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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 876 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (54 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (614 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
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    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (43 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (614 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 265)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access  
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 164)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 236)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 337)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 119)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 181)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 245)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
  [SJR: 0.274]   [H-I: 19]   [61 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1553-3468
   Published by Science Publications Homepage  [31 journals]
  • Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Jet Fuel by
           Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with Lateral Flow Dipstick
           

    • Abstract: The existence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) is one of the significant reasons for the Microbially Influenced Corrosion (MIC) of jet fuel. Especially for the jet fuel stored by military, since jet fuel is stored in the tank for a long time, some oxygen-consuming bacteria such as Amorphotheca resinae and Bacillus Cohn can consume oxygen and generate organic acids at the oil-water interface of the tank bottom. This causes anaerobic SRB flourish in fuel tanks. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with a chromatographic Lateral Flow Dipstick (LFD) assay was established to detect the SRB. Four groups of LAMP primers were designed and synthesized to target dsrB (dissimilatory sulfite reductase β-subunit) genes in SRB.LAMP-LFD can detect 121 fg/μL of SRB DNA within 35 min. The detection limit of this method is 1000 times more sensitive than the conventional PCR and shortens the detection time greatly. This method is negative for other eight common bacteria species in jet fuel, indicating that the method has high specificity. In summary, this method can be used to detect the presence of SRB in jet fuel.
       
  • Current Laboratory Biosecurity for Handling Pathogenic Viruses

    • Abstract: The recent emergence of lethal viruses such as Ebola raises some concern about the possibility of the viruses being used as biological weapons. The application of pathogenic viruses as biothreat agents in the past is well documented. Although their use in warfare is currently prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention, their potential use in bioterrorism is a global concern. One of the requirements for conducting biological attack using viruses is successful aquisition of particular viruses for that action. Apart from natural sources, the laboratory can potentially be the source of viral biothreat agents. An effective strategy to avoid bioterrorism is to prevent bioterrorist action. Therefore, it is important in the laboratory handling of pathogenic viruses to implement biosecurity systems in order to prevent loss, theft, misuse, diversion, or intentional release that could lead dangerous viruses falling into unsafe hands. Viruses of biosecurity concern are those which particularly have an ability to cause large-scaled casualties and are easy disseminated. The level of biosecurity risk posed by the viruses being handled in the laboratory needs to be assessed in order to establish program at an appropriate level of laboratory biosecurity. A laboratory biosecurity system should include physical security, viruses control and accountability, personnel security, transport security and information security. In the laboratory, the implementation of a biosecurity system can be integrated to the biosafety plan. This review focuses on viruses of biosecurity concern, the principles of laboratory biosecurity, the assessment of laboratory biosecurity risk and how to render the biosecurity risk to an acceptable level. The review is intended to raise awareness among scientists and laboratory workers on the potency of the pathogenic viruses which can be misused and to develop secure and responsible scientific conduct involving pathogenic viruses.
       
  • Low-Homology Protein Structural Class Prediction from Secondary Structure
           Based on Visibility and Horizontal Visibility Network

    • Abstract: In this study, based on the predicted secondary structures of proteins, we propose a new approach to predict protein structural classes (α,β,α/β,α+β) for three widely used low-homology data sets. Fist, we obtain two time siries from the chaos game representation of each predicted secondary structure; second, based on two time series, we construct visibility and horizontal visibility network, respectively and generate a set of features using 17 network features; finaly, we predict each protein structure class using support vector machine and Fisher’s linear discriminant algorithm, respectively. In order to evaluate our method, the leave one out cross-validating test is employed on three data sets. Results show that our approach has been provided as a effective tool for the prediction of low-homology protein structural classes.
       
  • Antifungal Potential of Leptadenia Hastata Against Some Pathogenic Fungi

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate if the plant extract could provide antifungal potential against some pathogenic fungi. Extract of Dichloromethane solvents was used for disc diffusion assay. The inhibitory concentration of the extract was performed by broth dilution method and zone of inhibition was studied by disc diffusion method at the concentration of 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000ppm in DMSO. Fluconazole was used as the reference control for antifungal study. The extract showed maximum inhibition potential of zone of inhibition against most of the pathogen (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium oxysporium) used at concentration 25ppm to 250ppm with zone of inhibition (3.45±0, 3.33±0.12, 3.07±0.05 and 2.97±0.10mm respectively). The extract showed minimum inhibition potential against Fusarium oxysporium in all the concentration when compared with the control as well as to the other pathogens. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus was found to be more sensitive to Dichloromethane leaf extract followed by Candida tropical and lastly fusarium oxyspurium. The Present study indicates the potential usefulness of Dichloromethane leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata as antifungal agent.
       
  • Forensic Evidence for Cytochrome b Gene SNPs in Obese and Non Obese Saudi
           Arabians

    • Abstract: Oral swabs from obese and non obese Saudi Arabians from both sexes with an average age of 35 years old were collected and their DNAs were extracted. PCR for 1000 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene was conducted and the amplified products were sequenced in order to determine the possible forensic or obesity-related SNPs. Alignment of the obtained sequences with its counterparts of 100 healthy Afro-Asians deposited in the Genbank was undertaken and the polymorphic sites were compared. Sixteen Single Nucleotide Polymorphic sites (SNPs) and 26 variations were noted. From the 26 variations, sixteen were synonymous and the other 10 were non-synonymous. Four common haplogroups were determined using Mitomaster software (H2a, JT, U5a and R0a). Most of SNPs were related to tribes more than to obesity and the major SNP (C15452A) was recorded in both obese and non obese haplotypes. Two non-synonymous amino acid changes were found in 2 obese males (H15 and H27; A15043G) and 2 obese females (H48 and H51; C15677A) indicating that both SNPs could be obesity markers. In conclusion, cytb gene is reasonably applicable in forensic purpose while it was unclear to be used as an obesity marker. It needs to be examined for hundreds of unrelated obese and non obese people.
       
  • Molecular Analysis of KRAS Mutation Associated with Colorectal Cancer in
           Iraqi Patients

    • Abstract: The role of KRAS gene was investigated in manifestation of colorectal cancer in Iraqi patients. A total 40 blood samples were collected during October 2016 to January 2017 from AL-Amal Hospital in Baghdad and 20 blood samples from healthy subjects served as control. Blood samples were collected from subjects of 40-70 years old for both patients and control. The study found that age group 61-70 years old were more susceptible to colorectal cancer with ratio of 40% more than younger individuals involved in this study with higher frequency in males with 75.5% than females who show 49.5% (p>0.01) when both compared to the same gender. DNA extracted from positive cancer samples and control were subjected to specific PCR amplification using 10 specifically designed primers for this study to amplify KRAS gene exons. DNA sequencing for the resulting amplicons showed the presence of significant genetic change that included substitution and insertion, causing 15% frame shift and 85% missense changes at positions 5920, consequently led to sever disruption in KRAS function.
       
  • Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of the Alloplasmic
           Sunflower (Helianthus L.) Lines with Various CMS Types

    • Abstract: The complete chloroplast genomes of sunflower fertile line HA89 and isonuclear CMS lines with four different cytoplasmic backgrounds (PET1, PET2, ANN2 and MAX) were sequenced. A total of 451 polymorphic sites, with including 58 SSRs, 317 SNPs and 76 microindels were revealed between the fertile and CMS cytotypes. Among the alloplasmic male-sterile lines, cpDNA of CMS-MAX had the largest number of polymorphisms. The lowest number of polymorphic sites was revealed in CMS-PET1. Like as CMS-PET1, CMS-PET2 was obtained as a result of interspecific crossing between H. petiolaris and cultivated sunflower H. annuus. Nevertheless, the number of INDELs and SNPs in CMS-PET2 chloroplast genome was more than 4-fold and 6.5-fold higher than that in cpDNA of CMS-PET1. The average frequency of SNPs and INDELs in the non-genic regions and genic regions were 0.0062 and 0.0046, respectively. Increased mutation rates were found in the psbM-rpoB, rps16 intron, atpA-psbD, rps4-ndhJ and ndhc-atpE non-coding regions, as well as in the rpoC2, atpA, rbcL, ndhF and ycf1 genes. In addition to short insertions and deletions ranging from 1 to 5 bp, the relatively long INDELs (14-24 bp) unique for each CMS line were found. These insertions and deletions may be of use for PCR differentiation of the CMS lines due to differences in the amplicons length.
       
  • Lumbricus rubellus Protein Fraction DLBS1033N Increases Nerve Growth
           Factor Expression via Tyrosine Kinase Activation

    • Abstract: Nerve injury occurred due to mechanical, thermal, chemical, or ischemic factors. Nerve regeneration is needed for recovery. Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation are important factors in the nerve regeneration process. Schwann cells release neurotrophins in the nerve regeneration process. In this study, Lumbricus rubellus protein fraction DLBS1033N was used as therapeutic protein candidate for nerve regeneration treatments. DLBS1033N treatments promoted the growth and survival of Schwann cell in free serum and free serum plus minimum O2 conditions. Real-time PCR and ELISA methods revealed that DLBS1033N induced NGF expressions. The growth and survival of Schwann cells were related to NGF expressions in a specific inhibitor TrkA study. Furthermore, in real-time PCR study, DLBS1033N was able to activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. This study showed that L. rubellus protein fraction DLS1033N can promote the growth and survival of Schwann cells by inducing NGF expressions. Cells growth and survival activities are likely achieved via PI3K pathway.
       
  • Impact of Ultra Violet Radiation on Polyethylene Packaged Water Exposed at
           Varying Conditions: Are we Drinking Micro-Plastics'

    • Abstract: The public is worried about how their health is impacted by microplastics in sachet water. This awareness has repercussion for water producing factories and public health organization in managing health hazard associated with microplastic ingestion. Many countries in Africa, with concern to Nigeria, the act of packaging water in polyethylene materials by water producing factories has become accustomed. These packaged products are popularly called pure water or sachets water. The packaged materials are made of antioxidants, stabilizers, plasticizers, lubricants, antimicrobials, anti-static and anti-blocking agents. Heat hindrance agents are usually incorporated to improve functionality of polyethylene. It was conceived that the polyethylene material if exposed to sun light radiation over a period of time, its components may leach into the potable water due to photolytic, photo-oxidative and thermo-oxidative reactions caused by fragmentation of the polyethylene material. This research was designed to evaluate the water quality/safety of polyethylene sachet-packaged exposed to direct sunlight at different days. Eighteen polyethylene packaged water were sampled from three different factories - Lion water, Galaxy and Ashor water in Nsukka area of Enugu State. They were exposed to sunlight at 31 to 33°C for (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h), respectively. Agilent gas chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy was used to analyze the exposed and unexposed (control) packaged water. Organic compounds such as low molecular weight substituted hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trichloromethane, benzene, limonene, xylene, toluene and 2-hexanone were detected in all the exposed samples. These micoplastics which leached into water has been listed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry as potential human carcinogens. The concern now is whether we are drinking micoplastics. The only way out of this perceived health risk is to change the packaging material to prevent ingestion of microplastics in water.
       
  • Gelatin Extraction of Alaska Pollock (Theragra
           chalcogramma
    ) Dry Skin

    • Abstract: Alaska Pollock is rich in resource. And during its processing, skin is peeled as byproducts. The skin of Alaska Pollock contains lots of collagen or gelatin, promising materials, which can be used in food, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Extracting collagen from the dry skin of Alaska Pollock is studied in this study to provide a better basement for fully using this renewable resource. Three kinds of gelatin were extracted by using acid, pepsin-assisted acid and hot water, respectively. The productivity of Acid Soluble Gelatin (ASG), Pepsin Soluble Gelatin (PSG) and hot Water Soluble Gelatin (WSG) were 7.33, 30.89 and 12.67%, respectively. Their UV absorption spectrum were similar and match with the absorption of dilute protein solution. The protein contents of ASG, PSG and WSG were 84-90%, with no significantly difference between them. The characters of SDS-PAGE and the circular dichroism spectrum shown that the PSG is broken into small fragment and has less secondary structure. In conclusion, the hot water extraction is the best way to extract the gelatin from the dry skin of Alaska Pollock.
       
  • Conservation of Binding of Llama and Other Animals’ Hemoglobins to
           Haptoglobins Across Species

    • Abstract: The plasma protein haptoglobin binds hemoglobin released from lysed erythrocytes. It causes removal of the free hemoglobin, thus preventing pathological oxidation of cells. Hemoglobin higher level structures are well conserved across animal species but primary structures can be as little as 50% homologous. Because of these differences, the question arose as to what extent hemoglobins can bind to haptoglobins from different species. The charge properties and binding to three genetic variants of human haptoglobin were compared by non-denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis, with llama, human, dog, pig, horse and goat hemoglobins. In this study, it was reported for the first time that llama and alpaca hemoglobins differed in electrophoretic mobility from hemoglobins from several animal species and humans. Llama hemoglobin was more positively charged than the other mammalian hemoglobins. Electrophoretic mobility changes of the animal hemoglobins in the presence of human plasma and two different purified human haptoglobin genetic variants suggested that hemoglobins from all animals in this study could bind all three genetic variants of human haptoglobin. In all cases, the llama hemoglobin-haptoglobin samples had lesser mobility than those of the other mammals. This study showed that the binding sites on hemoglobin and haptoglobin for each other have been evolutionarily conserved despite differences in primary structure and marked difference in the charge of llama hemoglobin from the other animal species and humans.
       
  • Essential Proteins Discovery Methods based on the Protein-Protein
           Interaction Networks

    • Abstract: Essential proteins are closely related to biological survival or reproduction and have important application value in respect of the location of disease genes, disease diagnosis and treatment, drug design. In order to discovery essential proteins, the researchers have proposed experimental approaches, but these methods require laborious and time consuming. With the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques, plenty of computational methods based on the Protein-Protein Interaction Networks have been put forward to identify essential proteins. In this study, we firstly have introduced the basic characteristics and data set of essential proteins and essential proteins discovery method in the Protein-Protein Interaction Networks. Following that, we have analyzed and compared the difference of various existing strategies and then have pointed out the merits and demerits of them in detailed. At last, we give several important problems and development trend about essential proteins discovery methods, which provide a strong foundation for the further research.
       
  • Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Lipase from
           Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1

    • Abstract: Even though lipase genes from a variety of microorganism have been cloned and over-expressed, the prospective lipase resources for commercial production and industry application are still limited. In the present study, a lipase from Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 is heterologously over-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) and purified to homogeneity. The molecular weight of the recombinant lipase from B. cepacia Lu10-1 (abbreviated as lipase Lu10-1) is estimated to be about 33 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The lipase Lu10-1 has a priority for the long- chain length substrates. The optimal temperature of lipase Lu10-1 is 60°C and it preserves high thermostability with residual activities of over 80% after 100 h at 60°C or over 60% after 30 h at 70°C. The optimal pH of lipase Lu10-1 is 9.0 and it has broad pH adaptability over a range of 5.0-10.0 retaining 80% activity between pH 6.0 and 9.0 after incubation at 37°C for 24 h. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of lipase Lu10-1 is not obviously affected by several metal ions and it exhibites solid tolerance and stability towards various surfactants and organic solvents. The present study provides the basis for the potential applications of lipase Lu10-1 in related industries.
       
  • Isolation, Identification and Genomic Analysis of Plesiomonas shigelloides
           Isolated from Diseased Percocypris pingi (Tchang, 1930)

    • Abstract: Recently, the outbreak of a serious infectious disease of unknown etiology was noted in Percocypris pingi (Tchang, 1930) farms in Yunnan province. Due to currently limited information, we aimed to identify the pathogen isolates, determine the susceptibility of the isolates, evaluate the pathogenicity and analyze the genome of the representative strain. Ten strains of Gram-negative rods were isolated from diseased P. pingi and the isolates were identified as Plesiomonas shigelloides based on biochemical characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR detection. The results of susceptibility analysis showed that two selected strains LS1 and LL2 were resistant to ampicillin, penicillin G, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid and enoxacin. A virulence assay indicated that the pathogen was virulent to zebrafish. Genomic analysis revealed that the LS1 isolate was closely related to strain GN7, which was isolated from animal farms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of P. shigelloides as a pathogen of P. pingi. This study will provide a rational framework for exploration of epidemiological analysis of P. shigelloides in fish diseases and would further benefit conservation of the species.
       
  • Differential Gene Transcription in Red Oak (Quercus rubra) Genotypes
           Resistant to Copper Toxicity

    • Abstract: Toxicity of metals is a major abiotic stressor of plants. Copper (Cu) is one of the most abundant metals in soils from the Greater Sudbury Region (GSR) due to its mining history. Recent studies have described several transporters and chelating proteins involved in copper resistance. Quercus rubra (Red Oak) is a common species that grows in metal contaminated soils in Northern Ontario (Canada). The main objectives of this study were1) to evaluate the toxicity of copper to Q. rubrum plants and 2) assess the level of transcriptionof genes associated with copper resistance (RAN1, MT2b and MRP4). Q. rubra seedlings were grown in growth chambers and treated with copper at different doses. Total RNA was extracted from leaves and amplified by RT-qPCR. All the plants tested were resistant to Cu even at high concentrations of 1312 mg of Cu per kg of dry soil since no damage associated with Cu toxicity was observed after 14 days of treatment. RAN1 transporter and the chelating protein MT2b were significantly downregulated (p≤0.05) at high doses of 656 mg and 1312 mg of copper per kg of dry soil compared to water control. The transcription of MRP4 was significantly increased in the presence of copper at a concentration of 1312 mg/kg. No gene demonstrated differential transcription in samples treated with a low dose of 130 mg of copper/kg of dry soil that is equivalent to the bioavailable amount of copper under natural conditions in the Greater Sudbury Region.
       
  • A Study on Fabrication and Structural Characterization of PbS Thin Films

    • Abstract: PbS thin films are fabricated from 99.9% PbS powder on glass substrates using the vacuum evaporation method. Some of the samples are then treated in an advanced process called annealing. Samples are annealed in temperatures of 80, 100, 120 and 150°C for two h. Characterization using an X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) resulted in values of lattice constant of the films ranging from (5.782±0,010) Å to (5.919±0,006) Å. These values are quite different from the standard, probably because the films are stressed and strained. The grains have sizes ranging from (266.440±0.001) Å to (694.059±0.002) Å, where the greatest grain size was found as deposited thin film because it was directly condensed from powder vapor during the deposition process and after they are annealed, the grain size becomes smaller. The average internal stress has values ranging from (0.36±0,006) × 109 N/m2 to (3.247±0.010) ×109 N/m2 and microstrain ranging from (2,864±0.006) × 10-3 to (25.94±0,01) ×10-3. It was found that the film which has the greatest stress and microstrain is the film with the annealing temperature of 150°C, showing that the annealing process exerts force on the film following the rising of temperature. Use of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) shows the surface pictures of the deposited thin film and the film annealed at 120°C. Furthermore, the thickness of the samples is obtained by using the cross section of the films and showed that the thickness of the deposited thin film is between 0.63 and 1.30 microns and the thickness of the film annealed at 120°C is between 3.37 and 4.34 microns. The best quality thin film from this research is that annealed at 120°C, because it showed more peaks than the other samples. It can be concluded that the annealing process had effects on the structures, grain size, strain and stress of the crystals.
       
  • Metabolite Profiles of Arsenic Tolerant Plants Regenerated from Stem Calli
           of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees using HPLC and 1D 1H NMR

    • Abstract: In vitro culture provide a suitable condition for regeneration of arsenic tolerant plants from stem calli of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. The regenerated plants could be valuable material applicable to soil remediation. In vitro culture of stem explants on MS basal salts, 3.0% sucrose, 0.8% agar medium fortified with various concentrations of As2O3 (0.0-9.0 µM) along with NAA (3.5 mg L-1) and KIN (1.0 mg L-1) influenced resistant callus formation. Growth of callus was slightly inhibited with increased resistance up to 22% (53±0.8 mg fwt and 27±1.5 mg dwt) on 7.0 µM As2O3 selective medium. The resistant callus line inoculated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of As2O3 along with BA (2.5 mg L-1) and NAA (3.0 mg L-1) induced the development of shoots. Shoot organogenesis was slightly inhibited by arsenic metal stress. However the growth tolerance has increased up to 14.5% on medium with 7.0 µM As2O3. The rate of adventitious rooting of plantlets was gradually decreased with more tolerance (11.1±1.4 rootlets per plantlets) in 7.0 µM As2O3 selected media. After acclimatization, about 40% of plants were survived as arsenic tolerance than control plants in pots containing soil treated with 7.0 µM As2O3 solutions. The level of arsenic detectability was 0.96 ppb and 4.67 ppb in control and 7.0 µM As2O3 treated plants, respectively by AAS analysis. Moreover, the production of Andrographolide was found quite high (4.41 mg/g) in tolerant plants grown at 7.0 µM As2O3 treatment than control by HPLC analysis. 1D 1H NMR profile revealed the metabolic changes significantly in control and 7.0 µM As2O3 treated plant samples. This is the first report confirming the suitability of in vitro selection for obtaining of vigorous and proliferative clones of A. paniculata plants tolerant to elevated arsenic concentration.
       
  • Response Surface Optimized Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Total
           Flavonoids from Walnut Leaves and In Vitro Antibacterial Activities

    • Abstract: In this paper, the optimum extraction conditions oftotal flavonoids extracted from walnut leaves subjected to Ultrasonic AssistedExtraction (UAE) were optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Themathematical model showed the high coefficient of measurement (R2 =0.9938) which indicated that this model could be used to guide the responsesurface methodology. The optimum extraction parameters for extractingflavonoids from walnut leaves determined in this study were extractiontemperature 47.73°C, extraction time 30.79 min, ethanol concentration 72.89% (v/v). Under the optimal extractionconditions, the flavonoids yield was about 3.5315%. Statistical analysis of theresults showed that extraction temperature, extraction time and ethanolconcentration significantly affected the extraction yield of total flavonoids.In addition, the antibacterial activity assays ofthe flavonoids were carried out and it wasdemonstrated that the total flavonoids extracted at the optimum conditions hadpronounced antibacterial effects against the four bacterial species. Therefore,this study suggested that walnut leaves are promisingresourceswith antibacterial properties for the development of phytomedicines.
       
  • The Investigation of Organelle Genomes of Extra Nuclear Sunflower Mutants
           with Variegated Phenotype

    • Abstract: The comparative analysis of complete chloroplast andmitochondrial DNA sequences of the original inbred line 3629 and three extranuclear mutant lines variegated-1, variegated-15, variegated-17,obtained by the N-nitroso-N-methylurea induced mutagenesis, was done. Thestudied mutant lines were presented two different phenotypes with diversechlorophyll content: Pale/green mutant line variegated-17 with 1.8%relative (to 3629 line) chlorophyll content in mutant leaf tissue andyellow/green lines variegated-1, variegated-15 with 6.3% and 4.3%relative chlorophyll content, respectively. Each line had unique variationsites in chloroplast DNA. Among chloroplast SNP there were determined 7nonsynonymous substitutions, which were located in psaA (variegated-1),petD, rpl36, ccsA (variegated-15), rps4, rpoA,rpoC1 (variegated-17). The SNP of variegated-17 line has resultedin the frameshift (rpoC1) andpremature stop codon formations (rpoA, rpoC1). The whole genomesequencing of mitochondrial DNA mutant lines revealed no differences ascompared with original line 3629. Summarizing current data and our previousresearch of variegated mutants we assume that pale/green variegated phenotypeis associated with significant disturbance of RNA polymerase subunits genes,and the lesions in photosynthetic genes lead to yellow/green mutant phenotype.
       
  • Enhanced Fatty Acid Production in Escherichia coli by Over-Expression of
           NADPH Generating Enzymes

    • Abstract: NADPH is an essential factor for Fatty Acid (FA) biosynthesis. The effect of NADPH generating enzymes [NADP+-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME), NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH), Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GPD) and 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase (PGD)] on FA biosynthesis was investigated in an engineered Escherichia coli BL21 'fadE/pTE. Among NADPH-generating enzymes, GPD and ICD increased total FA production by 60 and 16% respectively. Especially medium-chain FA production was increased up to 4.2 and 2.5 folds respectively. In addition, over-expression of the endogenous Thioesterase (TE) reduced Cyclopropane Fatty Acid (CFA) production by 40% and over-expressing of GPD and ICD further decreased CFA production by 23 and 30%, respectively compared to the TE over-expressed strain. Over-expression of TE appeared to be a good strategy to produce high quality biodiesel with medium-chain FAs as major Component (62%) and with Minimal Amount of CFA (4%). This study reveals that NADPH-generating enzyme GPD is associated with FA biosynthesis in E. coli, but not all reducing power generating enzymes, are involved in FA biosynthesis in bacteria.
       
  • Brevibacillus Thermoruber 9X-GLC, Bacteria Isolated from Hot Compost,
           Producer of a Beta-Glucosidase Resistant to Glucose Inhibition

    • Abstract: The thermotolerant strain Brevibacillus thermoruber 9X-GLC produces large amounts of β-D-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase when grown on cellobiose and avicel. 9X-GLC was isolated from hot compost of sugarcane bagasse and filter mud and selected for its high enzymatic activity from a Bacilli collection of 77 isolates from soils and compost. Culture supernatants and ultrafiltered concentrates from shaken flask cultures of 9X-GLC were tested for their β-D-glucosidase activity and stability under different conditions of temperature, pH and glucose concentration. The concentrated supernatant from 9X-GLC cultures on cellobiose as sole carbon source had its highest β-D-glucosidase activity at 55°C; pH= 6.0 and retained 60% of its activity at a glucose concentration of up to 200 mM. The effect of different carbon sources on growth and β-D-glucosidase activity of concentrated supernatants was tested in 48 h shaken flask cultures of 9X-GLC. Glucose, cellodextrin and cellobiose supported high cell densities (>2×108 CFU/ml), whereas cellobiose and cellodextrin provided the best substrates for β-D-glucosidase production. The putative gene encoding β-D-glucosidase from 9X-GLC was obtained from PCR amplification and sequenced. The sequence of the putative structural gene of 2085 bp reveals 6 catalytic domains with high (>90%) homology to bacterialglycosidases.
       
  • Bioactive Compounds from Sponge Associated Bacteria: Anticancer Activity
           and NRPS-PKS Gene Expression in Different Carbon Sources

    • Abstract: Sponge associated bacteria with diverse NRPS-PKS genes could be the alternative source of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to analyze the activity as well as the regulatory mechanism regarding the anticancer properties derived from these bacteria against cancer cell lines. Extraction of bacterial metabolites using ethyl acetate solvent resulted yield ranging from 0.003 to 0.016% (w/v). Six extracts of bacterial metabolites showed markedly cytotoxic activity against 8 human hematopoietic cancer cell lines, with IC50 value 27.24 to 533.73 μg mL-1 in a dose dependent response, as assessed by MTT test. Supporting those results, reduction of cell density, morphological changes including cell shrinkage and formation of the apoptotic body of cancer cells lines, were found. As it might be due to the inhibitory effect of bacterial extract treatment. Apoptosis assay determined by annexin V-FITC apoptosis analysis showed that apoptotic cells were induced by bacterial extract after 6 h of treatment. Thus suggesting that the extract could be one of the external signals that activate the signal transduction pathway of apoptosis, especially in MOLT4 cells, acute lymphoblastic leukemic cell lines. Cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide revealed that the extract HAA 01 caused cell cycle arrest, since most of the MOLT4 cells were accumulated in Sub-G1 phase after 24 h of extract treatment. Interestingly, glycerol, lactose and amylum were the more preferable carbon source to produce anticancer compounds, than glucose. Our study indicates that anticancer activity of HAA 01 (identified as Bacillus subtilis based on API identification) extract is highly correlated with NRPS-PKS gene expression which is likely regulated by the type of carbon source.
       
  • Sildenafil in the Treatment of Postoperative Hypoxemia with High
           Resistance in Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    • Abstract: This study was designed to determine the effect of sildenafil treatment on postoperative hypoxemia with high resistance in cyanotic congenital heart disease. A total of 247 cases of cyanotic congenital heart disease were operated on from May 2006 to August 2014. Only 45 cases exhibited postoperative hypoxemia after symptomatic treatment. Sildenafil at doses of 0.30-5 mg/kg every 6 h was administered in 24 cases while the other 21 were administered a placebo (the control group). The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), systolic blood pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure and positive inotropic drugs score were evaluated at four time points including before (T1), 1 h (T2) and 1 day (T3) after treatment and when the ventilator was disconnected (T4). Furthermore, we compared the mechanical ventilation time between the two groups. Finally, there was one death in the placebo group while the others were cured. Compared with the placebo group, in the sildenafil group, the PaO2 rebounded faster and the pulmonary arterial pressure decreased significantly; furthermore, there were statistically significant differences from time point T2 between both groups (p<0.001). The systolic blood pressure rose slowly and there were statistically significant differences between both groups from time point T3 (p<0.001). The representations of the positive inotropic drug scores were obviously different between the two groups. The sildenafil group scores decreased soon and maintained this trend. The placebo group scores initially increased and then began to decline 1 day after treatment, but the final score was higher than that of the sildenafil group. Compared with the placebo group, in the sildenafil group, the respiratory and heart functions recovered rapidly and the patient’s stay on the mechanical ventilation was shorter (67.52±16.88 Vs. 44.25±13.39 h, p = 0.001). Therefore, sildenafil reduced pulmonary vascular resistance and obviously corrected the postoperative hypoxemia in cyanotic congenital heart disease.
       
  • The Role of Blended Learning on Student Performance in Biotechnology
           Course

    • Abstract: The present work aims for evaluating the role of blended learning on student engagement and performance in bioreactor design component of the biotechnology course. Interactive online module covering the main fundamental aspects of the subject was developed and made available to students prior to the class. Students who accessed the online module found to be more active in classroom response participations (p<0.05) and received higher marks in the examination (p<0.05). These data highlight the key role of blended learning in improving the student learning desire and academic performance
       
  • Antimicrobial Effects of 1-Monocaprylin and 1-Monocaproin Through in vitro
           Growth Inhibition and Molecular Docking Studies

    • Abstract: 1-monocaproin and 1-monocaprylin synthesized through a novel process by the chemical reaction of glycidol and their respective fatty acids with copper acetate as the catalyst possessed the amphiphilic property. 1- monoacyl glycerols synthesized were found to exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, anti parasitic and antiviral properties. 1-monocaproin and 1-monocaprylin were able to show their antibacterial effect by inhibiting the growth of the Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis at concentrations of 100–500 ppm. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of both 1-monoacyl glycerols were found to be 0.5 ppm. 1-monocaproin and 1-monocaprylin were able to show their antifungal effect by inhibiting the growth of the filamentous fungi Mucor racemosus and Rhizopus stolonifer at the concentration of 1000 ppm. Based on the molecular interaction and common binding interaction study, 1-monocaproin is expected to exhibit a similar antiviral activity as that of Oseltamivir to H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin. 1-monocaprylin and 1-monocaproin synthesized using copper acetate could exhibit a broad spectrum antimicrobial effect in combination with other monoacyl glycerols or with other antimicrobial agents.
       
 
 
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