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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 849 journals)
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    - CHEMISTRY (603 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (603 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 178)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alchemy : Jurnal Penelitian Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 134)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 182)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 241)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 110)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 10)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 141)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 127)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 159)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal  
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
EDUSAINS     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Carbohydrate Research
  [SJR: 0.612]   [H-I: 98]   [27 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0008-6215 - ISSN (Online) 0008-6215
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3038 journals]
  • One pot oxidative dehydration - oxidation of polyhydroxyhexanal oxime to
           polyhydroxy oxohexanenitrile: A versatile methodology for the facile
           access of azasugar alkaloids
    • Authors: Sandip R. Khobare; Vikas Gajare; E. Vishnuvardhan Reddy; Rajender Datrika; Malavika Banda; Vidavalur Siddaiah; Sharad S. Pachore; Upadhya Timanna; Vilas H. Dahanukar; U.K. Syam Kumar
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Sandip R. Khobare, Vikas Gajare, E. Vishnuvardhan Reddy, Rajender Datrika, Malavika Banda, V. Siddaiah, Sharad S. Pachore, Upadhya Timanna, Vilas H. Dahanukar, U.K. Syam Kumar
      A unique oxidative dehydration-oxidation of polyhydroxy-oxime (7) to the corresponding ketonitrile (8) in one pot is reported for the first time in carbohydrate literature. Key ketonitrile intermediate (8) upon palladium hydroxide mediated cascade reaction afforded 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) 1b in moderate diastereoselectivity. The cascade reaction involves the conversion of nitrile to amine, heteroannulation, reduction of the imine and subsequent debenzylation to furnish the azasugars. This oxidative dehydration and reductive heteroannulation methodology is successfully utilized for the total synthesis of 1-deoxynojirimycin (1b), miglitol (2) and miglustat (3).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-18T09:45:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 435 (2016)
       
  • Nonhydrolyzable C-disaccharides, a new class of DC-SIGN ligands
    • Authors: Benedetta Bertolotti; Beáta Oroszová; Ieva Sutkeviciute; Ladislav Kniežo; Franck Fieschi; Kamil Parkan; Zuzana Lovyová; Martina Kašáková; Jitka Moravcová
      Pages: 7 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Benedetta Bertolotti, Beáta Oroszová, Ieva Sutkeviciute, Ladislav Kniežo, Franck Fieschi, Kamil Parkan, Zuzana Lovyová, Martina Kašáková, Jitka Moravcová
      The discovery of effective ligands for DC-SIGN receptor is one of the most challenging concepts of antiviral drug design due to the importance of this C-type lectin in infection processes. DC-SIGN recognizes mannosylated and fucosylated oligosaccharides but glycosidic linkages are accessible to both chemical and enzymatic degradations. To avoid this problem, the synthesis of stable glycoside mimetics has attracted increasing attention. In this work we establish for the first time mono- and divalent C-glycosides based on d-manno and l-fuco configurations as prospective DC-SIGN ligands. In particular, the l-fucose glycomimetics were more active than the respective d-mannose ones. The highest affinity was assessed for simple 1,4-bis(α-l-fucopyranosyl)butane (SPR: IC50 0.43 mM) that displayed about twice higher activity than natural ligand Lex. Our results make C-glycosides attractive candidates for multivalent presentations.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-10T22:53:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 435 (2016)
       
  • Total synthesis and the anticancer activity of (+)-spisulosine
    • Authors: Milica Fabišíková; Miroslava Martinková; Simona Hirková; Jozef Gonda; Martina Bago Pilátová; Gabriela Gönciová
      Pages: 26 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Milica Fabišíková, Miroslava Martinková, Simona Hirková, Jozef Gonda, Martina Bago Pilátová, Gabriela Gönciová
      The total synthesis of the anticancer agent (+)-spisulosine has been accomplished. The strategy involved a substrate-controlled aza-Claisen rearrangement to establish the erythro-configured amino-alcohol motif followed by deoxygenation to create a methyl side-chain. Subsequent Wittig olefination then permitted the construction of the carbon backbone of the target molecule. To investigate the antiproliferative effect of 1, its biological profile was examined on a panel of 6 human malignant cell lines and demonstrated the significant anticancer activity of 1 on at least five of the evaluated lines with IC50 < 1 μM (MCF-7, HTC-116, Caco-2, Jurkat and HeLa).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-23T17:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 435 (2016)
       
  • Multivalent S-sialoside protein conjugates block influenza hemagglutinin
           and neuraminidase
    • Authors: Yang Yang; Hai-Peng Liu; Qun Yu; Mei-Bing Yang; De-Min Wang; Tian-Wei Jia; Hao-Jie He; Yun He; Hai-Xia Xiao; Suri S. Iyer; Zhen-Chuan Fan; Xin Meng; Peng Yu
      Pages: 68 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: 29 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research, Volume 435
      Author(s): Yang Yang, Hai-Peng Liu, Qun Yu, Mei-Bing Yang, De-Min Wang, Tian-Wei Jia, Hao-Jie He, Yun He, Hai-Xia Xiao, Suri S. Iyer, Zhen-Chuan Fan, Xin Meng, Peng Yu
      A new class of S-sialoside Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) conjugates were prepared to enhance the binding affinity to hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The valency of glycoconjugates was controlled by the reaction ratio of the S-sialoside monomer and protein. Hemagglutination inhibition assay showed that these synthetic glycoproteins have higher affinity to HA than the small clusters of sialosides with lower valency, due to multivalent effect and optimized three dimensional presentation of sialosides on the protein platform. The results of fluorescent NA inhibition assay showed that some of the conjugates have moderate NA inhibitory activity, in comparison to the monomer and low valent conjugates with weak or none inhibitory activity. These synthetic sialylated proteins were not cytotoxic with concentrations up to 100 μM, since the sialylation did not change the secondary structure of protein. This new kind of conjugates can be used as lead compounds for antiviral drug design and the construction of pseudo sialoside-protein conjugates library to investigate the carbohydrate-HA/NA recognition process and a platform for the influenza virus capturing.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T00:05:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.017
      Issue No: Vol. 435 (2016)
       
  • Function-spacer-lipid constructs of Lewis and chimeric Lewis/ABH glycans.
           Synthesis and use in serological studies
    • Authors: Ivan M. Ryzhov; Elena Yu. Korchagina; Alexander B. Tuzikov; Inna S. Popova; Tatiana V. Tyrtysh; Galina V. Pazynina; Stephen M. Henry; Nicolai V. Bovin
      Pages: 83 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Ivan M. Ryzhov, Elena Yu Korchagina, Alexander B. Tuzikov, Inna S. Popova, Tatiana V. Tyrtysh, Galina V. Pazynina, Stephen M. Henry, Nicolai V. Bovin
      Seven lipophilic constructs containing Lewis (Lea, Leb, Ley) or chimeric Lewis/ABH (ALeb, BLeb, ALey, BLey) glycans were obtained starting from corresponding oligosaccharides in form of 3-aminopropyl glycosides. ALeb and BLeb pentasaccharides were synthesized via [3 + 1] blockwise approach. The constructs (neoglycolipids, or FSLs) were inserted in erythrocyte membrane, and obtained “kodecytes” were used to map the immunochemical specificity of historical and contemporary monoclonal and polyclonal blood group system Lewis reagents.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T00:05:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.016
      Issue No: Vol. 435 (2016)
       
  • Asymmetric routes toward polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines: Synthesis of
           1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-galactitol and 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-glucitol
    • Authors: Giuliana Righi; Emanuela Mandic'; Carla Sappino; Ergys Dema; Paolo Bovicelli
      Pages: 100 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Giuliana Righi, Emanuela Mandic', Carla Sappino, Ergys Dema, Paolo Bovicelli
      Herein the total synthesis of the pyrrolidine alkaloids 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-galactitol and its diastereoisomer 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-glucitol is described, starting from a common optically active precursor. The key step in our approach was the double diastereoselection in the asymmetric dihydroxylation of chiral vinyl azido alcohols, obtained by means of two different regio- and stereoselective nucleophilic openings of the corresponding chiral vinyl epoxide.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T00:05:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.018
      Issue No: Vol. 435 (2016)
       
  • On the phosphorylase activity of GH3 enzymes: A β-N-acetylglucosaminidase
           from Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 and a glucosidase from
           Saccharopolyspora erythraea
    • Authors: Diogo R.B. Ducatti; Madison A. Carroll; David L. Jakeman
      Pages: 106 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: 29 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research, Volume 435
      Author(s): Diogo R.B. Ducatti, Madison A. Carroll, David L. Jakeman
      A phosphorolytic activity has been reported for beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases from glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) giving an interesting explanation for an unusual histidine as catalytic acid/base residue and suggesting that members from this family may be phosphorylases [J. Biol. Chem. 2015, 290, 4887]. Here, we describe the characterization of Hsero1941, a GH3 beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from the endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1. The enzyme has significantly higher activity against pNP-beta-D-GlcNAcp (K m = 0.24 mM, k cat = 1.2 s−1, k cat/K m  = 5.0 mM−1s−1) than pNP-beta-D-Glcp (K m = 33 mM, k cat = 3.3 × 10−3 s−1, k cat/K m  = 9 × 10−4 mM−1s−1). The presence of phosphate failed to significantly modify the kinetic parameters of the reaction. The enzyme showed a broad aglycone site specificity, being able to hydrolyze sugar phosphates beta-D-GlcNAc 1P and beta-D-Glc 1P, albeit at a fraction of the rate of hydrolysis of aryl glycosides. GH3 beta-glucosidase EryBI, that does not have a histidine as the general acid/base residue, also hydrolyzed beta-D-Glc 1P, at comparable rates to Hsero1941. These data indicate that Hsero1941 functions primarily as a hydrolase and that phosphorolytic activity is likely adventitious. The prevalence of histidine as a general acid/base residue is not predictive, nor correlative, with GH3 beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases having phosphorolytic activity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:43:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.015
      Issue No: Vol. 435 (2016)
       
  • Synthesis and intramolecular glycosylation of sialyl mono-esters of
           o-xylylene glycol. The importance of donor configuration and nitrogen
           protecting groups on cyclization yield and selectivity; isolation and
           characterization of a N-sialyl acetamide indicative of participation by
           acetonitrile
    • Authors: Harsha Amarasekara; David Crich
      Pages: 113 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Harsha Amarasekara, David Crich
      The synthesis and cyclization reactions, leading to spirocyclic medium ring-sized diolides, of o-(hydroxymethyl)xylylene monoesters of sialyl thioglycosides is described. Cyclization yields and stereoselectivities are found to vary as a function of the anomeric stereochemistry of the thioglycoside and of the N5 protecting group, and these effects are discussed in terms of the reaction mechanism. Cyclization in the presence of acetonitrile results in the isolation and characterization of a Ritter-type N-sialyl acetamide, which affords strong evidence for the participation of acetonitrile in the form of sialyl nitrilium ions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T00:15:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.019
      Issue No: Vol. 435 (2016)
       
  • Getting a grip on glycans: A current overview of the metabolic
           oligosaccharide engineering toolbox
    • Authors: Tjerk J. Sminia; Han Zuilhof; Tom Wennekes
      Pages: 121 - 141
      Abstract: Publication date: 29 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research, Volume 435
      Author(s): Tjerk J. Sminia, Han Zuilhof, Tom Wennekes
      This review discusses the advances in metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) from 2010 to 2016 with a focus on the structure, preparation, and reactivity of its chemical probes. A brief historical overview of MOE is followed by a comprehensive overview of the chemical probes currently available in the MOE molecular toolbox and the bioconjugation techniques they enable. The final part of the review focusses on the synthesis of a selection of probes and finishes with an outlook on recent and potential upcoming advances in the field of MOE.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:43:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.007
      Issue No: Vol. 435 (2016)
       
  • Synthesis of a trimannosylated-equipped archaeal diether lipid for the
           development of novel glycoliposomes
    • Authors: Julie Barbeau; Loïc Lemiègre; Allan Quelen; Virginie Malard; Haifei Gao; Cristine Gonçalves; Mathieu Berchel; Paul-Alain Jaffrès; Chantal Pichon; Patrick Midoux; Thierry Benvegnu
      Pages: 142 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: 29 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research, Volume 435
      Author(s): Julie Barbeau, Loïc Lemiègre, Allan Quelen, Virginie Malard, Haifei Gao, Cristine Gonçalves, Mathieu Berchel, Paul-Alain Jaffrès, Chantal Pichon, Patrick Midoux, Thierry Benvegnu
      An archaeal diether lipid possessing a tri-antenna of α-D-mannopyranoside linked via an oligoethylene spacer to a (2S)-2-(phytanyloxy)-3-(hexadecyloxy)propanoic acid backbone (TriMan-Diether) was designed and synthesized. This new mannosylated lipid inserted in liposomes would show both DC-targeting and adjuvant properties thanks to the TriMan structure and the diether tail part, respectively.
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      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:43:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 435 (2016)
       
  • Quick characterization of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides in 5
           shellfishes by oligosaccharide analysis upon acid hydrolysis
    • Authors: Bin Liu; Jiaojiao Lu; Chunqing Ai; Bao Zhang; Li Guo; Shuang Song; Beiwei Zhu
      Pages: 149 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: 29 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research, Volume 435
      Author(s): Bin Liu, Jiaojiao Lu, Chunqing Ai, Bao Zhang, Li Guo, Shuang Song, Beiwei Zhu
      Uronic acid-containing polysaccharides (UACPs) including well-known glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and some non-GAGs exist widely in animal kingdom. Although numerous methods have been established to analyze GAGs, few methods are available for non-GAG UACPs. In the present study, a protocol to identify all kinds of UACPs with repeating disaccharide units of hexosamine and uronic acid was demonstrated, and UACP components in five shellfishes, namely Turritella fortilirata Sowerby (GTF), Batillaria zonalis (GBZ), Nassarius variciferus (GNV), Monodonta labio Linnaeus (GML), and Argopecten irradians Lamarck (BAI) were primarily revealed. After a simple isolation procedure, crude polysaccharides were depolymerized by controlled acid hydrolysis, and then the resulting oligosaccharides were detected by HPLC coupled with mass spectrometer after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) labeling. According to chromatograms using the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, chondroitin sulfate (CS) was found in GNV and GML, a non-GAG named abalone gonad sulfated polysaccharide (AGSP) with a backbone of →4)-β-GlcA-(1 → 2)-α-Man-(1→ repeating units in GBZ, and both of AGSP and CS in BAI and GTF. Further characterization of tetrasaccharides and sulfated/acetylated disaccharides by HPLC combined with an ion trap mass spectrometer confirmed the structural identification of CS and AGSP, and indicated CS in GTF and BAI was Type C. These results suggest the 5 mollusks as potential resources for CS and AGSP. And the analysis protocol presented in this study was powerful and effective for quick characterization of UACPs including GAGs as well as non-GAGs in complicated matrix.
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      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:43:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 435 (2016)
       
  • Structural studies of the rhamnose-rich cell wall polysaccharide of
           Lactobacillus casei BL23
    • Authors: Evgeny Vinogradov; Irina Sadovskaya; Thierry Grard; Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
      Pages: 156 - 161
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 October 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Evgeny Vinogradov, Irina Sadovskaya, Thierry Grard, Marie-Pierre Chapot-Chartier
      Lactobacillus casei is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium used in dairy fermentations and present in the normal human gut microbiota. Certain strains are recognized as probiotics with beneficial effects on human and animal health. L. casei BL23 is a potential probiotic strain endowed with anti-inflammatory properties and a model strain widely used in genetic, physiological and biochemical studies. A number of bacterial cell surface polysaccharides have been shown to play a role in the immune modulation activities observed for probiotic lactic acid bacteria. In the present work, we purified the most abundant carbohydrate polymer of L. casei BL23 cell wall, a neutral wall polysaccharide (WPS) and established its chemical structure by periodate oxidation, methylation analysis and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The WPS of L. casei BL23 was shown to contain α-Rha, α-Glc, β-GlcNAc and β-GalNAc forming a branched heptasaccharide repeating unit (variant 1) with an additional partial substitution with α-Glc (variant 2). A modified non-reducing end octasaccharide, corresponding to a terminal unit of the WPS (variant 3), was also identified and allowed to define the biological repeating unit of the WPS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the identification of a biological repeating unit based on a chemical evidence, in a cell wall polysaccharide of a Gram positive bacterial species.
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      PubDate: 2016-10-11T00:15:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 435 (2016)
       
  • Recent research progress on preparation and application of N, N,
           N-trimethyl chitosan
    • Authors: Meiyan Wu; Zhu Long; Huining Xiao; Cuihua Dong
      Pages: 27 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: 3 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research, Volume 434
      Author(s): Meiyan Wu, Zhu Long, Huining Xiao, Cuihua Dong
      N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) is a quaternized chitosan derivative with excellent solubility in aqueous solutions. It has been extensively studied as an absorption enhancer, antibacterial agent and gene vector due to its ability to form complexes with anionic gels or macromoleculars. However, the research which describes the process of TMC preparation and its new applications has not been fully reviewed. In this paper, recent progress regarding different TMC preparation methods and its characterization and application in different fields is presented. Key findings are compared and summarized and some topics for further study are suggested.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-25T00:40:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 434 (2016)
       
  • Biosynthetic and synthetic access to amino sugars
    • Authors: Kornelia Skarbek; Maria J. Milewska
      Pages: 44 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Kornelia Skarbek, Maria J. Milewska
      Amino sugars are important constituents of a number of biomacromolecules and products of microbial secondary metabolism, including antibiotics. For most of them, the amino group is located at the positions C1, C2 or C3 of the hexose or pentose ring. In biological systems, amino sugars are formed due to the catalytic activity of specific aminotransferases or amidotransferases by introducing an amino functionality derived from L-glutamate or L-glutamine to the keto forms of sugar phosphates or sugar nucleotides. The synthetic introduction of amino functionalities in a regio- and stereoselective manner onto sugar scaffolds represents a substantial challenge. Most of the modern methods of for the preparation of 1-, 2- and 3-amino sugars are those starting from “an active ester” of carbohydrate derivatives, glycals, alcohols, carbonyl compounds and amino acids. A substantial progress in the development of region- and stereoselective methods of amino sugar synthesis has been made in the recent years, due to the application of metal-based catalysts and tethered approaches. A comprehensive review on the current state of knowledge on biosynthesis and chemical synthesis of amino sugars is presented.
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      PubDate: 2016-08-25T00:40:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 434 (2016)
       
  • Preparation of glycosyl thiourea derivatives from glycosyl azides using
           sulfamic acid and sodium iodide in one-pot
    • Authors: Arin Gucchait; Manas Jana; Kuladip Jana; Anup Kumar Misra
      Pages: 107 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Arin Gucchait, Manas Jana, Kuladip Jana, Anup Kumar Misra
      Novel one-pot reaction conditions have been developed for the preparation of glycosyl thiourea derivatives directly from glycosyl azides mediated by a combination of sulfamic acid and sodium iodide. The reaction conditions were clean, non-toxic and the products were isolated in good to excellent yield.
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      PubDate: 2016-09-10T22:53:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.002
      Issue No: Vol. 434 (2016)
       
  • Synthesis and NMR analysis of model compounds related to fucosylated
           chondroitin sulfates: GalNAc and Fuc(1 → 6)GalNAc derivatives
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Dmitry Z. Vinnitskiy, Nadezhda E. Ustyuzhanina, Andrey S. Dmitrenok, Alexander S. Shashkov, Nikolay E. Nifantiev
      Unsubstituted and 6-O-α-L-fucosylated propyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranosides and their selectively O-sulfated (both in GalNAc and Fuc units) derivatives were synthesized as model compounds representing the fragments of fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (FCS) from sea cucumbers. Per-O-acetylated 2-deoxy-2-N-phthalimido-D-glucopyranose was used as a key precursor for the preparation of all 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactopyranoside containing products. Attempts at 6-O-glycosylation of propyl 3-O-benzoyl-2-deoxy-2-N-phthalimido-D-galactoside by 2-O-benzyl-3,4-di-O-chloracetyl-L-fucosyl trichloracetimidate in the presence of TMSOTf gave a 1:1 mixture of the corresponding α- and β-isomeric disaccharides, while the use of structurally related fucosyl bromide donor with promotion by Bu4NBr led to the formation of desired α-isomeric disaccharide exclusively. Selective removal of orthogonal O-protections permitted subsequent O-sulfation both at the GalNAc and Fuc units. Further removal of blocking groups yielded the target products which were systematically studied by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy in order to determine the spectral effects of O-sulfation and α-L-fucosylation needed for the development of computer assisted structural analysis of natural FCS.
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      PubDate: 2016-11-30T04:30:11Z
       
  • Synthesis of an allergy inducing tetrasaccharide “4P-X”
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Takashi Moriya, Naoki Nagahata, Rei Odaka, Hirohide Nakamura, Jun Yoshikawa, Katsumi Kurashima, Tadao Saito
      4P-X (β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-D-glucopyranose) is included in galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) produced by β-galactosidase derived from Bacillus circulans. 4P-X has been known to induce particularly strong allergies. High purity 4P-X is essential for use as a standard to quantify the amount of 4P-X in GOSs; however, the isolation of high purity 4P-X has never been reported. In this study, we achieved the synthesis of 4P-X by a combination of organic and enzymatic chemical syntheses in a short time. This is the first report of isolated, high purity 4P-X.
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      PubDate: 2016-11-30T04:30:11Z
       
  • Carbohydrate-based aza-macrocycles by Richman-Atkins cyclization of
           glucopyranose precursors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Andreas Rathjens, Joachim Thiem
      2, 3-Di-ω-halo- as well as 2, 3-di-ω-toluenesulfonamide-alkylated glucopyranoside derivatives were prepared. Their condensation with α,ω-bis-toluenesulfonamide components under varying Richman-Atkins conditions with alkali carbonate in DMF led to carbohydrate-linked aza-macrocycles displaying 14-, 17-, 18-, 21-, 24-, and 25-membered ring structures. Isomeric aza-macrocylic coronands of 20- as well as 30-membered ring size containing two saccharides could be obtained employing Richman-Atkins condensations of two functionalized sugar building units.
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      PubDate: 2016-11-30T04:30:11Z
       
  • AuCl3-AgOTf promoted O-glycosylation using anomeric sulfoxides as glycosyl
           donors at room temperature
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Ashokkumar Palanivel, Ande Chennaiah, Sateesh Dubbu, Asadulla Mallick, Yashwant D. Vankar
      Activation of sulfoxide as glycosyl donors using AuCl3/AgOTf reagent system has been described. Under optimal reaction conditions, both armed and disarmed glycosyl sulfoxide donors were found to react with a range of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohol acceptors, and sugar derived glycosyl acceptors to afford the corresponding glycosides in moderate to good yields with predictable selectivity. The reactions are quick (20–60 min), facile at room temperature and the reactions conditions tolerate acid sensitive groups.
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      PubDate: 2016-11-24T11:38:09Z
       
  • Characterization of the LM5 pectic galactan epitope with synthetic
           analogues of β-1,4-d-galactotetraose
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 December 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research, Volume 436
      Author(s): Mathias C.F. Andersen, Irene Boos, Susan E. Marcus, Stjepan K. Kračun, Maja Gro Rydahl, William G.T. Willats, J. Paul Knox, Mads H. Clausen
      Plant cell wall glycans are important polymers that are crucial to plant development and serve as an important source of sustainable biomass. The study of polysaccharides in the plant cell wall relies heavily on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for localization and visualization of glycans, using e.g. immunofluorescent microscopy. Here, we describe the detailed epitope mapping of the mAb LM5 that is shown to bind to a minimum of three sugar residues at the non-reducing end of linear beta-1,4-linked galactan. The study uses de novo synthetic analogues of galactans combined with carbohydrate microarray and competitive inhibition ELISA for analysis of antibody-carbohydrate interactions.
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      PubDate: 2016-11-17T01:35:12Z
       
  • Graphical contents list
    • Abstract: Publication date: 29 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research, Volume 435


      PubDate: 2016-11-17T01:35:12Z
       
  • Scalable preparation, characterization, and application of alkali-treated
           starch as a new organic base catalyst
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Fatemeh Tamaddon, MohammadTaghi KazemiVarnamkhasti
      Preparation, characterization, and application of alkali starch (AS) given by dry co-grinding of starch and alkali is described in this work. Grinding using a mortar (agate) and pestle or, more conveniently, a ball mill has been found to be satisfactory for the preparation of the AS. The AS products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. The base capacities of ASs were 4.25–4.45 mmol/g, respectively. AS is a low cost and easy to handle base catalyst that showed promising catalytic performance in the synthesis of a dihydroquinazoline-based antibacterial drug that involves tandem hydration or decarboxylative amidation, imination, and Aza-Michael reactions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T01:35:12Z
       
  • Scalable preparation, characterization, and application of alkali-treated
           starch as a new organic base catalyst
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Fatemeh Tamaddon, MohammadTaghi KazemiVarnamkhasti
      Preparation, characterization, and application of alkali starch (AS) given by dry co-grinding of starch and alkali is described in this work. Grinding using a mortar (agate) and pestle or, more conveniently, a ball mill has been found to be satisfactory for the preparation of the AS. The AS products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. The base capacities of ASs were 4.25–4.45 mmol/g, respectively. AS is a low cost and easy to handle base catalyst that showed promising catalytic performance in the synthesis of a dihydroquinazoline-based antibacterial drug that involves tandem hydration or decarboxylative amidation, imination, and Aza-Michael reactions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T01:35:12Z
       
  • Short synthesis of phenylpropanoid glycoside grayanoside-A and analogues
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Duc Thinh Khong, Zaher M.A. Judeh
      A short synthesis of phenylethyl glycosides grayanoside-A 1, 2 and analogues 3–4 in high 43–65% overall yields is described. The main synthetic step involved regioselective O-6 acylation of unprotected 2-phenylethyl-β-D-glucoside 7 with cinnamoyl chlorides 8a-d using Me2SnCl2 as catalyst. The acylation at O-6 is regioselective regardless of the type of cinnamoyl chloride used. Protection/deprotection steps of the glucoside core were not necessary. The synthetic route is generally applicable for the synthesis of phenylpropanoid glycoside class of compounds acylated at O-6.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-17T01:35:12Z
       
  • Tri- and tetravalent mannoclusters cross-link and aggregate BC2L-A lectin
           from Burkholderia cenocepacia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Magdolna Csávás, Lenka Malinovská, Perret Florent, Milán Gyurkó, Zita Tünde Illyés, Michaela Wimmerová, Anikó Borbás
      The opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia causes lethal infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Multivalent mannoside derivatives were prepared as potential inhibitors of lectin BC2L-A, one of the virulence factors deployed by B. cenocepacia in the infection process. An (α1→2)-thio-linked mannobioside mimic bearing an azide functionalized aglycon was conjugated to different multivalent scaffolds such as propargylated calix[4]arenes, methyl gallate and pentaerythritol by azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The interaction between the glycoclusters and the mannose binding BC2L-A lectin from B. cenocepacia was examined by isothermal microcalorimetry, surface plasmon resonance, inhibition of yeast agglutination and analytical ultracentrifugation.
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      PubDate: 2016-11-17T01:35:12Z
       
  • Bimodal concentration-dependent reactivity pattern of a glycosyl donor: Is
           the solution structure involved?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Leonid O. Kononov, Ksenia G. Fedina, Anna V. Orlova, Nikolay N. Kondakov, Polina I. Abronina, Nikita M. Podvalnyy, Alexander O. Chizhov
      Changes in concentration (0.001–0.1 M) of an arabinofuranosyl donor (1) have been shown to modulate the temperature T at which activation of 1 occurs (from −23 °C to +7 °C), the reaction time (from 1.5 h to 3 days) and the yield of the disaccharide formed (from 14% to 82%). At concentrations exceeding 0.01 M, these parameters, as well as the specific optical rotation of the solution of 1, virtually do not depend on concentration suggesting formation of reacting species (supramers) of glycosyl donor with similar structures, hence reactivities, but considerably different from those formed in more dilute solutions. The found critical concentration (0.01 M) separates two concentration ranges of reaction solutions corresponding to two types of solution structure that are featured by the presence of fundamentally different supramers of glycosyl donor, which have distinct chemical properties. These results allow a fresh look at the problems of reactivity of chemical compounds and selectivity of the reactions in which they participate.
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      PubDate: 2016-11-17T01:35:12Z
       
  • Infant food applications of complex carbohydrates: Structure, synthesis,
           and function
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Dorothy L. Ackerman, Kelly M. Craft, Steven D. Townsend
      Professional health bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommend breast milk as the sole source of food during the first year of life. This position recognizes human milk as being uniquely suited for infant nutrition. Nonetheless, most neonates in the West are fed alternatives by 6 months of age. Although inferior to human milk in most aspects, infant formulas are able to promote effective growth and development. However, while breast-fed infants feature a microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria, the bacterial flora of formula-fed infants is usually heterogeneous with comparatively lower levels of bifidobacteria. Thus, the objective of any infant food manufacturer is to prepare a product that results in a formula-fed infant developing a breast-fed infant-like microbiota. The goal of this focused review is to discuss the structure, synthesis, and function of carbohydrate additives that play a role in governing the composition of the infant microbiome and have other health benefits.
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      PubDate: 2016-11-17T01:35:12Z
       
  • Synthesis of 3-aminopropyl glycoside of branched
           β-(1 → 3)-d-glucooctaoside
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Dmitry V. Yashunsky, Yury E. Tsvetkov, Nikolay E. Nifantiev
      The synthesis was described of branched glucooctaoside bearing the β-(1 → 3)-glucotrioside side chain at O-6 of the second (from the reducing end) monosaccharide unit of the linear β-(1 → 3)-glucopentaoside core.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-11T01:27:25Z
       
  • Dihydroresveratrol cellobioside and xylobioside as effective melanogenesis
           activators
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Chisato Oode, Wataru Shimada, Mariko Yokota, Yoichi Yamada, Ken-ichi Nihei
      Dihydroresveratrol cellobioside and xylobioside, whose structure were designed based on that of naturally occurring melanogenesis-controlled agent dihydroresveratrol glucoside, were synthesized via Schmidt glycosylation as the key step. Both analogues stimulated melanogenesis with efficacies comparable to that of 8-methoxypsoralen, a well-known melanogenesis activator. This suggests that diglycosyl modification of the 4-OH on the dihydroresveratrol skeleton leads to the activation of melanogenesis, both with and without hydroxymethyl groups in the sugar moieties.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-11T01:27:25Z
       
  • Non-enzymatic reaction of glycosyl oxazoline with peptides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Ning Wang, Akira Seko, Shusaku Daikoku, Osamu Kanie, Yoichi Takeda, Yukishige Ito
      Recently, a number of chemoenzymatic strategies have been explored for achieving preparation of homogeneous glycopeptides and glycoproteins, especially by using endoglycanases and glycosyl oxazolines. However, concomitant occurrence of non-enzymatic reactions has been reported, but no further characterization of the byproducts was conducted. In this work, we made an attempt to identify the side product by using model substrates. Analysis of the product allowed us to propose that the oxazoline ring was attacked by the amino group of lysine, leading to the formation of disubstituted acetamidine.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-11T01:27:25Z
       
  • Binding pattern of intermediate UDP-4-keto-xylose to human UDP-xylose
           synthase: Synthesis and STD NMR of model keto-saccharides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Claudia Puchner, Thomas Eixelsberger, Bernd Nidetzy, Lothar Brecker
      Human UDP-xylose synthase (hUXS1) exclusively converts UDP-glucuronic acid to UDP-xylose via intermediate UDP-4-keto-xylose (UDP-Xyl-4O). Synthesis of model compounds like methyl-4-keto-xylose (Me-Xyl-4O) is reported to investigate the binding pattern thereof to hUXS1. Hence, selective oxidation of the desired hydroxyl function required employment of protecting group chemistry. Solution behavior of synthesized keto-saccharides was studied without enzyme via 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy with respect to existent forms in deuterated potassium phosphate buffer. Keto-enol tautomerism was observed for all investigated keto-saccharides, while gem-diol hydrate forms were only observed for 4-keto-xylose derivatives. Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR was used to study binding of synthesized keto-gylcosides to wild type hUXS1. Resulting epitope maps were correlated to earlier published molecular modeling studies of UDP-Xyl-4O. STD NMR results of Me-Xyl-4O are in good agreement with simulations of the intermediate UDP-Xyl-4O indicating a strong interaction of proton H3 with the enzyme, potentially caused by active site residue Ala79. In contrast, pyranoside binding pattern studies of methyl uronic acids showed some differences compared to previously published STD NMR results of UDP-glycosides. In general, obtained results can contribute to a better understanding in binding of UDP-glycosides to other UXS enzyme family members, which have high structural similarities in the active site.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-11T01:27:25Z
       
  • Preparation of the tri-arabino di-mycolate fragment of mycobacterial
           arabinogalactan from defined synthetic mycolic acids
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Mohsin O. Mohammed, Juma'a R. Al Dulayymi, Mark S. Baird
      An efficient synthetic approach to tri-arabino di-mycolates, using structurally defined synthetic α-, keto and methoxy mycolic acids is described.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-11T01:27:25Z
       
  • Structure elucidation and analysis of biosynthesis genes of the O-antigen
           of Escherichia coli O131 containing N-acetylneuraminic acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Andrei V. Perepelov, Xi Guo, Sof'ya N. Senchenkova, Alexander S. Shashkov, Bin Liu, Yuriy A. Knirel
      The O-polysaccharide (O-antigen) of Escherichia coli O131 was studied by sugar analysis along with 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the linear tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established: →8)-α-Neup5Ac-(2 → 6)-β-D-Galp-(1 → 6)-β-D-Galp-(1 → 3)-β-D-GalpNAc-(1→ The gene functions were tentatively assigned by comparison with sequences in the available databases and found to be in agreement with the E. coli O131-antigen structure.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-11-04T22:05:40Z
       
  • Insights into the structural and physicochemical properties of small
           granular starches from two hydrophyte duckweeds, Spirodela oligorrhiza and
           Lemna minor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Lei Chen, Changjiang Yu, Yubin Ma, Hua Xu, Shumin Wang, Yu Wang, Xingxun Liu, Gongke Zhou
      The structure and physicochemical properties of starches from two hydrophyte duckweeds, Spirodela oligorrhiza and Lemna minor, were investigated and compared in this study. The amylose content and average size of starches were determined to be 20.85%, 4.70 μm and 27.77%, 6.17 μm for Spirodela oligorrhiza and Lemna minor, respectively. The average chain length of two duckweed starches was measured to be around DP 28. The chain length distribution was observed to be greatly different from other reported starches for the high proportion of long chains (DP ≥ 37) over 50%. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction profiles of the two starch samples displayed typical B-type diffraction pattern. The gelatinization enthalpy-changes (ΔH gel) of two starch samples was about 10.40 J/g for two duckweed starches. The present results suggested the potential utilization of small granular starches from duckweed in functional foods and dietary supplement products.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-29T21:50:14Z
       
  • Utilization of bench-stable and readily available nickel(II) triflate for
           access to 1,2-cis-2-aminoglycosides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Eric T. Sletten, Sai Kumar Ramadugu, Hien M. Nguyen
      The utilization of substoichiometric amounts of commercially available nickel(II) triflate as an activator in the reagent-controlled glycosylation reaction for the stereoselective construction of biologically relevant targets containing 1,2-cis-2-amino glycosidic linkages is reported. This straightforward and accessible methodology is mild, operationally simple and safe through catalytic activation by readily available Ni(OTf)2 in comparison to systems employing our previously in-house prepared Ni(4-F-PhCN)4(OTf)2. We anticipate that the bench-stable and inexpensive Ni(OTf)2, coupled with little to no extra laboratory training to set up the glycosylation reaction and no requirement of specialized equipment, should make this methodology be readily adopted by non-carbohydrate specialists. This report further highlights the efficacy of Ni(OTf)2 to prepare several bioactive motifs, such as blood type A-type V and VI antigens, heparin sulfate disaccharide repeating unit, aminooxy glycosides, and α-GalNAc-Serine conjugate, which cannot be achieved in high yield and α-selectivity utilizing in-house prepared Ni(4-F-PhCN)4(OTf)2 catalyst. The newly-developed protocol eliminates the need for the synthesis of Ni(4-F-PhCN)4(OTf)2 and is scalable and reproducible. Furthermore, computational simulations in combination with 1H NMR studies analyzed the effects of various solvents on the intramolecular hydrogen bonding network of tumor-associated mucin Fmoc-protected GalNAc-threonine amino acid antigen derivative, verifying discrepancies found that were previously unreported.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-29T21:50:14Z
       
  • Ring distortion in pyranosides caused by per-O-sulfation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Alexey G. Gerbst, Vadim B. Krylov, Dmitry A. Argunov, Arsenii S. Solovev, Andrey S. Dmitrenok, Alexander S. Shashkov, Nikolay E. Nifantiev
      Distortion of the ring conformation in β-gluco- and β-xylopyranosides upon their per-O-sulfation was observed. In the case of glucose, a conformation intermediate between 3,OB and 3S1 was found, while complete 4C1→1C4 inversion was detected in xylopyranoside. The conformational changes were evidenced experimentally by measuring intra-ring 1H–1H coupling constants and nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) and were additionally confirmed by ab initio calculations.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-29T21:50:14Z
       
  • Glycerol carbonate in Ferrier reaction: Access to new enantiopure building
           blocks to develop glycoglycerolipid analogues
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Pollyanna Leite Ferreira da Costa, Valentina Nascimento e Melo, Bruna Martins Guimarães, Marie Schuler, Vanessa Pimenta, Patrick Rollin, Arnaud Tatibouët, Ronaldo Nascimento de Oliveira
      Glycerol carbonate and tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal were used for the synthesis of glycero-functionalized carbohydrates. Ferrier reaction between the two partners afforded the O-glucoside in 84% yield. Spontaneous crystallization yielded 28% of a pure diastereoisomer with the S configuration as determined by X-ray crystallography. Then, the azido-glycerosugar was prepared in two steps: ring opening of the cyclic carbonate with sodium azide and per-acetylation with an excellent yield of 94%. A library of glycoconjugates were prepared using a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition in yields ranging from 64 to 99%.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-29T21:50:14Z
       
  • From secondary alcohols to tertiary fluoro substituents: A simple route to
           hydroxymethyl branched sugars with a fluorine substituent at the branching
           point
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Michael Schalli, Martin Thonhofer, Andreas Wolfsgruber, Hansjörg Weber, Roland Fischer, Robert Saf, Arnold E. Stütz
      From a secondary hydroxyl group, by the simple sequence of oxidation, Wittig reaction of the obtained ulose with methoxymethylene triphenyl phosphorane, exposure of the resulting exocyclic enol ether to Selectfluor and subsequent reduction of the α-fluoro aldehyde thus obtained, tertiary fluoro substituents can be introduced into carbohydrate and carbohydrate-related scaffolds at a branching point now bearing a new hydroxymethyl group.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-29T21:50:14Z
       
  • Related structures of neutral capsular polysaccharides of Acinetobacter
           baumannii isolates that carry related capsule gene clusters KL43, KL47,
           and KL88
    • Abstract: Publication date: 29 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research, Volume 435
      Author(s): Alexander S. Shashkov, Johanna J. Kenyon, Nikolay P. Arbatsky, Mikhail M. Shneider, Anastasiya V. Popova, Konstantin A. Miroshnikov, Ruth M. Hall, Yuriy A. Knirel
      Capsular polysaccharides were recovered from four Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, and the following related structures of oligosaccharide repeating units were established by sugar analyses along with 1D and 2D 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy: NIPH 60 and LUH5544 (K43) Image 2 NIPH 601 (K47) The K locus for capsule biosynthesis in the genome sequences available for NIPH 60 and LUH5544, designated KL43, was found to be related to gene clusters KL47 in NIPH 601 and KL88 in LUH5548. The three clusters share most gene content differing in only a small portion that includes an additional glycosyltransferase genes in KL47 and KL88, as well as genes encoding distinct Wzy polymerases that were found to form the same α-d-GlcpNAc-(1 → 6)-α-d-GlcpNAc linkage in K43 and K47.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-29T21:50:14Z
       
  • Obstacles and solutions for chemical synthesis of syndecan-3 (53–62)
           glycopeptides with two heparan sulfate chains
    • Authors: Weizhun Yang; Keisuke Yoshida; Bo Yang; Xuefei Huang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Weizhun Yang, Keisuke Yoshida, Bo Yang, Xuefei Huang
      Proteoglycans play critical roles in many biological events. Due to their structural complexities, strategies towards synthesis of this class of glycopeptides bearing well-defined glycan chains are urgently needed. In this work, we give the full account of the synthesis of syndecan-3 glycopeptide (53–62) containing two different heparan sulfate chains. For assembly of glycans, a convergent 3 + 2 + 3 approach was developed producing two different octasaccharide amino acid cassettes, which were utilized towards syndecan-3 glycopeptides. The glycopeptides presented many obstacles for post-glycosylation manipulation, peptide elongation, and deprotection. Following screening of multiple synthetic sequences, a successful strategy was finally established by constructing partially deprotected single glycan chain containing glycopeptides first, followed by coupling of the glycan-bearing fragments and cleavage of the acyl protecting groups.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T21:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.10.005
       
  • Graphical contents list
    • Abstract: Publication date: 3 November 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research, Volume 434


      PubDate: 2016-10-23T21:13:44Z
       
  • Novel approaches to the automated assay of β-glucanase and lichenase
           activity
    • Authors: D. Mangan; A. Liadova; R. Ivory; B.V. McCleary
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): D. Mangan, A. Liadova, R. Ivory, B.V. McCleary
      We report herein the development of a novel assay procedure for the measurement of β-glucanase and lichenase (EC 3.2.1.73) in crude enzyme extracts. Two assay formats based on a) a direct cleavage or b) an enzyme coupled substrate were initially investigated. The ‘direct cleavage’ substrate, namely 4,6-O-benzylidene-2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-β-31-cellotriosyl-β-glucopyranoside (MBG4), was found to be the more generally applicable reagent. This substrate was fully characterised using a crude malt β-glucanase extract, a bacterial lichenase (Bacillus sp.) and a non-specific endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase from Clostridium thermocellum (EC 3.2.1.6). Standard curves were derived that allow the assay absorbance response to be directly converted to β-glucanase/lichenase activity on barley β-glucan. The specificity of MBG4 was confirmed by analysing the action of competing glycosyl hydrolases that are typically found in malt on the substrate. Manual and automated assay formats were developed for the analysis of a) β-glucanase in malt flour and b) lichenase enzyme extracts and the repeatability of these assays was fully investigated.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-10-23T21:13:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.10.006
       
  • Analysis of stochastic crystallization in micron-sized droplets of
           undercooled liquid l-arabitol
    • Authors: Yannick Guinet; Laurent Carpentier; Laurent Paccou; Patrick Derollez; Alain Hédoux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Yannick Guinet, Laurent Carpentier, Laurent Paccou, Patrick Derollez, Alain Hédoux
      Kinetics of isothermal crystallization of l-arabitol were analyzed from the undercooled liquid state within micron-sized droplets from micro-Raman spectroscopy. This study reveals that crystallization slightly above Tg is controlled by stochastic heterogeneous nucleation inherent to the droplet size. Microscopic Raman investigations performed in droplets give the unique opportunity to analyze the pure metastable Form II of l-arabitol. It was found that Form II is characterized by a molecular packing more compact than that of the stable Form I, inherent to strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Kinetics laws obtained by analyzing several droplets at different temperatures, reveal the transient character of Form II, quasi systematically detected during the crystallization process of form I. Form II appears as the first step of crystallization prior to successive short-living metastable states which is necessary to achieve a complete crystallization in Form I. It was found that the kinetics of conversion between the metastable states (Form II) into Form I is dependent on the amount of strong hydrogen bonding distinctive of Form II.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-28T00:09:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.012
       
  • Structure and genetics of the O-antigens of Escherichia coli
           O182–O187
    • Authors: Sof’ya N. Senchenkova; Xi Guo; Olesya I. Naumenko; Alexander S. Shashkov; Andrei V. Perepelov; Bin Liu; Yuriy A. Knirel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Sof’ya N. Senchenkova, Xi Guo, Olesya I. Naumenko, Alexander S. Shashkov, Andrei V. Perepelov, Bin Liu, Yuriy A. Knirel
      O-polysaccharides (OPSs) were obtained by mild acid degradation of the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli O182-O187, and their structures were established by sugar analysis, Smith degradation, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In addition to the monosaccharides that occur often in E. coli OPSs (d-Glc, d-Gal, d-Man, d-GlcNAc, d-GalNAc, d-GlcA, l-Fuc, d-Rib), a number of less common components were identified as the OPS components, including 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-l-quinovose and 4-deoxy-4-[(S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-l-alanyl]-d-quinovose (O186), 3-acetamido-3-deoxy-d-fucose (O187), 3-deoxy-3-[(R)-3-hydroxybutanoyl]-d-fucose (O184), and 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-l-rhamnose (O182). The OPS structures of E. coli O183 and O182 are identical to those of Shigella boydii type 10 and the capsular polysaccharide of E. coli K48, respectively. The OPSs of E. coli O186 and O123 are closely related differing in the presence of a Glc residue in the former in place of a GlcNAc residue in the latter. The O-antigen gene clusters of the bacteria studied were analyzed and their contents were found to be consistent with the OPS structures. Predicted glycosyltransferases encoded in the gene clusters were tentatively assigned to glycosidic linkages based on similarities to sequences of other E. coli O-serogroups available from GenBank and taking into account the OPS structures established.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-28T00:09:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.014
       
  • Glycosynthase mediated synthesis of psychosine
    • Authors: Ethan D. Goddard-Borger; Christina Tysoe; Stephen G. Withers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Ethan D. Goddard-Borger, Christina Tysoe, Stephen G. Withers
      Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GCL), or Krabbe disease, is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by a deficiency in galactosylceramidase (GALC), which hydrolyses galactosylceramide and galactosylsphingosine (psychosine). Early detection of GCL in newborns is essential for timely therapeutic intervention and could be achieved by testing infant blood samples with isotopically labeled lysosmal enzyme substrates and mass spectrometry. While isotopically labeled psychosine would be a useful tool for the early diagnosis of GCL, its synthesis is lengthy and expensive. To obviate this problem we developed a one-step chemoenzymatic synthesis of psychosine using a glycosynthase mutant of the Rhodococcus equi endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC), α-D-galactopyranosyl fluoride and sphingosine.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-28T00:09:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.013
       
  • Preliminary MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of seminal plasma N-glycome of infertile
           men
    • Authors: Anna Kałuża; Anna Jarząb; Andrzej Gamian; Ewa M. Kratz; Mariusz Zimmer; Mirosława Ferens-Sieczkowska
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Anna Kałuża, Anna Jarząb, Andrzej Gamian, Ewa M. Kratz, Mariusz Zimmer, Mirosława Ferens-Sieczkowska
      Glycosylation pattern within reproductive tract is now suggested to be involved in providing female immune tolerance for allograft sperm and developing embryo, but the information whether impaired glycosylation may influence male fertility potential is still limited. We have analyzed seminal plasma N-glycome in pooled samples derived from fertile and infertile men by means of MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Among infertile subjects, normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic samples were obtained. Eighty-six oligosaccharides were identified in all the analyzed samples. Differences in the content of unique glycans: high mannose and hybrid type, lacking terminal sialic acid and highly fucosylated were found when samples derived from infertile subjects with different semen patterns were compared to the fertile control. The content of highly branched glycans was 3-fold elevated in normozoospermic infertile men, while the expression of highly fucosylated oligosaccharides was increased in asthenozoospermic, oligozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic samples. Sialylation of oligosaccharides was decreased in oligozoospermic, oligoasthenozoospermic and especially asthenozoospermic samples, but increased in infertile normozoospermic subjects. Altered glycosylation observed in seminal plasma may reflect similar changes in sperm surface glycoproteins, and may disturb sperm interaction with female immune system. We suggest that at least some cases of unexplained male infertility may be associated with impaired glycosylation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-23T17:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.009
       
  • Diastereoselective synthesis of furanose and pyranose substituted glycine
           and alanine derivatives via proline-catalyzed asymmetric α-amination of
           aldehydes
    • Authors: Ramu Petakamsetty; Anas Ansari; Ramesh Ramapanicker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Ramu Petakamsetty, Anas Ansari, Ramesh Ramapanicker
      A concise organocatalytic route toward the synthesis of furanose and pyranose substituted glycine and alanine derivatives is reported. These compounds are core structural units of some of the naturally available antibiotics and antifungal agents. Proline-catalyzed asymmetric α-amination of aldehydes derived from sugars is used as the key reaction to synthesize twelve sugar amino acid derivatives. The asymmetric transformations proceeded in good yields and with good to excellent diastereoselectivity. The application of the synthesized amino acids is demonstrated by synthesizing a tripeptide containing one of them.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-23T17:38:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.011
       
  • Structural features of N-glycans linked to glycoproteins expressed in
           three kinds of water plants: Predominant occurrence of the plant complex
           type N-glycans bearing Lewis a epitope
    • Authors: Maeda Megumi; Misato Tani; Takeo Yoshiie; Christopher J. Vavricka; Yoshinobu Kimura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2016
      Source:Carbohydrate Research
      Author(s): Maeda Megumi, Misato Tani, Takeo Yoshiie, Christopher J. Vavricka, Yoshinobu Kimura
      The Japanese cedar pollen allergen (Cry j1) and the mountain cedar pollen allergen (Jun a1) are glycosylated with plant complex type N-glycans bearing Lewis a epitope(s) (Galβ1-3[Fucα1-4]GlcNAc-). The biological significance of Lewis a type plant N-glycans and their effects on the human immune system remain to be elucidated. Since a substantial amount of such plant specific N-glycans are required to evaluate immunological activity, we have searched for good plant-glycan sources to characterize Lewis a epitope-containing plant N-glycans. In this study, we have found that three water plants, Elodea nuttallii, Egeria densa, and Ceratophyllum demersum, produce glycoproteins bearing Lewis a units. Structural analysis of the N-glycans revealed that almost all glycoproteins expressed in these three water plants predominantly carry plant complex type N-glycans including the Lewis a type, suggesting that these water plants are good sources for preparation of Lewis a type plant N-glycans in substantial amounts.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2016-09-18T09:45:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.09.008
       
 
 
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