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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 881 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (54 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (616 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (43 journals)
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    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (616 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 356)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 257)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover
Cellulose
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.047
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1572-882X - ISSN (Online) 0969-0239
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2348 journals]
  • Cyclic peroxides as key intermediates in the degradation of cellulosic key
           chromophores by alkaline hydrogen peroxide: first direct proof by 17 O NMR
           
    • Authors: Markus Bacher; Takashi Hosoya; Nele Sophie Zwirchmayr; Satoshi Nomura; Lars Gille; Thomas Dietz; Tomoki Erata; Antje Potthast; Tapani Vuorinen; Thomas Rosenau
      Pages: 3197 - 3203
      Abstract: 2,5-Dihydroxy-[1,4]-benzoquinone (DHBQ) and 5,8-dihydroxy-[1,4]-naphthoquinone (DHNQ) are two key chromophores which are almost ubiquitous in cellulosic materials. Their fate under conditions of alkaline peroxide bleaching (P stage) has been established previously, but the intermediacy of cyclic peroxides, which so far had only been postulated, remained an open issue. By means of 17O NMR spectroscopy, additionally supported by other NMR techniques, it was demonstrated that both DHBQ and DHNQ form cyclic peroxides as primary intermediates in the reaction with hydrogen peroxide under alkaline conditions. These intermediates are subsequently further degraded to products already known. The experimental confirmation of the cyclic peroxides is an important step in the understanding of reaction mechanisms in pulp bleaching chemistry. Graphical
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1777-4
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Rheological properties of cellulose nanocrystal-polymeric systems
    • Authors: Baoliang Peng; Juntao Tang; Pingmei Wang; Jianhui Luo; Peiwen Xiao; Yuanping Lin; Kam Chiu Tam
      Pages: 3229 - 3240
      Abstract: Rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were incorporated into different systems containing polymers (most of them are soluble polysaccharides, such as chitosan, gum arabic, sodium alginate, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose) of varying charge properties and molecular structures. The dependence of the thickening and rheological behavior of CNC dispersion with concentration were compared with classic models for spheres. It is evident that rod-like particles are more effective in achieving viscosity enhancement at lower particle loading. By varying the concentrations of each polymeric system, the phase diagrams of non-absorbing and absorbing polymers were determined. The gelation behavior of anisotropic CNC dispersion in the presence of various kinds of polymers was investigated, and the thickening effect has the following trends: cationic > anionic > nonionic. In addition, the molecular weight and conformation of the polymer chains had an impact on the viscosity. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose is the most effective in promoting gelation of 3 wt% CNC dispersion. Understanding the rheological properties of various CNC-polymer complexes will be critical for their application in oil and gas, food and consumer goods. Graphical
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1775-6
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Salt sorption on regenerated cellulosic fibers: electrokinetic
           measurements
    • Authors: Avinash P. Manian; Adisak Jaturapiree; Thomas Bechtold
      Pages: 3307 - 3314
      Abstract: Streaming potential measurements were conducted on lyocell and viscose fibers, to determine the relative order in sorption extents of salt cations and anions. The sorption of K+ was greater than Na+ ions, and the sorption extents of the anions, Cl− and Br−, were similar. Previously, we had examined accessibility of the same ions in the fibers, and found them to follow the order: K+ < Na+ and Cl− < Br−. From these two contrasting results, we find that the mode of salt interaction with cellulose, from aqueous solutions, changes with the salt concentration. At low concentrations, the interaction is governed by ion-exchange processes with the cellulose carboxyl groups and the Donnan equilibrium; but at higher concentrations, the interaction is a function of the mobility (or diffusivity) of the ions. Thus, sorption and accessibility of cellulose fibers as measured with salts may not apply for other solutes, and conversely, similar studies with other probe molecules may not be relevant for salts.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1823-2
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Effect of fiber surface characteristics on foam properties
    • Authors: Qiupeng Hou; Xiwen Wang
      Pages: 3315 - 3325
      Abstract: Besides natural fibers, synthetic fiber filaments are increasingly used in papermaking industry nowadays. As long fiber is used as raw material, it is necessary to design a process to prevent fiber flocculation. As a result, foam forming emerges as a technology that can effectively disperse fiber and subsequently improve papers’ evenness. Whether they are small nano-particles or large-size long fibers, foam forming technology has opened up an innovative application of its approach. The relationship between fiber surface characteristics and foam forming was studied in this paper. The results showed that fibers with hydrophilic surfaces could combine well with bubbles on the solid–liquid interface. The physical strength of the liquid film is enhanced and its surface viscosity is increased. As a result, such foams have a high stability. The foam half-life was 5.0 min for softwood fiber, which was slightly increased compared with a pure foam system, whose half-life was 4.5 min. However, the foam half-life was drastically decreased with addition of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) fiber (1.5 min) and Polypropylene (PP) fiber (1.0 min), whose contact angles were 80.04° and 130.26° respectively. Meanwhile, the bubble size has been decreased and mostly concentrated in the range of 0–50 microns. In addition, the effect of exerted pressure on the foam structure was also obtained. The results of the present study indicated that the generated foam gradually transferred from polyhedron to a spherical structure under moderate pressure conditions. Furthermore, when the pressure difference was higher than 10,000 Pa, bubble ruptured quickly.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1824-1
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Designing cellulose nanofiber surface for high density polyethylene
           reinforcement
    • Authors: Hiroyuki Yano; Haruo Omura; Yoko Honma; Hiroaki Okumura; Hironari Sano; Fumiaki Nakatsubo
      Pages: 3351 - 3362
      Abstract: Because of their high mechanical performance, high specific surface area, and high aspect ratio, there is a strong interest in cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) as a reinforcing material for plastics. Although three hydroxyl groups per repeating unit exposed on the surface is a unique characteristic of CNFs, an effective chemical treatment to improve the reinforcing efficiency of CNFs for hydrophobic thermoplastic resin has not yet been reported. In this study, six systematically designed aliphatic ester groups with linear, cyclic and branched structures, were incorporated on the surface of CNFs using the hydroxyl groups with a degree of substitution of 0.4. The melt compounding of the esterified CNFs and HDPE was performed at 140 °C using a twin screw extruder followed by injection molding at 160 °C and investigated the CNF dispersibility in HDPE and the CNF reinforcing efficiency in injection-molded HDPE samples. Incorporation of linear long chains results in the best dispersion of CNFs in HDPE compared with cyclic and branched chains, but the latter chains give higher reinforcing efficiencies in Young’s modulus and tensile strength. Especially, the bulky t-butyl group gave the highest reinforcing efficiency. Thus, the structure of ester groups incorporated on the CNFs very much affects on the dispersibility in HDPE, Young’s modulus and tensile strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the esterified CNFs-reinforced HDPE composites. Addition of pivaloylated CNFs increases the Young’s modulus of HDPE from 1.20 to 3.32 GPa, and the tensile strength from 23.4 to 51.2 MPa. The CTE is 72.5 ppm/K, which is less than one-third that of the HDPE. The high reinforcing efficiency of these composites is partly explained by the formation of the double shish–kebab crystal structure during injection molding identified by the TEM observation.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1787-2
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Study on the electrical properties of nanopaper made from nanofibrillated
           cellulose for application in power equipment
    • Authors: Jianwen Huang; Yuanxiang Zhou; Ling Zhang; Zhongliu Zhou; Xin Huang; Xiangjun Zeng
      Pages: 3449 - 3458
      Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the suitability of using nanopaper as an insulating material since it has outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Nanopaper consisting of nanofibrillated cellulose was prepared. Properties of ordinary insulating paper were taken as a reference. DC volume resistivity results show that nanopaper can obtain a relatively high value of 2.55 × 1012 Ω m, which will be more compatible with mineral oil. In spite of the lower density, nanopaper tends to have a higher complex relative permittivity than reference paper. Due to the decreased pore size, nanopaper presents a remarkably enhanced DC breakdown strength. The dielectric strength of nanopaper can reach 69.4 kV/mm, whereas that of ordinary kraft paper is only 20.4 kV/mm. It is concluded that nanopaper has good electrical properties. The decreased volume resistivity and dramatically enhanced breakdown strength indicate that the potential application of nanopaper in convert transformers is promising.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1782-7
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Carbonized cellulose beads for efficient capacitive energy storage
    • Authors: Chang-Qing Ruan; Zhaohui Wang; Jonas Lindh; Maria Strømme
      Pages: 3545 - 3556
      Abstract: Natural biomaterials, including polysaccharides and amino acids, provide a sustainable source of functional carbon materials for electric energy storage applications. We present a one-pot reductive amination process to functionalize 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) beads with chitosan and l-cysteine to provide single (N)- and dual (N/S)-doped materials. The functionalization enables the physicochemical properties of the materials to be tailored and can provide carbon precursors with heteroatom doping suitable for energy storage applications. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the changes to the beads after functionalization and carbonization. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy verified that the doping was effective, while the nitrogen sorption isotherms and pore-size distributions of the carbonized beads showed the effects of doping with different hierarchical porosities. In the electrochemical experiments, three kinds of carbon beads [pyrolyzed from DAC, chitosan-crosslinked DAC (CS-DAC) and l-cysteine-functionalized DAC] were used as electrode materials. Electrodes of carbonized CS-DAC beads had a specific capacitance of up to 242 F g−1 at a current density of 1 A g−1. These electrodes maintained a capacitance retention of 91.5% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles, suggesting excellent cycling stability. The results indicate that reductive amination of DAC is an effective route for heteroatom doping of carbon materials to be used as electrode active materials for energy storage.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1811-6
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Photocatalytic hydrogen peroxide bleaching of cotton
    • Authors: Semiha Eren
      Pages: 3679 - 3689
      Abstract: In this study, photocatalytic bleaching of cotton via ultraviolet (UV) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been investigated. 254 nm UV light was used for this purpose and the UV irradiation intensity was measured. A specially designed UV cabinet with UV lamps on both sides and top of the cabinet with total 18 UV lamps creating 470 Watts was used during the experiments. The whiteness degrees of the cotton samples that were bleached by the H2O2/UV treatment were compared to the whiteness degrees of the conventionally bleached (pad-steam method) cotton fabric samples. Satisfactory whiteness degrees could be obtained by H2O2/UV treatment for 40 and 60 min treatment times. However, strength loss was high for 60 min UV irradiation. The UV irradiation intensity was also found to be effective on the whiteness and strength values of the samples. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1814-3
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Flexible and highly conductive Ag/G-coated cotton fabric based on graphene
           dipping and silver magnetron sputtering
    • Authors: Shan He; Binjie Xin; Zhuoming Chen; Yan Liu
      Pages: 3691 - 3701
      Abstract: Flexible electronic devices have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Textile fabrics have been widely used to fabricate flexible strain sensors owing to their high flexibility. However, the ordinary textile fabric is electrically insulating, which limits their sensitivity to strain. In this article, cotton fabric endowed with high electrical conductivity was prepared by a two-step process of dipping and coating. It was firstly modified with a continuous reduced graphene oxide thin film by using a dipping method and then coated with silver (Ag) thin films by using a magnetron sputtering system. In addition, a strain sensor was also fabricated using the resultant fabric, namely the silver/graphene cotton (Ag/G-coated cotton). Our results revealed that the Ag/G-coated cotton fabric sputtered at 200 W for 25 min has the highest electrical conductivity and its average surface resistance is 2.71 Ω/sq. Moreover, the fabricated strain sensor based on Ag/G-coated cotton fabric exhibited the advantages of high sensitivity, large workable strain range (0–20%), fast response and great stability. What’s more, real-time monitoring of human motions, such as flexing and finger rotation, could be achieved by the sensor. Overall, the effective flexibility and high electrical conductivity of the Ag/G-coated cotton fabric have been validated effectively and make it one of the promising candidates for its applications in wearable electronic devices.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1821-4
      Issue No: Vol. 25, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Exploring the influence of initial liquor pH in the pre-hydrolysis stage
           on alpha-cellulose production from poplar
    • Authors: Mostafa Nikkhah Dafchahi; Hossein Resalati; Ahmad Reza Saraeyan; Ali Ghasemian; Ali Reza Shakeri
      Abstract: The effect of using auto pre-hydrolysis liquor, acidic pre-hydrolysis liquor, and alkaline pre-hydrolysis liquor on the production of alpha cellulose from poplar was investigated across this research work. Poplar chips were pulped with soda-AQ pulping process at a kappa number of 15 after being pre-hydrolyzed with different pre-hydrolysis liquors at 170 °C. The residual lignin of chips were more delignified by about 40% using a single stage oxygen delignification and totally bleached with a D0ED1 bleaching sequence. The results indicated that the yield and kappa number of the pulps can be affected by the kind of pre-hydrolysis liquor. In general, using acidic and alkaline catalysts in pre-hydrolysis liquor led to an acceleration in the rate of hemicellulose separation and kappa number reduction. The alkaline pre-hydrolysis and auto pre-hydrolysis had the highest and the least efficiency to remove hemicelluloses from the wood and purify the produced alpha cellulose, respectively. The alkaline pre-hydrolyzed dissolving pulp of poplar due to existing alkali catalyst in the pre-hydrolysis liquor and occurring alkaline darkening had the least brightness, while the acidic pre-hydrolyzed dissolving pulp, because of the effect of acidic catalyst on the reduction of chromophore compounds, had the highest brightness among the pulps. The results illustrated that a dissolving pulp with more purity and alpha-cellulose content is achievable from Poplar through employing an alkaline pre-hydrolysis stage, soda-AQ pulping, and OD0ED1 bleaching sequence.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1882-4
       
  • Determination of absorption and structural properties of cellulose-based
           hydrogel via ultrasonic pulse-echo time-of-flight approach
    • Authors: Leonardo Lamanna; Francesco Rizzi; Christian Demitri; Marco Pisanello; Elisa Scarpa; Antonio Qualtieri; Alessandro Sannino; Massimo De Vittorio
      Abstract: Biodegradable cellulose-based hydrogels are attracting increasing interest in the academic and industrial fields thanks to their high swelling capacity and reproducibility, which allow many novel applications. These properties are enabled by amplification effect of their sensitiveness on a molecular level, translated into macroscopic effects such as a change in swelling degree. The monitoring of the hydrogel state is a crucial step for understanding the response of the hydrogel to external environment. Accordingly, the major aim of this study is to exploit ultrasound to characterize the swelling and degradation of cellulose-based hydrogel with different blend of molecular weight and degree of substitutions. The ultrasonic sensor used herein relies on the determination of a Pulse-echo time of flight. This technique provides dimensional information, thanks to its capability of monitoring the thickness of the swollen/unswollen hydrogel during sorption mechanism. Furthermore, by combining these data with a rheological characterization, the degree of crosslink and its modification during multiple swelling/deswelling cycles (due to ion strength variation) has been monitored. This technique could be an effective, alternative, fast and non-destructive method for real-time hydrogel characterization. Graphical
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1874-4
       
  • AQC functionalized CNCs/PVA- co -PE composite nanofibrous membrane with
           flower-like microstructures for photo-induced multi-functional protective
           clothing
    • Authors: Qing Zhu; Yuxia Jin; Gang Sun; Kelu Yan; Dong Wang
      Abstract: The protective textiles with multifunctional properties such as pollutants capture, antibacterial property, detoxification, and self-cleaning ability are highly demanded for soldiers, medical staff and field workers. To achieve multifunctional properties while maintaining the wearing comfort of protective textiles remains a challenge. PVA-co-PE nanofiber membrane has found promising applications in filtering particles due to its large specific surface area. However, due to its limited hydrophilicity, the surface functionalization of nanofiber membrane is difficult. Cellulose Nano-Crystals (CNCs) possessing abundant hydroxyl groups were used to modify the surfaces of PVA-co-PE nanofiber membranes to facilitate the surface functionalization. The photoactive substance of AQC was subsequently grafted onto the CNCs modified PVA-co-PE nanofiber membrane. Depending on the surface chemical structures of nanofiber membranes, the AQC on the nanofiber membrane showed different morphologies and ordered structures. The AQC/CNCs functionalized PVA-co-PE nanofiber membrane demonstrated excellent antibacterial property after 5 min UV exposure, as well as the performance of degrading chemicals. Furthermore, the super-hydrophilic property of the functionalized membrane enables the wearing comfort. The super hydrophilic AQC/CNCs functionalized membrane with multi-functions can be widely applied in the protective clothing in the near future.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1881-5
       
  • Green method to reinforce natural rubber with tunicate cellulose
           nanocrystals via one-pot reaction
    • Authors: Liming Cao; Daosheng Yuan; Xingfeng Fu; Yukun Chen
      Abstract: Tunicate cellulose nanocrystals (t-CNs) isolated from marine biomass were mixed with natural rubber (NR) via two different approaches. The first approach was the green one-pot route, NR latex was first mixed with t-CNs suspension, followed by epoxidization of the mixture. Meanwhile, a two-step method, referring to the way that NR latex was first epoxidized and then mixed with t-CNs suspension, was also carried out for comparison. The interfacial interaction, thermal performance, morphology, mechanical properties and water swelling behavior were investigated. Hydrogen bonds formed in the both nanocomposites and mechanical properties improved with increasing t-CNs content. Moreover, better dispersion and enhanced interfacial interaction were achieved for one-pot method, which was ascribed to the etching effect of hydrogen peroxide on the t-CNs surface and the possible grafting reaction during one-pot process. Therefore, compared with two-step method, 20% increase in tensile strength and 50% increase in tensile modulus were achieved for one-pot method at 10 phr t-CNs content.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1877-1
       
  • Effect of hydrothermal treatment of microfibrillated cellulose on
           rheological properties and formation of hydrolysis products
    • Authors: Salla Hiltunen; Isto Heiskanen; Kaj Backfolk
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hydrothermal treatment of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) on its gel stability, water retention and rheological behavior. MFC gel was prepared by fibrillating endoglucanase pre-treated, never-dried dissolving pulp. The MFC gel samples were then exposed in a static chamber for different times at different temperatures. At temperatures of 120–150 °C, the viscosity profile of the gels was not significantly changed and a characteristic series of 3 successive regimes in the course of increasing shear rate, showing different behavior was revealed. The amount of water released by the samples under pressure, on the other hand, was notably increased after hydrothermal treatment. After further exposure to prolonged treatment times (24 h) and higher temperature (180 °C), a significant decrease in viscosity and shear modulus was observed. Analysis of filtrates revealed the formation of cello-oligosaccharides, glucose and HMF and a decrease in surface tension indicating peeling and molecular degradation of the sample matrice. The microfibralled cellulose sample decomposition and gel network structure breakdown on a molecular level is discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1884-2
       
  • Sugarcane bagasse fiber and its cellulose nanocrystals for polymer
           reinforcement and heavy metal adsorbent: a review
    • Authors: R. Z. Khoo; W. S. Chow; H. Ismail
      Abstract: The development of cellulose and nanocellulose based materials have been a subject of intense research in recent decades due to their renewability, high strength and stiffness, as well as environmental friendliness. Advancements in industrial biotechnology provide ample opportunities for economic utilization of cellulosic agro-residues such as sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is an abundant fibrous waste of the sugarcane industry and it is normally used for animal feed, enzymes, paper and biofuel conversion application. Due to its high cellulose content (40–50%), SCB is a good source of cellulose fiber for the synthesis of cellulose nanocrystals. This review reports recent developments, current results and trends in the field of sugarcane bagasse fiber (SCBF) and sugarcane bagasse fiber cellulose nanocrystals (SBFCNC) as a green material in the manufacturing of composite materials and heavy metal adsorbent. Herein, the preparation methods and properties of the SCBF and SBFCNC composites are discussed. The reinforcing abilities of the SCBF and SBFCNC in various polymers are summarized. Also, the potential applications of SBFCNC as heavy metal adsorbent are documented. These demonstrated that we can widen the application of cellulose nanocrystals (synthesized from agriculture waste) while contribute to the sustainable development of the related products. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1879-z
       
  • Liquefaction of poplar biomass for value-added platform chemicals
    • Authors: Qiaolong Zhai; Fanglin Li; Fei Wang; Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Zhaosheng Cai
      Abstract: This study shows that two groups of value-added platform chemicals, namely glucosides and phenolic compounds, can be obtained from the liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass. The liquefaction of biomass was conducted in a methanol medium with H2SO4 as a catalyst at 120–220 °C. The effects of liquefaction temperature on the yield and distribution of the liquefied product and the change in liquefied residue were investigated. The maximum liquefaction rate was 91.13% at 220 °C based on the whole feedstock. The target products were glucosides and phenolic compounds, which were derived from the liquefaction of carbohydrates and lignin part in poplar biomass respectively, and could be effectively separated after liquefaction. The yields of glucosides and phenolic compounds reached 48.83 and 25.96% at 200 °C respectively. The glucosides mainly contained pentose and hexose glucosides with high a purity of 91.67% at 200 °C. The phenolic products were separated into four fractions with different molecular weight distributions. Overall, it achieved the simultaneous transformation of carbohydrates and lignin fractions in biomass into high value-added chemicals. Graphical
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1872-6
       
  • Influence of peroxide modifications on the properties of cereal straw and
           natural rubber composites
    • Authors: Marcin Masłowski; Justyna Miedzianowska; Krzysztof Strzelec
      Abstract: In this study, cereal straw was alkalized and treated with benzoyl or dicumyl peroxide solution. Modified straws were adopted as cellulosic filler in natural rubber biocomposites. Morphological changes and thermal stability of fillers were investigated by scanning electron microscope, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis technique. The influence of both treated and untreated cereal straws on the rheometric characteristics, static and dynamic mechanical properties, crosslinking density and resistance to aging of composites was examined. Modified straws showed better thermal resistance compared to raw fibers and were resistant up to about 220 °C. The results indicated that the strongest reinforcing effect was achieved using 10 phr of treated cereal straw. Deterioration of the mechanical properties of composites is observed in composites with a higher content of biofiller (20, 30 phr). It might be the result of a strong agglomeration of crumbled straw particles acting as stress cumulative elements in the vulcanizate. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed the reduction in the tangent delta of treated composites, might be due to improvement in filler/matrix interfacial adhesion. Moreover, all of the vulcanizates proved to be resistant to thermo-oxidative degradation. Cereal straw represents an interesting alternative for commercial fillers and could be successfully applied as a low-cost biofiller, which improved several properties of elastomer composites. Graphical
      PubDate: 2018-06-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1880-6
       
  • Paper miniaturization via periodate oxidation of cellulose
    • Authors: E. Brandon Strong; C. Ward Kirschbaum; Andres W. Martinez; Nathaniel W. Martinez
      Abstract: Cellulose-based paper is a versatile material with a diverse array of applications. While paper is not commonly thought of as a material that shrinks, here we present a method for miniaturizing paper via periodate oxidation. Chromatography paper was exposed to varying concentrations of periodate (0.1–0.5 M) over a 96-h period. Following optimization of miniaturization parameters, fourteen different types of paper were miniaturized and reductions in surface area ranging from 60 to 80% were observed. All cellulose paper types, but not cellulose-derivatives, displayed successful miniaturization. Results were highly tunable dependent upon periodate concentration and reaction time. Potential applications of the technique are discussed, including its use as a microfabrication method. Graphical
      PubDate: 2018-04-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1805-4
       
  • Adjustable thermal barrier of cotton fabric by multilayer immobilization
           of PCM nanocapsules
    • Authors: Yuwanda Iamphaojeen; Punnama Siriphannon
      Abstract: Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) encapsulated n-octadecane nanocapsules (Cap+) were facilely immobilized on cationized cotton at ambient temperature by stepwise coating with poly-4-styrenesulfonic acid (PSS) binder and Cap+ nanocapsules via layer-by-layer technique. The negative molecules of PSS binder spontaneously attached on the cationized cotton and then acted as negative sites for further immobilization of positively charged Cap+ nanocapsules through electrostatic interaction. The increase of quantity of immobilized Cap+ nanocapsules could be obtained by increasing the number of PSS/Cap+ treatment cycles. The prolonged duration of thermoregulating action was obtained when increasing the quantity of Cap+ immobilized on the cotton fabric, resulting in the adjustable thermal barrier property of cotton fabric. The cotton sample immobilized with 5 cycles of PSS/Cap+ treatment exhibited the highest reduction of surface temperature, i.e. ~ 2.5 °C for longer than 10 min when the surrounding temperature was about 50 °C. In addition, this sample could retain about 77% of original quantity of immobilized Cap+ after 15 washing cycles. The facile polyelectrolyte assisted nanoencapsulation and immobilization of PCM nanocapsules on the cotton fabrics proposed in this study were effectively performed using low concentrations of non-toxic chemicals, in which they might be incorporated into the conventional fabric finishing system.
      PubDate: 2018-04-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1804-5
       
  • Cellulose gelation in NaOH solutions is due to cellulose crystallization
    • Authors: Ana Pereira; Hugo Duarte; Pegah Nosrati; Marta Gubitosi; Luigi Gentile; Anabela Romano; Bruno Medronho; Ulf Olsson
      Abstract: Cellulose gelation in 2 M NaOH aqueous solution was followed by time resolved turbidity and rheology measurements. The kinetics of gelation is observed to change from several hours down to few seconds when the temperature is increased from 25 to 30 °C. The increase of turbidity upon gelation demonstrates the formation of larger cellulose aggregates, while wide angle X-ray scattering data confirms the gradual formation of crystalline domains. This suggests that the gelation can be understood as cellulose precipitation/crystallization where an effectively cross linked network and gelation results from that cellulose chains may participate in more than one crystallite. Graphical The gelation of cellulose solutions is due to crystallization and precipitation of cellulose.
      PubDate: 2018-04-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-018-1794-3
       
 
 
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