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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 895 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (55 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (629 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (43 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (629 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 305)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 180)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 258)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 379)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 88)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 73)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.172
Number of Followers: 69  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1553-3468
Published by Science Publications Homepage  [31 journals]
  • Characterization of the Changes in Opened Sufu Bottles During Storage with
           Mathematical Model

    • Abstract: Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a type of nonlinear empirical model, which can clarify the complex relation between the inputs and outputs that allows it to approximate any nonlinear function for making predictions. The objective of this study is to monitor the Biogenic Amines (BAs) content and selected physicochemical properties of sufu (a traditional Chinese fermented soybean product) along time. Simultaneously, based on initial values, a grey model and an ANN were developed to predict the influence of storage process parameters on the quality changes during storage. Results revealed that the total amounts of BAs in newly opened bottles of white, red and grey sufu were 419.61, 311.52 and 603.10 mg kg-1, respectively, no sufu samples posed the total biogenic amines tolerance level (over 1000 mg kg-1). Results showed that slight changes in the individual BAs were detected at 4°C, 15°C, 25°C and the formation of BAs was promoted at 35°C in grey sufu. Furthermore, grey model was developed with average relative errors within ±7%, the statistical parameters (R2) of pH, water activity and amino nitrogen was all above 0.90. In the ANN, the number of neurons in the hidden layer was optimized, ten neurons revealed a positive correlation between the values obtained experimentally and those predicted values (R2 = 0.99). So ANN with highest R2 was selected to predict biogenic amines and our results demonstrated that grey sufu were not edible on the 25th days at 4°C (BAs' 1000 mg kg-1) and it would be better if white and red sufu are consumed within 40 days. We envision that our works can be used for proving a reference for consumers and offer new perspectives by mathematical model to avoid difficult, costly and time-consuming quality inspection, particularly in the field of storage.
       
  • Novel D-Galactose Isomerases from Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from the
           Sweet Sap of Agave atrovirens

    • Abstract: D-tagatose is a natural monosaccharide used as a low-calorie sugar substitute in food, beverage and pharmaceutical products. Although it is a rare sugar, it can manufacture by enzymatic isomerization of Dgalactose Isomerase (D-GI). In this study, a screening was carried out to search microorganism producing D-GI in aguamiel. A rich selective medium was used in arabinose extracted from gum arabic. From 98 isolates obtained aguamiel of agave pulquero (Agave atrovirens), it was obtained 4 strains of Lactobacillus that producing D-GI and 2 strains of Bacillus sp. The Podi-20 strains were identified as Lactobacillusdiolivorans based on 16S rRNA analysis, biological and biochemical characteristics. Furthermore, the gene encoding D-GI from L. Diolivorans Podi-20 strains. Analysis of sequence revealed that the Open Reading Frame (ORF) of the araA gene consist of 1,428 pb that encodes a protein of 476 amino acid residues. The bioconversion yield of D-galactose to D-tagatose by the purified D-GI after 14 h at 60°C was 31.4%. D-tagatose can manufacture by enzymatic isomerization. This study contributes to new knowledge on D-GI from Lactobacillus strains, in particular those isolated from artisanal functional foods from Agave.
       
  • Products of Solid-Phase Probiotic Bacilli Fermentation Increase Food
           Conversion Efficiency and Stimulate Chicken Growth

    • Abstract: Poultry farming is one of the major directions in agriculture. Agricultural poultry has high growth speed, productivity and is resistant to the industrial environment. Our group carried out a study of probiotic preparations of Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 strains. These preparations were made by solid-phase fermentation and tested for dynamical germination of rearing flock (Highsex brown). The research was conducted at SD “Svetliy”, structure department of PC “Agrofirm Vostok” (Volgograd region). Soybeans were used as the substrate for preparations. We investigated the influence of monocultural preparation and mixed bioadditives. The duration of the experiment was 120 days. It was shown that addition of the drugs to the poultry food leads to it’s live weight gain (max 19%) and decrease of food conversion factor (min 1.98). The increase of erythrocyte (max 6%), leukocyte (max 2%) and hemoglobin (max 13%) content and the concentration protein fractions in poultry blood (max 14%) was also noted. Simultaneous use of two strains decreases their physiological effects. Bacterial components of preparations did not disturb the natural intestinal microbiota of the fowl. The abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains was constant. Since preparations based on soybeans are cheap and straightforward to produce, using them can be highly efficient in modern poultry and livestock farming.
       
  • Carica papaya Fruit Attenuates Apoptotic Degeneration After Permanent
           Cerebral Ischemia Rat

    • Abstract: Apoptotic neurodegeneration is a phenomenon following cerebral ischemia. Both the increased caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression are reported to play crucial role on apoptosis in neuron. In addition, phytonutrient can successfully increase the endogenous antioxidant and lower the apoptotic responses. Therefore, anti-apoptotic effect of Carica papaya fruits was examined. To the best of our knowledge, no scientific effect was available. Therefore this study aimed to determine the effect of Carica papaya on neuron density and the densities of both caspase-3 and Bcl-2 immunopositive neuron in hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 280-320 g, were orally given Carica papaya fruits extract at doses of 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg at a period of 14 days before and 14 days after the occlusion of right Middle Cerebral Artery (Rt.MCAO). The results showed that Carica papaya fruits at high doses used in this study significantly attenuated the decreased neuron density in hippocampus. In addition, the high doses of Carica papaya could decrease caspase-3 immunopositive neuron density but increased density of Bcl-2 immunopositive neurons in hippocampus. The decreased caspase-3 immunopositive neuron density and the increased Bcl-2- immunopositive neurons might be partly responsible for neuroprotective effect of Carica papaya. Therefore, Carica papaya is the potential fruit to protect against apoptotic neurodegeneration following cerebral ischemia. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible mechanism.
       
  • Efficient Production of Glycosylated and Non-Glycosylated Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis Antigen 85B Fused to PVX Coat Protein in Nicotiana
           benthamiana Plants

    • Abstract: The development of alternative subunit based-vaccines against tuberculosis is necessary due to variable efficiency and some security concerns of the BCG vaccine. The aim of this work was evaluate the production of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B antigen fused to Potato Virus X Coat Protein (PVX-CP) by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana for subunit-based tuberculosis vaccine formulation. A codon-optimized M. tuberculosis Ag85B gene was fused to PVX-CP and expressed both as a full length precursor and as a mature version lacking the leader peptide. Signal peptides of N. tabacum genes were added to precursor and mature Ag85B-CP to compare the efficiency of cytoplasmic and apoplastic expression. Constructs were agroinfiltrated into N. benthamiana leaves and the yield and integrity of recombinant proteins were analysed. Glycosylation status was determined by treatment with peptide N-glycosidase F. The highest amounts of fusion protein were obtained by expressing mature Ag85B lacking its leader sequence directed to the apoplast, which reached a yield of 100 mg of antigen per kg of fresh leaf. Glycosylated and non-glycosylated fusion proteins were obtained in the apoplastic and cytoplasmic space, respectively. We showed the feasibility of producing Ag85B-CP protein in N. benthamiana leaves for application as a subunit vaccine and demonstrated the importance of expressing mature Ag85B to increase yield and to avoid the production of degraded protein fragments unsuitable for a pharmaceutical product.
       
  • Protection of Human Albumin against UV-C Irradiation by Natural
           Antioxidants

    • Abstract: The use of UV-C light as a means to inactivate pathogens in biological media containing blood components or plasma derivatives has recently been rediscovered. Although highly effective, these treatments may have deleterious effects on plasma proteins such as albumin, fibrinogen and immunoglobulins. Here we investigate the use of three natural antioxidants, gallic acid, nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid, as potential stabilizers of human albumin (HA) during irradiation by UV at 254 nm. The effects of UV-C on HA were monitored by measuring the absorbance changes in the protein spectrum at 320 nm. Experiments carried out at irradiance levels of 3.5–15 W m–2 and application times of up to 40 min showed that albumin undergoes rapid aggregation and that this process is dose-dependent. When added at 0.2 mM to the protein solution, all of the antioxidants inhibited HA aggregation, with ascorbic acid being the most effective. To quantitatively describe the observed effects, a fluence-based model was developed. The model predicted a quadratic dependence of the spectral changes of HA on the radiation dose and was validated by experiments performed under different exposure conditions.
       
  • Production of Immunologically Active Untagged Recombinant DENV-2 NS1 in
           Escherichia coli

    • Abstract: Dengue is an infectious disease affecting 390 millions people in tropical and subtropical region annually. Dengue virus NS1 protein plays an important role in viral replication in the host cell and it is detected in high level in the infected patient serum. A synthetic gene of untagged DENV-2 NS1 with codons optimization for expression in Escherichia coli has been generated and then inserted into an expression vector pET16b. As a hydrophobic protein with aliphatic index of 71.21%, DENV-2 NS1 was produced as inclusion bodies in E. coli BL21(DE3). The DENV-2 NS1 aggregate was unfolded in 8 M urea and then refolded by reverse dilution method. The refolded DENV-2 NS1 has immunologically active structure as it is capable to interact with anti-NS1 antibody, hence making it as a potential vaccine candidate.
       
  • Screening and Characterization of Sponge-Associated Bacteria Producing
           Bioactive Compounds Anti-Vibrio sp.

    • Abstract: In Indonesia, vibriosis is the main disease in shrimp. This disease is caused by Vibrio sp that may decrease the productivity of shrimp cultivation. Thus, exploration for new bioactive compounds as vibriosis biocontrol agent is necessary. Marine sponge-associated bacteria is one of many sources for bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to screen marine sponge-associated bacteria producing anti-Vibrio sp’s bioactive compounds. Total 12 bacterial isolates (15%) of 80 isolates was isolated from marine sponges Hyrtios sp, Verongula sp. and Smenospongia sp. had anti-Vibrio sp activity in different spectra. The hemolytic assay showed that these 12 bacteria were not pathogen. Interestingly, 3 out of 4 potential isolates with the best anti-Vibrio activity have been confirmed to have genes involved in the synthesis of bioactive compounds, mainly Polyketide Synthase (PKS) and Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) based on the occurrence of Ketosynthase (KS) and Adenilase (A) domain, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene, those four isolates were highly homolog to the Bacillus sp in different species and strains. Isolate coded as P2.24 was the only bacterium that had the widest spectrum of anti-Vibrio bioactive compounds against three Vibrio sp used i.e., Vibrio harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus. Consistently, an anti- Vibrio sp. activity of the P2.24 was also shown by antagonism assay using culture, supernatant and crude extract of the isolate. Our study indicates this bacterial isolate potentially to be further exploited for controlling vibriosis biologically and important for elucidation of bioactive compounds synthesized by this bacterium.
       
  • Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and in vitro Anti-Inflammatory
           Potentials of Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Moringa
           oleifera Lam

    • Abstract: The chemical constituents, antibacterial, protection against protein denaturation and membrane stabilization activities of essential oils from flowers, leaves, seeds, bark and roots of M. oleifera were investigated. Of the eight bacterial strains tested, only the growths of four strains were inhibited by the essential oils. The oils from the flowers and seeds were the most active with MIC: 1.25 mg/mL each against P. vulgaris and K. pneumoniae respectively. All tested concentrations of M. oleifera essential oils showed high inhibition of protein denaturation (IC50 0.2 mg/mL) and high membrane stability (IC50: < 0.1 mg/mL) compared to Diclofenac. The essential oils were dominated by eicosane (20.93%, 17.12% and 21.59%) in flowers, leaves and seeds respectively; naphthalene (18.40%) in bark and benzene isothiocyanato methyl (35.83%) in the roots. The results revealed that essential oils from different plant parts of M. oleifera could be explored as potential candidates with alternative or complementary potentials for combating drug resistant bacteria and inflammation.
       
  • Mining, Isolation and Identification of Siderophore Synthesis Gene from
           Brevibacillus brevis GZDF3

    • Abstract: Objective of this paper is to excavate the siderophore synthesis gene from Brevibacillus brevis GZDF3 and verify its type and antibacterial effects. The method is using genome mining technology to analyze the siderophore synthesis genes and the phylogenetic tree of each synthesis gene was constructed separately. Iron free medium was utilized to induce the synthesis of siderophore and CAS liquid detection method was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis on siderophore. The type of siderophore was preliminaries identified by Arnow and its antibacterial effects were analyzed according to the agar punching method. The results show that a siderophore synthesis gene cluster with 83% similarity to Petrobactin was found in Brevibacillus brevis GZDF3 genome. Iron free medium could induce siderophore synthesis and the optimal incubation time cultured in iron free medium was 30 h and 48 h. Antagonistic strain GZDF3 had the capacity to synthesize catechol-type siderophore. Also, GZDF3 had a powerful antibacterial effect on pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum of rotted root on Pinellia ternata. Therefore, Brevibacillus brevis GZDF3 can produce catechol-type siderophore in an iron-deficient culture medium, which was also a main antifungal active substance.
       
  • Design of Intelligent Household Fruit Vinegar Fermentation Device and
           Optimization of Key Parameters

    • Abstract: Compared with carbonated beverages, fruit vinegar was gradually becoming more favored by consumers, because of their higher nutritional functions. But its popularization was limited by higher selling price. This article described a fruit vinegar fermentation device that can be used at home and also introduced the design principles, composition and operation methods. Furthermore, taking apple vinegar as an example, the key parameters of fermentation were determined by single-factor and orthogonal tests. In alcohol fermentation, the fermentation time, fermentation temperature and inoculation amount were 72 h, 30°C and 0.07%, respectively. In acetic acid fermentation, the fermentation temperature, ventilation and bacteria amount were 32°C, 4 L/min and 0.18%, respectively. The refreshing and fermented apple vinegar could be obtained with the total acid content of 3.6 g/100 mL. The kinetic formula between the content of acetic acid and fermentation time was calculated and acetic acid content of fruit vinegar could be determined by controlling fermentation time according to the formula. So, the device could produce different content of acetic acid of fruit vinegar automatically, without manual operation. The study was sufficient to provide reference and experience for further popularization of fruit vinegar.
       
  • High Level of Nicotianamine Synthase (NAS3) and Natural Resistance
           Associated Macrophage Protein (NRAMP4) Gene Transcription Induced by
           Potassium Nitrate in Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

    • Abstract: Changes in gene transcription in response to excess metal concentrations have been reported in many organisms, including yeast, microorganisms and plants. Most investigations on the effects of nickel toxicity in plants use commercial salts whose effects have not been analyzed in detail. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of different doses of nickel nitrate and potassium nitrates on gene transcription in Populus tremuloides. Four month-old P. tremuloides seedlings were treated with different doses of nitrate salts including 150 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg and 1, 600 mg/kg. A significant increase of Nicotianamine Synthase (NAS3) gene transcription was induced by the 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of nickel nitrate doses compared to water. This upregulation was driven by nitrate rather than nickel. Likewise, the 800 mg/kg and 1,600 mg/kg doses of potassium nitrate resulted in significant increase in the transcription of Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein (NRAMP4) gene compared to water control and the 150 mg/kg dose. This differential transcription of this gene was caused by potassium. Our results also confirmed that the low level of bioavailable nickel in metal–contaminated soils (<150 mg/kg) cannot induce differential transcription of NAS3 and NRAMP4. The use of nitrate without nickel should be required as additional controls in any study assessing effects of Ni using nickel nitrate salts.
       
  • Production of Selenium-Enriched Yeast (Kluyveromyces marxianus) Biomass in
           a whey-based Culture Medium

    • Abstract: Two important aspects of agriculture intensification are the reduction in the concentration of specific soil minerals that affects livestock production and the increase of agricultural by-products, which produce environmental pollution. In this regard, whey - a cheese by-product-often is considered a wasted-product. Due to its lactose concentration, (4.5%), when whey is discarded without treatment generates a high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and a high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Taking into account these two issues, we developed a whey-based culture medium to produce selenium-enriched Kluyveromyces biomass. Then, we evaluated the effect of its supplementation on calves blood selenium concentration. Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 11954 and Kluyveromyces lactis DSM 3795 strains were used in this study. Different culture media were prepared using whey as a main component and supplemented with peptone, yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4 and K2HPO4 as appropriate. In the selected whey culture medium, three sodium selenite concentrations between 10-30 μg/mL were tested to produce selenium-enriched biomass. After that, a scaled up to 5 L stirred-tank bioreactor was carried out to increase final yeast biomass levels. Finally, dietary supplementation experiments with selenium-enriched yeast were conducted to increase selenium content in calves. K. marxianus DSM 11954 showed a better growth performance than K. lactis DSM 3795 in a medium composed by whey, (NH4)2SO4 5 g/L, K2HPO4 1 g/L (pH 6.5) so, this strain was chosen to continue the experiments. The results showed that sodium selenite addition at 20 μg/mL was adequate to generate selenium-enriched biomass. Our study demonstrated that whey is an optimal and economical culture medium to produce selenium-enriched- yeast biomass. Also, we proved that 10 days of yeast-biomass supplementation raised blood-selenium level in calves.
       
  • The Influence of Partial Substitution of Potassium by Sodium on the Growth
           Effect of Sugarcane

    • Abstract: The effects of different potassium and sodium levels on the growth of Taisugar No. 22 (ROC22) were studied by potted nutrient solution-sand culture experiment in this paper. The results showed that under low potassium stress (0 mmol/L) supply, the proper application of sodium could significantly promote photosynthesis of sugarcane and dry matter accumulation, reduce root shoot ratio and promote shoot growth. When low potassium (0.2 mmol/L) was applied, the proper application of sodium could reduce the root shoot ratio of sugarcane. When high potassium (2 mmol/L) was applied, the proper application of sodium could significantly promote the growth of sugarcane root and increase root shoot ratio. In the case of low potassium or high potassium, the rational application of sodium can promote photosynthesis of sugarcane, while excessive sodium can inhibit photosynthesis. Thereby, sodium can be used as a substitute for partial potassium to promote the growth of sugarcane in the soil with low available potassium and water-soluble sodium.
       
  • Improvement on Extracellular Production of Recombinant Burkholderia
           cepacia Lu10-1 Lipase by Escherichia coli

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate several strategies on enhancing extracellular production of recombinant lipase from Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). In the present study, a fed-batch fermentation strategy for the excellular production of lipase by E. coli has been established. First of all, different induction methods (including selection of inducers, inducer concentration, induction temperature and induction time) were investigated and the results indicated that these factors played an important role in lipase production. When induced by 0.8 g L-1 h-1 lactose at 30°C and at a OD600 of 30, the lipase activity in the culture medium could achieve 58 U mL-1. Moreover, addition of glycine and calcium ions can increase the extracellular yield of lipase. With supplementation of the culture with 0.5% (w/v) glycine and 2.5 mM Ca2+, the maximum extracellular activity of lipase could reach 85 U mL-1, which was 2.1 fold higher than that of the control. This study might provide fermentation strategy for the extracellular production of other heterogonous proteins expressed in E. coli.
       
  • The Contamination Degree of Characteristic Fungi in Jet Fuel Detected by
           ATP Bioluminescence

    • Abstract: Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) lysate of the characteristic fungi in jet fuel was screened and three fluorescein-luciferase systems were compared in the paper. The correlation between ATP bioluminescence and traditional plate count for measuring the number of microorganism was also investigated and then a method of detecting the contamination degree of the characteristic fungi of jet fuel by ATP bioluminescence were initially established. The results show that the effect of ATP extraction taking surfactant Benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (BAC) as the microbial lysate was optimal and the optimal concentration and the action time were 0.15% and 30s respectively; The fluorescein-luciferase system after screening has a good detection limit, up to 10-15mol ATP; using ATP bioluminescence and traditional plate method to measure the microbial quantity, they have good correlation. Utilizing ATP bioluminescence to detect the contamination degree of the characteristic fungi in jet fuel can shorten the test time to 10min, which is suitable for rapid detection and has good application prospects.
       
  • The Evolution Force of Genome Reduction in Carnivorous Plants

    • Abstract: The introns are widely present in the genome of eukaryotes and the distribution of intron varies greatly among different organisms or different genes. Generally, introns loss is an important way for uneven distribution of intron during genome evolution. In this study, two closely related carnivorous plants (Genlisea aurea and Utricularia gibba) were chosen, their genome were relatively integrity and high quality, especially, the large difference in genome size between them. We detected intron loss events, then investigated the relationship between the genome size, intron density, intron loss and the mutation rate in the carnivorous plants. Finally, a total of 752 and 124 intron loss positions were identified in G. aurea and U. gibba, respectively. In carnivorous plants, we found that the region around lost site had high mutation rate, the genes of intron loss had high mutation rate. Besides, for the species with more intron losses, the genome size was smaller and the mutation rate was higher. Thus, we propose that the mutation rate was positively correlated with intron losses, but negatively correlated with intron number and genome size. These could be explained by the selection to minimize mutational hazards.
       
  • Construction of Recombinant Bioleaching Bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans
           with Fluoride-Resistant Activity

    • Abstract: Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is an important bioleaching bacterium, widely used in leaching, recovery of low-grade metals and environmental bioremediation. In bio-metallurgy industry, fluoride existing in some hard rock uranium deposits in south China severely affects the bacteria viability and inhibit leaching reproduction. In this study, the flr-4 gene that has strong resistance to fluorine ion in Caenorhabditis elegans, was cloned into pET30a vector and expressed in E. coli BL21. the ability of fluoride resistance in E. coli was increased obviously. To increase the fluoride-resistance of bioleaching bacterium T. ferrooxidans strain 1 (T.f1), the flr-4 shuttle recombinant plasmid pJRD215-flr-4 was constructed and transferred into T.f1 by conjugation. pJRD215-flr-4 was stable in T.f1 with more than 70% retention after 50 generations. Recombinant T.f1 was tolerant to fluorine ions and grew well under fluoride (F-) stress especially at F- concentrations ranging from 10 mg/L to 60 mg/L.
       
  • Space Distribution of Highland Barley GNS and its Relationship with
           Environmental Factors in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    • Abstract: In order to study the space distribution of Grain Number per spike (GNS) and its relationship with the environmental factors in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, 83 data samples from different ecological areas were selected for GNS inverstigation. Meanwhile, the seeds of highland barley were harvested and planted in the farm of Xizang Agriculture and Animal Husbandry College; the varieties without genetic differences were selected and their GNS was analyzed with the local geography and climate factors. The results shows that: (1) In the horizontal direction, GNS forms the high value area of Central and South Tibetan taking Qiongjie and Longzi as the center; (2) In the vertical direction, GNS appears with double high value areas at the altitude of 3900m-4200m and above 4500m respectively and the corresponding GNS is 52.9±17.6 and 57.2±0.2 respectively; (3) the environmental factors influencing GNS are in the order that soil total nitrogen>soil available nitrogen>the average precipitation at heading-filling stage>altitude>soil organic matter>soil total phosphorus>the average rainfall at jointing-heading stage>soil available potassium>the average rainfall at tillering-jointing stage.
       
  • Statistical Improvement of Batch Culture with Immobilized Pichia pastoris
           Cells for rPOXA 1B Laccase Production

    • Abstract: Immobilized Pichia pastoris X33/pGAPZαA-LaccPost-Stop in Ca2+ alginate beads was employed for Pleurotus ostreatus rPOXA 1B laccase batch production. Sequential statistical improvement was achieved through Plackett-Burman (PBED), (PBED-T11, 29.5±0.8 UL-1), which allowed to increase activity by 2.36-fold (12.5±2.6 UL-1) obtained in a preliminary study. Following, Box-Behnken Experimental Design (BBED) was implemented and obtained enzymatic activity in PBED-T11 was further increased by 33.5-fold (BBED-T12 989.31±187.45 UL-1). After BBED-T12 extrapolation to column, cell release remained high. To demonstrate laccase was not acting on Ca2+ alginate polymer, it was shown that both untransformed P. pastoris and S. cervisiae were able to be released from the alginate matrix and proliferate. Molecular docking evaluating interaction between rPOXA 1B and Ca2+ alginate, exhibited weak interactions between the active center and Ca2+ alginate polymer. Moreover, the active center conformation was not appropriate for ligand transformation. Immobilization conditions decreasing cell release (17.01±0.12 gL-1) allowed for high enzymatic activity (1,453.93±0.43 UL-1) with greater specific activity (18.33 Umg-1). These conditions were: 4% Na2+ alginate (w/v) and 0.3 M CaCl2, suggesting that Na2+ alginate and CaCl2 concentrations can control cell release from this matrix.
       
  • Improvements on Semi Critical Assisted-Solvent Extraction of Biocrude Oil
           from Spirogyra. sp Macro Algae

    • Abstract: Here, we report on an improved chemical method to extract hydrocarbons (CH) and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) from wild green macro algae, which is higher than that carried out with conventional Soxhlet (Sx) and similar to that of Subcritical (SbC) or supercritical fluid (SCE) extraction methods. Crude oil plus residual biomass gave combined calorific values of 49.05 MJ/kg in agreement with its high-detected hydrocarbons (C, 72.56%; H, 10.59%) as desired for high quality liquid fuels. Oil extraction from macro algae was improved from 13.2% (Sx) to 34.8 % under Semi Critical Assisted-Solvent (SmCA-Sol) conditions. The extraction improvements are associated with an upgraded glassware design that works than in continuous or step-by-step operation under mild or high temperatures (<40, >500°C) as well as under moderate vacuum to above 1.0 atmosphere of pressure. The SmCA-Sol method creates a dynamic steam/solvent phase which exposes algae cell matrices to percolation in two opposite pathways leading to high yields of biomass extraction whether compared with traditional methods. Factors governing cell wall activation under SmCA-Sol conditions are discussed and compared with those carried out using advanced technologies and make recommendations towards future research regardless of macro algae chemical extraction of hydrocarbon and lipids.
       
  • Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Jet Fuel by
           Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with Lateral Flow Dipstick
           

    • Abstract: The existence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) is one of the significant reasons for the Microbially Influenced Corrosion (MIC) of jet fuel. Especially for the jet fuel stored by military, since jet fuel is stored in the tank for a long time, some oxygen-consuming bacteria such as Amorphotheca resinae and Bacillus Cohn can consume oxygen and generate organic acids at the oil-water interface of the tank bottom. This causes anaerobic SRB flourish in fuel tanks. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with a chromatographic Lateral Flow Dipstick (LFD) assay was established to detect the SRB. Four groups of LAMP primers were designed and synthesized to target dsrB (dissimilatory sulfite reductase β-subunit) genes in SRB.LAMP-LFD can detect 121 fg/μL of SRB DNA within 35 min. The detection limit of this method is 1000 times more sensitive than the conventional PCR and shortens the detection time greatly. This method is negative for other eight common bacteria species in jet fuel, indicating that the method has high specificity. In summary, this method can be used to detect the presence of SRB in jet fuel.
       
  • Current Laboratory Biosecurity for Handling Pathogenic Viruses

    • Abstract: The recent emergence of lethal viruses such as Ebola raises some concern about the possibility of the viruses being used as biological weapons. The application of pathogenic viruses as biothreat agents in the past is well documented. Although their use in warfare is currently prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention, their potential use in bioterrorism is a global concern. One of the requirements for conducting biological attack using viruses is successful aquisition of particular viruses for that action. Apart from natural sources, the laboratory can potentially be the source of viral biothreat agents. An effective strategy to avoid bioterrorism is to prevent bioterrorist action. Therefore, it is important in the laboratory handling of pathogenic viruses to implement biosecurity systems in order to prevent loss, theft, misuse, diversion, or intentional release that could lead dangerous viruses falling into unsafe hands. Viruses of biosecurity concern are those which particularly have an ability to cause large-scaled casualties and are easy disseminated. The level of biosecurity risk posed by the viruses being handled in the laboratory needs to be assessed in order to establish program at an appropriate level of laboratory biosecurity. A laboratory biosecurity system should include physical security, viruses control and accountability, personnel security, transport security and information security. In the laboratory, the implementation of a biosecurity system can be integrated to the biosafety plan. This review focuses on viruses of biosecurity concern, the principles of laboratory biosecurity, the assessment of laboratory biosecurity risk and how to render the biosecurity risk to an acceptable level. The review is intended to raise awareness among scientists and laboratory workers on the potency of the pathogenic viruses which can be misused and to develop secure and responsible scientific conduct involving pathogenic viruses.
       
  • Low-Homology Protein Structural Class Prediction from Secondary Structure
           Based on Visibility and Horizontal Visibility Network

    • Abstract: In this study, based on the predicted secondary structures of proteins, we propose a new approach to predict protein structural classes (α,β,α/β,α+β) for three widely used low-homology data sets. Fist, we obtain two time siries from the chaos game representation of each predicted secondary structure; second, based on two time series, we construct visibility and horizontal visibility network, respectively and generate a set of features using 17 network features; finaly, we predict each protein structure class using support vector machine and Fisher’s linear discriminant algorithm, respectively. In order to evaluate our method, the leave one out cross-validating test is employed on three data sets. Results show that our approach has been provided as a effective tool for the prediction of low-homology protein structural classes.
       
  • Antifungal Potential of Leptadenia Hastata Against Some Pathogenic Fungi

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate if the plant extract could provide antifungal potential against some pathogenic fungi. Extract of Dichloromethane solvents was used for disc diffusion assay. The inhibitory concentration of the extract was performed by broth dilution method and zone of inhibition was studied by disc diffusion method at the concentration of 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000ppm in DMSO. Fluconazole was used as the reference control for antifungal study. The extract showed maximum inhibition potential of zone of inhibition against most of the pathogen (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium oxysporium) used at concentration 25ppm to 250ppm with zone of inhibition (3.45±0, 3.33±0.12, 3.07±0.05 and 2.97±0.10mm respectively). The extract showed minimum inhibition potential against Fusarium oxysporium in all the concentration when compared with the control as well as to the other pathogens. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus was found to be more sensitive to Dichloromethane leaf extract followed by Candida tropical and lastly fusarium oxyspurium. The Present study indicates the potential usefulness of Dichloromethane leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata as antifungal agent.
       
 
 
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