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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 909 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (56 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (643 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (43 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (47 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (643 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 328)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 77)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 186)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 274)
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio AA – Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 382)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Physics Letters : X     Open Access  
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 219)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry     Open Access  
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Chemistry & Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 184)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 77)
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)

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Journal Cover
Arabian Journal of Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.591
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1878-5352
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3160 journals]
  • Simultaneous determination of synthetic edible pigments in beverages by
           titania-based RP-HPLC

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Rong Li, Ying Wang, Jin Tan, Shu-Hua Tang, Zi-Tao Jiang, Shengda Di, Ying Geng A rapid method for simultaneous determination of five synthetic edible pigments (SEPs) including tartrazine (TA), ponceau 4R (PO), sunset yellow (SY), brilliant blue (BB) and erythrosine (ER) in beverages with titania-based RP-HPLC has been developed. The good linear relationships were obtained in the concentration ranges of 2.5−40 μg mL-1 for TA, PO and SY, 0.75−12 μg mL-1 for BB, and 1.25−20 μg mL-1 for ER, respectively. The detection limits (LODs) of five SEPs were 0.042, 0.021, 0.042, 0.0005, and 0.021 μg mL-1, respectively. The average recoveries were between 92.2% and 106.3%. Relative standard deviation (RSD, n=7) for five SEPs were less than 1.18%. The precision and accuracy of the method can meet the requirements of HPLC analysis. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters of retention of the pigments in the titania column such as enthalpy (ΔHο), entropy (ΔSο) and Gibbs free energy (ΔGο) were also determined.
       
  • Calixarene Coated Gold Nanoparticles as a Novel Therapeutic Agent

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Sadia Khalid, Samina Parveen, Muhammad Raza Shah, Sana Rahim, Shakil Ahmed, Muhammad Imran Malik In the current study, gold nanoparticles (AuC6NPs and AuC8NPs) were prepared through sodium borohidride reduction method by using Calix[6]rene and Calix[8]rene as a stabilizing agents. The synthesized AuNPs were screened for cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities. The fabricated AuNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and FTIR spectroscopy. Antibacterial activities of the AuNPs were tested against E. coli and S. aureus. The AuC6NPs were found to be effective against the growth of gram positive bacteria and inhibited the growth of S. aureus. AuC6NPs interact with bacterial cell and damaged cell membrane. Roughness of the bacterial surface and membrane rupture can be clearly observed by AFM images. The AuNPs possess insignificant antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Moreover, AuC8NPs have significant phytotoxicity and moderate cytotoxicity.
       
  • A novel green synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanorods using Punica Granatum
           rind extract and its application for removal of Pb(II) from aqueous
           environment

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): Sada Venkateswarlu, Bhajanthri Natesh Kumar, Bobbala Prathima, Yakkate SubbaRao, Nimmagadda Venkata Vijaya Jyothi We described a novel and eco-friendly approach to remove toxic heavy metal of Pb(II) by using dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) anchored Fe3O4 magnetic nanorods (MNRs) which were synthesized via facile method utilizing Punica Granatum rind extract which was a non toxic waste material. The DMSA@Fe3O4 MNRs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared analysis (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), nitrogen adsorption and desorption techniques, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). These DMSA@Fe3O4 MNRs have been used for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. The adsorption isotherm data fitted well with Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich model, the monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 46.18 mg/g at 301 K. The experimental kinetic data fitted very well with the pseudo-second-order model. The results indicate that the biogenic synthesized DMSA@Fe3O4 MNRs act as significant adsorbent material for removal of Pb (II) from aqueous environment.
       
  • Porous multifunctional fluoropolymer composite foams prepared via humic
           acid modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles stabilized Pickering high internal phase
           emulsion using cationic fluorosurfactant as co-stabilizer

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): Umair Azhar, Chenxi Huyan, Xiaozheng Wan, Chuanyong Zong, Anhou Xu, Jitao Liu, Jiachen Ma, Shuxiang Zhang, Bing Geng Fluoropolymers are very important owing to their excellent application performances, especially in extreme conditions. On the other hand, the preparation of porous fluoropolymers is a difficult task due to unavailability of suitable surfactants as well as tedious synthesis steps. Here we prepared multifunctional porous fluoropolymer composite foams with a simple process of “high internal phase emulsion (HIPE)” by using humic acid modified iron oxide nanoparticles (HA-Fe3O4 NPs) and cationic fluorosurfactant (CFS) (PDMAEMA-b-PHFBA) as co-stabilizer. The inclusion of HA-Fe3O4 NPs in the system made fluoro-HIPE more stable than the emulsion prepared using only CFS or other conventional stabilizers. Morphology of the prepared polyHIPE was easily controlled by altering the concentration of HA-Fe3O4 and/or CFS in the original formulation. Adjustment of the porous structure with open/close cells was performed and the average diameter of the pores tuned between 4.9 and 23 μm. With the increase in specific surface area by using nanoparticles (NPs) and CFS as co-surfactants, Pickering HIPE monoliths adsorbed double amount of oil compared to foams based solely on HIPE template. Multiple functional groups were bound onto Fe3O4 NPs through HA modification that made the fluoro-monolith capable of adsorbing dye, i.e. methylene blue, from water. A simple centrifugation enabled regeneration of the oil soaked foams and adsorption capacity was not decreased after 10 adsorption/regeneration cycles.
       
  • Intermolecular interactions of substituted benzenes on multi-walled carbon
           nanotubes grafted on HPLC silica microspheres and interaction study
           through artificial neural networks

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): Daniele Merli, Andrea Speltini, Daniele Dondi, Diego Longhi, Chiara Milanese, Antonella Profumo Purified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) grafted onto silica microspheres by gamma-radiation were applied as a HPLC stationary phase for investigating the intermolecular interactions between MWCNTs and substituted benzenes. The synthetic route, simple and not requiring CNTs derivatization, involved no alteration of the nanotube original morphology and physical–chemical properties. The affinity of a set of substituted benzenes for the MWCNTs was studied by correlating the capacity factor (k′) of each probe to its physico-chemical characteristics (calculated by Density Functional Theory). The correlation was found through a theoretical approach based on feedforward neural networks. This strategy was adopted because today these calculations are easily affordable for small molecules (like the analytes), and many critical parameters needed are not known. This might increase the applicability of the proposed method to other cases of study. Moreover, it was seen that the normal linear fit does not provide a good model. The interaction on the MWCNT phase was compared to that of an octadecyl (C18) reversed phase, under the same elution conditions. Results from trained neural networks indicated that the main role in the interactions between the analytes and the stationary phases is due to dipole moment, polarizability and LUMO energy. As expected for the C18 stationary phase correlation, is due to dipole moment and polarizability, while for the MWCNT stationary phase primarily to LUMO energy followed by polarizability, evidence for a specific interaction between MWCNTs and analytes. The CNT-based hybrid material proved to be not only a chromatographic phase but also a useful tool to investigate the MWCNT-molecular interactions with variously substituted benzenes.
       
  • Tuning retention and selectivity in reversed-phase liquid chromatography
           by using functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): Andrea Speltini, Antonella Profumo, Daniele Merli, Nicolò Grossi, Chiara Milanese, Daniele Dondi Aim of this work was to explore the possibility of retention and selectivity tuning in reversed-phase liquid chromatography by means of chemically modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). These were synthesized by derivatizing pristine MWCNTs with amino-terminated alkyl chains containing polar embedded groups. A novel hybrid material based on functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-R-NH2) was prepared, characterized and tested. The idea was to design a mixed-mode separation medium basing its sorption properties on the peculiar characteristics of MWCNTs combined with the chemical interactions provided by the functional chains introduced on the nanotube skeleton. MWCNTs-R-NH2 were easily grafted to silica microspheres by gamma radiation (using a 60Co source) in the presence of polybutadiene as the linking agent. The composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) analysis in terms of structural morphology, surface area and porosity. The MWCNTs-R-NH2 sorbent was tested as stationary phase. The reversed-phase behaviour was first proved by analysis of alkylbenzenes, while the key role of CNT derivatization in addressing the selectivity/affinity towards the solutes was evidenced by testing three classes of analytes, viz. barbiturates, steroid hormones and alkaloids. These compounds, with different molecular structure and polarity, were here analysed for the first time on CNT-based LC stationary phases. The behaviour of the novel sorbent was compared in terms of retention capability and resolution with that observed using unmodified MWCNTs, pointing out the mixed-mode characteristics of the MWCNTs-R-NH2 material. The same test mixtures were analysed also on a conventional mono-modal separation sorbent (C18) to highlight the particular behaviour of the (derivatized)MWCNTs-based stationary phases. The novel material showed better performance in separation of polar compounds, i.e. barbiturates and alkaloids, than the unmodified MWCNTs and than the C18 column. Results showed that MWCNT functionalization is powerful to modulate retention/selectivity in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.
       
  • Use of Taguchi approach for synthesis of calcite particles from calcium
           carbide slag for CO2 fixation by accelerated mineral carbonation

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): Mahmut Altiner This study is focused on the conversion of harmful materials (calcium carbide slag [CCS] and flue gas) into CaCO3 particles through an accelerated mineral carbonation process. The influences of reaction temperature, amount of Na-oleate, solid-to-liquid ratio, and stirring speed on the properties of CaCO3 particles were determined using XRF, XRD, SEM, FTIR, TG, and contact angle measurements. Experiments were designed based on an orthogonal array L9 (34) of the Taguchi approach. The gas mixture of CO2/N2 (16.3% of CO2 cons.) gas was used to represent the flue gas for each experiment. The formation of CaCO3 particles from CCS depending on time was monitored via SEM. Experiments showed that the presence of Na-oleate in the slurry played a curial role in the carbonation process, and the conversion ratio of CO2 into a solid carbonate phase was higher than that in the experiments conducted without Na-oleate. The crystallite size of CaCO3 particles varied between 11.55 and 38.11 nm depending on the production conditions. Each obtained CaCO3 particles were identified as calcite (cubic-like rhombohedral), which is in high demand in many industrial applications.
       
  • An experimental design approach to obtain canthinone alkaloid-enriched
           extracts from Simaba aff. paraensis

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): Aline de S. Ramos, José Luiz P. Ferreira, Jefferson Rocha de A. Silva, Jefferson D. da Cruz, Danielle L. de Oliveira, Maria A. Mpalantinos da Silva, Silvia L. Basso, Ana Claudia F. Amaral The species of the genus Simaba (Simaroubaceae) are found in almost all Brazil and they are used by local population for the treatment of ulcers and malaria. The genus is characterized by the presence of quassinoids and canthinone alkaloids. There is a great interest in canthinones due to important biological activities associated with this class of alkaloids. In this study, methods were developed for obtaining enriched fractions of canthinone alkaloids from Simaba aff. paraensis using experimental factorial design analyzed by gas chromatography. Three alkaloids were detected: canthin-6-one, 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one and the major 9-methoxycanthin-6-one. Within the experimental domain, factorial designs 22 helped establish the minimum amount of solvent and minimum time necessary to obtain extracts enriched in canthinone alkaloids from S. aff. paraensis barks by two extraction methods. These results represent a reduction in costs for obtaining canthinone alkaloids described for the first time in S. aff. paraensis.
       
  • Synthesis of functionalized Cu:ZnS nanosystems and its antibacterial
           potential

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): C. Chaliha, B.K. Nath, P.K. Verma, E. Kalita Copper doped Zinc Sulfide (Cu:ZnS) nanoparticles were synthesized as potential antibacterial agents, through a solvothermal approach using Mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) and Sodium citrate (SC) as differential capping agents. Multiple variants of the Cu:ZnS nanoparticles were generated based on the refluxing intervals of the reactions and a choice of the capping agents. The microstructural properties and the elemental composition of the synthesized nanosystems were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), along with Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (MP-AES). The as-synthesized nanosystems were also characterized for their surface attributes using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), while the optical properties were studied using UV–Vis spectroscopy. The electrostatic stability of the aqueous dispersions of Cu:ZnS was studied as a function of their solvent pH, using Photon Correlation Spectroscopy. For the assessment of the antibacterial properties of the different variants of Cu:ZnS nanosystems, the disk diffusion assay was performed against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results show a promising antibacterial activity for the Cu:ZnS variants synthesized, with a prominent activity in the MSA@Cu:ZnS nanoparticle making them a novel class of potential antibacterial agents.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • l-phenylalanine+with+2,3,5-trichloro-6-alkoxy-1,4-benzoquinones+in+aqueous+medium&rft.title=Arabian+Journal+of+Chemistry&rft.issn=1878-5352&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Spectroscopic studies on the formation of charge transfer complexes of
           l-phenylalanine with 2,3,5-trichloro-6-alkoxy-1,4-benzoquinones in aqueous
           medium

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): K. Ganesh, C. Balraj, A. Satheshkumar, Kuppanagounder P. Elango UV–Vis, FT-IR, LC–MS and fluorescence spectral techniques were employed to investigate the mechanism of interaction of l-phenylalanine with new π-acceptors, 6-alkoxy-2,3,5-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinones. The interaction of these quinones with l-phenylalanine (LPA) yielding radical ion pair was found to proceed through the formation of donor–acceptor complex. The stoichiometry of the complexes was determined by Job’s continuous variation method and was found to be 1:1 in all the cases. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the complexes were determined in aqueous medium at physiological conditions (pH = 7). Fluorescence quenching studies indicated that the interaction between the donors and the acceptor is spontaneous. Correlation of association constants of the CT complexes with Taft’s polar and steric constants indicated that the electronic effects of the substitutions play a significant role in governing the reactivity of the quinones when compared to steric factors.
       
  • Influence of the RE2O3 (RE = Y, Gd) and CaO nanoadditives on the
           electromagnetic properties of nanocrystalline Co0.2Ni0 .3Zn0.5Fe2O4

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): Hichem Huili, Ali Mater, Bilel Grindi, Guillaume Viau, Abdessalem Kouki, Lotfi Ben Tahar The present work reports the influence of the nanoadditives Y2O3, Gd2O3, and CaO on the magnetic, electrical and dielectric properties of sintered nanoferrites Co0.2Ni0.3Zn0.5Fe2O4. All powders were synthesized via the polyol method. XRD analysis showed that except the nanoferrite which was obtained by in an one-post procedure, subsequent calcinations of the as-produced additives were necessary to obtain nanocrystals of the desired phases. The mean particle size inferred from TEM images of the nanoadditives sintered at 1000 °C ranges from 87 nm for Y2O3 to 126 nm for CaO. IR spectroscopy provided useful information on the nature of the core and the surface chemistry of the as-produced additives and their associated annealed powders. Upon sintering, it was found that the incorporation of 5 wt.% additives remarkably increased the densification of the doped materials. The most important increase in densification was observed with CaO due to its larger particles. dc M-H hysteresis loops taken at 300 K revealed a superparamagnetic behavior of the produced ferrite/nanoadditives. Additionally, as expected, the ferrite/nanoadditives showed reasonable saturation magnetization and high Curie temperature. The electrical and dielectric properties, namely the resistivity, the loss factor, and the relation frequency were found to be clearly affected by doping. The resistivity decreased with increasing temperature indicating a semiconducting behavior. Further, at room temperature, the highest resistivity was observed with Y2O3. The major role was attributed to the high fraction of insulating Y2O3 owing to its smallest particles combined with the low Fe2+ concentration in the ferrite nanoparticles taking advantages of the moderate sintering temperature. In addition, the dc conductivity was found to follow the Arrhenius law with a slope change observed at the Curie temperature. Further, all the additives clearly affected the ac conductivities of the pure ferrite. The variation of the dielectric permittivity with frequency and temperature was explained on the basis of M-W type of interfacial polarization. Additionally, at high frequencies, the lower dielectric loss was found with Y2O3 doping. It was found to be of about 10 times lower than the undoped material and much larger than reported for similar undoped bulk ferrites.
       
  • Multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with iron oxide and silver
           nanoparticles (MWCNT-Fe3O4/Ag) as a novel adsorbent for determining PAEs
           in carbonated soft drinks using magnetic SPE-GC/MS method

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): Mojtaba Moazzen, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Nabi Shariatifar, Mahsa Ahmadloo, Ismail Eş, Abbas Norouzian Baghani, Saeed Yousefinejad, Mahmood Alimohammadi, Ali Azari, Sina Dobaradaran, Noushin Rastkari, Shahrokh Nazmara, Mahdieh Delikhoon, GholamReza Jahed Khaniki The synthesis of compounds with an excellent adsorption capability plays an essential role to remove contaminants such as phthalic acid esters (PAEs) with potential carcinogenic characteristics from different food products. In this context, for the first time, a novel adsorbent (MWCNT-Fe3O4/Ag) was synthesized by using iron (magnetic agent), and silver (catalytic and surface enhancer agent) to further approach in a magnetic SPE-GC/MS method for determining of PAEs in carbonated soft drink samples. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values of MSPE-GC/MS were determined in six PAEs as a range of 10.8–22.5 and 36–75 ng/L, respectively. Also, the calibration curves of PAEs were linear (R2 = 0.9981–0.9995) over the concentration level of 10.000 ng/L and the recoveries of the six PAEs were ranging from 96.60% to 109.22% with the RSDs less than 8%. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and transmission electron microscopy analyses (TEM) were utilized to characterize the produced MWCNT-Fe3O4/Ag. Based on the findings, the surface of MWCNT is relatively uniform, which became coarser after loading with Fe3O4/Ag particles. Also, EDX spectrum showed the carbon (C), iron (Fe), oxygen (O), Ag and copper (Cu) are the main components of synthesized MWCNTs-Fe3O4/Ag. The successful adhesion of Fe3O4/Ag on the texture of MWCNTs using a co-precipitation method was confirmed by XRD and FT-IR assays. Additionally, excellent crystallinity and clear lattice nanocrystals fringes of prepared MWCNT-Fe3O4/Ag was demonstrated by TEM analysis. Based on the obtained VSM images, the prepared sorbent (MWCNT-Fe3O4/Ag) has the good magnetic performance for magnetic separation and extraction processes. It was concluded that the synthesized MWCNT-Fe3O4/Ag could be used as an efficient adsorbent for determining contaminants such as PAEs in different beverage samples.
       
  • Advancements in tetronic acid chemistry. Part 1: Synthesis and reactions

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): Moaz M. Abdou, Rasha A. El-Saeed, Mohamed A. Abozeid, Mahmoud G. Sadek, E. Zaki, Y. Barakat, H. Ibrahim, Mahmoud Fathy, S. Shabana, M. Amine, Samir Bondock The preparation and the properties of the elusive tetronic acid are reviewed, including its synthesis, chemical reactivity and reactions.
       
  • The influence of pre-treatment of Spartium junceum L. fibres on the
           structure and mechanical properties of PLA biocomposites

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): Zorana Kovačević, Sandra Bischof, Edita Vujasinović, Mizi Fan Different chemical pre-treatments of Spartium junceum L. fibres using alkali (NaOH), nanoclay (MMT) and Citric acid (CA) with the aim of producing biodegradable composite material are discussed. As environmental requirements in processing technologies have been higher in recent years, the Polylactic acid (PLA) is used in this research as a matrix, due to its renewability, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Biocomposites are prepared by reinforcing PLA with randomly oriented, short Spartium junceum L. fibres in order to increase material strength. The effects of different pre-treatments of Spartium junceum L. fibres on the mechanical properties of final biocomposite material are examined. Fibre tenacity is studied using Vibroscop and Vibrodyn devices. Tensile strength of biocomposite material was measured on the universal electromechanical testing machine Instron 5584. The results indicate that biocomposites reinforced with fibres modified with MMT and CA show upgraded mechanical properties of the final composite material in comparison with the composite materials reinforced with referenced (nontreated) fibres. Infrared spectra of tested fibres and biocomposites were determined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using Attenuated total reflection (FT-IR ATR) sampling technique and the influence of fibre modifications on the fibre/polymer interfacial bonding was investigated. The interface of Spartium/PLA composites was observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and it was clearly visible that biocomposites reinforced with fibres modified by MMT and CA showed better interaction of fibres and matrix.
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s):
       
  • Simple solid-phase spectrophotometric method for free iron(III)
           determination

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): Giancarla Alberti, Giovanni Emma, Roberta Colleoni, Valeria Marina Nurchi, Maria Pesavento, Raffaela Biesuz A simple and rapid solid-phase spectrophotometric procedure to determine free Fe(III) in environmental and biological samples is proposed. In particular, a deferoxamine (DFO) self assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica (DFO SAMMS) is developed and here applied as a sensor for iron(III). The solid product became brownish when put in contact with iron(III) solutions; so an immediate application as colorimetric sensor is considered. In order to optimize the DFO SAMMS synthesis and to obtain the best product for iron(III) sensing, a factorial experimental design is performed selecting the maximum absorption at 425 nm as response. The robustness of the spectrophotometric method is also proved.
       
  • Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical properties of cation
           selective ion exchange composite membranes

    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 4Author(s): Urfi Ishrat, Ayaz Mahmood Dar, Rafiuddin In this work polystyrene based strontium phosphate membranes (SPMs) were prepared by applying different pressures. The membrane potential is measured with uni-univalent electrolytes (KCl, NaCl, and LiCl) solutions using saturated calomel electrodes (SCEs). The effective fixed charge density of these membranes is determined by the Torell, Meyer and Sievers method and it showed the dependence of membrane potential on the porosity, the charge on the membrane matrix, charge and size of permeating ions. The membranes are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. The order of surface charge density for electrolytes is KCl > NaCl > LiCl. Other parameters such as transport number, distribution coefficient, charge effectiveness and related parameters are calculated. The membrane was found to be mechanically stable, and can be operated over a wide pH range.
       
  • Preparation and characterization of palladium/ polypyrrole-reduced
           graphene oxide / foamed nickel composite electrode and its electrochemical
           dechlorination of triclosan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Zhaohui Zhang, Junjing Li, Cong Luan, Huan Wang, Xiuwen Cheng, Leqi Fang, Liang Wang, Bin Zhao, Chang Ma, Hongwei Zhang, Chunyan Li, Jinming Xu In this study, a new composite electrode of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles dispersed on polypyrrole-reduced graphene oxide (PPy-rGO) loaded on foam-nickel was achieved by galvanostatic method. Characterization of structures, morphology and crystallinity of the synthesized materials were investigated by scanning electron microscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results of XPS and XRD demonstrated Pd showed primarily as Pd0. From SEM and TEM results, we had seen that Pd nanoparticles were dispersible well on the composite electrode. Raman spectroscopy was used to show the state of graphene oxide and further demonstrated that PPy and rGO had existed of on the foam Ni matrix. The data of EIS also suggested the charge transfer of the new composite electrode decreased compared to Pd/PPy/foam-Ni and PPy/foam-Ni composite electrodes. The effect of the electropolymerization potential on Pd/PPy-rGO/foam-Ni electrode for removing triclosan (TCS) was examined. It was found that the removal efficiency of TCS on the composite electrode could reach 100% at electropolymerization potential of 0.7 V and reaction time of 100 min.
       
  • Solvent Effectiveness Factor: A new correlation to study the influence of
           solvent, temperature, and stirring rate on synthesis yield of Ionic
           Liquids

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Sajid Hussain, Amir Shafeeq The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of solvent, temperature, and stirring on synthesis yield of Ionic Liquids (ILs). A representative Ionic Liquid [BMIM][BF4] is prepared using seven different solvents and their influence on percentage yield is explained using a new correlation; solvent effectiveness factor (SEF). The SEF of solvent is governed by nature of solvent, operating temperature and stirring rate. Acetone has the highest SEF 1.275 and affords maximum IL yield 88.11% while toluene has the least SEF 0.674 and produces minimum IL 63.21%. When synthesis temperature is increased from 50 to 80˚C, synthesis yield is substantially increased from 76.7 to 93.08% because rise in temperature increases the SEF from 1.234 to 1.333, mainly due to the decrease in solvent viscosity. Similarly, when stirring rate is increased from 80 to 200 RPM, IL yield slightly increased from 87.37 to 91.35% due to addition of mechanical energy in the reaction mixture which in turn reduced solvent viscosity and increased SEF from 1.278 to 1.297.
       
  • Carboxymethylcellulose-coated Magnesium-Layered Hydroxide Nanocomposite
           for Controlled Release of 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic Acid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Norhayati Hashim, Nor Saleha Misuan, Illyas Md Isa, Suriani Abu Bakar, Suzaliza Mustafar, Mazidah Mamat, Mohd Zobir Hussein, Sharifah Norain Mohd Sharif Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) acts as a coating material for a magnesium-layered hydroxide-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionate (MLH-MPP) nanocomposite via spontaneous self-assembly. The resulting product is called a magnesium-layered hydroxide-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionate/carboxymethylcellulose (MLH-MPP/CMC) nanocomposite. The XRD pattern of the MLH-MPP/CMC nanocomposite showed that MPP was maintained in the interlayers of the MLH, thus confirming that CMC is only deposited on the surface of the MLH-MPP nanocomposite. These findings were also supported by FTIR spectra, SEM and TEM. TGA data showed that the thermal stability of the intercalated MPP was significantly enhanced compared to pure MPP and uncoated nanocomposite. The release of MPP from the interlayers of MLH-MPP/CMC nanocomposite showed slower release than did uncoated nanocomposite and followed pseudo–second-order kinetics. Since the herbicide, MPP was released from the synthesised nanocomposite in a sustained manner, thus, it has excellent potential to be used as a controlled-release herbicide formulation.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Crystallization kinetics study of In-doped and (In-Cr) co-doped TiO2
           nanopowders using in-situ high-temperature synchrotron radiation
           diffraction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): H. Albetran, I.M. Low The influence of TiO2 nanopowder doping with 4 wt% indium and 2 wt% each of indium and chromium on phase transformation was studied. Samples were heated from ambient temperature to 950°C in sealed quartz capillaries, and in-situ synchrotron radiation diffraction measurements were obtained. Capillary sealing yielded an increase in capillary gas pressure to 0.42 MPa at 950°C in proportion to absolute temperature by Gay-Lussac’s Law. The initial synthesized samples were amorphous, and crystalline anatase appeared at 200°C. Crystalline rutile appeared at 850°C for the nanomaterials that were doped with In and In and Cr. A change in sealed-capillary oxygen partial pressure yielded a decrease and an increase in crystallization temperature, respectively, for the amorphous-to-anatase and anatase-to-rutile transformations. Crystalline titania (anatase and rutile) formed from the amorphous titania by 800°C and 900°C, for materials doped with In and In-Cr, respectively. The anatase concentration that was dominant in the In-doped materials up to 950°C and the higher rutile concentration for the In-Cr doped materials from 900 to 950°C results from the defect structure that was induced by doping. Cr-ions in the Ti sub-lattice retarded the transformation of anatase to rutile when compared with the retarding effect of mixed In/Cr ions. The transformation results because of the relatively smaller radius of Cr-ions when compared with the In-ions. The differences in phase-transformation kinetics for In, In-Cr and for undoped nanopowders in the literature agree with the calculated transformation activation energies.
       
  • Vertical copper oxide nanowire arrays attached three-dimensional
           macroporous framework as a self-supported sensor for sensitive hydrogen
           peroxide detection

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): D.M. Nguyen, H.N. Bich, P.D. Hai Anh, P.H. Ai-Le, Q.B. Bui A hierarchical nanostructure consisting of uniform copper oxide nanowires vertically grown on three-dimensional copper framework (CuO NWs/3D-Cu foam) was prepared by a two-step synthetic process. The uniform CuO NWs anchored onto the 3D foam exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen peroxide reduction due to the unique one‐dimensional direction with its excellent catalytic activity and large surface area of 3D substrate, which enhanced electroactive sites and charge conductivity. As a result, a wide linear detection range of 1 µM–1 mM, good sensitivity of 8.87 µA/(mM ⋅ cm2), low detection limit of 0.98 µM, and rapid response time of 5 s to hydrogen peroxide were achieved under a working potential of −0.4 V in phosphate buffer solution (pH of 7.4). In addition, the CuO NWs/3D-Cu foam material showed excellent selectivity to hydrogen peroxide and good resistance against poisonous interferents, including ascorbic acid, dopamine, urea, uric acid, and potassium chloride. Furthermore, the CuO NWs/3D-Cu foam presented good reproducibility, stability, and accurate detection for hydrogen peroxide in real sample; therefore, it may be considered to be a potential free-standing hydrogen peroxide sensor in practical analysis applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Phytochemistry, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of two Moroccan
           Teucrium polium L. subspecies: Preventive approach against nosocomial
           infections

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Yassine El Atki, Imane Aouam, Fatima El Kamari, Amal Taroq, Badiaa Lyoussi, Bouchra Oumokhtar, Abdelfattah Abdellaoui The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils (EOs) from two Teucrium polium subspecies, to evaluate, also their antibacterial activities, against some nosocomial-bacteria. The phytochemical screening of essential oils was analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC- FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). The antibacterial activities were assessed by disc diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter koseri and Acinetobacter baumannii) and Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. The antioxidant potential was evaluated in vitro by three assays, namely free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrzyl (DPPH), ferric reducing power (FRAP) and total antioxidant capacity. Twenty-six components were identified in the EO of Teucrium polium subsp. aurum representing. It major component was Caryophyllene (19.13%) followed by γ-Muurolene (13.02%), τ-cadinol, (11.01%), α-Gurjunene (9.2%), Rosifoliol (8.79%), 3-Carene (7.04%). However, twenty two components were identified in the EO of T. polium subsp. polium. Its major components are 3-carene (16.49%), γ-Muurolene (14.03%), α-pinene (9.94%), α-phellandrene (6.93%) and Caryophyllene (7.51%). The antibacterial activity of both essential oils showed a higher activity against tested nosocomial bacteria especially against S. aureus and A. baumannii. The EO of T. polium subsp. aureum showed better antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 3.7 ± 0.2 mg/ml and 2.31 ± 0.11 mg/ml respectively. The total antioxidant capacity assay showed that T. polium subsp. aureum had a significant activity with value to 3308.27 mg equivalent to ascorbic acid/g of EO. The Moroccan T. polium essential oils could be exploited as an antimicrobial agent for the treatment of several infectious diseases caused by bacteria, especially those who have developed resistance to conventional antibiotics.
       
  • Rapid and sustainable process with low toxicity for cyanation of silver
           nitrate by DC arc-discharge in presence of acetonitrile

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Ali Reza Molla Ebrahimlo, Parinaz Ghasempoor Soreh Use of Direct current (DC) arc-discharge in the chemistry reactions is very novel method. In this technique, the DC arc-discharge as a high-energy source conducts reaction to cleaving of the C-CN bond in acetonitrile and causes the cyanation of silver nitrate. This process due to non-use of cyanide ion can be proposed as a green and sustainable method. The obtained Silver cyanide from this procedure was characterized by its spectroscopic data (FT-IR and XRD).Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Visible light driven photocatalytic activity of ZnO/CuO nanocomposites
           coupled with rGO heterostructures synthesized by solid-state method for
           RhB dye degradation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): N. Kumaresan, M. Maria Angelin Sinthiya, K. Ramamurthi, R. Ramesh Babu, K. Sethuraman Metal oxide frame works along with carbon materials have been attracting tremendous attention of researches as the potential materials for energy and environmental remediation. In the present work heterostructures of (ZnO/CuO)/rGO ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by solid-state method. The crystalline structure of the nanoparticles was obtained from the XRD analysis. Optical band gap of the ZnO nanoparticles (3.1 eV) is tuned to 2.8 eV in the synthesized (ZnO/CuO)/rGO ternary nanocomposites. Field emission scanning electron microscope images of the (ZnO/CuO)/rGO ternary nanocomposites revealed formation of well-developed flowers like morphology of (ZnO/CuO) nanoparticles on rGO sheets. Photoluminescence spectroscopy analysis of (ZnO/CuO)/rGO ternary nanocomposites show enhancement in the electron-hole pair separation and thereby diminishing electron-hole pairs recombination rates effectively. In the present work, the photocatalytic activity of the ZC3G15 ternary nanocomposites show 99% and 93% of degradation efficiency respectively against RhB dye and 4-chlorophenol for 20 min under visible light irradiation. Thus, the simple solid-state method provides the effective ternary nanocomposites heterostructures light harvesting material for energy and environmental remediation.
       
  • Synthesis, characterization, quantum-chemical investigation and
           antibacterial studies of new fluorescent Cr(III) complexes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Shohreh Rastegarnia, Mehdi Pordel, Sadegh Allameh Coordination of the ligands derived from benzimidazole with Cr(III) led to the formation of new fluorescent Cr (III) complexes. The structures of the new complexes were established by spectral, analytical data and Job’s method and an octahedral geometry was proposed for the complexes. Also, the DFT methods were employed to gain a deeper insight into geometry and spectral properties of the new Cr (III) complexes. The DFT-calculated vibrational modes of Cr(III) complexes are in good agreement with the experimental values, confirming suitability of the optimized geometries for the complexes. Fluorescent ligands and chromium complexes were spectrally characterized by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Results revealed that Cr(III) complexes generate fluorescence in dilute solution of DMSO. Calculated electronic absorption spectra were also provided by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) method. The new complexes exhibited potent antibacterial activity against a panel of strains of Gram negative bacterial and Gram positive species and their MIC was also determined. Two strains of Gram positive and two strains of Gram negative bacteria.
       
  • Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence study of rhein as the main metabolite
           of diacerein

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Samah Abdelsabour Mohammed, Mona Ahmed Elhabak, Mohammed ELDardiri A simple, rapid and fully-validated liquid chromatographic method (RP HPLC) with fluorescence detection was developed for the analysis of rhein (as the main metabolite of diacerein) in human plasma. The separation was performed using an ODS C18 column with mobile phase acetonitrile: methanol: phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and the flow rate was1.0 mL/min. The fluoremetric detection was performed at 2 excitation wavelengths ʎex= 440 nm & 338 nm and one emission wavelength at ʎ em = 520 nm . The developed method was validated according to Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA) guideline for bioanalytical method validation. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the test and reference were determined and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) between parameters of the two brands were calculated. The relative bioavailability was found to be 89%. This method was successfully applied to the routine bioequivalence analysis of diacerein in plasma.
       
  • Corrigendum to “Direct oxidation of Δ2-isoxazolines synthesis by metal
           ion-mediated diastereoface-selective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with
           “activated” DMSO” [Arab. J. Chem. 10(Suppl. 1) (2017) S800–S803]

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): Naoufel Ben Hamadi, Moncef Msaddek
       
  • Synthesis and dielectric characterization of polycarbonate/multi-wall
           carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): Poonam Yadav, Anoop K. Srivastava, Manoj K. Yadav, Ram Kripal, Vijay Singh, Dong Bok Lee, Ji-Hoon Lee Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Polycarbonate/Multi-wall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and twin-screw compounding extruder method, respectively. The morphology and dispersion were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The Raman analysis confirmed good interaction between multi-wall carbon nanotubes and polycarbonate. The dielectric impedance spectroscopy of polycarbonate/multi-wall carbon nanotubes nanocomposite varying from 0.25 to 1.5 weight percentages has been carried out in the frequency range of 1.0 Hz–1.0 MHz. One dielectric relaxation mode is observed in pristine polycarbonate at low frequency region (∼10 Hz), whereas polycarbonate loaded with multi-wall carbon nanotubes induced one more dielectric relaxation in kHz region (∼10 kHz). The percolation threshold of the polycarbonate/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composites was observed at 0.75 wt.% of MWCNTs.
       
  • Fe3O4 nanoparticle supported Ni(II) complexes: A magnetically recoverable
           catalyst for Biginelli reaction

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): D. Girija, H.S. Bhojya Naik, B. Vinay Kumar, C.N. Sudhamani, K.N. Harish A novel magnetically recoverable functionalized magnetic(Fe3O4) nanoparticle supported-nickel(II) complex with a high surface area has been synthesized by chemical conjugation of magnetite nanoparticles with highly reactive silanols on the surface of magnetic Fe3O4 to improve the affinity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles for the target species. Functionalized Ni(II) complex containing surface of pyridine, methoxysilanyl and amino groups. Studies revealed that Fe3O4@[Ni(bpy)2(py-tmos)] is a new and highly efficient green catalyst for the synthesis of a diverse range of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-ones under solvent free conditions, and in addition Fe3O4@[Ni(bpy)2(py-tmos)] could be easily recovered by a simple magnetic separation and recycled at least 5 times without deterioration in catalytic activity.
       
  • Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of imidazolyl
           thiazolidinedione derivatives

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): Perumal Moorthy, Sanmuga Priya Ekambaram, Senthamil Selvan Perumal Two series of 2,4 thiazolidinedione derivatives (T1–T4) and (T5–T8) containing substituted imidazoles and one series of 5-substituted 2,4-thiazolidinedione derivatives (T9–T12) were designed and synthesized. The chemical structures of all the three series of 2,4 thiazolidinedione derivatives have been elucidated by spectral studies (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectra). The compounds were screened for their anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-9144, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC-155, Escherichia coli ATCC-25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-2853 bacterial species and antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger ATCC-9029, Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC-46645 by the paper disc diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the compounds were also determined by the agar streak dilution method. Among the synthesized compounds methyl-2-(4-((3-(2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)-2,4-dioxothiazolidine-5-ylidene) methyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl) acetate (T2), methyl-2-(5-((1-(2-(4-fluorophenylthio)ethyl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)methylene)-2,4-dioxo thiazolidin-3-yl)acetate (T4) and methyl-2-(2-((3-(2-methoxy-2-oxoethyl)-2,4-dioxothiazolidine-5-ylidene) methyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl) acetate (T8) were found to possess moderately potent antimicrobial activity with MIC of 1.9, 1.4, 1.6, 0.56, 8.8, 2.3 μg/ml (T2), 3.8, 2.2, 1.6, 2.8, 7.9, 1.7 μg/ml (T4) and 2.7, 3.39, 3.2, 1.4, 8.2, 3.4 μg/ml (T8) against the above mentioned respective strains. All other compounds had shown mild to moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities.
       
  • Preparation of organophilic montmorillonite-based dimethylamino
           benzaldehyde-Schiff-base as antibacterial agents

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): El-Refaie Kenawy, Mohamed Azaam, Khalil Saad-Allah, Ahmed El-Abd New antibacterial composites were synthesized by modification and functionalization of montmorillonite (MMT). The antibacterial composites were synthesized by the reaction of MMT clay with the quaternary salt of p-N,N-dimethylamino benzaldehyde which produced modified functionalized montmorillonite composite in the form of Schiff bases. The Schiff bases (4–11) were obtained by the reaction of functionalized montmorillonite with various amines namely o-anisidine, anthranilic acid, p-carboxy aniline, p-methyl aniline, p-methoxy aniline, p-hydroxy aniline, p-nitro aniline and p-phenylene diamine. The structures of the newly prepared composites were elucidated by Fourier transform infra red (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The antibacterial activities of these composites were investigated by the ‘cut plug’ method against Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella enterica and Proteus vulgaris, and Gram-positive such as Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus which showed high antimicrobial activities at relatively low concentrations (2.5–20 mg/mL). These promising results pave the way in the future to use the newly synthesized composites as antibacterial agents for water treatment against pathogenic bacteria which exist in polluted water courses.
       
  • Effect of the bentonite filler on structure and properties of composites
           based on hydroxyethyl cellulose

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): Olga V. Alekseeva, Anna N. Rodionova, Nadezhda A. Bagrovskaya, Alexandr V. Agafonov, Andrew V. Noskov Granulometric test and morphological analysis of the bentonite particles were performed using laser diffraction and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption–desorption techniques. Bentonite particles were immobilized into the hydroxyethyl cellulose matrix by mechanical dispersion, and composite films were obtained. The effect of concentration of the filling agent on structure and tensile properties of composites was revealed. Data on the nature of interaction between hydroxyethyl cellulose and bentonite after the modification of polymer were obtained by IR spectroscopy. It was found that the hydroxyethyl cellulose/bentonite composite films showed an antimicrobial effect against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, as well against fungi association.
       
  • Lanthanum(III) potentiometric sensors based on ethyl benzoyl acetate

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): Eman Y.Z. Frag, Refat F. Aglan, Hala A. Mohamed Modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) and screen printed electrode (SPE) based on ethyl benzoyl acetate (EBA) were prepared and investigated as lanthanum ion selective electrodes. Effect of various plasticizers (o-NPOE, TCP, DBP, DOS, and DOP) and ionophore content was studied. The reaction mechanism between La(III) and β-diketone ionophore at the electrode surface was studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and IR spectra measurement. The best performance was obtained using modified SPE and CPE electrodes with o-NPOE and TCP plasticizers. These electrodes showed potentiometric response with a Nernstian slope of 21.0, 19.5 and 20.5 mV decade−1 over a concentration range from 1.0 × 10−6 to 1.0 × 10−2 mol L−1 with a fast response time of 9, 10 and 13 s over the linear concentration range for modified SPE (electrode I; TCP plasticizer) and two modified CPE plasticized with o-NPOE (electrode II) and TCP (electrode III), respectively. The electrodes exhibited constant potentiometric response in pH range 4–8, 5–8 and 4–7 for electrodes I, II and III, respectively. They showed satisfactory good sensitivity toward lanthanum ions with regard to most common transition metal ions. The sensors were applied for determination of La(III) ion in different water samples (tap water and wastewater) with satisfactory and good reproducibility results.
       
  • Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Aqueous Fraction of
           Parkinsonea aculeata L. Growing in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): Wafaa H.B. Hassan, Sahar Abdelaziz, Hanan M. Al Yousef Polyphenolic constituents and chromatographic fingerprint of the aqueous fraction obtained from the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Parkinsonea aculeata L. growing in Saudi Arabia were investigated for the first time using UPLC-ESI/MS/MS in negative mode. Forty compounds were tentatively identified including sixteen C-flavone glycosides, twenty-two O-flavone glycosides, and two polymethoxylated flavonoids. Compounds identification was based on the MS/MS fragmentation and literature comparison. The aqueous fraction fingerprint is rich in C- and O-flavone glycosides, like apigenin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (vitexin), vitexin 2″-O-rhamnoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin), luteolin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-rhamnoside and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside. These compounds were identified for the first time in the aqueous fraction of Saudi P. aculeata L. plant. Additionally, the antioxidant and anticancer activities were investigated. The aqueous fraction showed a strong DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 48.3 ± 1.5 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid 14.2 ± 0.5 μg/mL. However, this fraction showed a very weak cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 (Hepatocellular carcinoma) and MCF-7 (Breast carcinoma) with IC50 222 ± 1.8 and 304 ± 9.2 µg/ml respectively compared to cisplatin IC50 3.67 ± 8.1 and 5.71 ± 3.8 µg/ml respectively.
       
  • Impact of purification on iota carrageenan as solid polymer electrolyte

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): Noor Azlina Abdul Ghani, Rizafizah Othaman, Azizan Ahmad, Farah Hannan Anuar, Nur Hasyareeda Hassan Iota carrageenan purification was done by dissolving iota carrageenan powder in water. The purified iota carrageenan powder was analyzed by using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses. The powder was used to form a purified iota carrageenan film based solid polymer electrolyte. Ionic conductivity value of the film was determined by using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The conductivity value for purified iota carrageenan was 1.57 × 10−5 S cm−1 higher than iota carrageenan film. The films were analyzed by using ATR-FTIR, XRD and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (FESEM-EDX). Electrochemical stability of iota carrageenan was improved after purification and had more ionic conduction as compared to iota carrageenan without purification.
       
  • Silica-based chelating resin bearing dual 8-Hydroxyquinoline moieties and
           its applications for solid phase extraction of trace metals from seawater
           prior to their analysis by ICP-MS

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): Awadh O. AlSuhaimi, Salman M. AlRadaddi, Adeeb K. Al-Sheikh Ali, Amjad M. Shraim, Thamer S. AlRadaddi Solid phase extraction (SPE) using chelating resins has been established as a convenient technique for samples pretreatment prior to trace metal analysis from complex matrices. Oxine chelating agents (e.g., 8-Hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ)) are popular moieties in the synthesis of chelating resins, due to their characteristic coordination chemistry. So far most of the reported silica-oxine chelators encompasses a single oxine molecule per spacer arm. In this work, two 8-HQ ligands have been covalently attached onto silica surface throughout a single linkage. The synthesized resin characterized with FTIR, elemental analysis and SEM. The main parameters affecting SPE procedures, such as pH, and sorption kinetics, investigated using batch experiments. The capacity exchange of the produced resin under optimized conditions was 0.219 and 0.161 mmol g−1 for Cu(II) and Mn(II) respectively. The resin packed into 10 ml standard cartridges and used with a typical SPE manifold for matrix removal prior to an ICP-MS analysis of transition metals (i.e., Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Co) in seawater certified reference material samples and real samples from high saline seawater near the discharge zone of Yanbu desalination plant. The obtained results confirm the usefulness of the method.
       
  • Chemical constituents and nitric oxide inhibitory activity of
           supercritical carbon dioxide extracts from Mitragyna speciosa leaves

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): Norsita Tohar, Jamil A. Shilpi, Yasodha Sivasothy, Syahida Ahmad, Khalijah Awang Mitragyna speciosa Korth., is a controversial plant that possesses various medicinal values and has been used from time immemorial in folk medicine. Recently, it has been widely abused as a narcotic source. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro nitric oxide (NO) inhibition property of the supercritical CO2 fluid extracts from M. speciosa leaves and to identify the chemical constituents of the extract that exhibited the most inhibition without toxicity effect. Samples were extracted using the green technology, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique via CO2 as the mobile phase. The NO inhibitory activity was evaluated by Griess assay, which measures the formation of nitrite ion (NO2−) in recombinant mouse interferon gamma/lipopolysaccharide (IFN-γ/LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Matrix 5 Step-1 (M5S1) that was extracted with pure CO2 at 3000 psi and 60 °C exhibited the highest NO inhibitory activity (60.08%) without cytotoxicity (cell viability, 91.98%) at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. GC and GC–MS analysis revealed palmitic acid as the major constituent (34.90%) of M5S1. This study provides first evidence that M5S1, the non-alkaloidal extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction of M. speciosa leaves possesses potential property in preventing inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive production of NO.
       
  • Green synthesis of platinum nanoparticles using Saudi’s Dates extract
           and their usage on the cancer cell treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): Najlaa S. Al-Radadi Green synthesis of the Platinum nanoparticle of dates is carried out for examining their effect on various cancer cells. The extract solution of Dates (biodegradable surfactant) is used for this purpose. The bio-degradable plant-based surfactant, used in the study, occurs naturally, and no other reducing, or capping agent is used for cancer cell treatment. The aqueous extract solution of popular dates Ajwa and Barni acts as a stabilizing and reducing agent during the production of PtNPs at ambient condition because of simplicity, long-time stability, and cost-effectiveness. In order to achieve the best size and shape of nanoparticles, different ratio of extract and metal salt were mixed and developed. Additionally, nanoparticles of varying size were furnished by altering the pH of the reaction. Spectroscopic techniques like FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), EDX, thermos-gravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–vis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to identify PtNPs. In this study, electrochemical HPCL and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPCL) are combined for better understanding and effectiveness. The metabolites such as amino acid, sugar, organic acid, flavonoids, phenol, and minerals, in the Dates produced in Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, have been analyzed with the help of the techniques employed in the study.PtNPs' anticancer activities were evaluated for different cancer cells including the colon carcinoma cells (HCT-116), breast cells (MCF-7), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HePG-2). Commonly used effective anticancer agent, Doxorubicin HCl, is used in the current study related to anticancer activitiy. To discover the antibacterial effect, antibacterial agents Ampicillin and Gentamicin are used. Lastly, the Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (RCMB 010052) and Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacillus subtilis (RCMB 010067) were used to determine the antibacterial application of PtNPs.
       
  • Adsorption kinetics and isotherms for the removal of rhodamine B dye and
           Pb+2 ions from aqueous solutions by a hybrid ion-exchanger

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): Saruchi, Vaneet Kumar The capacity of synthesized hybrid ion exchanger was found for removal of rhodamine B dye and Pb+2 ions from aqueous solution. The effect of different reaction conditions such as sample dosage, pH, ionic strength, contact time and concentration on removal of rhodamine B dye and lead ions was studied. Experimental results of pH and ionic strength showed that hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions might be the dominant force of attraction for the rhodamine B and lead ions onto synthesized hybrid exchanger system. Adsorption equilibrium isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Tempkin and Redlich-Peterson and Sips models. Langmuir model was found to show the best fit for experimental data and the maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 82.3 and 182.7 mg g−1 for lead ions and 76.4 and 156.8 mg g−1 for rhodamine B at 20 and 50 °C, respectively. The experimental kinetic of the data was analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Weber-Morris intra-particle kinetic models and the results showed that pseudo-second-order kinetic model described the ion exchange kinetics accurately for rhodamine B and lead ions. Thermodynamic activation parameters such as ΔG∗, ΔS∗ and ΔH∗ were also calculated.
       
  • Dependence of solvents, pH, molar ratio and temperature in tuning metal
           organic framework architecture

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): R. Seetharaj, P.V. Vandana, P. Arya, S. Mathew One of the strategic goals in crystal engineering is to synthesize the crystals with predictable structures and valuable properties. Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs), a new class of crystalline porous materials, is a recent upsurge of interest in materials research. The challenges in the area encompass the deliberate control of structure, and therefore the properties and function, as many synthetic factors play a subtle role in the crystallization of MOFs. Among many influencing factors, nature of solvents, pH, molar ratio of reactants and temperature are four crucial parameters that determine the overall architectures of MOFs. This review presents the effect of these major parameters on the synthesis of several MOFs to clearly understand their influence on the nature of binding and formation of different MOF structures.
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s):
       
  • Formation of Mn3O4 nanobelts through the solvothermal process and their
           photocatalytic property

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 3Author(s): Khalid Abdelazez Mohamed Ahmed, Kaixun Huang Hausmannite Mn3O4 nanobelts were synthesized from manganese acetate and potassium hydroxide precursors in the presence of melamine–ethanol–distill water via the reflux and solvothermal methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopes confirm the composition of the as-prepared product. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SA-ED), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm results showed that the as-fabricated sample exhibits a nanosized belt-like crystal, single crystalline, tetragonal phase structure and high BET surface area. The effects of the reaction conditions such as melamine amount, solvent ratios and reaction time on the morphology of the products were studied. The band gap of the as-synthesized products was calculated via diffuse reflectance spectral analysis and their activity of catalytic oxidation was evaluated by degradation of diphenylthiocarbazone under visible-light irradiation. GC–MS instrument was used to monitor the temporal course of the catalytic reaction. The results showed that the degradation efficiency of diphenylthiocarbazone catalyzed by Mn3O4 nanobelts was higher than that which had been prepared in particle and sheet-like nanocrystals.
       
  • Spectral characterization, electrochemical, antimicrobial and cytotoxic
           studies on new metal(II) complexes containing N2O4 donor hexadentate
           Schiff base ligand

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Asma A. Alothman, Eida S. Al-Farraj, Wedad A. Al-Onazi, Zainab M. Almarhoon, Amal M. Al-Mohaimeed We report the biological activity of the new Schiff base ligand H2L (H2L = 6,6'-((1E,11E)-5,8-dioxa-2,11-diazadodeca-1,11-diene-1,12-diyl)bis(2,4-dichlorophenol)), its derived metal(II) complexes [Cu(L)] (1), [Co(L)] (2), [Ni(L)] (3) and [Zn(L)] (4), along with their structural characterizations by using various analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Electrochemical investigations showed that all of these Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes were reversibly reducible. Although the change of the number of unpaired electrons are different of the metal cations, they have an effect on the redox potentials of the Co(II)/(I), Ni(II)/(I) and Cu(II)/(I) couples. The 1H NMR and FTIR data concluded that the Schiff base ligand H2L acts as a hexadentate ligand coordinating with metal(II) ions through the oxygen atoms of the (–C–O–C), phenolic (–C–OH) groups and nitrogen atom of the azomethine (–CH=N–) group. UV-Visible absorption spectra studies clearly revealed the octahedral geometry of the prepared metal(II) complexes. Complexes 1 and 4 were found to be efficient in bringing about antimicrobial activities. The proposed mechanism of their antimicrobial activities has been discussed. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed the remarkable cytotoxicity of complex 1 (IC50 = 17 ± 1.3 μg/mL) on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells than Schiff base ligand H2L and complexes 2-4. Moreover, AO/EB staining assay revealed cell death due to apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and the generation of ROS by the Schiff base ligand H2L and its derived metal(II) complexes 1-4 may be a possible cause for their cytotoxic activity.
       
  • In-Vitro Cytotoxicity of Synthesized Phthalide-fused Indoles and Indolines
           Against HL-60 and HepG2 Cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Wong Sheryn, Masayuki Ninomiya, Mamoru Koketsu, Siti Aishah Hasbullah Phthalide derivatives bearing indole or indoline moieties were successfully synthesized via eco-friendly method and were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on HL-60 and HepG2 cell lines in vitro. At a final concentration of 100 μM, most of the compounds showed moderate potency on both the cell lines tested. Compound 3b bearing 5-chloro substituted indoline had the best potency against HL-60 and HepG2 cell lines with IC50 values of 45.4 and 57.7 μM, respectively. It was also found that replacement of a conjugated indoline to indole moiety gave better antiproliferative activity on HL-60 cells by almost two-fold. Morphological observation demonstrated numerous fragmented nuclei which are indicative of apoptosis. Molecular docking studies predicted non-covalent interactions and H-bonding of selected compounds with the P2 binding hot spot of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, formed by Asp108, Phe109, Met112, Leu134, Arg143, Ala146 and Val153. Overall, our work highlights the potential of synthesized phthalide-fused indoles or indolines as antitumor agents.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Multifunctional Fe3O4@mTiO2@noble metal composite NPs as ultrasensitive
           SERS substrates for trace detection

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Hongyan Guo, Aiwu Zhao, Qinye He, Ping Chen, Yuanyuan Wei, Xiangyu Chen, Haiying Hu, Min Wang, He Huang, Rujing Wang Multifunctional materials have become the development trend of current material preparation. We reported a typical layer-by-layer method for the fabrication of multifunctional Fe3O4@mTiO2@noble metal triplex core-shell composite nanoparticle (NP), which is composed of a magnetic Fe3O4 particle as the core, a mesoporous TiO2 interlayer and a layer of Ag nanoparticles or Au nanorods as the shell. The obtained Fe3O4@mTiO2@noble metal composite NPs have shown excellent surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensitivity. Raman results present that the limit of detection (LOD) for crystal violet (CV), p-aminothiophnol (p-ATP) and p-mercaptobenzoic acid (p-MBA) of the Fe3O4@mTiO2@noble metal composite NPs substrates are as low as 1.0×10-9 M, 1.0×10-12 M and 1.0×10-9 M, respectively. In addition, the composite NPs also show high reproducibility and stability across the entire area with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 15.00%. These highly sensitivity with good reproducibility can be attributed to the presence of plentiful “hot spots” produced by magnetic aggregation and target molecules enrichment by mesoporous TiO2 adsorption for practical application. Fe3O4@mTiO2@Ag composite NPs were used for thiram detection and the detection limit can reach to 5.0×10-8 M (about 0.012 ppm), which is lower than the maximal residue limit of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These multifunctional composite NPs provide easy separation, enrichment and trace detection of the analyte, exhibiting a great prospect as a potential SERS sensor in complex environments.
       
  • Synergistic improvement of Cr(VI) reduction and RhB degradation using
           RP/g-C3N4 photocatalyst under visible light irradiation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Enzhou Liu, Yanyan Du, Xue Bai, Jun Fan, Xiaoyun Hu The RP/g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalyst was fabricated by a facile heat treatment strategy. The obtained composite has excellent light harvesting ability and charge separation performance. Compared to single RP and g-C3N4, the 50%-RP/g-C3N4 exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for simultaneously removing Cr(VI) and RhB, and the removal rates can reach 92% and 99% in 25 min, respectively. The enhanced mechanism was revealed by active species capturing experiments, showing that electrons can reduce Cr(VI) and produce ·O2- in air and that holes can directly oxidize the dyes. The coexistence of Cr(VI) and RhB will lead to a synergistic improvement of Cr(VI) reduction and RhB degradation due to rapid surface reactions. This further improves the charge separation except for the heterojunction effect. In addition, the COD analysis demonstrates that organic dyes are mainly degraded into CO2, H2O and some intermediates.
       
  • A promising amendment for water splitters: Boosted oxygen evolution at a
           platinum, titanium oxide and manganese oxide hybrid catalyst

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Islam M. Al-Akraa, Takeo Ohsaka, Ahmad M. Mohammad A hybrid catalyst composed of a platinum thin layer and modified with manganese oxide (MnOx) is recommended for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The Pt layer of the catalyst was physically sputtered onto a TiOx-coated Si substrate (this TiOx layer was sputtered in-between the Si substrate and Pt layer to improve their adhesion and prevent their mutual diffusion). On top of the Pt layer, another thin TiOx layer (∼ 60 nm) was spun before the deposition of MnOx electrochemically. The investigation focused primarily to evaluate the impact of the catalyst’s annealing in oxygen atmosphere on its catalytic activity toward OER. Interestingly, before the modification with MnOx, a large catalytic enhancement both in activity (∼ 228 mV negative shift at 20 mA cm−2 if compared to conventional bare Pt catalysts) and stability was achieved at the catalyst annealed at 600°C toward OER in 0.5 M KOH. Surprisingly, the addition of MnOx to the catalyst synergized a boosted activity amplifying the negative shift to 470 mV at the same current density. Bunch of materials and electrochemical techniques were combined to reveal important remarks about the catalyst’s morphology, structure, composition and intrinsic activity which was attributed to electronic rather than geometric factors.
       
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Fluorescent N-CDs/ZnONPs Nanocomposite
           for Latent Fingerprint Detection by using Powder Brushing Method

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Eswaran Prabakaran, Kriveshini Pillay This study reports the first new approach of using nitrogen functionalized carbon dots coated on zinc oxide nanoparticles (N-CDs/ZnONPs) as a novel nanocomposite for latent fingerprint detection using the powder brushing method. N-CDs/ZnONPs nanocomposite was prepared using melamine, potato peel waste and zinc acetate dehydrate as precursors. This nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Zeta nanosizer, Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The size of N-CDs was around at 50 to 20 nm and ZnONPs was around at 40-50 nm. The quantum yield of N-CDs increased the fluorescence intensity of the fluorophore by 5.54 %. The N-CDs were coated on surface of ZnONPs to increase the quantum yield and increase the blue emission after formation of N-CDs/ZnONPs by 5.12 %.The N-CDs/ZnONPs nanocomposite demonstrated extraordinary sensitivity and selectivity for Latent Fingerprint (LPF) detection on the distinctive non-porous substrates which included aluminum foil, aluminum sheets, an aluminum rod, an iron disc, a compact disc, a black mat, white marble and magazine paper. This nanocomposite acts as a labeling agent and it helped to detect LFP with clear readability ridges and high contrast fingerprint images under UV light irradiation. N-CDs/ZnONPs nanocomposite additionally demonstrated superior ability to reveal readability ridges and clarity and high contrast LFP images with 415 nm and 450 nm light sources and a yellow filter by using a Living Image Microscope. This nanocomposite exhibited advantages such as improved efficiency, a non-toxic nature, good optical properties and good results in the LFP detection of the freshly applied fingerprints. N-CDs/ZnONPs nanocomposite is, therefore, a good alternative material for detection of latent fingerprints in crime investigations.
       
  • Di-Block Copolymer Stabilized Methyl Methacrylate Based PolyHIPEs:
           Influence of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Co-Monomers on Morphology,
           Wettability and Thermal Properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Umair Azhar, Rimsha Yaqub, Huateng Li, Ghulam Abbas, Yongkang Wang, Jian Chen, Chuanyong Zong, Anhou Xu, Zhang Yabin, Shuxiang Zhang, Bing Geng Due to intermediate hydrophobicity of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer in water, it is difficult to prepare its stable water in oil high internal phase emulsion (HIPE). Moreover, the addition of fully hydrophilic co-monomer such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in MMA monomer makes it further troublesome to stabilize these emulsions. This paper addresses the preparation of such type of difficult to prepare emulsions via addition of an amphiphilic fluorinated di-block copolymer (FDB), poly(2-dimethylamino)ethylmethacrylate-b-poly(trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA-b-PTFEMA) as stabilizer. Interestingly, HEMA and/or HFBA (hexa fluorobutyl acrylate) as co-monomers were successfully added to impart some special properties such as thermodynamic stability, desired amphiphilicity to the final polyHIPEs. Fluorinated blocks in FDB anchored well at oil/water interface of HIPE, offering enough hydrophobicity to the comparatively hydrophilic monomers and in turn providing resistance against coalescence. MMA polyHIPEs were found to be fully hydrophobic just by replacing HEMA co-monomer with HFBA. Due to superb inherent hydrophobic nature of fluorine atoms, MMA-HFBA polyHIPEs showed remarkable water contact angle of 139°. Furthermore, the addition of fluorinated co-monomer in MMA based HIPEs significantly improved thermal stabilities of these materials with improvement in degradation temperature from 305 °C to 360 °C.
       
  • Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Computational Study of New
           (E)-N'-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)furan-2-carbohydrazide

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Ahmed M. Mkadmh, Rami Y. Morjan, James Raftery, Adel M. Awadallah, John M. Gardiner An efficient synthesis of the new (E)-N'-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)furan-2-carbohydrazide is described. Its molecular structural features have been characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS, then have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Quantum chemical calculations including molecular geometry, intermolecular H-bonds and vibrational frequencies were carried out for the structures to explain stability and geometry using the hybrid density functional (DFT/B3LYP) in conjunction with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The calculated structural and vibrational parameters are presented and compared with their experimental X-ray and FTIR counterparts. The global minimum and local minima ground states characteristics of the title compound and its rotamers have been theoretically established through 2D potential energy scan and vibrational frequencies. Computational analysis predicted that head-to-tail E/E-dimer of the observed E-isomer has significantly stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonding in solution rather than in the gaseous state. It is found that N-H and C=O vibrational bands suffering blue-shift due to intermolecular hydrogen bonds (IHBs). Weak intramolecular hydrogen bonds that have been detected in the monomeric form in the gaseous state and in solution are lacking in trimers and tetramers due to loss of planarity in the molecular structure. Optimization in solution clearly shows that the strength of the IHBs decreased exponentially with dielectric continuum of the solvent used. Inexistence of solvent/monomer intermolecular hydrogen bonds has been explained in terms of Condensed Fukui Functions.
       
  • ZnO-Bi2O3/Graphitic Carbon Nitride Photocatalytic System with
           H2O2-Assisted Enhanced Degradation of Indigo Carmine under Visible Light

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Bui The Huy, Da Seul Paeng, Chu Thi Bich Thao, Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong, Yong-Ill Lee Indigo Carmine in aqueous solution was effectively degraded using ZnO-Bi2O3/Graphitic Carbon Nitride heterojunction structure by visible light/H2O2 system. The mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of Indigo carmine shows the responsible species for the degradation of Indigo carmine in the ZnO-Bi2O3-xC3N4/H2O2/visible light system (x = 0, 1, 2, and 3) is the hydroxyl radicals which were generated from the reaction of e- and h+ with H2O2. Under optimal conditions, ZnO-Bi2O3-2C3N4/H2O2/Vis system degraded more than 93% of Indigo Carmine in 180 minutes. Besides, the kinetic of the photocatalytic process was detailed. These results demonstrate that the ZnO-Bi2O3-2C3N4/H2O2/visible light system may become a promising approach to achieve efficient environmental remediation as an environmentally friendly oxidant.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • A Systematic Study of Determination and Validation of Finasteride
           Impurities Using Liquid Chromatography

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Aysen Kurt Cucu, Serap Sakarya, Hulya Demircan Demir, Sarfraz Ahmad Pharmaceutical use of finasteride (Dilaprost®) has been well documents in the peer-reviewed literature; however, the presence of trace amounts of related substances (impurities) in finasteride may influence the tharapeutic efficacy and safely. Due to limited information available, the objective of this study was to develop a quantification method for the three impurities of finasteride using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet (UV) detector. The compounds (impurities) of finasteride that are registered with the European Pharmacopeia, which we sought to validate are: -N-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-oxo-4-aza-5α-androstane-17β-carboxamide (impurity A), methyl 3-oxo-4-aza-5α-androst-1-ene-17β-carboxylate (impurity B), and -N-(1,1-dimehylethyl)-3-oxo-4-azaandrosta-1,5-diene-17β-carboxamide (impurity C). Analyses were performed using a Nova Pac C18 column for HPLC with isocratic elution. Detection was carried out at 210 nm, the concentration of the three impurities was in the range was 1.5-4.5 μg mL-1 at ambient temperature with a mobile phase of water + acetonitrile + tetrahydrofuran (80:10:10, v/v/v) and the flow rate was 2.0 mL min-1. The recoveries were: 101.35 ± 0.62 % (impurity A), 101.60 ± 2.66 % (impurity B) and 101.97 ± 2.05 % (impurity C). Validation of the method yielded fairly good results as it relates to the precision and accuracy. It is, therefore, concluded that the method would be suitable for not only the separation and determination of processed impurities to monitor the reactions, but also for the quality assurance of finasteride and its related substances.
       
  • Nanotubes as Polymer Composite Reinforcing Additive Materials – A
           Comparative Study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): László Vanyorek, Emőke Sikora, Tamás Balogh, Krisztina Román, Kálmán Marossy, Péter Pekker, Tamás J. Szabó, Béla Viskolcz, Béla Fiser Nitrogen-doped bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes (N-BCNTs) and their non-doped conventional counterparts, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were compared as polymer reinforcing additives in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix. The nanotubes were synthetized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method. The purity of both nanotubes was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and found to be>91%. Further analysis on the morphology and size of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The PVC powder was impregnated with CNTs in ethanol by using tip ultrasonicator. The dispersion media was evaporated, and the CNT/PVC powder was used to produce polymer fibers. The orientation of carbon nanotubes in the PVC matrix was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the presence of nanotubes were confirmed in case of all PVC samples. It can be observed on the SEM images that the nanotubes are fully covered with PVC. The tensile strength of the nanotube containing samples was tested and the N-BCNT/PVC composite was found to be better in this sense, thanks to the extraordinary structure of the nanotube. In case of the N-BCNT/PVC composite the measured young modulus was 39.7% higher, while the elongation at brake decreased by 33.6% compare to the MWCNT/PVC composite. These significant differences in the mechanical properties of the composites can be explained with the stronger interaction between N-BCNTs and PVC.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic green ceramic
           hollow fiber membrane derived from waste sugarcane bagasse ash for
           oil/water separation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mohd Riduan Jamalludin, Siti Khadijah Hubadillah, Zawati Harun, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Muhamad Zaini Yunos, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh Green ceramic hollow fiber membranes with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surfaces (ss-CHFM/WSBA) were successfully fabricated via facile sol–gel process using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) as precursors. In this work, silica solution was prepared using the modified Stöber method. This process was followed by dipping the pristine membranes into the sol–gel solution at various grafting times (0–90 min), grafting cycles (0–4 cycles), and calcination temperatures (400–600°C). The wettability, surface morphology, and chemical composition of the pristine and ss-CHFM/WSBA membranes were investigated. The results showed that increasing the grafting time has increased the wettability of ss–CHFM/WSBA with high contact angle of up to 163.9°. Similarly, increasing grafting cycle has enhanced the hydrophobicity of ss-CHFM/WSBA due to the formation of hierarchical structure of grafting cycle which were more than one. The optimum calcination temperature for ss-CHFM/WSBA was identified. It was found that increasing the calcination temperature has degraded the sol template on the surface of ss-CHFM/WSBA, hence decreasing the wettability. The preliminary performance tests showed that ss-CHFM/WSBA grafted at 60 min, 3 cycles, and calcined at 400 °C showed excellent oil/water separation efficiency of 99.9% and oil flux of 137.2 L/m2h.
       
  • Tailored Functionalized Polymer Nanoparticles using Gamma Radiation for
           Selected Adsorption of Barium and Strontium in Oilfield Wastewater

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Sherif A. Younis, Mohamed M. Ghobashy, Ghada Bassioni, Ashwani K. Gupta To improve oil recovery from oilfield wells mineral scales derived by insoluble BaSO4 and SrSO4 salts during oil extraction should be diminished. In this work, adsorption selectivity of Barium (Ba2+) and Strontium (Sr2+) ions associated with saline formation waters was examined for the first time using nano-sized bi-functional polymer blend synthesized by Cobalt-60 (60Co) γ-rays, as green technology. A bifunctional polymer formed from poly(acrylonitrile)/(styrene-butadiene rubber) homogenous blend functionalized by -SO3H and -COOH terminal groups (termed as SASB). Those functional groups were selected based on systematic calcium (Ca2+) ions adsorption studies of carboxylate containing molecules. Main interactive effects of solution pH, adsorbents dose, total dissolved salts (TDS, up to 30 g/L), initial Ba2+ and Sr2+ concentrations and temperature on the adsorption selectivity were examined and optimized using Plackett-Burman factorial design (PBD) combined with multiple regression analysis. The regression statistics revealed the significance of quadratic polynomial model to optimize interactive sorption conditions from salty waters rather with high accuracy level (R2≈ 0.99) rather than linear and two-way interactive models at 95% confidence level. Interestingly finding, the regression and experimental data proved that the presence of up to 10 g/L TDS from alkali metal ions had a significant effect on the enhancement sorption capacity of Ba2+ and Sr2+ when using the prepared sorbent. The SASB adsorbent showed higher sorption selectivity with maximum equilibrium capacity (qmg/g) of 175.3 mg Ba+2 and 210.5 mg Sr+2 per each gram sorbent used in kinetic study. Adsorption kinetics of Ba2+ and Sr2+ sorption by both adsorbents obey pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetics, respectively. In sum, the adsorptive power of SASB sorbent is found to be in reverse order of the electronegativity and the hydration radii of the metal ions.
       
  • Low-cost preparation method of well dispersed gold nanoparticles on
           reduced graphene oxide and electrocatalytic stability in PEM Fuel Cell

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Adriana Marinoiu, Mircea Raceanu, Mindaugas Andrulevicius, Asta Tamuleviciene, Tomas Tamulevicius, Simona Nica, Daniela Bala, Mihai Varlam A facile and feasible protocol for synthesis of functionalized reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNP/rGO) in mild reaction conditions has been successfully developed. Starting from graphite, the following synthesis routes were developed: 1) preparation of graphite oxide; 2) graphene oxide (GO) functionalized with a compatible polymer; 3) reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticles (final compound). The surface morphology of as-prepared AuNP/rGO was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area was determined using BET method, while structural properties were investigated using Raman scattering spectroscopy, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). This comprehensive study demonstrated the simultaneous reduction of GO and the achievement of Au nanoparticles dispersed on graphene sheets. An ORR catalytic system containing prepared AuNP/rGO was developed, and electrochemical measurements were performed. Firstly, the ex-situ electrochemical performances of AuNP/rGO-modified carbon electrode were investigated using cyclic voltammetry. Secondly, the in-situ electrochemical evaluation were carried out as application in real PEM fuel cell and analyzed as comparison commercial Pt/C versus developed ORR catalytic system. The in-situ CV results showed that the oxidation and reduction peaks corresponding to hydrogen adsorption/desorption decreased differently, indicating that a decrease of electrochemical surface area occurs for both cases, more visible for commercial catalyst. The cathode made with AuNP/rGO developed in this work, tested in hydrogen-air PEMFC, had a power density of 0.59 W cm − 2 at 0.6 V, a meaningful voltage for fuel cells operation, comparable with that of a commercial Pt-based cathode tested under identical conditions, but a superior electrochemical stability. The results confirmed that the developed AuNP/rGO nanoparticles could be valuable alternative ORR nanostructured electrodes.
       
  • Aryl Ferrocenylmethylesters: Synthesis, Solid-State Structure and
           Electrochemical Investigations

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Asma Ghazzy, Deeb Taher, Wissam Helal, Marcus Korb, Khaled Khalyfeh, Firas F. Awwadi, Rasha K. Al-Shewiki, Saddam Weheabby, Naim Al-Said, Sultan T. Abu-Orabi, Heinrich Lang The reaction of [Fe(η5-C5H4CH2OH)2] (1) with 2 equiv of ClC(O)R (2) (a, R = C6H5; b, R = 2-CH3-C6H4; c, R = 3-CH3-C6H4, d, R = 4-CH3-C6H4) produced the corresponding ferrocenyl carboxylates [Fe(η5-C5H4CH2OC(O)R)2] (3a–d). Treatment of [FcCH2OLi] (4-Li) (Fc = Fe(η5-C5H5)(η5-C5H4)) with (ClC(O))2C6H4 (5) (a, 1,2-((ClC(O))2-C6H4; b, 1,3-((ClC(O))2-C6H4; c, 1,4-((ClC(O))2-C6H4) in a 2:1 molar ratio gave (FcCH2OC(O))2-C6H4 (6a−c), while with 1,3,5-(ClC(O))3-C6H3 (7) in a 3:1 molar ratio produced 1,3,5-(FcCH2OC(O))3-C6H3 (8). All compounds were characterized by NMR (1H, 13C{1H}) and IR spectroscopy, ESI-TOF mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The molecular structures of 3a−d and 6b in the solid state were determined by single crystal X-ray structure analysis, showing anti-periplanar orientations of the 1,1’-positioned substituents at ferrocene (3a−d). In the cyclic voltammograms of 3a–d, 6a–d and 8 reversible electrochemical redox processes (Fc/Fc+) were observed, ranging between 146 and 164 mV for 3a−d, ca. 100 mV for 6a−d and at 113 mV for 8 using [NnBu4][B(C6F5)4] as the supporting electrolyte. The molecular electronic structure of 3, 6 and 8 was calculated by DFT methods in order to obtain the HOMO and LUMO absolute and relative energies in addition to electron density and distribution within the molecular arrangements. It was found that different degrees of HOMO-LUMO energy gaps within the series, due to a lowering in the LUMO energy depending on the positions of the carboxylic ester substituents on the aryl rings, are in agreement with the electrochemical results obtained.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Eu(III) removal by tetrabutylammonium di-hydrogen phosphate (TBAH2P)
           functionalized polymers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mihaela Ciopec, Andreea Gabor, Corneliu Mircea Davidescu, Adina Negrea, Petru Negrea, Narcis Duteanu Polymers involved as adsorbant materials during Eu(III) removal tests were prepared by functionalization of a natural polymer – cellulose, and a commercial one represented by Amberlite XAD7. As extractant, we used tetrabutil ammonium di-hydrogen phosphate (TBAH2P) which is a cheap and environmentally friendly product. Impregnated polymers using a rotavapor system in which the quaternary ammonium salt used as exctractant was concentrated on to the used polymer. Later obtained materials were characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray electron dispersion (EDX). During experimental test we determine pH, contact time, Eu(III) initial concentration and temperature effect on the functionalized polymers adsorption capacity. Therewith for both functionalized polymers, a comparison was made between the adsorption process characteristics based on kinetics and thermodynamic studies.
       
  • Biocompatible pure ZnO nanoparticles-3D bacterial cellulose biointerfaces
           with antibacterial properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): V. Dinca, A. Mocanu, G. Isopencu, C. Busuioc, S. Brajnicov, A. Vlad, M. Icriverzi, A. Roseanu, M. Dinescu, M. Stroescu, A. Stoica-Guzun, M. Suchea In this paper, we present for the first time the obtaining and characterization of new antibacterial and biocompatible nano-ZnO–bacterial cellulose(BC) material with controlled interfaces for studying in vitro microorganisms (Escherichia Coli (ATCC 8737), B. subtilis Spizizenii Nakamura (ATCC 6633), Candida albicans (ATCC10231)) and mammalian cells (human dermal fibroblast cells) response. The use of BC based material with controlled characteristics in terms of quantity and distribution of ZnO onto BC membrane (with 2D and 3D fibers arrangement) is directly correlated with the surface chemical and topographical properties, the method of preparation, and also with the type of cells implied for the specific application within the bioengineering fields. In our study, the uniform distribution and the control on the quantity of ZnO nanoparticles onto 3D BC were obtained using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) method. The influence on particle distribution onto 3D bio cellulose were investigated based on two types of solvents (water and chloroform) involved in target preparation within MAPLE deposition. The attachment of the nanoparticles to the bacterial cellulose surface and fibrils was demonstrated by SEM and FT-IR studies. The BC-ZnO showed both resistance to bacteria-sticking and non-cytotoxic effect on the human dermal fibroblasts cells at a mass distribution onto surface of 1.68 µg ZnO NPS/mm2. These results represent a good premise in terms of tailoring BC substrates with ZnO particles that could determine or enhance both the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of BC-composite materials.
       
  • Silver embedded C-TiO2 exhibits improved photocatalytic properties with
           potential application in waste water treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mohamed Elfatih Hassan, Guanglong Liu, Eltigani Osman Musa Omer, Arafat M.Goja, Sadananda Acharya Non-metal element doping on photocatalysts demonstrates a wide range of disadvantages. Hence metal embedding on nanomaterials is considered to enhance photocatalytic efficiency. In this study, we employed silver nano particle embedding on C-TiO2 photocatalyst to improve its phtotocatytic degradation efficiency of organic water pollutant such as methyl orange. Modified sol-gel methods based on self-assembly technique was used to prepare the nanoformulations. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectra (PL). Compared to non-silver formulation (C-TiO2), silver embedded nanomaterial (C-TiO2/Ag) displayed an increased shift in the light absorption towards visible spectrum. A low photoluminescence (PL) intensity by 1 wt% C-TiO2/Ag indicated improved photocatalytic efficiency. Further, higher degradation of organic dye methyl orange confirmed that 1 wt% C-TiO2/Ag exhibited the best photodegradation rate over its non Ag embedded C-TiO2. Embedding of silver on C-TiO2 extends optical absorption edge of C-TiO2 to more visible specturm and inhibits electron-hole recombination resulting in enhanced photocatalytic activity. Photocatalytic degradation on methyl orange organic pollutant was considerably improved indicating its potential use in water treatment applications.
       
  • Magnetically modified nanogold-biosilica composite as an effective
           catalyst for CO oxidation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Veronika Holišová, Marta Natšinová, Gabriela Kratošová, Žaneta Chromčáková, Adam Schröfel, Ivo Vávra, Ondřej Životský, Ivo Šafařík, Lucie Obalová The temperature-dependent biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) using diatom cells of Diadesmis gallica was successfully performed. The resulting biosynthesis product was a bionanocomposite containing AuNP (app. 20 nm) subsequently anchored on the silica surface of diatomaceous frustules. As-prepared nanogold-biosilica composite was tested as catalyst in the oxidation of carbon monoxide using gas chromatograph with thermal conductivity detector. For catalytic activity enhancement, bionanocomposite was magnetically modified by ferrofluid using two different methods, i.e., with and without the use of methanol. The oxidation of CO at 300°C was 58% to 60% in the presence of nanogold-biosilica composites. CO conversion at 300°C was only 15% over magnetically responsive sample modified in the presence of methanol. On the other hand, complete CO conversion was reached over direct (without methanol) magnetically modified nanogold-biosilica composite at 330°C (GHSV = 60 l g-1 h-1). Our results show, that the type of magnetic modification can influence the catalytic activity of bionanocomposite. The best catalytic effect in CO conversion established direct magnetically modified nanogold-biosilica composite.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Review on various strategies for enhancing photocatalytic activity of
           graphene based nanocomposites for water purification

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Pardeep Singh, Pooja Shandilya, Pankaj Raizada, Anita Sudhaik, Abolfazl Rahmani-Sani, Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei Heterogeneous photocatalysis employing advanced oxidation has received significant attention for water purification and disinfection. Recently, the excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of graphene-based nanomaterials have encouraged the scientists to fabricate better graphene-based nanocomposites with enhanced photoefficiency for degradation of pollutants and disinfection of water resources. This review presents an overview of the various works done on the utilization of graphene-based photocatalytic systems in water purification and, especially, focuses on the strength of graphene-based composite materials in water disinfection. Therefore, after throwing some light on the advanced oxidation processes and basic principles of heterogeneous photocatalysis, the properties of graphene and its derivatives for being employed as photocatalysts and various strategies adopted for improving their photocatalytic activity was discussed thoroughly. Also, the efficiency of graphene-based composites as disinfectants discussed in the preceding section. At the end, a conclusion was drawn to discuss the remaining challenges and prospects for using graphene-based nanocomposites in environmental sciences.
       
  • Hydrothermal synthesis of pure and bio modified TiO2: characterization,
           evaluation of antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram
           negative bacteria and anticancer activity against KB Oral cancer cell line
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): P. Maheswari, S. Ponnusamy, S. Harish, M.R. Ganesh, Y. Hayakawa Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were found to be good anticancer and antibacterial agents. In this study, the antibacterial and anticancer activities of pure TiO2, turmeric, ginger and garlic modified TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Uv- visible spectroscopy were used to analyze the samples. Antibacterial activities were performed against five bacterial strains namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruoginosa , Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. The modified TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity when compared with pure TiO2 samples and anticancer activities for the samples were performed in KB Oral cancer cell line. The results of the modified TiO2 NPs indicate a greater efficacy on anticancer and antibacterial properties compared to the pure TiO2 NPs.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Treatment of Lead Contaminated Water Using Synthesized Nanoiron Supported
           with Bentonite/Graphene Oxide

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Chuang Yu, JiCheng Shao, WenJing Sun, XiaoNiu Yu Conventional nano-iron is widely used in heavy metal contaminated groundwater remediation. However, it is easily oxidized when exposed to the air or re-aggregated under water soaking conditions. In this study, a nano-sized iron supported by graphene oxide/bentonite is proposed which is synthesized by liquid-phase reduction method. The TEM test results showed that the support effect of graphene oxide/bentonite well solved shortcomings of conventional nano-iron, since the flaky structure of graphene oxide and layered bentonite could effectively disperse nano-iron particles. The TEM images indicated that nano-iron supported by graphene oxide/bentonite at a weight ratio of 4:1:7.3 (nanoiron: graphene oxide: bentonite) yielded the smallest particle size, and most particle size was less than 30nm. The test results show that addition of graphene oxide could improve the removal of lead ions, especially in acidic environment as compared to bentonite alone supported nano-iron. The optimum dosage of graphene oxide was found to be 6.98% based on the removal rate of lead. It was found that the removal rate of lead by graphene oxide/bentonite supported nano-iron increased with the increase of pH of simulated contaminated groundwater. The temperature was found to affect the removal rate of lead ions as well. The adsorption of lead ions by graphene oxide/bentonite supported nano-iron conformed to quasi-second order reaction kinetic model, and the adsorption isotherm well fit the Langmuir model.
       
  • Influence of Binary Lithium Salts on 49% Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) grafted
           Natural Rubber Based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): R.A.G. Whba, L. TianKhoon, M.S. Su'ait, M.Y.A. Rahman, A. Ahmad Effect of binary lithium salts (lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF4 with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate, LiCF3SO3) and (lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF4 with Lithium iodide, LiI) as charge carriers in solid polymer electrolyte based 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) for Li-ion battery application has been investigated. The polymer electrolytes were prepared by solution casting technique. The effect of binary lithium salts on chemical interaction, structural, thermal studies, ionic conductivity and ion transference number of MG49 films are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Infrared analysis indicated the interaction occurred between Li ions and oxygen atoms at the carbonyl group (−C=O) and the ether group (C−O−C) on methyl methacrylate (MMA) segments. XRD studies exhibited a reduction of the MMA peak intensity at 29.5˚ after the addition of different ratios of binary Li salts due to the plasticizing effect of the salts. The larger anion size tends to create bigger free volume in the polymer electrolyte. In addition, this confirms that the degree of crystallinity of the electrolyte films is reduced leading to enhancement of ionic conductivity. DSC results revealed the highest conductivity sample has the lowest Tg implying the ions can flow with more ease throughout the polymer chain. The ratios of LiBF4:LiI presenting the higher overall performance in terms of ionic conductivity comparing to LiBF4:LiCF3SO3 ratios in MG49. The highest room temperature conductivity was obtained at 1.89 × 10–6 S cm-1 for (30:70) LiBF4:LiI percentages ratio. Moreover, tion is observed to increase with the ionic conductivities.
       
  • Anti-hygroscopic surface modification of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) coated
           by surfactants

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Baha I. Elzaki, Yue Jun Zhang Ammonium nitrate surface is extremely hygroscopic, due to high energy on its surface which increases the potential of the molecules to absorb moisture from the surrounding environment. Ammonium nitrate particles were modified using second coating process with myristic acid in the different amount. The hygroscopicity was tested for ammonium nitrate with and without coating. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the surface of coated and uncoated ammonium nitrate. Meanwhile, the method determined mass ratio of coating layer was improved to achieve more accuracy. In addition, focused ion beam technique was used to determine the thickness of coating layer. The results indicated that by using second coating modification method of surfactant adsorption, the anti-hygroscopicity performance of coated samples was significantly improved. The result showed that the decline of the absorption moisture rate was 40.57%, and the mass ratio of the coating layer was 1.42%. These results suggest that the second coating process employed could provide the well fundamental for the further anti-hygroscopic surface modification of ammonium nitrate particles coated by surfactants.
       
  • Electrodeposited cobalt hydroxide in expanded carbon graphite electrode
           obtained from exhausted batteries applied as energy storage device

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Cleverson S. Santos, Rafaela D. de Oliveira, Luís F. Marchesi, Christiana A. Pessôa This paper describes the preparation and characterization of CG/Co(OH)2 electrode obtained by electrodeposition of cobalt hydroxide on expanded carbon graphite electrode (CG) for potential application as energy storage devices. The CG electrodes used in this work were obtained from exhausted batteries. Firstly, the CG electrode was submitted to an anodic polarization at 2 V in H2SO4 solution, in order to increase the active surface area at different times. Thereafter, the electrodeposition of the Co(OH)2 was carried out by applying different reduction potentials over different times in order to optimize the electrodeposition process. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results confirmed the expansion of the bare CG and the Co(OH)2 electrodeposition. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the modified electrode. It was observed that the parameters of the modification process affect the morphology of the electrodeposited cobalt hydroxide. The best performance was found for the CG/Co(OH)2 modified electrode obtained by CG expanded during 750 s, followed by the electrodeposition conditions of -1.25 V during 250 s, presenting a capacitiy of 3.4 C cm-2 in an applied current density of 1.0 mA cm-2. In addition, this modified electrode also presented a retention capacity of 91% after 1400 cycles.
       
  • Development of a SBSE-HPLC method using sol-gel based germania coated
           twister for the analysis of 4-chloro-1-naphthol in biological and water
           samples

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Shehzada Muhammad Sajid Jillani, Saheed A. Ganiyu, Khalid Alhooshani In this work, 4-chloro-1-naphthol is extracted from environmental and biological samples using germania-based polydimethylsiloxane hybrid organic-inorganic coated twister, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The coated twisters showed a good preparation reproducibility of 1.7% (n=3) for one batch and 3.5% (n=3) for different batches. The coated stir bars were successfully characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Sample volume, extraction time, stirring rate, desorption solvent, desorption time and ionic strength were optimized for the stir bar sorptive extraction process. Under optimized experimental conditions, the method showed linearity in the range of 0.4-800 ng mL-1 with R2 = 0.9992 and limit of detection (S/N=3) as 0.034 ng mL-1. The chromatographic method showed higher selectivity by having baseline separation between 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol (the expected interference) and 4-chloro-1-naphthol. This germania-based stir bar sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic method was successfully applied for 4-chloro-1-naphthol in wastewater, pool water, and human urine and showed relative recoveries between 87.4 - 141.3% with acceptable relative standard deviation i.e. 4-11%.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Preparation, Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Supported
           Zeolite on Porous Glass Hollow Fiber for Desalination Application

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Siti Nurfatin Nadhirah Mohd Makhtar, Mohamad Zahir Mohd Pauzi, Nizar Mu'ammar Mahpoz, Norfazilah Muhamad, Mukhlis A. Rahman, Khairul Hamimah Abas, Azian Abd Aziz, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Juhana Jaafar A-type zeolite membranes were synthesized on porous glass hollow fibers that prepared using the in-situ hydrothermal process. The porous glass hollow fibers were prepared using the phase inversion and sintering technique with the addition of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to improve their porosity. The glass hollow fibers were characterized using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), mechanical properties and water permeability. The porosities of pure glass hollow fiber were improved by the addition of YSZ particles, which lead to an increase in the pure water permeability. The water permeability shows that the glass hollow fiber prepared form spinning suspension E, which has 30 wt.% zeolite particles and 20 wt.% YSZ particles, has the highest permeability of 155.65 L m-2 hr-1 bar-1 compared to the previous work, which was only 4.0 L m-2.hr-1.bar-1. This glass hollow fiber was later used as the support for the incorporation of zeolite membrane for the desalination application. The performance of membranes is separating sodium chloride (NaCl) salt solution were tested using two different setups, namely pressure driven reverse osmosis (RO) and sweeping liquid assisted reverse osmosis (SLRO). The solute flux for 5,000 and 10,000 ppm NaCl salt solutions were 24.45 and 17.86 L m-2 hr-1, respectively. Both operations enabled the solute rejection up to 98 %.
       
  • Overview on petroleum emulsions, formation, influence and demulsification
           treatment techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Murtada Mohammed Abdulredha The most challenging aspect in petroleum industry is high produced water accompanying crude oil extraction. In modern days, environmental attention has become very significant due to large quantity of produced water. Produced water in crude oil extraction consists of a mixture of several compounds, including inorganic, organic and other elements. The elements in produced water have a wide environmental influence and sometimes cause poisonous impact on sounded area. Meanwhile, there are several techniques to treat produced water. However, a major part of produced water is an emulsion and this leads to a major problem associated with crude oil treatment and transport. At the same time, limitations in treatment techniques for produced water have been demanding researchers to investigate on demulsification techniques for several years. Researchers also noted that there are a lot of elements influencing emulsion stability and interfacial film, including asphaltenes, resins, solid particles, water and oil content, PH, etc. However, one of the techniques that has received attention in enhanced oil recovery is a chemical method by using surface active agents (surfactant).
       
  • Dye-sensitized solar cell utilizing silver doped reduced graphene oxide
           films counter electrode: Influence of annealing temperature on its
           performance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): N. Mustaffa, M.Y.A. Rahman, A.A. Umar This work is concerned with the utilization of silver doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag-rGO) films as counter electrode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The effect of annealing temperature of Ag-rGO on the properties of Ag-rGO and performance parameters of the device has been investigated. The annealing temperature has been varied from 350 oC to 400 oC at 10 oC interval. The DSSC utilizing Ag-rGO annealed at 350 oC demonstrated the highest η of 1.302%, respectively due to the smallest charge transfer resistance at the interface of electrolyte/Ag-rGO counter electrode. The efficiency has been improved by utilizing the Ag-rGO counter electrode that underwent annealing treatment. The performance and electrochemical stability test reveal that the DSSC utilizing free-platinum electrode that is Ag-rGO can last within one week time.
       
  • Environmentally-friendly Strategy for Separation of α-Lactalbumin from
           Whey by Aqueous Two Phase Flotation Abstract

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Bin Jiang, Lele Wang, Jiaxin Na, Xiaoqing Zhang, Yongqiang Yuan, Chunhong Liu, Zhibiao Feng Aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) consisting of 1000 g/mol polyethylene glycol (PEG 1000) / trisodium citrate was developed for the separation of α-Lactalbumin (α-La) from whey. The flotation efficiency (E) and purification factor (PF) of α-La were evaluated using the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The effects of pH, concentration of trisodium citrate, flow velocity, flotation time and whey loading on the E and PF of α-La were investigated. An efficient separation of α-La from whey was achieved using ATPF with pH of 8.20, 5 mL of 0.50 g/mL PEG 1000 solution, 35 mL of 0.40 g/mL trisodium citrate solution and whey (20%, v/v), 30 mL/min of flow velocity and 42 min of flotation time. Under the optimal conditions, E and PF of α-La could reach 87.54 % and 5.33, respectively. In addition, the kinetic process of the separation of α-La by ATPF of PEG 1000 / trisodium citrate was investigated. The results showed that there were two stages in the separation process. Both stages obeyed the first-order kinetic equation, and the first stage was faster than the second one.
       
  • Synthesis of a magnetic-based yolk-shell nano-reactor: A new class of
           monofunctional catalyst by Cu0-nanoparticles and its application as a
           highly effective and green catalyst for A3 coupling reaction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Zeinab Elahimehr, Firouzeh Nemati, Ali Elhampour A novel and yolk/shell nanoreactor catalyst (H-Fe3O4@h-Cu0@m-SiO2) was designed and synthesized with a hollow magnetite core encapsulated in a mesoporous silica shell which Cu0-nanoparticles were decorated in the interior cavity shell in order to enhance the catalytic activity. The morphology, structure and physicochemical properties of the yolk/shell nanoreactor were then fully characterized by using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The N2 absorption-desorption isotherms indicate a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area of 287.36 m2/g and a pore width of 2–50 nm. Applied as a catalyst for three-component A3 coupling reaction of alkynes, aldehydes and amines under the optimized condition. Interestingly, the characterization results indicate that (H-Fe3O4@h-Cu0@m-SiO2) has great catalytic performance, which could be related to unique hollow morphology with an active core contains Cu0-nanoparticles, protective mesoporous shell and hollow void. This aspect of morphology leads to favoring the transfer of the reactants and products. Reusability up to 10 times without any obvious decline in catalytic activity and short reaction time are other advantageous of this green nano-reactor.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Molecular Modeling and Optical Properties of a Novel Fluorinated Chalcone

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): J.M.F. Custodio, J.J.A. Guimarães-Neto, R. Awad, J.E. Queiroz, G.M.V. Verde, M. Mottin, B.J. Neves, C.H. Andrade, G.L.B. Aquino, C. Valverde, F.A.P. Osório, B. Baseia, H.B. Napolitano Chalcones exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities, mainly due to α,β-unsaturated ketone, and are precursors of the biosynthesis of flavonoids found in plants. These compounds have been shown to be useful in the biological approach, proven by the broad spectrum of biological activities reported, and also in the technological approach, considering their potential as NLO material. In this context, this work aimed to examine the crystallization and characterization of fluorinated chalcone (E)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (DFC). A comprehensive structural study of DFC was carried out to understand the process of stabilizing the crystalline lattice through X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and molecular modeling studies. Finally, the electrical properties of DFC were calculated by using the supermolecule method (SM). DFC molecules are connected by means of C−H···O and C−H···F intermolecular contacts, forming dimers which play an important role in the stabilization of crystal packing. Molecular modeling studies indicated that this compound could act as an anti-tuberculosis ligand because of its high binding affinity with the M. tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein, InhA. On the other hand, theoretical calculations were performed to evaluate the NLO properties of DFC and indicated that it showed good potential.
       
  • Synthesis of Zn0.8Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites via
           ultrasound-assisted emulsion liquid phase

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mujahid Mustaqeem, Tawfik A. Saleh, Aziz ur Rehman, Muhammad Farooq Warsi, Azhar Mehmood, Adnan Sharif, Shahbaz Akther Nanocomposites consisting of polyvinyl alcohol embedded with nanoparticles of Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 were successfully synthesized by employing a facile two-steps process. The nanoparticles of Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 were synthesized via a micro emulsion procedure and then embedded into a polyvinyl alcohol matrix by an ultrasound-assisted in-situ emulsion. The result showed that the prepared nanoparticles of Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 & ZnFe2O4 diffuse homogeneously in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, maintaining the particle shape and size of the Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscope images revealed that polyvinyl alcohol chains have encircled the Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 & ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles. The interaction between the polyvinyl alcohol and the nanoparticles in the prepared nanocomposites was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy via the shifting of bands revealed from the Fourier-transform infrared spectra. Dielectric studies explained the decreasing trend by varying concentrations of nanoparticles with a constant polymer concentration. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss both revealed a decreasing trend by varying the concentration of the nanoparticles with a constant polymer concentration. This occurred due to the grain boundary effect which becomes dominant at low frequencies. The Transmission electron microscope images result shows that polycrystalline Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 & ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles with an average size of 10-15nm were incorporated with PVA to form nanocomposites.
       
  • Biochemical Activities and Electronic Spectra of Different Cobalt
           Phenanthroline Complexes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mohammed A. Al-Omair A series of octahedral phenanthroline cobalt chlorides, aqua and carbonates complexes have been prepared, characterized, and their antibacterial activity was studied in detail in terms of zone inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations. Their antioxidant activities were studied by measuring DPPH, SOD and ABTS radical scavenging activity. It was found that cobalt phenanthroline carbonate complex possessed highest antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, degradation effect on DNA and showed moderate cytotoxicity against Hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG-2), Mammary gland (MCF-7) and Colorectal carcinoma (HCT-116) cells.The complexes were studied with UV spectroscopy to observe the solvents effect on the electronic spectra. Equation that relates peak position λmax to solvent parameters are solved by computerized analysis using multiple regression techniques, and the correlation and regression coefficients were evaluated. The independent solvent parameters used are H-bonding ability, refractive index and dielectric constant. The FTIR spectrum was interpreted according to the actual structure.
       
  • Bandgap engineering of TiO2 nanoparticles through MeV Cu ions
           irradiation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Ishaq Ahmad, Muhammad Usman, Ting-kai Zhao, Sara Qayum, Iram Mahmood, Arshad Mahmood, Abdoulaye Diallo, Camillus Obayi, Fabian Ifeanyichukwu Ezema, Maaza Malik The effect of 5 MeV Cu++ ions irradiation on structural and optical properties of Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) is investigated. For this purpose, TiO2-NPs are irradiated with different Cu++ ions fluences, ranging from 1×1015 to 1×1016 ions/cm2 at room temperature. XRD results confirm the Ti3O7 phase appear at the dose of 5x1015 ions/cm2and peak intensity of Ti3O7 phase gradually increases with an increase of Cu++ ions irradiation dose. At the dose of 1×1016 ions/cm2 TiO2 Anatase phase were transformed to Rutile phase. Same observations are confirmed from Raman spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals that morphology converted into wavy shape and crystal structure detrioted with increase Cu ion irradiation dose to form vacancy loops and interstitial loops. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that TiO2-NPs have been fused to form a cluster of nanoparticles at high Cu ion beam dose, while bandgap of TiO2-NPs reduces from 3.19 eV to 2.96 eV as a function of Cu++ irradiation fluence. These phase transformations and crystal damage are the responsible for optical bandgap reduction. The mechanism for the currently observed phase transformation of TiO2 and coalescence of TiO2-NPs are discussed in term of thermal spikes model.
       
  • Smart Nanomaterials in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Deepali Sharma, Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain Smart nanomaterials have appeared as one of the phenomenal materials to the modern world because of their exceptional thermal, electronic, optical and mechanical properties. Unique characteristics of smart materials make them striking candidates for pharmaceutical analysis which basically determines the quality of drug products via analytical chemistry. The present review discusses smart nanomaterials and their detailed applications in pharmaceutical analysis. A systematic approach for commercial-scale utilization of smart nanomaterials in the pharmaceutical analysis in terms of economic challenges, health & safety concern of nanomaterials and life cycle assessment within pharma industry are comprehended. In the end, the challenges and opportunities for the future development of smart nanomaterials for pharmaceutical analysis in regards to sustainability perspectives are described.
       
  • Facile and green preparation of bioactive and UV protective silk materials
           using the extract from red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) through adsorption
           technique

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Yuyang Zhou, Zhi-Yi Yang, Ren-Cheng Tang Recently, there is a growing trend towards the fabrication of bioactive materials by using natural extracts, which can achieve diverse functionalities and environmental benefits simultaneously. This study presents a facile approach towards the preparation of bioactive and UV protective silk materials using the extract from red radish (an edible root vegetable). The adsorption mechanism of red radish extract on silk was studied. The results showed that red radish extract displayed higher exhaustion rate at lower pH. The equilibrium adsorption study indicated that the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were suitable to describe the adsorption behavior of red radish extract on silk, revealing that the ion−ion interactions, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces play major roles in the adsorption process. The silk treated with red radish extract over 5% owf, exhibited excellent antioxidant activity, high antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and very good UV protective property. The functionalities of the treated silk showed a gradual decline in the continuous washing process due to the release of red radish extract during washing. In general, the results demonstrate that the red radish treated silk materials have a promising future for the preparation of healthy and hygiene-related textiles.
       
  • Corrosion performance of mild steel and galvanized iron in clay soil
           environment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Karthick Subbiah, Muralidharan Srinivasan, Velu Saraswathy Clay is a naturally occurring material, and it has been utilized for many industrial processes. In this study, two types of clay namely white clay (WC) and black clay (BC) was used for this investigation. The corrosion performance of the clay samples was carried out using mild steel and galvanized pipes under a buried condition in the field and laboratory exposure studies were carried in the clay extracts. Generally mild steel (MS) and galvanized iron (G.I) are being used as an encasing material for earthing applications. In some places, the soil was enriched with acidic clay, and it causes corrosion of the MS and G.I and it needs periodic replacement of pipes. In this context, a detailed study has been carried out to evaluate the relative corrosion performance of the MS and G.I exposed to the clay environment. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of MS and G.I in clay medium were carried out by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The corrosion product formation was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction and Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Spectrum analysis. The surface morphology of MS and G.I after the exposure was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies. The results proved that G.I in clay soil was severely affected by corrosion. The reason may be attributed to the insufficient thickness of the zinc coating and the presence of microbes which enhanced the G.I corrosion.
       
  • Square wave voltammetric determination of anticancer drug Flutamide using
           carbon paste electrode modified by CuO/GO/PANI nanocomposite

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Moslem Afzali, Ali Mostafavi, Tayebeh Shamspur The electrochemical behavior of flutamide was investigated using a carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified by CuO nanoparticles/graphene oxide/polyaniline (CuO/GO/PANI) nanocomposite. Square wave and differential pulse voltammetry were studied in different concentrations of flutamide. Square wave voltammetry which is a rapid and sensitive method for reversible systems was used to determine flutamide. Based on the studies carried out by the present method, the electrode has an excellent electrochemical activity to the flutamide oxidation. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the sensor showed excellent linearity from 0.05.0 to 200.0 nM with a detection limit of 14.0 pM; the best values obtained already for flutamide. The modified electrode was applied for the determination of flutamide in human urine and pharmaceutical samples with satisfy results.
       
  • Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber Electrodes via Chemical Vapor Deposition for
           Simultaneous Determination of Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine and Uric Acid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Yankun Zhao, Zhen Yang, Wenxin Fan, Yunchao Wang, Guangzhen Li, Hailin Cong, Hua Yuan A promising and low-cost electrochemical sensor was carried out with carbon nanotube modified carbon-fiber electrodes via vapor deposition method, which improved the sensitivity and reduced the detection limit of dopamine. In virtue of various techniques, such as SEM and Raman spectroscopy, the morphological, structural and crystalline properties of composites were analyzed. Moreover, simultaneous determination of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid was explored at the modified carbon fiber electrode. The presence of carbon nanotubes on the surface of carbon fiber can effectively increase the surface area and electron transfer velocity of the interaction between neurotransmitter and electrode. The good linear responses of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid were obtained in the range of 25.6∼2000.3 μM, 5.0∼120.6 μM and 20.0∼800.0 μM with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 10.0 μM, 0.03 μM and 0.6 μM, respectively. Finally, this sensor was applied to the determination of dopamine in some real sample.
       
  • Phytochemical composition of Ecballium elaterium extracts with antioxidant
           and anti-inflammatory activity: Comparison among leaves, flowers and
           fruits extracts

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Lynda Bourebaba, Bienvenida Gilbert-López, Naima Oukil, Fatiha Bedjou Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber) is a Mediterranean plant used in folk medicine. Especially fruits and fruits juice are administered for several therapeutic uses, although they can be toxic at high doses. In the present work, a phytochemical characterization of different parts of the plant, namely fruits, flowers and leaves, was made. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Only one cucurbitacin, Cuc D, was found in the three extracts, and an additional one, Cuc P, was tentatively identified for the first time in fruits extract. Additionally, several flavonoids such as rutin, narcissin and kaempferol were tentatively identified in the plant. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis mediated by AAPH. Results revealed that flowers extract was the most active one, with an EC50 of 46.01 µg/ml for DPPH and TEAC values of 489.11 and 160.97 µmol Trolox/g extract for ABTS and FRAP respectively; despite the protective effect of all extracts in AAPH assay was relatively moderated. In case of anti-inflammatory activity, all extracts were active by inhibiting heat induced protein denaturation in a non-dose dependent manner, showed protection against hypotonic hemolysis and reduction of mice hind paw edema, 3 h after carrageenan injection; as for previous tests, flowers extract exhibited the highest percentage of inhibition (82.93%) of hind paw edema at a dose of 200 mg / kg. Therefore, E. Elaterium flowers extract showed potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects similar to those exerted by the fruits.
       
  • Synthesis of tetra- metal oxide system based pH sensor via branched
           cathodic Electrodeposition on Different Substrates

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Hisham.R. Sadig, Li Cheng, Teng fei Xiang In this paper pH sensors based on tetra-metal oxide system (TMOF) film was synthesized by branched cathodic electrodeposition technique. Four different metal oxides mainly IrO2, RuO2, SnO2, and TiO2 used to form a film, which coated on various substrates such as titanium, steel, tin, and copper. The fabricated pH sensors underwent characterization and evaluation sensing performance. Characterizations results have indicated that titanium and steel substrates outperform alternative metal substrates Tin and copper. Nernstian performance of Steel and Titanium substrate with pH sensitivity ∼59 mV/pH remain the same, as well as tin and copper which are behaved as super-Nernstian with sensitivity ∼65mV/pH. Fast response time ranged from 1-3 seconds were obtained. Perfect selectivity obtained using Na+, K+, Li+ and Mg2+ ions vs. primary one H+.
       
  • Graphene nanoplatelet-based sensor for the detection of dopamine and
           N-acetyl-p-aminophenol in urine

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Francis D. Krampa, Yaw Aniweh, Prosper Kanyong, Gordon A. Awandare This paper reports the development and application of a disposable sensor for the individual and simultaneous voltammetric determination of dopamine (DA) and N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP). The sensor was fabricated by drop-coating graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)-Nafion (Naf) nanocomposite onto the working area of a screen-printed electrode (SPE). The sensor, designated as GNPs-Naf/SPE, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to simultaneously analyze DA and APAP in their binary mixtures. It showed excellent selectivity and sensitivity toward both compounds with limit of detection of 0.13 µM and 0.25 µM (S/N = 3) for DA and APAP, respectively. The performance of the sensor was evaluated by analyzing the compounds in human urine samples, and the recoveries were found to be well over 97.0%.
       
  • Utilization of CO2 and N2 for selective synthesis of styrene from
           ethylbenzene over high surface area γ-Al2O3 supported molybdenum nitride
           catalysts

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Venkata Ramesh Babu Gurram, Murali Kondeboina, Siva Sankar Enumula, Naveen Gajula, David Raju Burri, Seetha Rama Rao Kamaraju The present work highlights the synthesis of styrene from ethylbenzene dehydrogenation by coupling with reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGSR) and ammonia synthesis reactions over high surface area Al2O3 supported molybdenum nitride (γ-Mo2N) catalyst. γ-Mo2N was prepared by in-situ thermal decomposition of molybdenum hexamethylenetetramine complex and the support high surface area Al2O3 (HSA) was prepared by sol-gel method. Different weight loadings of γ-Mo2N (10, 20 and 30) supported on HSA catalysts were systematically characterized by using powder XRD, N2 physisorption, H2 - TPR, XPS and TEM analysis. XRD, TEM and normalized BET surface area analysis reveal highly dispersed nitride species over HSA surface. The synthesized catalysts have been studied for ethylbenzene dehydrogenation reaction using CO2 and N2 as feed gases with different percentage compositions. It was found that CO2 rich N2 feed gas favors higher ethylbenzene conversion due to RWGSR and N2 rich CO2 favors higher selectivity to styrene due to ammonia synthesis. EB dehydrogenation along with RWGSR and ammonia synthesis reactions come along and privileged the formation of higher styrene yields.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • CO2-releasing blowing agents from modified polyethylenimines slightly
           consume isocyanate groups while foaming polyurethanes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Yuanzhu Long, Jianing An, Xingyi Xie Carbon dioxide adducts from polypropylene glycol (PPG)-grafted polyethylenimines (PEIs) are promising alternatives to the traditional, climate-changing blowing agents for polyurethanes (PUs). Their commercialization is hindered by the fact that they can restore their original polyamine structure when releasing CO2 to blow PUs and that the extent to which the restored amine groups react with the isocyanate (NCO) groups in the foaming mixture is still not clear. The extent of this reaction was quantitatively investigated by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The increase in the PPG side chain length or in the grafting rate reduced the reaction extent of the restored amines due to increased steric hindrance. The increase in the PEI backbone molecular weight decreased the macromolecular mobility, which somewhat inhibited a full contact between the restored amine groups and the NCO groups and thus caused a decrease in the reaction extent as well. Overall, the reaction extents of the blowing agent amine groups, ranging from 0.4% to 1.5%, were too low to change the foaming process chemically. In conclusion, these CO2-releasing blowing agents can be technically regarded as physical blowing agents.
       
  • Mechanical Properties of Carbon Black/Poly (ε-caprolactone)-Based
           Tissue Scaffolds

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Nuha Al Habis, Ahmed El Moumen, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Khalid Lafdi Carbon black (CB) spherical particles were added to poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymer to produce strong synthetic tissue scaffolds for biomedical applications. The objective of this paper is to study the mechanical behavior of CB/PCL-based nanocomposites using experimental tests, multi-scale numerical approaches, and analytical models. The mechanical properties of CB/PCL scaffolds were characterized using thermal mechanical analysis and results show a significant increase of the elastic modulus with increasing nanofiller concentration up to 7 wt%. Conversely, finite element computations were performed using a simulated microstructure, and a numerical model based on the representative volume element (RVE) was generated. Thereafter, Young's moduli were computed using a 3D numerical homogenization technique. The approach takes into consideration CB particles’ diameters, as well as their random distribution and agglomerations into PCL. Experimental results were compared with data obtained using numerical approaches and analytical models. Consistency in the results was observed, especially in the case of lower CB fractions.
       
  • Synthesis, anti-tuberculosis activity and QSAR study of
           2,4-diarylquinolines and analogous polycyclic derivatives

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Gisela C. Muscia, Juan P. Carnevale, Ayelen Luczywo, María Victoria Peláez, Ailen Rodríguez ÓToole, Graciela Y. Buldain, Juan J. Casal, Silvia E. Asís The multicomponent syntheses of 2,4-di-aryl-quinolines and analogous polycyclic derivatives as anti-tuberculosis agents were described. They were prepared via Beyer and Friedländer methods under microwave irradiation in short reaction times and good yields. Several homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalysts were compared for preparing 2,4-di-arylquinolines and among them trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) reached the higher yields. Two derivatives exhibited activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), underwent additional testing and were considered lead compounds. The synthesis of a series of polycyclic analogous led to six new active compounds and a Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship study (QSAR) study was established.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Promotion of seed germination and seedling growth of Zea mays by magnesium
           hydroxide nanoparticles synthesized by the filtrate from Aspergillus niger
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Surbhi Shinde, Priti Paralikar, Avinash P. Ingle, Mahendra Rai An approach for green synthesis of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles [Mg(OH)2NPs] has been developed and its efficacy in seed germination, in vitro and in vivo plant growth promotion was studied on Zea mays at different concentrations. Mg(OH)2NPs at 500 ppm showed improved seed germination (100%) and growth. The effect of Mg(OH)2NPs was analyzed by measurement of plants height and chlorophyll a fluorescence using plant efficiency analyzer. The seedlings grown in MS medium supplemented with Mg(OH)2NPs showed significant increase in shoot height (11.96±0.4 cm) and root length (3.92±0.4 cm). Similarly, for in vivo studies, the enhanced shoot height (44.2±1.6 cm) and root length (29.2±1.3 cm) was recorded as compared to plants treated with their bulk counterpart. However, 500 ppm bulk Mg showed comparatively lower shoot height (38±1.5 cm) and root length (21.6±2.3 cm). The chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements revealed that plants treated with Mg(OH)2NPs showed maximum performance index and minimum dissipation as compared to control and plants treated with bulk Mg.In addition, atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis performed for both in vitro and in vivo grown plants, revealed that leaves and roots of the plants treated with Mg(OH)2NPs demonstrated higher Mg contents. It was found that Mg content in leaves and roots for in vitro plants were 131.45 and 103.52 mg/kg, respectively; whereas for in vivo grown plants it was 132.58 and 114.58 mg/kg, respectively. Therefore, Mg(OH)2NPs can be potentially used for enhanced seed germination and seedling growth promotion.
       
  • Novel Rh(Pd)-Cu(Ni) supported catalysts for oxy-steam reforming of
           methanol

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Pawel Mierczynski, Magdalena Mosinska, Waldemar Maniukiewicz, Krasimir Vasilev, Malgorzata I. Szynkowska Monometallic copper, nickel and bimetallic Pd(Rh)-Cu(Ni) catalysts supported on a binary oxide containing various content of ZrO2 and Al2O3 were prepared by impregnation method. Their physicochemical and catalytic properties in oxy-steam reforming of methanol reaction (OSRM) were extensively investigated. Selecting an optimal composition of the catalyst for the OSRM process was the main goal of this work. The influence of zirconia content on the reactivity and physicochemical properties of supported copper catalysts in OSRM was also studied. The reactivity measurements showed that the supported copper catalyst was more active than the nickel catalyst. The catalytic measurements showed that the catalyst properties depend on their surface composition, acidity and adsorption properties. High selectivity of supported copper catalyst with composition 20%Cu/ZrO2·Al2O3 (Zr:Al = 1:2) towards carbon dioxide and hydrogen was confirmed. In addition, the promotion effect of palladium and rhodium on the activity of monometallic supported copper and nickel catalysts in OSRM was confirmed. The most active system in the OSRM process was 0.5%Rh-20%Cu/ZrO2·Al2O3.
       
  • Visible light assisted photodegradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol using Ag2CO3
           loaded phosphorus and sulphur co-doped graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets
           in simulated wastewater

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Pankaj Raizada, Anita Sudhaik, Pardeep Singh, Pooja Shandilya, Pankaj Thakur, Hanbo Jung Nowadays, hybrid photocatalysts are gaining importance due to their improved photocatalytic activity. In the present work, Ag2CO3 was integrated phosphorous and sulfur co-doped g-C3N4 (PSGCN) photocatalyst (Ag2CO3/PSGCN) to minimize the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pair. The co-doping resulted in band gap lowering in GCN leading to more visible light activity. Successful formation of well dispersed Ag2CO3/PSGCN suspension in water was established by zeta potential and Tyndall effect experiments. Phosphorous and sulfur co-doping in g-C3N4 resulted lowering of optical band gap that enhanced its photodegradation ability under visible light. The reduction in photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination was confirmed by photoluminescence and electrochemical impedance analysis. The photodegradation of 2, 4, dinitrophenol (DNP) followed pseudo first order kinetics and enhanced photocatalytic activity was due to semiconductor heterojunction for effective separation of electron–hole pair. Holes and hydroxyl radicals were two main oxidative species responsible for photodegradation of DNP into non-toxic products. COD, HPLC and LC-MS investigations were used to investigate the degradation fragment during DNP mineralization. Ag2CO3/PSGCN nanocomposite revealed high stability and recycle efficiency substantial for ten catalytic cycles.
       
  • Phyto – monoterpene Linalool as precursor to synthesis epoxides and
           hydroperoxides as anti carcinogenic agents via thermal and photo chemical
           oxidation reactions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Eman M. Elgendy, Manal Y. Semeih Linalool (I) was extracted from Zingiber officinale. The oxidation of linalool using m-chloroperbenzoic acid at room temperature gave the mixture of 2,2,6-trimethyl-6-vinyl-tetrahydro-pyran-3-ol (IIa) & 2-(5-methyl-5-vinyl- tetrahydro-furan-2-yl)-propan-2-ol (IIa′), which cannot be separated. Whereas, the photo-epoxidation of it using hydrogen peroxide gave the above mixture IIa/IIa′, beside 2,2,8-trimethyl-6-oxianyl-tetrahydro-pyran-3-ol (IIb). It was evaluated for anti-oxidant, using erythrocyte hemolysis and ABTS methods. It showed inhibitory effect in case of erythrocyte hemolysis and low inhibitory effect in case of ABTS method. Photosensitization reactions of linalool with tetraphenyl porphyrin or chlorophyll produced a mixture of two isomeric hydroperoxides, 7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethylocta-1,5-dien-3-ol (IIIa) & 6-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethyl octa-1,7-dien-3-ol (IIIb), which can be successfully separated. On the other hand, the cytotoxic activity of linalool (I) was tested against epdermoid carcinoma (HEP2), it has medium effect. Whereas, in case of human prostate cancer (PC-3), it has weak effect. From this study concludes that ginger has good antioxidant potential and this spice can be used to produce novel natural antioxidants and flavoring agent like linalool which recommends it as an active therapy for humans. Monoterpene linalool abstract singlet oxygen (1O2) by photosensitization reactions to produce these hydroperoxides, which are caused relatively little oxidative DNA damage.
       
  • Inexpensive FIA method to determine trace levels of Imazapyr by
           UV-detection enhanced with electrochemical polarization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): L. León, C. Mozo-Mulero, F.J. Martín-Infante, J.J. Maraver, J. Carbajo, J.D. Mozo A new flow injection analysis method with spectro-electrochemical detection (FIA/SEC) to determine trace levels of imazapyr on water samples is presented. The non-chromatographic method involves the use of a bench photometer, a single-potential potentiostat, a low pressure pumping system and a home-made spectro-electrochemical flow detector (SEC-FD), specifically adapted for the described method and using a stainless steel/electrolytic lead/lead chloride (SS/e-Pb/PbCl2) working electrode. The limit of quantification (LOQ) reached for the optimized work parameters was 0.02 µg/mL, the relative standard deviation (RSD) in the whole range of linear response was less than 2% and a wide linear response range from 0.005 to 6.0 µg/mL was obtained. A standard addition method was used to determine the imazapyr amount in natural waters containing commercial formulation of such herbicide, the Recovery% has values close to 105%. The method performance makes it suitable to analyze the legal imazapyr tolerances established by the U.S. EPA avoiding the use of expensive chromatographic equipments and/or complicated sample preparations.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Validated spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of
           oxytetracycline associated with diclofenac sodium or with piroxicam in
           veterinary pharmaceutical dosage form

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Rúbia A. Sversut, James C. Vieira, Aline M. Rosa, Marcos S. do Amaral, Nájla M. Kassab, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado Two simple, precise, accurate and robust UV zero and first derivative orders spectrophometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of oxytetracycline (OTC) associated either with diclofenac sodium (DICLO) or with piroxicam (PIRO) in veterinary pharmaceuticals, without prior separation of the drugs. These proposed methods are also suitable for individual estimation of each drug in pharmaceutical products for human use. The first method is a zero order spectrophotometry for estimation of OTC at 360 nm in the association with DICLO. The second one employs a first derivative at 339 nm, using a zero-crossing technique to measure the OTC content in the association with PIRO. Both nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (DICLO and PIRO) were analyzed by first derivative spectrophometric at 298.5 nm (OTC zero-crossing point) in their respective associations. All measurements were carried out in acetronitrile:water (50:50, v/v; pH 2.5) and at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C). Analytical curves were linear (r> 0.9996) in the concentration range of 10.0 – 80.0 μg mL-1 for OTC, 1.5 – 25.0 μg mL-1 for DICLO and 2.5 – 30.0 μg mL-1 for PIRO. The limits of quantification were lower than 1.50 μg mL-1 and the mean of recoveries were within the acceptable limits of 98-102% for all three drugs. The developed methods can be successfully applied in the quality control routine for the simultaneous or individual determination of OTC, DICLO and PIRO in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
       
  • UV induced synthesis of starch capped CdSe quantum dots: Functionalization
           with thiourea and application in sensing heavy metals ions in aqueous
           solution

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Avinash Singh, Apurav Guleria, Suman Neogy, M.C. Rath Herein, a highly facile, rapid and one-pot approach has been applied for the synthesis of water soluble starch capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by using UV irradiation in the aqueous solution containing cadmium sulphate, sodium selenosulfate, acetone and 2-propanol. No external reducing agents were added to the solution, as the radicals generated in situ upon photoirradiation i.e., 2-hydroxy-2-propyl radicals, (CH3)2C•OH could reduce the precursor ions for the synthesis of these QDs. These QDs were characterised by various techniques such as UV-Vis absorption, XRD, Raman, FTIR, TEM and SEM measurements. The presence of strong quantum confinement effects could be realized from their very small size i.e., ∼ 3 nm as revealed by TEM studies. Besides, these QDs were found to exhibit photoluminescence (PL) in the longer wavelength region. The PL intensity as well as the charge carrier lifetime values could be conveniently tuned by simply varying the Cd to Se precursor ratio during the synthesis. Furthermore, a relatively novel approach has been adopted to extract these QDs from the colloidal solution by freezing it to 0°C followed by de-freezing to room temperature. The extracted QDs were functionalized with thiourea in order to increase the PL quantum yield and the stability of the QDs. The effects of pH and temperature on the PL intensity of functionalized CdSe QDs were also investigated to explore their applicability in sensing of heavy metal ions. Interestingly, the QDs displayed highly selective PL quenching in the presence of Cu2+, Cr6+ and Hg2+ metal ions. The limits of detection for these metal ions have been determined and a probable PL quenching mechanism is postulated.
       
  • Thiophene substituted phenothiazine polymers: Design, synthesis and
           characterization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Ruhiye Nilay Tezel, İsmet Kaya In this paper, the polymers containing phenothiazine were synthesized via oxidative polymerization reaction by FeCl3 as oxidant. These polymers contain ether unit, aliphatic chain and aromatic groups as bridges in their structures. The effects of the groups on the optical, thermal, morphological properties of the polymers were investigated. The physical and chemical properties of the monomers and the polymers were identified by FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis, thermogravimetry (TG), cyclic voltammetry (CV), fluorescence analysis. According to the fluorescence analyses, polymer containing aliphatic ether bridge emitted yellow colour based on the turning of excitation wavelength. The yellow solution of polymer containing aliphatic ether bridge turned into turquoise when excited with the wavelength of 365 nm. Thermal analyses demonstrated that polymer containing phenyl bridge compound had 38% residue amount. Due to fluorescent and thermal properties, these polymers could be used in various applications such as spectrofluorometric ion sensor and polymeric light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with yellow and turquoise emissions.
       
  • Micelles-based self-healing coating for improved protection of metal

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Ye Ying, Zequn Liu, Juanjuan Fan, Nan Wei, Xiaoyu Guo, Yiping Wu, Ying Wen, Haifeng Yang In this work, an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor was synthesized by embedding 4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (4-MTTL) into phytic acid (IP6) micelles via heating (donated as IP6@4-MTTLx). The corrosion inhibitor, IP6@4-MTTLx microcapsules with self-healing capability, can be used for metal protection from corrosion in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution. By means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical polarization, the high inhibition performance of such micelle-based coating on the model metal of copper has been investigated, which is attributed to the synergistic effect of the 4-MTTL molecules and the IP6@4-MTTLx microcapsules. Damage to the coating by external force can be self-healed by leakage of 4-MTTL inside IP6@4-MTTLx microcapsules to seal physically and chemically the cracks.
       
  • Catalytic, antioxidant and anticancer activities of gold nanoparticles
           synthesized by kaempferol glucoside from Lotus leguminosae

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mohamed Habib Oueslati, Lotfi Ben Tahar, Abdel Halim Harrath The aim of this study was to evaluate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 cancer cells, antioxidant activities and catalysis of the reduction of p-nitrophenol (p-NP). AuNPs were synthesized using kaempferol 3-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (KG) from the plant Lotus leguminosae. The structure was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray (ES)-HRMS. The isolated compound was involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AuNPs. A number of parameters such as the pH and the mass ratio (HAuCl4/ KG) have been optimized to produce very stable colloids of an almost spherical shaped AuNPs with an average diameter of about 37 nm. UV–Vis spectrophotometry, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies were employed to characterize the produced nanoparticles. In vitro anticancer studies were performed to assess the chemotherapeutic potential of formulating NPs against a human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). It was observed that the synthesized AuNPs have mild to low cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells at higher concentrations. The microscopic observations showed no significant changes in the morphology of control cells or the treated cells. AuNPs also displayed strong DPPH radical scavenging compared to the flavonoid extract, with an IC50 of 30.56 μg/mL. In addition, the biosynthesized AuNPs showed a highly improved catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) to p-aminophenol (p-AP), indicative of its potential application in the chemical industry.
       
 
 
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