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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 931 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (58 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (663 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (27 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (43 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (48 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (663 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
ACS Applied Polymer Materials     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 380)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 88)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Aerosol Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alotrop     Open Access  
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 290)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 6)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 76)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 234)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 192)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry Africa : A Journal of the Tunisian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 283)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clay Minerals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

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Journal Cover
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.172
Number of Followers: 71  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1553-3468
Published by Science Publications Homepage  [31 journals]
  • Enhancement Effect of BAP and Spent Mushroom Compost in Micro-Propagation
           of Sabah Snake Grass

    • Abstract: Medicinal plants which is Clinacantus nutans (C. nutans) that known as Sabah Snake Grass or Belalai Gajah can treat several diseases including cancer. In order to provide and grow this plant in large number for health and pharmaceutical industry, one of the solutions is through the plant tissue culture technique. In this experiment, C. nutans was cultured under controlled conditions which to provide sterile plantlets. The surface sterilization using three methods which involved ethanol, Clorox and mercuric chloride. In the comparison of them, it was found that the use of 70% ethanol (5 min) followed by 30% clorox (5 min) then with 0.1% mercuric chloride for one hour was the most effective sterilization method which gave the highest survival rate (100%) and zero contamination rate. The sterile explants were then cultured in media containing different concentrations of Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Pleurotus ostreatus Spent Mushroom Compost (SMC). The SMC was tested and compared in powder and extracted form. The observations were made every week on responds of the culture using variables which are number of shoots, length of shoots and number of leaves. This article was aimed to evaluate the enhancement effect of BAP and SMC in micro-propagation of Sabah Snake Grass. The authors found that the best concentration for BAP is 1.0 μM. It produced 3.5±0.926 number of shoots and 2 μM BAP produced 7.286±1.496 number of leaves in their findings. When BAP and SMC were tested in combination, they managed to produce high number of shoots and leaves. Their result revealed a number of shoots (5.750±0.500) produced by 2% extract of SMC and some leaves (11.890±1.965) by 8% extract of SMC when both were cultured together with 1.0 μM BAP respectively.  The authors thought that there was enhancement effect on the combination of BAP with extracts of SMC which gave about double regeneration rate as compared with the BAP alone and this method had high potential for future research in producing mass propagation of C. nutan and other related study by reducing the usage of plant growth regulator which may reduce the cost of micro-propagation of tissue culture plants.
       
  • The Use of α-MF Signal Peptide Without Spacer for Producing Insulin
           Aspart Precursor in Pichia pastoris KM71

    • Abstract: A spacer peptide (Glu-Ala repeats) connects N-terminal of a polypeptide precursor to the signal peptide of α-mating factor (α-MF) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During the polypeptide precursor secretion, the signal peptide will be first cleaved by signal peptidase in the endoplasmic reticulum, followed by Kex2 endopeptidase and finally the spacer peptide is removed by dipeptidyl aminopeptidase in the Golgi apparatus. In the case of insulin precursor, unfortunately, mixture forms of the insulin precursor containing a spacer peptide and the correct insulin precursor is observed in Pichia pastoris. To overcome this problem, a gene encoding insulin Aspart precursor without the spacer peptide has been constructed and its expression has been investigated in this study. The gene of insulin Aspart precursor has been successfully expressed extracellularly in P. pastoris KM71 with molecular mass of 6306.8 Da as determined by LC-ESI-MS. The expression level of insulin Aspart precursor is affected by aeration, cell density and methanol as an inducer. In shake flask production, the insulin Aspart precursor was optimally produced by 3% methanol induction every 24 h for two days, at initial cell density (OD600) of 60 and aeration (ratio of culture volume to flask volume) of 1:25. Based on Western blot analysis, there is no intracellular insulin Aspart precursor detected. Therefore, the spacer peptide is not essential for insulin Aspart precursor secretion in P. pastoris and removal of spacer resulted in insulin Aspart precursor homogeneity.
       
  • Inhibition Effect of Walnut Leaf Polysaccharide on HepG2 Cells in vitro

    • Abstract: In this study, the effect of Walnut Leaf Polysaccharides (WLP) on human liver tumor HepG2 cells was investigated. The results showed that WLP had dose-dependent and time-dependent inhibitory effects on HepG2 cell viability. Typical apoptosis characteristics were observed in WLP-treated HepG2 cells through 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-benzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (DAPI) staining and Acridine Orange (AO)/Ethidium Bromide (EB) dual staining. Meanwhile, significant decrease in Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP) and increase in intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels of WLP-induced HepG2 cells were detected by 5,5',6,6'-Tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and 2',7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein Diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probes, respectively. Moreover, cell viability, MMP and ROS level of HepG2 cells were observed after intervention with antioxidant NAC. Thus, we speculated that WLP may induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells by decreasing MMP and increasing intracellular ROS levels. The results suggest that WLP could be developed as a promising natural anticancer active substance in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.
       
  • Optimization for the Extraction of Polysaccharide from Walnut (Juglans
           regia L.) Leaves: Antioxidant Activities in Vitro

    • Abstract: Cellulase-assisted extraction of Walnut Leaf Polysaccharide (WLP) was studied. Single factor test and response surface design were employed to optimize the technological conditions. The consequences indicated that the highest WLP yield of 5.21% was achieved with raw material ratio of 50 mL/g, cellulase dose of 41488.52 U/g, enzymolysis pH of 5.88, enzymolysis time of 29.74 min and enzymolysis temperature of 52.07°C. Moreover, in vitro antioxidant assays revealed that WLP has significant eliminating capability against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl free radicals in a dose-dependent manner and exhibited a strong reducing power. These results suggest that WLP could be developed as a promising natural antioxidant agent in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries.
       
  • Weight Gain, Conditioning and Metabolic Syndrome: A Sled Dog Model

    • Abstract: Type II Diabetes (T2D) and insulin resistance are growing national health concerns. Obesity is a risk factor for developing T2D and is associated with chronic and systemic inflammation. Exercise on the other hand has been shown to improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effects of conditioning and weight gain on adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor and glycosylated hemoglobin, three biomarkers of T2D. We measured the levels of these three biomarkers in racing, sedentary and overweight sled dogs. Exercise did not have a significant impact on the levels of the biomarkers, whereas weight gain had a negative effect. Using a sled dog model, we conclude that weight management is important to reduce the risk of T2D and its consequences.
       
  • In Vitro Callus Induction and Regeneration of Medicinal Plant Datura
           innoxia

    • Abstract: The present study indicate the possibility of the development of callus from stem cut, leaf and root explants and regeneration of Datura plant (Datura innoxia) on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with different concentrations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BA) and 1-Naphthaleneacetic (NAA). Sterilized explants were inoculated and incubated in culture shade under different conditions (light and dark). Data analysis showed that maximum percentage (83%) of calli were induced from stem cut explants on MS media supplemented with NAA and BA at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l respectively under dark condition. Maximum fresh and dry weight was found 395.63 mg and 35.64 mg respectively with supplementation of 0.5 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l BA. Stem cut derived calli were transfer to MS regeneration medium supplementing different concentrations of plant regulators (PGRs) under different conditions. Maximum regeneration (78%) was found on MS media supplementing 1 mg/l of BA and 1 mg/l off NAA under dark condition. The attempt for callus induction from the explants (stem, leaf, root) using MS media with supplementation of different combinations of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), BA and NAA, Kinetin (kin) under both light and dark conditions were carried out but no significant results were found.
       
  • Optimization, Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Selenized
           Polysaccharides from Hypsizygus marmoreus

    • Abstract: In this study, hypsizygus marmoreus was used as raw material to extract polysaccharides by hot water extraction method. Preparation technology of Selenized Polysaccharides from Hypsizygus marmoreus (SPHM) and its antioxidant activities were investigated. Chelation rate was selected as the index, effects of initial concentration of sodium selenite (mg/mL), the mass ratio of polysaccharide to sodium selenite, chelation time and pH on the chelation rate was investigated by single factor test. Response surface method was used to optimize the preparation technology of SPHM. The preliminary structure characterization of Polysaccharides from Hypsizygus marmoreus (PHM) and SPHM was performed by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The antioxidant activities of SPHM were studied by the scavenging effect of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-Diphenyl-1- (2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) Hydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical. The results showed that the optimum preparation technology of SPHM was as follows: the initial concentration of sodium selenite was 7.95 (mg/mL), the mass ratio of polysaccharide to sodium selenite was 6.11:1 (mg/mg), chelation time was 6.89h and pH was 5.11. Under the optimum conditions, chelate rate was 10.36%. Infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that selenium ions successfully combined with PHM and the surface structure of PHM and SPHM was different. Compared with HPM, the antioxidant activities of SPHM enhanced.
       
  • Extraction, Partial Identification and Bioactivities of Total Flavonoids
           from Carex meyeriana Kunth

    • Abstract: To date, knowledge associated with extraction, chemical constituents and bioactivities of Total Flavonoids from Carex meyeriana Kunth (TFCMK) that remains unclear. Therefore, this paper was designed to optimize the ethanol reflux extraction method by response surface methodology and determine the chemical constituents by Liquid Phase-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS); additionally, the bioactivities including antioxidant, antibacterial and hemolysis test were also explored. The maximum TFCMK extraction yield of 6.248%±0.016% was obtained under the optimal conditions as follows: Ethanol concentration 50%, ratio of liquid-to-solid 31 mL/g, extraction time 91 min and extraction temperature 71°C. Meanwhile, 9 compounds of TFCMK were identified by using LP-MS for the first time. In addition, TFCMK showed higher antioxidant activity compared with vitamin C, as evidenced by the lower EC50 or IC50 of TFCMK (reducing power assay: 0.125±0.025 mg/mL, DPPH radicals: 0.28±0.031, ABTS+ radicals:0.012±0.005, hydroxyl radicals: 0.028±0.008 mg/mL;  The EC50 or IC50 of VC 0.156±0.012, 0.059±0.019, 0.068±0.024 and 0.032±0.007 mg/mL, respectively.). Broth microdilution assays had demonstrated that the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TFCMK on Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were 0.625±0.0032, 1.250±0.0216 and 5.000±0.0205 mg/mL, respectively. Besides, the hemolysis rate (less than 5%) in vitro implied that TFCMK possessed a good blood compatibility. In summary, this paper provides evidences that TFCMK might be applied as an antioxidant and antibacterial agent in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.
       
  • Immunological Response of Albino Rats Immunized with UV-Killed Candida
           albicans

    • Abstract: The treatments of systemic candidiasis in humans with the current antifungal drugs of choice such as azole derivatives and amphotericin B have raised issues of toxicity and resistance among others. The immunogenic property of killed C. albicans was explored to evoke immunological response in the possible prevention of candidemia. Rats were immunized after acclimatization on two occasions with 106 cells/ml of Ultraviolet radiation killed C. albicans and subsequently challenged with 106 viable C. albicans. Two other groups; positive and negative controls received same dose of viable C. albicans and normal saline respectively. Five rats each from the groups mentioned were bled for the determination of antibody titers and white blood cell differentials. Also, other rats from the three groups were observed for 28 days for survival after challenge to determine the protective effect of the ultraviolet killed C. albicans. The results revealed that Ultraviolet killed C. albicans stimulated a significant amount of antibodies and white blood cell differentials that were immunoprotective. We also found that all immunized rats survived challenge with 106 viable cells while the kidneys of the dead unimmunized rats showed a positive growth of C. albicans. Thus, Ultraviolet killed C. albicans could provide significant protection.
       
  • Identification of Venom-Specific Fingerprints of Clinically Relevant
           Uruguayan Snakes by MALDI-TOF

    • Abstract: Snakebite envenomation is a particular public health problem in many areas of the world, including extensive areas of Latin America. In particular, in Uruguay, snakebite accidents are caused by two snakes of the genus Bothrops: Bothrops alternatus and Bothrops pubescens. The only effective treatment available is the administration of the specific antivenom. Although there is an ELISA that allows the determination of venom in serum samples, the technique does not allow discrimination between the two species and can also generate uncertainty in the case of foreign snakes, highlighting the need for alternative analytical methods that ensure species identification. The aim of this work was to use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification and discrimination of B. pubescens and B. alternatus venoms and evaluate the suitability for diagnostic use. The two venoms were compared by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF MS. The results showed similar protein profiles for both venoms with differences in the distribution of bands by SDS-PAGE densitometry. However, the use of the MALDI-TOF MS technique allowed discrimination between these two venoms, providing characteristic “fingerprints” that are proposed as a new tool suitable for clinical diagnosis.
       
  • Yeast Immobilization on Peanut Hulls for Potential Application in Beer
           Fermentation

    • Abstract: The potential of using peanut hulls as support material for immobilization of yeast cells during beer fermentation was evaluated. After treatment of peanut hulls with 0.5% (w/v) NaOH, FTIR analysis revealed an important change on its chemical composition. For instance, the proportion of lignin decreased and as a result the adsorption of yeast cells onto the support material during fermentation was favoured. Cell adhesion onto the conditioned support in 8° Brix laboratory malt wort as fermentation medium was evaluated, observing a maximal cell adhesion (2.56×108 cells/g of dried support) at 20.5 h of cultivation. Evaluations of the performance of the biocatalyst in fermentations at 15±0.5°C in 14° Brix laboratory malt wort indicated a proper stability in terms of physical integrity (confirmed by SEM observation) and improved fermentation kinetics. The fermentation time was shortened to approximately four days and the rates of reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production were improved when compared to fermentations carried out with free suspended cells. These results show a promising potential of peanut hulls as support material in beer fermentation.
       
  • One Real-Time Fluorescent Loop-Mediated Isothermal Ampli'cation
           Combined with Propidium Monoazide for Detection of Viable Vibrio
           Parahaemolyticus in Seafood

    • Abstract: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the crucial foodborne pathogens in the world. At present, the rapid detection methods for V. parahaemolyticus cannot distinguish between dead and viable cells and false positive results may occur. In this study, one rapid and accurate method that combines Propidium Monoazide (PMA) with real-time fluorescent loop-mediated isothermal ampli'cation (LAMP) using SYTO-16 dye was developed to detect viable cells of V. parahaemolyticus. LAMP amplification was performed on specific primers designed for toxR gene of V. parahaemolyticus and the concentration of PMA and the maximum concentration of dead cells were optimized. The results showed that the concentration of PMA was 10 µM and PMA could efficiently treat dead cells up to 4.5×105 CFU/mL. The detection sensitivity of real-time fluorescent PMA-LAMP were 4.5×100 CFU/mL and PMA-qPCR were 4.5×101 CFU/mL. In addition, the correlation coefficients (R2) is 0.9992, indicating that SYTO-16 dyed real-time fluorescent PMA-LAMP assay can be used for quantification with high sensitivity. This method exhibits high specificity and sensitivity, can be used as an effective tool for rapid detection of V. parahaemolyticus and a scientific basis to follow the effect of the pathogen infection on growth of cultured seafood.
       
  • The Deproteinization, Antioxidant Acticities and Inhibitory Effect on
           α-Amylase of Polysaccharides from Corn Silk

    • Abstract: An approach of deproteinization of polysaccharides from corn silk (CSPs) was established to improve the purity and activities of CSPs by investigating Sevag method, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) method and HCl method. Deproteinization rate, polysaccharide retention rate, antioxidant activities and inhibition α-amylase effects were used as indicative mark to select suitable deproteinization method of CSPs. The crude CSPs was extracted by the hot water method. Results showed that TCA method had higher deproteinization rate and polysaccharide retention rate than that of Sevag method and HCl method, and the deproteinization optimum concentration of TCA was 4%. Under the optimized conditions, the deproteinization rate and polysaccharide retention rate were 53.68% and 64.13% respectively. In terms of antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory effects, TCA-deproteinized CSPs (T-CSPs) had stronger activities, followed by Sevag-deproteinized CSPs (S-CSPs) and HCl-deproteinized CSPs (H-CSPs). Form a conclusion, TCA method was a good way to remove protein.
       
  • Optimization of Hydrolysis Conditions for Obtaining Antithrombotic
           Peptides from Tenebrio Molitor Larvae

    • Abstract: Tenebrio molitor larvae was hydrolyzed by pepsin and trypsin for preparing high antithrombotic activity hydrolysate. The significant variables were selected according to the Plackett-Burman design and further optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Four factors, including substrate concentration, pepsin digestion time, pepsin amount and trypsin amount, respectively, influenced significantly on the hydrolysis effectiveness. The best hydrolysis conditions obtained using RSM experiments are as following: substrate concentration of 19.8 mg/mL, pepsin digestion time of 1.8 h, pepsin amount of 1634 U/mL and trypsin amount of 126 U/mL, respectively. Under the optimal hydrolysis conditions, the antithrombotic activity was 82.8% predicted by the RSM model, which was basically consistent with the 80.6% obtained in the three verification experiments. Moreover, the antithrombotic activity of the hydrolyzate had no linear relationship with the degree of hydrolysis.
       
  • Optimization of Cellulase-Assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from
           Corn Bract and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Aactivities

    • Abstract: Corn bract is a corn-based agricultural waste material that distributed worldwide. In present work, response surface methodology was applied to optimize the cellulase-assisted extraction of Total Flavonoids from Corn Bract (TFCB), the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial as well as the in vivo antioxidant activities of TFCB were investigated. Results showed that the optimal conditions for TFCB extraction were as follows: Amount of cellulase, 0.4% (w/w); incubation time, 2 h; liquid-to-solid ratio, 35: 1 mL/g; ethanol concentration, 71% (v/v); TFCB yield was 1.284±0.01%, which was 25.39% higher than that of heat reflux extraction. In addition, when compared with vitamin C, TFCB showed weaker in vitro free radical-scavenging capacities, but stronger antioxidant activities in mice. Moreover, TFCB also exerted certain inhibitory effects against Gram-positive bacteria. This study will provide an evidence for the potential of comprehensive utilization of discarded corn bract.
       
  • Production, Extraction and Characterization of Lipases from the Antarctic
           Yeast Guehomyces pullulans

    • Abstract: The production of extracellular lipases from the Antarctic yeast Guehomyces pullulans is induced using an olive oil medium as an inductor substrate and a first characterization of its enzyme, using the protein extract obtained from the medium, is described. For this, the effect of pH and temperature on the lipase activity are evaluated and the enzyme kinetic for the lipase is determined. Lipase production was 0.27 U/mL, a high value compared to lipolytic activities in non-optimized media. However, this value can be increased by optimizing the culture medium. The lipase of G. pullulans has maximum activity at pH 8.0 and 40°C (thermal stability 40-50°C). Regarding the kinetic parameters, a KM = 3.7×10-4 M was obtained, a value located in the range of industrial lipases. In addition, its kinetics presented the phenomenon of interfacial activation. The results presented in this work show the biotechnological potential of the lipase due its biochemical properties and are useful for later work directed to study other factors that affect the enzyme activity and potential biotechnological applications of the Guehomyces pullulans lipase.
       
  • Modulation of Aging in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Roselle Petal
           Extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

    • Abstract: Cellular aging drives diseases. Free radicals are called the main cause of cellular aging. Antioxidants can protect the body from free radical attack by reducing its negative effects. An antioxidant source can be obtained from plants, such as roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa. L). This research was conducted to analyze the ability of roselle petals extract to increase the life span of model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741. The IC50 value of extract-derived antioxidant activity based on DPPH and ABTS assays were 367,6 ppm and 921,4 ppm, respectively. Antioxidant and antiaging tests were performed in vivo via spot assay. The result showed that the roselle petals extract-treated groups had the ability to extend the life span of yeast BY4741 under normal and oxidative stress conditions. This is also supported by the mitochondrial activity of BY4741 with roselle petals extract-treated group higher than those without the extract treatment. The 300 ppm concentration was chosen as the best concentration of roselle petals extract to increase the life span in yeast. Interestingly, important gene to regulate aging in yeast (SIR2) as well as oxidative stress response genes (GPX1 and GLR1) were significantly up-regulated in yeast cells treated with 300 ppm roselle extract, as revealed via Real-time quantitative analysis. These results suggest that roselle petals extract exhibits antiaging effects likely via regulation of anti-oxidative stress and aging genes.
       
  • Comparative Functional Analysis of the Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins in
           the Clawed Frogs' Genomes With Common Essential Pathways and Enriched
           Gene Ontology Terms

    • Abstract: The international Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway databases were used to functionally analyze the clawed frogs' Basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors of Xenopus tropicalis and Xenopus laevis in a updated genome-wide survey. There were 41 GO terms and one pathway significantly enriched for Xenopus tropicalis, whereas there were 45 GO terms and 3 pathways significantly enriched for Xenopus laevis. Among those significantly enriched GO terms, the two clawed frogs share 31 common functional GO annotations of these bHLH genes, including DNA-dependent transcription and (negative) transcription regulation, DNA binding and bHLH binding, transcription factor complex and protein heterodimerization activity, (negative) regulation of RNA metabolic processes, nuclear translocator and repressor, myogenic basic muscle-specific protein, neurogenic differentiation factor and NeuroD. Furthermore, these frogs' bHLH genes were also found to play important roles in the regulation of gene expression in some important developmental or physiological processes, such as (skeletal) muscle cell differentiation, muscle organ development, biological rhythms and rhythmic process, hypoxia (adaption) and hypoxia-inducible factors, neurogenesis, neural tube development and neurogenic differentiation, whereas they were commonly significantly enriched in TGF-beta signaling pathway. These resulted data and information are very important for us to understand the functions, classification and evolution of frog bHLH genes.
       
  • Influence of Magnesium on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Growth
           Effects of Sugarcane at Seedling Stage

    • Abstract: In this study, the effects of different concentrations of magnesium on photosynthetic characteristics and growth of sugarcane cultivars Roc22 and YT00-236 at seedling stage were investigated by combined cultivation of sand culture with nutrient solution. The results showed that under the stress of low magnesium, the synthesis and photosynthesis of chlorophyll are blocked with significantly decreased biomass accumulation, increased root-shoot ratio and slowed growth rate. Appropriate treatment of magnesium (0.1mmol/L) can promote sugarcane photosynthesis with maximal biomass, significantly decreased root-shoot ratio and increased growth rate. Excess With excessive treatment of magnesium (1mmol/L), the photosynthetic rate is lower than the value under low magnesium stress; Once the overall growth of sugarcane is inhibited, however, the growth is better than low magnesium stress. It is found that the photosynthesis and growth effects of ROC22 are stronger than that of YT00-236. It is preliminarily deduced that ROC22 is a sensitive variety of magnesium.
       
  • A Review on the Genetic Regulation of Myogenesis and Muscle Development

    • Abstract: Myogenesis of muscle tissues is known as a very complex and delicate process including many cellular differentiation and development events in animals. Here, the courses of cellular fate determination and terminal differentiation of muscle cells are systematically elaborated and the genetic regulatory network of muscle genesis is well conceived in animal organic growth and development through literature retrieval. Furthermore, the principal roles of myogenic regulatory factors, Myostatin, fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor and other muscular regulatory factors interrelated and reported in the myogenesis relevant studies are also reviewed. In addition, the interactions of these muscular specific factors and their possible relevant regulative pathways and interactions among them are included and developed too.
       
  • Influence of Tags on the Binding Affinity of Acyl-CoA Binding Protein

    • Abstract: Tagged fusion proteins are frequently employed for protein purification methods, but their effects on protein function and binding affinity are rarely studied. Here we expressed recombinant protein Acyl-CoA Binding Protein (ACBP) cloned from the full-length cDNA of Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ACBP was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to a Maltose-Binding Protein (MBP) and Histidine-tag fusion. Recombinant ACBP was purified using affinity chromatography columns and high protein purity was achieved. Microscale Thermophoresis (MST) binding assays showed that recombinant AoAcbp1 had a greater affinity for Palmitoyl-CoA (Kd = 35 nM) and Stearoyl-CoA (Kd = 23 nM) whilst recombinant ScAcbp had a greater affinity for Myristoyl-CoA (Kd = 31 nM) and Palmitoyl-CoA (Kd = 51 nM). In addition, MBP tagged ACBP had comparable binding affinities to His-tagged ACBP. Taken together, these data highlight that the size of the tagged fusion protein does not influence protein ACBP binding affinity.
       
  • A Selection-based MCL Clustering Algorithm for Motif Discovery

    • Abstract: As motif discovery plays an important role in the understanding of the relationship of gene regulation, this paper puts forward a selection-based MCL clustering refinement algorithm (SMCLR) aiming at solving the planted (l, d) motif search (PMS) problem. Firstly, we divide the DNA dataset into different subsets through selection of reference sequence and screen parts of eligible subsets by setting thresholds under selection project. Then MCL clustering algorithm is used for refinement. The experiment resulted on simulation data shows that SMCLR algorithm has higher prediction accuracy in a reasonable time than these existing motif discovery algorithms like Project, MEME, MCL-WMR and VINE. Moreover, the experiment resulted on real biological data demonstrates the effectiveness of SMCLR algorithm.
       
  • Characterization of the Changes in Opened Sufu Bottles During Storage with
           Mathematical Model

    • Abstract: Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a type of nonlinear empirical model, which can clarify the complex relation between the inputs and outputs that allows it to approximate any nonlinear function for making predictions. The objective of this study is to monitor the Biogenic Amines (BAs) content and selected physicochemical properties of sufu (a traditional Chinese fermented soybean product) along time. Simultaneously, based on initial values, a grey model and an ANN were developed to predict the influence of storage process parameters on the quality changes during storage. Results revealed that the total amounts of BAs in newly opened bottles of white, red and grey sufu were 419.61, 311.52 and 603.10 mg kg-1, respectively, no sufu samples posed the total biogenic amines tolerance level (over 1000 mg kg-1). Results showed that slight changes in the individual BAs were detected at 4°C, 15°C, 25°C and the formation of BAs was promoted at 35°C in grey sufu. Furthermore, grey model was developed with average relative errors within ±7%, the statistical parameters (R2) of pH, water activity and amino nitrogen was all above 0.90. In the ANN, the number of neurons in the hidden layer was optimized, ten neurons revealed a positive correlation between the values obtained experimentally and those predicted values (R2 = 0.99). So ANN with highest R2 was selected to predict biogenic amines and our results demonstrated that grey sufu were not edible on the 25th days at 4°C (BAs' 1000 mg kg-1) and it would be better if white and red sufu are consumed within 40 days. We envision that our works can be used for proving a reference for consumers and offer new perspectives by mathematical model to avoid difficult, costly and time-consuming quality inspection, particularly in the field of storage.
       
  • Novel D-Galactose Isomerases from Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from the
           Sweet Sap of Agave atrovirens

    • Abstract: D-tagatose is a natural monosaccharide used as a low-calorie sugar substitute in food, beverage and pharmaceutical products. Although it is a rare sugar, it can manufacture by enzymatic isomerization of D-galactose Isomerase (D-GI). In this study, a screening was carried out to search microorganism producing D-GI in aguamiel. A rich selective medium was used in arabinose extracted from gum arabic. From 98 isolates obtained aguamiel of agave pulquero (Agave atrovirens), it was obtained 4 strains of Lactobacillus that producing D-GI and 2 strains of Bacillus sp. The Podi-20 strain was identified as Lactobacillus diolivorans based on 16S rRNA analysis, biological and biochemical characteristics. Furthermore, the gene encoding D-GI from L. diolivorans Podi-20 strain. Analysis of sequence revealed that the Open Reading Frame (ORF) of the araA gene consist of 1,428 pb that encodes a protein of 476 amino acid residues. The bioconversion yield of D-galactose to D-tagatose by the purified D-GI after 14 h at 60°C was 31.4%. D-tagatose can manufacture by enzymatic isomerization. This study contributes to new knowledge on D-GI from Lactobacillus strains, in particular those isolated from artisanal functional foods from Agave.
       
  • Products of Solid-Phase Probiotic Bacilli Fermentation Increase Food
           Conversion Efficiency and Stimulate Chicken Growth

    • Abstract: Poultry farming is one of the major directions in agriculture. Agricultural poultry has high growth speed, productivity and is resistant to the industrial environment. Our group carried out a study of probiotic preparations of Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 strains. These preparations were made by solid-phase fermentation and tested for dynamical germination of rearing flock (Highsex brown). The research was conducted at SD “Svetliy”, structure department of PC “Agrofirm Vostok” (Volgograd region). Soybeans were used as the substrate for preparations. We investigated the influence of monocultural preparation and mixed bioadditives. The duration of the experiment was 120 days. It was shown that addition of the drugs to the poultry food leads to it’s live weight gain (max 19%) and decrease of food conversion factor (min 1.98). The increase of erythrocyte (max 6%), leukocyte (max 2%) and hemoglobin (max 13%) content and the concentration protein fractions in poultry blood (max 14%) was also noted. Simultaneous use of two strains decreases their physiological effects. Bacterial components of preparations did not disturb the natural intestinal microbiota of the fowl. The abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains was constant. Since preparations based on soybeans are cheap and straightforward to produce, using them can be highly efficient in modern poultry and livestock farming.
       
 
 
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