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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 846 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (50 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (597 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (22 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (25 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (41 journals)
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    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (66 journals)

CHEMISTRY (597 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 217)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 203)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 277)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 107)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 165)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 136)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 189)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Science : Nano     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Arabian Journal of Chemistry
  [SJR: 0.512]   [H-I: 20]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1878-5352
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Quantitative structure–property relationship study of standard formation
           enthalpies of acyclic alkanes using atom-type-based AI topological indices
           

    • Authors: Fariba Safa; Melody Yekta
      Pages: 439 - 447
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Fariba Safa, Melody Yekta
      A quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) study was performed for prediction of enthalpies of 134 acyclic alkanes using modified Xu (mXu) index and atom-type-based AI topological indices. At first, a simple linear regression model was developed using mXu index alone and the statistics were R 2 =0.947, F =2335 and standard error of 1.00. The results showed that combination of the atom-type-based AI topological indices and mXu index can produce significant improvement in the statistical quality of the model, especially the decrease in the standard error was 33% relative to the simple linear model. The final model was validated to be statistically significant and reliable using external validation technique. External validation was performed by dividing the entire data set into three subsets and predicting enthalpy values for each subset from the other two as training sets. Average standard error of calibration of 0.66 and average standard error of prediction of 0.68 demonstrated the validity and good efficiency of the topological indices in modeling enthalpies of alkanes. The obtained results showed that the enthalpy for acyclic alkanes is dominated by molecular size and the atomic groups are also important although their contributions are much smaller than that of the molecular size.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.11.016
       
  • Promoting effects of thoria on the nickel-manganese mixed oxide catalysts
           for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    • Authors: S.S.P. Sultana; D.H.V. Kishore; Mufsir Kuniyil; Mujeeb Khan; Mohammed Rafiq H. Siddiqui; Abdulrahman Alwarthan; K.R.S. Prasad; Naushad Ahmad; Syed F. Adil
      Pages: 448 - 457
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): S.S.P. Sultana, D.H.V. Kishore, Mufsir Kuniyil, Mujeeb Khan, Mohammed Rafiq H. Siddiqui, Abdulrahman Alwarthan, K.R.S. Prasad, Naushad Ahmad, Syed F. Adil
      Due to the recent advancement in the development of various characterization techniques, mixed metal oxide (MMO) based catalysts have gained tremendous attention in the field of catalysis. In this study, we demonstrated the synthesis of a series of novel MMO based catalysts by a facile co-precipitation method. The detailed structure and composition of thoria promoted NiMnO catalysts was investigated using various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques such as, SEM, EDAX, XRD, TGA, BET and TPR. In order to study the effect of the content of thorium oxide on the catalytic activity of the as-prepared material various samples were prepared by the addition of low quantities of thorium oxide with 1%, 3% and 5% on NiMnO. The catalytic performances of the as-prepared catalysts were evaluated towards the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol using molecular oxygen as oxidant. Furthermore, in order to investigate the effect of the calcination temperatures on the catalytic activities of the as-prepared materials, the samples were calcined at three different temperatures at 300°C, 400°C and 500°C. The catalysts displayed significant enhancement in catalytic activity towards the catalytic conversion of benzyl alcohol (C6H5CH2OH) to benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO). Detailed kinetic studies of the reactions using gas chromatography have revealed that the variation of calcination temperature and the percentage of thoria had significant effect on the catalytic performances of the materials. Among all synthesized catalysts ThO2-(5%)-NiMnO catalyst calcined at 400°C exhibited the highest catalytic performance and stability for the selective oxidation of alcohols.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.01.017
       
  • Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of marine bromopyrrole
           alkaloid-based hybrids with anti-inflammatory activity

    • Authors: Rajesh A. Rane; Mukesh Nandave; Suresh Nayak; Anushri Naik; Dhwani Shah; Wesam S. Alwan; Niteshkumar U. Sahu; Shital S. Naphade; Mahesh B. Palkar; Sivanandhan Karunanidhi; Neeta Thapliyal; Rajshekhar Karpoormath
      Pages: 458 - 464
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Rajesh A. Rane, Mukesh Nandave, Suresh Nayak, Anushri Naik, Dhwani Shah, Wesam S. Alwan, Niteshkumar U. Sahu, Shital S. Naphade, Mahesh B. Palkar, Sivanandhan Karunanidhi, Neeta Thapliyal, Rajshekhar Karpoormath
      Hybrids of bromopyrrole alkaloids with aroyl hydrazone feature were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan induced rat paw edema method. All the tested hybrids showed good anti-inflammatory activity with 64.78–86.03% inhibition of edema. Most active hybrids 4b and 4f were further investigated for antihistaminic H1 [4b −8.09μg/mL (18.5μM); 4f −9.26μg/mL (24.05μM)] and anti-serotonergic 5-HT3 [4b −7.01μg/mL (16.04μM); 4f −9.64μg/mL (25.04μM)] activities. Molecule 4f with anti-inflammatory, anti-histaminic and anti-serotonergic activities emerges as a potential anti-inflammatory lead form in this study.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.06.004
       
  • Exploration of novel
           5′(7′)-substituted-2′-oxospiro[1,3]dioxolane-2,3′-indoline-based
           N-hydroxypropenamides as histone deacetylase inhibitors and antitumor
           agents

    • Authors: Do Thi Mai Dung; Phan Thi Phuong Dung; Dao Thi Kim Oanh; Tran Khac Vu; Hyunggu Hahn; Byung Woo Han; Minji Pyo; Young Guk Kim; Sang-Bae Han; Nguyen-Hai Nam
      Pages: 465 - 472
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Do Thi Mai Dung, Phan Thi Phuong Dung, Dao Thi Kim Oanh, Tran Khac Vu, Hyunggu Hahn, Byung Woo Han, Minji Pyo, Young Guk Kim, Sang-Bae Han, Nguyen-Hai Nam
      A series of novel 5′(7′)-substituted-2′-oxospiro[1,3]dioxolane-2,3′-indoline-based N-hydroxypropenamides were designed, synthesized and evaluated for histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition and cytotoxicity. It was found that the compounds in this series displayed potent inhibitory effects against HDAC2 with IC50 values as low as 0.284μM, almost comparable to that of SAHA (IC50, 0.265μM), a positive control. In Western blot analysis, these compounds also exhibited noted inhibition toward histone deacetylation and this inhibition was found to correlate well with the cytotoxicity of the compounds in three human cancer cell lines. Docking studies indicated the compounds in this series bound to HDAC2 with high binding affinities (∼−9.8kcal/mol) compared to SAHA (−7.4kcal/mol).

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.10.007
       
  • Catalytic activity of some oxime-based Pd(II)-complexes in Suzuki coupling
           of aryl and heteroaryl bromides in water

    • Authors: Kamal M. Dawood; Mohamed R. Shaaban; Manahil B. Elamin; Ahmad M. Farag
      Pages: 473 - 479
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kamal M. Dawood, Mohamed R. Shaaban, Manahil B. Elamin, Ahmad M. Farag
      The catalytic activity of four Pd(II)-complexes of benzoazole-oximes was extensively studied in Suzuki–Miyaura C–C cross coupling reactions in water, as an eco-friendly green solvent, under both thermal heating as well as microwave irradiation conditions. The cross-coupling reactions included different activated and deactivated aryl- or heteroaryl-bromides with several arylboronic acids. The protected oxime-complexes were found to be more efficient than the free ones.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.06.004
       
  • A new approach for pectin extraction: Electromagnetic induction heating

    • Authors: Yamina Zouambia; Khadidja Youcef Ettoumi; Mohamed Krea; Nadji Moulai-Mostefa
      Pages: 480 - 487
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yamina Zouambia, Khadidja Youcef Ettoumi, Mohamed Krea, Nadji Moulai-Mostefa
      Electromagnetic induction (EMI) and conventional (CV) heating have been employed to extract pectin from citrange (Citrus sinensis×Poncirus trifoliata) albedos under the same extraction conditions (pH 1.2, temperature 80°C and extraction time 90min). The electromagnetic induction heating process was investigated at different extraction times (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 90min) and at different power levels. The high pectin yield obtained with this process was found to be 29% (w/w) of dried albedos, which was almost equal to that found using conventional heating (24% (w/w)). However, a considerable reduction in the extraction time was observed. It was found that 30min of electromagnetic induction extraction of pectin from dried albedos yielded the same amount (24% (w/w)) of pectin obtained by conventional heating process for 90min. Also, the electromagnetic induction heating at higher power and for only 2.09min gave half the amount of pectin extracted by conventional heating for 90min. Moreover, it was found that both extracted pectins showed almost similar compositions and physicochemical properties, presenting a galacturonic acid content of 29.10–29.40% and an esterification degree of 61.00–62.50%. The average molecular weight for both pectins extracted by EMI and CV heating ranged from 0.84×105 to 1.63×105. Hence, the electromagnetic induction heating can be suggested as a promising method for the extraction of pectin from citrange albedos at a short time, with a remarkable yield and keeping the composition and the physicochemical properties of the pectin unchanged.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.11.011
       
  • Alpha-glucosidase and carbonic anhydrase inhibition studies of
           Pd(II)-hydrazide complexes

    • Authors: Qurrat-ul-Ain; Uzma Ashiq; Rifat Ara Jamal; Muhammad Saleem; Mohammad Mahroof-Tahir
      Pages: 488 - 499
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Qurrat-ul-Ain, Uzma Ashiq, Rifat Ara Jamal, Muhammad Saleem, Mohammad Mahroof-Tahir
      This study focused on the synthesis and characterization of hydrazide ligands and their respective Pd(II) complexes and used high throughput screening to determine their α-glucosidase and carbonic anhydrase II enzyme inhibition activities. The physical, analytical (elemental analyses for C, H, N and Pd) and spectral (FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-mass) techniques utilized during characterization revealed the formation of square planar, neutral and 1:2 Pd(II)-hydrazide complexes with the general formula [PdL2Cl2]. In these Pd(II) complexes, the hydrazide ligands are monodentate; the terminal nitrogen is the donor atom. The uncoordinated hydrazide ligands were inactive against both α-glucosidase and carbonic anhydrase II enzymes; however, the respective Pd(II)-hydrazide complexes were approximately 300 times more potent α-glucosidase inhibitors than the standard compound, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). Some of the Pd(II) complexes also demonstrated potential carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition properties comparable to the standard compound, acetazolamide (ACZ).

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.02.024
       
  • Synthesis of 1-((4-methoxyphenyl)-3-alkynes)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-diones and
           functionalization to triazoles

    • Authors: Bakhat Ali; Stanley N.S. Vasconcelos; Anwar Shamim; J. Zukerman-Schpector; Hélio A. Stefani
      Pages: 500 - 508
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Bakhat Ali, Stanley N.S. Vasconcelos, Anwar Shamim, J. Zukerman-Schpector, Hélio A. Stefani
      A series of alkynyl maleimides were prepared via one-step cross-coupling reaction using bromomaleimide and acetylenes under the Sonogashira conditions, affording 1-((4-methoxyphenyl)-3-alkynes)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-diones in good to high yields. These products were subsequently converted in the corresponding 1,2,3-triazole using conventional click chemistry approach. The alkynyl maleimide compound (8g) crystallized in the triclinic space group P1 with unit cell parameters a =5.3692(6), b =9.2513(10), c =10.3070(11)Å, α =85.349(4), β =86.892(4), γ =86.892(4)°, V =507.31(10)Å3, and Z =1. In the crystal the molecules are stacked parallel to the c axis and held together through a C–H⋯π and a C–H⋯O interaction.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2016.06.003
       
  • Extraction, isolation and identification of flavonoid from Euphorbia
           neriifolia leaves

    • Authors: Veena Sharma; Pracheta Janmeda
      Pages: 509 - 514
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Veena Sharma, Pracheta Janmeda
      The flavonoids contained in Euphorbia neriifolia leaves were extracted, identified and characterized. Direct and sequential soxhlet extraction and its concentrated fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography. The results showed that maximum yield of the flavonoid (6.53g) was obtained from ethanolic extract. The Rf value of isolated flavonoid and phytochemical screening has been compared with standard Quercetin. Characterization of isolated flavonoid was done by IR, 1H NMR, and MS. On the basis of chemical and spectral analysis structure was elucidated as 2-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-phenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxychromen-4-one, a flavonoid. This compound was isolated for the first time from this plant.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2014.08.019
       
  • Electrochemical supercapacitors of cobalt hydroxide nanoplates grown on
           conducting cadmium oxide base-electrodes

    • Authors: Kailas K. Tehare; Manohar K. Zate; Sachin T. Navale; Sambhaji S. Bhande; Sanjay L. Gaikwad; Supriya A. Patil; Shayam K. Gore; Mu. Naushad; Sulaiman M. Alfadul; Rajaram S. Mane
      Pages: 515 - 522
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kailas K. Tehare, Manohar K. Zate, Sachin T. Navale, Sambhaji S. Bhande, Sanjay L. Gaikwad, Supriya A. Patil, Shayam K. Gore, Mu. Naushad, Sulaiman M. Alfadul, Rajaram S. Mane
      Dopant-free and cost-effective sprayed cadmium oxide (CdO) conducting base-electrodes, obtained at different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5M), characterized for their structures, morphologies and conductivities by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements, respectively, are employed as base-electrodes for growing cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH)2) nanoplates using a simple electrodeposition method which further are envisaged for electrochemical supercapacitor application. Polycrystalline nature and mushroom-like plane-views are confirmed from the structure and morphology analyses. Both CdO and CdO–Co(OH)2 electrodes reveal specific capacitances as high as 312Fg−1 and 1119Fg−1, respectively, in 0.1M KOH electrolyte at 10mVs−1 sweep rate. Optimized Co(OH)2–CdO configuration electrode demonstrates energy density of 98.83Whkg−1 and power density of 0.75kWkg−1. In order to investigate the charge transfer kinematics electrochemical impedance measurements are carried out and explored.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2016.01.006
       
  • Unsymmetrically urea silatranes: Synthesis, characterization and a
           selective on–off fluorescence response to acetate anion

    • Authors: Gurjaspreet Singh; Amandeep Saroa; Sunita Rani; Promila; Duane Choquesillo-Lazarte; Subash Sahoo
      Pages: 523 - 531
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Gurjaspreet Singh, Amandeep Saroa, Sunita Rani, Promila, Duane Choquesillo-Lazarte, Subash Sahoo
      New unsymmetrically Substituted Urea enclosed Silatranes (USUS) 2–5 are prepared in good yield by nucleophilic attack of pyrrolidine, piperidine, 3-methylpyridine-2-amine and N-methylbenzenamine containing active hydrogen atom on newly synthesized 3-isocyanatopropylsilatrane 1. All the compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, multinuclear (1H and 13C) NMR and mass spectrometry. The single crystal X-ray crystallography technique facilitates the establishment of exact structures of silatranes 2, 3 and 4. The fluorescence titration results have revealed a selective on–off fluorescence response of silatranes toward acetate anion.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.07.017
       
  • Synthesis, characterization and rheological behavior of pH sensitive
           poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels

    • Authors: Seddiki Nesrinne; Aliouche Djamel
      Pages: 539 - 547
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Seddiki Nesrinne, Aliouche Djamel
      Poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogels were prepared by free radical polymerization initiated by redox initiators of ammonium peroxodisulphate (APS) and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl ethylene diamine (TEMED); N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (BIS) was employed as a crosslinking agent. The copolymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic rheology and swelling measurements. Results indicated that the strong interaction in the hydrogels resulted in the formation of a more stable copolymer. The single glass transition temperature (Tg ) in sample suggested that the two polymers into the hydrogel have a good miscibility. The elastic modulus (G′) and linear viscoelastic region increased with increase in PAAc concentration. The oscillation time sweep study of the hydrogels exhibited a flat G′ indicating a stable structure and good mechanical strength. In the swelling measurements, the gels exhibited appreciable water uptake and were highly sensitive to pH environment. So the poly(AAm-co-AAc) hydrogel will have promising application in pharmaceutical use and in biomaterials.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.11.027
       
  • Ring rearrangements and reactivity of
           3-((4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene)-4-phenyl-1H-[1,5]benzodiazepin-2(3H)-one
           toward some nucleophiles

    • Authors: Hanan Salah; Eman A. Ahmed; Mohamed M. Hassan
      Pages: 548 - 555
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Hanan Salah, Eman A. Ahmed, Mohamed M. Hassan
      Condensation of 4-phenyl-1H-[1,5]benzodiazepin-2(3H)-one (1) with 3-formylchromone (2) afforded a mixture of 3-(chromenylmethylene)[1,5]benzodiazepinone 3 and 14-chromenylbenzodiazepino[2,3:6,5]pyrano[2,3-b]benzodiazepine 4. Ring rearrangements of compound 3 with different nucleophilic reagents, such as potassium hydroxide and/or ammonium acetate led to rearrangement into pyranobenzodiazepine 5 and pyridobenzodiazepine 6, respectively. Treatment of compound 3 with hydrazine hydrate, hydroxylamine hydrochloride, malononitrile, cyanothioacetamide, 2-cyano-3,3-disufanylacrylonitrile, and/or 2-cyano-3-phenylamino-3-sufanylacrylonitrile, has been carried out at different conditions, leading to versatile heterocyclic substituted benzodiazepines at position 3, viz. pyrazole 8, isoxazole 9, pyridines 10 and 11, 1,3-dithiine 12, and 1,3-thiazine 13 derivatives.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.03.008
       
  • Facile electrochemical synthesis of few layered graphene from discharged
           battery electrode and its application for energy storage

    • Authors: Santosh K. Tiwari; Andrzej Huczko; Ramesh Oraon; Amrita De Adhikari; G.C. Nayak
      Pages: 556 - 565
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Santosh K. Tiwari, Andrzej Huczko, Ramesh Oraon, Amrita De Adhikari, G.C. Nayak
      A cost-effective, simple and non-hazardous route for synthesis of few-layered graphene from waste zinc carbon battery (ZCB) electrodes via electrochemical expansion (ECE) has been reported. In this synthesis, we have electrochemically exfoliated the graphene layers, by intercalating sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) surfactant into graphitic layers at different D.C. voltages with a constant SDBS concentration. The graphene sheets were isolated, purified and characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry, Ultraviolet absorption (UV), Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and Cyclic voltammetry. Best result was obtained at 4.5V of D.C. A possible mechanism for the intercalation process has been proposed. A promising application of the produced material for supercapacitor application has also been explored in combination with polyaniline.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.08.016
       
  • Determination of anti-staphylococcal activity of thymoquinone in
           combinations with antibiotics by checkerboard method using EVA capmat™
           as a vapor barrier

    • Authors: Johana Rondevaldova; Pavel Novy; Jan Urban; Ladislav Kokoska
      Pages: 566 - 572
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Johana Rondevaldova, Pavel Novy, Jan Urban, Ladislav Kokoska
      Thymoquinone (Tq) has been reported to potentiate the in vitro growth-inhibitory activity of some antibiotics especially against Staphylococcus aureus. However, it has been shown that Tq vapors can affect the results of susceptibility testing by standard broth microdilution method. Therefore, we made a comparative experiment with and without ethylene vinyl acetate cap mats (EVA capmat™) on microplates. The results showed significant differences in the minimum inhibitory concentration values and proved this capmat as an effective vapor barrier. Therefore further experiments focused on the in vitro anti-staphylococcal combinatory effect of Tq with oxacillin, penicillin, and tetracycline against various S. aureus strains have been performed by checkerboard method using EVA capmat™. The combined effect was evaluated according to the sum of fractional inhibitory concentrations (ΣFIC). Synergy was obtained for combination with oxacillin against 3 (ΣFIC 0.263–0.450), with penicillin against 1 (ΣFIC 0.466) and with tetracycline against 2 strains tested (ΣFIC 0.400–0.475). Our results confirm previous reports on the Tq enhancement of anti-staphylococcal activity of antibiotics. Moreover, this is the first report on Tq synergy with oxacillin and penicillin against S. aureus. Our experiments also showed that Tq vapors can affect evaluation of combined effect by checkerboard assay, whereas the use of EVA capmat™ can avoid this.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.04.021
       
  • Mechanism study of stabilization of double-base propellants by using
           zeolite stabilizers (nano- and micro-clinoptilolite)

    • Authors: M.A. Zayed; Salah E.M. El-Begawy; Hossam E.S. Hassan
      Pages: 573 - 581
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): M.A. Zayed, Salah E.M. El-Begawy, Hossam E.S. Hassan
      The mechanism of stabilization of double-base rocket propellants (DBPs) using inorganic stabilizer (nano- and micro-clinoptilolite) was investigated. The surface structures of the stabilizers, the double-base propellants containing the new stabilizers and the effect of the stabilizers on the surface behavior of propellants and vice versa were checked using XRD and Electron Microscope (AFM and TEM techniques). The results obtained from XRD suggested that the crystalline structure of the new inorganic stabilizers was completely changed when it was introduced into the propellants which may be attributed to the pressing processes of DBPs with stabilizers under very high pressure during their mixture preparation. The results obtained from Atomic Force Electron Microscope (AFM) and TEM indicated that nano-clinoptilolite particles become more regularly arranged on the propellant surface than micro-clinoptilolite which gives the stabilizer a higher ability to absorb more nitrogen oxide. The work aimed chiefly to use zeolite stabilizers for DBPs instead of classically used organic compounds; in order to avoid the harmful and carcinogenic organic products coming from the reaction of NO x gases with these organic stabilizers. This is achieved by studying the thermal behavior of these zeolites via investigation of their surface interaction with NO x gases obtained during stabilization process and suggesting possible interaction mechanism.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.08.021
       
  • HPLC-ICP-MS speciation of selenium in Se-cultivated Flammulina velutipes

    • Authors: Mei Tie; Baorui Li; Tiebiao Sun; Wei Guan; Yanqiu Liang; Huawei Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Mei Tie, Baorui Li, Tiebiao Sun, Wei Guan, Yanqiu Liang, Huawei Li
      Selenium is an essential micronutrient required at trace levels for human health, and dietary intake is the only source of selenium, which appears mainly in the form of selenocompounds. In this study, Flammulina velutipes was grown for 80 days in standard medium containing selenite, and the level of total selenium in the organism was then determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In Se-cultivated F. velutipes, selenium was mainly distributed in the water-soluble form and the content of soluble selenium-containing species in Se-cultivated F. velutipes was 47.10 mg kg-1, accounted for 72.5% of the total selenium content. The water-soluble proteins in F. velutipes were extracted and precipitated by different ammonium sulfate saturation concentrations. Size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC) analysis of these proteins revealed the presence of at least six selenium-containing protein species, with molecular weights ranging from 9,000-74,000 Da, Selenium-containing proteins represented about 7.0% of the total soluble selenium. The result of this study suggested that Se-cultivated F. velutipes could potentially be considered as a selenium supplement for human.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T08:57:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.012
       
  • Optimization and modeling of synthesis parameters of neodymium(III)
           bromide by dry method using full factorial design analysis

    • Authors: Yassine Bounouri; Madjid Berkani; Abdelmalek Zamouche; Leszek Rycerz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Yassine Bounouri, Madjid Berkani, Abdelmalek Zamouche, Leszek Rycerz
      The synthesis of neodymium(III) bromide (NdBr3) by sintering brominating of neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) with ammonium bromide (NH4Br) was investigated. The influence of various synthesis parameters (temperature, contact time and stoichiometry) on the reaction yield was studied and optimized. The main interaction effects of the synthesis parameters on the reaction yield were also determined by a full 23 factorial designs with six replicates at the center point. This study showed that the optimum conditions for the synthesis of NdBr3 are following:: contact time t = 60 min, stoichiometry in moles (Nd2O3:NH4Br = 1: 24) and temperature T = 400 °C. The reaction yield for these parameters was equal 97.80%. The first order model was obtained to predict the reaction yield as a function of these three parameters. It was shown that all parameters have a significant positive influence on reaction yield. In addition it was pointed out also that the interaction effects between them are significant.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.003
       
  • Towards oxidative denitrogenation of fuel oils: Vanadium oxide-catalysed
           oxidation of quinoline and adsorptive removal of quinoline-N-oxide using
           2,6-pyridine-polybenzimidazole nanofibers

    • Authors: A.S. Ogunlaja; M.S. Abdul-quadir; P.E. Kleyi; E.E. Ferg; P. Watts; Z.R. Tshentu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): A.S. Ogunlaja, M.S. Abdul-quadir, P.E. Kleyi, E.E. Ferg, P. Watts, Z.R. Tshentu
      The study provides a technological method for the removal of nitrogen compounds from fuels, via oxidation and extractive adsorption. The use of batch process resulted in lack of specificity of the quinoline oxidation reaction with several products produced via ring-opening while the flow micro-reactor, presented, a high degree of selectivity to quinoline-N-oxide (67%). The application of molecularly imprinted 2,6-pyridine-polybenzimidazole nanofibers displayed excellent quinoline-N-oxide removal (86%) with an adsorption capacity (qe) of 4.8 mg/g. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) interactions between quinoline-N-oxide and 2,6-PyPBI confirmed a favourable interaction. DFT studies on quinoline-N-oxide vs 2,6-PyPBI further indicated: (i) a hydrogen bonding (through amino group of 2,6-PyPBI and oxygen atoms of the quinoline-N-oxide), (ii) pi-pi stacking and (iii) van der Waals interactions. The selective oxidation and adsorption of nitrogen compounds present in fuel, which has been demonstrated here, would be a sustainable green chemistry technology for the production of clean fuel.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.010
       
  • Nanoparticles: Properties, Applications and Toxicities

    • Authors: Ibrahim Khan; Khalid Saeed; Idrees Khan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Ibrahim Khan, Khalid Saeed, Idrees Khan
      This Review is provided a detailed overview of the synthesis, properties and applications of nanoparticles (NPs) exist in different forms. NPs are tiny materials having size ranges from 1 to 100 nm. They can be classified into different classes based on their properties, shapes or sizes. The different groups include fullerenes, metal NPs, ceramic NPs, and polymeric NPs etc. NPs possess unique physical and chemical properties due to their high surface area and nanoscale size. Their optical properties are reported to be dependent on the size, which imparts different colors due to absorption in the visible region. Their reactivity, toughness and other properties are also dependent on their unique size, shape and structure. Due to these characteristics, they are suitable candidates for various commercial and domestic applications, which include catalysis, imaging, medical applications, energy-based research, environmental applications etc. Heavy metal NPs of lead, mercury and tin are reported to be so rigid and stable that their degradation is not easily achievable, which can lead to many environmental toxicities.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.011
       
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Thin Film Composite Membranes Made of
           PSF-TiO2/GO Nanocomposite Substrate for Forward Osmosis Applications

    • Authors: T. Sirinupong; W. Youravong; D. Tirawat; W.J. Lau; G.S. Lai; A.F. Ismail
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): T. Sirinupong, W. Youravong, D. Tirawat, W.J. Lau, G.S. Lai, A.F. Ismail
      Support layer of thin film composite (TFC) membrane plays an important role in forward osmosis (FO) performance. A new type of support layer or nanocomposite substrate was developed by incorporating titanium dioxide (TiO2)/graphene oxide (GO) into polysulfone (PSF) matrix. Prior to performance evaluation, the developed substrates were characterized with respect to surface chemistry, roughness and cross-sectional morphology. The results showed that both surface hydrophilicity and roughness of PSF-based substrates were increased upon incorporation of nanomaterials. Substrates with long finger-like voids extended from the top to the bottom could be developed upon incorporation of TiO2 (SubstrateTiO2) or TiO2/GO mixture (SubstrateTiO2/GO). The improved surface hydrophilicity and favorable structure formed are the main factors leading to higher water flux of nanocomposite substrate. Moreover, the water flux of FO using TFC membranes could be enhanced using this nanocomposite substrate. Comparing to the control TFC membrane, the TFC membranes made of SubstrateTiO2 and SubstrateTiO2/GO exhibited greater water flux with minimum increase in reverse draw solute flux. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the incorporation of TiO2 and/or GO nanoparticles into PSF substrate could potentially improve the TFC membrane performance during FO applications.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.006
       
  • Electrochemical oxidation of vanillic acid by electro-Fenton process:
           toward a novel route of protocatechuic acid electrosynthesis

    • Authors: Raouia REKIK; Morched HAMZA; Mohamed JAZIRI; Ridha ABDELHEDI
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Raouia REKIK, Morched HAMZA, Mohamed JAZIRI, Ridha ABDELHEDI
      The electrochemical oxidation of vanillic acid (VA) in acetone-water mixtures, was studied by electro-Fenton (EF) process in an undivided electro-chemical cell equipped with a carbon fiber cloth as cathode and Pt anode. The objective is the conversion of VA into protocatechuic acid (PCA) well known by its high added value. To our knowledge, the EF method was not used in organic electrosynthesis. The influence of several operating parameters, such as applied current, initial VA concentration and volumic percentage of acetone was investigated. The evolution of the concentrations of VA and its main oxidation product PCA during electrolyses was monitored by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental data indicated that the kinetics of VA disappearance follow a pseudo first and zero orders for initial VA concentrations respectively equals to 6.5 and (10, 20, 30) mmol L-1. The maximum PCA concentration, increases with volumic percentage of acetone and initial VA concentration. Under optimal experimental conditions of applied current (20 mA) and volumetric percentage of acetone (20%), the increase of the initial VA concentration leads to a linear increase of the maximum of PCA concentration. The very good selectivity rate of the oxidation of VA to PCA by the EF process, was interpreted by the stabilizing effects of acetone and especially the complexation of PCA by the iron ions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.001
       
  • Synthesis and antioxidant study of new polyphenolic hybrid-coumarins

    • Authors: Karina Pérez-Cruz; Mauricio Moncada-Basualto; Javier Morales-Valenzuela; Germán Barriga; Patricio Navarrete-Encina; Luis Núñez-Vergara; J.A. Squella; Claudio Olea-Azar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Karina Pérez-Cruz, Mauricio Moncada-Basualto, Javier Morales-Valenzuela, Germán Barriga, Patricio Navarrete-Encina, Luis Núñez-Vergara, J.A. Squella, Claudio Olea-Azar
      The antioxidant capacity of hydroxylated coumarins and hydroxybenzoic acids has been widely described. However, there is little information on the antioxidant activity when both systems are functionalized. In this work, new hybrid compounds synthesis with a common coumarin scaffold and hydroxybenzoic acids is described. Their antioxidant capacity was evaluated against reactive oxygen species (ROS) using oxygen radical absorbance capacity-fluorescein (ORAC-FL), electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping, quenching of superoxide anion, cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and a ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP assay). Additionally, the local reactivity indicator (Fukui index) was calculated to discriminate different reactive sites in the new molecules in which the oxidative process occurs. Likewise, the BDE values were calculated in order to obtain information about the antioxidant capacity for HAT mechanisms. The insertion of organic phenols in a simple coumarin structure produced new derivatives with an improved antioxidant capacity in relation to coumarin 1a. For compound 3c, a synergy phenomenon in ORAC-FL and the FRAP test was observed. For compound 3b, this phenomenon was observed in the superoxide scavenging test. According to the CAA assay results, the activity of the new compounds is limited to those oxidative processes in lipophilic media (e.g., bio membranes).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.007
       
  • Influence of metal-support interaction on nitrate hydrogenation over Rh
           and Rh-Cu nanoparticles dispersed on Al2O3 and TiO2 supports

    • Authors: Razvan State; Mariana Scurtu; Akane Miyazaki; Florica Papa; Irina Atkinson; Cornel Munteanu; Ioan Balint
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Razvan State, Mariana Scurtu, Akane Miyazaki, Florica Papa, Irina Atkinson, Cornel Munteanu, Ioan Balint
      Well-defined Rh and Rh-Cu nanoparticles (NP's) of 1.6 nm and 1.3 nm, respectively, were synthesized by alkaline polyol method and then dispersed on insulating (Al2O3) and semiconducting (TiO2) supports. Both colloidal NP's and supported NP's were characterized using various experimental methods (TEM, XPS, XRD, etc) to gather information about their specific morphology, structure and chemical state. The effects of size and support on the catalytic behavior of NP's for nitrate hydrogenation reaction were analyzed. Oxide supports, especially TiO2, were found to have a strong positive effect on the catalytic activity of metallic NP's. The non-supported, colloidal, Rh and Rh-Cu NP's are either inactive or posses very low hydrogenation activity. For supported materials, the intimate contact between two metals (i.e. Rh-Cu) is required to attain good hydrogenation activity. The strong metal-support interaction, induced by hydrogen spillover, is a key point in determining hydrogenation activity. The Rh-Cu NP's dispersed on TiO2 are extremely active for NO3 - and NO2 - (intermediate) deep hydrogenation, with high selectivity for NH4 +. The hydrogenation activity of Rh-Cu NP's supported on Al2O3 is hindered considerably, the main products of NO3 - hydrogenation being NO2 - intermediate.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.009
       
  • Controlled drug release behavior of metformin hydrogen chloride from
           biodegradable films based on chitosan/poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether
           blend

    • Authors: M. Sohail Sarwar; Abdul Ghaffar; Atif Islam; Farhat Yasmin; Zehra Oluz; Eylül Tuncel; Hatice Duran; Asif Ali Qaiser
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): M. Sohail Sarwar, Abdul Ghaffar, Atif Islam, Farhat Yasmin, Zehra Oluz, Eylül Tuncel, Hatice Duran, Asif Ali Qaiser
      In this study, novel smart drug release films were prepared by blending chitosan with polyethylene glycol methyl ether (PEGME), also named as methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG), for controlled drug release applications. The polymeric films were characterized by Fourier transform infra-red for functional groups analysis, scanning electron microscopy for morphology and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for chemical and surface analysis followed by mechanical and thermal analysis. The mechanical properties showed that with the addition of PEGME (40 %), the tensile strength and elongation break was increased up to 34.14 Mpa and 26.40 %, respectively as compared to the controlled sample (without PEGME). The developed biodegradable films were tested for Metformin hydrogen chloride release ability at a particular rate in phosphate buffer saline solution at pH 7.4. The results showed that chitosan/PEGME blends could be employed for controlled drug release and other biomedical applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.005
       
  • Diazenyl Schiff Bases: Synthesis, Spectral Analysis, Antimicrobial studies
           and Cytotoxic Activity on Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (HCT-116)

    • Authors: Harmeet Kaur; Siong Meng Lim; Kalavathy Ramasamy; Mani Vasudevan; Syed Adnan Ali Shah; Balasubramanian Narasimhan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Harmeet Kaur, Siong Meng Lim, Kalavathy Ramasamy, Mani Vasudevan, Syed Adnan Ali Shah, Balasubramanian Narasimhan
      A series of diazenyl schiff bases have been synthesized by reaction of salicylaldehyde containing azo dyes with various substituted aniline derivatives in presence of acetic acid as catalyst. The structures of diazenyl derivatives were determined by FTIR, UV-vis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, CHN analysis, fluorimetric and mass spectroscopic studies. The synthesized derivatives were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against various Gram-positive (S. aureus, B. subtilis, B. cereus), Gram-negative (S. typhi, S. enterica, E. coli, P. aeruginosa) bacterial and fungal (C. albicans, A. niger and A. fumigatus) strains, using cefadroxil (antibacterial) and fluconazole (antifungal) as standard drugs. The diazenyl schiff bases were also screened for their cytotoxicity against human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116) using 5-fluorouracil as standard drug by Sulfo-Rhodamine-B Stain (SRB) assay. The schiff bases exhibited significant activity toward both Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains. Most of the synthesized derivatives showed high activity against S. enterica. 4-((2,5-Dichlorophenyl)diazenyl)-2-((3-bromophenylimino)methyl)phenol (SBN-40) was found to be very active against S. aureus, B. cereus and E. coli, with MIC=0.69 (µM/ml X 102). The compound, 4-((2-bromophenyl)diazenyl)-2-((4-nitrophenylimino)methyl)phenol (SBN-13) possessed comparable activity (IC50=7.5 µg/ml) to the standard drug 5-fluorouracil (IC50=3.0 µg/ml) against human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-116).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.004
       
  • Impact of Ionic Liquids on Silver Thermoplastic Composite Membrane
           Polyurethane for Propane/Propylene Separation

    • Authors: Yu Wang; Tee Yong Goh; Peter Goodrich; Mert Atilhan; Majeda Khraisheh; David Rooney; Jillian Thompson; Johan Jacquemin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Yu Wang, Tee Yong Goh, Peter Goodrich, Mert Atilhan, Majeda Khraisheh, David Rooney, Jillian Thompson, Johan Jacquemin
      This work describes newly synthesized composite polymeric membranes and their utilization in propane/propylene separation in a gas mixture. The nonporous composite polymers were successfully synthesized by using thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and several silver salts/silver salts with ionic liquids (ILs). Our studies showed that silver bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Ag[Tf2N]) containing membranes outperformed other silver salt containing membranes in terms of selectivity. In addition, to this finding, ILs, as additives for the membranes, enhanced the selectivity by facilitating improved coordination of the olefin with the silver ions in the dense composite polymers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.008
       
  • An experimental design approach to obtain canthinone alkaloid-enriched
           extracts from Simaba aff. paraensis

    • Authors: Aline de S. Ramos; José Luiz P. Ferreira; Jefferson Rocha de A. Silva; Jefferson D. da Cruz; Danielle L. de Oliveira; Maria A. Mpalantinos da Silva; Silvia L. Basso; Ana Claudia F. Amaral
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Aline de S. Ramos, José Luiz P. Ferreira, Jefferson Rocha de A. Silva, Jefferson D. da Cruz, Danielle L. de Oliveira, Maria A. Mpalantinos da Silva, Silvia L. Basso, Ana Claudia F. Amaral
      The species of the genus Simaba (Simaroubaceae) are found in almost all Brazil and they are used by local population for the treatment of ulcers and malaria. The genus is characterized by the presence of quassinoids and canthinone alkaloids. There is a great interest in canthinones due to important biological activities associated with this class of alkaloids. In this study, methods were developed for obtaining enriched fractions of canthinone alkaloids from Simaba aff. paraensis using experimental factorial design analyzed by gas chromatography. Three alkaloids were detected: canthin-6-one, 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one and the major 9-methoxycanthin-6-one. Within the experimental domain, factorial designs 22 helped establish the minimum amount of solvent and minimum time necessary to obtain extracts enriched in canthinone alkaloids from S. aff. paraensis barks by two extraction methods. These results represent a reduction in costs for obtaining canthinone alkaloids described for the first time in S. aff. paraensis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T15:17:19Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.05.002
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4


      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
       
  • Cytotoxicity effects of alkoxy substituted thiourea derivatives towards
           Acanthamoeba sp.

    • Authors: Wan Khairul; Yit-Peng Goh Adibah Izzati Daud M.A. Nakisah
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 10, Issue 4
      Author(s): Wan M. Khairul, Yit-Peng Goh, Adibah Izzati Daud, M.A. Nakisah
      In this study, the effort was to design and synthesize five new members of alkoxy substituted thiourea derivatives (3a–3e) featuring general formula of A-ArC(O)NHC(S)NHAr-D in which A represents the methoxy group and D as –OC n H2 n +1 (alkoxyl group, where n =6,7,8,9, and 10) have been successfully designed, prepared, characterized, and evaluated for anti-amoebic activities. They were spectroscopically characterized by 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy analysis. In turn, they were used to investigate the cytotoxicity effect on Acanthamoeba sp. at their IC50 values and membrane permeability. Compounds 3a and 3b revealed to have good activity towards Acanthamoeba sp. compared to other compounds of 3c, 3d, and 3e. The observation under fluorescence microscopy by AOPI (Acridine-orange/Propidium iodide) staining indicated that treated amoeba cells by 3a–3e show loss of their membrane permeability.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T14:19:06Z
       
  • Preparation of mesoporous alumina electro-generated by electrocoagulation
           in NaCl electrolyte and application in fluoride removal with consistent
           regenerations

    • Authors: S. Zaidi; A. Oulebsir; K. Omine; V. Alonzo; T. Chaabane; A. Darchen; T.A.M. Msagati; V. Sivasankar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): S. Zaidi, A. Oulebsir, K. Omine, V. Alonzo, T. Chaabane, A. Darchen, T.A.M. Msagati, V. Sivasankar
      The fluoride adsorption by Electro-Generated Adsorbents (EGA) was briefly and recently shown. In this paper, the preparation of a particular EGA and its characteristics are presented. For the first time, the fluoride adsorption of one EGA was deeply investigated showing that the regeneration of this material leads to an efficient process which was better than an electrocoagulation one. The investigated adsorbent called EGANaCl was prepared by electrolysis in NaCl electrolyte with aluminum electrodes and was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), FTIR and BET studies. The physical analyses showed that EGANaCl was a mesoporous mixture of AlOOH and three Al(OH)3 which contain the chlorine element and registered the surface area of 114.31 m2g-1. The presence of chlorine explains the pH increase observed during the electrolysis. The fluoride adsorption as a function of pH, initial fluoride concentration, EGANaCl dose, temperature, co-ions and cycles of regeneration was studied using batch methods. Among the kinetic models, the pseudo – second – order model was superior to others and among the adsorption isotherms, Langmuir model fits well as compared to that of Freundlich model based on the regression coefficient values. Determination of thermodynamic parameters such as ΔH and ΔG respectively revealed the nature of endothermic and temperature – driven nature of the fluoride sorption process. The maximum adsorption capacity of EGANaCl was found to be 16.33 mg g-1 at 27°C and a maximum fluoride removal occurred at pH 6.55. The spent adsorbent showed the defluoridation efficiency of 95.53% up to fifth regeneration with diluted NaOH. Factorial design matrix and analysis of variance using JMP model have also been extensively discussed in this paper.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T13:31:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.04.007
       
  • A helpful method for controlled synthesis of monodisperse gold
           nanoparticles through response surface modeling

    • Authors: Jairo P. Oliveira; Adilson R. Prado; Wanderson Juvêncio Keijok; Moisés R.N. Ribeiro; Maria J. Pontes; Breno V. Nogueira; Marco C.C. Guimarães
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Jairo P. Oliveira, Adilson R. Prado, Wanderson Juvêncio Keijok, Moisés R.N. Ribeiro, Maria J. Pontes, Breno V. Nogueira, Marco C.C. Guimarães
      The interest in applying gold nanoparticles is principally based on their monodispersity. Therefore, the synthesis of monodisperse gold nanocrystals has a key role in designing nanomaterials for their specific application. However, it can represent a cutting edge for many labs, mainly because it requires a variety of complex techniques for properly characterizing metal nanoparticles with expensive and rugged equipment. Herein, we propose an approach to synthesize nanoparticles with controlled monodispersity that can be adjusted through the factorial experimental plan 32 using response surface modelling (RSM). The particles were characterized on the basis of visual observation, UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and statistics. Our findings illustrate how factorial design is important to providing accurate projections of nanoparticles production using sodium citrate and borohydride as reducers. The proposed method leverages facile and inexpensive routes to synthesize monodisperse gold nanocrystals without the assistance of time-consuming image-based characterization tools.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T12:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.04.003
       
  • A STUDY ON SOLUTION DEPOSITED CuSCN THIN FILMS: STRUCTURAL,
           ELECTROCHEMICAL, OPTICAL PROPERTIES

    • Authors: Blessing N. Ezealigo; Assumpta C. Nwanya; Aline Simo; R. Bucher; Rose U. Osuji; Malik Maaza; M.V. Reddy; Fabian I. Ezema
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Blessing N. Ezealigo, Assumpta C. Nwanya, Aline Simo, R. Bucher, Rose U. Osuji, Malik Maaza, M.V. Reddy, Fabian I. Ezema
      A cost effective successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method was used to deposit copper (I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) thin films on glass and steel substrates for this study. The deposited thin films were characterized for their structural, morphological, optical and electrochemical properties using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy and VersaSTAT potentiostat. A direct band gap of 3.88 eV and 3.6 eV with film thickness of 0.7 µm and 0.9 µm was obtained at 20 and 30 deposition cycles respectively. The band gap, microstrain, dislocation density and crystal size were observed to be thickness dependent. The specific capacitance of the CuSCN thin film electrode at 20 mV/s was 760 Fg-1 for deposition 20 cycles and 729 Fg-1 for deposition 30 cycles.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T12:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.04.013
       
  • Flow injection analysis system with electrochemical detection for the
           simultaneous determination of nanomolar levels of acetaminophen and
           codeine

    • Authors: Anderson Martin Santos; Tiago Almeida Silva; Fernando Campanhã Vicentini; Orlando Fatibello-Filho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Anderson Martin Santos, Tiago Almeida Silva, Fernando Campanhã Vicentini, Orlando Fatibello-Filho
      A simple, rapid and low-cost electroanalytical method is proposed for the determination of acetaminophen (ACP) and codeine (COD) at nanomolar levels in pharmaceutical and biological samples. The analytical procedure is based on a flow injection analysis system coupled to electrochemical detection, which was multiple pulse amperometry (FIA-MPA). Boron-doped diamond was used as the working electrode for electrochemical detection. The electrode was subjected to a cathodic pretreatment and was selected in this work due its good electrochemical performance. By applying the FIA-MPA method, after a number of optimization assays, the analgesics were simultaneously determined at excellent linear concentration ranges. The analytical curves ranged from 80 nmol L−1 to 100 µmol L−1 for ACP and from 50 nmol L−1 to 10 µmol L−1 for COD, and the obtained limits of detection were 30 nmol L−1 and 35 nmol L−1 for ACP and COD, respectively. The practical applicability of the electroanalytical method was evaluated from the ACP and COD determination in two sample matrices: commercial pharmaceutical samples and biological fluids. In the case of pharmaceutical formulation samples, the obtained results were statistically similar to those obtained using a reference chromatographic method. In addition, these drugs were simultaneously quantified in biological fluid samples of urine and human serum with excellent recovery percentages.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T12:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.04.012
       
  • A Facile Synthesis Of Clay - Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Catalysts For
           Solvent Free Multicomponent Biginelli Reaction

    • Authors: Divya P Narayanan; Anila Gopalakrishnan; Zahira Yaakob; Sankaran Sugunan; Binitha N Narayanan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Divya P Narayanan, Anila Gopalakrishnan, Zahira Yaakob, Sankaran Sugunan, Binitha N Narayanan
      In the present study, clay - graphene oxide nanocomposite catalysts were successfully used for the first time in the multicomponent one pot organic synthesis. The facile development of the hybrid clay - graphene oxide based materials has been achieved by a cost effective method without the use of any surfactants. The partial reduction of graphene oxide, upon incorporation of clay layers and subsequent heat treatment, is evident from the X-ray diffraction patterns and FTIR spectra of the samples. XPS and 27Al and 29Si NMR spectral analyses provide useful information regarding the interaction between clay layers and graphene oxide through Si-O-C and Al-O-C bonding. The deconvoluted spectrum of O (1s), Al (2p) and Si (2p) indicates the increased availability of acidic functionalities in the hybrid nanocomposite. FESEM and TEM photographs show the random distribution of the clay nanoflakes over the graphene oxide sheets and this could provide more of the active sites for catalysis. Synthesis of 3, 4- dihydropyrimidinones by the one pot Biginelli reaction was done over the present clay - graphene oxide heterogeneous catalysts with high product yield. Short time period of reaction and excellent reusability up to 8 repeated cycles under solvent free conditions are the key advantages of the present highly active hybrid nanocomposite clay - graphene oxide catalysts over most of the other reported catalysts used for Biginelli reaction.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T12:58:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.04.011
       
  • Evaluation of synthesized green carbon catalyst from waste date pits for
           tertiary butylation of phenol

    • Authors: Farrukh Jamil; Ala'a H. Al-Muhtaseb; Mu. Naushad; Mahad Baawain; Abdullah Al-Mamun; Sandeep K. Saxena; N. Viswanadham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Farrukh Jamil, Ala'a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Mu. Naushad, Mahad Baawain, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Sandeep K. Saxena, N. Viswanadham
      The present study intended to adopt a facile method for preparing a sulphonated green carbon catalyst from date pits biomass. Catalyst synthesis involves in-situ carbonization and sulphonation and it has been characterized by following techniques such as XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM, FTIR, TGA, and BET. Surface and internal morphology results exhibited that the synthesized sulphonated carbon material possesses a mesoporous structure, while activated carbon possesses a microporous structure. Furthermore, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra confirmed the presence of acidic groups (–OH, –COOH, and –SO3H) in synthesized sulphonated carbon material. Sulphonated carbon material exhibited high acidity (4.7mmol/g) and good thermal stability. The application of this catalyst for the tertiary butylation of phenol without using any solvent has been investigated. The phenol alkylation reaction showed maximum conversion at reaction condition; temperature (140°C) with 2bar (nitrogen gas) pressure with maximum phenol conversion 79.27wt%, with 68.01% selectivity towards 4TBP+2,4TBP, which is used as an intermediate in antioxidants. The catalyst exhibits comparable catalytic performance up to five reaction cycles. Thus it can be concluded that waste date pits can be successfully employed for green catalyst synthesis and used for reactions involving large molecules.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T12:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.04.009
       
  • Accumulation of selected metals in the fruits of medicinal plants grown in
           urban environment of Islamabad, Pakistan

    • Authors: Riffat Parveen; Arshad M. Abbasi; Nazia Shaheen; Munir H. Shah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Riffat Parveen, Arshad M. Abbasi, Nazia Shaheen, Munir H. Shah
      Present study is based on the measurement of selected metals (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn) in the fruits of eight medicinal plants (Carrisa opeca, Phyllanthus emblica, Solanum nigrum, Zizyphus nummularia, Zizyphus mauritiana, Physalis minima, Opuntia dillenii and Phoenix dactylifera) and relevant soil samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Highest average concentrations of Cu (14.4 mg/kg), Cr (19.0 mg/kg), and Zn (125 mg/kg) were found in the fruits of P. minima, C. opeca and Z. nummularia, respectively, while O. dillenii showed the elevated mean levels of Cd (3.49 mg/kg), Sr (61.4 mg/kg), Mg (0.21%), Ca (6.62%) and Mn (44.6 mg/kg). However, highest average levels of Pb (41.7 mg/kg) and Co (38.4 mg/kg) were found in Z. mauritiana. Overall, most of the fruit samples showed higher contributions of Ca and Mg, followed by Fe, Zn, Co and Pb. In the case of soil samples, highest concentration was observed for Ca, followed by Fe, Mg, Mn and Sr, while lowest concentration was shown by Cd. Bioaccumulation factors exhibited significantly higher accumulation of Co (0.813-1.829) and Pb (0.060-2.350) from the soil to the fruits. Principal component analysis revealed significant anthropogenic contributions of Pb, Fe and Co in the fruit samples. Contamination factors and enrichment factors of Cd and Pb in the soil indicated very high contamination and extreme enrichment of these metals.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T12:11:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.04.010
       
  • Magnetically recoverable γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles as a highly active
           catalyst for Friedel–Crafts benzoylation reaction under ultrasound
           irradiation

    • Authors: Phuong Hoang; Tran Thuy-Duy Thi Nguyen Tram-Anh Thi Thach Ngoc
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Phuong Hoang Tran, Thuy-Duy Thi Nguyen, Tram-Anh Thi Tu, Thach Ngoc Le
      A simple, facile and efficient method has been developed for the Friedel–Crafts benzoylation of arenes using magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles under solvent-free sonication. The γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were used as an efficient and magnetically recoverable catalyst for the synthesis aromatic ketones in good to excellent yields at room temperature under solvent-free. The reaction occurred with high regioselectivity under mild condition. The magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles are economically synthesized in large-scale, easily separated from the reaction mixture by an external magnet and able to be reused several times without significant loss of the catalytic performance, which make them easy application to industrial processes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T10:38:09Z
       
  • Core-shell zirconia-coated magnetic nanoparticles offering a strong option
           to prepare a novel and magnetized heteropolyacid based heterogeneous
           nanocatalyst for three- and four-component reactions

    • Authors: Somayeh Zolfagharinia; Eskandar Kolvari; Nadiya Koukabi; Maliheh.M. Hosseini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Somayeh Zolfagharinia, Eskandar Kolvari, Nadiya Koukabi, Maliheh.M. Hosseini
      A new type of magnetically-separable nanocatalyst was prepared through the immobilization of phosphomolybdic acid (H3PMo12O40) in 10-30 wt.% on the surface of core-shell zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticle (nano-Fe3O4@ZrO2). The developed heterogeneous nano-sized acid catalyst named nano-Fe3O4@ZrO2 supported PMA (or n-Fe3O4@ZrO2/PMA) was characterized using several techniques such as: FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, VSM, EDX, TEM and TGA. The characterization data derived from FT-IR spectroscopy exhibited that H3PMo12O40 species on the support retained their Keggin structures. Additionally, the potentiometric titration with n-butylamine was employed to measure the acidity content of the as-obtained catalyst. Surprisingly, this novel active solid acid catalyst displayed to have a higher number of surface active sites compared to its homogeneous analogues. Besides, the catalytic activity of the catalyst was evaluated in multicomponent reactions (MRCs) for the rapid and efficient one-pot synthesis of 2, 4, 5-trisubstituted and 1, 2, 4, 5-tetrasubstituted imidazoles in high yields and selectivity. The sample of 20 wt.% displayed higher acidity content which led to its enhanced activity in the catalytic transformation. Moreover, the catalyst could be easily reused without deactivation after five runs, which made it a promising catalyst for practical and large-scale applications. This outstanding reusability was ascribed to the strong attachment of PMA molecules on the n-Fe3O4@ZrO2 support material.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T10:38:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.04.004
       
  • Assembly of succinic acid and isoxazolidine motifs in a single entity to
           mitigate CO2 corrosion of mild steel in saline media

    • Authors: Shaikh A. Ali; Mohammad A.J. Mazumder; Mazen K. Nazal; Hasan A. Al-Muallem
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Shaikh A. Ali, Mohammad A.J. Mazumder, Mazen K. Nazal, Hasan A. Al-Muallem
      Inhibition of CO2 corrosion of mild steel in 0.5 M NaCl under atmospheric pressure at 40 °C as well as high pressure (10 bar) at 120 °C by 2-[2-methyl-4(or 5)-alkylisoxazolidin-5(or 4)-yl)methyl]succinic acids, a new class of molecules having inhibitive motifs of succinic acid, isoxazolidine and hydrophobic alkyl chain assembled in a single entity, has been examined by gravimetric and electrochemical methods. Inhibitor molecule containing CH3(CH2)8 outperformed its counterpart with a shorter hydrophobe CH3(CH2)4 and two other commercial imidazoline-based inhibitors. The effectiveness of these new inhibitors was also evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the inhibition efficiency was found to be 75, 91 and 98% in the presence of 1, 5 and 20 ppm, respectively, at 40 °C. The potentiodynamic polarization studies indicated that the new inhibitors act as anodic inhibitors. The adsorption of the synthesized inhibitors follow Temkin adsorption isotherm model with favorable high values of −ΔG o ads and −ΔH o ads pointing the inhibitors adsorbed on the metal surface by chemisorption process. The XPS study confirmed the adsorption of the inhibitors on the metal surface.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T10:38:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.04.005
       
  • Removal of ionic liquids and ibuprofen by adsorption on a microporous
           activated carbon: kinetics, isotherms, and pore sites

    • Authors: Hanen Guedidi; Imadeddine Lakehal; Laurence Reinert; Jean-Marc Lévêque; Nizar Bellakhal; Laurent Duclaux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Hanen Guedidi, Imadeddine Lakehal, Laurence Reinert, Jean-Marc Lévêque, Nizar Bellakhal, Laurent Duclaux
      Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as emergent pollutants as their synthesis and further use at a large scale might generate environmental problems. The adsorption on activated carbons represents one of the most effective methods to remove ionic liquids and other micropollutants from waste water. In this work, the adsorption properties on an activated carbon cloth of two pyridinium ionic liquids (4-tert-butyl-1-propylpyridinium bromide (IL1) and 4-tert-butyl-1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyridinium bromide (IL2)) newly synthesized, were compared with the ones of ibuprofen. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were studied at pH 3 and 7.5. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters calculated from the isotherms indicate an exothermic process, typical of physisorption. The adsorption kinetics of a mixture of the molecules show a competition between ibuprofen and IL2. The location of each adsorbed ionic liquid and ibuprofen into the porosity of the activated carbon cloth was determined from N2 (at 77 K) and CO2 adsorption isotherms (at 273 K). The purification process of an effluent containing the ionic liquids and the ibuprofen in mixture or in single solute could be workable by adsorption on an activated cloth.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T10:38:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.04.006
       
  • Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant action and practical application
           in fresh cheese of the solid inclusion compound
           γ–cyclodextrin·quercetin, in comparison with
           β–cyclodextrin·quercetin.

    • Authors: Ana Bárbara Pereira; Aida Moreira da Silva; Maria João Barroca; Maria Paula M. Marques; Susana S. Braga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Ana Bárbara Pereira, Aida Moreira da Silva, Maria João Barroca, Maria Paula M. Marques, Susana S. Braga
      Quercetin is an antioxidant flavonol very sensible to light and oxidants that can benefit from stabilisation by encapsulation into cyclodextrins. In this work we study the solid inclusion compounds of quercetin with β- and γ-cyclodextrins (β–CD and γ-CD) obtained by freeze-drying. Combined results from microanalysis, FT-IR, powder X-ray diffraction, 13C{1H} CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetry demonstrating that γ-CD, having a larger cavity, is the most adequate host to form a stable inclusion complex with quercetin. The anti-peroxidation capacity of the compounds was determined and followed the order β–CD·quercetin >> quercetin > γ–CD·quercetin. Both γ–CD·quercetin and β–CD·quercetin are able to inhibit DPPH radicals at a rate three times faster than pure quercetin, but their EC50 is higher (50 μM vs 17 μM for quercetin). The practical applicability of the two CD·quercetin adducts as nutraceutical additives in fresh cheese was established. Fortified fresh cheese had a firmer texture and yellowish colour, but no significant changes in the overall sensorial qualities were found by a panel of non-trained tasters when compared with the control (non-treated fresh cheese).

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T10:38:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.04.001
       
  • Design, synthesis, cytotoxicity and 3D-QSAR analysis of new
           3,6-disubstitued-1,2,4,5-tetrazine derivatives as potential antitumor
           agents

    • Authors: Álvaro Cañete-Molina; Christian Espinosa-Bustos; Marcos González-Castro; Mario Faúndez; Jaime Mella; Ricardo A. Tapia; Alan R. Cabrera; Iván Brito; Adam Aguirre; Cristian O. Salas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Álvaro Cañete-Molina, Christian Espinosa-Bustos, Marcos González-Castro, Mario Faúndez, Jaime Mella, Ricardo A. Tapia, Alan R. Cabrera, Iván Brito, Adam Aguirre, Cristian O. Salas
      We synthesized two new series of 3-substituted-6-(2,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazines and analysed them for a potential role as antitumor agents. Twenty-two compounds were obtained, and four molecular structures were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Using flow cytometry and MTT assay, potential action on cell toxicity was determined for each of the compounds for four cancer cell lines. The potency and selectivity demonstrated by these compounds is dependent on the cancer cell line, where the following compounds were found the most promising agents against certain cell lines: compounds 1i and 1j for HL-60 cells, 1a and 1b on HCT116 cells, 1f on Hela cells and 2h on H1975 cells. The action exerted by these compounds is comparable to the well-known cancer treatment drug etoposide and higher than vatalanib. To arrive at the structural requirements for activity on each cell line, a SAR and 3D-QSAR analysis was carried out. From the 3D-QSAR models, steric and electronic features were identified in the aromatic centres, and were key components for cytotoxic activity on HL-60 cell lines. The cytometry results suggest that some tetrazine derivatives induce apoptosis on HCT116 cells.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T09:39:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.04.002
       
  • Effect and Mechanism of Wedelolactone as Antioxidant-Coumestan on
           OH-treated Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    • Authors: Xican Li; Tingting Wang; Jingjing Liu; Yulong Liu; Jun Zhang; Jian Lin; Zhongxiang Zhao; Dongfeng Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Xican Li, Tingting Wang, Jingjing Liu, Yulong Liu, Jun Zhang, Jian Lin, Zhongxiang Zhao, Dongfeng Chen
      The antioxidant properties of coumestans have been investigated previously using inappropriate methods, which has resulted in misleading and inaccurate mechanisms being reported to account for their antioxidant behavior. In this study, the phenolic coumestan wedelolactone increased the viability of •OH-treated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl assay. Mechanistic analysis in vitro suggested that wedelolactone could scavenge various radicals, including •OH, •O2 –, 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radicals, as well as reducing Cu2+ and chelating Fe2+. Configuration analysis based on a ball and stick model indicated that the 3’,4’-catechol moiety of wedelolactone was acting as an Fe2+-chelating site. The main product of the reaction between wedelolactone and DPPH• was analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, which gave a mass ion with an m/z value of 709. This peak yielded several fragments with m/z values of 663, 543, 501 and 483. Quantitative evaluation revealed that the antioxidant activity of wedelolactone was 1.62 times higher than that of Trolox. Based on these results, we concluded that (i) wedelolactone can efficiently protect MSCs against •OH-induced damage and that this protective effect provides preliminary evidence for the application of wedelolactone in transplantation of MSCs (especially for osteoporosis); (ii) the main antioxidant mechanism of wedelolactone involves direct radical-scavenging via a single electron transfer (SET)→radical adduct formation (RAF) pathway, whereas the Fe2+-chelating activity of wedelolactone represents a minor pathway; and (iii) the direct radical-scavenging and Fe2+-chelating pathways can both be attributed to the catechol moiety rather than the coumestan skeleton.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T20:31:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.03.008
       
  • Mussel-mimicking sulfobetaine-based copolymer with Metal tuneable
           gelation, self-healing and Antibacterial Capability

    • Authors: Miroslav Mrlík; Mário Špírek; Jassim Al-Khori; Ali Abdulrahman Ahmad; Jaroslav Mosnaček; Peter Kasák
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Miroslav Mrlík, Mário Špírek, Jassim Al-Khori, Ali Abdulrahman Ahmad, Jaroslav Mosnaček, Peter Kasák
      In the present study, the sulfobetaine-based copolymer bearing a dopamine functionality showed gel formation adjusted by the application of metal salts for gelation and various values of pH. Normally, the liquid-like solution of the sulfobetaine-based copolymer and metal cross-linkers is transformed to a gel-like state upon increasing the pH values in the presence of Fe3+ and Ti3+. Metal-induced coordination is reversible by means of the application of EDTA as a chelating agent. In the case of Ag+ ions, the gel is formed through a redox process accompanied with the oxidative coupling of the dopamine moieties and Ag0 particle formation. Mussel-mimicking and metal-dependent viscoelastic properties were observed for Fe3+, Ti3+, and Ag+ cross-linking agents, with additionally enhanced self-healing behaviour in comparison to the covalently cross-linked IO4 - analogues. Antibacterial properties can be achieved both in solution and on the surface by using the proper concentration of Ag+ ions used for gelation; thus, a tunable amount of the Ag0 particles are formed in the hydrogel. The cytotoxicity was elucidated by the both MTT assay on the NIH/3T3 fibroblast cell line and by direct contact method using human dermal fibroblast cell (F121) and shows the non-toxic character of the synthesized copolymer.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T19:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.03.009
       
  • Biosynthesized CuO nano-platelets: Physical properties & enhanced
           thermal conductivity nanofluidics

    • Authors: B.T. Sone; A. Diallo; X.G. Fuku; A. Gurib-Fakim; M. Maaza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): B.T. Sone, A. Diallo, X.G. Fuku, A. Gurib-Fakim, M. Maaza
      This contribution reports for the first time, room temperature biosynthesis of p-type CuO nanoparticles carried out using Callistemon viminalis’ flower extracts as a chelating agent in a process that is entirely green. Room temperature X-ray diffraction, attenuated IR total reflection spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopy investigations confirmed the formation of single phase Tenorite bcc monoclinic CuO nanocrystals. Photoluminescence spectroscopy with UV emissions at 356 nm (3.47 eV) and broad visible emissions at 418 nm, 561 nm, 664 nm, support the formation of CuO nanoparticles with high surface-to-volume ratios and defects. As a direct application, the biosynthesized CuO nanoplatelet-containing powder dispersed in de-ionized water showed an enhancement of the thermal conductivity from 6-34% and a significant stability of the PVP stabilized CuO-water nanofluid.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T19:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.03.004
       
  • New CaO-based adsorbents prepared by solution combustion and high-energy
           ball-milling processes for CO2 adsorption: Textural and structural
           influences

    • Authors: Abel Granados-Pichardo; Francisco Granados-Correa; Víctor Sánchez-Mendieta; Héctor Hernández-Mendoza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Abel Granados-Pichardo, Francisco Granados-Correa, Víctor Sánchez-Mendieta, Héctor Hernández-Mendoza
      In the present work, new CaO-based adsorbents were obtained by a fast solution combustion method and high-energy ball-milling process to study their CO2 capture behavior under different moderate pressure and temperature conditions. The as-prepared CaO products were characterized systematically using different analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and N2 physisorption measurements. The results showed that the CaO prepared by solution combustion and ball-milled during 2.5 h showed the maximum CO2 adsorption capacity of 9.31 mmol/g at 25 oC and 1 atm mainly via chemisorption with CaCO3 formation, which was corroborated by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. In general, the obtained results revealed that the synthesized CaO nanopowders from solution combustion that were treated by high-energy ball-milling enhanced their CO2 adsorption capacity due to improved structural and textural properties, and this CaO-based adsorbent can be used as a promising material for CO2 capture in post-combustion CO2 capture technologies on a large scale, under atmospheric pressure and temperature conditions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T19:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.03.005
       
  • The electrochemical synthesis and corrosion behaviour of
           TiO2/poly(indole-co-aniline) multilayer coating: Experimental and
           Theoretical Approach

    • Authors: Serap Toprak Döşlü; Başak Doğru Mert; Birgül Yazıcı
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Serap Toprak Döşlü, Başak Doğru Mert, Birgül Yazıcı
      The aim of this study is to protect stainless steel against corrosion via poly (indole-co-aniline) with the help of titanium dioxide pre-coating. Different monomer ratios (1:1 and 1:9) were applied in order to determine the suitable chain composition to synthesize the copolymer in lithium perchlorate containing acetonitrile. The structures, morphologies, electrochemical properties and corrosion resistances of the mono and multi-layer coatings were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and anodic polarisation. Furthermore the geometric structure and electronic properties of indole, aniline, indole-co-aniline (dimmer) molecules have been investigated by quantum calculations. The results indicated that corrosion protection of copolymers was increased via titanium dioxide pre-coating. The 1:1 copolymer coating showed better corrosion prevention than 1:9 coating. The correlation was determined between experimental and theoretical parameters.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T19:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.03.007
       
  • Lanthanum oxyfluoride nanostructures prepared by modified sonochemical
           method and their use in the fields of optoelectronics and biotechnology

    • Authors: C. Suresh; H. Nagabhushana; G.P. Darshan; R.B. Basavaraj; B. Daruka Prasad; S.C. Sharma; M.K. Sateesh; J.P. Shabaaz Begum
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): C. Suresh, H. Nagabhushana, G.P. Darshan, R.B. Basavaraj, B. Daruka Prasad, S.C. Sharma, M.K. Sateesh, J.P. Shabaaz Begum
      Dysprosium doped lanthanum oxyfluoride nanostructures were prepared by modified sonochemical method using Aloe Vera gel as a bio-surfactant. The morphology of the product was systematically studied by varying different experimental parameters including concentration of surfactant, sonication time, pH and sonication power. It was found that some of these above parameters play a key role in tuning the morphology of the product. The photoluminescence studies exhibited characteristic emission peaks at ∼ 483 nm, 574 nm and 674 nm attributed to 4F9/2→6H15/2, 4F9/2→6H13/2 and 4F9/2→6H11/2 transitions of Dy3+ ions respectively. The optimal concentration of Dy3+ ions was found to be ∼ 3 mol%. The photometric studies revealed that the prepared samples were quite useful for the fabrication of white light emitting diodes. The optimized product was also tested for their capability as an antigen against the bacterial and fungal pathogens. The present method of preparation may be scaled up easily to the larger production for industrial applications. The optimized sample showed an effective visualization of latent fingerprints on various forensic relevant materials.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T19:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.03.006
       
  • Rapid synthesis of a corncob-based semi-interpenetrating polymer network
           slow-release nitrogen fertilizer by microwave irradiation to control water
           and nutrient losses

    • Authors: Peng Wen; Yajie Han; Zhansheng Wu; Yanhui He; Bang-Ce Ye; Jun Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2017
      Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry
      Author(s): Peng Wen, Yajie Han, Zhansheng Wu, Yanhui He, Bang-Ce Ye, Jun Wang
      This paper presents the rapid synthesis of a corncob-based semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) slow-release nitrogen fertilizer (SRFs) with bentonite additives via microwave irradiation at 320 W for 4.5 min. The SRFs was based on urea incorporated in a polymer matrix composed of corncob-g-poly(acrylic acid)/bentonite network and linear polyvinylpyrrolidone. The structure and properties of the sample were characterized. Swelling measurements and water-retention studies indicated that the water absorbency of the SRFs was 1156 g/g in distilled water and that the water-retention capacity of the soil with 2% SRFs was 20.3% after 30 days. In addition, the SRFs possessed lower N leaching loss amount (13.2%) and N migrate-to-surface loss amount (6.8%) compared with urea. The SRFs could effectively reduce the N release rate (56.6% of N was released after 30 days) and consequently facilitate the growth of cotton plants. Thus, the high-performance SRFs capable of controlling water and N losses could be widely applied to agricultural fields, and microwave irradiation could be a significant strategy to produce SRFs.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T19:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.arabjc.2017.03.002
       
 
 
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