American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2150-4210 - ISSN (Online) 2150-4253
Published by Academic Journals Inc [4 journals]
- Biochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of
Commonly Used Culinary Indian Spices
Abstract: Background: Antibiotic resistance become global concern due to over use and getting drug resistance in bacteria drawn attention for best candidate from natural resources like spices which were using since, ancient days in culinary and also in traditional medicine like Ayurveda for development of new antimicrobial compounds. Methodology: Methanolic extracts of 20 routinely consumed spices in Indian culinary were evaluated for their total phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids with antioxidant and antibacterial potential against two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia). Results: Results revealed that higher levels of total phenolics were noticed in clove (175±21 mg GAE g1) followed by star anise, bay leaf and caper. Terpenoid rich caper (639±19 mg LE g1) exhibited elevated levels of antioxidant potential (642±6 mg TE g1) as compared to other spices. Turmeric exhibited highest amount of flavonoids (31.4±2.34 mg RE g1) followed by clove and black pepper. Mustard showed higher alkaloid content (1.6±0.08 mg AE g1) followed by chilli and black pepper. The Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were exhibited an increased growth inhibition (antibacterial and bactericidal activities) at lower concentration of garlic (2.5 μg GAE disc1), cinnamon (4.5 μg GAE disc1) and tamarind extracts (6 μg GAE disc1) as compared to the standard antibiotic and streptomycin (20 μg disc1). Conclusion: The results concluded that the phenolics and terpenoid rich spices exhibited elevated antioxidant, antibacterial and bactericidal activities. Indian spices could also be used as potential antimicrobials that develop the promising leads to the pharmaceutical industry.
PubDate: 25 October, 2016
- Efficacy of α-lipoic Acid Against Oxidative Stress and Histopathological
Changes Induced by Dimethylnitrosamine in Liver Male Mice
Abstract: Background and Objective: Dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) is a representative chemical of a family of N-nitroso compounds and has been found in processed meats and industrial products. Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) found naturally in plants and animals is involved in many different antioxidant functions in all body tissues. So, the study was designed to find out the efficacy of ALA in reducing the DMN-toxicity in male mice by measuring some biomarkers functions of liver as well as oxidative stress parameters and histopathological changes. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into 6 groups (n = 8) and received their treatment for 4 weeks as follows: Groups 1-4 served as control, ALA-treatment (16.12 mg kg1), DMN-low dose treatment and DMN-high dose treatment, respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were received ALA before DMN-low and DMN-high dose, respectively. Results: The treatment of the mice with DMN caused significant changes in serum biomarker enzymes of liver, lipid profile, protein content and myeloperoxidase as well as hepatocytes lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, nitric oxide, xanthine oxidase and total antioxidant capacity. Histopathological analysis of liver confirmed the oxidative stress results. Conclusion: Concomitant administration of ALA with DMN significantly protected most of the changes induced by DMN suggesting its protective efficacy.
PubDate: 25 October, 2016
- Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of
Abstract: Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and is one of the main public health concerns worldwide. To date, the potential of many natural products in its treatment are not fully explored. Materials and Methods: In this study, major phytochemicals present in the leaves and stems of Diospyros buxifolia were determined following extraction using distilled water and 70% of methanol. The antidiabetic activities of the extracts were determined in vitro by measuring α-amylase and amyloglucosidase inhibitory activities at four different extract concentrations (0.125, 0.250, 0.500 and 1.000 mg mL1). Results: Methanolic extracts of D. buxifolia stems found to possess significant α-amylase inhibitory activity (84.68±0.03%) followed by methanolic extract of the leaves (84.00±0.08%), aqueous extracts of the stems (49.44±0.05%) and aqueous extract of the leaves (40.71±0.03%). Methanolic extracts of the stems showed significant inhibition of amyloglucosidase (62.72±0.15%) followed by methanolic extract of the leaves (58.93±0.08%), aqueous extracts of the stems (36.65±0.05%) and finally aqueous extract of the leaves (20.57±0.03%). Conclusion: It can be concluded that methanolic stem extract of D. buxifolia displayed the presence of phytochemicals and also significant α-amylase and amyloglucosidase inhibition. Further analysis needs to be made to find out the mechanism of action of antidiabetic activities of the extracts used in this study.
PubDate: 05 October, 2016
- Effect of Lead Stress on the Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities and Free Radical
Formation in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Plant
Abstract: Background and Objective: The effect of lead on several metabolic reactions in the radish plant has been investigated. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential role of enzymes activity, their isoenzyme profile pattern and free radical formation as biomarkers of Pb pollution in the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plant. Materials and Methods: Varied concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 ranging from 25-500 ppm in the growth media were used. The plant samples were collected after 40 days growth period. Lead and micronutrients concentration, the profile of electron spins resonance determination and hydrolytic enzymes activities were analyzed. Results: Lead concentrations in roots and leaves increased with increasing Pb concentration in the tested media; however the most accumulation were observed in leaves. Generally, the concentration of micronutrients such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu declined in leaves compared to the roots. Results of the profile of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) determination showed a decrease in unstable free radical level in the roots, followed by a significant increase with increasing Pb concentrations. The Pb induced changes in some enzymes activity and its isoenzyme profiles such as acid phosphatase (AP), esterase (EST) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in leaves and roots of radish plant. Results of isoenzymes suggested that the staining intensities of isoform patterns were consistent with the changes of the activities assayed in solutions. Conclusion: These results suggested that (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings may have a better protection against oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant enzymes activity exposed to Pb toxicity.
PubDate: 05 October, 2016
- Molecular Characterization of Multidrug Resistant Clinical Escherichia
Abstract: Background: Quinolones are used against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria. It was discovered that quinolone resistance was plasmid-mediated by qnr genes (qnrA, qnrB and qnrS) and can be simply transferred between different bacterial strains. Also, the emergence of E. coli resistance to carbapenem during the therapy with imipenem and meropenem was attributed to carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes encoded by blaKPC gene. This work aimed to study the susceptibility and prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) E. coli isolates and the possible role of quinolone and carpabenem genes in E. coli resistance. Materials and Methods: Fifty clinical E. coli isolates were collected from different diagnostic centers of Mansoura University Hospitals and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was tested using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Out of 50 isolates, 10 MDR E. coli candidates were selected for morphological and biochemical identification as well as for the detection of the plasmid-bearing antibiotic resistant genes by PCR and protein profile in the presence of quinolone and carbapenem using SDS-PAGE. Results: The results of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 50 clinical E. coli isolated from urine, wound swab, blood and sputum of patients from Mansoura University Hospitals, revealed that the isolates were cefuroxim resistant (96%), cefotriaxone resistant (92%), cefaclor resistant (90%), ciprofloxacin resistant (76%), meropenem resistant (40%), imipenem resistant (30%) and amikacin resistant (16%). Plasmid profile showed that all MDR strains harbored plasmids of different sizes. Some isolates possess single sized plasmid while other had multiple plasmids with different sizes. The distribution of antibiotic resistant genes in E. coli candidates included qnrA (0%), qnrB (50%), qnrS (70%), qnrB and qnrS (20%) and blaKPC (10%). All isolates were harbored one of quinolone resistant genes. The protein pattern of the MDR E. coli with ciprofloxacin was showed 19 bands distributed as; 16 monomorphic and 3 polymorphic. Meropenem case indicated 20 bands distributed as 14 monomorphic, 5 polymorphic and 1 unique. There were 4 bands present in control and disappeared from isolates with molecular mass (122.9, 74.2, 69.8 and 55.08 kDa). Conclusion: The antimicrobial resistance is a clinical and public health problem, there is a need for monitoring the microbial trends and antimicrobial resistance patterns.
PubDate: 05 October, 2016