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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 841 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (593 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 233)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 295)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 13)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 258)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Science : Nano     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Cellulose
  [SJR: 1.167]   [H-I: 71]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-882X - ISSN (Online) 0969-0239
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Measurement of the flexibility of wet cellulose fibres using atomic force
           microscopy
    • Authors: Torbjörn Pettersson; Johannes Hellwig; Per-Johan Gustafsson; Stig Stenström
      Pages: 4139 - 4149
      Abstract: Abstract Flexibility and modulus of elasticity data for two types of wet cellulose fibres using a direct force–displacement method by means of AFM are reported for never dried wet fibres immersed in water. The flexibilities for the bleached softwood kraft pulp (BSW) fibres are in the range of 4–38 × 1012 N−1 m−2 while the flexibilities for the thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibres are about one order of magnitude lower. For BSW the modulus of elasticity ranges from 1 to 12 MPa and for TMP between 15–190 MPa. These data are lower than most other available pulp fibre data and comparable to a soft rubber band. Reasons for the difference can be that our measurements with a direct method were performed using never dried fibres immersed in water while other groups have employed indirect methods using pulp with different treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1407-6
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Influence of cellulose nanofibers on the rheological behavior of
           silica-based shear-thickening fluid
    • Authors: Aranya Ghosh; Indu Chauhan; Abhijit Majumdar; Bhupendra Singh Butola
      Pages: 4163 - 4171
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, the influence of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) on the rheological behavior of silica-based shear-thickening fluid (STF) is investigated. CNFs of 150–200 nm in diameter were extracted from cotton fibers using a supermasscolloider. CNF-reinforced STF of different concentrations (0.1–0.3 wt.%) was prepared via an ultrasonication technique. The presence of CNFs and their interaction with the silica nanoparticles in the STF were analyzed using SEM and FTIR. The addition of a minute quantity of CNF to the STF (0.3% CNF-reinforced STF) caused a marked increase in the peak viscosity, from 36.8 (unmodified STF) to 139.0 Pa s (0.2% CNF-reinforced STF), and a concomitant decrease in the critical shear rate from 33.45 to 14.8 s−1 . The presence of a large number of hydroxyl groups on the CNFs enhanced their interaction with the nanoparticles via hydrogen bonding, which induced shear thickening. The mechanism of the interaction between silica nanoparticles and CNF was also demonstrated. Oscillatory dynamic rheological analysis showed that the addition of even a small amount of CNF led to higher elastic behavior in the system at lower shear rates. In contrast, a more viscous nature was demonstrated at higher angular frequencies. As the concentration of  nanofibers in the STFs increased, the crossover point between storage and loss modulus shifted to higher angular frequencies, implying stronger interaction between the constituents of the STF. The dynamic viscosity profile of all samples also exhibited shear-thickening behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1440-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Effect of fiber drying on properties of lignin containing cellulose
           nanocrystals and nanofibrils produced through maleic acid hydrolysis
    • Authors: Huiyang Bian; Liheng Chen; Hongqi Dai; J. Y. Zhu
      Pages: 4205 - 4216
      Abstract: Abstract The effect of fiber drying on the properties of lignin containing cellulose nanocrystals (LCNC) and nanofibrils (LCNF) produced using concentrated maleic acid hydrolysis of a never dried unbleached mixed hardwood kraft pulp was evaluated. Two drying conditions, i.e., air drying and heat drying at 105 °C were employed. It was found that drying (both air and heat) enhanced acid hydrolysis to result in slightly improved LCNC yields and less entangled LCNF. This is perhaps due to the fact that drying modified the cellulose supermolecular structure to become more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and the enhanced hydrolysis severity at the fiber surface when using dried fibers. Drying substantially improved LCNC crystallinity and LCNF suspension viscoelastic behavior. The present study quantitatively elucidated the effect of pulp drying (either air or heat) on producing cellulose nanomaterials and has practical importance because commercial market pulp (heat dried) is most likely to be used commercially.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1430-7
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Photocrosslinked methacrylated chitosan-based nanofibrous scaffolds as
           potential skin substitute
    • Authors: Yingshan Zhou; Kaili Liang; Can Zhang; Jun Li; Hongjun Yang; Xin Liu; Xianze Yin; Dongzhi Chen; Weilin Xu; Pu Xiao
      Pages: 4253 - 4262
      Abstract: Abstract Nanofibers based on natural polymers have recently been attracting research interest as promising materials for use as skin substitutes. Here, we prepared photocrosslinked nanofibrous scaffolds based on methacrylated chitosan (MACS) by photocrosslinking electrospun methacrylated chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) mats and subsequently removing PVA from the nanofibers. We comprehensively investigated the solution properties of MACS/PVA precursors, the intermolecular action between MACS and PVA components, and the morphology of MACS/PVA nanofibers. Results indicated that the fiber diameter and morphology of the photocrosslinked methacrylated chitosan-based nanofibrous scaffolds were controlled by the MACS/PVA mass ratio and showed highly micro-porous structures with many fibrils. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation and cell culture experiments confirmed that MACS-based mats with micro-pore structure were biocompatible with L929 cells and facilitated cellular migration into the 3D matrix, demonstrating their potential application as skin replacements for wound repair.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1433-4
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Enhancement in physicochemical properties of citric acid/nano SiO 2
           treated sustainable wood-starch nanocomposites
    • Authors: Prasanta Baishya; Tarun K. Maji
      Pages: 4263 - 4274
      Abstract: Abstract Citric acid was used as the cross-linker to prepare the sustainable wood starch nanocomposites (WSNC) from the renewable resources like starch and soft wood flour using water as the solvent. Nano SiO2 was employed to develop the physicochemical properties of the WSNC via a green path. In this process, starch was grafted with methylmethacrylate (MMA) and SiO2 was modified with N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethyl ammonium bromide. Three different percentage of modified nano SiO2 (1–5 phr) were employed in the preparation of the composites and their properties were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphological features of the composites were investigated through transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy study. Mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties like storage modulus, loss factors and tan δ value of the composites were thoroughly investigated. Thermal stability, water resistance and flammability of the composites were significantly improved after incorporation of modified SiO2. The maximum improvements in properties were achieved containing 3 phr modified SiO2 composites.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1399-2
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Hierarchical porous cellulose/activated carbon composite monolith for
           efficient adsorption of dyes
    • Authors: Qiuhong Bai; Qiancheng Xiong; Cong Li; Yehua Shen; Hiroshi Uyama
      Pages: 4275 - 4289
      Abstract: Abstract Cheap and efficient adsorbents to remove contaminants of toxic dye molecules from wastewater are strongly in demand for environmental reasons. This study provides a novel design of a monolithic adsorbent from abundant materials via a facile synthetic procedure, which can greatly reduce the problems of the tedious separation of adsorbents from treated wastes. A hierarchically porous cellulose/activated carbon (cellulose/AC) composite monolith was prepared by thermally-induced phase separation of cellulose acetate in the presence of AC, using a mixture of DMF and 1-hexanol, followed by alkaline hydrolysis. The composite monolith had alarge specific surface area with mesopore distribution. It not only showed high uptake capacity towards methylene blue (MB) or rhodamine B (RhB) but could also simultaneously adsorb MB and RhB from their mixture, in which the adsorption of one dye was not influenced by the other one. Remarkable effects of solution pH, initial concentration of dye (C 0), contact time, adsorbent dosage and temperature on the adsorption of MB and RhB onto the composite monolith were demonstrated. The binding data for MB and RhB adsorption on the composite monolith fitted the Freundlich model well, suggesting a heterogeneous surface of the composite monolith. The monolith could retain around 90% of its adsorption capacity after 8 times reuse. These data demonstrate that the cellulose/AC composite monolith has a large potential as a promising adsorbent of low cost and convenient separation for dye in wastewater.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1410-y
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Facile preparation of a cellulose microfibers–exfoliated graphite
           
    • Authors: Selvakumar Palanisamy; Pan Yi-Fan; Shen-Ming Chen; Vijayalakshmi Velusamy; James M. Hall
      Pages: 4291 - 4302
      Abstract: Abstract A simple and robust dopamine (DA) sensor was developed using a cellulose microfibers (CMF)–exfoliated graphite composite-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for the first time. The graphite-CMF composite was prepared by sonication of pristine graphite in CMF solution and was characterized by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. The cyclic voltammetry results reveal that the graphite-CMF composite modified SPCE has superior electrocatalytic activity against oxidation of dopamine than SPCE modified with pristine graphite and CMF. The presence of large edge plane defects on exfoliated graphite and abundant oxygen functional groups of CMF enhance electrocatalytic activity and decrease potential to oxidize DA. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to quantify DA using the graphite-CMF composite-modified SPCE and demonstrated a linear response for DA detection in the range of 0.06–134.5 µM. The sensor shows a detection limit at 10 nM with an appropriate sensitivity and displays appropriate recovery of DA in human serum samples with good repeatability. Sensor selectivity is demonstrated in the presence of 50-fold concentrations of potentially active interfering compounds including ascorbic acid, uric acid, and dihydroxybenzene isomers.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1425-4
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Microfibrillated cellulose with sizing for reinforcing composites with
           LDPE
    • Authors: Amaury Lepetit; Richard Drolet; Balázs Tolnai; Daniel Montplaisir; Romain Lucas; Rachida Zerrouki
      Pages: 4303 - 4312
      Abstract: Abstract Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) fibers were acylated by the sizing agent, alkenyl succinic anhydride (ASA) reagent in an aqueous medium, by simple impregnation. The chemical modification was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state 13C NMR. All the samples were combined with low-density polyethylene and the morphology, thermal properties, mechanical properties and water absorption behavior of the ensuing composites were investigated. The chemical modification of the MFC with ASA improved the interfacial adhesion with the matrix and hence the mechanical properties of the composites while decreasing their water uptake capacity. In addition, it was shown that the degree of substitution strongly influenced the performance of the composites.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1429-0
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Bioconversion of cellulose and simultaneous production of thermoactive
           exo- and endoglucanases by Fusarium oxysporum
    • Authors: Folasade M. Olajuyigbe
      Pages: 4325 - 4336
      Abstract: Abstract Saccharification of cellulose is a promising method for production of biofuels. However, low bioconversion efficiency of cellulose to soluble sugars is a major challenge. In this study, a cellulolytic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was cultivated on pure cellulosic substrates (avicel, α-cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose and methylcellulose) and conversion efficiency into glucose was investigated. Production of exo- and endoglucanases during the bioconversion process was evaluated. Influence of pH on saccharification of cellulose and enzyme production by F. oxysporum were determined. Highest yield of glucose (1.76 μmol/ml) was obtained from F. oxysporum on methyl cellulose at 192 h under basal conditions. Liberated glucose under optimized condition of pH 6.0 at 96 h of fermentation was 2.12 μmol/ml with maximum production of exo- and endoglucanases (23.70 and 34.72 U/mg protein, respectively). The crude exo- and endoglucanases had optimum activities at pH 8.0, 70 °C and pH 7.0, 50 °C, respectively. The enzymes were stable over pH of 4.0–7.0 with relative residual activity above 60% after 1 h incubation. Exoglucanase activity was enhanced by Ca2+ and Cu2+ at 5 mM and Mg2+ at 10 mM. Endoglucanase activity was greatly enhanced in the presence of Mn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+ and Fe3+ at 5 and 10 mM. Activities of both enzymes were inhibited in the presence of Hg2+ at 5 and 10 mM. Results show that F. oxysporum possessed good cellulolytic enzyme system for efficient conversion of cellulose. Exhibited thermotolerance of exoglucanase with the striking tolerance of endoglucanase to metal ions demonstrate potentials of enzymes for biofuel industry.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1417-4
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Prospecting fungal ligninases using corncob lignocellulosic fractions
    • Authors: Diego B. Menezes; Osiris A. V. Brazil; Luiz F. Romanholo-Ferreira; Maria de Lourdes T. M. Polizeli; Denise S. Ruzene; Daniel P. Silva; Luiz P. Costa; Maria Lucila Hernández-Macedo
      Pages: 4355 - 4365
      Abstract: Abstract Microorganisms play an important role in the bioconversion of organic residues and have therefore become promising for obtaining value-added enzymes. In an attempt to take advantage of the by-products and residues of bioconversion, this work sought to use lignocellulosic fractions extracted from corncob as fermentation substrate for ligninase induction by Pleurotus sajor-caju. To obtain the corncob lignocellulosic fractions, biomass was submitted to treatment by alkaline extraction (NaOH 0.75 mol L−1, 55 °C for 2 h) and organosolv (40% ethanol/water, 185 °C for 20 min). The in natura biomass and lignocellulosic fractions were used as substrates in the subsequent fermentation processes: 2% in natura corncob; 2% cellulose–lignin complex fraction; 2% lignin-enriched fraction; 1% lignin-enriched fraction; and synthetic medium fungal (SMF) as standard. Chemical and physical–chemical analyses indicated the effectiveness of the lignocellulosic extraction process. According to the results, the developed system promoted the induction of ligninases by P. sajor-caju. The enzymatic analysis showed laccase production (768 U L−1) using the 1% lignin-enriched fraction as substrate. Manganese peroxidase production was 1050 U L−1 with the use of the 2% lignin-enriched fraction. The presence of lignocellulosic fractions extracted from corncob’s lignin-enriched fraction in the culture medium favored the induction of ligninases in comparison to the use of residue alone.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1427-2
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Enhanced bacterial cellulose production from Gluconobacter xylinus using
           super optimal broth
    • Authors: Prathna T. Chandrasekaran; Naimat Kalim Bari; Sharmistha Sinha
      Pages: 4367 - 4381
      Abstract: Abstract The bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Gluconobacter xylinus due to its versatile properties, is used in healthcare and industrial applications. However, its use is restricted owing to the limited yield from the existing culture protocols. In the current study, BC production is studied in the presence of Super Optimal Broth with catabolite repression (SOC) medium which is used to revive Escherichia coli cells after electroporation or chemoporation. In SOC medium, Gluconobacter xylinus produces cellulose pellicles within 5 days of incubation with an enhanced conversion of the carbon source to cellulose compared to traditional Hestrin–Schramm (HS) medium. SOC medium also maintains the pH close to 7.0 in static cultures unlike in HS medium where the pH is acidic. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of the BC produced in SOC are determined using powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Our results indicate that SOC enhance the yield of bacterial cellulose and allows conversion of 50% of the carbon source to bacterial cellulose, compared to only 7% conversion in the case of traditional HS medium after 7 days of interaction. We also observe an increase in hydration capacity of BC produced using SOC as compared to HS media.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1419-2
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Chitosan-based polymer gel paper actuators coated with multi-wall carbon
           nanotubes and MnO 2 composite electrode
    • Authors: Zhuangzhi Sun; Wenlong Song; Gang Zhao; Haojun Wang
      Pages: 4383 - 4392
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, MCNT/MnO2 composite electrode actuators were fabricated by ultrasonic oscillating adsorption of MnO2 on both sides of the MCNT coated chitosan membrane. Elemental composition determined by an energy-dispersive spectrometer showed that the doping MnO2 was successfully adsorbed on the surface of MCNT. Surface morphologies of actuators under different doping MnO2 ratios (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The electromechanical properties of actuators were further given by the experimental test platform, and the electrochemical properties of actuators were analyzed using cyclic voltammetry (CV). CV results revealed that the changing trends of specific capacitance and output force density, specific capacitance and strain were basically the same. When the ratio of MnO2 was less than 0.5, the former performance increased rapidly, while higher than 0.5, the latter grew faster. The experimental results showed that the adsorption content of MnO2 particles was affected by changing the conductivity of the electrode layer, which affected the electromechanical properties of actuators.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1416-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Fabrication of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic polymer composite
           coatings on cellulosic filter paper for oil–water separation
    • Authors: M. Satapathy; P. Varshney; D. Nanda; A. Panda; S. S. Mohapatra; A. Kumar
      Pages: 4405 - 4418
      Abstract: Abstract Generation of efficient and reusable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic coatings for oil–water separation have received substantial interest in material science. In the present work, porous superhydrophobic and superoleophilic LLDPE and SiO2 + LLDPE coatings on cellulosic filter papers were fabricated using a solution casting technique. Surface morphology, water contact angle, and chemical composition of uncoated and coated filter papers were characterized. SiO2 + LLDPE coating on filter paper shows the maximum water contact angle of 167.8° ± 1.4° and sliding angle of 3.8° ± 0.5°. In addition, thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of the coatings were also studied. Additionally, water-drop impact dynamics for the superhydrophobic coatings were also studied. Further, efficiency and reusability of coated filter papers to remove petroleum ether and benzene from an oil–water mixture were also characterized.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1420-9
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Design of cellulose–alginate films using PEG/NaOH aqueous solution
           as co-solvent
    • Authors: Alexandra Ioana Cernencu; Adriana Lungu; Diana Dragusin; Andrada Serafim; Eugeniu Vasile; Cristina Ionescu; Horia Iovu
      Pages: 4419 - 4431
      Abstract: Abstract In this work, a novel poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/NaOH system was successfully applied as a co-solvent for two naturally occurring polysaccharides, cellulose (Cel) and sodium alginate (Alg), to obtain biopolymeric films. Different amounts of Cel and Alg were dissolved in aqueous mixtures of PEG and NaOH, cast onto a glass plate, and cross-linked using a combination of physical and chemical cross-linking via a well-controlled experimental procedure. The resultant films were further characterized to investigate the influence of both the PEG chain and the Cel/Alg feed ratio on their swelling kinetics and their spectral, thermal and morphological features. The Cel/Alg hydrogels were characterized by rheological measurement to evaluate their mechanical strength in the fully hydrated state. The experimental results show that the synthesized films exhibit interesting properties in both the water-swollen condition and dried state. The features are highly reliant on the PEG molecular weight used and on the Cel/Alg ratio. Considering the flexibility, stability and mechanical strength in the wet state, Cel/Alg-derived films could serve as suitable substrates for various engineering applications.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1412-9
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Effects of nanocellulose on the structure and properties of poly(vinyl
           alcohol)-borax hybrid foams
    • Authors: Jingquan Han; Yiying Yue; Qinglin Wu; Chaobo Huang; Hui Pan; Xianxu Zhan; Changtong Mei; Xinwu Xu
      Pages: 4433 - 4448
      Abstract: Abstract Nanocellulose-borax-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hybrid foams were prepared using a facile approach in an aqueous medium followed by a freeze-casting technique. Nanocellulose was well-dispersed in the PVA-borax (PB) matrix and acted as a cross-linking agent and nanofiller to bridge the 3D network, leading to enhanced mechanical and thermal performance. The effects of particle size, aspect ratio, surface charge and crystallinity on the microstructure and performance were investigated. With the increasing size and aspect ratio, cellulose nanofiber-PB foam with a density of ~0.110 g/cm3 exhibited the most pronounced honeycomb-like structure with a porosity of 92.2%, the smallest cell diameter (~0.93 μm) and the highest mechanical strength (bearing more than 7560 times its own weight). Chemical cross-linking of nanocellulose-PVA foams with borax led to uniform porous structure, small pores and high mechanical strength. Possible lyophilization-induced assembly mechanisms, relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties, and complexation reactions between building blocks are proposed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1409-4
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Preparation and properties of microcrystalline cellulose/hydroxypropyl
           starch composite films
    • Authors: Jie Chen; Zhu Long; Jianhua Wang; Meiyan Wu; Feng Wang; Bin Wang; Wenzhi Lv
      Pages: 4449 - 4459
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)/hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) composite films are prepared by the solution casting method, and the effect of different amounts of microcrystalline cellulose on the properties of the films is investigated. The structure of MCC/HPS composite materials is characterized by Fourier transform infra-red and scanning election microscopy, and thermal stability, mechanical properties, hygroscopicity, and water vapor permeability of the composite films are also tested. According to the test results, with increasing MCC amounts, glass transition temperature, thermal stability, and tensile strength of MCC/HPS composite films are improved, while the hygroscopicity and water vapor permeability of MCC/HPS composite materials are decreased. When the content of MCC reaches 6 wt%, the maximum increase of the glass transition temperature is about 9.63 °C, and the tensile strength of MCC/HPS composite films are increased by 300% compared with that of HPS films. Moreover, the addition of MCC helps to expand the application of hydroxypropyl starch in the packaging field.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1423-6
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Release and absorption of formaldehyde by textiles
    • Authors: Nina Aldag; Jan Gunschera; Tunga Salthammer
      Pages: 4509 - 4518
      Abstract: Abstract Formaldehyde has been one of the most widely and most controversially debated substances in indoor spaces. Its classification as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 2004 and the EU in 2015 has given rise to further studies into possible indoor emission sources. It is known that the utilization of formaldehyde-containing chemicals in textiles is widespread. As a result, the question arises as to whether, and to what extent, textiles can contribute to contamination of indoor air with formaldehyde. However, there is hardly any information available on this subject, as the formaldehyde content in textiles is generally determined through extraction procedures. In contrast, the procedure used in this work is focused on the conditions of the indoor space. The release of formaldehyde into the ambient air from various textiles is followed using intensive demand intervals under defined climatic conditions in emission chambers. Additionally, extractions are taken in order to determine the content of free formaldehyde. Doping tests enable the differing properties of various textiles to be investigated with respect to the adsorption and desorption processes of formaldehyde. Through the application of a special double chamber, the diffusion of formaldehyde through textile membranes can be determined. The results demonstrate that extraction procedures do not necessarily correctly reveal the emission behavior of textiles.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1393-8
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Highly hydrophobic cotton fabrics prepared with fluorine-free
           functionalized silsesquioxanes
    • Authors: Di Sun; Wei Wang; Dan Yu
      Pages: 4519 - 4531
      Abstract: Abstract Water-repellent finishing of cotton fabrics was carried out using fluorine-free functionalized silsesquioxanes. The modification was performed in two stages: (i) preparation of alkylfunctionalized silsesquioxanes bearing additional triethoxysilyl groups by way of a photochemical thiol-ene click reaction, and (ii) modification of the cotton fibers with these silsesquioxane derivatives. Different ratios of functional groups were investigated and compared with regard to their influence on hydrophobic properties. The hydrophobicity of the cotton fabric was evaluated using the water contact angle test (WCA). Changes in the surface morphology were examined by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In addition, the elemental composition of the treated fabrics was analyzed by energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The most effective and durable derivatives appeared to be those containing four dodecyl groups and four triethoxysilyl groups. The treated surface with WCA of 146° and low roll-off angle (approaching the level of superhydrophobicity) demonstrated considerably higher durability after multiple standard washing cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1388-5
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Screen-printed electrospun cellulose nanofibers using reactive dyes
    • Authors: Zeeshan Khatri; Farooq Ahmed; Awais Khatri; Muzamil Khatri; Umair Ahmed Qureshi; Ick-Soo Kim
      Pages: 4561 - 4568
      Abstract: Abstract Recently, great deal of attention has been paid to dyeing of nanofibers. Herein, the printing of nanofibers has been reported for the very first time. We chose electrospun cellulose nanofibers (ECNF) and printed with three different classes of reactive dyes by flat screen-printing method. The various printing parameters were investigated such as steaming time, dye build-up property, color penetration. Results revealed that the nanofibers after printing showed good color yield and obtained 92% dye fixation within 7 min of steaming time. Irrespective to dye class, the color build-up property on ECNF showed a linear relationship with increasing dye concentration and demonstrated overall good dye color fastness properties. SEM images showed smooth morphology of ECNF after reactive printing. This technique opens a new door to produce colored patterns and designs on to nanofiber webs that can be utilized for aesthetic as well as functional purposes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1428-1
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
  • Bacteriophages immobilized on electrospun cellulose microfibers by
           non-specific adsorption, protein–ligand binding, and electrostatic
           interactions
    • Authors: Erica Vonasek; Ping Lu; You-Lo Hsieh; Nitin Nitin
      Pages: 4581 - 4589
      Abstract: Abstract Phage therapy has significant potential in specifically targeting bacterial pathogens in food and medicine. There is a significant interest to combine phages with materials to enhance and broaden potential applications of phages. This study compares non-specific adsorption, protein–ligand binding, and electrostatic interactions on cellulose microfibers without any chemical or genetic modification of phages. Success in immobilization of phages on biomaterials without genetic and chemical modification can enable effective translation of naturally occurring phages and their cocktails for antimicrobial applications. The immobilization approaches were characterized by phage loading efficiency, phage distribution, and phage release from fibers. The results indicated that non-specific adsorption and protein–ligand binding had insignificant phage loading while electrostatic interactions yielded approximately 15–25% phage loading normalized to the initial titer of the phage loading solution. Confocal imaging of the electrostatically immobilized phage fibers revealed a random phage distribution on the fiber surface. Phage release from the electrostatically immobilized phage fibers indicated a slow release over a period of 24 h. Overall, the electrostatic immobilization approach bound more active phages than non-specific adsorption and protein–ligand binding and thus may be considered the optimal approach to immobilizing phages onto biomaterial surfaces.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s10570-017-1442-3
      Issue No: Vol. 24, No. 10 (2017)
       
 
 
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