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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 852 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (52 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (598 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (598 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 252)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access  
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 229)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 326)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 184)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 246)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
  [SJR: 0.274]   [H-I: 19]   [66 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1553-3468
   Published by Science Publications Homepage  [31 journals]
  • Essential Proteins Discovery Methods based on the Protein-Protein
           Interaction Networks

    • Abstract: Essential proteins are closely related to biological survival or reproduction and have important application value in respect of the location of disease genes, disease diagnosis and treatment, drug design. In order to discovery essential proteins, the researchers have proposed experimental approaches, but these methods require laborious and time consuming. With the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques, plenty of computational methods based on the Protein-Protein Interaction Networks have been put forward to identify essential proteins. In this study, we firstly have introduced the basic characteristics and data set of essential proteins and essential proteins discovery method in the Protein-Protein Interaction Networks. Following that, we have analyzed and compared the difference of various existing strategies and then have pointed out the merits and demerits of them in detailed. At last, we give several important problems and development trend about essential proteins discovery methods, which provide a strong foundation for the further research.
       
  • Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Lipase from
           Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1

    • Abstract: Even though lipase genes from a variety of microorganism have been cloned and over-expressed, the prospective lipase resources for commercial production and industry application are still limited. In the present study, a lipase from Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 is heterologously over-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) and purified to homogeneity. The molecular weight of the recombinant lipase from B. cepacia Lu10-1 (abbreviated as lipase Lu10-1) is estimated to be about 33 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The lipase Lu10-1 has a priority for the long- chain length substrates. The optimal temperature of lipase Lu10-1 is 60°C and it preserves high thermostability with residual activities of over 80% after 100 h at 60°C or over 60% after 30 h at 70°C. The optimal pH of lipase Lu10-1 is 9.0 and it has broad pH adaptability over a range of 5.0-10.0 retaining 80% activity between pH 6.0 and 9.0 after incubation at 37°C for 24 h. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of lipase Lu10-1 is not obviously affected by several metal ions and it exhibites solid tolerance and stability towards various surfactants and organic solvents. The present study provides the basis for the potential applications of lipase Lu10-1 in related industries.
       
  • Isolation, Identification and Genomic Analysis of Plesiomonas shigelloides
           Isolated from Diseased Percocypris pingi (Tchang, 1930)

    • Abstract: Recently, the outbreak of a serious infectious disease of unknown etiology was noted in Percocypris pingi (Tchang, 1930) farms in Yunnan province. Due to currently limited information, we aimed to identify the pathogen isolates, determine the susceptibility of the isolates, evaluate the pathogenicity and analyze the genome of the representative strain. Ten strains of Gram-negative rods were isolated from diseased P. pingi and the isolates were identified as Plesiomonas shigelloides based on biochemical characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR detection. The results of susceptibility analysis showed that two selected strains LS1 and LL2 were resistant to ampicillin, penicillin G, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid and enoxacin. A virulence assay indicated that the pathogen was virulent to zebrafish. Genomic analysis revealed that the LS1 isolate was closely related to strain GN7, which was isolated from animal farms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of P. shigelloides as a pathogen of P. pingi. This study will provide a rational framework for exploration of epidemiological analysis of P. shigelloides in fish diseases and would further benefit conservation of the species.
       
  • Differential Gene Transcription in Red Oak (Quercus rubra) Genotypes
           Resistant to Copper Toxicity

    • Abstract: Toxicity of metals is a major abiotic stressor of plants. Copper (Cu) is one of the most abundant metals in soils from the Greater Sudbury Region (GSR) due to its mining history. Recent studies have described several transporters and chelating proteins involved in copper resistance. Quercus rubra (Red Oak) is a common species that grows in metal contaminated soils in Northern Ontario (Canada). The main objectives of this study were1) to evaluate the toxicity of copper to Q. rubrum plants and 2) assess the level of transcriptionof genes associated with copper resistance (RAN1, MT2b and MRP4). Q. rubra seedlings were grown in growth chambers and treated with copper at different doses. Total RNA was extracted from leaves and amplified by RT-qPCR. All the plants tested were resistant to Cu even at high concentrations of 1312 mg of Cu per kg of dry soil since no damage associated with Cu toxicity was observed after 14 days of treatment. RAN1 transporter and the chelating protein MT2b were significantly downregulated (p≤0.05) at high doses of 656 mg and 1312 mg of copper per kg of dry soil compared to water control. The transcription of MRP4 was significantly increased in the presence of copper at a concentration of 1312 mg/kg. No gene demonstrated differential transcription in samples treated with a low dose of 130 mg of copper/kg of dry soil that is equivalent to the bioavailable amount of copper under natural conditions in the Greater Sudbury Region.
       
  • A Study on Fabrication and Structural Characterization of PbS Thin Films

    • Abstract: PbS thin films are fabricated from 99.9% PbS powder on glass substrates using the vacuum evaporation method. Some of the samples are then treated in an advanced process called annealing. Samples are annealed in temperatures of 80, 100, 120 and 150°C for two h. Characterization using an X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) resulted in values of lattice constant of the films ranging from (5.782±0,010) Å to (5.919±0,006) Å. These values are quite different from the standard, probably because the films are stressed and strained. The grains have sizes ranging from (266.440±0.001) Å to (694.059±0.002) Å, where the greatest grain size was found as deposited thin film because it was directly condensed from powder vapor during the deposition process and after they are annealed, the grain size becomes smaller. The average internal stress has values ranging from (0.36±0,006) × 109 N/m2 to (3.247±0.010) ×109 N/m2 and microstrain ranging from (2,864±0.006) × 10-3 to (25.94±0,01) ×10-3. It was found that the film which has the greatest stress and microstrain is the film with the annealing temperature of 150°C, showing that the annealing process exerts force on the film following the rising of temperature. Use of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) shows the surface pictures of the deposited thin film and the film annealed at 120°C. Furthermore, the thickness of the samples is obtained by using the cross section of the films and showed that the thickness of the deposited thin film is between 0.63 and 1.30 microns and the thickness of the film annealed at 120°C is between 3.37 and 4.34 microns. The best quality thin film from this research is that annealed at 120°C, because it showed more peaks than the other samples. It can be concluded that the annealing process had effects on the structures, grain size, strain and stress of the crystals.
       
  • Metabolite Profiles of Arsenic Tolerant Plants Regenerated from Stem Calli
           of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees using HPLC and 1D 1H NMR

    • Abstract: In vitro culture provide a suitable condition for regeneration of arsenic tolerant plants from stem calli of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. The regenerated plants could be valuable material applicable to soil remediation. In vitro culture of stem explants on MS basal salts, 3.0% sucrose, 0.8% agar medium fortified with various concentrations of As2O3 (0.0-9.0 µM) along with NAA (3.5 mg L-1) and KIN (1.0 mg L-1) influenced resistant callus formation. Growth of callus was slightly inhibited with increased resistance up to 22% (53±0.8 mg fwt and 27±1.5 mg dwt) on 7.0 µM As2O3 selective medium. The resistant callus line inoculated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of As2O3 along with BA (2.5 mg L-1) and NAA (3.0 mg L-1) induced the development of shoots. Shoot organogenesis was slightly inhibited by arsenic metal stress. However the growth tolerance has increased up to 14.5% on medium with 7.0 µM As2O3. The rate of adventitious rooting of plantlets was gradually decreased with more tolerance (11.1±1.4 rootlets per plantlets) in 7.0 µM As2O3 selected media. After acclimatization, about 40% of plants were survived as arsenic tolerance than control plants in pots containing soil treated with 7.0 µM As2O3 solutions. The level of arsenic detectability was 0.96 ppb and 4.67 ppb in control and 7.0 µM As2O3 treated plants, respectively by AAS analysis. Moreover, the production of Andrographolide was found quite high (4.41 mg/g) in tolerant plants grown at 7.0 µM As2O3 treatment than control by HPLC analysis. 1D 1H NMR profile revealed the metabolic changes significantly in control and 7.0 µM As2O3 treated plant samples. This is the first report confirming the suitability of in vitro selection for obtaining of vigorous and proliferative clones of A. paniculata plants tolerant to elevated arsenic concentration.
       
  • Response Surface Optimized Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Total
           Flavonoids from Walnut Leaves and In Vitro Antibacterial Activities

    • Abstract: In this paper, the optimum extraction conditions oftotal flavonoids extracted from walnut leaves subjected to Ultrasonic AssistedExtraction (UAE) were optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Themathematical model showed the high coefficient of measurement (R2 =0.9938) which indicated that this model could be used to guide the responsesurface methodology. The optimum extraction parameters for extractingflavonoids from walnut leaves determined in this study were extractiontemperature 47.73°C, extraction time 30.79 min, ethanol concentration 72.89% (v/v). Under the optimal extractionconditions, the flavonoids yield was about 3.5315%. Statistical analysis of theresults showed that extraction temperature, extraction time and ethanolconcentration significantly affected the extraction yield of total flavonoids.In addition, the antibacterial activity assays ofthe flavonoids were carried out and it wasdemonstrated that the total flavonoids extracted at the optimum conditions hadpronounced antibacterial effects against the four bacterial species. Therefore,this study suggested that walnut leaves are promisingresourceswith antibacterial properties for the development of phytomedicines.
       
  • The Investigation of Organelle Genomes of Extra Nuclear Sunflower Mutants
           with Variegated Phenotype

    • Abstract: The comparative analysis of complete chloroplast andmitochondrial DNA sequences of the original inbred line 3629 and three extranuclear mutant lines variegated-1, variegated-15, variegated-17,obtained by the N-nitroso-N-methylurea induced mutagenesis, was done. Thestudied mutant lines were presented two different phenotypes with diversechlorophyll content: Pale/green mutant line variegated-17 with 1.8%relative (to 3629 line) chlorophyll content in mutant leaf tissue andyellow/green lines variegated-1, variegated-15 with 6.3% and 4.3%relative chlorophyll content, respectively. Each line had unique variationsites in chloroplast DNA. Among chloroplast SNP there were determined 7nonsynonymous substitutions, which were located in psaA (variegated-1),petD, rpl36, ccsA (variegated-15), rps4, rpoA,rpoC1 (variegated-17). The SNP of variegated-17 line has resultedin the frameshift (rpoC1) andpremature stop codon formations (rpoA, rpoC1). The whole genomesequencing of mitochondrial DNA mutant lines revealed no differences ascompared with original line 3629. Summarizing current data and our previousresearch of variegated mutants we assume that pale/green variegated phenotypeis associated with significant disturbance of RNA polymerase subunits genes,and the lesions in photosynthetic genes lead to yellow/green mutant phenotype.
       
  • Enhanced Fatty Acid Production in Escherichia coli by Over-Expression of
           NADPH Generating Enzymes

    • Abstract: NADPH is an essential factor for Fatty Acid (FA) biosynthesis. The effect of NADPH generating enzymes [NADP+-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME), NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH), Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GPD) and 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase (PGD)] on FA biosynthesis was investigated in an engineered Escherichia coli BL21 'fadE/pTE. Among NADPH-generating enzymes, GPD and ICD increased total FA production by 60 and 16% respectively. Especially medium-chain FA production was increased up to 4.2 and 2.5 folds respectively. In addition, over-expression of the endogenous Thioesterase (TE) reduced Cyclopropane Fatty Acid (CFA) production by 40% and over-expressing of GPD and ICD further decreased CFA production by 23 and 30%, respectively compared to the TE over-expressed strain. Over-expression of TE appeared to be a good strategy to produce high quality biodiesel with medium-chain FAs as major Component (62%) and with Minimal Amount of CFA (4%). This study reveals that NADPH-generating enzyme GPD is associated with FA biosynthesis in E. coli, but not all reducing power generating enzymes, are involved in FA biosynthesis in bacteria.
       
  • Brevibacillus Thermoruber 9X-GLC, Bacteria Isolated from Hot Compost,
           Producer of a Beta-Glucosidase Resistant to Glucose Inhibition

    • Abstract: The thermotolerant strain Brevibacillus thermoruber 9X-GLC produces large amounts of β-D-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase when grown on cellobiose and avicel. 9X-GLC was isolated from hot compost of sugarcane bagasse and filter mud and selected for its high enzymatic activity from a Bacilli collection of 77 isolates from soils and compost. Culture supernatants and ultrafiltered concentrates from shaken flask cultures of 9X-GLC were tested for their β-D-glucosidase activity and stability under different conditions of temperature, pH and glucose concentration. The concentrated supernatant from 9X-GLC cultures on cellobiose as sole carbon source had its highest β-D-glucosidase activity at 55°C; pH= 6.0 and retained 60% of its activity at a glucose concentration of up to 200 mM. The effect of different carbon sources on growth and β-D-glucosidase activity of concentrated supernatants was tested in 48 h shaken flask cultures of 9X-GLC. Glucose, cellodextrin and cellobiose supported high cell densities (>2×108 CFU/ml), whereas cellobiose and cellodextrin provided the best substrates for β-D-glucosidase production. The putative gene encoding β-D-glucosidase from 9X-GLC was obtained from PCR amplification and sequenced. The sequence of the putative structural gene of 2085 bp reveals 6 catalytic domains with high (>90%) homology to bacterialglycosidases.
       
  • Bioactive Compounds from Sponge Associated Bacteria: Anticancer Activity
           and NRPS-PKS Gene Expression in Different Carbon Sources

    • Abstract: Sponge associated bacteria with diverse NRPS-PKS genes could be the alternative source of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to analyze the activity as well as the regulatory mechanism regarding the anticancer properties derived from these bacteria against cancer cell lines. Extraction of bacterial metabolites using ethyl acetate solvent resulted yield ranging from 0.003 to 0.016% (w/v). Six extracts of bacterial metabolites showed markedly cytotoxic activity against 8 human hematopoietic cancer cell lines, with IC50 value 27.24 to 533.73 μg mL-1 in a dose dependent response, as assessed by MTT test. Supporting those results, reduction of cell density, morphological changes including cell shrinkage and formation of the apoptotic body of cancer cells lines, were found. As it might be due to the inhibitory effect of bacterial extract treatment. Apoptosis assay determined by annexin V-FITC apoptosis analysis showed that apoptotic cells were induced by bacterial extract after 6 h of treatment. Thus suggesting that the extract could be one of the external signals that activate the signal transduction pathway of apoptosis, especially in MOLT4 cells, acute lymphoblastic leukemic cell lines. Cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide revealed that the extract HAA 01 caused cell cycle arrest, since most of the MOLT4 cells were accumulated in Sub-G1 phase after 24 h of extract treatment. Interestingly, glycerol, lactose and amylum were the more preferable carbon source to produce anticancer compounds, than glucose. Our study indicates that anticancer activity of HAA 01 (identified as Bacillus subtilis based on API identification) extract is highly correlated with NRPS-PKS gene expression which is likely regulated by the type of carbon source.
       
  • Sildenafil in the Treatment of Postoperative Hypoxemia with High
           Resistance in Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    • Abstract: This study was designed to determine the effect of sildenafil treatment on postoperative hypoxemia with high resistance in cyanotic congenital heart disease. A total of 247 cases of cyanotic congenital heart disease were operated on from May 2006 to August 2014. Only 45 cases exhibited postoperative hypoxemia after symptomatic treatment. Sildenafil at doses of 0.30-5 mg/kg every 6 h was administered in 24 cases while the other 21 were administered a placebo (the control group). The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), systolic blood pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure and positive inotropic drugs score were evaluated at four time points including before (T1), 1 h (T2) and 1 day (T3) after treatment and when the ventilator was disconnected (T4). Furthermore, we compared the mechanical ventilation time between the two groups. Finally, there was one death in the placebo group while the others were cured. Compared with the placebo group, in the sildenafil group, the PaO2 rebounded faster and the pulmonary arterial pressure decreased significantly; furthermore, there were statistically significant differences from time point T2 between both groups (p<0.001). The systolic blood pressure rose slowly and there were statistically significant differences between both groups from time point T3 (p<0.001). The representations of the positive inotropic drug scores were obviously different between the two groups. The sildenafil group scores decreased soon and maintained this trend. The placebo group scores initially increased and then began to decline 1 day after treatment, but the final score was higher than that of the sildenafil group. Compared with the placebo group, in the sildenafil group, the respiratory and heart functions recovered rapidly and the patient’s stay on the mechanical ventilation was shorter (67.52±16.88 Vs. 44.25±13.39 h, p = 0.001). Therefore, sildenafil reduced pulmonary vascular resistance and obviously corrected the postoperative hypoxemia in cyanotic congenital heart disease.
       
  • The Role of Blended Learning on Student Performance in Biotechnology
           Course

    • Abstract: The present work aims for evaluating the role of blended learning on student engagement and performance in bioreactor design component of the biotechnology course. Interactive online module covering the main fundamental aspects of the subject was developed and made available to students prior to the class. Students who accessed the online module found to be more active in classroom response participations (p<0.05) and received higher marks in the examination (p<0.05). These data highlight the key role of blended learning in improving the student learning desire and academic performance
       
  • Antimicrobial Effects of 1-Monocaprylin and 1-Monocaproin Through in vitro
           Growth Inhibition and Molecular Docking Studies

    • Abstract: 1-monocaproin and 1-monocaprylin synthesized through a novel process by the chemical reaction of glycidol and their respective fatty acids with copper acetate as the catalyst possessed the amphiphilic property. 1- monoacyl glycerols synthesized were found to exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, anti parasitic and antiviral properties. 1-monocaproin and 1-monocaprylin were able to show their antibacterial effect by inhibiting the growth of the Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis at concentrations of 100–500 ppm. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of both 1-monoacyl glycerols were found to be 0.5 ppm. 1-monocaproin and 1-monocaprylin were able to show their antifungal effect by inhibiting the growth of the filamentous fungi Mucor racemosus and Rhizopus stolonifer at the concentration of 1000 ppm. Based on the molecular interaction and common binding interaction study, 1-monocaproin is expected to exhibit a similar antiviral activity as that of Oseltamivir to H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin. 1-monocaprylin and 1-monocaproin synthesized using copper acetate could exhibit a broad spectrum antimicrobial effect in combination with other monoacyl glycerols or with other antimicrobial agents.
       
  • Separation and Identification of Two Fungal Strains in Stored Maize

    • Abstract: The microbiological spoilage of stored grain is important for human health and economic loss. Two major predominant grain spoilage fungi (M15 and M16) were isolated from maize from a granary in China. Morphological observation of the fungal isolates, analysis of their ITS sequences and construction of their phylogenetic trees were conducted on these two strains, which were identified as Fusarium solani (M15) and Aspergillus sclerotiorum (M16). This method was shown to be a feasible, accurate and convenient way to identify fungi in stored grain.
       
  • An Artificial Design Technique to Optimize Signal Peptide

    • Abstract: To determine optimal artificial signal peptide candidates for the possibility of creating high levels of secretion of heterologous proteins, substitution and redesign of amino acid sequences in the H-domain of the signal peptide was theoretically attempted. The method was based on comprehensive score matrix and Markov transfer matrix, which can make the artificial sequences maintain the structural characteristics and original polarity of signal peptides. For the artificial sequence, the feature vector of Structural Fusion Degree (SFD) is first extracted to quantitatively describe the compatibility of artificial cleaved region, then by comparing with highly secreted natural samples; tendencies of specific substitutions in the amino acid sequence can be identified at certain locations. These substitutions may represent the key amino acids that influence the secretion and expression levels of heterologous proteins. 
       
  • Optimization of Key Technology for Instant Sea Cucumber Processing through
           Fuzzy Evaluation and Response Surface Methodology

    • Abstract: The original flavor of instant sea cucumber products can be retained and these products consequently show good market potential. In this study, the key processing technique for instant sea cucumber was optimized on the basis of single factor through Box-Behnken response surface test method by using collagen and polysaccharide contents and fuzzy mathematics sensory score as response values. Results showed that cooking time, cooking temperature, sterilization time and sterilization temperature significantly affected the overall quality and sensory quality of instant sea cucumber products. The optimum processing conditions were as follows: Cooking time, 17 min; cooking temperature, 83°C; sterilization time, 10 min; and sterilization temperature, 103°C. Under these conditions, the collagen content, polysaccharide concentration and sensory evaluation were 5.263±0.020%, 1.021±0.068% and 97.27±0.85, respectively and these findings were consistent with the predicted values. This study revealed that the nutrient components of instant sea cucumber are efficiently preserved and thus provided technical guarantee for the processing and production of instant sea cucumber.
       
  • Multi-Phase Support Vector Regression Soft Sensor for Online Product
           Quality Prediction in Glutamate Fermentation Process

    • Abstract: Glutamate fermentation is inherently nonlinear, multi-phase and an aerobic fermentation process. As long measurement delays and expensive apparatus cost, on-line measurement of the product concentration is not necessarily available. The present fermentation process monitoring and quality prediction involve manual interpretation of highly informative, however, the concentrations of substrates, biomass and products are only low frequency off-line measurements. In this paper, we propose a novel Multi-Phase Support Vector Regression (MPSVR) based soft sensor model for online quality prediction of glutamate concentration. The glutamate fermentation process can be divided into a sequence of five phases by detecting the trend variation events (also termed as singular points or inflection point) of online measured O2 in the exhaust gas, the Inflection Point (IP) are easily identified through combining Moving Window (MW) with Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC). For each estimation phase, SVR soft sensor model are constructed and their performance is evaluated against fermentation data in a 5 L fermenter. The efficiency of the proposed soft sensor model for online product quality prediction has been demonstrated to be superior compared to that of reported techniques in a 5 L glutamate fermentation process.
       
  • The -863 TNF-&alpha; Polymorphism and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma in
           Egyptians

    • Abstract: Growing evidence indicates that TNF-alpha is involved in the pathogenesis of POAG in several ways, primarly by induction of retinal ganglion cells apoptosis and therefore optic nerve degeneration. TNF-alpha and POAG relationship has been studied at the genetic level with variable results in different populations. The transcription rate and the release of the TNF-alpha cytokine have been reported to be affected by polymorphisms in the promoter of the TNF- alpha gene. Polymorphisms at positions -238 and -308 are the most frequent studied. Another polymorphism, at the position -863 in the promoter region, has been less studied, but a homozygous AA allele appears protective in a Chinese population. Our aim was to assess the potential association of -863C/A TNF-alpha gene promoter polymorphisms with POAG in an Egyptian group of subjects. Genotyping of the TNF-alpha (-863) polymorphism was done for 228 POAG patients and 230 control subjects using the PCR-based, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assay. TNF-alpha (-863) A/A genotype was absent in both groups. There was no significant difference between both groups as regards to TNF-α (-863) A allele carriage (6.14 versus 10.43%; p = 0. 099)). Also the genotype TNF-α (-863) C/C and the frequency of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (-863) C allele did not significantly differ between both groups (93.86 versus 89.57%; p = 0. 099) and 96.93 versus 94.78%; p = 0. 107) respectively. Our data indicated that the TNF-alpha (-863) a allele is not linked with primary open angle glaucoma protection among Egyptian patients.
       
  • Sex Identification and the Sex-Related Genes of Nipponia Nippon

    • Abstract: Sex identification in birds is necessary for studying their ecology, behavior and population dynamics and structure. This study was carried out to determine the sex of Nipponia nippon by a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. The sexing universal primers of non-ratite birds were employed to amplify the sexing related genes and identify the sex of each individual. A 657 bp CHD gene fragments on Z chromosome in both sexes and a 463 bp female specific CHD fragments on W chromosome were cloned and sequenced. The sequences of these two sexing related genes fragments were similar with CHD-W of Phalacrocorax capillatuss and CHD-Z of Platalea minor individually. This study is valuable for managing and conserving endangered birds.
       
  • Optimization of Process Conditions for the Production of Holocellulase by
           a Bacillus Species Isolated from Nahoon Beach Sediments

    • Abstract: Production of holocellulase by a newly isolated marine Bacillus species via submerged fermentation technique at varying cultivation conditions was investigated. Enzyme production was optimized by altering one variable per time. Moreover effect of lignocellulosic saccharides in inducing cellulase and xylanase production was also investigated. The 16S ribosomal Deoxyribonucleic Acid (16S rDNA) gene sequence analysis exhibited 98% sequence similarity of the isolate with other Bacillus species in the gene bank and was deposited with the accession number KX524510. Optimal xylanase and cellulase production was attained at pH 7, temperature 30°C and agitation speed of 50 and 150 rpm. Furthermore, maximum xylanase and cellulase production were both achieved at 60 h corresponding to the late stationary growth stage, with activity of 16.6 and 0.061 U mL-1 respectively. Xylanase production was maximally induced by beechwood xylan, xylose and arabinose with activities of 13.59, 8.78 and 1.90 (U mL-1) respectively; while cellulase production was induced by carboxymethyl cellulose only and no cellulase activity was detected in the culture supernatant of the other carbon sources tested. Optimization increased cellulase and xylanase yields being 0.006-0.061 and 0.23-16.6 (U mL-1) from unoptimized to optimized respectively. The results of the study suggest the bacterial strain to be a proficient producer of cellulase and xylanase with potentials in biotechnological application.
       
  • The Progress of BMP4 on the Role of Ocular Development and Eye Diseases

    • Abstract: Bone morphogenetic protein belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, is a unique ectopic cartilage and bone inducing activity of acidic protein. As one of the members of BMPs family, the formation and development of BMP4 in many organizations. In ocular tissue, BMP4 not only promotes the differentiation and development of different eye cells, but also plays an important role in ocular diseases. In this study, the recent advances in the study of BMP4 in ocular tissues are summarized and the function of BMP4 in different developmental stages of eye is briefly reviewed.
       
  • Biosynthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Assay of Antibacterial
           Activity

    • Abstract: In this study Out of 280 urinary tract infections samples, 212(75.7%) bacterial isolates were recovered. Based on, morphological, cultural and biochemical testes, further, confirmed the results by VITEK 2 System there were 54 (30.2%) of gram positive whereas the 158 (69.8%) of gram negative. The bacterial isolates were distributed as Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis which represented 96(45.2%), 48 (22.6%), 43(20.3%), 14 (6.6%) and 11 (5.2%) respectively. The synthesis of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using biological methods as eco-friendly from the use of Aspergillus niger filtrate in the extracellular synthesis, then identified and characterized by UV–Vis Spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, determine the antibacterial efficacy of biological synthesized ZnO NPs against isolated pathogens microbes Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results found the used of 100 mL of ZnCL2 in cultivation of Aspergillus niger was obtained and biosynthesis of ZnO NPs at 46 mg. SEM was illustrate the morphology and practices of ZnO NPs sizes and appear as spherical in shape besides, the size range at 41-75 nm. The assurance by the UV-Vis spectrum appears the absorption bands of ZnO NPs at 380 nm. The results of 1.0 and 1.5 mg mL-1 from ZnO NPs synthesized from A. niger were effect of inhibition against S. aureus and E. coli bacterial isolated from urine tracts infection sources. The Inhibition Zone Diameters (IZD) against S. aureus was appear at 24 and 26 mm respectively compared with the IZD from Ciprofloxacin alone at 20 mm. while the same concentration from ZnO NPs against E. coli causing in IZD at 25 and 28 mm respectively compared with Ciprofloxacin inhibition alone at 23 mm.
       
  • Study on Nutritional Value of Instant Sea Cucumber Processed by the New
           Processing Approach

    • Abstract: In this study, the micrograph, the composition of amino acids and fatty acids were analyzed contrastively among the fresh, instant and commercial sea cucumber. The micrographs of fresh, instant and commercial sea cucumbers indicated that the processing technology of instant sea cucumber could effectively inhibit the damage of sea cucumber collagen structure and better maintain its original structure. Depending on the FAO/WHO and whole egg model to evaluate the sea cucumber protein's nutritional value, the results showed that instant sea cucumber owned the higher content of amino acid and the perfect profiles of amino acid, which meant that the protein of instant sea cucumber was easily digested and absorbed by human body and belonged to high quality protein. The instant sea cucumber was rich in essential fatty acids and n-3 series of polyunsaturated fatty acids and suitable for the Chinese residents' consumption. This study suggested that the instant sea cucumber was superior to the commercial sea cucumber with effective inhibition of the losing of nutrients and was fit for Chinese residents' consumption as a kind of high-quality products.
       
  • Influence of Curing Light Type and Staining Medium on the Discoloring
           Stability of Dental Restorative Composite

    • Abstract: Discoloration kinetics of 4 commercial nano-filled resin composites polymerized with LED and QTH source types in 4 different staining media held at 37°C are investigated. Quartz Tungsten Halogen (QTH) and Light Emitting Diode (LED) were used. Dental composites color change was monitored with a digital spectrophotometer at one, two and four weeks for quantitative comparison. The kinetics and intensities of the color change in accelerated aging tests in staining media were monitored and discussed. Discoloring followed diffusive driven kinetics. The four composites polymerized with QTH light showed higher differences in color change intensities compared to LED cured ones. All the QTH cured samples have shown significant higher variations of color changes intensities compared to LED samples (p<0.05). LED cured composite showed comparatively more stable initial shade persistence than QTH cured ones, which may be explained in terms of higher level of polymerization and surface hardness reached by the LED light cure resinous composite matrix.
       
 
 
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