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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 846 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (597 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 217)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 277)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 165)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 189)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Science : Nano     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Cellulose
  [SJR: 1.167]   [H-I: 71]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-882X - ISSN (Online) 0969-0239
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2329 journals]
  • Recent trends and developments in dissolving pulp production and
           application
    • Authors: Hemanathan Kumar; Lew P. Christopher
      Pages: 2347 - 2365
      Abstract: Abstract This work provides a critical overview of the recent trends toward the development of modern, dissolving pulp production technologies that respond to the current challenges and opportunities for the emerging low-carbon bioresource economy. Special attention is paid to recent advancements in prehydrolysis kraft pulping and conversion of paper grade pulp to dissolving pulp, with emphasis on the valorization of hemicellulose to value-added products. A comprehensive analysis of the current and future developmental opportunities for novel bioprocessing technologies and new products from dissolving pulp that aim to improve the process economics and enhance the industry competitiveness is presented and discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1285-y
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Applying Direct Yellow 11 to a modified Simons’ staining assay
    • Authors: Thomas T. Kwok; David N. Fogg; Matthew J. Realff; Andreas S. Bommarius
      Pages: 2367 - 2373
      Abstract: Abstract For quantification of overall fiber accessibility of lignocellulosic substrates, Direct Yellow 11 (C.I. 40000) is a suitable alternative to the discontinued Pylam Products’ dye Direct Orange 15 (C.I. 40002/40003). In this study we present a side-by-side comparison between the two azo-stilbene dyes. We characterize individual dye fractions and provide equations to determine individual concentrations. We present a modified Simons’ staining protocol incorporating the high molecular weight fraction of Direct Yellow 11. We perform tests on lignin, cellulosic, and lignocellulosic materials. In all tests, the two dyes perform similarly and satisfy many accessibility measurement criteria. We demonstrate that the adsorption of Direct Yellow 11 onto a substrate correlates with that substrate’s propensity for enzymatic hydrolysis. We confirm this correlation on a series of organic solvent pretreatments and on a series of lignocellulosic substrates. Finally, we outline the inherent limitations of performing adsorption experiments with Direct Yellow 11 and other high molecular weight dyes.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1269-y
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Hydroxyl accessibility in wood cell walls as affected by drying and
           re-wetting procedures
    • Authors: Emil Engelund Thybring; Lisbeth Garbrecht Thygesen; Ingo Burgert
      Pages: 2375 - 2384
      Abstract: Abstract The first drying of wood cell walls from the native state has sometimes been described as producing irreversible structural changes which reduce the accessibility to water, a phenomenon often referred to as hornification. This study demonstrates that while changes do seem to take place, these are more complex than what has hitherto been described. The accessibility of wood cell wall hydroxyls to deuteration in the form of liquid water was not found to be affected by drying, since vacuum impregnation with liquid water restores the native cell wall accessibility. Contrary to this, hydroxyl accessibility to deuteration by water vapour was found to decrease to different levels depending on the drying conditions. Vacuum drying at 60 °C for 3 days reduced the accessibility more than drying for 1 day at 103 °C without vacuum. Drying for 3 days at 103 °C increased the hydroxyl accessibility compared to 1 day. Moreover, the decrease in hydroxyl accessibility to deuteration by water vapour induced by the first drying could be at least partially erased by subsequent vacuum impregnation with liquid water, indicating reversibility. For the drying of solid, non-degraded wood cell walls the results challenge the often supposed process of hornification, understood as a permanent decrease in hydroxyl accessibility to water.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1278-x
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Comparative physical and chemical analyses of cotton fibers from two near
           isogenic upland lines differing in fiber wall thickness
    • Authors: Hee Jin Kim; Christopher M. Lee; Kevin Dazen; Christopher D. Delhom; Yongliang Liu; James E. Rodgers; Alfred D. French; Seong H. Kim
      Pages: 2385 - 2401
      Abstract: Abstract The thickness of cotton fiber cell walls is an important property that partially determines the economic value of cotton. To better understand the physical and chemical manifestations of the genetic variations that regulate the degree of fiber wall thickness, we used a comprehensive set of methods to compare fiber properties of the immature fiber (im) mutant, called immature because it produces thin-walled fibers, and its isogenic wild type Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) that is a standard upland cotton variety producing normal fibers with thick walls. Comprehensive structural analyses showed that im and TM-1 fibers shared a common developmental process of cell wall thickening, contrary to the previous report that the phase in the im fiber development might be retarded. No significant differences were found in cellulose content, crystallinity index, crystal size, matrix polymer composition, or in ribbon width between the isogenic fibers. In contrast, significant differences were detected in their linear density, cross-section micrographs of fibers from opened bolls, and in the lateral order between their cellulose microfibrils (CMFs). The cellulose mass in a given fiber length was lower and the CMFs were less organized in the im fibers compared with the TM-1 fibers. The presented results imply that the disruption of CMF organization or assembly in the cell walls may be associated with the immature phenotype of the im fibers.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1282-1
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Catalytic conversion of cellulose into polyols using
           carbon-nanotube-supported monometallic Pd and bimetallic Pd–Fe catalysts
           
    • Authors: Siquan Xu; Xiaopei Yan; Quan Bu; Haian Xia
      Pages: 2403 - 2413
      Abstract: Abstract A series of carbon nanotube (CNT)-supported monometallic Pd and bimetallic Pd–Fe catalysts were synthesized and employed for catalytic hydrogenolysis of cellulose into polyols, including hexitol, ethylene glycol (EG), 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PG), and glycerol (Gly). The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by nitrogen physical adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The total yield of hexitol, EG, 1,2-PG, and Gly in hydrolytic hydrogenation of cellulose was 37, 55, and 53% for Pd/CNTs, Pd–Fe/CNTs (Pd:Fe = 1:1), and Pd–Fe/CNTs (Pd:Fe = 1:2), respectively. Addition of Fe to Pd significantly modified the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles and their catalytic performance, especially regarding hexitol selectivity. The promoting effect of Fe, especially for hexitol selectivity, compared with the monometallic catalyst is due to the fact that incorporation of Fe may stabilize Pd0 nanoparticles and lead to downshift of the d-band center of Pd metal nanoparticles by charge transfer from Fe to Pd. Recycling experimental results showed that leaching of Fe resulted in a significant decrease in the hexitol yield obtained using the Pd–Fe/CNTs after the first recycle, further demonstrating that Fe element plays a promoting role for hexitol formation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1275-0
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Mechanism and kinetics studies of carboxyl group formation on the surface
           of cellulose fiber in a TEMPO-mediated system
    • Authors: Xiankui Sang; Chengrong Qin; Zhangfa Tong; Song Kong; Zhuan Jia; Guangcong Wan; Xinliang Liu
      Pages: 2415 - 2425
      Abstract: Abstract 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) can selectively oxidize primary hydroxyl groups of cellulose to carboxyl groups. However, the depolymerization also occurs during the process. The kinetics and mechanism of carboxyl group formation on the surface of cellulose fiber oxidized by TEMPO/NaClO2/NaClO were discussed. The oxidization and depolymerization of cellulose occurred simultaneously, according to analysis of FTIR and 13C CP/MAS NMR. The glucuronic acid and some small molecular fragments, formed by hydrolysis or β-elimination during the oxidation, are also discussed. The crystallization index increased and crystal size decreased, as shown by X-ray analysis. The degradation steps in the TEMPO/NaClO2/NaClO system was discussed, according to carbon conversion analyzed by 13C CP/MAS NMR. The oxidation of cellulose can be described well by the kinetics model established based on the degradation of cellulose. It was found that temperature is one of the key parameters for controlling the oxdation and degradation level. The possible mechanism for oxidation of cellulose was composed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1279-9
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Chemisorption of air CO 2 on cellulose: an overlooked feature of the
           cellulose/NaOH(aq) dissolution system
    • Authors: Maria Gunnarsson; Hans Theliander; Merima Hasani
      Pages: 2427 - 2436
      Abstract: Abstract A natural abundance of the air CO2 in NaOH(aq) at low temperature was investigated in terms of cellulose-CO2 interactions upon cellulose dissolution in this system. An organic superbase, namely 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene, DBU, known for its ability to incorporate CO2 in carbohydrates, was employed in order to shed light on this previously overlooked feature of NaOH(aq) at low temperature. The chemisorption of CO2 onto cellulose was investigated using spectroscopic methods in combination with suitable regeneration procedures. ATR-IR and NMR characterisation of regenerated celluloses showed that chemisorption of CO2 onto cellulose during its dissolution in NaOH(aq) takes place both with and without employment of the CO2-capturing superbase. The chemisorption was also observed to be reversible upon addition of water: CO2 desorbed when water was used as regenerating agent but could be preserved when instead ethanol was used. This finding could be an important parameter to take into consideration when developing processes for dissolution of cellulose based on this system.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1288-8
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of mercerized and unmercerized sisal pulp
    • Authors: Joice Jaqueline Kaschuk; Talita Martins Lacerda; Véronique Coma; Elisabete Frollini
      Pages: 2437 - 2453
      Abstract: Abstract Enzymatic saccharification of sisal cellulosic pulp has been investigated. Brazil leads global production of lignocellulosic sisal fiber, which has high cellulose content, an important property for producing glucose via saccharification. Hence, sisal pulp can be a good alternative for use in biorefineries. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, the starting pulp [85 ± 2% α-cellulose, 15 ± 2% hemicelluloses, 1.2 ± 2% insoluble lignin, viscometric average molar mass (MMvis) 19,357 ± 590 g mol−1, crystallinity index (CI) 74%] was pretreated with alkaline aqueous solution (mercerization, 20 g of pulp L−1, 20% NaOH, 50 °C). The changes in the properties of the cellulosic pulp during this pretreatment were analyzed [α-cellulose content, MMvis, CI, pulp fiber dimensions, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)]. The unmercerized and mercerized (97.4 ± 2% α-cellulose, 2.6 ± 2% hemicelluloses, 0.3 ± 0.1% insoluble lignin, MMvis 94,618 ± 300 g mol−1, CI 68%) pulps were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis (48 h, commercial cellulase enzymes, 0.5 mL g−1 pulp); during the reactions, aliquots consisting of unreacted pulp and liquor were withdrawn from the medium at certain times and characterized (unreacted pulp: MMvis, CI, fiber dimensions, SEM; liquor: high-performance liquid chromatography). The changes in pulp properties observed during mercerization facilitated access of enzymes to cellulose chains, and the yield of the hydrolysis reaction increased from 50.2 (unmercerized pulp) to 89.0% (mercerized pulp). These initial results for enzymatic hydrolysis of sisal pulp indicate that it represents a good alternative biomass for bioethanol production.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1284-z
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Preparation and property assessment of neat lignocellulose nanofibrils
           (LCNF) and their composite films
    • Authors: Thomas Horseman; Mehdi Tajvidi; Cherif I. K. Diop; Douglas J. Gardner
      Pages: 2455 - 2468
      Abstract: Abstract Lignocellulose nanofibrils (LCNF) were produced from thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using a micro-grinder and were characterized with respect to fiber diameter and thermal stability. The initial water content in the TMP affected the defibrillation process and longer grinding time was necessary for the air-dried TMP, resulting in LCNF with higher fibril diameter. As compared to the reference cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) produced through a refining process, LCNF was less thermally stable and started to degrade at a temperature that was 30 °C lower than that of CNF. LCNF obtained from the never-dried TMP was combined with various additives (10 wt%) to produce composite films. The neat LCNF and composite films did not reach the mechanical properties of the neat CNF film that was evaluated as reference. However, the addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) at 10 wt% on a dry basis did cause a 46 and 25% increase in tensile strength and elastic modulus, respectively. Other additives including cellulose nanocrystals, bentonite and CNF were also found to increase to some extent the Young’s modulus and ductility of the LCNF composite films whereas the addition of talc did not improve the film performance. Water absorption of neat LCNF films was lower than the reference CNF and was negatively affected by the addition of PVA.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1266-1
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Understanding the effect of synthesis parameters on the catalytic ionic
           liquid hydrolysis process of cellulose nanocrystals
    • Authors: Nurul Atikah Mohd Iskak; Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli; Sharifah Bee Abdul Hamid
      Pages: 2469 - 2481
      Abstract: Abstract Conventional production of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) normally encounters several problems including high energy consumption, toxicity and corrosion risk. Implementation of green solvent ionic liquid (IL) is an alternative to this conventional method. Production of CNC is known to be influenced by several factors such as reaction time and temperature. However, limited studies on the regeneration yield and other properties of CNC produced at both variables can be found. In this paper, CNC with desirable yield, crystallinity and particle size has been produced under catalytic hydrolysis process of IL. Two different parameters have been studied which are reaction temperature and time. It was found that, CNC with particle size of 9 nm and 73% crystallinity index has been produced at 30 min reaction time. Meanwhile, 100 °C reaction temperature manages to produce CNC with 90% yield and 76% crystallinity. In conclusion, reaction temperature and time affect the yield and thermal properties of hydrolysis process.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1273-2
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Using a fully recyclable dicarboxylic acid for producing dispersible and
           thermally stable cellulose nanomaterials from different cellulosic sources
           
    • Authors: Chao Jia; Liheng Chen; Ziqiang Shao; Umesh P. Agarwal; Liangbing Hu; J. Y. Zhu
      Pages: 2483 - 2498
      Abstract: Abstract We fabricated cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from different cellulose materials (bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP), spruce dissolving pulp (SDP) and cotton based qualitative filter paper (QFP) using concentrated oxalic acid hydrolysis and subsequent mechanical fibrillation (for CNFs). The process was green as acid can be easily recovered, and the prepared cellulose nanomaterials were carboxylated and thermally stable. In detail, the CNC yield from the different materials was similar. After hydrolysis, the DP of the cellulose materials decreased substantially, whereas the mechanical fibrillation of the cellulosic solid residues (CSRs) did not dramatically reduce the DP of cellulose. CNCs with different aspect ratios were produced from different starting materials by oxalic acid hydrolysis. The CNCs and CNFs obtained from BEP and QFP possessed more uniform dimensions than those from SDP. On the other hand, CNFs derived from SDP presented the best suspension stability. FTIR analyses verified esterification of cellulose by oxalic acid hydrolysis. The results from both XRD and Raman spectroscopy indicated that whereas XRD crystallinity of CNCs from BEP and QFP did not change significantly, there was some change in Raman crystallinity of these samples. Raman spectra of SDP CNCs indicated that the acid hydrolysis preferably removed cellulose I portion of the samples and therefore the CNCs became cellulose II enriched. TGA revealed that the CNCs obtained from QFP exhibited higher thermal stability compared to those from BEP and SDP, and all the CNCs possessed better thermal stability than that of CNCs from sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The excellent properties of prepared cellulose nanomaterials will be conducive to their application in different fields.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1277-y
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Rheological properties of nanocellulose suspensions: effects of
           fibril/particle dimensions and surface characteristics
    • Authors: Tobias Moberg; Karin Sahlin; Kun Yao; Shiyu Geng; Gunnar Westman; Qi Zhou; Kristiina Oksman; Mikael Rigdahl
      Pages: 2499 - 2510
      Abstract: Abstract The rheological properties of aqueous suspensions based on three different nanocelluloses were compared. One system was obtained via acid hydrolysis (thus yielding crystalline nanocellulose, CNC) and the other two from mechanical shearing, but from different origins and subjected to different pretreatments. Of the latter two, one was considered to be a rather typical cellulose nanofibril (CNF) suspension whereas the other was a kind of intermediate between CNF and CNC. All three nanocellulose elements differed in dimensions as evident from transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. With regard to the length of the fibrils/particles, the three nanocelluloses formed three distinct groups with lengths between 200 and slightly more than 800 nm. The three cellulosic elements were also subjected to a TEMPO-mediated oxidation yielding a similar carboxylate content in the three systems. Furthermore, the TEMPO-oxidized elements were grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The amount of grafted PEG was about 35 wt%. The shear viscosity, the storage modulus and the loss modulus of suspensions of the unmodified, the TEMPO-oxidized and the grafted nanocelluloses were determined at room temperature and the solids content of the suspensions was varied between 0.7 and 2.0 wt%. It was concluded that the rheological properties varied significantly between the suspensions depending on the dimensions of the cellulosic elements and their surface characteristics. In this context, the length (or the aspect ratio) of the particles played a very important role.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1283-0
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Strong cellulose nanofibre–nanosilica composites with controllable
           pore structure
    • Authors: Uthpala M. Garusinghe; Swambabu Varanasi; Gil Garnier; Warren Batchelor
      Pages: 2511 - 2521
      Abstract: Abstract Flexible nanocellulose composites with silica nanoparticle loading from 5 to 77 wt% and tunable pore size were made and characterised. The pore structure of the new composites can be controlled (100–1000 nm to 10–60 nm) by adjusting the silica nanoparticle content. Composites were prepared by first complexing nanoparticles with a cationic dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate polyacrylamide, followed by retaining this complex in a nanocellulose fibre network. High retention of nanoparticles resulted. The structural changes and pore size distribution of the composites were characterised through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mercury porosimetry analysis, respectively. The heavily loaded composites formed packed bed structures of nanoparticles. Film thickness was approximately constant for composites with low loading, indicating that nanoparticles filled gaps created by nanocellulose fibres without altering their structure. Film thickness increased drastically for high loading because of the new packed bed structure. Unexpectedly, within the investigated loading range, the level of the tensile index on nanocellulose mass basis remained constant, showing that the silica nanoparticles did not significantly interfere with the bonding between the cellulose nanofibres. This hierarchically engineered material remains flexible at all loadings, and its unique packing enables use in applications requiring nanocellulose composites with controlled pore structure and high surface area.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1265-2
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Investigating the mechanical performance deterioration of Mediterranean
           cellulosic cypress and pine/polyethylene composites
    • Authors: Faris M. AL-Oqla
      Pages: 2523 - 2530
      Abstract: Abstract The synergy of the materials physical characteristics, performance and recyclability become vital for industrial sustainability. However, finding a suitable cellulosic fiber type to form potential cellulosic-based composite and investigating performance deteriorations are of paramount importance to expand sustainable design possibilities for various applications. In this work investigations of the mechanical performance deterioration of both Mediterranean cellulosic pine and cypress fibers are experimentally investigated. This was achieved by utilizing the fibers with polyethylene matrix to reveal their potential capabilities for industrial applications. Numerous composites with various parameters like fiber types, fiber loading, fiber size, and reinforcement conditions were designed to study several characteristics of the cellulosic composites, their mechanical performance deteriorations, as well as determining the optimal fiber loading condition for each particular studied mechanical property of the composites. Results demonstrate that mechanical properties are significantly changed with fiber loading. In addition, the failure mode in the high fiber loading composites is an obvious indication of the improper or ineffective load transfer between the matrix and the cellulosic fiber. Moreover, it is revealed here that the performance of cypress fibers with polyethylene matrix is much better than that of pine for the considered properties with reference to the neat polyethylene matrix. The overall performance of both types of fibers with polyethylene clearly demonstrates that the performance of cypress fibers is much better than that of pine for all considered properties.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1280-3
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Treatment of chromium effluent by adsorption on chitosan activated with
           ionic liquids
    • Authors: Kevy Pontes Eliodorio; Vitor Seorra Andolfatto; Marco Rulevas Gomes Martins; Breno Pivaro de Sá; Erick Ryoiti Umeki; Andreia de Araújo Morandim-Giannetti
      Pages: 2559 - 2570
      Abstract: Abstract This study proposes, verifies, and refines the use of biopolymers treated with two new ionic liquids (ILs) (sec-butylammonium acetate and n-octylammonium acetate), as a platform for chromium adsorption. The ILs were synthesized, characterized, and applied to chitosan treatment. Analyzing the size distribution of microparticles of chitosan and chitosan activated with ILs (sec-butylammonium acetate and n-octylammonium acetate), we observed that a little decrease in the particle size occurred with the activation of chitosan (176 ± 0.02 μm to 167 ± 0.054 and 168.5 ± 0.05 μm, respectively), as well as changes in the X-ray diffraction FTIR_ATR spectra. Further studies were performed using the best adsorbent – chitosan treated with sec-butylammonium acetate. In this case, the chromium VI concentration in the sample was reduced by more than 99% when using chitosan treated with IL sec-butylammonium acetate. The best reaction time was determined as 1 h, which allowed a chromium adsorption of 99.1% and the adsorption kinetic data were best represented by the second-order model (k2 = 11.7258 g mg−1 min−1). The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained using the Langmuir isotherm model (20.833 mg g−1 at pH 4 during 1 h, using 1.0 g of chitosan), and the adsorption efficiency was enhanced at 25 °C by the Freundlich isotherm model, in which the constants KF and n were determined as 0.875 mg L−1 and 1.610, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1264-3
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Comprehensive utilization of dairy manure to produce glucose and
           hierarchical porous carbon for supercapacitors
    • Authors: Feng Shen; Jialei Su; Linfeng Zhu; Xinhua Qi; Xiao Zhang
      Pages: 2571 - 2579
      Abstract: Abstract Dairy manure, one of the most abundant agricultural wastes generated in livestock farming, was pretreated with KOH aqueous solution to relieve the constraint of lignin, thus facilitating cellulose hydrolysis. The generated black liquor waste was used to prepare porous carbon. Glucose yield of 261 g/kg was obtained from dairy manure pretreated in 0.73 wt% HCl aqueous solution, much higher than that obtained from crude dairy manure (116 g/kg). The generated black liquor, mainly containing lignin and KOH, was employed to prepare porous carbon via a self-templating method. The obtained material had a three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure and was applied for supercapacitors. Good capacitance of 202 F/g was obtained in a two-electrode system with 6 M KOH electrolyte. The porous carbon-based electrode showed excellent cycling stability with retention of 100% after 3000 galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) cycles. This work provides a scalable strategy for comprehensive utilization of lignocellulosic biomass resources.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1267-0
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Physical properties and thermal behavior of reconstituted tobacco sheet
           with precipitated calcium carbonate added in the coating process
    • Authors: Wenhua Gao; Kefu Chen
      Pages: 2581 - 2590
      Abstract: Abstract Addition of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) to cellulosic products can reduce production costs and modify their physical properties. This study investigated the effects of adding PCC on the properties of reconstituted tobacco sheet (RTS), a cellulosic product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that adding PCC to the coating could modify the surface microstructure of RTS. With increasing PCC addition, the strength and tar release per cigarette of RTS decreased. However, the filling capacity, bulk, and CO release content in the mainstream smoke reached optimal values when the proportion of PCC in the coating was 8%. Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) analysis indicated that the main thermal pyrolysis stage occurred in the range of 200–400 °C, similar to cellulosic components. The Coats–Redfern equation was used to analyze the thermal pyrolysis mechanism. The fitting results showed that, in the range of 200–280 °C, the best fit model for RTS with 4 or 8% PCC was diffusion-controlled reaction (D1) with fitting correlation coefficient (r 2) of 0.9630 and 0.9576, respectively. Meanwhile, in the range of 280–400 °C, the most reliable fitting model for RTS with 4% PCC was chemical reaction (F2) with r 2 = 0.9681. One reaction model could not describe the thermal pyrolysis of RTS with 12% PCC in the main decomposition stage. The thermal kinetic parameters suggested that addition of PCC to RTS coatings could modify the thermal pyrolysis mechanism, but did not change the peak temperatures in the main thermal decomposition stage. This study demonstrates that addition of PCC to RTS coating is a promising method to improve its quality.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1270-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effect of softener and wetting agent on improving the flammability,
           comfort, and mechanical properties of flame-retardant finished cotton
           fabric
    • Authors: Ka-po Maggie Tang; Chi-wai Kan; Jin-tu Fan; Sai-leung Tso
      Pages: 2619 - 2634
      Abstract: Abstract Cotton, a commonly used textile material, tends to burn easily. For some specific end-uses, flame-retardant (FR) properties are required. However, this kind of finish tends to worsen the hand feel and strength of the fabric. This study explored the feasibility of applying softener and wetting agent during flame-retardant treatment of cotton fabrics to improve their comfort and mechanical properties. Here, flame-retardant agent Pyrovatex CP New, crosslinking agent Knittex CHN, and phosphoric acid were combined with various softeners and wetting agent, and applied to the fabrics using a pad–dry–cure process. Fabric combustibility was evaluated by 45° flammability test. The thermal decomposition behavior and chemical structure of the samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The thermophysiological comfort properties, hand, and mechanical properties of the fabrics were additionally measured. The results demonstrated that FR-treated cotton specimens had lower strength and poor fabric hand and wettability, which might be caused by formation of crosslinks due to the acidic reaction condition and high curing temperature. Meanwhile, softener addition could compensate for these drawbacks and remarkably improve fabric hand and strength. On the other hand, addition of wetting agents could improve the flame resistance of the FR-treated fabrics.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1268-z
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Pilot-plant investigation on low-temperature bleaching of cotton fabric
           with TBCC-activated peroxide system
    • Authors: Jiao Yu; Dongyan Shao; Chang Sun; Changhai Xu; David Hinks
      Pages: 2647 - 2655
      Abstract: Abstract Cotton fabric was bleached at a pilot-plant scale with the activated peroxide system based on N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl) benzoyl] caprolactam chloride (TBCC). The performance of the TBCC-activated peroxide system on low-temperature bleaching of cotton fabric was evaluated by measuring the degree of whiteness, degree of polymerization, water absorbency, extractable contents, and dyeing properties of bleached cotton fabrics. For comparison purpose, cotton fabric was also bleached at the same pilot-plant scale with a traditional hydrogen peroxide system using a standard recipe. It was found that the pilot-plant bleaching with the TBCC-activated peroxide system resulted in a comparable degree of whiteness and a slightly lower water absorbency of cotton fabric but no apparent fiber damage. The bleached cotton fabric could meet requirements for trichromatic reactive dyeing. The investigation on resource utilization revealed that the pilot-plant bleaching of cotton fabric with the TBCC-activated peroxide system could save 60% water, 38% steam and 27% electric power in comparison with the traditional hydrogen peroxide system. These pilot-plant results are of great importance for further scaling up the TBCC-activated peroxide system to full-scale commercial production.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1276-z
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
  • Design and characterization of self-cleaning cotton fabrics exploiting
           zinc oxide nanoparticle-triggered photocatalytic degradation
    • Authors: Chunhong Zhu; Jian Shi; Sijun Xu; Minori Ishimori; Jianhua Sui; Hideaki Morikawa
      Pages: 2657 - 2667
      Abstract: Abstract Self-cleaning surfaces are functional structures with application in smart textiles. In this study, self-cleaning cotton fabrics were fabricated by coating photocatalytic zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on cotton surfaces, using a traditional dip-pad-dry-cure coating process. The coatings and ZnO content-dependent self-cleaning properties of the coated fabrics were investigated to evaluate their potential in practical application. The ZnO NP-coated cotton fabrics were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Methylene blue was used as a test contaminant to qualitatively assess the self-cleaning properties of the fabrics. The removal efficiency was determined for fabrics with different ZnO contents, under different solar irradiation times. Consecutive photocatalytic degradations were carried out to investigate the self-cleaning durability of the fabrics. This involved repeatedly contaminating the same fabric position and subsequent cleaning by photocatalytic degradation. The self-cleaning properties of the fabrics depended on their ZnO NP content. A higher wt% of ZnO NPs in the coated fabric resulted in more pronounced photocatalytic degradation than fabrics with a lower wt%. The self-cleaning performance of the higher wt% ZnO NP fabric decreased slightly after the third consecutive photocatalytic degradation. Results of wash fastness showed color removal after 10 times washing under light irradiation. Moreover, the ZnO NP-coated fabrics exhibited excellent ultraviolet blocking properties. These findings provide a potential model for the practical application of self-cleaning textiles.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1289-7
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 6 (2017)
       
 
 
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