu
      Abstract: Marine organisms represent an abundant sources of bioactive natural products with unique chemical structure. Pimarane diterpenes are a structurally diverse family of natural products with various biological activities and pharmacological properties. A prolific source of new marine-derived pimarane diterpenes have attracted considerable interest because of their unique structural diversity and varied biological activities, including antimicrobial, antitumor, and antiproliferative activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the structures, names, bioactivities, and references of 80 marine-derived pimarane-type natural products for the first time.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24T03:00:22.261443-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700276
       
  • Discrimination and characterization of two Mediterranean species from the
           Laurencia complex (Rhodomelacea) using an NMR-based metabolomic approach
    • Authors: Sylvain Sutour; Hélène Esselin, Ange Bighelli, Joseph Casanova, Line Le Gall, Félix Tomi
      Abstract: Generic and specific determination among the Laurencia complex is a challenging task. DNA barcoding combined with phenotypic investigations are mandatory for species differentiation. In this study, two morphologically different members of the Laurencia complex were investigated using untargeted 1H NMR-based metabolomics. Twenty-one population samples were collected in order to evaluate both temporal and geographical homogeneity. Data obtained from 1H NMR analysis followed by statistical analysis allowed a clear separation of all the samples into two groups. DNA mitochondrial tests confirmed this pattern and identified the two species as Laurenciella sp. and Laurencia obtusa. In addition, metabolites responsible of this discrimination were investigated directly in crude extracts by 13C NMR using an in-house computer-assisted method. The combination of both untargeted (1H) and targeted (13C) NMR-based metabolomic approaches proves to be a powerful and complementary approach to discriminate species from the Laurencia complex.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19T11:05:31.707455-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700226
       
  • Caryophyllane thiols, vinyl thioethers, di- and bis-sulfides: antioxidant
           and membrane protective activities
    • Authors: Yulia V. Gyrdymova; Denis V. Sudarikov, Oksana G. Shevchenko, Svetlana A. Rubtsova, Pavel A. Slepukhin, Aleksandr V. Kutchin
      Abstract: Caryophyllane thioterpenoids were synthesized in 23-81% yields. The antioxidant properties of the obtained compounds in various model systems were found. It was revealed that 4,5-epoxycaryophyll-9-ylmethanethiol has the greatest antioxidant activity. The isomerism of sesquiterpenic fragments was shown to have a significant effect on the biological activity of the compounds.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-13T12:15:20.725345-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700296
       
  • A nitrile glucoside and biflavones from the leaves of Campylospermum
           excavatum (Ochnaceae)
    • Authors: Gaétan Bayiha Ba Njock; Raphaël Grougnet, Antonia Efstathiou, Despina Smirlis, Grégory Genta-Jouve, Sylvie Michel, Joséphine Ngo Mbing, Marina Kritsanida
      Abstract: The study of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Campylospermum excavatum led to the isolation of a nitrile glucoside, named campyloside C (1) and an original derivative of ochnaflavone, 7-O-methylochnaflavone (2) along with three known biflavonoids, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone, and sotetsuflavone (3-5). The linkage site of the sub-units of 2 was confirmed by chemical correlation, after semi-synthesis of a trimethoxylated derivative of ochnaflavone (2a). The structure of these compounds as well as their relative and absolute configurations were assigned by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, HRESIMS and Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) calculations. A low-pass J filter HMBC experiment was performed in order to define the stereochemistry of the double bond of 1. All of the biflavonoids were evaluated against protozoan parasites. Amentoflavone moderately inhibited the promastigote form of Leishmania infantum.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T03:10:44.807306-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700241
       
  • Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles differentiate tropical fire ant populations
           (Solenopsis geminata, Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
    • Authors: Lin Hu; Robert K. Vander Meer, Sanford D. Porter, Li Chen
      Abstract: The cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) from hexane rinses of workers from two Florida populations (dark and red forms) of the tropical fire ant, Solenopsis geminata, were separated by silica gel chromatography and identified by GC-MS analysis. Both the dark form and the red form produce similar CHCs with carbon chain lengths ranging from 17 to 35. However, the relative percentages of these CHCs were consistently different between the two color forms. The largest CHC component in the dark form is tricosane, and (Z)-9-tricosene for the red form. There were several significant differences in percent composition. For example, the dark form was characterized by a low tricosene:tricosane ratio (≈ 0.25), whereas this ratio was> 2.5 for the red form. The ratio of tricosene:tricosane can be used as a diagnostic biomarker to delimit the dark and red forms. Cluster analysis showed that the CHCs patterns of dark form colonies are completely separated from the CHC pattern of red form colonies. Differences in social behaviors like nestmate recognition and polygyny between workers from this dark form and the red form await further investigation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11T03:05:21.114679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700192
       
  • Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oil
           extracted from the petals of three wild tree peony species and eleven
           cultivars
    • Authors: Jia-yi Sun; Xiao-Xiao Zhang, Li-Xin Niu, Yan-Long Zhang
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil (EO) compositions and antioxidant activities from petals of three wild tree peony species (Paeonia delavayi, P. lutea and P. rockii) and eleven P. suffruticosa cultivars from different cultivar groups. The EOs yields varied from 0.63% to 1.25% (v/v) among samples when using supercritical CO2 extraction. One hundred and sixty-three components were detected by GC-MS; and among them, linalool oxide, Z-5-dodecen-1-yl acetate, nonadecane, Z-5-nonadecene, heneicosane, phytol, and linoleic acid ethyl ester were dominant. According to hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis and correspondence analysis, P. lutea, P. delavayi, and ‘High Noon’ were clustered in a group described as having a refreshing herbal-like note due to high rates of phytol and linalool oxide. Notably, P. lutea and P. delavayi also had strong DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. These results suggest that P. lutea and P. delavayi are the most promising candidates as useful sources of fragrances and natural antioxidants.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04T22:40:21.554695-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700282
       
  • Enzymatic Process Enhances the Flavour Profile and Increases the
           Proportion of Esters in Citrus Essential Oils
    • Authors: Kun Zhang; Ying Lin, Zhou-Jian Diao, Wei-Hua Zhang, Sui-Ping Zheng, Shu-Li Liang, Shuang-Yan Han
      Abstract: Citrus essential oils (CEOs) are important flavors in the food and confectionary industries. A lipase process was proposed for enhancing the flavor profiles and increasing the proportions of esters in CEOs. The effects of the enzymatic process were explored by detecting the constituents of the CEOs of American sweet orange oil (ASO) and Brazil mandarin oil (BMO) through GC-MS and sensory evaluation by a trained panel, and positive effects were confirmed by both methods. A further 11 kinds of CEOs were treated via the lipase process and increments of 10% to 1170% were achieved in the proportions of esters, which were mostly ethyl esters. Enhancement in fruity odor, especially the top note, was demonstrated by all CEOs after enzymatic processing. All CEOs were tested for antimicrobial activities and only ASO displayed fairly ideal antimicrobial activities. Meanwhile, modified ASO showed a certain increase in antimicrobial activities. This methodology might be considered a sustainable route for acquiring ‘natural’ essential oils with enhanced flavor profiles and simultaneously enhancing the comprehensive utilization of citrus fruits.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T12:21:45.685954-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700187
       
 
 
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