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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 881 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (54 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (616 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (616 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 356)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 159)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 257)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover
Carbohydrate Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.617
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 26  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0008-6215 - ISSN (Online) 0008-6215
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3159 journals]
  • A stereoselective approach towards a small library of cytotoxic isomeric
           sphingoid bases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Milica Fabišíková, Miroslava Martinková, Jozef Gonda, Dominika Jacková, Martina Bago Pilátová, Juraj KuchárTwo approaches to a small library of cytotoxic dihydrosphingosine analogues are described. [3,3]-Sigmatropic rearrangements along with an OCM reaction were used as the key steps for the construction of the two isodihydrosphingosines ent-6 and 10, whereas the functional group manipulations, including Grubbs' metathesis chemistry, were applied to known isothiocyanate scaffolds 15 and 16 to provide access to the enantiomeric forms of ent-6 and 10 and diastereomeric isophytosphingosines ent-7.HCl and 14. Cell viability experiments revealed that the target isomeric sphingoid bases were more potent than the traditional anticancer agent cisplatin, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range for the most active compounds.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Identification, heterologous expression and characterization of a novel
           glycoside hydrolase family 30 xylanase from the fungus Penicillium
           purpurogenum
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Karina Espinoza, Jaime EyzaguirrePenicillium purpurogenum grows on a variety of natural carbon sources and secretes to the medium a large number of enzymes that degrade the polysaccharides present in lignocellulose. In this work, the gene coding for a novel xylanase (XynC) belonging to family 30 of the glycoside hydrolases (GH), has been identified in the genome of the fungus. The enzyme has been expressed in Pichia pastoris and characterized. The mature XynC has 454 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular weight of 49 240. The purified protein shows a molecular weight of 67 000, and it is partially deglycosylated using EndoH. Its pH optimum is in the range of 3–5, and the optimal temperature is 45 °C. It is active on both arabinoxylan and glucuronoxylan, similarly to other fungal GH 30 xylanases. It liberates a set of oligosaccharides, which have been detected by thin-layer chromatography, thus indicating that it is an endo-acting xylanase. It hydrolyzes xylooligosaccharides, releasing mainly xylobiose, in contrast to other fungal GH family 30 enzymes which generate chiefly xylose. Highest sequence identity to a characterized family 30 xylanase is found with the enzyme from the fungus Bispora sp (53%). This is the first GH 30 xylanase described from a Penicillium.Graphical abstractThin layer chromatography of the hydrolysis products generated by XynC when acting on xylo-oligosaccharides. Lane 1: xylose. Lane 2: xylose + XynC. Lane 3: xylobiose. Lane 4: xylobiose + XynC. Lane 5: xylotriose. Lane 6: xylotriose + XynC. Lane 7: xylotetraose. Lane 8: xylotetraose + Xyn C. Lane 9: xylopentaose. Lane 10: xylopentaose + XynC. Lane 11: xylohexaose. Lane 12, xylohexaose + XynC.Image 1
       
  • Structure of a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase from Aspergillus
           fumigatus and an engineered thermostable variant
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Leila Lo Leggio, Cecilia D. Weihe, Jens-Christian N Poulsen, Matt Sweeney, Frank Rasmussen, Janine Lin, Leonardo De Maria, Mark WogulisLytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are industrial enzymes which are gaining use in second generation bioethanol production from lignocellulose by acting in synergy with glycoside hydrolases. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of an AA9 fungal LPMO from Aspergillus fumigatus and a variant which has been shown to have better performance at elevated temperatures. Based on the structures, thermal denaturation data and theoretical calculations, we provide a suggestion for the structural basis of the improved stability.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Synthesis of three deoxy-sophorose derivatives for evaluating the
           requirement of hydroxy groups at position 3 and/or 3’ of sophorose by
           1,2-β-oligoglucan phosphorylases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Nobukiyo Tanaka, Masahiro Nakajima, Hiroki Aramasa, Hiroyuki Nakai, Hayao Taguchi, Wakako Tsuzuki, Shiro Komba Sophorose (Sop2) is known as a powerful inducer of cellulases in Trichoderma reesei, and in recent years 1,2-β-D-oligoglucan phosphorylase (SOGP) has been found to use Sop2 in synthetic reactions. From the structure of the complex of SOGP with Sop2, it was predicted that both the 3-hydroxy group at the reducing end glucose moiety of Sop2 and the 3′-hydroxy group at the non-reducing end glucose moiety of Sop2 were important for substrate recognition. In this study, three kinds of 3- and/or 3′-deoxy-Sop2 derivatives were synthesized to evaluate this mechanism. The deoxygenation of the 3-hydroxy group of D-glucopyranose derivative was performed by radical reduction using a toluoyl group as a leaving group. The utilization of a toluoyl group that plays two roles (a leaving group for the deoxygenation and a protecting group for a hydroxy group) resulted in efficient syntheses of the three target compounds. The NMR spectra of the two final compounds (3-deoxy- and 3,3′-dideoxy-Sop2) suggested that the glucose moiety of the reducing end of Sop2 can easily take on a furanose structure (five-membered ring structure) by deoxygenation of the 3-hydroxy group of Sop2. In addition, the ratio of the five- and six-membered ring structures changed depending on the temperature. The SOGPs exhibited remarkably lower specific activity for 3′-deoxy- and 3,3′-dideoxy-Sop2, indicating that the 3′-hydroxy group of Sop2 is important for substrate recognition by SOGPs.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Quantitation of carbohydrate monomers and dimers by liquid chromatography
           coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Krista A. Barzen-Hanson, Rebecca A. Wilkes, Ludmilla Aristilde As remnants of plant wastes or plant secretions, carbohydrates are widely found in various environmental matrices. Carbohydrate-containing feedstocks represent important carbon sources for engineered bioproduction of commodity compounds. Routine monitoring and quantitation of heterogenous carbohydrate mixtures requires fast, accurate, and precise analytical methods. Here we present two methods to quantify carbohydrates mixtures by coupling hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Method 1 was optimized for eleven different carbohydrates: three pentoses (ribose, arabinose, xylose), three hexoses (glucose, fructose, mannose), and five dimers (sucrose, cellobiose, maltose, trehalose, lactose). Method 1 can monitor these carbohydrates simultaneously, except in the case of co-elution of xylose/arabinose and lactose/maltose/cellobiose peaks. Using the same stationary and mobile phases as in Method 1, Method 2 was developed to separate glucose and galactose, which were indistinguishable in Method 1. Both methods have low limits of detection (0.019–0.40 μM) and quantification (0.090–1.3 μM), good precision (2.4–13%) except sucrose (18%), and low mass error (0.0–2.4 ppm). Method 1 was robust at analyzing high ionic strength solutions, but a moderate matrix effect was observed. Finally, we apply Method 1 to track concurrently the extracellular depletion of five carbohydrates (xylose, glucose, fructose, mannose, and maltose) by Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, a biotechnologically-important soil bacterial species.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Cladolosides O, P, P1-P3 and R, triterpene glycosides with two novel types
           of carbohydrate chains from the sea cucumberCladolabes schmeltzii.
           Inhibition of cancer cells colony formation and its synergy with
           radioactive irradiation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Alexandra S. Silchenko, Anatoly I. Kalinovsky, Sergey A. Avilov, Pelageya V. Andryjaschenko, Pavel S. Dmitrenok, Ekaterina A. Yurchenko, Svetlana P. Ermakova, Olesya S. Malyarenko, Igor Yu Dolmatov, Vladimir I. Kalinin The sea cucumber Cladolabes schmeltzii (Sclerodactylidae, Dendrochirotida) contains diverse glycosides, including several dozen individual compounds. Six new triterpene oligoglycosides, cladolosides O (1), P (2), P1 (3), P2 (4), P3 (5) and R (6), were isolated from this sea cucumber. Their structures were elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR ESI mass spectrometry. Cladoloside O (1) has a pentasaccharide carbohydrate chain. Cladolosides of the group P and cladoloside R (6) include novel hexasaccharide carbohydrate chains with different positions of non-methylated terminal sugar units. All the isolated compounds demonstrate strong cytotoxic activities against cells of mouse Ehrlich carcinoma cells (ascite form) and mouse erythrocytes. The cytotoxicity of these compounds against human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells was somewhat lower. The compounds 1–6 also inhibit the colony formation and growth of HT-29 cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The highest inhibition effect was demonstrated by cladoloside P1 (3). Moreover, synergism of effects of radioactive irradiation and non-toxic dose of compounds 1–6 on colony formation of HT-29 cells was observed. Cladolosides P2 (4) and P3 (5) were the most active and increased the inhibitory effect of radiation by more than 70%. The metabolic network demonstrating the biosynthetic pathways to carbohydrate chains of the glycosides of C. schmeltzii, based on a comparison of their structures, was constructed.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Synthesis of protected glucose derivatives from levoglucosan by
           development of common carbohydrate protecting group reactions under
           continuous flow conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Keevan C. Marion, Zachary Wooke, Nicola L.B. Pohl Common carbohydrate protecting group reactions under continuous flow processes are reported in the context of producing partially-protected glucose building blocks from levoglucosan. Benzyl ether protection was demonstrated without the use of NaH using barium oxide, which, however, pointed to the need for forms of this catalyst not as susceptible to close packing under flow. Acylation conditions were developed under continuous flow in acetonitrile and avoiding pyridine. Ring-opening the derivatized levoglucosan with propanethiol was also demonstrated producing S-alkyl 2,4-di-O-benzyl-glucopyranoside building block in 2 rather than 12 steps in increased overall yield.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Cladolosides C4, D1, D2, M, M1, M2, N and Q, new triterpene glycosides
           with diverse carbohydrate chains from sea cucumber Cladolabes schmeltzii.
           An uncommon 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27-okta-nor-lanostane aglycone. The
           synergism of inhibitory action of non-toxic dose of the glycosides and
           radioactive irradiation on colony formation of HT-29 cancer cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Alexandra S. Silchenko, Anatoly I. Kalinovsky, Sergey A. Avilov, Pelageya V. Andryjaschenko, Pavel S. Dmitrenok, Ekaterina A. Yurchenko, Svetlana P. Ermakova, Olesya S. Malyarenko, Igor Yu. Dolmatov, Vladimir I. Kalinin Eight new triterpene olygoglycosides, cladolosides C4 (1), D1 (2), D2 (3), M (4), M1 (5), M2 (6), N (7) and Q (8), were isolated from the tropical Indo-West Pacific sea cucumber Cladolabes schmeltzii (Sclerodactylidae, Dendrochirotida). Structures of these glycosides were elucidated by 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR ESI mass spectrometry. A novel hexasaccharide carbohydrate chain having xylose residues as the first, second and third sugars was found in the glycoside 7. Cladoloside C4 (1) contains an uncommon 20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27-octa-norlanostane aglycone. Cladolosides D1 (2), D2 (3) and Q (8) were new representatives of the hexaosides with a non-methylated terminal sugar unit in the “upper” half-chain. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds against ascite form of mouse Ehrlich carcinoma cells, mouse erythrocytes and human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells were examined and their structure-activity relationships were analyzed. In addition, the majority of tested compounds, except for cladoloside D2 (3), inhibited the colony formation and growth of HT-29 cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The highest inhibitory activity was demonstrated by cladoloside M1 (5). Moreover, synergism of effects of radioactive irradiation and non-toxic dose of compounds 1–8 decreasing the number of colonies of HT-29 cells was observed. Cladoloside N (7) was the most active and increased the inhibitory effect from radiation by 75%. The biosynthetic transformations of the aglycones are discussed.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Synthesis of the cytotoxic phytosphingosines and their isomeric analogues
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Jana Špaková Raschmanová, Miroslava Martinková, Jozef Gonda, Martina Bago Pilátová, Daniel Kupka, Dávid Jáger A straightforward synthesis of l-lyxo- and l-xylo-phytosphingosine along with their isomeric analogues has been accomplished. The salient features of this approach are the utilization of [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements to install a C-N bond and application of a late stage Wittig or OCM reaction to incorporate the hydrophobic chain unit. The final compounds were evaluated regarding their ability to alter both leukaemia and solid tumor cancer cells viability.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Synthesis of high-mannose oligosaccharides containing mannose-6-phosphate
           residues using regioselective glycosylation
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Carbohydrate Research, Volume 467Author(s): Bo Meng, Jun Wang, Quanli Wang, Anthony S. Serianni, Qingfeng Pan Molecular recognition of mannose-6-phosphate (M6P)-modified oligosaccharides by transmembrane M6P receptors is a key signaling event in lysosomal protein trafficking in vivo. Access to M6P-containing high-mannose N-glycans is essential to achieving a thorough understanding of the M6P ligand–receptor recognition process. Herein we report the application of a versatile and reliable chemical strategy to prepare asymmetric di-antennary M6P-tagged high-mannose oligosaccharides in>20% overall yield and in high purity (>98%). Regioselective chemical glycosylation coupled with effective phosphorylation and product purification protocols were applied to rapidly assemble these oligosaccharides. The development of this synthetic strategy simplifies the preparation of M6P-tagged high-mannose oligosaccharides, which will improve access to these compounds to study their structures and biological functions.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Synthesis of azido-deoxy and amino-deoxy glycosides and glycosyl fluorides
           for screening of glycosidase libraries and assembly of substituted
           glycosides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Hong-Ming Chen, Stephen G. Withers Azide- and amine-substituted sugars can be useful tools in the probing of biological systems as well as in the assembly of libraries of derivatives using click chemistry or simple amine coupling approaches. A collection of methylumbelliferyl glycosides of various azido- and amino-deoxy sugar derivatives of glucose, galactose and xylose was synthesised via azide displacement of the corresponding triflate derivatives and subsequent modification. These compounds will be used as substrates in a high-throughput screen to identify glycosidases that can process such modified sugars. The α-glycosyl fluoride derivatives of each modified sugar were also synthesised to serve as substrates for glycosynthases derived from the enzymes identified in the screen.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Synthesis and anticoagulation studies of “short-armed” fucosylated
           chondroitin sulfate glycoclusters
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Huiying Liu, Xiao Zhang, Mingyi Wu, Zhongjun Li Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS) is a structurally complex glycosaminoglycan found in sea cucumbers with a wide spectrum of biological activities, among which anticoagulant activity is particularly attractive for the development of alternative anticoagulant drugs with decreased adverse effects and risks of bleeding. Previous studies show that FuCS glycomimetics bearing several trisaccharide epitopes displayed promising anticoagulant activity and did not change the mode of action of FuCS. To simplify synthetic difficulty of high valent glycoclusters and obtain candidate compounds with relatively low molecular weights, here we report the synthesis of two FuCS glycoclusters with low valence and more compact structures. Anticoagulation studies showed that these simplified “short-armed” glycoclusters demonstrated comparable potency with “long-armed” high valent glycoclusters, offering a concise approach for the development of novel anticoagulant agents.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • The role of lipooligosaccharide in the biological activity of Moraxella
           bovis strains Epp63, Mb25 and L183/2, and isolation of capsular
           polysaccharide from L183/2
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Carbohydrate Research, Volume 467Author(s): Sanjesh Singh, I. Darren Grice, Ian R. Peak, Thomas Frost, Geng Yue, Jennifer C. Wilson The Gram-negative bovine pathogen Moraxella bovis is a causative agent of Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, ‘pink-eye’ that affects cattle. Here we report that strain L183/2 has the same capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of unsulfated chondroitin, as does strain Mb25, whereas strain Epp63 does not express CPS. NMR analysis of the oligosaccharides (OS) derived from the lipooligosaccharides (LOS) in these three strains by NMR has shown that strain Mb25 and Epp63 have the same OS structure with a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine ((1S)-GalaNAc) residue →4,6-linked. Strain L183/2 lacks the (1 S)-GalaNAc residue. The biological role of M. bovis LOS was assessed by comparing the LOS from strains Epp63, Mb25 and L183/2 and truncated Epp63 LOS variants. LOS truncation affected M. bovis growth rate, susceptibility to antibiotics, detergents, bovine serum bactericidal activity, endotoxicity and adherence to HeLa cells.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • The acidity and self-catalyzed lactonization of L-gulonic acid:
           Thermodynamic, kinetic and computational study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Bence Kutus, Gábor Peintler, Ákos Buckó, Zsolt Balla, Alexandru Lupan, Amr A.A. Attia, István Pálinkó, Pál Sipos Lactonization and proton dissociation of sugar acids take place simultaneously in acidic aqueous solutions. The protonation-deprotonation processes are always fast, whilst the formation and hydrolysis of γ- and δ-lactones are usually slower. Thus, both thermodynamic and kinetic information are required for the complete understanding of these reactions. The protonation constant (Kp) of L-gulonate (Gul–) was determined from potentiometric and polarimetric measurements. The individual lactonization constants (KL,γ and KL,δ) for L-gulonic acid (HGul) were calculated via13C NMR experiments, and the applicability of this method was proven by measuring these well-known constants for D-gluconic acid (HGluc), and by comparing them to literature data. L-gulonic acid γ-lactone (γ-HGul) has remarkable stability in contrast with δ-HGul as well as γ- and δ-HGluc. The polarimetric measurement implies that the main factor responsible for the enhanced stability of γ-HGul is that its hydrolysis is much slower than that of δ-HGul. This higher stability of the γ-HGul ring over its δ-isomer was also confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. A new confirmed feature of the reaction is that in parallel to H3O+, HGul also catalyzes the formation and reverse hydrolytic processes of γ-HGul, similarly to other general acid catalysts.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • The alginate lyase from Isoptericola halotolerans CGMCC 5336 as a new tool
           for the production of alginate oligosaccharides with guluronic acid as
           reducing end
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Yanjun Chen, Wenfang Dou, Heng Li, Jinsong Shi, Zhenghong Xu Alginate oligosaccharides are depolymerization production of alginate by enzymatic degradation or physicochemical treatments. Alginate lyase has been concerned due to its use in oligosaccharide preparation. The substrate specificity of alginate lyase directly determines the type and degree of polymerization of alginate oligosaccharides. In this paper, the degradation products of Alginate lyase from Isoptericola halotolerans CGMCC 5336 were size-fractionated by gel filtration chromatography and the fractions were characterized by TLC, HPLC, MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The Mw values for these fractions were 352, 528, 704 Da and indicating di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharide fragments, respectively. The 1H NMR revealed that the non-reducing ends of these oligosaccharides were 4-deoxy-L-erythro-hex-4-enepyranosyluronate and the reducing ends these oligosaccharides were all guluronic acid. Therefore, we believed that the alginate lyase produced by Isoptericola halotolerans CGMCC 5336 was capable of performing β elimination on G residue and we can prepare low molecular weight oligosaccharides with guluronic acid on the reducing end in this way.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Yariv reactivity of type II arabinogalactan from larch wood
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Kazuki Sato, Katsuya Hara, Yoshihisa Yoshimi, Kiminari Kitazawa, Haruka Ito, Yoichi Tsumuraya, Toshihisa Kotake Larch arabinogalactan (AG) is classified as a plant type II AG. Its basic structure is constituted by a β-1,3-galactan main chain with β-1,6-galactan side chains. But its properties are distinct from other type II AGs. Whereas most type II AGs are found as glycan moieties of arabinogalactan-protein (AGP), larch AG lacks a protein moiety. Larch AG itself is also unlike other type II AGs as it lacks Yariv reactivity, the capability of AG to form insoluble precipitate with β-Yariv reagents, 1,3,5-tri-(p-glycosyloxyphenylazo)-2,4,6-trihydroxybenzene with β-glucosyl or β-galactosyl residues at the termini. For the present study, we prepared β-galactan I, II, and III from larch AG by performing single, double, and triple Smith degradation, which breaks β-1,6-galactan side chains, and examined Yariv reactivity of the products. Methylation analysis revealed that β-galactans II and III had lost more than 90% of their β-1,6-galactan branches. In the radial gel diffusion assay, β-galactans II and III showed Yariv reactivity, indicating the presence of a Yariv-reactive structure in larch AG, although native larch AG does not have Yariv reactivity. The Yariv reactivity of the β-galactans was completely lost after treatment with endo-β-1,3-galactanase. These results confirm that β-1,3-galactan is necessary for Yariv reactivity of type II AG. The present results also suggest that high substitution of β-1,3-galactan with β-1,6-galactan side chains affects Yariv reactivity in larch AG.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Theoretical studies of the pyranose ring under mechanical stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: Carbohydrate ResearchAuthor(s): Krzysztof Wolinski, Agnieszka Brzyska In this work we use our Enforced Geometry Optimization (EGO) method to investigate conformational transitions in the pyranose ring under mechanical stress caused by external forces. We examine possible transitions and/or inversions induced by external forces in the pyranose ring in the chair conformation with two axial glycosidic bonds. The results obtained provide new insight into the mechanism of the conformational transitions which strongly depends on substituents present in a pyranose ring. We also conclude that interpretation of AFM force-extension curves is not necessarily straightforward; not every plateau there corresponds to a conformational transition and not every transition can be clearly seen as a plateau.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
 
 
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