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Journal Cover Nano Reviews
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2000-5121
   Published by Co-Action Publishing Homepage  [32 journals]
  • Octa-ammonium POSS-conjugated single-walled carbon nanotubes as vehicles
           for targeted delivery of paclitaxel

    • Authors: Naghmeh Naderi, Seyed Y. Madani, Afshin Mosahebi, Alexander Marcus Seifalian
      Abstract: Background: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, novel properties can be developed by attachment or encapsulation of functional groups. These unique properties facilitate the use of CNTs in drug delivery. We developed a new nanomedicine consisting of a nanocarrier, cell-targeting molecule, and chemotherapeutic drug and assessed its efficacy in vitro.Methods: The efficacy of a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-based nanoconjugate system is assessed in the targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to cancer cells. SWCNTs were oxidized and reacted with octa-ammonium polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (octa-ammonium POSS) to render them biocompatible and water dispersable. The functionalized SWCNTs were loaded with PTX, a chemotherapeutic agent toxic to cancer cells, and Tn218 antibodies for cancer cell targeting. The nanohybrid composites were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet–visible–near-infrared (UV–Vis–NIR). Additionally, their cytotoxic effects on Colon cancer cell (HT-29) and Breast cancer cell (MCF-7) lines were assessed in vitro.Results: TEM, FTIR, and UV–Vis–NIR studies confirmed side-wall functionalization of SWCNT with COOH-groups, PTX, POSS, and antibodies. Increased cell death was observed with PTX–POSS–SWCNT, PTX–POSS–Ab–SWCNT, and free PTX compared to functionalized-SWCNT (f-SWCNT), POSS–SWCNT, and cell-only controls at 48 and 72 h time intervals in both cell lines. At all time intervals, there was no significant cell death in the POSS–SWCNT samples compared to cell-only controls.Conclusion: The PTX-based nanocomposites were shown to be as cytotoxic as free PTX. This important finding indicates successful release of PTX from the nanocomposites and further reiterates the potential of SWCNTs to deliver drugs directly to targeted cells and tissues.Keywords: carbon nanotube; drug delivery; nanotechnology(Published: 8 September 2015Responsible Editor: Russ Algar, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.Citation: Nano Reviews 2015, 6: 28297 -
      PubDate: 2015-09-08
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2015)
  • LED-controlled tuning of ZnO nanowires’ wettability for biosensing

    • Authors: Kaushalkumar Bhavsar, Duncan Ross, Radhakrishna Prabhu, Pat Pollard
      Abstract: Background: Wettability is an important property of solid materials which can be controlled by surface energy. Dynamic control over the surface wettability is of great importance for biosensing applications. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a biocompatible material suitable for biosensors and microfluidic devices. Nanowires of ZnO tend to show a hydrophobic nature which decelerates the adhesion or adsorption of biomolecules on the surface and, therefore, limits their application.Methods: Surface wettability of the ZnO nanowires can be tuned using light irradiation. However, the control over wettability using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and the role of wavelength in controlling the wettability of ZnO nanowires are unclear. This is the first report on LED-based wettability control of nanowires, and it includes investigations on tuning the desired wettability of ZnO nanowires using LEDs as a controlling tool.Results: The investigations on spectral properties of the LED emission on ZnO nanowires' wettability have shown strong dependency on the spectral overlap of LED emission on ZnO absorption spectra. Results indicate that LEDs offer an advanced control on dynamically tuning the wettability of ZnO nanowires.Conclusion: The spectral investigations have provided significant insight into the role of irradiating wavelength of light and irradiation time on the surface wettability of ZnO nanowires. This process is suitable to realize on chip based integrated sensors and has huge potential for eco-friendly biosensing and environmental sensing applications.Keywords: surface energy; contact angle; surface wetting angle; hydrophobic surface; hydrophilic surface(Published: 7 April 2015)
      Citation: Nano Reviews 2015, 6: 26711 -
      PubDate: 2015-04-07
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2015)
  • Highly textured and transparent RF sputtered
           Eu2O3 doped ZnO films

    • Authors: Remadevi Sreeja Sreedharan, Vedachalaiyer Ganesan, Chellappan Pillai Sudarsanakumar, Kaushalkumar Bhavsar, Radhakrishna Prabhu, Vellara Pappukutty Pillai Mahadevan Pillai
      Abstract: Background: Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide, direct band gap II-VI oxide semiconductor. ZnO has large exciton binding energy at room temperature, and it is a good host material for obtaining visible and infrared emission of various rare-earth ions.Methods: Europium oxide (Eu2O3) doped ZnO films are prepared on quartz substrate using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering with doping concentrations 0, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt%. The films are annealed in air at a temperature of 773 K for 2 hours. The annealed films are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy.Results: XRD patterns show that the films are highly c-axis oriented exhibiting hexagonalwurtzite structure of ZnO. Particle size calculations using Debye-Scherrer formula show that average crystalline size is in the range 15–22 nm showing the nanostructured nature of the films. The observation of low- and high-frequency E2 modes in the Raman spectra supports the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO in the films. The surface morphology of the Eu2O3 doped films presents dense distribution of grains. The films show good transparency in the visible region. The band gaps of the films are evaluated using Tauc plot model. Optical constants such as refractive index, dielectric constant, loss factor, and so on are calculated using the transmittance data. The PL spectra show both UV and visible emissions.Conclusion: Highly textured, transparent, luminescent Eu2O3 doped ZnO films have been synthesized using RF magnetron sputtering. The good optical and structural properties and intense luminescence in the ultraviolet and visible regions from the films suggest their suitability for optoelectronic applications.Keywords: visible photoluminescence; dielectric constants; micro-Raman spectra; optical constants; residual stress

      Responsible Editor: Dr Raquel Verdejo, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, CSIC, Madrid, Spain.Citation: Nano Reviews 2015, 6: 26759 -
      PubDate: 2015-03-11
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2015)
  • Review of the fundamental theories behind small angle X-ray scattering,
           molecular dynamics simulations, and relevant integrated application

    • Authors: Lauren Boldon, Fallon Laliberte, Li Liu
      Abstract: In this paper, the fundamental concepts and equations necessary for performing small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and MD-SAXS analyses were reviewed. Furthermore, several key biological and non-biological applications for SAXS, MD, and MD-SAXS are presented in this review; however, this article does not cover all possible applications. SAXS is an experimental technique used for the analysis of a wide variety of biological and non-biological structures. SAXS utilizes spherical averaging to produce one- or two-dimensional intensity profiles, from which structural data may be extracted. MD simulation is a computer simulation technique that is used to model complex biological and non-biological systems at the atomic level. MD simulations apply classical Newtonian mechanics’ equations of motion to perform force calculations and to predict the theoretical physical properties of the system. This review presents several applications that highlight the ability of both SAXS and MD to study protein folding and function in addition to non-biological applications, such as the study of mechanical, electrical, and structural properties of non-biological nanoparticles. Lastly, the potential benefits of combining SAXS and MD simulations for the study of both biological and non-biological systems are demonstrated through the presentation of several examples that combine the two techniques.Keywords: small angle X-ray scattering; molecular dynamics; protein folding; nanoparticles; MD-SAXS; atomistic simulation; ab initio; radius of gyration; pair distribution function; Newtonian equations of motion(Published: 25 February 2015)
      Citation: Nano Reviews 2015, 6: 25661 -
      PubDate: 2015-02-25
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2015)
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