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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 898 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (55 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (632 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (28 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (43 journals)
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    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (71 journals)

CHEMISTRY (632 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 309)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 75)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alchemy : Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology A : Applied Sciences and Engineering     Open Access  
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 259)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 378)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 90)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 75)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 268)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 73)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover
Arabian Journal of Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.591
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1878-5352
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3157 journals]
  • Fabrication and characterization of doxorubicin functionalized PSS coated
           gold nanorod

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): Agha Zeeshan Mirza, Hina Shamshad Gold nanorods have received immense importance due to their potential for strong optical absorption in the visible and near infrared regions. A new approach was employed to develop a stable probe based on an anionic polyelectrolyte, poly(sodium-4-styrenesulfonate) PSS, a novel, non-cytotoxic antimicrobial contraceptive agent, functionalized gold nanorods, followed by the attachment of an anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin. Doxorubicin has proved to be one of the potent anticancer drugs, establishing wide applicability in various cancer therapies. Gold nanorods have been renowned for their possible application in hyperthermia of the cancer cells. In this connection, doxorubicin functionalized gold nanorods have been prepared and characterized utilizing ultraviolet–visible–near infrared (UV–Vis–NIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and zeta potential measurements.
       
  • Catena-[bis(o-aminobenzoato-κ3 N,O:O′)Mn(II)]

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): R.G. Abuhmaiera, Ramadan M. El-Mehdawi, F.A. Treish, M.M. Ben Younes, Dejan Poleti, Jelena Rogan In the title complex, [C14H12MnN2O4]n, the Mn(II) cation octahedrally coordinated by two N and two O atoms from two o-aminobenzoate ligands and two O atoms from another two o-aminobenzoate ligands. The carboxylate groups of two o-aminobenzoate anions coordinate to the Mn(II) cation in a monodentate manner, whereas the other two o-aminobenzoate anions chelate the Mn(II) cations through the O-atom of the carboxylate group and the N-atom of the amino group. This complex adopts the syn-anti carboxylate bridging mode with the conformation syn(eq)-anti(eq). The title complex is a two-dimensional coordination polymer based on an infinite MnOCOMn chain. There is hydrogen bond interaction within the two dimensional network. The adjacent two-dimensional network is packed only by Van der Waals interactions.
       
  • Catalyst-, solvent- and desiccant-free three-component synthesis of novel
           C-2,N-3 disubstituted thiazolidin-4-ones

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): Rodrigo Abonia, Juan Castillo, Braulio Insuasty, Jairo Quiroga, Maximiliano Sortino, Manuel Nogueras, Justo Cobo Herein it is provided an efficient, environmentally friendly and one-pot procedure for the synthesis of a library of new and diversely substituted 1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones in short reaction times and good yields through a solvent-, catalyst- and desiccant-free three-component process. Reactions proceeded by treatment of primary benzyl(aryl)amines with aromatic aldehydes (and ketones) and 2-mercaptoacetic acid acting as both reagent and self-catalyst. All reactions were performed in sand bath instead of the commonly used oil bath avoiding the generation of undesired volatile materials proceeding of the thermal decomposition of the oils. IR, Mass and NMR experiments as well as X-ray diffraction confirmed structures of the obtained products.
       
  • Recent advances in 4-hydroxycoumarin chemistry. Part 1: Synthesis and
           reactions

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): Moaz M. Abdou, Rasha A. El-Saeed, Samir Bondock This review aimed to document the publications concerning 4-hydroxycoumarin, its synthesis, chemical reactivity and reactions during the period from 1996 up to now.
       
  • A novel interfacial polymerization approach towards synthesis of graphene
           oxide-incorporated thin film nanocomposite membrane with improved surface
           properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): G.S. Lai, W.J. Lau, P.S. Goh, Y.H. Tan, B.C. Ng, A.F. Ismail The conventional interfacial polymerization (IP) technique that requires a rubber roller in removing amine aqueous solution is likely to cause uneven distribution of nanomaterials on microporous substrate during thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane fabrication. A novel IP technique was developed in this work to pre-coat the substrate with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets followed by vacuum filtration of amine aqueous solution through the substrate before initiating polyamide cross-linking process. This novel technique was also employed to fabricate a composite membrane that contained no nanomaterials. The results showed that the GO-incorporated TFN membrane exhibited 71.7% and 129.4% higher pure water flux compared to the composite membranes without GO incorporation that were synthesized using conventional and filtration IP technique, respectively. The water enhancement of the TFN membrane could be attributed to the existence of hydrophilic GO that was distributed evenly throughout the substrate surface coupled with the formation of porous selective layer that reduced water transport resistance. Besides exhibiting promising rejection against divalent ions, the newly developed TFN membrane also showed significantly lower water flux deterioration in filtrating bovine serum albumin and Reactive Black 5 solution. The enhanced membrane antifouling resistance was mainly due to the improved membrane surface properties that minimize deposition and adsorption of foulants on the TFN membrane surface.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Direct chemiluminescence of fluorescent gold nanoclusters with classic
           oxidants for hydrogen peroxide sensing

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): Xiaoying You, Yinhuan Li Direct chemiluminescence (CL) of fluorescent gold nanoclusters was observed for the first time upon oxidation with classic oxidants. The CL mechanism was investigated by the studies of CL spectrum, UV–vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra before and after the reaction. The excited state Mn(II)∗, originating from the reduction of permanganate with gold nanoclusters, was suggested as the possible luminophor for the reaction. The potential analytical application was demonstrated by using hydrogen peroxide as an example, based upon the fact that hydrogen peroxide decreased the CL signal significantly. The decreased CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the range 1.0 × 10−6–1.0 × 10−4 mol L−1. The detection limit was 5 × 10−7 mol L−1 and the relative standard deviation was 1.4% for 1.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 hydrogen peroxide in 11 replicated measurements. This method was applied to the determination of hydrogen peroxide in water samples with satisfactory results.
       
  • Ag2O nanoparticles/MnCO3, –MnO2 or –Mn2O3/highly reduced graphene
           oxide composites as an efficient and recyclable oxidation catalyst

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): Mohamed E. Assal, Mohammed Rafi Shaik, Mufsir Kuniyil, Mujeeb Khan, Abdulrahman Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman Ibrahim Alharthi, Ravi Varala, Mohammed Rafiq H. Siddiqui, Syed Farooq Adil Silver oxide nanoparticles doped manganese (IV) oxide along with varying percentages of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) [Ag2O(1%)–MnO2/(X%)HRG] nanocomposites were fabricated through a simple co-precipitation method followed by calcination at 400 °C. The as-prepared nanocomposite upon calcination at 300 °C and 500 °C temperatures, yields the manganese carbonate (MnCO3) and manganese (III) oxide (Mn2O3) composites i.e. Ag2O(1%)–MnCO3/(X%)HRG and Ag2O(1%)–Mn2O3/(X%)HRG, correspondingly. The structural composition of the prepared nanocomposites has confirmed by several characterization techniques. The nanocomposites have successfully utilized as a catalyst for liquid-phase oxidation of aromatic alcohols in presence of O2 as a green oxidant under alkali-free conditions. In addition, a comparative study was performed to assess the activity of the manganese carbonates and manganese oxides for aerial oxidation of benzyl alcohol into benzaldehyde as a model reaction. Effects of various parameters have thoroughly examined in detail and the Ag2O(1%)–MnO2/(5%)HRG catalyst exhibited the highest activity in the aerial oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with a 100% conversion and>99% selectivity in a remarkably short reaction time (35 min) than the undoped precursor i.e. Ag2O(1%)–MnO2. The presence of HRG dopant greatly enhanced the catalytic performance of Ag2O–MnO2 nanocatalysts could be attributed to the presence of carbon vacancies and topological defects as well as oxygen carrying functionalities on the HRG surface and increase in the surface area. The as-prepared catalyst could be efficiently recycled and reused up to five times without a discernible drop in its catalytic performance and the product selectivity remained unchanged. The prepared catalyst i.e. Ag2O(1%)–MnO2/(5%)HRG was employed as oxidation catalyst for a series of various substituted benzylic and aliphatic alcohols into their respective aldehydes and yielded complete conversion with excellent product selectivity with no further oxidation to acids.
       
  • Synthesis, characterization, biological activities and molecular modeling
           of Schiff bases of benzene sulfonamides bearing curcumin scaffold

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): Mahmood Ahmed, Muhammad Abdul Qadir, Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq, Muhammad Muddassar, Zahoor Qadir Samra, Abdul Hameed Curcumin has shown large number of pharmacological properties against different phenotypes of various disease models. Different synthetic routes have been employed to develop its various derivatives for diverse biological functions. In this study Schiff bases of benzenes sulfonamides bearing curcumin scaffold were synthesized to investigate their pharmacological effects. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were described by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral data. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of new compounds were evaluated with indomethacin and diclofenac sodium in experimental animal models respectively. COX-2 enzyme inhibition was evaluated with synthesized compounds through in vitro cyclooxygenase assays. Inhibition assays result revealed that compound 3a was the most potent compound. Molecular docking studies were also performed to identify the plausible binding mode of this compound. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated with ciprofloxacin, nystatin and ketoconazole using disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration values were determined by 96-well plate assay method. Our studies showed that compound 3a has promising antibacterial and anti-inflammatory while 3c has better antifungal activity as compared to reference drugs. Similarly the combination of more potent compounds 3a and 3c with ciprofloxacin and nystatin respectively gave significant synergic effect.
       
  • Anti-Helicobacter pylori, cytotoxicity and catalytic activity of
           biosynthesized gold nanoparticles: Multifaceted application

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): V. Gopinath, S. Priyadarshini, D. MubarakAli, Mun Fai Loke, N. Thajuddin, Naiyf S. Alharbi, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, M. Alagiri, Jamuuna Vadivelu An unpretentious way to synthesize different sized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using the dried fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris has been investigated. GNPs were formed due to the reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) treated with the T. terrestris fruit extract. Formation of GNPs was periodically characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy. IR spectrum revealed that phytochemicals in the extract played a key role in GNPs synthesis and stability. An anisotropic structure of GNPs with average sizes of 7 nm (GNP7) and 55 nm (GNP55) uses 1 and 2 mM HAuCl4. The biogenic GNP showed a size dependent anti-Helicobacter pylori activity against multidrug resistant H. pylori strains. Furthermore, biogenic GNPs possess an excellent catalytic activity for the reduction of a toxic, p-nitroaniline to p-phenylenediamine as non-toxic by-product. Interestingly, In vitro cell viability of GNP7 and GNP55 on AGS cell lines showed no toxicity at the MIC of H. pylori. The biogenic GNP has excellent biocompatibility, anti-H. pylori and catalytic properties of multifaceted biomedical applications.
       
  • N-haloacetyl phenothiazines and derivatives: Preparation, characterization
           and structure-activity relationship for antifungal activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): Gabriela P. Sarmiento, M. Florencia Martini, Roxana G. Vitale, Lucas E. Fabian, Javier Afeltra, Daniel Vega, Graciela Y. Moltrasio, Albertina G. Moglioni A serie of N-acetyl phenothiazines and related compounds was synthesized by means of the acetylation reaction of the corresponding phenothiazine with the appropriate reagent using microwave irradiation. Structural elucidation of these heterocyclic derivatives was done using 1H, 13C NMR spectra. The equilibra between conformationals enantiomers were studied as a possible atropisomerism case. The single crystal X-ray diffraction of some derivatives was also recorded and the presence of enantiomers could be confirmed. The antifungal activity evaluation of all N-acetyl phenothiazines prepared by us in this and in a previous work, was performed in vitro against 163 isolated human pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi, including: Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, Candida non-albicans, Aspergillus and Acremonium-Fusarium. The most promising compounds were those bearing one chlorine or bromine atom attached to the N-acetyl group. These compounds were as active as 5-fluorocitosine (5-FC) or fluconazole (FCZ), currently in clinical use. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) and a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for antifungal activity of each genus were established.Graphical abstractThe antifungal activity evaluation of all N-acetyl phenothiazines prepared and characterized was performed in vitro against 163 isolated human pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi. The most promising compounds were those bearing one chlorine or bromine atom attached to the N-acetyl group. These compounds were as active as 5-fluorocitosine or fluconazole, currently in clinical use. A qualitative and quantitative structure-activity relationship for antifungal activity was attempted to be established.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of number and position of methoxy substituents on fine-tuning the
           electronic structures and photophysical properties of designed
           carbazole-based hole-transporting materials for perovskite solar cells:
           DFT calculations

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): Nuha Wazzan, Zaki Safi In perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the state-of-art Spiro-OMeTAD, which used as a hole-transporting material (HTM), suffered from complicated multistep synthesis and difficult purification that make this material cost ineffective, in addition to it being UV-unstable. Thus, new, cost-effective and easy to synthesize small organic molecules is still required. As reported, a carbazole-based compound (R01) was synthesized using a simple two steps method from low-cost commercially available compounds and used as an HTM. R01 exhibited higher conductivity and hole-mobility compared to that of the Spiro-OMeTAD. PSCs fabricated with R01 produced a power conversion efficiency of 12.03%, equivalent to that obtained in devices where Spiro-OMeTAD was the HTM. These findings highlighted R01 as a highly promising HTM with high performance, facile synthesis, and low cost. From a structural perspective, methoxy groups (–OCH3) in the HTM structure are controlling the HOMO level of the compound, apart from the critical role they play in anchoring the material onto the core perovskite layer. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the electronic structures and photophysical properties of twelve designed derivatives of R01. R01 was modified by substituting some hydrogen in the carbazole rings by two, four and six methoxy groups at different positions. The ground and excited state geometries are optimized by applying density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent functional (TDDFT), respectively. Detailed investigation of two factors: (i) the number and (ii) position of methoxy groups on the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), absorption and emission wavelengths, ionization potential, electron affinity, reorganization energies and charge mobility are examined and discussed. The electro-optical and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties are finely tuned in the R01 derivatives. By incorporating methoxy substituents into this carbazole-based compound, systematic design of potential materials for PSCs can be feasible.
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s):
       
  • Effect of immersion time on electrochemical and morphology of new Fe-Co
           metal-metal glassy alloys in acid rain

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2019Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 12, Issue 1Author(s): Albandaree K. Al-Harbi, Khadijah M. Emran Electrochemical behavior of two Metal-Metal glassy alloys Fe78Co9Cr10Mo2Al1 (VX9) and Fe49Co49V2 (VX50) (at.%) were investigated at different immersion times in artificial acid rain at 20 °C using electrochemical techniques as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic polarization (CP). The morphology and composition of alloy surface were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM). VX9 alloy has high corrosion resistance more than VX50 due to good protective elements as Cr 10% that create chromium oxide. Immersion measurements during (0.5–12 h) reveal the critical time for VX9 alloy is about 3 h to begin corrosion resistance while the VX50 alloy take a longer time to form protective film. The susceptibility of studied alloys for localized corrosion was observed by cyclic-polarization data due to passive film of two layers (inner compact and outer prose). The VX50 alloy has low value of charge transfer resistance due to exposure to more pitting attack. The AFM and SEM images found that average surface roughness (Ra) of VX9 alloy is lower than VX50 alloy.
       
  • Mesoporous cobalt phosphate electrocatalyst prepared using liquid crystal
           template for methanol oxidation reaction in alkaline solution

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Merfat S. Al-Sharif, Prabhakarn Arunachalam, Twaha Abiti, Mabrook S. Amer, Matar Al-Shalwi, Mohamed A. Ghanem A crystalline mesoporous cobalt phosphate (meso-CoPi) electrocatalyst is prepared using liquid crystal template of non-ionic surfactant of Brij®78. The physicochemical investigations of the electrocatalyst executed by surface area analyzer, XRD, transmission electron microscope submits creation of a mesoporous crystalline nanostructured of meso-CoPi with a surface area of 124 m2 g−1. This is an 10-fold greatness superior than that for bulk-CoPi particles produced without surfactant template. The meso-CoPi electrocatalyst comprises of metallic cobalt layered with a cobalt-oxo/hydroxo-phosphate layer which facilitates the electro-oxidation of methanol at modest overpotential of 
       
  • Acylhydrazidate-based porous coordination polymers and reversible I2
           adsorption properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Yan-Ning Wang, Rong-Yan Wang, Qing-Feng Yang, Jie-Hui Yu By employing the hydrothermal in situ acylation of organic acids with N2H4, three porous acylhydrazidate-based Zn2+/Cd2+ coordination polymers as [M(L1)(H2O)]·1.5H2O (H2L1 = benzimidazole-5,6-dihydrazide; M2+ = Zn2+1, Cd2+2) and [Zn(HL2)(H2O)]·3H2O (H3L2 = 4,5-(di-(3′,4′-phthalhydrazide))) 3 were obtained. X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis reveals that the frameworks of 1–3 can all be simplified into a (3metal node,3ligand node)-connected net. However, since the ligands are different, they show the distinct structures: a C-tube-like structure for the isostructural 1 and 2; a 103 topology for 3. The cif-checking reports indicate that the solvent accessible voids in the structures of 1–3 are 1055 Å3, 1282.4 Å3, and 978 Å3, respectively. It is noteworthy that 3 is the first example of triacylhydrazidate-based coordination polymer. The investigation of the I2-adsorption property for two Zn2+ compounds suggests that both can adsorb reversibly the I2 molecule. The adsorption amount for 3 (100 mg adsorbing 22.0 mg I2) is a bit higher than that for 1 (100 mg accommodating 15.6 mg I2). However, the adsorption speed for 3 is much faster than that for 1. About 5 s, the I2 adsorption for 3 is close to saturation, while for 1, it is about 20 days. This might be related to the number and the distribution for the uncoordinated N/O atoms on the side walls of the channels.Graphical abstractStructures of three acylhydrazidate-based porous coordination polymers were reported, reversible I2 adsorption properties were investigated, and factors of influencing adsorption property were discussed.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Investigation on the g-C3N4 encapsulated ZnO nanorods heterojunction
           coupled with GO for effective photocatalytic activity under visible light
           irradiation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): N. Kumaresan, M. Maria Angelin Sinthiya, M. Praveen Kumar, S. Ravichandran, R. Ramesh Babu, K. Sethurman, K. Ramamurthi The present work reports on a novel ternary nanocomposite of ZnO rods encapsulated by graphitic like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and coupled with graphene oxide (GO) prepared by ultrasonication assisted hydrothermal method which provides enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability. Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the surface morphology of ZnO, g-C3N4 (prepared by heating method) and the GO contains nanorods structures, sheet like structures and sheets with porous structures respectively. Formation of rod like structures of ZnO and thin sheet like structures of g-C3N4 were observed from transmission electron microscopy analysis. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of g-C3N4 (6 wt%)/ZnO nanocomposites showed that ZnO nanorods are encapsulated by the thin sheets of g-C3N4 and g-C3N4(6 wt%)/ZnO/GO (30 mg) ternary nanocomposites contains porous structures of GO. The optical band gap of ZnO nanoparticles was shifted from 3.08 eV to 2.85 eV for g-C3N4(6 wt%)/ZnO/GO(30 mg) ternary nanocomposites. Under visible light irradiation the ZnO nanorods and g-C3N4 (6 wt%)/ZnO showed photodegradation efficiency of ∼21% and 90% respectively for 120 min whereas g-C3N4 (6 wt%)/ZnO/GO(30 mg) showed about 99% photodegradation efficiency in a time period of 14 min. The recycle process carried out for g-C3N4(6 wt%)/ZnO/GO(30 mg) composites up to five cycles showed 91.5% of photodegradation in the fifth cycle for a time period of 14 min. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis shows removal of carbon content 83% in 28 min. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis shows the intermediate products of 1,2 benzenedicarboxylic acid and phthalic acid during the RhB dye photodegradation process. The radical trapping experiment reveals that the photo-induced holes (h+) are one of the main reactive species involved in the degradation of the RhB.
       
  • Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic green ceramic
           hollow fiber membrane derived from waste sugarcane bagasse ash for
           oil/water separation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mohd Riduan Jamalludin, Siti Khadijah Hubadillah, Zawati Harun, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Muhamad Zaini Yunos, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh Green ceramic hollow fiber membranes with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surfaces (ss-CHFM/WSBA) were successfully fabricated via facile sol–gel process using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) as precursors. In this work, silica solution was prepared using the modified Stöber method. This process was followed by dipping the pristine membranes into the sol–gel solution at various grafting times (0–90 min), grafting cycles (0–4 cycles), and calcination temperatures (400–600°C). The wettability, surface morphology, and chemical composition of the pristine and ss-CHFM/WSBA membranes were investigated. The results showed that increasing the grafting time has increased the wettability of ss–CHFM/WSBA with high contact angle of up to 163.9°. Similarly, increasing grafting cycle has enhanced the hydrophobicity of ss-CHFM/WSBA due to the formation of hierarchical structure of grafting cycle which were more than one. The optimum calcination temperature for ss-CHFM/WSBA was identified. It was found that increasing the calcination temperature has degraded the sol template on the surface of ss-CHFM/WSBA, hence decreasing the wettability. The preliminary performance tests showed that ss-CHFM/WSBA grafted at 60 min, 3 cycles, and calcined at 400 °C showed excellent oil/water separation efficiency of 99.9% and oil flux of 137.2 L/m2h.
       
  • Tailored Functionalized Polymer Nanoparticles using Gamma Radiation for
           Selected Adsorption of Barium and Strontium in Oilfield Wastewater

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Sherif A. Younis, Mohamed M. Ghobashy, Ghada Bassioni, Ashwani K. Gupta To improve oil recovery from oilfield wells mineral scales derived by insoluble BaSO4 and SrSO4 salts during oil extraction should be diminished. In this work, adsorption selectivity of Barium (Ba2+) and Strontium (Sr2+) ions associated with saline formation waters was examined for the first time using nano-sized bi-functional polymer blend synthesized by Cobalt-60 (60Co) γ-rays, as green technology. A bifunctional polymer formed from poly(acrylonitrile)/(styrene-butadiene rubber) homogenous blend functionalized by -SO3H and -COOH terminal groups (termed as SASB). Those functional groups were selected based on systematic calcium (Ca2+) ions adsorption studies of carboxylate containing molecules. Main interactive effects of solution pH, adsorbents dose, total dissolved salts (TDS, up to 30 g/L), initial Ba2+ and Sr2+ concentrations and temperature on the adsorption selectivity were examined and optimized using Plackett-Burman factorial design (PBD) combined with multiple regression analysis. The regression statistics revealed the significance of quadratic polynomial model to optimize interactive sorption conditions from salty waters rather with high accuracy level (R2≈ 0.99) rather than linear and two-way interactive models at 95% confidence level. Interestingly finding, the regression and experimental data proved that the presence of up to 10 g/L TDS from alkali metal ions had a significant effect on the enhancement sorption capacity of Ba2+ and Sr2+ when using the prepared sorbent. The SASB adsorbent showed higher sorption selectivity with maximum equilibrium capacity (qmg/g) of 175.3 mg Ba+2 and 210.5 mg Sr+2 per each gram sorbent used in kinetic study. Adsorption kinetics of Ba2+ and Sr2+ sorption by both adsorbents obey pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetics, respectively. In sum, the adsorptive power of SASB sorbent is found to be in reverse order of the electronegativity and the hydration radii of the metal ions.
       
  • Low-cost preparation method of well dispersed gold nanoparticles on
           reduced graphene oxide and electrocatalytic stability in PEM Fuel Cell

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Adriana Marinoiu, Mircea Raceanu, Mindaugas Andrulevicius, Asta Tamuleviciene, Tomas Tamulevicius, Simona Nica, Daniela Bala, Mihai Varlam A facile and feasible protocol for synthesis of functionalized reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNP/rGO) in mild reaction conditions has been successfully developed. Starting from graphite, the following synthesis routes were developed: 1) preparation of graphite oxide; 2) graphene oxide (GO) functionalized with a compatible polymer; 3) reduced graphene oxide decorated with gold nanoparticles (final compound). The surface morphology of as-prepared AuNP/rGO was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area was determined using BET method, while structural properties were investigated using Raman scattering spectroscopy, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). This comprehensive study demonstrated the simultaneous reduction of GO and the achievement of Au nanoparticles dispersed on graphene sheets. An ORR catalytic system containing prepared AuNP/rGO was developed, and electrochemical measurements were performed. Firstly, the ex-situ electrochemical performances of AuNP/rGO-modified carbon electrode were investigated using cyclic voltammetry. Secondly, the in-situ electrochemical evaluation were carried out as application in real PEM fuel cell and analyzed as comparison commercial Pt/C versus developed ORR catalytic system. The in-situ CV results showed that the oxidation and reduction peaks corresponding to hydrogen adsorption/desorption decreased differently, indicating that a decrease of electrochemical surface area occurs for both cases, more visible for commercial catalyst. The cathode made with AuNP/rGO developed in this work, tested in hydrogen-air PEMFC, had a power density of 0.59 W cm − 2 at 0.6 V, a meaningful voltage for fuel cells operation, comparable with that of a commercial Pt-based cathode tested under identical conditions, but a superior electrochemical stability. The results confirmed that the developed AuNP/rGO nanoparticles could be valuable alternative ORR nanostructured electrodes.
       
  • Aryl Ferrocenylmethylesters: Synthesis, Solid-State Structure and
           Electrochemical Investigations

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Asma Ghazzy, Deeb Taher, Wissam Helal, Marcus Korb, Khaled Khalyfeh, Firas F. Awwadi, Rasha K. Al-Shewiki, Saddam Weheabby, Naim Al-Said, Sultan T. Abu-Orabi, Heinrich Lang The reaction of [Fe(η5-C5H4CH2OH)2] (1) with 2 equiv of ClC(O)R (2) (a, R = C6H5; b, R = 2-CH3-C6H4; c, R = 3-CH3-C6H4, d, R = 4-CH3-C6H4) produced the corresponding ferrocenyl carboxylates [Fe(η5-C5H4CH2OC(O)R)2] (3a–d). Treatment of [FcCH2OLi] (4-Li) (Fc = Fe(η5-C5H5)(η5-C5H4)) with (ClC(O))2C6H4 (5) (a, 1,2-((ClC(O))2-C6H4; b, 1,3-((ClC(O))2-C6H4; c, 1,4-((ClC(O))2-C6H4) in a 2:1 molar ratio gave (FcCH2OC(O))2-C6H4 (6a−c), while with 1,3,5-(ClC(O))3-C6H3 (7) in a 3:1 molar ratio produced 1,3,5-(FcCH2OC(O))3-C6H3 (8). All compounds were characterized by NMR (1H, 13C{1H}) and IR spectroscopy, ESI-TOF mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The molecular structures of 3a−d and 6b in the solid state were determined by single crystal X-ray structure analysis, showing anti-periplanar orientations of the 1,1’-positioned substituents at ferrocene (3a−d). In the cyclic voltammograms of 3a–d, 6a–d and 8 reversible electrochemical redox processes (Fc/Fc+) were observed, ranging between 146 and 164 mV for 3a−d, ca. 100 mV for 6a−d and at 113 mV for 8 using [NnBu4][B(C6F5)4] as the supporting electrolyte. The molecular electronic structure of 3, 6 and 8 was calculated by DFT methods in order to obtain the HOMO and LUMO absolute and relative energies in addition to electron density and distribution within the molecular arrangements. It was found that different degrees of HOMO-LUMO energy gaps within the series, due to a lowering in the LUMO energy depending on the positions of the carboxylic ester substituents on the aryl rings, are in agreement with the electrochemical results obtained.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Eu(III) removal by tetrabutylammonium di-hydrogen phosphate (TBAH2P)
           functionalized polymers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mihaela Ciopec, Andreea Gabor, Corneliu Mircea Davidescu, Adina Negrea, Petru Negrea, Narcis Duteanu Polymers involved as adsorbant materials during Eu(III) removal tests were prepared by functionalization of a natural polymer – cellulose, and a commercial one represented by Amberlite XAD7. As extractant, we used tetrabutil ammonium di-hydrogen phosphate (TBAH2P) which is a cheap and environmentally friendly product. Impregnated polymers using a rotavapor system in which the quaternary ammonium salt used as exctractant was concentrated on to the used polymer. Later obtained materials were characterized by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray electron dispersion (EDX). During experimental test we determine pH, contact time, Eu(III) initial concentration and temperature effect on the functionalized polymers adsorption capacity. Therewith for both functionalized polymers, a comparison was made between the adsorption process characteristics based on kinetics and thermodynamic studies.
       
  • Biocompatible pure ZnO nanoparticles-3D bacterial cellulose biointerfaces
           with antibacterial properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): V. Dinca, A. Mocanu, G. Isopencu, C. Busuioc, S. Brajnicov, A. Vlad, M. Icriverzi, A. Roseanu, M. Dinescu, M. Stroescu, A. Stoica-Guzun, M. Suchea In this paper, we present for the first time the obtaining and characterization of new antibacterial and biocompatible nano-ZnO–bacterial cellulose(BC) material with controlled interfaces for studying in vitro microorganisms (Escherichia Coli (ATCC 8737), B. subtilis Spizizenii Nakamura (ATCC 6633), Candida albicans (ATCC10231)) and mammalian cells (human dermal fibroblast cells) response. The use of BC based material with controlled characteristics in terms of quantity and distribution of ZnO onto BC membrane (with 2D and 3D fibers arrangement) is directly correlated with the surface chemical and topographical properties, the method of preparation, and also with the type of cells implied for the specific application within the bioengineering fields. In our study, the uniform distribution and the control on the quantity of ZnO nanoparticles onto 3D BC were obtained using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) method. The influence on particle distribution onto 3D bio cellulose were investigated based on two types of solvents (water and chloroform) involved in target preparation within MAPLE deposition. The attachment of the nanoparticles to the bacterial cellulose surface and fibrils was demonstrated by SEM and FT-IR studies. The BC-ZnO showed both resistance to bacteria-sticking and non-cytotoxic effect on the human dermal fibroblasts cells at a mass distribution onto surface of 1.68 µg ZnO NPS/mm2. These results represent a good premise in terms of tailoring BC substrates with ZnO particles that could determine or enhance both the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of BC-composite materials.
       
  • Silver embedded C-TiO2 exhibits improved photocatalytic properties with
           potential application in waste water treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mohamed Elfatih Hassan, Guanglong Liu, Eltigani Osman Musa Omer, Arafat M.Goja, Sadananda Acharya Non-metal element doping on photocatalysts demonstrates a wide range of disadvantages. Hence metal embedding on nanomaterials is considered to enhance photocatalytic efficiency. In this study, we employed silver nano particle embedding on C-TiO2 photocatalyst to improve its phtotocatytic degradation efficiency of organic water pollutant such as methyl orange. Modified sol-gel methods based on self-assembly technique was used to prepare the nanoformulations. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectra (PL). Compared to non-silver formulation (C-TiO2), silver embedded nanomaterial (C-TiO2/Ag) displayed an increased shift in the light absorption towards visible spectrum. A low photoluminescence (PL) intensity by 1 wt% C-TiO2/Ag indicated improved photocatalytic efficiency. Further, higher degradation of organic dye methyl orange confirmed that 1 wt% C-TiO2/Ag exhibited the best photodegradation rate over its non Ag embedded C-TiO2. Embedding of silver on C-TiO2 extends optical absorption edge of C-TiO2 to more visible specturm and inhibits electron-hole recombination resulting in enhanced photocatalytic activity. Photocatalytic degradation on methyl orange organic pollutant was considerably improved indicating its potential use in water treatment applications.
       
  • Magnetically modified nanogold-biosilica composite as an effective
           catalyst for CO oxidation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Veronika Holišová, Marta Natšinová, Gabriela Kratošová, Žaneta Chromčáková, Adam Schröfel, Ivo Vávra, Ondřej Životský, Ivo Šafařík, Lucie Obalová The temperature-dependent biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) using diatom cells of Diadesmis gallica was successfully performed. The resulting biosynthesis product was a bionanocomposite containing AuNP (app. 20 nm) subsequently anchored on the silica surface of diatomaceous frustules. As-prepared nanogold-biosilica composite was tested as catalyst in the oxidation of carbon monoxide using gas chromatograph with thermal conductivity detector. For catalytic activity enhancement, bionanocomposite was magnetically modified by ferrofluid using two different methods, i.e., with and without the use of methanol. The oxidation of CO at 300°C was 58% to 60% in the presence of nanogold-biosilica composites. CO conversion at 300°C was only 15% over magnetically responsive sample modified in the presence of methanol. On the other hand, complete CO conversion was reached over direct (without methanol) magnetically modified nanogold-biosilica composite at 330°C (GHSV = 60 l g-1 h-1). Our results show, that the type of magnetic modification can influence the catalytic activity of bionanocomposite. The best catalytic effect in CO conversion established direct magnetically modified nanogold-biosilica composite.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Review on various strategies for enhancing photocatalytic activity of
           graphene based nanocomposites for water purification

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Pardeep Singh, Pooja Shandilya, Pankaj Raizada, Anita Sudhaik, Abolfazl Rahmani-Sani, Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei Heterogeneous photocatalysis employing advanced oxidation has received significant attention for water purification and disinfection. Recently, the excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of graphene-based nanomaterials have encouraged the scientists to fabricate better graphene-based nanocomposites with enhanced photoefficiency for degradation of pollutants and disinfection of water resources. This review presents an overview of the various works done on the utilization of graphene-based photocatalytic systems in water purification and, especially, focuses on the strength of graphene-based composite materials in water disinfection. Therefore, after throwing some light on the advanced oxidation processes and basic principles of heterogeneous photocatalysis, the properties of graphene and its derivatives for being employed as photocatalysts and various strategies adopted for improving their photocatalytic activity was discussed thoroughly. Also, the efficiency of graphene-based composites as disinfectants discussed in the preceding section. At the end, a conclusion was drawn to discuss the remaining challenges and prospects for using graphene-based nanocomposites in environmental sciences.
       
  • Hydrothermal synthesis of pure and bio modified TiO2: characterization,
           evaluation of antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram
           negative bacteria and anticancer activity against KB Oral cancer cell line
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): P. Maheswari, S. Ponnusamy, S. Harish, M.R. Ganesh, Y. Hayakawa Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were found to be good anticancer and antibacterial agents. In this study, the antibacterial and anticancer activities of pure TiO2, turmeric, ginger and garlic modified TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Uv- visible spectroscopy were used to analyze the samples. Antibacterial activities were performed against five bacterial strains namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruoginosa , Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. The modified TiO2 nanoparticles exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity when compared with pure TiO2 samples and anticancer activities for the samples were performed in KB Oral cancer cell line. The results of the modified TiO2 NPs indicate a greater efficacy on anticancer and antibacterial properties compared to the pure TiO2 NPs.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Treatment of Lead Contaminated Water Using Synthesized Nanoiron Supported
           with Bentonite/Graphene Oxide

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Chuang Yu, JiCheng Shao, WenJing Sun, XiaoNiu Yu Conventional nano-iron is widely used in heavy metal contaminated groundwater remediation. However, it is easily oxidized when exposed to the air or re-aggregated under water soaking conditions. In this study, a nano-sized iron supported by graphene oxide/bentonite is proposed which is synthesized by liquid-phase reduction method. The TEM test results showed that the support effect of graphene oxide/bentonite well solved shortcomings of conventional nano-iron, since the flaky structure of graphene oxide and layered bentonite could effectively disperse nano-iron particles. The TEM images indicated that nano-iron supported by graphene oxide/bentonite at a weight ratio of 4:1:7.3 (nanoiron: graphene oxide: bentonite) yielded the smallest particle size, and most particle size was less than 30nm. The test results show that addition of graphene oxide could improve the removal of lead ions, especially in acidic environment as compared to bentonite alone supported nano-iron. The optimum dosage of graphene oxide was found to be 6.98% based on the removal rate of lead. It was found that the removal rate of lead by graphene oxide/bentonite supported nano-iron increased with the increase of pH of simulated contaminated groundwater. The temperature was found to affect the removal rate of lead ions as well. The adsorption of lead ions by graphene oxide/bentonite supported nano-iron conformed to quasi-second order reaction kinetic model, and the adsorption isotherm well fit the Langmuir model.
       
  • Influence of Binary Lithium Salts on 49% Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) grafted
           Natural Rubber Based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): R.A.G. Whba, L. TianKhoon, M.S. Su'ait, M.Y.A. Rahman, A. Ahmad Effect of binary lithium salts (lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF4 with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate, LiCF3SO3) and (lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF4 with Lithium iodide, LiI) as charge carriers in solid polymer electrolyte based 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) for Li-ion battery application has been investigated. The polymer electrolytes were prepared by solution casting technique. The effect of binary lithium salts on chemical interaction, structural, thermal studies, ionic conductivity and ion transference number of MG49 films are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Infrared analysis indicated the interaction occurred between Li ions and oxygen atoms at the carbonyl group (−C=O) and the ether group (C−O−C) on methyl methacrylate (MMA) segments. XRD studies exhibited a reduction of the MMA peak intensity at 29.5˚ after the addition of different ratios of binary Li salts due to the plasticizing effect of the salts. The larger anion size tends to create bigger free volume in the polymer electrolyte. In addition, this confirms that the degree of crystallinity of the electrolyte films is reduced leading to enhancement of ionic conductivity. DSC results revealed the highest conductivity sample has the lowest Tg implying the ions can flow with more ease throughout the polymer chain. The ratios of LiBF4:LiI presenting the higher overall performance in terms of ionic conductivity comparing to LiBF4:LiCF3SO3 ratios in MG49. The highest room temperature conductivity was obtained at 1.89 × 10–6 S cm-1 for (30:70) LiBF4:LiI percentages ratio. Moreover, tion is observed to increase with the ionic conductivities.
       
  • Anti-hygroscopic surface modification of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) coated
           by surfactants

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Baha I. Elzaki, Yue Jun Zhang Ammonium nitrate surface is extremely hygroscopic, due to high energy on its surface which increases the potential of the molecules to absorb moisture from the surrounding environment. Ammonium nitrate particles were modified using second coating process with myristic acid in the different amount. The hygroscopicity was tested for ammonium nitrate with and without coating. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the surface of coated and uncoated ammonium nitrate. Meanwhile, the method determined mass ratio of coating layer was improved to achieve more accuracy. In addition, focused ion beam technique was used to determine the thickness of coating layer. The results indicated that by using second coating modification method of surfactant adsorption, the anti-hygroscopicity performance of coated samples was significantly improved. The result showed that the decline of the absorption moisture rate was 40.57%, and the mass ratio of the coating layer was 1.42%. These results suggest that the second coating process employed could provide the well fundamental for the further anti-hygroscopic surface modification of ammonium nitrate particles coated by surfactants.
       
  • Highly efficient persulfate oxidation process activated with Fe0 aggregate
           for decolorization of reactive azo dye Remazol Golden Yellow

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8Author(s): Chih-Huang Weng, Hong Tao The commercially available Fe0 aggregate has advantages of low-cost, fast-effective decontamination, reusability, and ease of operation. However, little study has been done on the performance of Fe0 aggregate as a catalyst in degradation of azo dyes, particularly used in persulfate (PS) oxidation process. This study investigated decolorization of a reactive azo dye, Remazol Golden Yellow (RGY, Reactive Orange 107), by persulfate oxidation activated with Fe0 aggregate. RGY decolorization was not effective in ultrasound-activated, heat-activated, and base-activated persulfate oxidation; however, a significant decolorization improvement was achieved by applying Fe0 aggregate to activated persulfate (PS/Fe0). Decolorization was strongly influenced by pH, Fe0, persulfate dosages and temperature. The suitable conditions for RGY decolorization were pH 6.0, PS 5 × 10–3 M, and Fe0 0.5 g/L. This condition yields 98% color removal of 100 mg/L RGY solution within 20 min treatment; the azo bonds of RGY were completely broken down. RGY decolorization followed the first-order kinetics. Activation energy of the PS/Fe0 system was 0.479 kJ/mol, suggesting the temperature dependence of RGY decolorization is small. The presence of inorganic salt in RGY solution had an adverse effect on decolorization. The inhibitory effect of various inorganic salts on decolorization followed the sequence of Na2HPO4 ≫ NaHCO3 ≫ NaClO4 > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaClO4 > no salt. The Fe0 aggregate was reusable and a satisfactory decolorization efficiency was achieved with the repeated use of Fe0 for five times. The PS/Fe0 process provides an efficiency and effective technology for RGY decolorization.
       
  • Structure and composition peculiarities and spectral-luminescent
           properties of colorless and pink Bi4Ge3O12 scintillation crystals

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8Author(s): G.M. Kuz'micheva, I.A. Kaurova, L.I. Ivleva, E.V. Khramov, P.A. Eistrikh-Geller, V.B. Rybakov, T.V. Chukhlovina, S.V. Firstov Czochralski-grown colorless and pink Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) single crystals have been characterized by the X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption, and luminescence and optical spectroscopy. Additional high-temperature vacuum annealing of the as-grown colorless crystal at 900–950 °C using a special reducing agent leds to the appearance of pink coloration and modification of its properties. The refinement of actual compositions of both BGO crystals showed the distribution of the Bi3+ions over two, tetrahedral and octahedral, sites, the Bi content in the colorless crystal being greater and lower in the octahedral and tetrahedral sites, respectively, compared with the colored crystal. A small amount of Bi5+ions was revealed in the tetrahedral sites of the colorless crystal. Oxygen vacancies, as a part of the color center responsible for the crystal coloration, were found in the structure of pink sample. The pink BGO crystal is characterized by photoluminescence in the near infra-red spectral range.
       
  • One-pot three-component synthesis of peptidomimics for investigation of
           antibacterial and antineoplastic properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8Author(s): Wafaa M. Abdou, Mohamed S. Bekheit The α-hydroxyphosphonate generated from dialkyl phosphites and 1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde derivative was, in situ, trapped by isothiocyanates, isocyanates or acetic anhydride to produce dialkyl phosphorylmethyl-carbamothioates, -carbamates and/or -methyl acetates in good yields. The reactions were carried out in tetrahydrofuran (THF) in one step at room temperature, using K2CO3 catalyst. Antimicrobial and antineoplastic activities of the synthesized compounds were estimated. The results showed that all new compounds cause moderate to good antibiotic activities. However, phosphorylmethylcarbamothioates exhibited the highest growth inhibition. Furthermore, selected nine new synthesized compounds were evaluated for anticancer activity against eight human tumor cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-435, BT-549, IGROVI, SK-OV-3, PX-3, PU-145, and HEPG2). The majority of these compounds revealed moderate to potent activity against MCF7, PU-145, and HEPG2. Among them, two of the phosphorylmethylcarbamothioates showed excellent broad spectrum of anticancer activity with IC50 values ranging from 16.6 to 26.9 and 17.2 to 36.9 μmol L−1, respectively (for 5-fluorouracil IC50: 17.7 to 38.8 μmol L−1). Phosphorylmethyl methylcarbamothioate, in particular was more potent than 5-fluorouracil against all tested human carcinoma cell lines.Graphical abstractThree types of phosphonate derivatives: α-phosphorylthiocarbamates, α-phosphorylcarbamates and α-acetoxyphosphonates were synthesized through three components one-pot reaction at room temperature in a good yields.Antimicrobial and antineoplastic activities of the synthesized compounds were estimated.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Identification and inhibitory activities of ellagic acid- and
           kaempferol-derivatives from Mongolian oak cups against α-glucosidase,
           α-amylase and protein glycation linked to type II diabetes and its
           complications and their influence on HepG2 cells’ viability

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8Author(s): Peipei Yin, Lingguang Yang, Qiang Xue, Miao Yu, Fan Yao, Liwei Sun, Yujun Liu This study was to characterize phenolic composition of 50% ethanol crude extract (ECE) by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and to investigate anti-diabetic activities of the ECE and its four fractions from Mongolian oak cups. The results show that 24 phenolics were identified from the ECE, and ellagic acid (EA)- and kaempferol-derivatives were the main phenolic components in oak cups. Dominant constituents in each of the four fractions were subsequently characterized by HPLC fingerprints. Acid hydrolysis exhibited that oak cups contained both ellagitannins and gallotannins, and ellagitannins were the dominant hydrolysable tannins. Furthermore, ECE and its four fractions exhibited much more drastic inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase than α-amylase, and formation of advanced glycation end-products was inhibited differently by ECE and Frs I-IV. Overall, EA- and kaempferol-derivatives in oak cups were the main anti-diabetic contributors, and EA-derivatives exhibited superior inhibition against α-glucosidase and glycation while kaempferol-derivatives showed stronger α-amylase inhibitory activity. In addition, Frs I-IV affected cell viability differently and kaempferol-derivatives in Fr. IV resulted in its highest anticancer activity. Aforementioned results first indicated that oak cups, being underutilized plant byproducts, should be a novel dietary phytonutrient for diabetes management with inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase, α-amylase and formation of AGEs, as well as for cancer treatment.
       
  • Influence of pravastatin chitosan nanoparticles on erythrocytes
           cholesterol and redox homeostasis: An in vitro study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8Author(s): Gamaleldin I. Harisa, Mohamed M. Badran, Sabry M. Attia, Fars K. Alanazi, Gamal A. Shazly The objective of this study was to develop and characterize chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) to increase efficacy of pravastatin (PR) on erythrocytes redox status. CSNPs and PR loaded CSNPs (PRCSNPs) were prepared by ionic gelation method. The particle size, zeta potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate physicochemical characters of the prepared nanoparticles. The present results revealed that CSNPs and PRCSNPs have nanosize about 90 nm with spherical shape, positive zeta potential and prolonged PR release. Moreover, DSC and FTIR indicated no chemical interactions between PR and CS. In vitro studies revealed that, erythrocyte uptake of PR from PRCSNPs was higher than free PR solution. Incubation of erythrocytes in high cholesterol plasma, hypercholesterolemia (HC), increases membrane cholesterol, erythrocyte hemolysis, oxidized glutathione (GSH), protein carbonyl (PCC), and malondialdeyhe (MDA). However, HC significantly decreases PR uptake by erythrocytes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) catalase (CAT) activities, reduced GSH and nitrite levels compared to control. By contrast, treatment of HC with PR plus CS as free drug or nanostructure formula keeps the measured parameters at values near that of control. The effect of CSNPs and PRCSNPs on redox status of erythrocytes was more prominent than free drugs. In conclusion, PRCSNPs are promising drug carrier to deliver PR into erythrocytes, moreover, PRCSNPs possess promising characteristics with high biological safety for treatment of HC induced disruption of redox homeostasis.
       
  • Phytochemical analysis and comprehensive evaluation of antimicrobial and
           antioxidant properties of 61 medicinal plant species

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8Author(s): Nosheen Akhtar, Ihsan-ul-Haq, Bushra Mirza Plants are rich source of therapeutic compounds that have tremendous applications in pharmaceutical industry. To find new sources of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents, methanol/chloroform and aqueous extracts of 61 medicinal plants were evaluated systematically. Antimicrobial activity was assessed against six bacterial and five fungal strains, while natural antioxidants were studied using reducing power (RP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Six plants exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activity while two exerted significant antifungal activity. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the samples varied from 20.2 to 85.6 mg/g dry weight (DW) in M/C extracts and 5.5 to 62.1 mg/g DW in aq. extracts, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Total flavonoid content (TFC) varied from 2.9 to 44.5 mg quercitin equivalent (QE)/g DW of sample for M/C extracts and 2.4 to 37.1 mg QE/g DW for aq. extracts. The results showed that antioxidant activities of plant species varied to a great extent not only among extracts (M/C and aq.) but also between the assays used for antioxidant evaluation. Significant linear correlation (p 
       
  • Removal of nickel(II) and lead(II) ions from aqueous solution using peat
           as a low-cost adsorbent: A kinetic and equilibrium study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8Author(s): Przemysław Bartczak, Małgorzata Norman, Łukasz Klapiszewski, Natalia Karwańska, Małgorzata Kawalec, Monika Baczyńska, Marcin Wysokowski, Jakub Zdarta, Filip Ciesielczyk, Teofil Jesionowski Analysis was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics – morphological and structural, electrokinetic properties, elemental composition and functional groups – of peat, with a view to its use as a potential adsorbent of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. A significant part of the study comprised tests of adsorption of nickel(II) and lead(II) ions from model solutions. It was determined how the parameters of the adsorption process (time, pH, quantity of sorbent) influence the effectiveness of removal of nickel(II) and lead(II) ions. The adsorption kinetics are also described, using a pseudo-first-order model and pseudo-second-order models of types 1–4. The results show strong correspondence to a pseudo-second-order kinetics model of type 1 (r2 = 0.999 for all initial concentrations). Another key part of the analysis was the use of the Langmuir and Freundlich models to determine the adsorption isotherms. The experimental data were in strong correspondence with Langmuir’s isotherm model. The sorption capacities of peat with respect to nickel(II) and lead(II) ions were 61.27 mg(Ni2+)/g and 82.31 mg(Pb2+)/g. Desorption tests confirmed the possibility of reusing peat as an effective sorbent of environmentally harmful metals. A mechanism is also proposed for the adsorption of Ni2+ and Pb2+ ions on adsorbent.
       
  • Development of bimetallic and trimetallic oxides doped on molybdenum oxide
           based material on oxidative desulfurization of diesel

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8Author(s): Wan Nur Aini Wan Mokhtar, Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar, Rusmidah Ali, Abdul Aziz Abdul Kadir Catalytic oxidative desulfurization (Cat-ODS) activities of thiophenic sulfur were compared using alumina supported of mono-, bi- and trimetallic oxide molybdena based catalysts, prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. The aim of this study was to inquire on the possibility of supported trimetallic oxide catalysts for deep Cat-ODS process. The prepared catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and tested in the ODS of model thiophene, dibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiphene, as well as on commercial and crude diesel. It was found that the addition of dopant and co-dopant toward MoO3/Al2O3 catalysts increased significantly the selectivity of catalytic performance in the order: mono- 
       
  • The composition of the essential oil and aqueous distillate of Origanum
           vulgare L. growing in Saudi Arabia and evaluation of their antibacterial
           activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8Author(s): Merajuddin Khan, Shams T. Khan, Noor A. Khan, Adeem Mahmood, Abdulaziz A. Al-Kedhairy, Hamad Z. Alkhathlan The essential oil and aqueous distillate composition of Origanum vulgare L. were analyzed by GC/MS. Sixty-seven different components were detected in both oils. Sixty-four components were characterized for the oil derived from the aerial parts, whereas thirty-three components in the volatile oil from the aqueous distillates of O. vulgare L., representing 99.8% and 98.5% of the oils, respectively. The main components of the volatile oil from the aerial parts of O. vulgare L. were carvacrol (70.2 ± 1.37%), γ-terpinene (5.6 ± 0.11%), p-cymene (4.5 ± 0.42%), trans-sabinene hydrate (3.8 ± 0.07%), and thymol (2.2 ± 0.12%). In comparison, the main compounds of the volatile oil of the O. vulgare L. aqueous distillates were carvacrol (92.5 ± 0.97%), thymol (2.5 ± 0.09%), and terpinen-4-ol (1.0 ± 0.03%). The antibacterial activity of both oils, along with that of the purified major component, carvacrol, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains was assessed. The results revealed that all three samples showed significant antibacterial activity against all tested strains. The IC50 values of the oils derived from the aerial parts and aqueous distillates of O. vulgare L. against the tested strains was in the range of 107–383 µg·mL−1, whereas, the IC50 value of carvacrol was in the range of 53–151 µg·mL−1. The data suggest that carvacrol, a major component of both oils, possesses the highest antibacterial activity of all the constituents and is the main component responsible for the antibacterial activity of Saudi O. vulgare L. oils.
       
  • A comprehensive review summarizing the effect of electrospinning
           parameters and potential applications of nanofibers in biomedical and
           biotechnology

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8Author(s): Adnan Haider, Sajjad Haider, Inn-Kyu Kang Nanotechnology is a budding technology that has been identified as a vital scientific and commercial venture with global economic benefits. With the increasing knowledge of nanomaterial manufacturing techniques, research groups around the globe are focusing more on the preparation of nanomaterials for various applications. Among the various techniques reported in the literature, electrospinning has gathered significant interest because of its ability to fabricate nanostructures with unique properties such as a high surface area and inter/intra fibrous porosity. Electrospinning has been the most widely used technique in the late 20th (1990) and early 21st (2000) centuries (Reneker and Yarin, 2008). Since its first use in the early 20th (1900) (Cooley, 1900) century, significant improvements have been made in the instrument design, material used, and nanomaterials produced. The production of nanomaterials (nanofibers) via electrospinning is affected by many operating parameters. This review paper will provide an overview of the electrospinning (applied electric field, distance between the needle and collector and flow rate, needle diameter), solution (polymer concentration, viscosity, solvent and solution conductivity) and environmental (relativity humidity and temperature) parameters that affect the nanofibers fabrication and the application of nanofibers in tissue engineering, drug delivery systems, wound dressings, antibacterial study, filtration, desalination, protective clothing fabrication, and biosensors.
       
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8Author(s):
       
  • Adsorption characteristics of Direct Red 23 azo dye onto powdered
           tourmaline

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 8Author(s): Na Liu, Hang Wang, Chih-Huang Weng, Chi-Chin Hwang The high electric field on the surface of tourmaline particles has a potential of enhancing electrostatic reactions during adsorption. However, information concerning the adsorption characteristics of dyes onto tourmaline is currently unavailable. In the present study, the behavior and efficiency of powdered tourmaline (PT) in removing the diazo Direct Red 23 (DR23) dye from aqueous solution were investigated. The observations from batch adsorption experiments indicated that the adsorption was more favorable under low adsorbate surface loading, low pH, high temperature, and low ionic strength conditions. A homogeneous particle diffusion model (HPDM) was used to characterize the process, and the rate of adsorption was found to be controlled by intra-particle diffusion. An activation energy of 4.54 kcal/mol was calculated, suggesting that the adsorption proceeded with a low energy barrier and that a physisorption was involved. The functional groups binding anionic DR23 on the PT particles were also identified. A maximum adsorption capacity of 153 mg/g was determined according to the Langmuir isotherm. The PT was subjected to a total of 5 regeneration runs without losing much of its dye-adsorption capacities. Due to its low price, abundant availability, and superb adsorption capacity, PT has a great potential for use as an effective adsorbent in removing DR23 from aqueous solutions.Graphical abstractConceptual scheme illustrates adsorption of diazo dye DR23 onto powdered tourmaline. The high electric fields on the surface of tourmaline significantly enhanced electrostatic interactions during adsorption.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Electrodeposited cobalt hydroxide in expanded carbon graphite electrode
           obtained from exhausted batteries applied as energy storage device

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Cleverson S. Santos, Rafaela D. de Oliveira, Luís F. Marchesi, Christiana A. Pessôa This paper describes the preparation and characterization of CG/Co(OH)2 electrode obtained by electrodeposition of cobalt hydroxide on expanded carbon graphite electrode (CG) for potential application as energy storage devices. The CG electrodes used in this work were obtained from exhausted batteries. Firstly, the CG electrode was submitted to an anodic polarization at 2 V in H2SO4 solution, in order to increase the active surface area at different times. Thereafter, the electrodeposition of the Co(OH)2 was carried out by applying different reduction potentials over different times in order to optimize the electrodeposition process. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results confirmed the expansion of the bare CG and the Co(OH)2 electrodeposition. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the modified electrode. It was observed that the parameters of the modification process affect the morphology of the electrodeposited cobalt hydroxide. The best performance was found for the CG/Co(OH)2 modified electrode obtained by CG expanded during 750 s, followed by the electrodeposition conditions of -1.25 V during 250 s, presenting a capacitiy of 3.4 C cm-2 in an applied current density of 1.0 mA cm-2. In addition, this modified electrode also presented a retention capacity of 91% after 1400 cycles.
       
  • Development of a SBSE-HPLC method using sol-gel based germania coated
           twister for the analysis of 4-chloro-1-naphthol in biological and water
           samples

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Shehzada Muhammad Sajid Jillani, Saheed A. Ganiyu, Khalid Alhooshani In this work, 4-chloro-1-naphthol is extracted from environmental and biological samples using germania-based polydimethylsiloxane hybrid organic-inorganic coated twister, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The coated twisters showed a good preparation reproducibility of 1.7% (n=3) for one batch and 3.5% (n=3) for different batches. The coated stir bars were successfully characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Sample volume, extraction time, stirring rate, desorption solvent, desorption time and ionic strength were optimized for the stir bar sorptive extraction process. Under optimized experimental conditions, the method showed linearity in the range of 0.4-800 ng mL-1 with R2 = 0.9992 and limit of detection (S/N=3) as 0.034 ng mL-1. The chromatographic method showed higher selectivity by having baseline separation between 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol (the expected interference) and 4-chloro-1-naphthol. This germania-based stir bar sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic method was successfully applied for 4-chloro-1-naphthol in wastewater, pool water, and human urine and showed relative recoveries between 87.4 - 141.3% with acceptable relative standard deviation i.e. 4-11%.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Tuning the morphological structure, light absorption, and photocatalytic
           activity of Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl through cerium doping

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mirabbos Hojamberdiev, Zukhra C. Kadirova, Ehsan Zahedi, Diego Onna, María Claudia Marchi, Gangqiang Zhu, Nobuhiro Matsushita, Masashi Hasegawa, Sara Aldabe Bilmes, Kiyoshi Okada Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are recognized as new classes of water pollutants that receive considerable attention because of their negative environmental impact on aquatic life and humans. Because microbiological and/or conventional secondary physicochemical treatments cannot completely remove those water pollutants, effective advanced oxidation processes using semiconductor-based photocatalysts are needed to ensure their total elimination in water. Here, we report on the tuning of the morphological structure, light absorption, and photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl through cerium doping. Non-doped and Ce-doped Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl powders are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and their adsorption ability and photocatalytic activity are evaluated for the removal of salicylic acid in the dark and under visible light irradiation, respectively. The adsorption affinities and preferential sites of salicylic acid molecules on non-doped and Ce-doped Bi2WO6, BiOCl, and Bi2WO6-BiOCl are computationally predicted using molecular dynamics simulations. When ethylene glycol is replaced by dilute HCl as a solvent in a hydrothermal system, BiOCl is also formed along with Bi2WO6, confirming the successful formation of a Bi2WO6-BiOCl composite. The flower-like hierarchical structures of Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl can absorb more photon energy due to multiple scattering, charge carriers can easily transfer to the surface/interface, and mesopores can improve the transfer rate of organic molecules, contributing to the overall enhancement in photocatalytic activity. The Bi2WO6-BiOCl samples show higher photocatalytic activity than that of the Bi2WO6 samples for the degradation of salicylic acid due to the formed p–n heterojunction. The optimum concentration of Ce doping is found to be 1 mol% in the Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl, promoting the effective separation and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers, resulting in high photocatalytic performance, and the sample exhibited good stability.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Preparation, Characterization and Performance Evaluation of Supported
           Zeolite on Porous Glass Hollow Fiber for Desalination Application

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Siti Nurfatin Nadhirah Mohd Makhtar, Mohamad Zahir Mohd Pauzi, Nizar Mu'ammar Mahpoz, Norfazilah Muhamad, Mukhlis A. Rahman, Khairul Hamimah Abas, Azian Abd Aziz, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Juhana Jaafar A-type zeolite membranes were synthesized on porous glass hollow fibers that prepared using the in-situ hydrothermal process. The porous glass hollow fibers were prepared using the phase inversion and sintering technique with the addition of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to improve their porosity. The glass hollow fibers were characterized using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), mechanical properties and water permeability. The porosities of pure glass hollow fiber were improved by the addition of YSZ particles, which lead to an increase in the pure water permeability. The water permeability shows that the glass hollow fiber prepared form spinning suspension E, which has 30 wt.% zeolite particles and 20 wt.% YSZ particles, has the highest permeability of 155.65 L m-2 hr-1 bar-1 compared to the previous work, which was only 4.0 L m-2.hr-1.bar-1. This glass hollow fiber was later used as the support for the incorporation of zeolite membrane for the desalination application. The performance of membranes is separating sodium chloride (NaCl) salt solution were tested using two different setups, namely pressure driven reverse osmosis (RO) and sweeping liquid assisted reverse osmosis (SLRO). The solute flux for 5,000 and 10,000 ppm NaCl salt solutions were 24.45 and 17.86 L m-2 hr-1, respectively. Both operations enabled the solute rejection up to 98 %.
       
  • Overview on petroleum emulsions, formation, influence and demulsification
           treatment techniques

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Murtada Mohammed Abdulredha The most challenging aspect in petroleum industry is high produced water accompanying crude oil extraction. In modern days, environmental attention has become very significant due to large quantity of produced water. Produced water in crude oil extraction consists of a mixture of several compounds, including inorganic, organic and other elements. The elements in produced water have a wide environmental influence and sometimes cause poisonous impact on sounded area. Meanwhile, there are several techniques to treat produced water. However, a major part of produced water is an emulsion and this leads to a major problem associated with crude oil treatment and transport. At the same time, limitations in treatment techniques for produced water have been demanding researchers to investigate on demulsification techniques for several years. Researchers also noted that there are a lot of elements influencing emulsion stability and interfacial film, including asphaltenes, resins, solid particles, water and oil content, PH, etc. However, one of the techniques that has received attention in enhanced oil recovery is a chemical method by using surface active agents (surfactant).
       
  • Dye-sensitized solar cell utilizing silver doped reduced graphene oxide
           films counter electrode: Influence of annealing temperature on its
           performance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): N. Mustaffa, M.Y.A. Rahman, A.A. Umar This work is concerned with the utilization of silver doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag-rGO) films as counter electrode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The effect of annealing temperature of Ag-rGO on the properties of Ag-rGO and performance parameters of the device has been investigated. The annealing temperature has been varied from 350 oC to 400 oC at 10 oC interval. The DSSC utilizing Ag-rGO annealed at 350 oC demonstrated the highest η of 1.302%, respectively due to the smallest charge transfer resistance at the interface of electrolyte/Ag-rGO counter electrode. The efficiency has been improved by utilizing the Ag-rGO counter electrode that underwent annealing treatment. The performance and electrochemical stability test reveal that the DSSC utilizing free-platinum electrode that is Ag-rGO can last within one week time.
       
  • Environmentally-friendly Strategy for Separation of α-Lactalbumin from
           Whey by Aqueous Two Phase Flotation Abstract

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Bin Jiang, Lele Wang, Jiaxin Na, Xiaoqing Zhang, Yongqiang Yuan, Chunhong Liu, Zhibiao Feng Aqueous two-phase flotation (ATPF) consisting of 1000 g/mol polyethylene glycol (PEG 1000) / trisodium citrate was developed for the separation of α-Lactalbumin (α-La) from whey. The flotation efficiency (E) and purification factor (PF) of α-La were evaluated using the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The effects of pH, concentration of trisodium citrate, flow velocity, flotation time and whey loading on the E and PF of α-La were investigated. An efficient separation of α-La from whey was achieved using ATPF with pH of 8.20, 5 mL of 0.50 g/mL PEG 1000 solution, 35 mL of 0.40 g/mL trisodium citrate solution and whey (20%, v/v), 30 mL/min of flow velocity and 42 min of flotation time. Under the optimal conditions, E and PF of α-La could reach 87.54 % and 5.33, respectively. In addition, the kinetic process of the separation of α-La by ATPF of PEG 1000 / trisodium citrate was investigated. The results showed that there were two stages in the separation process. Both stages obeyed the first-order kinetic equation, and the first stage was faster than the second one.
       
  • Synthesis of a magnetic-based yolk-shell nano-reactor: A new class of
           monofunctional catalyst by Cu0-nanoparticles and its application as a
           highly effective and green catalyst for A3 coupling reaction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Zeinab Elahimehr, Firouzeh Nemati, Ali Elhampour A novel and yolk/shell nanoreactor catalyst (H-Fe3O4@h-Cu0@m-SiO2) was designed and synthesized with a hollow magnetite core encapsulated in a mesoporous silica shell which Cu0-nanoparticles were decorated in the interior cavity shell in order to enhance the catalytic activity. The morphology, structure and physicochemical properties of the yolk/shell nanoreactor were then fully characterized by using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The N2 absorption-desorption isotherms indicate a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area of 287.36 m2/g and a pore width of 2–50 nm. Applied as a catalyst for three-component A3 coupling reaction of alkynes, aldehydes and amines under the optimized condition. Interestingly, the characterization results indicate that (H-Fe3O4@h-Cu0@m-SiO2) has great catalytic performance, which could be related to unique hollow morphology with an active core contains Cu0-nanoparticles, protective mesoporous shell and hollow void. This aspect of morphology leads to favoring the transfer of the reactants and products. Reusability up to 10 times without any obvious decline in catalytic activity and short reaction time are other advantageous of this green nano-reactor.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Molecular Modeling and Optical Properties of a Novel Fluorinated Chalcone

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): J.M.F. Custodio, J.J.A. Guimarães-Neto, R. Awad, J.E. Queiroz, G.M.V. Verde, M. Mottin, B.J. Neves, C.H. Andrade, G.L.B. Aquino, C. Valverde, F.A.P. Osório, B. Baseia, H.B. Napolitano Chalcones exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities, mainly due to α,β-unsaturated ketone, and are precursors of the biosynthesis of flavonoids found in plants. These compounds have been shown to be useful in the biological approach, proven by the broad spectrum of biological activities reported, and also in the technological approach, considering their potential as NLO material. In this context, this work aimed to examine the crystallization and characterization of fluorinated chalcone (E)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(4-isopropylphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (DFC). A comprehensive structural study of DFC was carried out to understand the process of stabilizing the crystalline lattice through X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and molecular modeling studies. Finally, the electrical properties of DFC were calculated by using the supermolecule method (SM). DFC molecules are connected by means of C−H···O and C−H···F intermolecular contacts, forming dimers which play an important role in the stabilization of crystal packing. Molecular modeling studies indicated that this compound could act as an anti-tuberculosis ligand because of its high binding affinity with the M. tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein, InhA. On the other hand, theoretical calculations were performed to evaluate the NLO properties of DFC and indicated that it showed good potential.
       
  • Synthesis of Zn0.8Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites via
           ultrasound-assisted emulsion liquid phase

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mujahid Mustaqeem, Tawfik A. Saleh, Aziz ur Rehman, Muhammad Farooq Warsi, Azhar Mehmood, Adnan Sharif, Shahbaz Akther Nanocomposites consisting of polyvinyl alcohol embedded with nanoparticles of Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 were successfully synthesized by employing a facile two-steps process. The nanoparticles of Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 and ZnFe2O4 were synthesized via a micro emulsion procedure and then embedded into a polyvinyl alcohol matrix by an ultrasound-assisted in-situ emulsion. The result showed that the prepared nanoparticles of Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 & ZnFe2O4 diffuse homogeneously in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, maintaining the particle shape and size of the Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscope images revealed that polyvinyl alcohol chains have encircled the Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 & ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles. The interaction between the polyvinyl alcohol and the nanoparticles in the prepared nanocomposites was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy via the shifting of bands revealed from the Fourier-transform infrared spectra. Dielectric studies explained the decreasing trend by varying concentrations of nanoparticles with a constant polymer concentration. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss both revealed a decreasing trend by varying the concentration of the nanoparticles with a constant polymer concentration. This occurred due to the grain boundary effect which becomes dominant at low frequencies. The Transmission electron microscope images result shows that polycrystalline Zn0.80Co0.1Ni0.1Fe2O4 & ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles with an average size of 10-15nm were incorporated with PVA to form nanocomposites.
       
  • Biochemical Activities and Electronic Spectra of Different Cobalt
           Phenanthroline Complexes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mohammed A. Al-Omair A series of octahedral phenanthroline cobalt chlorides, aqua and carbonates complexes have been prepared, characterized, and their antibacterial activity was studied in detail in terms of zone inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations. Their antioxidant activities were studied by measuring DPPH, SOD and ABTS radical scavenging activity. It was found that cobalt phenanthroline carbonate complex possessed highest antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, degradation effect on DNA and showed moderate cytotoxicity against Hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG-2), Mammary gland (MCF-7) and Colorectal carcinoma (HCT-116) cells.The complexes were studied with UV spectroscopy to observe the solvents effect on the electronic spectra. Equation that relates peak position λmax to solvent parameters are solved by computerized analysis using multiple regression techniques, and the correlation and regression coefficients were evaluated. The independent solvent parameters used are H-bonding ability, refractive index and dielectric constant. The FTIR spectrum was interpreted according to the actual structure.
       
  • Bandgap engineering of TiO2 nanoparticles through MeV Cu ions
           irradiation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Ishaq Ahmad, Muhammad Usman, Ting-kai Zhao, Sara Qayum, Iram Mahmood, Arshad Mahmood, Abdoulaye Diallo, Camillus Obayi, Fabian Ifeanyichukwu Ezema, Maaza Malik The effect of 5 MeV Cu++ ions irradiation on structural and optical properties of Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) is investigated. For this purpose, TiO2-NPs are irradiated with different Cu++ ions fluences, ranging from 1×1015 to 1×1016 ions/cm2 at room temperature. XRD results confirm the Ti3O7 phase appear at the dose of 5x1015 ions/cm2and peak intensity of Ti3O7 phase gradually increases with an increase of Cu++ ions irradiation dose. At the dose of 1×1016 ions/cm2 TiO2 Anatase phase were transformed to Rutile phase. Same observations are confirmed from Raman spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals that morphology converted into wavy shape and crystal structure detrioted with increase Cu ion irradiation dose to form vacancy loops and interstitial loops. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that TiO2-NPs have been fused to form a cluster of nanoparticles at high Cu ion beam dose, while bandgap of TiO2-NPs reduces from 3.19 eV to 2.96 eV as a function of Cu++ irradiation fluence. These phase transformations and crystal damage are the responsible for optical bandgap reduction. The mechanism for the currently observed phase transformation of TiO2 and coalescence of TiO2-NPs are discussed in term of thermal spikes model.
       
  • Smart Nanomaterials in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Deepali Sharma, Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain Smart nanomaterials have appeared as one of the phenomenal materials to the modern world because of their exceptional thermal, electronic, optical and mechanical properties. Unique characteristics of smart materials make them striking candidates for pharmaceutical analysis which basically determines the quality of drug products via analytical chemistry. The present review discusses smart nanomaterials and their detailed applications in pharmaceutical analysis. A systematic approach for commercial-scale utilization of smart nanomaterials in the pharmaceutical analysis in terms of economic challenges, health & safety concern of nanomaterials and life cycle assessment within pharma industry are comprehended. In the end, the challenges and opportunities for the future development of smart nanomaterials for pharmaceutical analysis in regards to sustainability perspectives are described.
       
  • Facile and green preparation of bioactive and UV protective silk materials
           using the extract from red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) through adsorption
           technique

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Yuyang Zhou, Zhi-Yi Yang, Ren-Cheng Tang Recently, there is a growing trend towards the fabrication of bioactive materials by using natural extracts, which can achieve diverse functionalities and environmental benefits simultaneously. This study presents a facile approach towards the preparation of bioactive and UV protective silk materials using the extract from red radish (an edible root vegetable). The adsorption mechanism of red radish extract on silk was studied. The results showed that red radish extract displayed higher exhaustion rate at lower pH. The equilibrium adsorption study indicated that the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were suitable to describe the adsorption behavior of red radish extract on silk, revealing that the ion−ion interactions, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces play major roles in the adsorption process. The silk treated with red radish extract over 5% owf, exhibited excellent antioxidant activity, high antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and very good UV protective property. The functionalities of the treated silk showed a gradual decline in the continuous washing process due to the release of red radish extract during washing. In general, the results demonstrate that the red radish treated silk materials have a promising future for the preparation of healthy and hygiene-related textiles.
       
  • Corrosion performance of mild steel and galvanized iron in clay soil
           environment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Karthick Subbiah, Muralidharan Srinivasan, Velu Saraswathy Clay is a naturally occurring material, and it has been utilized for many industrial processes. In this study, two types of clay namely white clay (WC) and black clay (BC) was used for this investigation. The corrosion performance of the clay samples was carried out using mild steel and galvanized pipes under a buried condition in the field and laboratory exposure studies were carried in the clay extracts. Generally mild steel (MS) and galvanized iron (G.I) are being used as an encasing material for earthing applications. In some places, the soil was enriched with acidic clay, and it causes corrosion of the MS and G.I and it needs periodic replacement of pipes. In this context, a detailed study has been carried out to evaluate the relative corrosion performance of the MS and G.I exposed to the clay environment. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of MS and G.I in clay medium were carried out by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The corrosion product formation was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction and Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Spectrum analysis. The surface morphology of MS and G.I after the exposure was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies. The results proved that G.I in clay soil was severely affected by corrosion. The reason may be attributed to the insufficient thickness of the zinc coating and the presence of microbes which enhanced the G.I corrosion.
       
  • Square wave voltammetric determination of anticancer drug Flutamide using
           carbon paste electrode modified by CuO/GO/PANI nanocomposite

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Moslem Afzali, Ali Mostafavi, Tayebeh Shamspur The electrochemical behavior of flutamide was investigated using a carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified by CuO nanoparticles/graphene oxide/polyaniline (CuO/GO/PANI) nanocomposite. Square wave and differential pulse voltammetry were studied in different concentrations of flutamide. Square wave voltammetry which is a rapid and sensitive method for reversible systems was used to determine flutamide. Based on the studies carried out by the present method, the electrode has an excellent electrochemical activity to the flutamide oxidation. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the sensor showed excellent linearity from 0.05.0 to 200.0 nM with a detection limit of 14.0 pM; the best values obtained already for flutamide. The modified electrode was applied for the determination of flutamide in human urine and pharmaceutical samples with satisfy results.
       
  • Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber Electrodes via Chemical Vapor Deposition for
           Simultaneous Determination of Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine and Uric Acid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Yankun Zhao, Zhen Yang, Wenxin Fan, Yunchao Wang, Guangzhen Li, Hailin Cong, Hua Yuan A promising and low-cost electrochemical sensor was carried out with carbon nanotube modified carbon-fiber electrodes via vapor deposition method, which improved the sensitivity and reduced the detection limit of dopamine. In virtue of various techniques, such as SEM and Raman spectroscopy, the morphological, structural and crystalline properties of composites were analyzed. Moreover, simultaneous determination of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid was explored at the modified carbon fiber electrode. The presence of carbon nanotubes on the surface of carbon fiber can effectively increase the surface area and electron transfer velocity of the interaction between neurotransmitter and electrode. The good linear responses of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid were obtained in the range of 25.6∼2000.3 μM, 5.0∼120.6 μM and 20.0∼800.0 μM with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 10.0 μM, 0.03 μM and 0.6 μM, respectively. Finally, this sensor was applied to the determination of dopamine in some real sample.
       
  • Phytochemical composition of Ecballium elaterium extracts with antioxidant
           and anti-inflammatory activity: Comparison among leaves, flowers and
           fruits extracts

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Lynda Bourebaba, Bienvenida Gilbert-López, Naima Oukil, Fatiha Bedjou Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber) is a Mediterranean plant used in folk medicine. Especially fruits and fruits juice are administered for several therapeutic uses, although they can be toxic at high doses. In the present work, a phytochemical characterization of different parts of the plant, namely fruits, flowers and leaves, was made. Extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole analyzer (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Only one cucurbitacin, Cuc D, was found in the three extracts, and an additional one, Cuc P, was tentatively identified for the first time in fruits extract. Additionally, several flavonoids such as rutin, narcissin and kaempferol were tentatively identified in the plant. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and inhibition of human erythrocyte hemolysis mediated by AAPH. Results revealed that flowers extract was the most active one, with an EC50 of 46.01 µg/ml for DPPH and TEAC values of 489.11 and 160.97 µmol Trolox/g extract for ABTS and FRAP respectively; despite the protective effect of all extracts in AAPH assay was relatively moderated. In case of anti-inflammatory activity, all extracts were active by inhibiting heat induced protein denaturation in a non-dose dependent manner, showed protection against hypotonic hemolysis and reduction of mice hind paw edema, 3 h after carrageenan injection; as for previous tests, flowers extract exhibited the highest percentage of inhibition (82.93%) of hind paw edema at a dose of 200 mg / kg. Therefore, E. Elaterium flowers extract showed potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects similar to those exerted by the fruits.
       
  • Synthesis of tetra- metal oxide system based pH sensor via branched
           cathodic Electrodeposition on Different Substrates

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Hisham.R. Sadig, Li Cheng, Teng fei Xiang In this paper pH sensors based on tetra-metal oxide system (TMOF) film was synthesized by branched cathodic electrodeposition technique. Four different metal oxides mainly IrO2, RuO2, SnO2, and TiO2 used to form a film, which coated on various substrates such as titanium, steel, tin, and copper. The fabricated pH sensors underwent characterization and evaluation sensing performance. Characterizations results have indicated that titanium and steel substrates outperform alternative metal substrates Tin and copper. Nernstian performance of Steel and Titanium substrate with pH sensitivity ∼59 mV/pH remain the same, as well as tin and copper which are behaved as super-Nernstian with sensitivity ∼65mV/pH. Fast response time ranged from 1-3 seconds were obtained. Perfect selectivity obtained using Na+, K+, Li+ and Mg2+ ions vs. primary one H+.
       
  • Graphene nanoplatelet-based sensor for the detection of dopamine and
           N-acetyl-p-aminophenol in urine

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Francis D. Krampa, Yaw Aniweh, Prosper Kanyong, Gordon A. Awandare This paper reports the development and application of a disposable sensor for the individual and simultaneous voltammetric determination of dopamine (DA) and N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP). The sensor was fabricated by drop-coating graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)-Nafion (Naf) nanocomposite onto the working area of a screen-printed electrode (SPE). The sensor, designated as GNPs-Naf/SPE, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to simultaneously analyze DA and APAP in their binary mixtures. It showed excellent selectivity and sensitivity toward both compounds with limit of detection of 0.13 µM and 0.25 µM (S/N = 3) for DA and APAP, respectively. The performance of the sensor was evaluated by analyzing the compounds in human urine samples, and the recoveries were found to be well over 97.0%.
       
  • Utilization of CO2 and N2 for selective synthesis of styrene from
           ethylbenzene over high surface area γ-Al2O3 supported molybdenum nitride
           catalysts

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Venkata Ramesh Babu Gurram, Murali Kondeboina, Siva Sankar Enumula, Naveen Gajula, David Raju Burri, Seetha Rama Rao Kamaraju The present work highlights the synthesis of styrene from ethylbenzene dehydrogenation by coupling with reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGSR) and ammonia synthesis reactions over high surface area Al2O3 supported molybdenum nitride (γ-Mo2N) catalyst. γ-Mo2N was prepared by in-situ thermal decomposition of molybdenum hexamethylenetetramine complex and the support high surface area Al2O3 (HSA) was prepared by sol-gel method. Different weight loadings of γ-Mo2N (10, 20 and 30) supported on HSA catalysts were systematically characterized by using powder XRD, N2 physisorption, H2 - TPR, XPS and TEM analysis. XRD, TEM and normalized BET surface area analysis reveal highly dispersed nitride species over HSA surface. The synthesized catalysts have been studied for ethylbenzene dehydrogenation reaction using CO2 and N2 as feed gases with different percentage compositions. It was found that CO2 rich N2 feed gas favors higher ethylbenzene conversion due to RWGSR and N2 rich CO2 favors higher selectivity to styrene due to ammonia synthesis. EB dehydrogenation along with RWGSR and ammonia synthesis reactions come along and privileged the formation of higher styrene yields.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • CO2-releasing blowing agents from modified polyethylenimines slightly
           consume isocyanate groups while foaming polyurethanes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Yuanzhu Long, Jianing An, Xingyi Xie Carbon dioxide adducts from polypropylene glycol (PPG)-grafted polyethylenimines (PEIs) are promising alternatives to the traditional, climate-changing blowing agents for polyurethanes (PUs). Their commercialization is hindered by the fact that they can restore their original polyamine structure when releasing CO2 to blow PUs and that the extent to which the restored amine groups react with the isocyanate (NCO) groups in the foaming mixture is still not clear. The extent of this reaction was quantitatively investigated by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The increase in the PPG side chain length or in the grafting rate reduced the reaction extent of the restored amines due to increased steric hindrance. The increase in the PEI backbone molecular weight decreased the macromolecular mobility, which somewhat inhibited a full contact between the restored amine groups and the NCO groups and thus caused a decrease in the reaction extent as well. Overall, the reaction extents of the blowing agent amine groups, ranging from 0.4% to 1.5%, were too low to change the foaming process chemically. In conclusion, these CO2-releasing blowing agents can be technically regarded as physical blowing agents.
       
  • Mechanical Properties of Carbon Black/Poly (ε-caprolactone)-Based
           Tissue Scaffolds

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Nuha Al Habis, Ahmed El Moumen, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Khalid Lafdi Carbon black (CB) spherical particles were added to poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymer to produce strong synthetic tissue scaffolds for biomedical applications. The objective of this paper is to study the mechanical behavior of CB/PCL-based nanocomposites using experimental tests, multi-scale numerical approaches, and analytical models. The mechanical properties of CB/PCL scaffolds were characterized using thermal mechanical analysis and results show a significant increase of the elastic modulus with increasing nanofiller concentration up to 7 wt%. Conversely, finite element computations were performed using a simulated microstructure, and a numerical model based on the representative volume element (RVE) was generated. Thereafter, Young's moduli were computed using a 3D numerical homogenization technique. The approach takes into consideration CB particles’ diameters, as well as their random distribution and agglomerations into PCL. Experimental results were compared with data obtained using numerical approaches and analytical models. Consistency in the results was observed, especially in the case of lower CB fractions.
       
  • Synthesis, anti-tuberculosis activity and QSAR study of
           2,4-diarylquinolines and analogous polycyclic derivatives

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Gisela C. Muscia, Juan P. Carnevale, Ayelen Luczywo, María Victoria Peláez, Ailen Rodríguez ÓToole, Graciela Y. Buldain, Juan J. Casal, Silvia E. Asís The multicomponent syntheses of 2,4-di-aryl-quinolines and analogous polycyclic derivatives as anti-tuberculosis agents were described. They were prepared via Beyer and Friedländer methods under microwave irradiation in short reaction times and good yields. Several homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalysts were compared for preparing 2,4-di-arylquinolines and among them trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) reached the higher yields. Two derivatives exhibited activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), underwent additional testing and were considered lead compounds. The synthesis of a series of polycyclic analogous led to six new active compounds and a Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship study (QSAR) study was established.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Promotion of seed germination and seedling growth of Zea mays by magnesium
           hydroxide nanoparticles synthesized by the filtrate from Aspergillus niger
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Surbhi Shinde, Priti Paralikar, Avinash P. Ingle, Mahendra Rai An approach for green synthesis of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles [Mg(OH)2NPs] has been developed and its efficacy in seed germination, in vitro and in vivo plant growth promotion was studied on Zea mays at different concentrations. Mg(OH)2NPs at 500 ppm showed improved seed germination (100%) and growth. The effect of Mg(OH)2NPs was analyzed by measurement of plants height and chlorophyll a fluorescence using plant efficiency analyzer. The seedlings grown in MS medium supplemented with Mg(OH)2NPs showed significant increase in shoot height (11.96±0.4 cm) and root length (3.92±0.4 cm). Similarly, for in vivo studies, the enhanced shoot height (44.2±1.6 cm) and root length (29.2±1.3 cm) was recorded as compared to plants treated with their bulk counterpart. However, 500 ppm bulk Mg showed comparatively lower shoot height (38±1.5 cm) and root length (21.6±2.3 cm). The chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements revealed that plants treated with Mg(OH)2NPs showed maximum performance index and minimum dissipation as compared to control and plants treated with bulk Mg.In addition, atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis performed for both in vitro and in vivo grown plants, revealed that leaves and roots of the plants treated with Mg(OH)2NPs demonstrated higher Mg contents. It was found that Mg content in leaves and roots for in vitro plants were 131.45 and 103.52 mg/kg, respectively; whereas for in vivo grown plants it was 132.58 and 114.58 mg/kg, respectively. Therefore, Mg(OH)2NPs can be potentially used for enhanced seed germination and seedling growth promotion.
       
  • Novel Rh(Pd)-Cu(Ni) supported catalysts for oxy-steam reforming of
           methanol

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Pawel Mierczynski, Magdalena Mosinska, Waldemar Maniukiewicz, Krasimir Vasilev, Malgorzata I. Szynkowska Monometallic copper, nickel and bimetallic Pd(Rh)-Cu(Ni) catalysts supported on a binary oxide containing various content of ZrO2 and Al2O3 were prepared by impregnation method. Their physicochemical and catalytic properties in oxy-steam reforming of methanol reaction (OSRM) were extensively investigated. Selecting an optimal composition of the catalyst for the OSRM process was the main goal of this work. The influence of zirconia content on the reactivity and physicochemical properties of supported copper catalysts in OSRM was also studied. The reactivity measurements showed that the supported copper catalyst was more active than the nickel catalyst. The catalytic measurements showed that the catalyst properties depend on their surface composition, acidity and adsorption properties. High selectivity of supported copper catalyst with composition 20%Cu/ZrO2·Al2O3 (Zr:Al = 1:2) towards carbon dioxide and hydrogen was confirmed. In addition, the promotion effect of palladium and rhodium on the activity of monometallic supported copper and nickel catalysts in OSRM was confirmed. The most active system in the OSRM process was 0.5%Rh-20%Cu/ZrO2·Al2O3.
       
  • Visible light assisted photodegradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol using Ag2CO3
           loaded phosphorus and sulphur co-doped graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets
           in simulated wastewater

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Pankaj Raizada, Anita Sudhaik, Pardeep Singh, Pooja Shandilya, Pankaj Thakur, Hanbo Jung Nowadays, hybrid photocatalysts are gaining importance due to their improved photocatalytic activity. In the present work, Ag2CO3 was integrated phosphorous and sulfur co-doped g-C3N4 (PSGCN) photocatalyst (Ag2CO3/PSGCN) to minimize the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pair. The co-doping resulted in band gap lowering in GCN leading to more visible light activity. Successful formation of well dispersed Ag2CO3/PSGCN suspension in water was established by zeta potential and Tyndall effect experiments. Phosphorous and sulfur co-doping in g-C3N4 resulted lowering of optical band gap that enhanced its photodegradation ability under visible light. The reduction in photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination was confirmed by photoluminescence and electrochemical impedance analysis. The photodegradation of 2, 4, dinitrophenol (DNP) followed pseudo first order kinetics and enhanced photocatalytic activity was due to semiconductor heterojunction for effective separation of electron–hole pair. Holes and hydroxyl radicals were two main oxidative species responsible for photodegradation of DNP into non-toxic products. COD, HPLC and LC-MS investigations were used to investigate the degradation fragment during DNP mineralization. Ag2CO3/PSGCN nanocomposite revealed high stability and recycle efficiency substantial for ten catalytic cycles.
       
  • Phyto – monoterpene Linalool as precursor to synthesis epoxides and
           hydroperoxides as anti carcinogenic agents via thermal and photo chemical
           oxidation reactions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Eman M. Elgendy, Manal Y. Semeih Linalool (I) was extracted from Zingiber officinale. The oxidation of linalool using m-chloroperbenzoic acid at room temperature gave the mixture of 2,2,6-trimethyl-6-vinyl-tetrahydro-pyran-3-ol (IIa) & 2-(5-methyl-5-vinyl- tetrahydro-furan-2-yl)-propan-2-ol (IIa′), which cannot be separated. Whereas, the photo-epoxidation of it using hydrogen peroxide gave the above mixture IIa/IIa′, beside 2,2,8-trimethyl-6-oxianyl-tetrahydro-pyran-3-ol (IIb). It was evaluated for anti-oxidant, using erythrocyte hemolysis and ABTS methods. It showed inhibitory effect in case of erythrocyte hemolysis and low inhibitory effect in case of ABTS method. Photosensitization reactions of linalool with tetraphenyl porphyrin or chlorophyll produced a mixture of two isomeric hydroperoxides, 7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethylocta-1,5-dien-3-ol (IIIa) & 6-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethyl octa-1,7-dien-3-ol (IIIb), which can be successfully separated. On the other hand, the cytotoxic activity of linalool (I) was tested against epdermoid carcinoma (HEP2), it has medium effect. Whereas, in case of human prostate cancer (PC-3), it has weak effect. From this study concludes that ginger has good antioxidant potential and this spice can be used to produce novel natural antioxidants and flavoring agent like linalool which recommends it as an active therapy for humans. Monoterpene linalool abstract singlet oxygen (1O2) by photosensitization reactions to produce these hydroperoxides, which are caused relatively little oxidative DNA damage.
       
  • Inexpensive FIA method to determine trace levels of Imazapyr by
           UV-detection enhanced with electrochemical polarization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): L. León, C. Mozo-Mulero, F.J. Martín-Infante, J.J. Maraver, J. Carbajo, J.D. Mozo A new flow injection analysis method with spectro-electrochemical detection (FIA/SEC) to determine trace levels of imazapyr on water samples is presented. The non-chromatographic method involves the use of a bench photometer, a single-potential potentiostat, a low pressure pumping system and a home-made spectro-electrochemical flow detector (SEC-FD), specifically adapted for the described method and using a stainless steel/electrolytic lead/lead chloride (SS/e-Pb/PbCl2) working electrode. The limit of quantification (LOQ) reached for the optimized work parameters was 0.02 µg/mL, the relative standard deviation (RSD) in the whole range of linear response was less than 2% and a wide linear response range from 0.005 to 6.0 µg/mL was obtained. A standard addition method was used to determine the imazapyr amount in natural waters containing commercial formulation of such herbicide, the Recovery% has values close to 105%. The method performance makes it suitable to analyze the legal imazapyr tolerances established by the U.S. EPA avoiding the use of expensive chromatographic equipments and/or complicated sample preparations.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Validated spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of
           oxytetracycline associated with diclofenac sodium or with piroxicam in
           veterinary pharmaceutical dosage form

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Rúbia A. Sversut, James C. Vieira, Aline M. Rosa, Marcos S. do Amaral, Nájla M. Kassab, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado Two simple, precise, accurate and robust UV zero and first derivative orders spectrophometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of oxytetracycline (OTC) associated either with diclofenac sodium (DICLO) or with piroxicam (PIRO) in veterinary pharmaceuticals, without prior separation of the drugs. These proposed methods are also suitable for individual estimation of each drug in pharmaceutical products for human use. The first method is a zero order spectrophotometry for estimation of OTC at 360 nm in the association with DICLO. The second one employs a first derivative at 339 nm, using a zero-crossing technique to measure the OTC content in the association with PIRO. Both nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (DICLO and PIRO) were analyzed by first derivative spectrophometric at 298.5 nm (OTC zero-crossing point) in their respective associations. All measurements were carried out in acetronitrile:water (50:50, v/v; pH 2.5) and at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C). Analytical curves were linear (r> 0.9996) in the concentration range of 10.0 – 80.0 μg mL-1 for OTC, 1.5 – 25.0 μg mL-1 for DICLO and 2.5 – 30.0 μg mL-1 for PIRO. The limits of quantification were lower than 1.50 μg mL-1 and the mean of recoveries were within the acceptable limits of 98-102% for all three drugs. The developed methods can be successfully applied in the quality control routine for the simultaneous or individual determination of OTC, DICLO and PIRO in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
       
  • UV induced synthesis of starch capped CdSe quantum dots: Functionalization
           with thiourea and application in sensing heavy metals ions in aqueous
           solution

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Avinash Singh, Apurav Guleria, Suman Neogy, M.C. Rath Herein, a highly facile, rapid and one-pot approach has been applied for the synthesis of water soluble starch capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by using UV irradiation in the aqueous solution containing cadmium sulphate, sodium selenosulfate, acetone and 2-propanol. No external reducing agents were added to the solution, as the radicals generated in situ upon photoirradiation i.e., 2-hydroxy-2-propyl radicals, (CH3)2C•OH could reduce the precursor ions for the synthesis of these QDs. These QDs were characterised by various techniques such as UV-Vis absorption, XRD, Raman, FTIR, TEM and SEM measurements. The presence of strong quantum confinement effects could be realized from their very small size i.e., ∼ 3 nm as revealed by TEM studies. Besides, these QDs were found to exhibit photoluminescence (PL) in the longer wavelength region. The PL intensity as well as the charge carrier lifetime values could be conveniently tuned by simply varying the Cd to Se precursor ratio during the synthesis. Furthermore, a relatively novel approach has been adopted to extract these QDs from the colloidal solution by freezing it to 0°C followed by de-freezing to room temperature. The extracted QDs were functionalized with thiourea in order to increase the PL quantum yield and the stability of the QDs. The effects of pH and temperature on the PL intensity of functionalized CdSe QDs were also investigated to explore their applicability in sensing of heavy metal ions. Interestingly, the QDs displayed highly selective PL quenching in the presence of Cu2+, Cr6+ and Hg2+ metal ions. The limits of detection for these metal ions have been determined and a probable PL quenching mechanism is postulated.
       
  • Thiophene substituted phenothiazine polymers: Design, synthesis and
           characterization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Ruhiye Nilay Tezel, İsmet Kaya In this paper, the polymers containing phenothiazine were synthesized via oxidative polymerization reaction by FeCl3 as oxidant. These polymers contain ether unit, aliphatic chain and aromatic groups as bridges in their structures. The effects of the groups on the optical, thermal, morphological properties of the polymers were investigated. The physical and chemical properties of the monomers and the polymers were identified by FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis, thermogravimetry (TG), cyclic voltammetry (CV), fluorescence analysis. According to the fluorescence analyses, polymer containing aliphatic ether bridge emitted yellow colour based on the turning of excitation wavelength. The yellow solution of polymer containing aliphatic ether bridge turned into turquoise when excited with the wavelength of 365 nm. Thermal analyses demonstrated that polymer containing phenyl bridge compound had 38% residue amount. Due to fluorescent and thermal properties, these polymers could be used in various applications such as spectrofluorometric ion sensor and polymeric light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with yellow and turquoise emissions.
       
  • Micelles-based self-healing coating for improved protection of metal

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Ye Ying, Zequn Liu, Juanjuan Fan, Nan Wei, Xiaoyu Guo, Yiping Wu, Ying Wen, Haifeng Yang In this work, an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor was synthesized by embedding 4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (4-MTTL) into phytic acid (IP6) micelles via heating (donated as IP6@4-MTTLx). The corrosion inhibitor, IP6@4-MTTLx microcapsules with self-healing capability, can be used for metal protection from corrosion in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution. By means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical polarization, the high inhibition performance of such micelle-based coating on the model metal of copper has been investigated, which is attributed to the synergistic effect of the 4-MTTL molecules and the IP6@4-MTTLx microcapsules. Damage to the coating by external force can be self-healed by leakage of 4-MTTL inside IP6@4-MTTLx microcapsules to seal physically and chemically the cracks.
       
  • Electrochemical reduced graphene oxide-poly(eriochrome black T)/gold
           nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous
           determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Nusiba Mohammed Modawe Alshik Edris, Jaafar Abdullah, Sazlinda Kamaruzaman, Mohd Izham Saiman, Yusran Sulaiman This work reports on the preparation of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)-poly(eriochrome black T) (pEBT) assembled gold nanoparticles for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) in PBS pH 6.0. Characterisations of the composite were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry. As a result of the synergistic effect, the modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) possessed an efficient electrochemical catalytic activity with a high selectivity and sensitivity in oxidising AA-DA and DA-UA as compared to the bare GCE. The peak separations of AA and DA, DA and UA were 166 mV and 126 mV, respectively. The linear response ranges for AA, DA and UA were 10–900 μM, 0.5–20 μM and 2–70 μM with detection limits of 0.53 μM, 0.009 μM and 0.046 μM (S/N=3), respectively. The sensitivity of ERGO-pEBT/AuNPs was measured as 0.003 µA/μM, 0.164 µA/μM and 0.034 µA/μM for AA, DA, and UA, respectively. The modified electrochemical sensor was used in the determination of AA, DA, and UA in vitamin C tablets and urine sample with good recovery.
       
  • Catalytic, antioxidant and anticancer activities of gold nanoparticles
           synthesized by kaempferol glucoside from Lotus leguminosae

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mohamed Habib Oueslati, Lotfi Ben Tahar, Abdel Halim Harrath The aim of this study was to evaluate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 cancer cells, antioxidant activities and catalysis of the reduction of p-nitrophenol (p-NP). AuNPs were synthesized using kaempferol 3-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (KG) from the plant Lotus leguminosae. The structure was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray (ES)-HRMS. The isolated compound was involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AuNPs. A number of parameters such as the pH and the mass ratio (HAuCl4/ KG) have been optimized to produce very stable colloids of an almost spherical shaped AuNPs with an average diameter of about 37 nm. UV–Vis spectrophotometry, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies were employed to characterize the produced nanoparticles. In vitro anticancer studies were performed to assess the chemotherapeutic potential of formulating NPs against a human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). It was observed that the synthesized AuNPs have mild to low cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells at higher concentrations. The microscopic observations showed no significant changes in the morphology of control cells or the treated cells. AuNPs also displayed strong DPPH radical scavenging compared to the flavonoid extract, with an IC50 of 30.56 μg/mL. In addition, the biosynthesized AuNPs showed a highly improved catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) to p-aminophenol (p-AP), indicative of its potential application in the chemical industry.
       
  • Keto-enol tautomerism in new silatranes Schiff bases tailed with different
           substituted salicylic aldehyde

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Alexandra Bargan, Mirela Fernanda Zaltariov, Angelica Vlad, Ana-Maria-Corina Dumitriu, Alina Soroceanu, Ana-Maria Macsim, Mihaela Dascalu, Cristian Dragos Varganici, Maria Cazacu, Sergiu Shova New Schiff base-type products starting from 1-(3-aminopropyl)silatrane and three derivatives of salicylaldehyde having as substituents 3,5-dichloro- (1), 3-methoxy- (2) and 3,5-di-tert-butyl- (3), respectively were obtained and isolated with high yields (78-87%) in pure, crystalline forms and their structures were established by different methods. The molecular electronic transitions of the compounds in solvents with various polarities were investigated by UV-Vis spectral analysis. Their thermal behavior was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimmetry, results of the latter highlighting thermocromism of the compounds proved by the appearance of IR absorption bands specific for enolic form at temperature corresponding to each sample. The moisture sorption capacity and stability of the compounds in wet environment were investigated by vapor sorption analysis in dynamic regime and IR spectroscopy. The biological activity was assessed by specific tests. All results were discussed in correlation with the nature of substituents and structures formed. The chemical handling of the silatrane tail, by using different substituents on the silicon atom would allow fine tuning of the compounds properties.
       
  • TiO2/Carbon Dots Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites from Waste
           Car Bumper and TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Hanan H. Mohamed, Aamerah A. Alsanea Upcycling waste car bumper to value added carbon based nanomaterials has been achieved through facile catalytic pyrolysis. As synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles has been used for the first time as catalyst during pyrolysis process of the waste. The quality and the performance of the produced carbon nanomaterials have been evaluated through different characterization techniques. The results show that, while rGO were produced from the thermal pyrolysis of waste car bumper in absence of TiO2 catalyst, rGO decorated with carbon dots have been produced in presence of TiO2 catalyst. Interestingly, simultaneous TiO2 rutile to anatase phase transformation and carbon nanomaterials formation has been occurred upon the catalytic transformation of the waste car bumper, however, an expected anatase to rutile transformation has been observed upon thermal treatment of TiO2 in the absence of the bumper. The photocatalytic performance of the created TiO2/CDs/rGO has been tested for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. This paper provides a first attempt as an innovative approach to the upcycling waste into novel and high performance carbon nanomaterials for the application in photocatalysis. This innovative approach can be utilized to create various carbon nanocomposites utilizing metal oxides as catalyst and different plastic waste system as a carbon resource.
       
  • Characterization of Agar-CMC/Ag-MMT nanocomposite and evaluation of
           antibacterial and mechanical properties for packaging applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Dipak Makwana, Johanna Castaño, Rajesh S Somani, Hari C Bajaj The effect of silver modified montmorillonite (Ag-MMT) on the physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of agar-carboxymethyl cellulose (agar-CMC) bionanocomposites film, prepared by a solution intercalation method were investigated. The nanocomposite of agar and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with Ag-MMT (based on Indigenous clay) has a promise in designing eco-friendly antibacterial packaging. The films were tested for transmittance, tensile and X-Ray diffraction patterns which indicated that Ag-MMT the most compatible with Agar-CMC matrix. The Agar-CMC/Ag-MMT bio-nanocomposite films exhibited a great antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Overall, it is seen that the Agar-CMC/Ag-MMT bionanocomposite films could be used as packaging material for food preservation by controlling foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.
       
  • Adsorbent materials based on a geopolymer paste for dye removal from
           aqueous solutions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Ali Maleki, Masita Mohammad, Zeynab Emdadi, Nilofar Asim, Mojtaba Azizi, Javad Safaei Geopolymers are porous materials that can be used as basic dye adsorbents in wastewater treatment. In this work, a green geopolymer paste synthesized from industrial and agricultural waste materials was employed as an adsorbent to remove the basic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The geopolymer sample was characterized by X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer Emmet Teller surface area measurements, and particle size techniques. The isotherms of dye adsorption by the geopolymer sample were considered by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The removal efficiency increased with increasing geopolymer dosage, contact time and temperature. The Freundlich isotherm exhibited the best fit to the adsorption data.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Intraspecific chemical variability of the Essential Oils of Moroccan
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mohamed Bakha, Noureddine El Mtili, Nathalie Machon, Kaoutar Aboukhalid, Fatima Zahra Amchra, Abdelkarim Khiraoui, Marc Gibernau, Félix Tomi, Chaouki Al Faiz In this study, the chemical variation of the essential oils of the endemic species Origanum elongatum has been studied in its biogeographical context. Essential oils of 168 individual plants collected from 30 populations growing wild in two Moroccan mountains: Rif and Middle Atlas, were analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector), GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry) and 13C NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). Origanum elongatum produces an EOs yielding after hydrodistillation from 0.81% to 3.12% based on the dry weight of the original biomass. 28 compounds were identified, with a majority of oxygenated monoterpenes among them carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene constitute the most represented compounds. Moreover, a great amount of α-terpinene, limonene, thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone were reported in some samples. Four chemical groups have been identified, namely; carvacrol, carvacrol/thymol, carvacrol/p-cymene and thymol. The geographic distributions of these chemotypes appear to vary since the carvacrol chemotype was the most distributed, while the thymol was found more abundantly in populations from Rif. However, the carvacrol/p-cymene chemotype was revealed only in Taza region. For the first time the whole chemical picture of the EOs of O. elongatum is presented in relation to their geographical distribution such knowledge is primordial in developing a breeding program in order to protect this species widely and intensively used for both medicinal and food uses but also supply the continuous market needs by producing high quality and stable raw material.
       
  • A new copper(II) chelate complex with polyamines as fire retardant and
           epoxy hardener: Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure, and thermal
           behavior of (ethylenediamine-N, N')-(diethylenetriamine-N, N',
           N'')-copper(II) hexafluoridosilicate

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Helen Lavrenyuk, Borys Mykhalichko, Błażej Dziuk, Volodymyr Olijnyk, Oleg Mykhalichko A new (ethylenediamine-N, N')-(diethylenetriamine-N, N', N'')-copper(II) hexafluoridosilicate complex, [Cu(eda)(deta)]SiF6 (1) (eda – ethylenediamine; deta – diethylenetriamine), was synthesized by direct interaction of anhydrous CuSiF6 with polyethylenepolyamine (pepa – H2N[–C2H4NH–]nH, where n = 1 (eda) and 2 (deta)). The crystals of 1 were characterized by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consists of SiF62– discrete anions and [Cu(eda)(deta)]2+ complex cations whose Cu2+ ions are chelated by eda and deta. The coordination polyhedron of Cu(II) atom is an elongated square pyramid which consists of four nitrogen atoms belonging to –NH2 groups of EDA and –NH2 and –NH– groups of deta at the base of the pyramid and of one more nitrogen atom from –NH2 group of deta at its apical position. Ab initio quantum-chemical calculations of chelation process were carried out for 1 by the restricted Hartree-Fock method using a 6-31G∗ basis set. The influence of the chelate complex 1 upon its fire retardant properties was analyzed. The calculated electron-stereo-chemical parameters for 1 are in a good agreement with its thermal parameters investigated by differential thermal analysis. The thermal decomposition of 1 is finished off at 368°C and the maximal combustion temperature of gaseous decomposition products is 544°C.
       
  • High Pressure Study Of Nitrogen Doped Carbon Nanotubes Using Raman
           Spectroscopy And Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Weiguang Shi, Hao Liu, Zhaohui Dong, Zhongying Mi, Sean Shieh, Sun Xueliang, Xiaoyang Liu In this study, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CNx-NTs) with a 8.4 % nitrogen content were investigated under high pressure using Raman spectroscopy as well as X ray diffraction (XRD) with synchrotron radiation. For comparison purpose, high pressure behaviors of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without nitrogen were studied as well. Two phase transformations were identified in CNx-NTs, which can be assigned to tube shape change from circular to ellipse-like and then to flatten shape. In strong contrast, no obvious phase transition was found in CNTs. In addition to the tube shape change, a high pressure M-carbon phase was also evidenced by XRD. Both CNTs and CNx-NTs showed axial dependent compressibility under high pressure. Furthermore, this study found the CNx-NTs acted more complexly than carbon in other forms such as single wall CNTs, multiwall CNTs, and graphite, suggesting the doping of nitrogen in addition to the wall thickness affect the properties of CNx-NTs under high pressure. Especially the doping of nitrogen could also help to extend the appearance of M-carbon phase to lower pressure range. Finally, the TEM images also show the retrieved CNx-NTs were partially amorphousized, which was believed due to new high pressure phase formed at high pressure.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Mechanistic roles of substitutional Fe dopants on catalytic
           acetylene-sensing process of flame-made SnO2 nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Jirasak Sukunta, Anurat Wisitsoraat, Adisorn Tuantranont, Sukon Phanichphant, Chaikarn Liewhiran In this work, flame-spray-made Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were comprehensively investigated for acetylene (C2H2) detection and the roles of Fe dopants on sensing mechanisms were explored. The sensing material properties were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray absorption/photoemission spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. The structural characterizations confirmed that the nanoparticles had a tetragonal nanocrystalline SnO2 phase and Fe3+ dopant species formed a solid solution with SnO2 lattice. The sensors were measured towards 0.15–3 vol% C2H2 in dry air at various working temperatures (200−350°C). Gas-sensing data demonstrated that the optimal Fe doping level of 0.1 wt% led to a substantially enhanced response of 748.7 toward 3 vol% C2H2 with a decent response time of 2.5 s at the optimal working temperature of 300°C. Furthermore, the optimal SnO2 sensor demonstrated high C2H2 selectivity against C2H5OH, NO2, H2, NH3, CO2, NO, H2S, CH4, C2H4O, C2H4 and N2O. Additional detailed analyses suggested that Fe3+ species played catalytic roles for enhancing C2H2 dissociation and oxidation. Thus, the Fe-doped SnO2 sensors were highly promising for selective and sensitive detections of acetylene in industrial applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Biodiesel Production Evaluating the Use and Reuse of Magnetic
           Nanocatalysts Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): J. Dantas, E. Leal, D.R. Cornejo, A.C.F.M. Costa Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, successfully synthesized by combustion reaction, with special differential in the production, starting from the scale of 10 g/production to a pilot-scale reproducibility of up to 200 g/production, were used and reused as heterogeneous magnetic nanocatalysts in the reactions of biodiesel production. The obtained nanocatalysts were highly efficient in the biodiesel production with soybean oil, such by the methyl as ethyl routes. It was obtained the best activity in the esterification reaction, favoring conversions of up to 99.54 ± 0.16% on the methyl route and up to 99.38 ± 0.18% on the ethyl route. As regards transesterification, the maximum conversion achieved was 14%. Biodiesel was characterized in terms of viscosity, density, acidity and iodine ratios, whose obtained values ​​place the produced biodiesel within the specifications applicable to the quality standards for its commercialization. MNP were characterized by XRD, BET, TEM, AGM and TPD. Besides, the nanocatalyst was recovered with the help of a simple external magnetic field (magnet) and reused in another 3 cycles, without significant loss in the catalytic activity, indicating considerable stability. Therefore, the nanoferrite Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 can be validated as a new environmentally correct catalyst for the heterogeneous catalysis in the field of biodiesel production.
       
  • Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Chitosan Biguanidine
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Yasmine A. Maher, Mohamed E.A. Ali, Hend E. Salama, Magdy W. Sabaa Scale deposition is considered as one of the most critical problems leading to permeate flux decline and deterioration of membrane surface in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants. This study aims to preparation of novel high effective scale inhibitor, chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride (CG), to inhibit the precipitation of calcium sulfate and carbonate onto the membrane surface. The modification of Chitosan by the guanidine group was to enhance its solubility in water, because chitosan as it is dissolves only in moderately acidic solutions. CG was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, 13C NMR and 1H NMR. The inhibition efficiency of our antiscalant was evaluated against CaSO4 and CaCO3 solutions at both static (induction time) and real application tests (cross-flow unit for 6 hours). CG showed a good performance as scale inhibitor for CaSO4 and CaCO3 at about 10 and 15 mg. L-1 with flux decline of 2.6 and 5% in feed water, respectively. In addition, the induction time of precipitation of CaSO4 increased from 3 to 15 min with the addition of CG. SEM analysis at different magnifications for Cs and CG proved that CG strongly affects the morphology of the precipitated calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate leading to distortion of crystals.
       
  • Paper flower-derived porous carbons with high-capacitance by chemical and
           physical activation for sustainable applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Pitchaimani Veerakumar, Thandavarayan Maiyalagan, Balasubramaniam Gnana Sundara Raj, Kuppuswamy Guruprasad, Zhongqing Jiang, King-Chuen Lin Porous carbon nanosheets were prepared by the carbonization of paper flower via chemical and physical activation. The structural properties of the as-prepared carbons were characterized using the techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, N2 sorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the related morphological analyses were conducted using scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM). The obtained carbons exhibit a high specific surface area up to 1801 m2 g-1 with a robust porous graphitic carbon layer structure, which provides the merits for potential application in energy storage and dye removal. We carried out potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements using a three-electrode cell in 1.0 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, and achieved a specific capacitance of 118, 109.5, 101.7, 93.6, and 91.2 F g-1 at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 A g-1, respectively. The stability at 12 A g-1 was tested to reach 10,000 cycles with capacity retention of around 97.4%. We have demonstrated that the paper flower-derived carbons at activation temperature 800 °C (PFC-800) can be used as a promising electrode material in supercapacitor. PFC-800 can also serve as an efficient sunset yellow dye removal, showing the maximum adsorption capacity for sunset yellow (Q0, 273.6 mg g-1).Graphical abstractBougainvillea Spectabilis flower derived porous carbon exhibit an excellent electrode material for electrical double layer supercapacitors and dye removal applications.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Ionic Liquid assisted growth of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/ Reduced
           Graphene Oxide based electrode: An improved electro-catalytic performance
           for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides in beverages

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Shweta Rana, Ranjeet Kaur, Roshni Jain, Nirmal Prabhakar An enzyme based nanocomposite host matrix comprising of Polyethylenedioxythiophene and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquid functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PEDOT/ILRGO) has been designed for the electrochemical detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Interactions between reduced graphene oxide and ionic liquid have resulted in better loading of the same onto the PEDOT matrix. A detail redox analysis highlights the increased surface area and more number of charge carriers enabling the redox inhibition mechanism more efficient in the designed electrode. The biosensor works on the principle of generation of thiocholine by reaction between acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and substrate acethylthiocholine iodide (ATChI), which undergoes oxidation resulting in redox peaks. Under the optimized conditions, three different OPs chlorpyrifos (CP), malathion (ML) and methyl parathion (MP) were analyzed by varying concentrations with limit of detection calculated to be 0.04 ng ml-1, 0.117 ng ml-1 and 0.108 ng ml-1 respectively, all below 0.2 µg ml-1 concentration which is their maximum residual limit, hence exhibiting good sensitivity. The prepared sensor offers 91.7% of reactivation and good stability for 15-20 days with 95.7% of initial current response retainment, reflecting its excellent potency as an organophosphorus pesticide sensor.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Synthesis and application of a triazine derivative containing boron as
           flame retardant in epoxy resins

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Shanshan Chen, Lianghui Ai, Tie Zhang, Ping Liu, Weishi Liu, Yonghong Pan, Dongfa Liu A halogen-free, organic boron/nitrogen compound, 2,4,6-tris-(4-boronphenoxy)-(1,3,5)-triazine (TNB), was synthesized. The thermal and flame-retardant properties of epoxy resins (EP) containing TNB were investigated based on TGA, limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning (UL 94) and cone calorimeter tests. The results showed that the residual char of EP increased after TNB was present. The LOI value of EP/20%TNB reached 31.2% and UL 94 V-0 rating was achieved. The peak heat release rate and total heat release of EP/20%TNB reduced to 305.3 kW/m2 and 58.0 MJ/m2, respectively. In addition, the flame-retarding mechanism was investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis-infrared spectroscopy. The results show that TNB is an efficient flame retardant, which is effective in the gas and condensed phases simultaneously.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Improved Corrosion Resistance of Mild Steel in Acidic Solution by
           Hydrazone Derivatives: An Experimental and Computational Study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Hassane Lgaz, Ill-Min Chung, Mustafa R. Albayati, Abdelkarim Chaouiki, Rachid Salghi, Shaaban K. Mohamed Poor corrosion resistance of mild steel (MS) is a serious concern in many industrial applications. Application of corrosion inhibitors is a possible solution to combat steel corrosion. As yet, there is very little research reported focusing on hydrazone derivatives as corrosion inhibitors, here we present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the adsorption of three newly synthesized hydrazones (HDZs), namely, (E)-N'-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene)-2-((2,3-dimethylphenyl)amino)benzohydrazide (HDZ-1), (E)-2-((2,3-dimethylphenyl)amino)-N'-(4-methylbenzylidene)benzohydrazide, (HDZ-2) and (E)-N'-benzylidene-2-((2,3-dimethylphenyl)amino)benzohydrazide (HDZ-3) on the MS surface in 1 M HCl. The interaction of HDZs and the metal surface was investigated using electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), DFT and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. XPS shows that inhibitor molecules form a stable layer on steel surface through chemical and physical interactions. HDZs adsorption onto the steel surface was found to follow Langmuir model. Furthermore, electrochemical measurement results demonstrated that our developed inhibitors act as of mixed-type (anodic and cathodic), with HDZ-1 showing the highest polarization resistance and lowest corrosion current density. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the surface morphology of the steel samples. The new hydrazones showed significantly improved steel corrosion resistance, which provides opportunities to explore the inhibitive activity of structurally similar compounds.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The effect of polyethylene glycols on the interaction and stability of
           AOT/water/isooctane microemulsions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Dashuang Fan, Zhiguo Hao, Peizhu Zheng, Jihua Zhao, Weiguo Shen The influence of water-soluble polyethylene glycols PEG200 on the properties of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)-sulfosuccinate (AOT) water-in-isooctane microemulsions has been investigated by conductivity measurements and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC). The percolation temperatures (Tp), the thermodynamic properties of droplet aggregation and the interaction enthalpy (–ΔHφ) between droplets for AOT/water/PEG200/isooctane with different PEG concentrations and a fixed molar ratio of water to surfactant ω = 22.2 were determined. Based on a two-stage thermodynamic approach of the percolation, we obtained the fusion enthalpy (ΔHfo) of the close contact droplets by a combination of the droplet aggregation enthalpy (ΔHago) and –ΔHφ. It was found that both (–ΔHφ) and (ΔHfo) varied with the concentration of PEG200 (cPEG) and had the extreme value at cPEG = 25 g L-1. This phenomenon was interpreted by the variation of interface rigidity due to the varied distributions of added PEG200 between the water pool and the surfactant interface.
       
  • Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Aqueous Fraction of
           Parkinsonea aculeata L. Growing in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Wafaa H.B. Hassan, Sahar Abdelaziz, Hanan M. Al Yousef Polyphenolic constituents and chromatographic fingerprint of the aqueous fraction obtained from the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Parkinsonea aculeata L. growing in Saudi Arabia were investigated for the first time using UPLC-ESI/MS/MS in negative mode. Forty compounds were tentatively identified including sixteen C-flavone glycosides, twenty-two O-flavone glycosides, and two polymethoxylated flavonoids. Compounds identification was based on the MS/MS fragmentation and literature comparison. The aqueous fraction fingerprint is rich in C- and O- flavone glycosides, like apigenin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (vitexin), vitexin 2″-O-rhamnoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin), luteolin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-rhamnoside and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside. These compounds were identified for the first time in the aqueous fraction of Saudi P. aculeata L. plant. Additionally, the antioxidant and anticancer activities were investigated. The aqueous fraction showed a strong DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 48.3 ± 1.5 μg / mL compared to ascorbic acid 14.2 ± 0.5 μg / mL. However, this fraction showed a very weak cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 (Hepatocellular carcinoma) and MCF-7 (Breast carcinoma) with IC50 222 ± 1.8 and 304 ± 9.2 µg/ml respectively compared to cisplatin IC50 3.67 ± 8.1 and 5.71 ± 3.8 µg/ml respectively.
       
  • Time-Biased Square Wave Differential Electrolytic Potentiometry for
           Determination of Ascorbic Acid in a Complex Matrix at Multi-Walled Carbon
           Nanotubes Modified Silver Electrodes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Abdalghaffar Mohammad Osman, Abdullah Mahmud Abulkibash, Muataz Ali Atieh Carbon nanotubes modified silver electrodes (CNT/Ag) have been prepared by the catalytic decomposition of ethylene in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. CNTs growth parameters such as ratio of ethylene to hydrogen, temperature and time were optimized, to enhance the electrode functionality for application. The electrode surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The optimum ethylene to hydrogen (C2H2:H2) ratio, temperature and time were found to be 75:90 sccm, 800 °C, and 20 min respectively. The CNTs modified metal electrodes prepared by this method exhibited well adhesion of the CNTs to the metal surface enabling their use for multiple times. The modified silver electrodes were successfully applied as indicating system in biased square wave differential electrolytic potentiometry (DEP) for the determination of ascorbic acid in a drug formulation and complex Baobab fruit matrix. CNTs/Ag electrodes showed high performance and durability, and the biased square wave led to enhanced DEP signal and lowered the detection limit for ascorbic acid to less than 25 µM. These promising results open the way for the use of CNTs/Ag electrodes as indicating setup for automated flowing systems like flow injection analysis.
       
  • A completely green approach to the synthesis of dendritic silver
           nanostructures starting from white grape pomace as a potential nanofactory
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Katya Carbone, Mariano Paliotta, Laura Micheli, Claudia Mazzuca, Ilaria Cacciotti, Francesca Nocente, Alessandra Ciampa, Maria Teresa Dell'Abate A simple, eco-friendly, cost-effective and rapid microwave-assisted method has been developed to synthetize dendritic silver nanostructures, composed of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), using white grape pomace aqueous extract (WGPE) as both reducing and capping agent. With this aim, WGPE and AgNO3 (1mM) were mixed at different ratio, and microwave irradiated at 700 watt, for 40 s. To understand the role of bioactive compounds involved in the green synthesis of AgNPs, preliminary chemical characterization, FT-IR analysis and 1H-NMR metabolite profiling of WGPE were carried out. The effects of bioactive extract concentration and stability over time on AgNPs formation were also evaluated. WGPE-mediated silver nanostructures were then characterized by UV-vis, FTIR analyses, and scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the formation of dendritic nanostructures, originated from the self-assembly of Ag rounded nanoparticles (average diameter of 33 ± 6 nm), was observed and ascribed to the use of microwave power and the presence of organic components within the used WGPE, inducing an anisotropic crystal growth and promoting a diffusion-limited aggregation mechanism. The bio-dendritic synthetized nanostructures were also evaluated for potential applications in bio-sensing and agricultural fields. Cyclic voltammetry measurements in 0.5 M phosphate + 0.1 M KCl buffer, pH 7.4 showed that green AgNPs possess the electroactive properties typical of AgNPs produced using chemical protocol. The biological activity of synthetized AgNPs was evaluated by in-vitro antifungal activity against F. graminearum. Additionally, a phytotoxicity evaluation of synthetized green nanostructures was carried out on wheat seed germination. Results highlighted the potential of WGPE as green agent for bio-inspired nanomaterial synthesis, and of green Ag nanostructures, which can be used as antifungal agent and in biosensing applications.
       
  • Synergistic interface between Co3O4 and MgAl2O4 in CO2 assisted continuous
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Venkata Rao Madduluri, Peddinti Nagaiah, Challa Prathap, K. Vasikarappa, Ajmeera Nagu, Burri David Raju, Kamaraju Seetha Rama Rao A Series of Co3O4/MgAl2O4 spinel catalysts were prepared by conventional co-precipitation method with various Co loadings (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25) keeping Mg/Al atomic ratio of 1.0 with over all Co+Mg+Al concentration at 3.0. Catalysts characteristics were throughly obtained by X ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis Diffuse reflectance spectra, Temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), NH3 and CO2 Temperture programmed desorption (TPD), CO2 pulse chemisorption, CHNS elemental analysis, and Surface area techniques. The superior catalytic activity accomplished by the catalyst with Co concentration of 1.0 (Co3O4/MgAl2O4), for an oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene can be ascribed to the presence of more number of active Co species. Co-precipitation method seems to be a excellent method in maintaining better synergistic influence, more number of active solid solution species such as MgCo2O4 or MgxCo(1-x)Al2O4 which were advantageous role for better catalytic efficiency. Suitable number of optimized acidic-basic properties measured by NH3 and CO2-TPD analysis was another property influencing the activity with respect to desired product contribution. Higher, 81.2% ethylbenzene conversion (81.2%) with 98% styrene selectivity was attained on 1.0Co3O4/MgAl2O4 in comparision to Co3O4/MgO, and Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 catalysts. According to the CO2 pulse chemisorption reaction with dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene over 1.0Co3O4/MgAl2O4 resulted to get superior CO yield which was promised to get higher ethylbenzene conversion as well as styrene selectivity.Graphical abstractCMA catalysts afforded superior EB conversion and ST selectivity comapared to repotrted cobalt based and other solid oxide catalysts.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Amorphous content on the photocatalytic performance of micrometer-sized
           tungsten trioxide particles

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto, Rosi Oktiani, Risti Ragadhita, Ajeng Sukmafitri, Rena Zaen The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between amorphous content and the characteristics of micrometer-sized photocatalyst particles. As a model of photocatalyst, tungsten trioxide (WO3) particles with controllable amorphous contents were used. To comprehend the amorphous content parameter precisely, the experiments were conducted by heating amorphous WO3 powders at a specific temperature without additional chemicals or solvents. Thus, the percentage of amorphous in the WO3 particles was controlled independently in the constant particle outer sizes and morphology. Micrometer-sized catalyst was used to avoid the misleading photocatalytic measurements due to the over-dominancy of other catalytic parameters (such as excessive surface area and quantum confinement effect). The results revealed that in the constant process condition, the photocatalytic properties were strongly dependent on the amorphous content in the catalyst. Decreases in this parameter had a strong influence to the enhancement of the photodecomposition rate of organic material. The tendency for the influence of amorphous content was also confirmed by varying the number of catalysts in the photocatalytic process. The study was also completed with the theoretical consideration for the phenomenon happening during the WO3 crystallization (transformation of amorphous into hexagonal and monoclinic crystal structure) and the photocatalytic process.
       
  • Functionalized electrospun carbon nanofibers for removal of cationic dye

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Badr M. Thamer, Hany El-Hamshary, Salem S. Al-Deyab, Mohamed H. El-Newehy Electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) have attracted significant attention in recent years as relatively inexpensive alternative to carbon nanotubes for adsorption organic pollutants. In this study, ECNFs were fabricated from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) using an electrospinning technique, followed by carbonization and oxidation via treatment with a H2SO4/HNO3 mixture. The prepared oxidized electrospun carbon nanofibers (O-ECNFs) were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The O-ECNFs were used as nano-adsorbents for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The adsorption of MB by the O-ECNFs was studied as a function of pH, time, adsorbent dosage, MB concentration, and temperature. ECNF functionalization enhanced the adsorption capacity towards MB dye compared pristine ECNFs. Detailed analysis of the adsorption kinetics showed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm was best fit by the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic results showed that MB adsorption onto the O-ECNFs was endothermic and spontaneous.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Quantitative screening of parabens in Ready-to-eat foodstuffs available in
           the Saudi market using high performance liquid chromatography with
           photodiode array detection

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Hadir M. Maher, Nourah Z. Alzoman, Munira Abdulaziz Almeshal, Hawazin Abdullah Alotaibi, Njoud Naif Alotaibi, Hessa Al-Showiman Parabens are widely used as preservatives in thousands of consumer’s products including, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, and foodstuffs. Concern in regards to the safety of parabens has been raised where parabens have been classified as “Endocrine distributing compounds” with potential link to many tumor types. Despite their wide spread, the occurrence of parabens in foodstuffs available in the Saudi market has not been studied until now. In this work, an HPLC-PDA method was developed and validated for the screening of parabens’ residues in different categories of Ready-to-eat foodstuffs collected from the Saudi market. These categories include: cereals, meat, fish, dairy product, bean products, fruits, vegetables, cookies and snacks, beverages, condiments, and others. Chromatographic analysis of the selected parabens (Methyl paraben MeP ,ethyl paraben EtP, propyl paraben PrP, butyl paraben BuP, and isobutyl paraben isoBuP) was performed on Symmetry® C-18 Colum (4.6×75mm,3.5μm) with methanol/water (57:43,v/v) as the mobile phase and using simply methanol for sample preparation . The proposed method was fully validated with regards to linearity, limits of detection (LOD) and of quantification (LOQ), accuracy and precision, extraction recovery, and specificity. Matrix-based calibration curves were linear in the range 0.025-500 μg/g (MeP, EtP), 0.05-500 μg/g (PrP), and 0.125-1250 μg/g (IsoBuP, BuP) with LOQ 0.025 μg/g for MeP, EtP, 0.05 μg/g for PrP, 0.125 μg/g for both BuP and isoBuP. The method was successfully applied for quantitative screening of the five parabens in different Ready-to-eat foodstuffs (n=215) collected from the Saudi market. The total parabens content was determined and was related to the food category and to the packaging material. The highest paraben content was found in cereals and condiments. The type of the packaging material did not have a significant effect on the paraben content among all food categories. Moreover, the estimated daily intake of parabens among the Saudi adults was calculated and it was found to have an average of 2000 μg/kgbw/day.
       
  • Preparation of nanoparticulate TiO2 containing nanocrystalline phases of
           Anatase and Brookite by electrochemical dissolution of remelted Titanium
           Components

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): D. Ortega-Díaz, D. Fernández, S. Sepúlveda, R.R. Lindeke, J.J. Pérez-Bueno, E. Peláez-Abellán, J. Manríquez In this investigation, we present an efficient electrochemical methodology to prepare nano-particulate TiO2 having a nano-crystalline composition of 40% Anatase and 60% Brookite, without need for subsequent thermal treatments (which are typically applied to alter the amount of amorphicity). This procedure for oxide synthesis is novel as it involves the galvanostatic dissolution of remelted Titanium Components, thus constituting a promising technological route for re-using Titanium-containing metallic pieces from the secondary metals industry to produce nano-crystalline TiO2 powders as a high value-added primary product. The experimental results presented showed that the faradaic efficiency of the TiO2 electro-synthesis, crystalline purity, and dispersion of the electro-generated TiO2 material was significant, despite the fact that the titanium content of the remelted titanium components was less than 80%.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Comparative studies of sunlight mediated green synthesis of silver
           nanoparaticles from Azadirachta indica leaf extract and its antibacterial
           effect on Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mounil Mankad, Ghanshyam Patil, Dimpy Patel, Parthvi Patel, Armi Patel Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has attracted worldwide attention as it is cheap and non-toxic. Therefore, in present study sunlight mediated silver nanoparticle was synthesized from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem) leaf extract. Various combinations i.e., reducing agent (5, 10, 15 and 20 ml leaf extract), substrate concentration (1mM AgNO3) and sunlight durations (5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes) were assessed for their ability to synthesized stabilized AgNPs. Leaf extract provide both reducing and capping agent, while sunlight served as catalyst for the synthesis process. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized using change in color due to Surface Plasmon Resonance further analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering for size, polydispersity index and zeta potential for stability studies and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The smallest size of synthesized AgNPs was 67.94±0.72 nm synthesized using to 20ml of reducing agent (leaf extract) and 5 minute of sunlight exposure. Antibacterial activity of synthesized silver nanoparticle was examined against plant pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and showed a good antimicrobial activity compared to 200 mg/l of streptocycline.
       
 
 
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