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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 849 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (598 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 227)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 212)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 284)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 110)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 174)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 150)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 243)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Cellulose
  [SJR: 1.167]   [H-I: 71]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-882X - ISSN (Online) 0969-0239
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Study of cellulosic fibres morphological features and their modifications
           using hemicelluloses
    • Authors: Saurabh C. Singh; Z. V. P. Murthy
      Pages: 3119 - 3130
      Abstract: The microfibrilar structure and the morphology of the fibre are some of the most important characteristics that determine fibre performance during yarn making. This article is focused on understanding of morphological features of manmade cellulosic fibre and exploring an alternate way to alter fibre morphology. It is observed that though the chemical nature of different types of cellulose fibres viz. viscose, modal and lyocell is same; different processing routes lead to different cross-section and morphologies of fibres which leads to their characteristic properties and spinning behavior. A novel way is attempted to alter the fibre morphology of viscose fibre by changing the fibre regeneration kinetics and molecular weight distribution through addition of low molecular weight and branched structured hemicelluloses in spinning dope. Addition of hemicelluloses in the spinning dope prior to spinning and regeneration of viscose fibres is found to alter the morphology of the fibres without affecting tensile properties of the fibres.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1353-3
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • A quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) investigation on the
           mechanism of adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions by lignin: single and
           competitive ion adsorption
    • Authors: Edris Karezani; Ahmad Hallajisani; Milad Asgarpour Khansary
      Pages: 3131 - 3143
      Abstract: In this paper, an adsorption removal mechanism of heavy metal ions (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Ni) by lignin is investigated by molecular and quantum chemical modeling. First, the lowest energy sites of lignin for heavy metal ions were investigated using a Metropolis Monte Carlo search and simulated annealing. Then, equilibrium adsorption capacities of lignin for heavy metal ions were calculated with conductor-like screening models with a segmented activity coefficients, together with generalized gradient approximation and Volsko–Wilk–Nusair density functional functional theory. These calculations followed the local pseudo-thermodynamic equilibrium at the interface of lignin and ion-containing effluent. Several kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were performed to analyze the surface kinetics of ion adsorption. The affinity of lignin for metal ions follows the order: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn > Ni which is in agreement with experimental observations. The stability of ions follows the order: Pb > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu, indicating that the adsorption affinity does not demand the same order of stability on ions. In addition, it was found that while the adsorption of heavy metal ions on the lignin is accessible, the adsorbed heavy metal ions, however, are less stable than the adsorbed water molecules. As such, the used lignin must be replaced by fresh lignin in a cyclic manner. While lignin provides desirable adsorption performance for single ion removal, it failed in processing of practical heavy metal ion solutions expected in environmental issues.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1329-3
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Decorating silver nanoparticles on electrospun cellulose nanofibers
           through a facile method by dopamine and ultraviolet irradiation
    • Authors: Hamdam Gaminian; Majid Montazer
      Pages: 3179 - 3190
      Abstract: In this paper, a new method is introduced for producing multi-functional cellulose nanofibers in order to achieve the biodegradable materials for various applications with a minimal amount of potentially toxic materials. Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were fabricated by electrospinning cellulose acetate solution followed by deacetylation. The CNFs were then treated with silver nitrate, ammonia, and sodium hydroxide and subsequently with dopamine as reducing and adhesive agent. Ag ions on the CNF surface were photo-reduced to Ag nanoparticles (NPs) using UVA irradiation to produce a dense layer of silver nanoparticles on the nanofibers. This is based on the simultaneous formation of polydopamine and Ag NPs on CNFs. Overall, this is a fast, simple, and efficient procedure that takes place in a conventional method at ambient temperature. The crystalline structure of CNFs decorated with AgNPs was studied by X-ray diffraction. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray patterns showed uniform distribution of silver nanoparticles on the CNF surface. Incorporation of AgNPs on the CNF surface via dopamine improved the electrical conductivity and also the tensile strength of the nanomat. The CNFs decorated with AgNPs exhibited a low electrical resistivity around 35 KΩ/square and a tensile strength of 87% higher than untreated CNFs.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1343-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Green and combinational method towards clickable alkynylated cellulose
           fibers (ACFs)
    • Authors: Chunyue Ding; Lijian Sun; Guifa Xiao; Xueren Qian; Xianhui An
      Pages: 3219 - 3229
      Abstract: This paper presents an environmentally friendly strategy to obtain alkynylated cellulose fibers (ACFs), a versatile platform for tailoring cellulose by robust click reaction. This strategy is based on the integration of two efficient reactions: selective oxidation of cellulose fibers by sodium periodate (NaIO4) generating dialdehyde cellulose fibers and subsequent Schiff base reaction with 3-ethynylaniline yielding alkynylated cellulose fibers (ACFs). The alkynyl moieties introduced into ACFs were simply transferred with azido compounds under Cu(I) catalysis and mild conditions. The content of alkynyl groups of ACFs was found to be as high as 3.0 mmol/g. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the selective oxidation of cellulose fibers generated aldehyde groups and the Schiff base reaction resulted in the incorporation of ethynyl groups and benzene rings into cellulose fibers. FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the successful click reaction between ACFs and 4-azidobenzoic acid. This clickable platform would serve as a versatile starting precursor for finely tuning cellulose fibers for advanced applications.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1363-1
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Ensemble evaluation of polydisperse nanocellulose dimensions: rheology,
           electron microscopy, X-ray scattering and turbidimetry
    • Authors: Reina Tanaka; Tomoko Kuribayashi; Yu Ogawa; Tsuguyuki Saito; Akira Isogai; Yoshiharu Nishiyama
      Pages: 3231 - 3242
      Abstract: Six types of CNCs with different sizes were prepared from tunicins by sulfuric acid hydrolysis and subsequent sonication in water. The size distributions of CNCs were comprehensively evaluated by turbidimetry, small angle X-ray scattering, and microscopy to predict their intrinsic viscosities. Experimental intrinsic viscosities [η] of the CNC dispersions were evaluated by shear viscosity measurement, and then compared with their theoretical [η] values based on theories for rotational motions of rigid rods. The experimental [η] values for the straight CNCs were in good agreement with their theoretical [η] values, irrespective of the size and distributions. On the other hand, the experimental [η] value of the kinked CNC was higher than the theoretical [η] value, in agreement with a theoretical calculation giving higher intrinsic viscosities for bent fibers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1334-6
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Estimation of aspect ratio of cellulose nanocrystals by viscosity
           measurement: influence of surface charge density and NaCl concentration
    • Authors: Qiang Wu; Xiuwen Li; Shenyuan Fu; Qian Li; Siqun Wang
      Pages: 3255 - 3264
      Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with similar size and various surface charge densities were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis and NaOH desulfation. The influence of surface charge density and NaCl concentration on the intrinsic viscosity of CNC suspensions and predicted aspect ratio were investigated by Ubbelohde viscometer. With decreased CNC surface charge density, the intrinsic viscosity initially decreased due to the electric double layers on the CNC surface and subsequently increased due to CNC aggregation. To screen electroviscous effect, NaCl was added into CNC suspensions. With increased NaCl concentration, the intrinsic viscosity of CNC suspensions first decreased and then increased. The aspect ratios of CNCs predicted by Batchelor equation from the minimum intrinsic viscosity were consistent with that measured by transmission electron microscopy. Suspensions of CNCs with higher surface charge density needed less NaCl to obtain minimum intrinsic viscosity. The NaCl content that should be added to the suspension to predict the actual physical aspect ratio of CNC can be estimated by Debye–Hückel theory, assuming that the Debye length is equal to the CNC diameter.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1341-7
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Simple fabrication of cellulose nanofibers via electrospinning of
           dissolving pulp and tunicate
    • Authors: Issei Otsuka; Christian Nana Njinang; Redouane Borsali
      Pages: 3281 - 3288
      Abstract: This work demonstrates a simple fabrication of cellulose nanofibers by direct electrospinning of dissolved cellulose solutions. The hard- and softwood pulps and the outer mantles of tunicate were dissolved in a mixture of trifluoroacetic acid and dichloroethane by stirring and ultrasonication to give highly viscoelastic, clear solutions. These solutions were electrospun to form continuous nanofibers made of unsubstituted cellulose, which were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and IR spectroscopy. Statistical analysis of the SEM images of the nanofibers suggested that there are positive correlations between diameters of the nanofibers and concentration of the cellulose solution. The mean diameters of the nanofibers obtained from softwood pulp (DP of cellulose ≈ 1200) solutions were larger than those from hardwood pulp (DP of cellulose ≈ 500) at the same concentrations. This indicates that the DP of cellulose is one of the important parameters to control the diameters of the electrospun cellulose nanofibers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1360-4
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Cellulose nanofibril-reinforced biodegradable polymer composites obtained
           via a Pickering emulsion approach
    • Authors: Yunchong Zhang; Jun Wu; Bijia Wang; Xiaofeng Sui; Yi Zhong; Linping Zhang; Zhiping Mao; Hong Xu
      Pages: 3313 - 3322
      Abstract: Preparation of cellulose nanofibril (CNF)-reinforced, biodegradable polymer composites is challenging in that it’s hard to achieve good dispersion of the hydrophilic cellulose fibers in a hydrophobic polymer matrix. In this work, we developed a surfactant-free and efficient process to prepare CNF-reinforced poly (lactic acid) (PLA) composites from an aqueous dichloromethane Pickering emulsion self-emulsified by CNFs. CNF/PLA composites of homogeneous dispersion were obtained upon evaporation of CH2Cl2, filtration, drying and hot-pressing. Differential scanning calorimetry measurement revealed an enhanced crystallization capacity of the CNF/PLA composites. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated an increase of onset degradation temperature. The composites displayed an enhanced storage modulus compared with neat PLA throughout the testing temperature range, and especially in the high-temperature region (>70 °C). Enhancements of the flexural modulus and strength were also achieved.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1324-8
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Bacterial cellulose based flexible multifunctional nanocomposite sheets
    • Authors: V. Thiruvengadam; Satish Vitta
      Pages: 3341 - 3351
      Abstract: Bacterial cellulose is an ideal material that is sustainable, biodegradable and inherently capable of functionalization. Hence this has been functionalized with a single component, Ni to exhibit multiple functionalities such as electrical conductivity, magnetic sensitivity as well as catalytic activity in both dried and hydrogel forms. A novel, simple ‘inverse chemical reduction’ technique has been developed to incorporate this component and make bacterial cellulose multifunctional. This technique mercerizes and opens the interfibrillar spaces which results in the formation of nanoparticles that lead to percolating paths for conduction. The flexible sheet becomes electrically conducting with just 20 vol% of nanoparticles in the composite as determined by thermogravimetry. The room temperature electrical conductance increases by about 7 orders of magnitude, 10−6–10 S on changing the Ni-precursor solution concentration from 0.015 to 0.02 M, indicating this to be the critical concentration for conduction percolation. The composites are highly magnetic at room temperature with a maximum energy product of 140 J m−3, comparable to some of the commercially available bonded oxide magnets. The hydrogel form of the nanocomposite is found to be catalytically active. The catalytic activity is retained even after leaving the nanocomposite hydrogel in water for 12 h in water.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1350-6
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Nanocomposites based on esterified colophony and halloysite clay nanotubes
           as consolidants for waterlogged archaeological woods
    • Authors: Giuseppe Cavallaro; Giuseppe Lazzara; Stefana Milioto; Filippo Parisi; Fabio Ruisi
      Pages: 3367 - 3376
      Abstract: We have designed an innovative protocol for the consolidation of waterlogged archaeological woods by using acetone mixtures of halloysite clay nanotubes and a chemically modified colophony (Rosin). Firstly, we have investigated the thermal properties of HNTs/Rosin nanocomposites, which have been prepared by means of the casting method from acetone. The HNTs content have been systematically changed in order to study the influence of the inorganic filler on the thermal stability and glass transition process of Rosin. We have observed that the thermal properties of the hybrids are affected by the specific HNTs/Rosin interactions. Then, acetone dispersions of HNTs/Rosin composites at variable filler content have been employed as consolidants for waterlogged archaeological woods. The quantitative analysis of the thermogravimetric curves have provided the amount of consolidants entrapped into the wood structure. These results have been successfully correlated to the consolidation efficiencies estimated from the analysis of the wood shrinkage volume upon drying. The attained knowledge represents the basic step to develop a green protocol for the long term protection of wooden art-works.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1369-8
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Cellulose/aromatic polysulfonamide blended fibers with improved properties
    • Authors: Kaijian Wu; Yongbo Yao; Jinchao Yu; Shenghui Chen; Xiaofeng Wang; Yumei Zhang; Huaping Wang
      Pages: 3377 - 3386
      Abstract: Cellulose/aromatic polysulfonamide (PSA) blended fibers with good flame-retardant, hydrophilic and mechanical properties were successfully prepared by dry-jet wet spinning technology with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) as solvent. The solution behaviors were studied using the polarized light microscopy (PLM) and rheology measurements. PLM images showed that both cellulose and PSA dissolved completely in solvent. The viscosity of the blend solutions decreased with increasing ratio of PSA. While comparing the experimental results with the calculated data according to the log-additivity rule, it is revealed that zero-shear viscosity shows positive deviations, which indicates a strong interaction between cellulose and PSA. The flame retardant properties of the blended fibers were characterized. When the content of PSA is 70 wt% in the blended fibers, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) is up to 26.2% and the self-extinguishing time away from the flame is just 2 s. The blended fibers exhibited good mechanical properties with the tenacity of 2.6 cN/dtex and the E-modulus of 34.2 cN/dtex, which were higher than that of the washed PSA fiber. The contact angle of the blended fibers containing 70 wt% PSA was 64°, as was smaller than the value of PSA fiber. The morphology and structure of the blended fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM images showed a rough morphology for the blended fibers. From the LSCM images, a sheath-core morphology was observed in the blended fibers with 70 wt% PSA. Only cellulose II crystalline structure of the blended fibers was observed from the XRD patterns because no crystallization occurred in PSA phase without heat-stretching and heat-setting at high temperature. This work provides a simple and effective way to prepare flame-retardant fibers with improved hydrophilic and mechanical properties.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1351-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Pyrolysed cellulose nanofibrils and dandelion pappus in supercapacitor
           application
    • Authors: Juhani Virtanen; Arno Pammo; Jari Keskinen; Essi Sarlin; Sampo Tuukkanen
      Pages: 3387 - 3397
      Abstract: Dandelion pappus and wood based nanocellulose fibrils were combined to form films that were subsequently pyrolyzed under low-pressure conditions in a carbon monoxide (CO) rich atmosphere to make supercapacitor electrode material. The electrodes were prepared from these materials and pyrolysed under low-pressure conditions in a carbon monoxide-rich atmosphere. The electrode materials and assembled supercapacitors were electrically and structurally characterized. The assembled six supercapacitors showed specific capacitances per electrode ranging from 1 to 6 F/g and surface resistance of pyrolyzed electrodes ranging from 30 to 170 Ω/□. Finally, equivalent series resistance and leakage current measurements were conducted for three samples, resulting values from 125 to 500 Ω and from 0.5 to 5.5 µA, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1332-8
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • A simple and efficient protocol to develop durable multifunctional
           property to cellulosic materials using in situ generated nano-ZnO
    • Authors: A. Arputharaj; Vigneshwaran Nadanathangam; Sanjeev R. Shukla
      Pages: 3399 - 3410
      Abstract: This article focuses on the development of a durable multi-functional finish for cotton fabric by direct synthesis of nano zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) particles in the pores of the fibres. Anions and cations of zinc nitrate interacted with cellulose molecules and opened up the internal pore structure of cellulosic fibrils that in turn acted as nucleating sites for the formation of nano-ZnO on reaction with sodium hydroxide. The finished fabric was characterized using XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, AAS, DSC and AFM. The finished fabric displayed excellent antibacterial activities (>99%) against two pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (Gram-negative) with 40 UPF even after 30 washes confirming the utility of this method. Inherent physical and mechanical properties of the fabric were found to be unaffected. Low stress mechanical properties evaluated by Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics indicated that the total hand value of the finished fabric changed from 3.54 to 3.40. A plausible mechanism for in situ formation of nano-ZnO and its durability on cotton fabric has been proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1335-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • A novel insoluble dietary fiber-based edible paper from Chinese cabbage
    • Authors: Tuoyi Wang; Zhongsu Ma
      Pages: 3411 - 3419
      Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) from Chinese cabbage to make a novel edible paper. The structural, physical, and chemical properties and crystallinity of the IDF were first analyzed. The characteristics and fracture surfaces of the handsheets made by the IDF were then studied. The paper performance was finally measured. We found four types of fiber morphology in IDF after the original Chinese cabbage fiber was treated with 8 wt% alkali solution. The IDF-based paper showed a smooth surface, soft and transparent texture, and good strength. The IDF effectively enhanced the paper-packaging performances when it was mixed with wood fiber, although the performance of the IDF-based paper was lower than that of the wood pulp-based paper. The IDF is edible and suitable for direct contact with foods or drugs. Therefore, the IDF-based edible paper has significant development potential for food and pharmaceutical packaging in the future.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1344-4
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Sorption capacity of hydrophobic cellulose cryogels silanized by two
           different methods
    • Authors: Lídia K. Lazzari; Vitória B. Zampieri; Márcia Zanini; Ademir J. Zattera; Camila Baldasso
      Pages: 3421 - 3431
      Abstract: The production of cellulose cryogels for petroleum sorption is a relevant study since cellulose is an economical, renewable, biodegradable and abundant source in the environment. However, as this material is of hydrophilic character it is necessary to modify the hydrophobicity of the cellulose fiber surfaces by using organosilanes, for example. The aim of this work is the development of hydrophobic cellulose cryogels for application in petroleum sorption. For this, was compared the sorption capacity of cryogels silanized by methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) through two methods: vapor deposition and addition of silane to cellulose suspension. For the samples with MTMS addition to the cellulose suspension, modifying the MTMS fiber surfaces increased the water contact angle on average by 112°. For the samples modifyed by vapor deposition the increase was of 119°. The most effective silanization method was by vapor deposition where the petroleum sorption capacity was 50% higher than by the cellulose addition method.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1349-z
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Electromagnetic shielding of polypyrrole–sawdust composites: polypyrrole
           globules and nanotubes
    • Authors: Vladimir Babayan; Natalia E. Kazantseva; Robert Moučka; Jaroslav Stejskal
      Pages: 3445 - 3451
      Abstract: Economic and efficient materials for the shielding of electromagnetic interference are required by many applications. Electrically conducting composite materials based on wood sawdust modified by polypyrrole (PPy) with different morphology, globular and nanotubular, were prepared through in-situ polymerization of pyrrole with the use of iron (III) chloride as an oxidant. The effect of PPy morphology and content in composite with sawdust on the DC conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) were investigated. Composites of sawdust with globular PPy demonstrated higher DC conductivity as compared to those with PPy nanotubes as long as PPy content was less or equal to 18 vol.%. Above this concentration the opposite trend was observed. The SE of composites was evaluated theoretically in the radio-frequency range, and measured by waveguide method in the frequency range 5.85–8.2 GHz. The SE increased with increase in DC conductivity, and good agreement between the theoretically calculated SE and experimental results was achieved. The SE of the composites extended over 20 dB level above 18 vol.% PPy at the thickness of the order of 10 μm. Polypyrrole nanotubes perfomed better than globular PPy at high conducting polymer content. The composites are good candidates for the application as shielding materials in the microwave band.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1357-z
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Ionic liquid treatment for increasing the wet strength of cellulose paper
    • Authors: Hideaki Ichiura; Yuka Hirose; Misaki Masumoto; Yoshito Ohtani
      Pages: 3469 - 3477
      Abstract: In this study, ionic liquid treatment for increasing the wet strength of cellulose paper was studied. The effects of treatment conditions with the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) on the wet strength were investigated. First, the [BMIM]Cl (20 g) was melted at 80–100 °C and the paper was immersed in it for 5–60 s. Next, the paper was immersed in ethanol, and finally, it was washed with distilled water. The paper was dried in a hot press at 110 °C and 1.1 MPa for 5 min. The [BMIM]Cl treatment improved the wet strength of the paper. Disintegration of the papers was investigated by immersing them in distilled water, and the paper treated with [BMIM]Cl did not disintegrate. The minimum treatment time required for improvement of the wet strength of the paper was only 5 s. Excess [BMIM]Cl from the original treatment was recovered by vacuum distillation and dehydration was used to treat new paper. This recovered [BMIM]Cl enhanced the wet strength to a level similar to that obtained with the virgin [BMIM]Cl. Therefore, the [BMIM]Cl can be efficiently re-used in this method. The paper treated with [BMIM]Cl will be composed completely of cellulose. Therefore, this method is a viable alternative to treatment by adding chemical such as a polyamideamine epichlorohydrin (PAE).
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1340-8
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Effect of enzyme beating on grinding method for microfibrillated cellulose
           preparation as a paper strength enhancer
    • Authors: Kang-Jae Kim; Jung Myoung Lee; Eun-Byeol Ahn; Tae-Jin Eom
      Pages: 3503 - 3511
      Abstract: Hardwood bleached Kraft pulp was treated with an endoglucanase prior to Valley beating. The Valley-beaten pulp slurry was further ground with a particle grinder in order to evaluate the effect of enzyme beating on preparation of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). The time required to make 100 mL Canadian Standard Freeness pulp slurry was greatly reduced by enzyme pre-treatment. The viscosity of the enzyme-beaten MFC slightly increased with grinder pass number; however, the rate of change in viscosity was much lower than that of non-enzyme-beaten MFC. The crystallinity of MFC decreased with grinder pass number for both cases. The drainage of the pulp slurry containing enzyme-beaten MFC was higher than that of the pulp slurry containing non-enzyme-beaten MFC. Further, the enzyme-beaten MFC subjected to the 10 passes grinding had the same tensile index as the MFC subjected to the 15 passes grinding. Thus, the mechanical energy for MFC manufacturing can be greatly reduced with enzyme beating.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1368-9
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Mixture from carboxymethyl tamarind gum and carboxymethyl starch on
           double-sided printing of georgette fabric
    • Authors: Lili Wang; Rumeng Li; Chenglong Wang; Jianzhong Shao; Minghua Wu; Wei Wang
      Pages: 3545 - 3554
      Abstract: The rheology and printability of the mixture from carboxymethyl tamarind gum (CTG) and carboxymethyl starch (CMS) with different mixture ratios were studied to explore the availability on double-sided printing of georgette fabric. The rheological properties of the mixture from CTG and CMS (TS) were investigated by steady-shear, dynamic oscillatory and transient tests. The printing performances of the printed georgette fabric using TS as thickener were evaluated by quality-determining parameters. The results showed that with the increasing proportion of CMS, the flowability and elasticity of TS gradually increased and the weak gel structure appeared little by little in company with more deviation from the Cox–Merz rule. The flow models and mechanical models were used to fit the rheological data. In comparison with CTG and CMS, TS had better double-sided printing performances on georgette fabric, including better colour yield, penetrability, levelness, handle, colour fastness and outline sharpness. Especially TS with a mixture ratio CTG:CMS = 4:6 exhibited the highest colour yield and penetration, and possessed the great potential as thickener on double-sided printing of georgette fabric.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1346-2
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
  • Erratum to: Assessing dilute acid pretreatment of different
           lignocellulosic biomasses for enhanced sugar production
    • Authors: Zhanying Zhang; Tony Vancov; Shane McIntosh; Biswajit Basu; Arvinal Lali; Guangren Qian; Philip Hobson; William O. S. Doherty
      Pages: 3589 - 3589
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1365-z
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 8 (2017)
       
 
 
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