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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 846 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (50 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (597 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (597 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 217)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 277)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 165)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 189)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Science : Nano     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
  [SJR: 0.274]   [H-I: 19]   [65 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1553-3468
   Published by Science Publications Homepage  [28 journals]
  • Optimization of Process Conditions for the Production of Holocellulase by
           a Bacillus Species Isolated from Nahoon Beach Sediments

    • Abstract: Production of holocellulase by a newly isolated marine Bacillus species via submerged fermentation technique at varying cultivation conditions was investigated. Enzyme production was optimized by altering one variable per time. Moreover effect of lignocellulosic saccharides in inducing cellulase and xylanase production was also investigated. The 16S ribosomal Deoxyribonucleic Acid (16S rDNA) gene sequence analysis exhibited 98% sequence similarity of the isolate with other Bacillus species in the gene bank and was deposited with the accession number KX524510. Optimal xylanase and cellulase production was attained at pH 7, temperature 30°C and agitation speed of 50 and 150 rpm. Furthermore, maximum xylanase and cellulase production were both achieved at 60 h corresponding to the late stationary growth stage, with activity of 16.6 and 0.061 U mL-1 respectively. Xylanase production was maximally induced by beechwood xylan, xylose and arabinose with activities of 13.59, 8.78 and 1.90 (U mL-1) respectively; while cellulase production was induced by carboxymethyl cellulose only and no cellulase activity was detected in the culture supernatant of the other carbon sources tested. Optimization increased cellulase and xylanase yields being 0.006-0.061 and 0.23-16.6 (U mL-1) from unoptimized to optimized respectively. The results of the study suggest the bacterial strain to be a proficient producer of cellulase and xylanase with potentials in biotechnological application.
       
  • The Progress of BMP4 on the Role of Ocular Development and Eye Diseases

    • Abstract: Bone morphogenetic protein belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, is a unique ectopic cartilage and bone inducing activity of acidic protein. As one of the members of BMPs family, the formation and development of BMP4 in many organizations. In ocular tissue, BMP4 not only promotes the differentiation and development of different eye cells, but also plays an important role in ocular diseases. In this study, the recent advances in the study of BMP4 in ocular tissues are summarized and the function of BMP4 in different developmental stages of eye is briefly reviewed.
       
  • Biosynthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Assay of Antibacterial
           Activity

    • Abstract: In this study Out of 280 urinary tract infections samples, 212(75.7%) bacterial isolates were recovered. Based on, morphological, cultural and biochemical testes, further, confirmed the results by VITEK 2 System there were 54 (30.2%) of gram positive whereas the 158 (69.8%) of gram negative. The bacterial isolates were distributed as Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis which represented 96(45.2%), 48 (22.6%), 43(20.3%), 14 (6.6%) and 11 (5.2%) respectively. The synthesis of Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using biological methods as eco-friendly from the use of Aspergillus niger filtrate in the extracellular synthesis, then identified and characterized by UV–Vis Spectrophotometer and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, determine the antibacterial efficacy of biological synthesized ZnO NPs against isolated pathogens microbes Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results found the used of 100 mL of ZnCL2 in cultivation of Aspergillus niger was obtained and biosynthesis of ZnO NPs at 46 mg. SEM was illustrate the morphology and practices of ZnO NPs sizes and appear as spherical in shape besides, the size range at 41-75 nm. The assurance by the UV-Vis spectrum appears the absorption bands of ZnO NPs at 380 nm. The results of 1.0 and 1.5 mg mL-1 from ZnO NPs synthesized from A. niger were effect of inhibition against S. aureus and E. coli bacterial isolated from urine tracts infection sources. The Inhibition Zone Diameters (IZD) against S. aureus was appear at 24 and 26 mm respectively compared with the IZD from Ciprofloxacin alone at 20 mm. while the same concentration from ZnO NPs against E. coli causing in IZD at 25 and 28 mm respectively compared with Ciprofloxacin inhibition alone at 23 mm.
       
  • Study on Nutritional Value of Instant Sea Cucumber Processed by the New
           Processing Approach

    • Abstract: In this study, the micrograph, the composition of amino acids and fatty acids were analyzed contrastively among the fresh, instant and commercial sea cucumber. The micrographs of fresh, instant and commercial sea cucumbers indicated that the processing technology of instant sea cucumber could effectively inhibit the damage of sea cucumber collagen structure and better maintain its original structure. Depending on the FAO/WHO and whole egg model to evaluate the sea cucumber protein's nutritional value, the results showed that instant sea cucumber owned the higher content of amino acid and the perfect profiles of amino acid, which meant that the protein of instant sea cucumber was easily digested and absorbed by human body and belonged to high quality protein. The instant sea cucumber was rich in essential fatty acids and n-3 series of polyunsaturated fatty acids and suitable for the Chinese residents' consumption. This study suggested that the instant sea cucumber was superior to the commercial sea cucumber with effective inhibition of the losing of nutrients and was fit for Chinese residents' consumption as a kind of high-quality products.
       
  • Influence of Curing Light Type and Staining Medium on the Discoloring
           Stability of Dental Restorative Composite

    • Abstract: Discoloration kinetics of 4 commercial nano-filled resin composites polymerized with LED and QTH source types in 4 different staining media held at 37°C are investigated. Quartz Tungsten Halogen (QTH) and Light Emitting Diode (LED) were used. Dental composites color change was monitored with a digital spectrophotometer at one, two and four weeks for quantitative comparison. The kinetics and intensities of the color change in accelerated aging tests in staining media were monitored and discussed. Discoloring followed diffusive driven kinetics. The four composites polymerized with QTH light showed higher differences in color change intensities compared to LED cured ones. All the QTH cured samples have shown significant higher variations of color changes intensities compared to LED samples (p<0.05). LED cured composite showed comparatively more stable initial shade persistence than QTH cured ones, which may be explained in terms of higher level of polymerization and surface hardness reached by the LED light cure resinous composite matrix.
       
  • Nano-Diamond Hybrid Materials for Structural Biomedical Application

    • Abstract: The development of new diamond based bio-mechanically active hybrid nano-structured scaffolds for cartilage cells tissue engineering are proposed in this study. Innovative tissue engineering biomimetic materials based on hydrogel have shown attractive physical, biological and mechanical properties in several biomedical applications. A highly biocompatible novel hybrid material based on nanodiamonds and hydrophilic poly-(hydroxyl-ethyl-methacrylate) (pHEMA) is proposed. The aim of this paper is to describe the chemical and analytical procedures for the preparation of nanofilled hybrid composites possessing biomimetic, osteoconductive and osteoinductivity properties that can be useful in the design of bio-mechanically active innovative bone scaffolding systems for stem cell differentiation and growth. A more rigid and rubber transparent hybrid nano-composites are predicted to posses improved mechanical strength overwhelming one of the major weaknesses of hydrogels, which is due their poor mechanical characteristics, for applications in biomedical structural application.
       
  • In silico Analysis of 4CL Family in Scutellaria baicalensis through
           Biocomputational Tools and Servers

    • Abstract: The gene sequences of 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) family of Scutellaria baicalensis came from the GenBank Database. With help of some bioinformatics tools such as Vector NTI Suite 8, ProtParam and SWISS-MODEL and so on, a series of biological information of their nucleic acid sequences and amino acid sequences were predicted and analyzed and the results were revealed as following: Two 4cl member genes share high similarity in structure and properties on level of nucleic acid and amino acid molecular. 4CLs are hydrophic proteins without any transmembrane topological structure and some crucial motifs were found. The secondary structures of Sb4CLs are mainly composed of random coil and α-helix and the models of their tertiary structures were built. In silico analysis of Sv4CL was finished, which would pave for further studies of physichemical properties of 4CL family and its related molecular mechanism of flavonoid metabolic regulation.
       
  • Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Mediterranean Cypress
           (Cupressus sempervirens) Leaf Extract

    • Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) retained vast applications in science and technology. Due to the vast application of these particles in various disciplines, there is an interest for synthesis of AgNPs in an environmentally friendly and economic manner. For the first time we were used Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) leaf aqueous extract for biosynthesis of AgNPs. Prepared particles were in various shapes and their diameters were ranging from 10 to 80 nm. TEM micrographs were shown that AgNPs are capped with a biologic matrix. FTIR analysis indicates hydrophilic functional groups in the capping matrix which can improve the stability of AgNPs.
       
  • Nutritional and Fatty Acids Profile Analyses of Commonly Consumed Fresh
           Water Fish Species in Pakistan

    • Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate nutritional value of selected commonly consumed fresh water fish species of Pakistan. Proximate composition and fatty acids profile of mostly consumed fresh water fish species of Pakistan namely Balm or Baam (Anguilla anguilla), Sole (Channa marulius), Damra (Labeo rohita) and Malhi (Wallago atto) were analysed. Proximate composition data showed a significant difference (p<0.05) among the nutritional components except carbohydrate and gross energy contents. Protein and moisture contents found plenteous in the Baam (Anguilla anguilla) whereas ash and fat contents in Malhi (Wallagoatto) are found copious. Saturated Fatty Acids (SFAs) and Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs) found to be principal Fatty Acids (FAs) with their ranges from (48.43 to 65.76%) and (25.72 to 31.37%) respectively. In SFAs and MUFAs, palmitic acid (32.4 to 47.71%) and oleic acid (10.97 to 21.26%) were identified as major FAs respectively in all species. The existence of short and medium chain SFAs is advantageous for designation of these fish species as alterative diet as these above mentioned FAs not only involved in metabolic regulation but also helpful to remove the metabolic disparities related to Coronary Heart Diseases (CHD), brain seizure, Alzheimer disease, glucose homeostasis, appetite and gastric acid secretion. Among the PUFAs, Omega-6 PUFAs are found to be more abundant than Omega-3 with Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2?6) as predominant PUFA in A. anguilla (9.137%) and L. rohita (9.128%) and γ-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3?6) and cis-8, 11, 14 Eicosatrienoic (hGLA, C20:3 ?6) as most prevailing PUFAs in C. marulius (2.3%) and W. atto (1.61%) respectively. These species found to be a substantial source of Omega-6 PUFAs with ?3/?6 ratio less than 1. The overall all summation of Eicosapentaenoic (EPA, C20:5 ?3) acid and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 ?3) ranged from 0.38% in C. marulius to 1.93% in L. rohita.
       
  • Callus Induction and Cellular Suspensions from Murtilla (Ugni molinae
           Turcz.) for trans-resveratrol Production

    • Abstract: The present study reports for the first time the quantification of resveratrol and the use of biotechnological techniques applied to stilbene productions in species from genus Ugni and calli production from adult explants (fruits). Resveratrol is synthesized by a series of families of higher plants, which has generated much interest in recent years for its antioxidant, anticancer and antitumor properties, which would allow longevity of cells to be prolonged. In this study, leaves and mature fruits were collected from three sites in Southern Chile and correspond to three ecotypes of the Chilean endemic species Ugni molinae Turz. (murtilla). These were established in vitro to prepare the callus and subsequent development of cellular suspensions for trans-resveratrol production. Our results showed that these stilbenes are present in murtilla and that their concentrations vary between ecotypes and tissues, reaching up to 553.5 &micro;g g-1 of t-resveratrol produced in ecotype 3 callus. These values are relatively higher than those found in other plant species. Under optimum culture conditions, extraction of resveratrol from Ugni molinae is scalable to industrial levels, which makes it a viable alternative for obtaining stilbenes.
       
  • Cocoa-Butter-Equivalent Production from Yarrowia lipolytica by
           Optimization of Fermentation Technology

    • Abstract: In order to obtain the optimal control point for single-cell lipid production with fatty acid profile similar to cocoa butter, this study explored the effects of carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, sterculic acid methyl ester, cobalt on cell growth and lipid accumulation of Yarrowia lipolytica. Glycerol and ammonium tartrate-yeast extract were chosen as carbon source and nitrogen source for production of cocoa butter equivalent. Gradual increase in temperature (20-35&deg;C) resulted in growth reduction, while increased in lipid content per Cell Dry Weight (CDW) (10.13 to 19.7%, w/w) and Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA). Our results suggests that the optimum conditions for Y. lipolytica to synthesize cocoa butter equivalent was 30&deg;C with 0.6 mg L-1 of CoCl2.6H2O or 0.03 mL L-1 sterculic acid methyl ester in the medium with glycerol and ammonium tartrate-yeast extract as carbon source and nitrogen source.
       
  • Biofidel FEA Modeling of Customized Hybrid Biological Hip Joint
           Prostheses, Part I: Biomechanical Behavior of Implanted Femur

    • Abstract: Biofidel femur Finite Element Models have been developed using specific combination of Computer Tomography segmentation and solid modeling software tools able to represent bone physiology and structural behavior. These biofidel Finite Element Models (FEM) is used to evaluate the modification of the physiological stress distribution in a prosthesized femur and to assess new design criteria for the development of biomimetic hybrid biological hip prostheses. The faithful models proposed allowed us to properly consider the not isotropic characteristics of the proximal epiphysis of the femur and for the isotropic behavior in diaphysis to explain the critical alterations of the stress distribution in a resected femur following the implantation of a traditional hip joint prostheses. It has been shown that a wide region of the femur diaphysis is completely shielded by the rigid prosthesis significantly altering the physiological stress distribution that should guaranty a healthy bone growth and regeneration.
       
  • Biofidel FEA Modeling of Customized Hybrid Biological Hip Joint Design
           Part II: Flexible Stem Trabecular Prostheses

    • Abstract: New biomechanical criteria for the design of biomimetic hip joint prostheses are presented. Biofidel Finite Element Models have been used both to correctly analyze femur physiological and structural behavior and to assess a new design criterion for the development of innovative hybrid biological hip prostheses. Proper identification of isostatic lines and isorigidity regions for the sintered metal trabecular lattices distribution between the proximal and distal part of the stem has been carried out. The faithful models enables us to properly take into account not-isotropic properties of the femur proximal end, while clarifying the critical mechanical role of the trabecular bone that should be taken into account to design new innovative prosthetic system.
       
  • A Phenolic Ester of O-Desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) Improves Uptake of ODV
           into the Brain

    • Abstract: In this study, the in vitro stabilities of a promising O-Desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) phenolic ester prodrug O-19 in aqueous solution, rat whole blood and rat liver microsomes were investigated. In addition, the in vivo drug metabolites were determined using LC-TOFMS-IDA-MS/MS. O-19 exhibits high stabilities at any pH encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, its half live (t1/2) spans the range 5.0&plusmn;0.18 d ~ 686&plusmn;29.5 d. However, O-19 experiences rapid enzymatic hydrolysis in rat whole blood (t1/2 = 3.6&plusmn;0.53 min) and rat liver microsomes (t1/2 = 9.5&plusmn;1.53 min). The metabolic profile of O-19 is similar to that of ODV. Besides ODV itself, five metabolites are identified in rat urine (M1~M5) and faeces (M1, M4), no obvious toxic metabolite is detected.
       
  • Optimization of Hydrolysis Conditions for the Production of Iron-Binding
           Peptides from Scad (Decapterus maruadsi) Processing Byproducts

    • Abstract: The scad (Decapterus maruadsi) processing byproduct (SPB) was hydrolyzed by four commercial enzymes, namely, trypsin, flavourzyme, protamex and alcalase, for preparing high Iron-Binding Capacity (IBC) hydrolysate. Alcalase was the best choice for obtaining high IBC hydrolysate from SPB. Response surface methodology using a central-composite design was employed to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions with alcalase to obtain a maximum hydrolysate yield from the SPB with high iron-binding capacity. The best alcalase hydrolysis conditions were as following: Hydrolysis temperature of 46°, enzyme substrate ratio of 6040 U/g-protein and hydrolysis time of 66 min, respectively. Under these optimal hydrolysis conditions, the predicted iron-binding capacity was 317.2 µg g-1, which was consistent with the average of three replicates of 296.2 µg g-1 obtained in the validation experiments. The IBC of hydrolysate did not displayed linear relationship with antioxidative ability or the Degree of Hydrolysis (DH). Results indicated that the alcalase hydrolysate from scad processing byproduct can be developed into iron supplant ingredients in functional foods.
       
  • Identification and Characterization of Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase in
           Oleaginous Yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides

    • Abstract: Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), which catalyzes TAG formation from DAG and acyl-CoA, has been considered to play a vital role in TAG accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. The genome of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides contains two putative DGAT genes, RtDGATa and RtDGATb, which shared little conserved amino acid coding sequence with each other. Phylogeny tree analysis showed that RtDGATa belonged to DGAT1 family and RtDGATb belonged to DGAT2 family. For functional identification of the DGATs, RtDGATa and RtDGATb were individually expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae TAG-deficient quadruple mutant (H1246). RtDGATa had obvious preference for monounsaturated fatty acids, however the expression of RtDGATa did not alter the TAG content in S. cerevisiae H1246 and it had non-involvement in TAG accumulation according to its mRNA expression level in R. toruloides. The expression of RtDGATb could completely resume TAG biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae H1246. Substrate preference experiments revealed that RtDGATb preferred unsaturated fatty acids over saturated fatty acids, but not C18:3. Only the expression pattern of RtDGATb was related to the process of fatty acid biosynthesis, suggesting that RtDGATb plays an important role in lipid accumulation in R. toruloides.
       
  • Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Freeze-Dried Sea Cucumber Powder
           with Response Surface Methodology and Its Antioxidant Evaluation

    • Abstract: In this study, freeze-dried sea cucumber powder was used as raw material and the preparation processing conditions were studied for hydrolysis of sea cucumber powder with neutral protease using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to obtain a high concentration of sea cucumber polypeptide. The effects of hydrolysis temperature, pH, enzyme dosage and hydrolysis time on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were studied. Based on the single factor experiment, Box-Benhnken center composite experiment was carried out with three factors and three levels, including hydrolysis temperature, pH and enzyme dosage. RSM was used to determine the effect of prime factors on the DH and establish a regression model. The results showed that the optimal hydrolysis conditions were as follows: enzyme dosage of 5753 U g-1 dry matter, hydrolysis temperature of 52C, pH of 8.3, substrate concentration of 5% and hydrolysis time of 5 h. Under the optimal conditions, the DH was up to 16.01%, which matched well with the predicted value. With VC as the positive control, the scavenging ability of the hydrolyzate on DPPH radicals, hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals were very powerful, which mean that the hydrolyzate of sea cucumber powder has good antioxidant activity.

       
  • 3D-QSAR and SVM Prediction of BRAF-V600E and HIV Integrase Inhibitors: A
           Comparative Study and Characterization of Performance with a New Expected
           Prediction Performance Metric

    • Abstract: The results of directly comparing the prediction accuracy of optimized 3D Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (3D-QSAR) models and linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers to identify small molecule inhibitors of the BRAF-V600E and HIV Integrase targets are reported. Performance comparisons were carried out using 303 compounds (68 active) against BRAF-V600E and 204 compounds (159 active) against HIV Integrase. A SVM prediction accuracy of 95% (BRAF-V600E) and 100% (HIV Integrase) and 3D-QSAR prediction accuracy of 76% (BRAFV600E) and 82% (HIV Integrase) was observed. To help explain the better performance of SVM in the comparison reported here and to help assess the degree to which a SVM or 3D-QSAR model is likely to perform best for other targetligands of interest a new EPP (Expected Predictive Performance) metric is introduced. How EPP can be used to help predict future performance of SVM and 3D-QSAR models by quantifying the degree of similarity between candidate compounds and training data is also demonstrated. Results show that the EPP metric is capable of predicting future prediction accuracy of SVM and 3D-QSAr models within 7% of actual performance.
       
  • Coenzyme Q10 and its Effective Sources

    • Abstract: Coenzyme Q10 (2,3-dimethoxy, 5-methyl, 6-decaprenyl benzoquinone, CoQ10) is naturally present in many organisms. It has key roles in several biochemical pathways. CoQ10, as an electron and proton carrier for energy coupling leads to Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) formation. Furthermore, in medicine, the pharmacological use of CoQ10 has attracted more attention due to its benefits in treating cardiovascular and degenerative neurologic diseases. CoQ10 can be produced by chemical synthesis, extraction from biological tissues and microbial fermentation. It is found in plants such as soya bean, peanut, palm oil and litchi pericarp and in animals such as pelagic fish, beef and pork hearts. Various analytical methods have been published for the extraction and analysis of CoQ10 from different matrices. Biological production of CoQ10 offers an environmentally benign option based on the enzymatic catalysis at the cellular level. Moreover, this process due to ease of control and low production costs offers more advantages over the existing technologies.
       
  • The Effect of Explant Type and 6-Benzyl Adenine (BAP) In Sapodilla (Achras
           zapota) Micropropagation

    • Abstract: Sapodilla (Achras zapota) is one type of tropical fruits with high economic value that are easily found in Indonesia. However, the number of productive plants has been decreased and affected the rate of fruit production. The objective of this research is to develop in vitro propagation of Achras zapota through meristem induction to provide great quality seedling. Type of explants (apical and lateral meristem) are cultured on Woody Plant Medium (WPM) and combined with different concentrations of BAP (0 ppm, 2 ppm, 3 ppm, 4 ppm, 5 ppm). Variables observed are shoot, leaf, root (emergence, length, number) and callus formation. The results show that all treatments able to induce shoot and leaf, but only several treatments able to induce root and callus formation. Lateral meristem is an appropriate explant to induce high number of leaves significantly and lateral meristem has the highest rate of multiplication 1.7 with application of BAP 2 ppm. The results can be used as reference to promote shoot multiplication. But further research is needed to determine proper combination to induce shoot multiplication significantly.
       
  • Binding Interaction between Bovine Serum Albumin and Chicoric Acid, a Food
           Functional Component

    • Abstract: Fuorescence, FTIR and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy were used to explore the binding between chicoric acid and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). Binding characteristics at various levels of temperature have been calculated. The results indicated that chicoric acid statically quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA. The binding constants (Ka) were 4.14×105 L mol-1 at 273K and 4.29×106 L mol-1 at 298 k. The numbers of binding sites between chicoric acid and BSA were both approximately equal to 1 at the two temperatures. Furthermore, the binding distance between chicoric acid and BSA was 2.69 nm which was calculated according to the Förster’s resonance energy transfer. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that BSA bind chicoric acid spontaneously mainly via hydrophobic interaction. Results demonstrated that the conformation and microenvironment of BSA were changed after binding with chicoric acid. Moreover, chicoric acid showed stronger binding with tryptophan (Trp) residue than with tyrosine (Tyr) residue. Our results can provide scientific basis for studying availability and distribution of chicoric acid.
       
  • Optimisation of Bromelain Enzyme Extraction from Pineapple (Ananas
           comosus) and Application in Process Industry

    • Abstract: Bromelain is a general name for a family of sulfhydryl proteolytic enzymes obtained from Ananas comosus, the pineapple plant. The objective of the present study is to compare the activity of Bromelain from pineapple fruit and peel and to check the efficiency of this crude Bromelain enzyme in unhairing step in leather processing. The crude Bromelain was extracted and activity of enzyme was measured using tyrosine as standard and expressed in Units/mL of enzyme. The effect of preservatives such as sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulphite on the activity of the enzyme was studied for one week. The effect of pH (3-5) was studied using suitable pH buffer solutions. The kinetics of the proteolytic activity of the enzyme was studied using casein as substrate. It was found that the optimum pH of the crude extract was 4.5. In general enzyme activity got affected by the use of preservatives. The kinetic studies show that the activity of enzyme was increasing during initial period. The unhairing activity of crude extract of pH 4.5 was also studied using cow hide pieces. After 24 h treatment with the extracted crude Bromelain enzyme, good unhairing efficacy was achieved for leather making.
       
  • Soft Sensor Modeling of Product Concentration in Glutamate Fermentation
           using Gaussian Process Regression

    • Abstract: The on-line control of glutamate fermentation process is difficult, owing to the typical uncertainties of biochemical process and the lack of suitable on-line sensors for primary process variables. A prediction model based on Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) is presented to predict glutamate concentration online. First, Partial Least Squares (PLS) is applied to extract the features of the input secondary variables to reduce the number of the variables dimension and eliminate the correlation, through variables selection to reduce model complexity and improve model tracking performance. Validation was carried out in a 5 L fermentation tank for 10 batches glutamate fermentation process. Simulation results show that the proposed model outperforms the PLS and Support Vector Machine (SVM) model and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) are 1.59, 7.98 and 1.95, respectively. It can provide effective operation guidance for control and optimization of the glutamate fermentation process.
       
  • In silico Analysis of three Committed-Steps Involved in Triterpenoid
           Biosynthesis from Ganoderma lucidum

    • Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum is widely considered as one of the most valuable Traditional Chinese Medicines, with various bioactive constituents and pharmaceutical effects. Triterpenoids are important effective ingredients of G. lucidum, which are synthesized mainly through the mevalonate pathway. In this study, we aimed to characterize and analyze three committed-step enzymes of the mevalonate pathway, 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase (HMGR), Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase (FPPS) and Squalene Synthase (SQS), using various bioinformatic tools and servers. As a results, the molecular structures and physicochemical properties of the proteins and their encoding genes (Glhmgr, Glfpps and Glsqs) were studied. The GlHMGR and GlFPPS proteins are localized in the cytosol and lack any transmembrane topological structures. By contrast, GlSQS enters the secretory pathway via its transit peptide and has three transmembrane helices. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the three proteins could be classified into three large groups according to their significant functional association and genetic conservation. The secondary structures of the GlHMGR, GlFPPS and GlSQS comprise mainly α-helixes and random coils and the three tertiary structures were modeled successfully, including the identification of key motifs. Additionally, the expression levels of the three genes were compared on the basis of dbEST records. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that HMGR, FPPS and SQS from G. Lucidum have typical molecular structures and functions. In addition, we inferred that GlFPPS might be the perfect target for genetic engineering because of its position in a bottleneck step, as revealed by metabolic flux analysis.
       
  • CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Debate the Damaging Action of Cisplatin on
           Immune Cell DNA: A PCR Array Application on Repair Genes Expression

    • Abstract: Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) expressing CpG motifs (CpG-ODN) mimic the immunostimulatory activity of bacterial DNA and are commonly used to activate Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) for therapeutic applications. CpG-ODN can counteract the activity of DNA-damaging chemotherapy and radiation therapy on immune cell and enhance immunity in preclinical mouse models. We hypothesized that these actions of CpG-ODN on immune cells are expressed by modulation of DNA repair genes. We conducted a PCR array analysis of DNA repair genes expression in splenocytes obtained from mice injected intraperitoneally with CpG-ODN and/or Cisplatin. CpG-ODN modulate expression of DNA repairing genes inducing down regulation in most of DNA repairing genes but up regulate some genes participate in biological processes suggesting the role of CpG-ODN in these processes. Cisplatin had an effect on expression of DNA repairing genes inducing up regulation of most genes implicated in repair of toxic effect of Cisplatin. We concluded that the effect of CpG-ODN in elimination of DNA damaging activity of Cisplatin on immune cells appear as counteracting and normalizing the modulation of repair genes expression occurred by Cisplatin.
       
 
 
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