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CHEMISTRY (619 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
ACS Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
ACS Nano     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 295)
ACS Photonics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
ACS Symposium Series     Full-text available via subscription  
ACS Synthetic Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Slovenica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Al-Kimia : Jurnal Penelitian Sains Kimia     Open Access  
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 170)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 252)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access  
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 367)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomacromolecules     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 132)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 87)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 74)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 196)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 158)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 263)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chromatography     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Colloids and Interfaces     Open Access  
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Communications Chemistry     Open Access  
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Corrosion Series     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Croatica Chemica Acta     Open Access  
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chromatography     Hybrid Journal  
Current Green Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Microwave Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover
Arabian Journal of Chemistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.591
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1878-5352
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Synthesis, anti-tuberculosis activity and QSAR study of
           2,4-diarylquinolines and analogous polycyclic derivatives

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Gisela C. Muscia, Juan P. Carnevale, Ayelen Luczywo, María Victoria Peláez, Ailen Rodríguez ÓToole, Graciela Y. Buldain, Juan J. Casal, Silvia E. Asís The multicomponent syntheses of 2,4-di-aryl-quinolines and analogous polycyclic derivatives as anti-tuberculosis agents were described. They were prepared via Beyer and Friedländer methods under microwave irradiation in short reaction times and good yields. Several homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalysts were compared for preparing 2,4-di-arylquinolines and among them trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) reached the higher yields. Two derivatives exhibited activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), underwent additional testing and were considered lead compounds. The synthesis of a series of polycyclic analogous led to six new active compounds and a Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship study (QSAR) study was established.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Promotion of seed germination and seedling growth of Zea mays by magnesium
           hydroxide nanoparticles synthesized by the filtrate from Aspergillus niger

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Surbhi Shinde, Priti Paralikar, Avinash P. Ingle, Mahendra Rai An approach for green synthesis of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles [Mg(OH)2NPs] has been developed and its efficacy in seed germination, in vitro and in vivo plant growth promotion was studied on Zea mays at different concentrations. Mg(OH)2NPs at 500 ppm showed improved seed germination (100%) and growth. The effect of Mg(OH)2NPs was analyzed by measurement of plants height and chlorophyll a fluorescence using plant efficiency analyzer. The seedlings grown in MS medium supplemented with Mg(OH)2NPs showed significant increase in shoot height (11.96±0.4 cm) and root length (3.92±0.4 cm). Similarly, for in vivo studies, the enhanced shoot height (44.2±1.6 cm) and root length (29.2±1.3 cm) was recorded as compared to plants treated with their bulk counterpart. However, 500 ppm bulk Mg showed comparatively lower shoot height (38±1.5 cm) and root length (21.6±2.3 cm). The chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements revealed that plants treated with Mg(OH)2NPs showed maximum performance index and minimum dissipation as compared to control and plants treated with bulk Mg.In addition, atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis performed for both in vitro and in vivo grown plants, revealed that leaves and roots of the plants treated with Mg(OH)2NPs demonstrated higher Mg contents. It was found that Mg content in leaves and roots for in vitro plants were 131.45 and 103.52 mg/kg, respectively; whereas for in vivo grown plants it was 132.58 and 114.58 mg/kg, respectively. Therefore, Mg(OH)2NPs can be potentially used for enhanced seed germination and seedling growth promotion.
  • Novel Rh(Pd)-Cu(Ni) supported catalysts for oxy-steam reforming of

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Pawel Mierczynski, Magdalena Mosinska, Waldemar Maniukiewicz, Krasimir Vasilev, Malgorzata I. Szynkowska Monometallic copper, nickel and bimetallic Pd(Rh)-Cu(Ni) catalysts supported on a binary oxide containing various content of ZrO2 and Al2O3 were prepared by impregnation method. Their physicochemical and catalytic properties in oxy-steam reforming of methanol reaction (OSRM) were extensively investigated. Selecting an optimal composition of the catalyst for the OSRM process was the main goal of this work. The influence of zirconia content on the reactivity and physicochemical properties of supported copper catalysts in OSRM was also studied. The reactivity measurements showed that the supported copper catalyst was more active than the nickel catalyst. The catalytic measurements showed that the catalyst properties depend on their surface composition, acidity and adsorption properties. High selectivity of supported copper catalyst with composition 20%Cu/ZrO2·Al2O3 (Zr:Al = 1:2) towards carbon dioxide and hydrogen was confirmed. In addition, the promotion effect of palladium and rhodium on the activity of monometallic supported copper and nickel catalysts in OSRM was confirmed. The most active system in the OSRM process was 0.5%Rh-20%Cu/ZrO2·Al2O3.
  • Visible light assisted photodegradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol using Ag2CO3
           loaded phosphorus and sulphur co-doped graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets
           in simulated wastewater

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Pankaj Raizada, Anita Sudhaik, Pardeep Singh, Pooja Shandilya, Pankaj Thakur, Hanbo Jung Nowadays, hybrid photocatalysts are gaining importance due to their improved photocatalytic activity. In the present work, Ag2CO3 was integrated phosphorous and sulfur co-doped g-C3N4 (PSGCN) photocatalyst (Ag2CO3/PSGCN) to minimize the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pair. The co-doping resulted in band gap lowering in GCN leading to more visible light activity. Successful formation of well dispersed Ag2CO3/PSGCN suspension in water was established by zeta potential and Tyndall effect experiments. Phosphorous and sulfur co-doping in g-C3N4 resulted lowering of optical band gap that enhanced its photodegradation ability under visible light. The reduction in photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination was confirmed by photoluminescence and electrochemical impedance analysis. The photodegradation of 2, 4, dinitrophenol (DNP) followed pseudo first order kinetics and enhanced photocatalytic activity was due to semiconductor heterojunction for effective separation of electron–hole pair. Holes and hydroxyl radicals were two main oxidative species responsible for photodegradation of DNP into non-toxic products. COD, HPLC and LC-MS investigations were used to investigate the degradation fragment during DNP mineralization. Ag2CO3/PSGCN nanocomposite revealed high stability and recycle efficiency substantial for ten catalytic cycles.
  • Phyto – monoterpene Linalool as precursor to synthesis epoxides and
           hydroperoxides as anti carcinogenic agents via thermal and photo chemical
           oxidation reactions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Eman M. Elgendy, Manal Y. Semeih Linalool (I) was extracted from Zingiber officinale. The oxidation of linalool using m-chloroperbenzoic acid at room temperature gave the mixture of 2,2,6-trimethyl-6-vinyl-tetrahydro-pyran-3-ol (IIa) & 2-(5-methyl-5-vinyl- tetrahydro-furan-2-yl)-propan-2-ol (IIa′), which cannot be separated. Whereas, the photo-epoxidation of it using hydrogen peroxide gave the above mixture IIa/IIa′, beside 2,2,8-trimethyl-6-oxianyl-tetrahydro-pyran-3-ol (IIb). It was evaluated for anti-oxidant, using erythrocyte hemolysis and ABTS methods. It showed inhibitory effect in case of erythrocyte hemolysis and low inhibitory effect in case of ABTS method. Photosensitization reactions of linalool with tetraphenyl porphyrin or chlorophyll produced a mixture of two isomeric hydroperoxides, 7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethylocta-1,5-dien-3-ol (IIIa) & 6-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethyl octa-1,7-dien-3-ol (IIIb), which can be successfully separated. On the other hand, the cytotoxic activity of linalool (I) was tested against epdermoid carcinoma (HEP2), it has medium effect. Whereas, in case of human prostate cancer (PC-3), it has weak effect. From this study concludes that ginger has good antioxidant potential and this spice can be used to produce novel natural antioxidants and flavoring agent like linalool which recommends it as an active therapy for humans. Monoterpene linalool abstract singlet oxygen (1O2) by photosensitization reactions to produce these hydroperoxides, which are caused relatively little oxidative DNA damage.
  • Inexpensive FIA method to determine trace levels of Imazapyr by
           UV-detection enhanced with electrochemical polarization

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): L. León, C. Mozo-Mulero, F.J. Martín-Infante, J.J. Maraver, J. Carbajo, J.D. Mozo A new flow injection analysis method with spectro-electrochemical detection (FIA/SEC) to determine trace levels of imazapyr on water samples is presented. The non-chromatographic method involves the use of a bench photometer, a single-potential potentiostat, a low pressure pumping system and a home-made spectro-electrochemical flow detector (SEC-FD), specifically adapted for the described method and using a stainless steel/electrolytic lead/lead chloride (SS/e-Pb/PbCl2) working electrode. The limit of quantification (LOQ) reached for the optimized work parameters was 0.02 µg/mL, the relative standard deviation (RSD) in the whole range of linear response was less than 2% and a wide linear response range from 0.005 to 6.0 µg/mL was obtained. A standard addition method was used to determine the imazapyr amount in natural waters containing commercial formulation of such herbicide, the Recovery% has values close to 105%. The method performance makes it suitable to analyze the legal imazapyr tolerances established by the U.S. EPA avoiding the use of expensive chromatographic equipments and/or complicated sample preparations.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Validated spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of
           oxytetracycline associated with diclofenac sodium or with piroxicam in
           veterinary pharmaceutical dosage form

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Rúbia A. Sversut, James C. Vieira, Aline M. Rosa, Marcos S. do Amaral, Nájla M. Kassab, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado Two simple, precise, accurate and robust UV zero and first derivative orders spectrophometric methods have been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of oxytetracycline (OTC) associated either with diclofenac sodium (DICLO) or with piroxicam (PIRO) in veterinary pharmaceuticals, without prior separation of the drugs. These proposed methods are also suitable for individual estimation of each drug in pharmaceutical products for human use. The first method is a zero order spectrophotometry for estimation of OTC at 360 nm in the association with DICLO. The second one employs a first derivative at 339 nm, using a zero-crossing technique to measure the OTC content in the association with PIRO. Both nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (DICLO and PIRO) were analyzed by first derivative spectrophometric at 298.5 nm (OTC zero-crossing point) in their respective associations. All measurements were carried out in acetronitrile:water (50:50, v/v; pH 2.5) and at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C). Analytical curves were linear (r> 0.9996) in the concentration range of 10.0 – 80.0 μg mL-1 for OTC, 1.5 – 25.0 μg mL-1 for DICLO and 2.5 – 30.0 μg mL-1 for PIRO. The limits of quantification were lower than 1.50 μg mL-1 and the mean of recoveries were within the acceptable limits of 98-102% for all three drugs. The developed methods can be successfully applied in the quality control routine for the simultaneous or individual determination of OTC, DICLO and PIRO in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
  • UV induced synthesis of starch capped CdSe quantum dots: Functionalization
           with thiourea and application in sensing heavy metals ions in aqueous

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Avinash Singh, Apurav Guleria, Suman Neogy, M.C. Rath Herein, a highly facile, rapid and one-pot approach has been applied for the synthesis of water soluble starch capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by using UV irradiation in the aqueous solution containing cadmium sulphate, sodium selenosulfate, acetone and 2-propanol. No external reducing agents were added to the solution, as the radicals generated in situ upon photoirradiation i.e., 2-hydroxy-2-propyl radicals, (CH3)2C•OH could reduce the precursor ions for the synthesis of these QDs. These QDs were characterised by various techniques such as UV-Vis absorption, XRD, Raman, FTIR, TEM and SEM measurements. The presence of strong quantum confinement effects could be realized from their very small size i.e., ∼ 3 nm as revealed by TEM studies. Besides, these QDs were found to exhibit photoluminescence (PL) in the longer wavelength region. The PL intensity as well as the charge carrier lifetime values could be conveniently tuned by simply varying the Cd to Se precursor ratio during the synthesis. Furthermore, a relatively novel approach has been adopted to extract these QDs from the colloidal solution by freezing it to 0°C followed by de-freezing to room temperature. The extracted QDs were functionalized with thiourea in order to increase the PL quantum yield and the stability of the QDs. The effects of pH and temperature on the PL intensity of functionalized CdSe QDs were also investigated to explore their applicability in sensing of heavy metal ions. Interestingly, the QDs displayed highly selective PL quenching in the presence of Cu2+, Cr6+ and Hg2+ metal ions. The limits of detection for these metal ions have been determined and a probable PL quenching mechanism is postulated.
  • Thiophene substituted phenothiazine polymers: Design, synthesis and

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Ruhiye Nilay Tezel, İsmet Kaya In this paper, the polymers containing phenothiazine were synthesized via oxidative polymerization reaction by FeCl3 as oxidant. These polymers contain ether unit, aliphatic chain and aromatic groups as bridges in their structures. The effects of the groups on the optical, thermal, morphological properties of the polymers were investigated. The physical and chemical properties of the monomers and the polymers were identified by FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis, thermogravimetry (TG), cyclic voltammetry (CV), fluorescence analysis. According to the fluorescence analyses, polymer containing aliphatic ether bridge emitted yellow colour based on the turning of excitation wavelength. The yellow solution of polymer containing aliphatic ether bridge turned into turquoise when excited with the wavelength of 365 nm. Thermal analyses demonstrated that polymer containing phenyl bridge compound had 38% residue amount. Due to fluorescent and thermal properties, these polymers could be used in various applications such as spectrofluorometric ion sensor and polymeric light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with yellow and turquoise emissions.
  • Micelles-based self-healing coating for improved protection of metal

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Ye Ying, Zequn Liu, Juanjuan Fan, Nan Wei, Xiaoyu Guo, Yiping Wu, Ying Wen, Haifeng Yang In this work, an eco-friendly corrosion inhibitor was synthesized by embedding 4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (4-MTTL) into phytic acid (IP6) micelles via heating (donated as IP6@4-MTTLx). The corrosion inhibitor, IP6@4-MTTLx microcapsules with self-healing capability, can be used for metal protection from corrosion in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous solution. By means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical polarization, the high inhibition performance of such micelle-based coating on the model metal of copper has been investigated, which is attributed to the synergistic effect of the 4-MTTL molecules and the IP6@4-MTTLx microcapsules. Damage to the coating by external force can be self-healed by leakage of 4-MTTL inside IP6@4-MTTLx microcapsules to seal physically and chemically the cracks.
  • Electrochemical reduced graphene oxide-poly(eriochrome black T)/gold
           nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode for simultaneous
           determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Nusiba Mohammed Modawe Alshik Edris, Jaafar Abdullah, Sazlinda Kamaruzaman, Mohd Izham Saiman, Yusran Sulaiman This work reports on the preparation of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)-poly(eriochrome black T) (pEBT) assembled gold nanoparticles for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) in PBS pH 6.0. Characterisations of the composite were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry. As a result of the synergistic effect, the modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) possessed an efficient electrochemical catalytic activity with a high selectivity and sensitivity in oxidising AA-DA and DA-UA as compared to the bare GCE. The peak separations of AA and DA, DA and UA were 166 mV and 126 mV, respectively. The linear response ranges for AA, DA and UA were 10–900 μM, 0.5–20 μM and 2–70 μM with detection limits of 0.53 μM, 0.009 μM and 0.046 μM (S/N=3), respectively. The sensitivity of ERGO-pEBT/AuNPs was measured as 0.003 µA/μM, 0.164 µA/μM and 0.034 µA/μM for AA, DA, and UA, respectively. The modified electrochemical sensor was used in the determination of AA, DA, and UA in vitamin C tablets and urine sample with good recovery.
  • Catalytic, antioxidant and anticancer activities of gold nanoparticles
           synthesized by kaempferol glucoside from Lotus leguminosae

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mohamed Habib Oueslati, Lotfi Ben Tahar, Abdel Halim Harrath The aim of this study was to evaluate gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 cancer cells, antioxidant activities and catalysis of the reduction of p-nitrophenol (p-NP). AuNPs were synthesized using kaempferol 3-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (KG) from the plant Lotus leguminosae. The structure was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray (ES)-HRMS. The isolated compound was involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AuNPs. A number of parameters such as the pH and the mass ratio (HAuCl4/ KG) have been optimized to produce very stable colloids of an almost spherical shaped AuNPs with an average diameter of about 37 nm. UV–Vis spectrophotometry, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies were employed to characterize the produced nanoparticles. In vitro anticancer studies were performed to assess the chemotherapeutic potential of formulating NPs against a human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). It was observed that the synthesized AuNPs have mild to low cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells at higher concentrations. The microscopic observations showed no significant changes in the morphology of control cells or the treated cells. AuNPs also displayed strong DPPH radical scavenging compared to the flavonoid extract, with an IC50 of 30.56 μg/mL. In addition, the biosynthesized AuNPs showed a highly improved catalytic activity for the reduction of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) to p-aminophenol (p-AP), indicative of its potential application in the chemical industry.
  • Synthesis, characterizations, and antibacterial properties of
           PbMoO4 nanocrystals

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): J.V.B. Moura, T.S. Freitas, A.R.P. Silva, A.T.L. Santos, J.H. da Silva, R.P. Cruz, R.L.S. Pereira, P.T.C. Freire, C. Luz-Lima, G.S. Pinheiro, H.D.M. Coutinho This study reports the synthesis and characterization of PbMoO4 nanocrystals and the antibacterial properties and modulation of their antibiotic activity. Lead molybdate nanocrystals were obtained through the conventional hydrothermal method, and the structural, vibrational and morphological properties of the sample were determined using X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy images. The obtained samples present scheelite-type tetragonal structure (space group I41/a) without secondary phases, and the Raman spectrum shows the formation of PbMoO4 structurally ordered at short-range, confirming the quality of the samples. The antibacterial and antibiotic-modulation activities were performed in triplicate using the microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics alone or in association with PbMoO4, were demonstrated using geometric mean. When assayed directly, the PbMoO4 presented a MIC ≥ 1024 μg/mL against all bacterial strains tested. When in association with the gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus, a synergism was observed reducing 37.5% the MIC. However, in the assays against the Gram-negative strains was observed that the presence of lead affected the effect of the antibiotic, leading to an antagonism.
  • Electrochemical detection of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
           using Al2O3-GO nanocomposite modified electrode

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Moataz M. Mekawy, Rabeay Y.A. Hassan, Pankaj Ramnani, Xuejun Yu, Ashok Mulchandani NADH plays a vital role in the electron transfer processes between metabolites in the cellular energetic reactions. Therefore, there is a crucial need to develop analytical techniques for detecting NADH levels with the metabolism of glucose. In the present study, a nanocomposite of alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles confined graphene oxide (GO) sheet acts as a modifier for carbon paste electrode (CPE) for a sensitive detection of NADH level in a mediator-less detection scheme. Our findings after optimization of experimental conditions reveal that, there is a remarkable enhancement in the direct electron transfer through the Al2O3-GO nanocomposite surface with high electrocatalytic activity towards NADH oxidation. Results show that, there is a linear increase in NADH detection from 30 µM to 330 µM, together with linear regression coefficient of 0.98 and LOD 4.5 µM. These results confirm that, the developed Al2O3-GO based CPE electrode is a promising electrode for real NADH level detection in practical enzymatic applicability.
  • Study on the properties of FeCrNi/CBN composite coating with high velocity
           arc spraying

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Pan Ding, Xiao-juan Liu, Jin-jun Liu, Jing-bo Li, Hui-qin Li, Han-yu Zhao, Jun-yu Duan, You-zhou Jiao FeCrNi/CBN cored wire is prepared by use of the pull-type flux cored wire machine (FCWM50 type), FeCrNi/CBN composite coating is made by high velocity arc spraying. The special properties of the composite coating can be improved by adding Cr, Ni and small amounts of rare earth elements to adjust the coating composition. The Tribological properties of FeCrNi/CBN composite coating with high velocity arc spraying is studied. Images and components and cross-section microstructure of coatings are analyzed by means of SEM, and EDS, etc. This research indicated that FeCrNi/CBN composite coatings have typical layered structure feature and high bond strength and hardness. Friction of coatings at near room temperature or higher has “Run-up” period. With the increase of temperature, friction coefficient of coatings becomes low and wearing capacity of coatings high. The adding of CBN powder highly improved the wearing capacity of coatings.
  • Metal doped manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve catalysts for
           degradation of diclofenac in the presence of peroxymonosulfate

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): M.H. Wu, J. Shi, H.P. Deng Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) and a series of OMS-2 doped with Co, Cu, and Ce were prepared via a solvent-free method, and tested in heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for diclofenac (DCF) degradation in aqueous solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the properties of those materials. It was found that (Co + Ce)-OMS-2 seemed to be most efficient and had the best adsorption capacity, which may due to most abundant lattice oxygen and more macropore than other materials caused by cerium ions enter into the channel. Results from XPS suggested that the highly catalytic efficiency possible involved the activation of PMS to sulfate and hydroxyl radical meditated by the redox pair of Mn(IV)/Mn(III) and Co(III)/Co(II) in catalysts.
  • Quantitative characterization appreciation of golden citrine golden by the
           irradiation of [FeO4]4−

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Guo Ying, Zhang Xinyan, Li Xiang, Zhang Ye With the help of irradiation, [FeO4]4− was excited by one electron from ferric electronic shell, it absorbed the visible light of 550 nm, and then made crystal appears golden color which named citrine. 27 pieces citrine was confirmed as natural from 32 pieces golden citrine by IR technology, their color parameters were calculated by the colorimeter tests, then how could hue, lightness and chroma contribute to visual color were analyzed too. It reveals that chroma of natural citrines are negatively correlated with hue and lightness, by the control of hue angle on the impact of the chroma, the co-effect of hue and lightness of natural citrine produce moderate influence on chroma. Without the consideration of chroma influence on lightness, lightness and hue angle are high correlated (r = 0.924), it is tested the high linear correlation of citrine lightness and hue; while with the consideration of chroma influence on lightness, lightness and hue angle also high correlated (r = 0.897), and the high linear correlation of citrine lightness and hue is confirmed. It draws conclusion that in the limit the citrine golden, lightness should be regarded as the first factor when citrine quality evaluation was taken, with the most intuitive representative and most consistent with the expression of perception effect, then the effect of hue and chroma was considered furthermore.
  • Kinetics and thermodynamics of NPX adsorption by γ-FeOOH in aqueous

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Zhanyi Li, Guoguang Liu, Qing Su, Xiaoyu Jin, Xiaoqing Wen, Guojian Zhang, Run Huang Naproxen (NPX) is a common PPCPs in wastewater treatment plants which is influenced by the coexistence on its photodegradation. Most research on reasons for NPX photodegradation has focused on the soluble substances in water mainly, and the adsorption effect of solid particles is less. The effects of initial concentration, temperature, and pH on the adsorption of NPX on γ-FeOOH were studied. It was found that the equilibrium time of γ-FeOOH adsorbed NPX was 240 min. The increase of initial concentration and temperature were favorable for the adsorption. The optimal adsorption pH was 7.0, and the adsorption capacity attained 28.05 mg·g−1. It was learned, through model fitting, that the adsorption reaction was in accordance with the Laggenren quasi-second-order kinetic model; the internal diffusion process was the control step, where the adsorption was close to the Langmuir isothermal adsorption model. The thermodynamic calculation showed that ΔG 
  • In-situ synthesis of CuO nanoparticles in P(NIPAM-co-AAA) microgel,
           structural characterization, catalytic and biological applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Jahanzeb Khan, Muhammad Siddiq, Bilal Akram, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf The production of new multi-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-allyl acetic acid) [P(NIPAM-AAA)] copolymer microgel by free radical emulsion polymerization is reported. Inside this copolymer microgel CuO nanoparticles were generated by in situ reduction of copper nitrate followed by the air oxidation process, their fabrication is confirmed by powdered X-ray diffraction analysis and the average size of CuO NPs was found to be 24 nm having monoclinic shapes. By using dynamic laser light scattering the swelling & de-swelling behaviour of the pure microgel was examined at different temperature and pH values. The copolymer microgel becomes unstable at low pH as well as at high temperature values respectively. UV–visible spectra show a red shift in surface plasmon resonance λSPR of CuO nanoparticles. The catalytic property of hybrid microgel was inspected by observing the reduction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol in the presence of excess NaBH4 with various concentrations of catalyst at room temperature. The hybrid microgels also have good anti-bacterial activity against both Gram-positive (C. albicans) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria.
  • Zno/NiO coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes for textile dyes degradation

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Jahanzeb Khan, Sadia Ilyas, Bilal Akram, Khalil Ahmad, Muhammad Hafeez, Muhammad Siddiq, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf The nanocomposites of ZnO/NiO loaded Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) were successfully fabricated using co-precipitation method. The synthesized photocatalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the determination of crystal structure, morphology, elemental composition and optical properties respectively. The photocatalytic activity of as prepared photocatalyst was determined by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (an azo dye) under ultra-violet (280 nm) and visible (480 nm) irradiation. The Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) exhibits absorbance tail around 400 nm, in the near UV region. SEM analysis shows the homogenous dispersion of ZnO and NiO on the surface of MWNTs. The efficiency for Photodegradation of ZnO coated MWNTs is shown to be greater than the efficiency of pristine ZnO. When NiO was loaded on the surface of MWNTs having ZnO coated layer, the activity was further enhanced and reached maximum for 3% NiO loading. The degradation in visible region is believed to be proceeding through self-sensitized degradation of pre-adsorbed dye. A different behavior for degradation was observed for ZnO coated MWNTs and ZnO/NiO coated MWNTs, which suggests that complete mineralization of azo dyes can be achieved in a self-sensitized degradation process after employing ZnO/NiO coated MWNTs.
  • Synthesis of highly water-dispersible N-doped anatase titania based on low
           temperature solvent-thermal method

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Wenyi Huang, Hao Cheng, Jun Feng, Zhipeng Shi, Dawei Bai, Lijun Li In this paper, the high-concentration aqueous dispersion N-doped anatase TiO2 is prepared based on low temperature non-aqueous solvent-thermal method by using TCl4 and NH4Cl as titanium source and nitrogen source respectively. From TEM image, we can learn that the particle is composed of spindle-shaped particles with the size from 8 to 15 nm. According to the XRD and XPS spectra of N-doped TiO2, it can be seen that, during the synthesis process, N atoms permeate into the TiO2 lattice, and the impurity level can be formed within the band gap of TiO2. The impurity level can extend to absorb UV and the visible light. As for N-doped TiO2 nanoparticle of XPS spectrum, ethanol is used as solvent to form carbonaceous species on the surface of TiO2. The carbonaceous species in visible light can excite electrons towards the TiO2 conduction band, so as to increase the number of electrons in the conduction band under visible light to improve the catalytic activity of TiO2 which possesses the feature of high catalytic activity under UV–visible light.
  • Preparation and application of magnetic zinc pyridinedicarboxylic acid
           nanocomposite (Zn-(PDC)2@Fe3O4)

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Shuai Zhang, Shoulian Wei, Hao Cheng, Wei Li Nano-scaled Fe3O4 were synthesized using solvothermal synthesis, and amino-modification of nano-scaled Fe3O4 was conducted with APTES. With Fe3O4-NH2 and Zn2+ as the metal centers, 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acids as the organic ligand, and using the one-step ultrasonic-assisted method, a new magnetic zinc pyridinedicarboxylic acid nanocomposite (Zn-(PDC)2@Fe3O4) was synthesized. The structure, composition and morphology of the products were characterized using methods such as X-ray single crystal diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the Zn-(PDC)2 was almost an octahedron, and the Zn-(PDC)2@Fe3O4 looked like a nanoflower. The mimetic peroxidase properties of Zn-(PDC)2@Fe3O4 were studied with H2O2 solution and TMB solution as the substrates, and the results showed that: the Michaelis constant of H2O2 by Zn-(PDC)2@Fe3O4 was: Km = 0.411 mM, the maximum reaction rate: vmax = 3.440 × 10−8 M s−1; the Michaelis constant of TMB by Zn-(PDC)2@Fe3O4 was: Km = 0.189 mM, and the maximum reaction rate: vmax = 2.419 × 10−8 M s−1, both of which were lower than those of H2O2 and TMB by Fe3O4 and Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP). Based on the reduction of the absorbance of original solution due to the consumption of H2O2 in oxidation-reduction reaction between SO32− and H2O2 under acid conditions, a new method for determining the content of SO32− was established. The linear range of SO32− was 8 × 10−7∼8 × 10−5 mol/L, the detection limit of SO32− was 8 × 10−8 mol/L, and the RSD of SO32− was 2.7–9.2%.
  • Preparation and properties of novel flame-retardant PBS wood-plastic

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): ShuaiCheng Jiang, YaFeng Yang, ShengBo Ge, ZhongFeng Zhang, WanXi Peng Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS), as a fully biodegradable thermoplastic, have developed rapidly due to its integrated performance and processibility. The CaCO3 as a reinforcing component, and AHP, APP and CaHP as a flame-retardant component were separately incorporated into PBS matrix. A series of PBS-based composites were fabricated via melting blending using internal mixer followed by injection molding. The results show that the different filling ratio has a certain influence on the mechanical properties of the composites. When the filling amount of wood powder is 40 copies, the composite mechanical properties of the composite is better. CaCO3 addition, the composite material of the bending strength, tensile strength have improved significantly. The results showed that small amount of AHP, APP and CaHP improved the tensile strength of PBS composites, however, the tensile strength decreased as further increase amount of AHP, APP and CaHP. Cone Calorimeter testing revealed that, the combination of AHP, APP and CaHP could significantly reduce the pHRR and the total heart release (THR) of the composites. TGA test indicated that the addition of AHP, APP and CaHP could significantly increase the char residue and reduce the mass loss rate. TGA test indicated that the addition of AHP, APP and CaHP could significantly increase the char residue and reduce the mass loss rate. Through the research of mechanical and thermal properties of PBS composite, it could lay a foundation of the application of PBS composite in different fields.
  • Potential use of different kinds of carbon in production of decayed wood
           plastic composite

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Sheng-bo Ge, Hai-Ping Gu, Jiao-jiao Ma, Hong-Qi Yang, Shuai-cheng Jiang, Zhenling Liu, Wan-xi Peng This study investigated the mechanical, chemical structure and thermal properties of hot press molded wood plastic composite (WPC) panels produced from different amounts (30, 40, or 50% weight) of decayed Pinus massoniana Lamb. and polypropylene with chitosan (3 wt%) and different kind of carbon (2 wt%). The results were compared with the properties of WPC produced without carbon. The mechanical, chemical structure and thermal data showed that WPC with carbon was better than WPC without carbon, and the best condition to produce decayed wood plastic composite was hot pressing temperature at 170 °C for12 min, Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) and chitosan (CS) accounting for 2% and 3% of total mass, and the proportion of decayed wood and PVC is 40% and 60%.
  • Synthesis, characterisation and photocatalytic performance of ZnS coupled
           Ag2S nanoparticles: A remediation model for environmental pollutants

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Maryam Abbasi, Uzaira Rafique, Ghulam Murtaza, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf The growing demand of industries has led to environmental degradation due to excessive release of toxic chemicals. Nanotechnology has developed to combat the impacts integrated with industrial revolution. The present investigation proposes a remediation model for toxic dyes and poly aromatic hydrocarbons by effective use of nanotechnology. For this purpose, zinc sulphide (ZnS), silver sulfide (Ag2S) and bimetallic ZnS-Ag2S are synthesized from a single source precursor and evaluated as potential photocatalytic agents. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by a range of techniques like UV–visible, PL, XRD, EDX, TEM and TGA. The results indicated that prepared nanoparticles were crystalline, spherical in shape, possess obvious atomic planes with a size in the range of 6–12 nm.Each of the synthesized material was tested as potential photocatalyst candidate for the degradation of representative azo-dyes (Crystal Violet, Congo Red) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (Naphthalene, Phenanthrene and Pyrene) under visible light irradiation source. The degradation efficiency of the synthesized nanoparticles was calculated to be more than 70% for Crystal Violet and 80%for Congo Red upon contact with the dye solutions for 50 min and pseudo second order kinetic model was found to be the best fit. The synthesized nanoparticles were also effective in its own significance for the degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The fragmentation study of polyaromatic hydrocarbons using nanoparticles postulates that phthalic acid pathway is the predominant mechanism for PAHs. It is recommended that environmental compartment with mix pollutants can conveniently be treated with a single material to an appreciable extent. The study offers economical and environment friendly remediation model.
  • New method for effective identification of adulterated Camellia oil basing
           on Camellia oleifera-specific DNA

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Xuexiang Cheng, Tao Yang, Yunhao Wang, Bingqian Zhou, Li Yan, Linzuo Teng, Fangbin Wang, Lili Chen, Yan He, Kunpeng Guo, Dangquan Zhang Camellia oil obtained from Camellia oleifera seeds is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and unique flavors, and has become a rising high-quality edible vegetable oil in the world. However, honored as the “Oriental olive oil”, Camellia oil was widely adulterated for the situation of high price and short supply. At present, the identification of adulterated plant edible oil is mainly based on the composition and content of fatty acids. Here, the fatty acid composition and content of the main vegetable edible oils were determined. It is found that the fatty acid composition and content are susceptible to the change of the origin, variety and climate of the raw materials, and adulterated oils could even be made extremely similar to Camellia oil by the target combination of fatty acid content, therefore it is difficult to accurately identify the adulteration of Camellia oil through the composition and content determination of fatty acids. Camellia oleifera DNA was used as the breakthrough point for adulteration identification. Basing on the EST library and transcriptome data of Camellia oleifera, 116 candidate specific DNAs were screened out by bioinformatics, then the optimized methods of trace DNA extraction in Camellia oil were established. Further, three specific Camellia oleifera DNAs that could only be PCR amplified using Camellia oil- extracted DNA as template were finally screened out, which were confirmed by exclusive PCR amplifications using DNAs of other edible oils as templates. One of the specific DNAs was used to make the concentration regression curves of trace DNA by qPCR (Quantitative real-time PCR). The computational model was successively established between the adulteration ratio and the Ct value of the qPCR by adulteration imitation of different proportions of Camellia oil. Finally, a complete identification system of Camellia oil adulteration was firstly established basing on the specific DNA of Camellia oleifera, and it may provide a new idea and method for identification of adulterated Camellia oil.
  • Systematic characterization of volatile organic components and pyrolyzates

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Li Liu, Xuexiang Cheng, Weiwei Zhao, Yunhao Wang, Xiang Dong, Lili Chen, Dangquan Zhang, Wanxi Peng Camellia oleifera seed cake (COSC), a byproduct during oil production of C. oleifera seeds, has been extremely abundant. However, due to the lack of systematic and in-depth analysis about the chemical composition of COSC, it is difficult to develop high value-added products, resulting in low processing efficiency or even directly abandoned. In this paper, the VOCs (Volatile organic components) characteristics of COSC and the variation rule of COSC groups before/after extraction were revealed, and the thermal loss law of COSC and the pyrolyzates characteristics at different temperatures were also explained. The main VOCs of ethanol extractive of COSC are alcohols, those of petroleum ether extractive are alkanes and organic acids, and those of benzene/ethanol extractive are esters. It is first reported here that rich 1,6,10-Dodecatrien-3-ol,3,7,11-trimethyl-, (E)-, namely nerolidol with wide use in cosmetics and biomedicine, exists in COSC extractives. In addition, bioactive VOCs such as β-caryophyllene, humulene and (E)-Atlantone were observed in three COSC extractives. The total content trend from high to low is petroleum ether extractive, ethanol extractive, benzene/ethanol extractive, indicating that petroleum ether extractive has the best developing prospects. The analytic results of FTIR further confirm that: (1) the COSC contains components including Si compounds, ethers, organic acids, esters and alcohols, (2) the four kinds of organic silicon detected are naturally occurring components in COSC, and (3) organic solvent extraction does not make compound groups of COSC significantly changed. There are four obvious stages in thermogravimetry treatment of COSC: the first (30–100 °C), the second (180–240 °C), the third (240–400 °C), and the fourth (400–567 °C), and the order of the mass loss is the third, the second, the fourth and the first. During thermogravimetry treatment, three critical turning points of temperature (240 °C, 400 °C and 567 °C) were observed, accompanied by significantly chemical changes such as macromolecule pyrolyzed into small volatile molecules. The four COSC extractive pyrolyzates at 300 °C, 450 °C, 600 °C and 750 °C have different content variation in the components, such as heterocyclic type with a high-low-high-low change, hydrocarbons and acids shown by the high-low-low-high process, and ketone and the alcohol with a low-high-low-high change. The 450 °C pyrolyzates of COSC residue after extraction are heterocyclic, ketone, phenolic more than esters, hydrocarbons, phosphide, acids, aldehydes, alcohols and acyl; the 600 °C pyrolyzates are heterocyclic, ketone, phenolic more than esters, ammonium, phosphide, acid, aldehydes and alcohols. Here, a large number of new components are produced in the pyrolysis treatment for COSC extractive and residue, providing a new approach for the high-grade application of COSC.
  • Nano properties analysis via fourth multiplicative ABC indicator

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Wei Gao, Weifan Wang, Darko Dimitrov, Yiqiao Wang In the field of nanoscience, there are a large number of new nanomaterials produced in the laboratory every year. These nanomaterials need to go through a lot of tests in engineering application before, to determine their physical, chemical and nanomedicine properties. The work demands a large number of experimental personnel, equipment and reagents, and it’s time-consuming as well. In the theoretical nanoscience, the various features can be obtained through the computation of topological index on nano molecular structures. In this paper, we study the fourth multiplicative atom-bond connectivity indices of some special molecular structures which commonly appeared in the compound of nanomaterials, and their specific expressions are given. The results yielded in this work will be a guidance for the practical nanoscience applications.
  • Molecules and functions of rosewood: Dalbergia stevenson

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Shuai Cheng Jiang, Sheng Bo Ge, Wanxi Peng In this paper, the organic solvent extract was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), TG, Py–GC–MS and TD–GC–MS were used to analyze the Dalbergia stevenson. And then, the pyrolysis products were analyzed by GC–MS. The chromatographic peak area normalization method was used to calculate the groups the relative content of the points. The results show that there are many kinds of bioactive ingredients in the berzolis sandalwood extract, mainly some alcohols and phenolic compounds. And in bio-energy, bio-medicine, cosmetics, skin care products and spices and other fields have potential application prospects.
  • Hemicellulose structural changes during steam pretreatment and
           biogradation of Lentinus edodes

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Shengbo Ge, Xiangmeng Chen, Dongli Li, Zhenling Liu, Hui Ouyang, Wanxi Peng, Zhongfeng Zhang To disclosed the internal factors for the growth of mycelium and Lentinus edodes, Quercus Linn wood, which was biotransformed during the artificial cultivation of Lentinus edodes, were synergistically characterized by TGA/DTG, FT-IR and NMR. The results showed that the different ingredients of hemicellulose decreased during steam explosion and biodegradation of Lentinus edodes, however hemicellulose content continued to increased. FT-IR showed that the transmittance of the characteristic peaks in hemicellose gradually increased after decreased after steam explosion and biodegradation of Lentinus edodes. TGA/DTG curves that thermal stability and maximum thermal degradation rates of hemicelloses were contiguous after steam explosion and biodegradation of Lentinus edodes. Structural determination based on FT-IR and 1H, and 2D-HSQC NMR analyses showed that the alkali-extractable hemicelluloses shared the structure composed of (1 → 4)-linked β-d-xylopyranosyl backbone with 4-O-methyl-R-d-glucuronic acid attached to O-2 of the xylose residues and l-arabinose attached to O-3 of the xylose residues. And it revealed that the extractable hemicelluloses retained original structure without cleaving chemical linkages. Furthermore, a small amount of other minor hemicelluloses (β-glucans) including xylans in the extractable hemicelluloses could be identified by NMR and other approaches.
  • Molecules and functions of rosewood: Pterocarpus cambodianus

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Lou Junwei, Chen Juntao, Ni Changyu, Wanxi Peng Pterocarpus is a high-end, expensive furniture materials collectively. Pterocarpus products have a certain human health function. In this paper, Pterocarpus cambodianus Pierre as an example, we study its human health components by using PY–GC–MS, TDS–GC–MS and GC–MS. The composition of known human health functions was studied by reviewing the literature. 1-Heptatriacotanol has anti-hypercholesterolemic effects. Cryptomeridiol is a natural product of anti-Alzheimer's disease and antispasmodic nature, and has a significant medicinal value. 7-Methyl-Z-tetradecen-1-ol acetate has the effect of heat and heat cough. .alpha.-Bisabolol can be used to treat leishmaniasis caused by Lactobacillus infants.
  • Molecules and functions of rosewood: Diospyros celebica

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Juntao Chen, Changyu Ni, Junwei Lou, Wanxi Peng Pterocarpus and Pterocarpus products have certain human health function. In this paper, Diospyros celebica Bakh as an example, we study its human health components by using PY–GC–MS, TDS–GC–MS and GC–MS. The composition of known human health functions was studied by reviewing the literature. 3-O-Methyl-d-glucose has a certain conservation property, and it can protect the pancreatic B cells against the toxicity of alloxan. P-Cresol plays a role in endothelial dysfunction in uremic patients, and it can repair wounds and reduce endothelial progression. 2(3H)-Furanone, 5-methyl-has certain biological resistance, and has high antimicrobial activity against NCIM 2501 and NCIM 5021.
  • A polycarboxylate as a superplasticizer for montmorillonite clay in
           cement: Adsorption and tolerance studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Gang Chen, Jiaheng Lei, Yong Du, Xiaodi Du, Xuebing Chen A novel polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PCE) with a long polyoxyethylene (PEO) chain and a terminal carboxylic group was synthesized from a modified polyether (SAE-IPEG) to increase its performance in cement. The molecular structure of the PCE was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The performance of synthesized PCE in cement was studied in the absence and the presence of montmorillonite (Mmt) clay. It was found that the PCE disperses in cement uniformly without aggregation, which is different significantly from the conventional PCEs. Adsorption measurements and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the synthesized PCE only interacted with Mmt via surface adsorption, whereas the conventional PCEs interact with the clay through the surface adsorption and the chemical intercalation. Such dramatic change could be ascribed to the introduction of an electronegative carboxylic acid group as a terminal group into the long polyoxyethylene chain of PCE, which reduced the adsorption and enhanced tolerance of PCE on Mmt.
  • Investigations of addition of low fractions of nanoclay/latex
           nanocomposite on mechanical and morphological properties of cementitious

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Mehdi Hatami, Akbar Dehghan, Nader Djafarzadeh In this study, we report the synthesis, characterization and performance of organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH) cementitious nanocomposites. OIH was synthesized by the insertion of polymer latex particles in the structure of clay nanoplates. Polymer latex particles were prepared by the polymerization of three different organic monomer comprising styrene monomer (St), 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (EHA), and methacrylic acid (MAA). Poly(St/EHA/MAA) was prepared by a semi-continuous emulsion polymerization process. The prepared OIH was used to modify the cement paste properties. For the fabrication of latex structure various composition of methacrylic acid as a functional monomer was examined. The effect of the variety of the percentage of MAA on latex composition, and also the OIH to cement ratios were optimized. The optimum conditions were applied to the fabrication of nanoclay based blends. The effects of OIH onto the cement paste properties were evaluated by measuring of the compressive and flexural strength analyses. The obtained results showed that the best composition in cementitious matrix was related to the sample of OIH namely CP565, in which comprises of five percent nanoclay. Also FT-IR, XRD, and SEM analyses were performed to exactly identify the effects of OIH onto the cementitious matrix properties.
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s):
  • Hierarchical nanocrystalline NiO with coral-like structure derived from
           nickel galactarate dihydrate: An active mesoporous catalyst for methyl
           ethyl ketone production

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Samih A. Halawy, Mohamed A. Mohamed, Adel Abdelkader Nanocrystalline NiO with a coral-like structure (38 nm) has been prepared via thermal decomposition of a new precursor, nickel galactarate (NiC6H8O8·2H2O), at 500 °C for 3 h in air. Thermal decomposition of that precursor was studied by TG and DSC techniques. The resultant NiO was physicochemically characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, surface area, porosity and CO2-TPD. NiO was found to exhibit a remarkable activity towards the synthesis of MEK from 2-butanol between 200 and 325 °C. In addition, it has shown a great tendency to ease regeneration of the used catalyst after 192 h in stream by simple refreshing method.
  • Tailored surface silica nanoparticles for blood-brain barrier penetration:
           Preparation and in vivo investigation

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): B.I. Tamba, V. Streinu, G. Foltea, A.N. Neagu, G. Dodi, M. Zlei, A. Tijani, C. Stefanescu Surface modified fluorescent silica nanoparticle derivatives (Ru@SNPs), namely, glucose (Glu) and glucose-poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether amine (Glu-PEG) coated SNPs were designed and tested for their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in mice brain. The new obtained nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR-ATR) analysis. The BBB penetration and distribution of tailored SNPs in mice brain were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), flow cytometer (FACS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The promising results obtained by in vivo experiments, point out that silica nanoparticle derivatives are an efficient permeable delivery vehicle that are able to cross the BBB and reach the brain tissues via specific and non-specific mechanisms. These findings will enrich the knowledge to rationally engineer multifunctional nanoparticles, and bring new insights into BBB permeability.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • In vitro and in vivo characterization of mineralized
           hydroxyapatite/polycaprolactone-graphene oxide based bioactive
           multifunctional coating on Ti alloy for bone implant applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Nagaraj Murugan, Chandran Murugan, Ashok K. Sundramoorthy Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a form of naturally occurring calcium apatite present in bone and tooth enamel. It is an important biomaterial with diverse biomedical applications such as a surface coating for metallic orthopedic implants. Synthesized pristine HAP has poor mechanical properties, inferior wear resistance and has limits for directly used in bone tissue engineering applications. To address these limitations, we synthesized a suitable orthopedic implant hybrid material (M-HAP/PCL/GO) by using positively charged calcium ions of mineralized HAP (M-HAP) combined with Polycaprolactone-negatively charged graphene oxide (PCL-GO). The successfully synthesized M-HAP/PCL/GO composite was comprehensively characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The micro-hardness technique was used to determine the mechanical strength of M-HAP (315 ± 4 Hv), M-HAP/GO (370 ± 3 Hv) and M-HAP/PCL/GO (455 ± 5 Hv). M-HAP/PCL/GO was also tested for its anti-bactericidal impact against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. MG63 osteoblast cells cultured on the M-HAP/PCL/GO composite (10 mg/mL) coated sample, displayed outstanding viability after 3 and 5 days of incubation at pH 7.4, which indicated that the composite is suitable material for bone implants and induces the cell proliferation. It was also tested in vivo in Wistar rats and was observably beneficial bone formation within 28 days post-implant operation. These tests proved that the M-HAP/PCL/GO composite can be considered as a prospective candidate for future bone implant applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Unveiling an unexpected potential of beetroot waste in green synthesis of
           single crystalline gold nanoplates: A mechanistic study

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 6Author(s): Girish K. Deokar, Arun G. Ingale A novel green synthetic route developed toward unveiling a mechanism of formation of single crystalline gold (Au) nanoplates, with a flat surface using an aqueous extract of red beetroot waste (BRW) i.e. peel, at room temperature, the first time. The green method monitored using UV–VIS spectrophotometry, the presence of metallic gold, its structure; orientation and the responsible biomolecules; for reduction validated using EDS, XPS, XRD and FTIR spectroscopies respectively. Based on these significant characterizations, a probable three-step mechanism proposed here for nanoplate synthesis. First, the synthesis of the nanosphere, second its transformation into icosahedrons and ultimately its fragmentation into triangular nanoplates. The green synthetic mechanism for these nanoplates is investigated, validated and evidenced by both HR-TEM and XRD studies. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and the assessment of Moire’ fringes confirmed that the nanoplates formed in this manner found single crystalline efficiently oriented in {1 1 1} lattice plane as their basal planes.Graphical abstractImplementation of productively principles for synthesis of single crystalline triangular gold nanoplates.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Keto-enol tautomerism in new silatranes Schiff bases tailed with different
           substituted salicylic aldehyde

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Alexandra Bargan, Mirela Fernanda Zaltariov, Angelica Vlad, Ana-Maria-Corina Dumitriu, Alina Soroceanu, Ana-Maria Macsim, Mihaela Dascalu, Cristian Dragos Varganici, Maria Cazacu, Sergiu Shova New Schiff base-type products starting from 1-(3-aminopropyl)silatrane and three derivatives of salicylaldehyde having as substituents 3,5-dichloro- (1), 3-methoxy- (2) and 3,5-di-tert-butyl- (3), respectively were obtained and isolated with high yields (78-87%) in pure, crystalline forms and their structures were established by different methods. The molecular electronic transitions of the compounds in solvents with various polarities were investigated by UV-Vis spectral analysis. Their thermal behavior was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimmetry, results of the latter highlighting thermocromism of the compounds proved by the appearance of IR absorption bands specific for enolic form at temperature corresponding to each sample. The moisture sorption capacity and stability of the compounds in wet environment were investigated by vapor sorption analysis in dynamic regime and IR spectroscopy. The biological activity was assessed by specific tests. All results were discussed in correlation with the nature of substituents and structures formed. The chemical handling of the silatrane tail, by using different substituents on the silicon atom would allow fine tuning of the compounds properties.
  • TiO2/Carbon Dots Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites from Waste
           Car Bumper and TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Hanan H. Mohamed, Aamerah A. Alsanea Upcycling waste car bumper to value added carbon based nanomaterials has been achieved through facile catalytic pyrolysis. As synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles has been used for the first time as catalyst during pyrolysis process of the waste. The quality and the performance of the produced carbon nanomaterials have been evaluated through different characterization techniques. The results show that, while rGO were produced from the thermal pyrolysis of waste car bumper in absence of TiO2 catalyst, rGO decorated with carbon dots have been produced in presence of TiO2 catalyst. Interestingly, simultaneous TiO2 rutile to anatase phase transformation and carbon nanomaterials formation has been occurred upon the catalytic transformation of the waste car bumper, however, an expected anatase to rutile transformation has been observed upon thermal treatment of TiO2 in the absence of the bumper. The photocatalytic performance of the created TiO2/CDs/rGO has been tested for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. This paper provides a first attempt as an innovative approach to the upcycling waste into novel and high performance carbon nanomaterials for the application in photocatalysis. This innovative approach can be utilized to create various carbon nanocomposites utilizing metal oxides as catalyst and different plastic waste system as a carbon resource.
  • Characterization of Agar-CMC/Ag-MMT nanocomposite and evaluation of
           antibacterial and mechanical properties for packaging applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Dipak Makwana, Johanna Castaño, Rajesh S Somani, Hari C Bajaj The effect of silver modified montmorillonite (Ag-MMT) on the physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of agar-carboxymethyl cellulose (agar-CMC) bionanocomposites film, prepared by a solution intercalation method were investigated. The nanocomposite of agar and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with Ag-MMT (based on Indigenous clay) has a promise in designing eco-friendly antibacterial packaging. The films were tested for transmittance, tensile and X-Ray diffraction patterns which indicated that Ag-MMT the most compatible with Agar-CMC matrix. The Agar-CMC/Ag-MMT bio-nanocomposite films exhibited a great antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Overall, it is seen that the Agar-CMC/Ag-MMT bionanocomposite films could be used as packaging material for food preservation by controlling foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.
  • Adsorbent materials based on a geopolymer paste for dye removal from
           aqueous solutions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Ali Maleki, Masita Mohammad, Zeynab Emdadi, Nilofar Asim, Mojtaba Azizi, Javad Safaei Geopolymers are porous materials that can be used as basic dye adsorbents in wastewater treatment. In this work, a green geopolymer paste synthesized from industrial and agricultural waste materials was employed as an adsorbent to remove the basic dye methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The geopolymer sample was characterized by X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer Emmet Teller surface area measurements, and particle size techniques. The isotherms of dye adsorption by the geopolymer sample were considered by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The removal efficiency increased with increasing geopolymer dosage, contact time and temperature. The Freundlich isotherm exhibited the best fit to the adsorption data.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Intraspecific chemical variability of the Essential Oils of Moroccan

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mohamed Bakha, Noureddine El Mtili, Nathalie Machon, Kaoutar Aboukhalid, Fatima Zahra Amchra, Abdelkarim Khiraoui, Marc Gibernau, Félix Tomi, Chaouki Al Faiz In this study, the chemical variation of the essential oils of the endemic species Origanum elongatum has been studied in its biogeographical context. Essential oils of 168 individual plants collected from 30 populations growing wild in two Moroccan mountains: Rif and Middle Atlas, were analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector), GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry) and 13C NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). Origanum elongatum produces an EOs yielding after hydrodistillation from 0.81% to 3.12% based on the dry weight of the original biomass. 28 compounds were identified, with a majority of oxygenated monoterpenes among them carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene constitute the most represented compounds. Moreover, a great amount of α-terpinene, limonene, thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone were reported in some samples. Four chemical groups have been identified, namely; carvacrol, carvacrol/thymol, carvacrol/p-cymene and thymol. The geographic distributions of these chemotypes appear to vary since the carvacrol chemotype was the most distributed, while the thymol was found more abundantly in populations from Rif. However, the carvacrol/p-cymene chemotype was revealed only in Taza region. For the first time the whole chemical picture of the EOs of O. elongatum is presented in relation to their geographical distribution such knowledge is primordial in developing a breeding program in order to protect this species widely and intensively used for both medicinal and food uses but also supply the continuous market needs by producing high quality and stable raw material.
  • A new copper(II) chelate complex with polyamines as fire retardant and
           epoxy hardener: Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure, and thermal
           behavior of (ethylenediamine-N, N')-(diethylenetriamine-N, N',
           N'')-copper(II) hexafluoridosilicate

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Helen Lavrenyuk, Borys Mykhalichko, Błażej Dziuk, Volodymyr Olijnyk, Oleg Mykhalichko A new (ethylenediamine-N, N')-(diethylenetriamine-N, N', N'')-copper(II) hexafluoridosilicate complex, [Cu(eda)(deta)]SiF6 (1) (eda – ethylenediamine; deta – diethylenetriamine), was synthesized by direct interaction of anhydrous CuSiF6 with polyethylenepolyamine (pepa – H2N[–C2H4NH–]nH, where n = 1 (eda) and 2 (deta)). The crystals of 1 were characterized by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consists of SiF62– discrete anions and [Cu(eda)(deta)]2+ complex cations whose Cu2+ ions are chelated by eda and deta. The coordination polyhedron of Cu(II) atom is an elongated square pyramid which consists of four nitrogen atoms belonging to –NH2 groups of EDA and –NH2 and –NH– groups of deta at the base of the pyramid and of one more nitrogen atom from –NH2 group of deta at its apical position. Ab initio quantum-chemical calculations of chelation process were carried out for 1 by the restricted Hartree-Fock method using a 6-31G∗ basis set. The influence of the chelate complex 1 upon its fire retardant properties was analyzed. The calculated electron-stereo-chemical parameters for 1 are in a good agreement with its thermal parameters investigated by differential thermal analysis. The thermal decomposition of 1 is finished off at 368°C and the maximal combustion temperature of gaseous decomposition products is 544°C.
  • High Pressure Study Of Nitrogen Doped Carbon Nanotubes Using Raman
           Spectroscopy And Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Weiguang Shi, Hao Liu, Zhaohui Dong, Zhongying Mi, Sean Shieh, Sun Xueliang, Xiaoyang Liu In this study, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (CNx-NTs) with a 8.4 % nitrogen content were investigated under high pressure using Raman spectroscopy as well as X ray diffraction (XRD) with synchrotron radiation. For comparison purpose, high pressure behaviors of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without nitrogen were studied as well. Two phase transformations were identified in CNx-NTs, which can be assigned to tube shape change from circular to ellipse-like and then to flatten shape. In strong contrast, no obvious phase transition was found in CNTs. In addition to the tube shape change, a high pressure M-carbon phase was also evidenced by XRD. Both CNTs and CNx-NTs showed axial dependent compressibility under high pressure. Furthermore, this study found the CNx-NTs acted more complexly than carbon in other forms such as single wall CNTs, multiwall CNTs, and graphite, suggesting the doping of nitrogen in addition to the wall thickness affect the properties of CNx-NTs under high pressure. Especially the doping of nitrogen could also help to extend the appearance of M-carbon phase to lower pressure range. Finally, the TEM images also show the retrieved CNx-NTs were partially amorphousized, which was believed due to new high pressure phase formed at high pressure.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Mechanistic roles of substitutional Fe dopants on catalytic
           acetylene-sensing process of flame-made SnO2 nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Jirasak Sukunta, Anurat Wisitsoraat, Adisorn Tuantranont, Sukon Phanichphant, Chaikarn Liewhiran In this work, flame-spray-made Fe-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were comprehensively investigated for acetylene (C2H2) detection and the roles of Fe dopants on sensing mechanisms were explored. The sensing material properties were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray absorption/photoemission spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. The structural characterizations confirmed that the nanoparticles had a tetragonal nanocrystalline SnO2 phase and Fe3+ dopant species formed a solid solution with SnO2 lattice. The sensors were measured towards 0.15–3 vol% C2H2 in dry air at various working temperatures (200−350°C). Gas-sensing data demonstrated that the optimal Fe doping level of 0.1 wt% led to a substantially enhanced response of 748.7 toward 3 vol% C2H2 with a decent response time of 2.5 s at the optimal working temperature of 300°C. Furthermore, the optimal SnO2 sensor demonstrated high C2H2 selectivity against C2H5OH, NO2, H2, NH3, CO2, NO, H2S, CH4, C2H4O, C2H4 and N2O. Additional detailed analyses suggested that Fe3+ species played catalytic roles for enhancing C2H2 dissociation and oxidation. Thus, the Fe-doped SnO2 sensors were highly promising for selective and sensitive detections of acetylene in industrial applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Biodiesel Production Evaluating the Use and Reuse of Magnetic
           Nanocatalysts Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): J. Dantas, E. Leal, D.R. Cornejo, A.C.F.M. Costa Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, successfully synthesized by combustion reaction, with special differential in the production, starting from the scale of 10 g/production to a pilot-scale reproducibility of up to 200 g/production, were used and reused as heterogeneous magnetic nanocatalysts in the reactions of biodiesel production. The obtained nanocatalysts were highly efficient in the biodiesel production with soybean oil, such by the methyl as ethyl routes. It was obtained the best activity in the esterification reaction, favoring conversions of up to 99.54 ± 0.16% on the methyl route and up to 99.38 ± 0.18% on the ethyl route. As regards transesterification, the maximum conversion achieved was 14%. Biodiesel was characterized in terms of viscosity, density, acidity and iodine ratios, whose obtained values ​​place the produced biodiesel within the specifications applicable to the quality standards for its commercialization. MNP were characterized by XRD, BET, TEM, AGM and TPD. Besides, the nanocatalyst was recovered with the help of a simple external magnetic field (magnet) and reused in another 3 cycles, without significant loss in the catalytic activity, indicating considerable stability. Therefore, the nanoferrite Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 can be validated as a new environmentally correct catalyst for the heterogeneous catalysis in the field of biodiesel production.
  • Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Chitosan Biguanidine

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Yasmine A. Maher, Mohamed E.A. Ali, Hend E. Salama, Magdy W. Sabaa Scale deposition is considered as one of the most critical problems leading to permeate flux decline and deterioration of membrane surface in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants. This study aims to preparation of novel high effective scale inhibitor, chitosan biguanidine hydrochloride (CG), to inhibit the precipitation of calcium sulfate and carbonate onto the membrane surface. The modification of Chitosan by the guanidine group was to enhance its solubility in water, because chitosan as it is dissolves only in moderately acidic solutions. CG was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, 13C NMR and 1H NMR. The inhibition efficiency of our antiscalant was evaluated against CaSO4 and CaCO3 solutions at both static (induction time) and real application tests (cross-flow unit for 6 hours). CG showed a good performance as scale inhibitor for CaSO4 and CaCO3 at about 10 and 15 mg. L-1 with flux decline of 2.6 and 5% in feed water, respectively. In addition, the induction time of precipitation of CaSO4 increased from 3 to 15 min with the addition of CG. SEM analysis at different magnifications for Cs and CG proved that CG strongly affects the morphology of the precipitated calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate leading to distortion of crystals.
  • Paper flower-derived porous carbons with high-capacitance by chemical and
           physical activation for sustainable applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Pitchaimani Veerakumar, Thandavarayan Maiyalagan, Balasubramaniam Gnana Sundara Raj, Kuppuswamy Guruprasad, Zhongqing Jiang, King-Chuen Lin Porous carbon nanosheets were prepared by the carbonization of paper flower via chemical and physical activation. The structural properties of the as-prepared carbons were characterized using the techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, N2 sorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the related morphological analyses were conducted using scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM). The obtained carbons exhibit a high specific surface area up to 1801 m2 g-1 with a robust porous graphitic carbon layer structure, which provides the merits for potential application in energy storage and dye removal. We carried out potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements using a three-electrode cell in 1.0 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, and achieved a specific capacitance of 118, 109.5, 101.7, 93.6, and 91.2 F g-1 at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 A g-1, respectively. The stability at 12 A g-1 was tested to reach 10,000 cycles with capacity retention of around 97.4%. We have demonstrated that the paper flower-derived carbons at activation temperature 800 °C (PFC-800) can be used as a promising electrode material in supercapacitor. PFC-800 can also serve as an efficient sunset yellow dye removal, showing the maximum adsorption capacity for sunset yellow (Q0, 273.6 mg g-1).Graphical abstractBougainvillea Spectabilis flower derived porous carbon exhibit an excellent electrode material for electrical double layer supercapacitors and dye removal applications.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Ionic Liquid assisted growth of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/ Reduced
           Graphene Oxide based electrode: An improved electro-catalytic performance
           for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides in beverages

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Shweta Rana, Ranjeet Kaur, Roshni Jain, Nirmal Prabhakar An enzyme based nanocomposite host matrix comprising of Polyethylenedioxythiophene and 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquid functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PEDOT/ILRGO) has been designed for the electrochemical detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). Interactions between reduced graphene oxide and ionic liquid have resulted in better loading of the same onto the PEDOT matrix. A detail redox analysis highlights the increased surface area and more number of charge carriers enabling the redox inhibition mechanism more efficient in the designed electrode. The biosensor works on the principle of generation of thiocholine by reaction between acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and substrate acethylthiocholine iodide (ATChI), which undergoes oxidation resulting in redox peaks. Under the optimized conditions, three different OPs chlorpyrifos (CP), malathion (ML) and methyl parathion (MP) were analyzed by varying concentrations with limit of detection calculated to be 0.04 ng ml-1, 0.117 ng ml-1 and 0.108 ng ml-1 respectively, all below 0.2 µg ml-1 concentration which is their maximum residual limit, hence exhibiting good sensitivity. The prepared sensor offers 91.7% of reactivation and good stability for 15-20 days with 95.7% of initial current response retainment, reflecting its excellent potency as an organophosphorus pesticide sensor.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Synthesis and application of a triazine derivative containing boron as
           flame retardant in epoxy resins

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Shanshan Chen, Lianghui Ai, Tie Zhang, Ping Liu, Weishi Liu, Yonghong Pan, Dongfa Liu A halogen-free, organic boron/nitrogen compound, 2,4,6-tris-(4-boronphenoxy)-(1,3,5)-triazine (TNB), was synthesized. The thermal and flame-retardant properties of epoxy resins (EP) containing TNB were investigated based on TGA, limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning (UL 94) and cone calorimeter tests. The results showed that the residual char of EP increased after TNB was present. The LOI value of EP/20%TNB reached 31.2% and UL 94 V-0 rating was achieved. The peak heat release rate and total heat release of EP/20%TNB reduced to 305.3 kW/m2 and 58.0 MJ/m2, respectively. In addition, the flame-retarding mechanism was investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis-infrared spectroscopy. The results show that TNB is an efficient flame retardant, which is effective in the gas and condensed phases simultaneously.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Improved Corrosion Resistance of Mild Steel in Acidic Solution by
           Hydrazone Derivatives: An Experimental and Computational Study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Hassane Lgaz, Ill-Min Chung, Mustafa R. Albayati, Abdelkarim Chaouiki, Rachid Salghi, Shaaban K. Mohamed Poor corrosion resistance of mild steel (MS) is a serious concern in many industrial applications. Application of corrosion inhibitors is a possible solution to combat steel corrosion. As yet, there is very little research reported focusing on hydrazone derivatives as corrosion inhibitors, here we present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the adsorption of three newly synthesized hydrazones (HDZs), namely, (E)-N'-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene)-2-((2,3-dimethylphenyl)amino)benzohydrazide (HDZ-1), (E)-2-((2,3-dimethylphenyl)amino)-N'-(4-methylbenzylidene)benzohydrazide, (HDZ-2) and (E)-N'-benzylidene-2-((2,3-dimethylphenyl)amino)benzohydrazide (HDZ-3) on the MS surface in 1 M HCl. The interaction of HDZs and the metal surface was investigated using electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), DFT and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. XPS shows that inhibitor molecules form a stable layer on steel surface through chemical and physical interactions. HDZs adsorption onto the steel surface was found to follow Langmuir model. Furthermore, electrochemical measurement results demonstrated that our developed inhibitors act as of mixed-type (anodic and cathodic), with HDZ-1 showing the highest polarization resistance and lowest corrosion current density. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the surface morphology of the steel samples. The new hydrazones showed significantly improved steel corrosion resistance, which provides opportunities to explore the inhibitive activity of structurally similar compounds.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • The effect of polyethylene glycols on the interaction and stability of
           AOT/water/isooctane microemulsions

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Dashuang Fan, Zhiguo Hao, Peizhu Zheng, Jihua Zhao, Weiguo Shen The influence of water-soluble polyethylene glycols PEG200 on the properties of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)-sulfosuccinate (AOT) water-in-isooctane microemulsions has been investigated by conductivity measurements and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC). The percolation temperatures (Tp), the thermodynamic properties of droplet aggregation and the interaction enthalpy (–ΔHφ) between droplets for AOT/water/PEG200/isooctane with different PEG concentrations and a fixed molar ratio of water to surfactant ω = 22.2 were determined. Based on a two-stage thermodynamic approach of the percolation, we obtained the fusion enthalpy (ΔHfo) of the close contact droplets by a combination of the droplet aggregation enthalpy (ΔHago) and –ΔHφ. It was found that both (–ΔHφ) and (ΔHfo) varied with the concentration of PEG200 (cPEG) and had the extreme value at cPEG = 25 g L-1. This phenomenon was interpreted by the variation of interface rigidity due to the varied distributions of added PEG200 between the water pool and the surfactant interface.
  • Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Aqueous Fraction of
           Parkinsonea aculeata L. Growing in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Wafaa H.B. Hassan, Sahar Abdelaziz, Hanan M. Al Yousef Polyphenolic constituents and chromatographic fingerprint of the aqueous fraction obtained from the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Parkinsonea aculeata L. growing in Saudi Arabia were investigated for the first time using UPLC-ESI/MS/MS in negative mode. Forty compounds were tentatively identified including sixteen C-flavone glycosides, twenty-two O-flavone glycosides, and two polymethoxylated flavonoids. Compounds identification was based on the MS/MS fragmentation and literature comparison. The aqueous fraction fingerprint is rich in C- and O- flavone glycosides, like apigenin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (vitexin), vitexin 2″-O-rhamnoside, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin), luteolin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-rhamnoside and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside. These compounds were identified for the first time in the aqueous fraction of Saudi P. aculeata L. plant. Additionally, the antioxidant and anticancer activities were investigated. The aqueous fraction showed a strong DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 48.3 ± 1.5 μg / mL compared to ascorbic acid 14.2 ± 0.5 μg / mL. However, this fraction showed a very weak cytotoxic activity against HepG-2 (Hepatocellular carcinoma) and MCF-7 (Breast carcinoma) with IC50 222 ± 1.8 and 304 ± 9.2 µg/ml respectively compared to cisplatin IC50 3.67 ± 8.1 and 5.71 ± 3.8 µg/ml respectively.
  • Time-Biased Square Wave Differential Electrolytic Potentiometry for
           Determination of Ascorbic Acid in a Complex Matrix at Multi-Walled Carbon
           Nanotubes Modified Silver Electrodes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Abdalghaffar Mohammad Osman, Abdullah Mahmud Abulkibash, Muataz Ali Atieh Carbon nanotubes modified silver electrodes (CNT/Ag) have been prepared by the catalytic decomposition of ethylene in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. CNTs growth parameters such as ratio of ethylene to hydrogen, temperature and time were optimized, to enhance the electrode functionality for application. The electrode surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The optimum ethylene to hydrogen (C2H2:H2) ratio, temperature and time were found to be 75:90 sccm, 800 °C, and 20 min respectively. The CNTs modified metal electrodes prepared by this method exhibited well adhesion of the CNTs to the metal surface enabling their use for multiple times. The modified silver electrodes were successfully applied as indicating system in biased square wave differential electrolytic potentiometry (DEP) for the determination of ascorbic acid in a drug formulation and complex Baobab fruit matrix. CNTs/Ag electrodes showed high performance and durability, and the biased square wave led to enhanced DEP signal and lowered the detection limit for ascorbic acid to less than 25 µM. These promising results open the way for the use of CNTs/Ag electrodes as indicating setup for automated flowing systems like flow injection analysis.
  • A completely green approach to the synthesis of dendritic silver
           nanostructures starting from white grape pomace as a potential nanofactory

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Katya Carbone, Mariano Paliotta, Laura Micheli, Claudia Mazzuca, Ilaria Cacciotti, Francesca Nocente, Alessandra Ciampa, Maria Teresa Dell'Abate A simple, eco-friendly, cost-effective and rapid microwave-assisted method has been developed to synthetize dendritic silver nanostructures, composed of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), using white grape pomace aqueous extract (WGPE) as both reducing and capping agent. With this aim, WGPE and AgNO3 (1mM) were mixed at different ratio, and microwave irradiated at 700 watt, for 40 s. To understand the role of bioactive compounds involved in the green synthesis of AgNPs, preliminary chemical characterization, FT-IR analysis and 1H-NMR metabolite profiling of WGPE were carried out. The effects of bioactive extract concentration and stability over time on AgNPs formation were also evaluated. WGPE-mediated silver nanostructures were then characterized by UV-vis, FTIR analyses, and scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the formation of dendritic nanostructures, originated from the self-assembly of Ag rounded nanoparticles (average diameter of 33 ± 6 nm), was observed and ascribed to the use of microwave power and the presence of organic components within the used WGPE, inducing an anisotropic crystal growth and promoting a diffusion-limited aggregation mechanism. The bio-dendritic synthetized nanostructures were also evaluated for potential applications in bio-sensing and agricultural fields. Cyclic voltammetry measurements in 0.5 M phosphate + 0.1 M KCl buffer, pH 7.4 showed that green AgNPs possess the electroactive properties typical of AgNPs produced using chemical protocol. The biological activity of synthetized AgNPs was evaluated by in-vitro antifungal activity against F. graminearum. Additionally, a phytotoxicity evaluation of synthetized green nanostructures was carried out on wheat seed germination. Results highlighted the potential of WGPE as green agent for bio-inspired nanomaterial synthesis, and of green Ag nanostructures, which can be used as antifungal agent and in biosensing applications.
  • Synergistic interface between Co3O4 and MgAl2O4 in CO2 assisted continuous

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Venkata Rao Madduluri, Peddinti Nagaiah, Challa Prathap, K. Vasikarappa, Ajmeera Nagu, Burri David Raju, Kamaraju Seetha Rama Rao A Series of Co3O4/MgAl2O4 spinel catalysts were prepared by conventional co-precipitation method with various Co loadings (0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25) keeping Mg/Al atomic ratio of 1.0 with over all Co+Mg+Al concentration at 3.0. Catalysts characteristics were throughly obtained by X ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis Diffuse reflectance spectra, Temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), NH3 and CO2 Temperture programmed desorption (TPD), CO2 pulse chemisorption, CHNS elemental analysis, and Surface area techniques. The superior catalytic activity accomplished by the catalyst with Co concentration of 1.0 (Co3O4/MgAl2O4), for an oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene can be ascribed to the presence of more number of active Co species. Co-precipitation method seems to be a excellent method in maintaining better synergistic influence, more number of active solid solution species such as MgCo2O4 or MgxCo(1-x)Al2O4 which were advantageous role for better catalytic efficiency. Suitable number of optimized acidic-basic properties measured by NH3 and CO2-TPD analysis was another property influencing the activity with respect to desired product contribution. Higher, 81.2% ethylbenzene conversion (81.2%) with 98% styrene selectivity was attained on 1.0Co3O4/MgAl2O4 in comparision to Co3O4/MgO, and Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 catalysts. According to the CO2 pulse chemisorption reaction with dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene over 1.0Co3O4/MgAl2O4 resulted to get superior CO yield which was promised to get higher ethylbenzene conversion as well as styrene selectivity.Graphical abstractCMA catalysts afforded superior EB conversion and ST selectivity comapared to repotrted cobalt based and other solid oxide catalysts.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Amorphous content on the photocatalytic performance of micrometer-sized
           tungsten trioxide particles

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Asep Bayu Dani Nandiyanto, Rosi Oktiani, Risti Ragadhita, Ajeng Sukmafitri, Rena Zaen The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between amorphous content and the characteristics of micrometer-sized photocatalyst particles. As a model of photocatalyst, tungsten trioxide (WO3) particles with controllable amorphous contents were used. To comprehend the amorphous content parameter precisely, the experiments were conducted by heating amorphous WO3 powders at a specific temperature without additional chemicals or solvents. Thus, the percentage of amorphous in the WO3 particles was controlled independently in the constant particle outer sizes and morphology. Micrometer-sized catalyst was used to avoid the misleading photocatalytic measurements due to the over-dominancy of other catalytic parameters (such as excessive surface area and quantum confinement effect). The results revealed that in the constant process condition, the photocatalytic properties were strongly dependent on the amorphous content in the catalyst. Decreases in this parameter had a strong influence to the enhancement of the photodecomposition rate of organic material. The tendency for the influence of amorphous content was also confirmed by varying the number of catalysts in the photocatalytic process. The study was also completed with the theoretical consideration for the phenomenon happening during the WO3 crystallization (transformation of amorphous into hexagonal and monoclinic crystal structure) and the photocatalytic process.
  • Functionalized electrospun carbon nanofibers for removal of cationic dye

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Badr M. Thamer, Hany El-Hamshary, Salem S. Al-Deyab, Mohamed H. El-Newehy Electrospun carbon nanofibers (ECNFs) have attracted significant attention in recent years as relatively inexpensive alternative to carbon nanotubes for adsorption organic pollutants. In this study, ECNFs were fabricated from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) using an electrospinning technique, followed by carbonization and oxidation via treatment with a H2SO4/HNO3 mixture. The prepared oxidized electrospun carbon nanofibers (O-ECNFs) were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The O-ECNFs were used as nano-adsorbents for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The adsorption of MB by the O-ECNFs was studied as a function of pH, time, adsorbent dosage, MB concentration, and temperature. ECNF functionalization enhanced the adsorption capacity towards MB dye compared pristine ECNFs. Detailed analysis of the adsorption kinetics showed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherm was best fit by the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic results showed that MB adsorption onto the O-ECNFs was endothermic and spontaneous.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Quantitative screening of parabens in Ready-to-eat foodstuffs available in
           the Saudi market using high performance liquid chromatography with
           photodiode array detection

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Hadir M. Maher, Nourah Z. Alzoman, Munira Abdulaziz Almeshal, Hawazin Abdullah Alotaibi, Njoud Naif Alotaibi, Hessa Al-Showiman Parabens are widely used as preservatives in thousands of consumer’s products including, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, and foodstuffs. Concern in regards to the safety of parabens has been raised where parabens have been classified as “Endocrine distributing compounds” with potential link to many tumor types. Despite their wide spread, the occurrence of parabens in foodstuffs available in the Saudi market has not been studied until now. In this work, an HPLC-PDA method was developed and validated for the screening of parabens’ residues in different categories of Ready-to-eat foodstuffs collected from the Saudi market. These categories include: cereals, meat, fish, dairy product, bean products, fruits, vegetables, cookies and snacks, beverages, condiments, and others. Chromatographic analysis of the selected parabens (Methyl paraben MeP ,ethyl paraben EtP, propyl paraben PrP, butyl paraben BuP, and isobutyl paraben isoBuP) was performed on Symmetry® C-18 Colum (4.6×75mm,3.5μm) with methanol/water (57:43,v/v) as the mobile phase and using simply methanol for sample preparation . The proposed method was fully validated with regards to linearity, limits of detection (LOD) and of quantification (LOQ), accuracy and precision, extraction recovery, and specificity. Matrix-based calibration curves were linear in the range 0.025-500 μg/g (MeP, EtP), 0.05-500 μg/g (PrP), and 0.125-1250 μg/g (IsoBuP, BuP) with LOQ 0.025 μg/g for MeP, EtP, 0.05 μg/g for PrP, 0.125 μg/g for both BuP and isoBuP. The method was successfully applied for quantitative screening of the five parabens in different Ready-to-eat foodstuffs (n=215) collected from the Saudi market. The total parabens content was determined and was related to the food category and to the packaging material. The highest paraben content was found in cereals and condiments. The type of the packaging material did not have a significant effect on the paraben content among all food categories. Moreover, the estimated daily intake of parabens among the Saudi adults was calculated and it was found to have an average of 2000 μg/kgbw/day.
  • Preparation of nanoparticulate TiO2 containing nanocrystalline phases of
           Anatase and Brookite by electrochemical dissolution of remelted Titanium

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): D. Ortega-Díaz, D. Fernández, S. Sepúlveda, R.R. Lindeke, J.J. Pérez-Bueno, E. Peláez-Abellán, J. Manríquez In this investigation, we present an efficient electrochemical methodology to prepare nano-particulate TiO2 having a nano-crystalline composition of 40% Anatase and 60% Brookite, without need for subsequent thermal treatments (which are typically applied to alter the amount of amorphicity). This procedure for oxide synthesis is novel as it involves the galvanostatic dissolution of remelted Titanium Components, thus constituting a promising technological route for re-using Titanium-containing metallic pieces from the secondary metals industry to produce nano-crystalline TiO2 powders as a high value-added primary product. The experimental results presented showed that the faradaic efficiency of the TiO2 electro-synthesis, crystalline purity, and dispersion of the electro-generated TiO2 material was significant, despite the fact that the titanium content of the remelted titanium components was less than 80%.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Tuning the morphological structure, light absorption, and photocatalytic
           activity of Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl through cerium doping

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mirabbos Hojamberdiev, Zuhra Kadirova, Ehsan Zahedi, Diego Onna, María Claudia Marchi, Gangqiang Zhu, Nobuhiro Matsushita, Masashi Hasegawa, Sara Aldabe Bilmes, Kiyoshi Okada Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are recognized as new classes of water pollutants that receive considerable attention because of their negative environmental impact on aquatic life and humans. Because microbiological and/or conventional secondary physicochemical treatments cannot completely remove those water pollutants, effective advanced oxidation processes using semiconductor-based photocatalysts are needed to ensure their total elimination in water. Here, we report on the tuning of the morphological structure, light absorption, and photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl through cerium doping. Non-doped and Ce-doped Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl powders are synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and their adsorption ability and photocatalytic activity are evaluated for the removal of salicylic acid in the dark and under visible light irradiation, respectively. The adsorption affinities and preferential sites of salicylic acid molecules on non-doped and Ce-doped Bi2WO6, BiOCl, and Bi2WO6-BiOCl are computationally predicted using molecular dynamics simulations. When ethylene glycol is replaced by dilute HCl as a solvent in a hydrothermal system, BiOCl is also formed along with Bi2WO6, confirming the successful formation of a Bi2WO6-BiOCl composite. The flower-like hierarchical structures of Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl can absorb more photon energy due to multiple scattering, charge carriers can easily transfer to the surface/interface, and mesopores can improve the transfer rate of organic molecules, contributing to the overall enhancement in photocatalytic activity. The Bi2WO6-BiOCl samples show higher photocatalytic activity than that of the Bi2WO6 samples for the degradation of salicylic acid due to the formed p–n heterojunction. The optimum concentration of Ce doping is found to be 1 mol% in the Bi2WO6 and Bi2WO6-BiOCl, promoting the effective separation and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers, resulting in high photocatalytic performance, and the sample exhibited good stability.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Comparative studies of sunlight mediated green synthesis of silver
           nanoparaticles from Azadirachta indica leaf extract and its antibacterial
           effect on Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mounil Mankad, Ghanshyam Patil, Dimpy Patel, Parthvi Patel, Armi Patel Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has attracted worldwide attention as it is cheap and non-toxic. Therefore, in present study sunlight mediated silver nanoparticle was synthesized from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Neem) leaf extract. Various combinations i.e., reducing agent (5, 10, 15 and 20 ml leaf extract), substrate concentration (1mM AgNO3) and sunlight durations (5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes) were assessed for their ability to synthesized stabilized AgNPs. Leaf extract provide both reducing and capping agent, while sunlight served as catalyst for the synthesis process. The green synthesized AgNPs were characterized using change in color due to Surface Plasmon Resonance further analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering for size, polydispersity index and zeta potential for stability studies and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The smallest size of synthesized AgNPs was 67.94±0.72 nm synthesized using to 20ml of reducing agent (leaf extract) and 5 minute of sunlight exposure. Antibacterial activity of synthesized silver nanoparticle was examined against plant pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and showed a good antimicrobial activity compared to 200 mg/l of streptocycline.
  • Mesoporous cobalt phosphate electrocatalyst prepared using liquid crystal
           template for methanol oxidation reaction in alkaline solution

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Merfat S. Al-Sharif, Prabhakarn Arunachalam, Twaha Abiti, Mabrook S. Amer, Matar Al-Shalwi, Mohamed A. Ghanem A crystalline mesoporous cobalt phosphate (meso-CoPi) electrocatalyst is prepared using liquid crystal template of non-ionic surfactant of Brij®78. The physicochemical investigations of the electrocatalyst executed by surface area analyzer, XRD, transmission electron microscope submits creation of a mesoporous crystalline nanostructured of meso-CoPi with a surface area of 124 m2g-1. This is an 10-fold greatness superior than that for bulk-CoPi particles produced without surfactant template. The meso-CoPi electrocatalyst comprises of metallic cobalt layered with a cobalt-oxo/hydroxo-phosphate layer which facilitates the electro-oxidation of methanol at modest overpotential of < 1.2 V vs RHE in alkaline solution. The methanol oxidation activity of the meso-CoPi catalyst shows more than 20-fold current increase at 1.4 VRHE in comparison to bulk-CoPi counterpart which due to the enhancement of the electroactive specific surface area. Liquid crystal template chemical approach provides a reproducible stage to synthesize mesoporous metal phosphates with improved electrocatalytic activities.
  • Acylhydrazidate-based porous coordination polymers and reversible I2
           adsorption properties

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Yan-Ning Wang, Rong-Yan Wang, Qing-Feng Yang, Jie-Hui Yu By employing the hydrothermal in situ acylation of organic acids with N2H4, three porous acylhydrazidate-based Zn2+/Cd2+ coordination polymers as [M(L1)(H2O)]·1.5H2O (H2L1 = benzimidazole-5,6-dihydrazide; M2+ = Zn2+1, Cd2+2) and [Zn(HL2)(H2O)]·3H2O (H3L2 = 4,5-(di-(3′,4′-phthalhydrazide))) 3 were obtained. X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis reveals that the frameworks of 1–3 can all be simplified into a (3metal node,3ligand node)-connected net. However, since the ligands are different, they show the distinct structures: a C-tube-like structure for the isostructural 1 and 2; a 103 topology for 3. The cif-checking reports indicate that the solvent accessible voids in the structures of 1–3 are 1055 Å3, 1282.4 Å3, and 978 Å3, respectively. It is noteworthy that 3 is the first example of triacylhydrazidate-based coordination polymer. The investigation of the I2-adsorption property for two Zn2+ compounds suggests that both can adsorb reversibly the I2 molecule. The adsorption amount for 3 (100 mg adsorbing 22.0 mg I2) is a bit higher than that for 1 (100 mg accommodating 15.6 mg I2). However, the adsorption speed for 3 is much faster than that for 1. About 5 s, the I2 adsorption for 3 is close to saturation, while for 1, it is about 20 days. This might be related to the number and the distribution for the uncoordinated N/O atoms on the side walls of the channels.Graphical abstractStructures of three acylhydrazidate-based porous coordination polymers were reported, reversible I2 adsorption properties were investigated, and factors of influencing adsorption property were discussed.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Economical, environmental friendly synthesis, characterization for the
           production of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) nanoparticles with
           enhanced CO2 adsorption

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Imran Ullah Khan, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Asim Jilani, A.F. Ismail, Haslenda Hashim, Juhana Jaafar, Mukhlis A. Rahman, Ghani Ur Rehman Zeolitic imidazole framework 8 (ZIF-8) nanoparticles were successfully synthesized in an aqueous solution at the ambient condition with a relatively low molar ratio of zinc salt and an organic ligand, Zn+2/Hmim (1: 8). ZIF-8 has remarkable thermal and chemical stability, tunable microporous structure, and a great potential for absorption, adsorption, and separation. Various physicochemical characterization techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), attenuated total reflected infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and surface area with pore textural properties by micromeritics gas adsorption equipment were performed to investigate the effect of base type additive triethylamine (TEA) on the morphology, crystallinity, yield, particle and crystal size, thermal stability and microporosity of ZIF-8 nanoparticles. The total quantity of basic sites and carbon dioxide (CO2) desorption aptitude was also calculated using CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD) system. The pure ZIF-8 nanoparticles of 177 nm were formed at TEA/total mole ratio of 0.002. Furthermore, the size of ZIF-8 nanoparticles was decreased to 77 nm with increasing TEA/total mole ratio up to 0.004. The structures, particle sizes and textural properties of ammonia modified ZIF-8 particle can easily be tailored by the amount of aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution. The smallest ZIF-8 nanoparticles obtained were 75 nm after ammonia modification which shows excellent thermal stability and improved microporosity. The ZIF-8 basicity and uptakes of CO2 improved with TEA and ammonia modification which followed the order: A25ml–Z4> Z4> Z3> Z5> Z2> A50ml–Z4. The proposed economical and efficient synthesis method has great potential for large-scale production of ZIF-8.
  • Investigation on the g-C3N4 encapsulated ZnO nanorods heterojunction
           coupled with GO for effective photocatalytic activity under visible light

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): N. Kumaresan, M. Maria Angelin Sinthiya, M. Praveen Kumar, S. Ravichandran, R. Ramesh Babu, K. Sethurman, K. Ramamurthi The present work reports on a novel ternary nanocomposite of ZnO rods encapsulated by graphitic like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and coupled with graphene oxide (GO) prepared by ultrasonication assisted hydrothermal method which provides enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability. Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the surface morphology of ZnO, g-C3N4 (prepared by heating method) and the GO contains nanorods structures, sheet like structures and sheets with porous structures respectively. Formation of rod like structures of ZnO and thin sheet like structures of g-C3N4 were observed from transmission electron microscopy analysis. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of g-C3N4 (6 wt.%)/ZnO nanocomposites showed that ZnO nanorods are encapsulated by the thin sheets of g-C3N4 and g-C3N4(6 wt.%)/ZnO/GO (30 mg) ternary nanocomposites contains porous structures of GO. The optical band gap of ZnO nanoparticles was shifted from 3.08 eV to 2.85 eV for g-C3N4(6 wt.%)/ZnO/GO(30 mg) ternary nanocomposites. Under visible light irradiation the ZnO nanorods and g-C3N4 (6 wt.%)/ZnO showed photodegradation efficiency of ∼21% and 90% respectively for 120 min whereas g-C3N4 (6 wt.%)/ZnO/GO(30 mg) showed about 99% photodegradation efficiency in a time period of 14 min. The recycle process carried out for g-C3N4(6 wt.%)/ZnO/GO(30 mg) composites up to five cycles showed 91.5% of photodegradation in the fifth cycle for a time period of 14 min. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analysis shows removal of carbon content 83% of carbon content in 28 min. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis shows the intermediate products of 1,2 benzenedicarboxylic acid and phthalic acid during the RhB dye photodegradation process. The radical trapping experiment reveals that the photo-induced holes (h+) are one of the main reactive species involved in the degradation of the RhB.
  • β -Ag2MoO4+microcrystals:+correlation+between+experimental+and+theoretical+data&rft.title=Arabian+Journal+of+Chemistry&rft.issn=1878-5352&">Hydrothermal synthesis, structural characterization and photocatalytic
           properties of β -Ag2MoO4 microcrystals: correlation between experimental
           and theoretical data

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Giancarlo da Silva Sousa, Francisco Xavier Nobre, Edgar Alves Araújo Júnior, Julio Ricardo Sambrano, Anderson dos Reis Albuquerque, Rosane dos Santos Bindá, Paulo Rogério da Costa Couceiro, Walter Ricardo Brito, Laécio Santos Cavalcante, Maria Rita de Morais Chaves Santos, José Milton Elias de Matos In this paper, we report about hydrothermal synthesis, structural characterization and photocatalytic properties of beta-silver molybdate (β-Ag2MoO4) microcrystals obtained at different temperatures (100, 120, 140 and 160 °C) for 2h. These crystals were characterized structurally using X−ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence, Rietveld refinement, micro−Raman (m−Raman) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies. Experimental and theoretical band gap values were correlated by ultraviolet−visible (UV−Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and periodic first-principles calculations in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP-D3 hybrid functional. The crystals morphology was observed through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images. The photocatalytic properties of these crystals were investigated for degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) dye under UV−light. XRD patterns and Rietveld refinement data indicate that all crystals exhibit a spinel-type cubic structure with space group (Fd3_m) formed by tetrahedral [MoO4] clusters and distorted octahedral [AgO6] clusters. m−Raman spectra exhibited five Raman-active modes in a range from 50 to 1,000 cm-1, while FT-IR spectra have three infrared active modes in a range from 400 to 1,100 cm-1. The experimental results from Raman and IR modes are in reasonable agreement with theoretically calculated results. Experimental UV−Vis spectra indicate a decrease in optical band gap (Egap = 3.35 eV to 3.32 eV) with the temperature rise. The calculated band structure revealed an indirect optical band gap (Egap) of approximately 3.94 eV. Moreover, theoretical calculations based on density of states and electron density maps were employed to understand the polarization phenomenon induced by structural defects in the β-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals. FE-SEM images revealed that the increase of processing temperatures promotes a change in shape of microcrystals from potatoes-like to coral-like. Finally, photocatalytic measures to degradation of the RhB dye resulted in the best catalytic performance for β-Ag2MoO4 microcrystals synthesized at temperatures of 120 and 140 °C, corresponding to 97.3% and 96.8% in the photodegradation of RhB dye under UV–light up to 2h. The stability of the β-Ag2MoO4 was investigated by reusing, resulting in f 97.2, 93.9 and 78.8% degradation of the RhB dye for the first, second and third cycle, respectively.
  • Synthesis of low-molecular-weight poly-α-olefins using silicon-bridged
           zirconocene catalyst for lubricant basestock

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Huaiqi Shao, Ruofei Wang, Hui Li, Xiaoyan Guo, Tao Jiang The oily oligomers with low-molecular-weight, medium kinematic viscosity and high viscosity index are yielded through oligomerizations of higher α-olefins (1-hexene, 1-octene, 1-decene, 1-dodecene and 1-tetradecene) and co-oligomerization of 1-decene with 1-butene in the presence of the silicon-bridged Ph2Si(Cp)(9-Flu)ZrCl2 catalyst and the methylaluminoxane co-catalyst. The oligomerization activity is affected by the bulkiness and lateral size of monomer, and the viscosity of oligomer obtained. Through adding of 1-butene to 1-decene, the oligomerization activity is decreased, but viscosity index of oligomer obviously is increased. The highest co-oligomerization activity of 1-decene with 1-butene is presented at the temperature of 60 °C and Al/Zr molar ratio of 300. 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy reveal that four types of vinylidene are existed in oligomers and the major olefinic bonds are internal disubstituted vinylidene, which are produced through 2,1-misinsertion and β-hydride elimination, or 2,1-misinsertion and rearrangement followed by β-hydride elimination. The chain termination of oligomerization of α-olefins favors chain transfer to the co-catalyst to produce saturated end group. The oligomerization pathways are summarized.
  • Cordierite honeycomb monoliths coated with Al(III)/ZrO2 as an efficient

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): S.R. Pratap, S.Z.M. Shamshuddin, N. Thimmaraju, M. Shyamsundar Al(III)/ZrO2 with 5–25 wt% Al(III) was coated on honeycomb monoliths by dip & dry technique and were also prepared in their powder forms for the purpose of comparison. These prepared catalysts were characterized for their total acidity, crystallinity, and morphology. The catalytic activity of Al(III)/ZrO2 was examined in 3 different modes of heating, i.e., conventional, ultrasonic, and microwave. The effect of calcination temperature of the catalyst, poisoning of acid sites of the catalyst by adsorbing pyridine adsorption on the physico-chemical properties and the catalytic activity was also studied. The results indicated that the microwave heating mode shows highest catalytic activity when compared to either ultrasonic or conventional modes. The honeycomb form of the catalysts shows almost 1.2 fold time increase in their catalytic activity when compared to their powder forms. Pre-adsorption studies disclose that the Knoevenagel condensation reaction obeys the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type which involves chemisorptions of both of the reactants. A faster kinetic study confirms that monolithic catalysts [15Z-A (CHM)] possess the least energy of activation (35.6 kJ/mol) while their powder forms analogs [15Z-A (PFM)] posses highest activation energy (59.2 kJ/mol) correspondingly with a shorter reaction time indicating that monolithic catalysts are highly efficient compared to their powder forms. Reusability tests pertaining to both calcined and uncalcined catalysts authenticates that calcination enhances catalytic activity with the augmentation of catalytically active sites.
  • Degradability and Biocompatibility of Magnesium-MAO: the Consistency and
           Contradiction Between in-vitro and in-vivo Outcomes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Haitao Xu, Tu Hu, Manle Wang, Yuxin Zheng, Hui Qin, Huiliang Cao, Zhiquan An Magnesium-based metals are promising for biomedical use for its biodegradation characteristic. However, its rapid degradation in physiological environment impedes its application. Oxides coating is a widely-used form of surface modification to improve the corrosion resistance of biomaterials. In this study, we systematically compared two oxides coatings, steam oxidation (SO) and micro-arc oxidation (MAO), in controlling degradation and improving the biocompatibility of pure magnesium in vitro and in vivo. The addition of both coatings was found to reduce the degradation rate of magnesium in vitro at the early stage, but the corrosion behavior became severe with longer immersion time in all the groups. Unfortunately, all the coated and uncoated materials were found undermining the adhesion and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro, even at the first day of culture. In terms of in-vivo circumstance, the Mg-MAO group showed satisfying biocompatibility compared with pure Mg and Mg-SO, as is evidenced by radiographic results and histological analysis. Little corrosion was found, and more newly formed bone was observed in the animal model. These data suggest that the characteristic of in-vivo circumstance have considerable impacts on the degradation and bone integration process.
  • Fabrication of virus metal hybrid nanomaterials: An ideal reference for
           bio semiconductor

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Raja Muthuramalingam Thangavelu, Rajendran Ganapathy, Pandian Ramasamy, Kathiravan Krishnan Recently, Nanotechnology has made easier utilizing plant pathogens as a potential nanomaterial in biomedical applications. In this research work, we have exploited a devastating plant pathogenic virus of Squash leaf curl China virus (SLCCNV), as a nano-bio template (32 nm) to fabricate the gold and silver nanomaterials. This is achieved through the direct exposure of SLCCNV to gold chloride (HAuCll4) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) precursors at sunlight, resulted into SLCCNV-metallic-hybrid nanomaterials which are synthesized quick (∼5 min) and eco-friendly. However, virus hybrid nanomaterials are fabricated through the nucleation and growth of metal precursors over the pH-activated capsid of SLCCNV. Under the controlled fabrication process, it produced a highly arrayed virus-metallic-hybrid nanomaterial at nanoscale size limit. Its properties are thoroughly studied through spectroscopic techniques (UV–Vis, DLS, Raman) and electron microscopy (HRTEM & FESEM). In a follow-up study of cytotoxicity assay, the virus and its fabricated nanomaterials show better biocompatibility features even at high concentrations. Finally, the electrical conductivities of virus-metallic-hybrid nanomaterials (Au & Ag) are determined by simple “lab on a chip” system and Keithley's pico-ammeter. The result of electrical conductivity measurement revealed that hybrid nanomaterials have greater electrical conductive properties within the band-gap of semi-conductive materials. It is truly remarkable that a plant virus associated metal nanomaterials can be efficiently used as bio-semi-conductors which are the ideal one for biomedical applications.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Physiochemical properties of TiO2 nanoparticle loaded APTES-functionalized
           MWCNTs composites and their photocatalytic activity with kinetic study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Amirah Ahmad, Mohd Hasmizam Razali, Mazidah Mamat, Karimah Kassim, Khairul Anuar Mat Amin In this study, functionalized-MWCNTs with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) loaded titania nanoparticles (MWCNTs-APTES-TiO2) were prepared to investigate their physicochemical properties and photocatalytic activity for methyl orange (MO) degradation. The TiO2 nanoparticles, functionalized-MNCNT and composite powders were characterized by XRD, raman, and TEM. The results obtained proved that titania (TiO2) nanoparticles was successfully loaded on APTES-MWCNTs. For application, MWCNTs-APTES-TiO2 composites were used as photocatalyst for degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation and the result shows that 87% MO was degraded after 180 min. Kinetic analysis indicated that photocatalytic degradation of MO solution by MWCNTs-APTES-TiO2 obeyed second-order kinetic model (R2> 0.95), supported by half-life equations and graph. Because of the presence of carbon nanotubes accelerated the degradation of methyl orange due to inhibition of electron-hole recombination, the formation of additional hydroxyl radicals and functional groups of the latter had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of methyl orange. This study suggested the MWCNTs-APTES-TiO2 nanocomposite has considerable potential as environmental photocatalyst due to higher degradation rate as compared to bare TiO2.
  • Determination of carbamates in soils by liquid chromatography coupled with
           on-line postcolumn UV irradiation and chemiluminescence detection

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): José A. Murillo Pulgarín, Luisa F. García Bermejo, Armando Carrasquero Durán In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a simple and fast sample pre-treatment based on the use of the UV-irradiation in a simple continuous flow system for the chemiluminescent quantification of pesticide carbamates in soils was developed and validated. HPLC was used to separate thiodicarb, bendiocarb and carbaryl in soil extracts. The eluates emerging from the column tail were mixed with an alkaline solution of Co2+ in EDTA and irradiated with UV light to induce photolysis of the carbamates, in order to obtain free radicals and other reactive species capable of oxidizing luminol and producing photoinduced chemiluminescence (PICL) as a result. Measurements of CL intensity were plotted as a function of time to obtain chromatographic peaks. Under the optimum operating conditions for the combined HPLC-PICL system, CL peak areas were linearly related to analyte concentrations. The limit of detection were 0.05 mg L-1 for thiodicarb, 0.09 mg L-1 for bendiocarb and 0.17 mg L-1 for carbaryl. A simple extraction procedure using 98% methanol as solvent ensured complete dissolution of the analytes in spiked soils with recoveries from 87 to 120 %. The proposed method is a simple, fast, accurate choice for quantifying the target pesticides in soils.
  • Sodium hyroxyethylcellulose adipate: An efficient and reusable sorbent for
           cadmium uptake from spiked high-hardness ground water

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Shahana Zaman, Azhar Abbas, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Muhammad Amin, Syed Zajif Hussain, Irshad Hussain Herein, we report on the evaluation of chemically modified hyrdroxyethylcellulose for its sorption efficacy to uptake Cd(II) from spiked high-hardness ground water (GW) and aqueous solution (DW). Hyrdroxyethylcellulose was chemically modified using adipic anhydride in the presence of DMAP as a catalyst under homogeneous reaction conditions. Hyrdroxyethylcellulose adipate (HEC-Adip) obtained was then converted to its sodium salt as HEC-Adip-Na after treating with NaHCO3. Structures were thoroughly characterized using FTIR, SEM, EDS and solid-state CP/MAS 13C NMR. The surface charge and morphology of the sorbent was determined using pHZPC (pH of zero point charge). The sorption data fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model. Maximum sorption capacity of Cd(II) was calculated to be 114.94 mg g–1 and 112.35 mg g-1 from DW and GW, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters, i.e., ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°, were also calculated and showed negative values indicating spontaneous and exothermic nature of sorption process. In addition, the synthesized sorbent is more suitable for repeated use because it shows negligible decrease in its sorption capacity for the uptake of Cd(II) from aqueous solution after five regeneration cycles.
  • Unlocking the Synthetic Potential of Aziridine and Cyclopropane-Fused
           Quinolin-2-ones by Regioselective Fragmentation of its Three-membered

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Javier Diaz, Daniel Rodenas, Francisco-Jose Ballester, Mateo Alajarin, Raul-Angel Orenes, Pilar Sanchez-Andrada, Angel Vidal The cyclization of cis-2-(2-azidophenyl)-1-benzyl-3-ethoxycarbonylaziridines and trans-2-(2-azidophenyl)-3-nitrocyclopropane-1,1-dicarboxylates yielded the respective aziridino[2,3-c]quinolin-2-ones and cyclopropa[c]quinolin-2-ones. Ring-opening of the aziridine-fused species under silica gel catalysis provided 3-aminoquinolin-2-ones whereas the ring-expansion of the cyclopropane-fused derivatives by the action of sodium hydride gave 1-benzazepin-2-ones, in both cases in a regioselective manner. A computational study using DFT methods revealed that the mechanism for the transformation of cyclopropa[c]quinolin-2-ones into 1-benzazepin-2-ones involves the initial deprotonation step of its amide function followed by two pericyclic events: a 6π-electrocyclic ring opening and a subsequent [1,5]-H shift.Graphical abstractAziridine- and cyclopropa-fused quinolones, obtained by annulation of the quinoline core to substituted aziridines and cyclopropanes, undergo regioselective ring-fragmentation of the three membered ring to afford 3-aminoquinolin-2-ones and 1-benzazepin-2-ones.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Synthesis and characterization of surface-active antimicrobial
           hyperbranched polyurethane coatings based on oleo-ethers of boric acid

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Younes Ahmadi, Mohammad Tahir Siddiqui, Qazi Mohd. Rizwanul Haq, Sharif Ahmad Present study reports a facile synthesis of surface-active antimicrobial hyperbranched polyurethane coatings using oleo-ethers of boric acid (BA) as branching and biocidal moiety (BHPU). The antimicrobial branching center was synthesized via polycondensation reaction of BA and vegetable oil-based diol. The structural characterization of synthesized BHPU and its linear counterpart was investigated using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C, and 11B NMR) spectroscopy techniques. The cured coatings were examined by physico-mechanical, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The antimicrobial behavior of these polymers against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was carried out by well diffusion technique. The appearance of zone of inhibition (ZOI) in case of BHPU confirmed its antimicrobial activity, which arisen due to the presence of cationic moiety in its structure. These investigations showed that the utilization of oleo-ethers of BA as branching agent in synthesis of BHPU coatings induced prominent effect on its physico-mechanical, thermal, and biocidal properties. In addition, soil burial study for 210 days was conducted on BHPU film to confirm its contact-killing mechanism against soil-borne bacteria. These results suggest the potential scope of BHPU in various applications such as long-term antimicrobial surface-active coatings for medical devices, packaging industry, paints, etc.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Novel and highly effective composites of silver and zinc oxide
           nanoparticles with some transition metal complexes against different

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): A.S. Orabi, K.M. Abou El-Nour, M.F. Youssef, H.A. Salem Novel composites of Ag and ZnO nanoparticles with prepared transition metal complexes were obtained. The transition metal complexes are obtained by the interaction of the ligand N,N’-bis(salicylaldehyde)-o-phenylenediamine(H2B) with some transition metal ions (Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)). The structures of the ligand and the formed complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-Vis, 1HNMR, mass spectra, thermal (TG/DTA), magnetic and conductivity measurements. The obtained complexes have the molecular formula [MB(H2O)x]. yH2O. The found conductivity revealed the non-electrolytic behavior of the formed complexes. The magnetic susceptibility and UV-Vis spectra indicated the octahedral structure of the formed complexes. The thermodynamic and kinetic parameters are estimated for the formed complexes. The interaction of the formed compounds with the FM-DNA was tested. The evaluation of the binding constant (Kb) using Bensi-Hildebrand plot, revealed the moderate interaction with electrostatic behavior. Silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared and characterized by XRD, UV-Vis, FTIR spectra and TEM analysis. The biological activity of the synthesized composites of Ag and ZnO nanoparticles with the prepared transition metal complexes were tested against some Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as Fungi. The obtained inhibition zone supported the enhancement in the activity of the prepared compounds towards the target microorganism after forming the composites. Also, the interaction with the E.coli protein (FabH, PDB code: 1HNJ) was tested and evaluated using the docking operation with aid of some computational chemistry software. The obtained results agreed well with our experimental work.
  • Highly selective and sensitive optosensing of glutathione based on
           fluorescence resonance energy transfer of upconversion nanoparticles
           coated with a Rhodamine B derivative

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Thu-Thuy T. Nguyen, Bui The Huy, Salah M. Tawfik, Gerelkhuu Zayakhuu, Hyo Hyun Cho, Yong-Ill Lee A Glutathione (GSH) optical sensor with high sensitivity and exceptional selectivity was developed using one-step synthesized-upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs, NaLuF4:Gd3+,Yb3+,Er3+) in conjunction with a Rhodamine B derivative (RBD). RBD was loaded on the surface of the UCNPs though non-covalent bonding to serve as an energy acceptor, while UCNPs served as energy donors. The sensor based on a coupling fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process at an excitation of 980 nm wavelength from UCNP to RBD with a ring-opening process of RBD after the addition of GSH. The sensing probe exhibits a remarkable limit of detection (LOD = 50 nM) for GSH through the enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of RBD at 592 nm, together with a concomitant reduction in the green band of the UCNPs. In addition, the sensing mechanism, characterization of UCNPs, and the selectivity of the fluorescence sensor toward GSH were discussed. The proposed sensor was evaluated on real human serum and urine samples and demonstrated as a highly selective and sensitive probe for the detection of GSH.
  • Effective Removal of Mercury(II) from Aqueous Solutions by Chemically
           Modified Graphene Oxide Nanosheets

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Fathi S. Awad, Khaled M. AbouZied, Weam M. Abou El-Maaty, Ahmad M. El-Wakil, M. Samy El-Shall Improved graphene oxide (IGO) is chemically modified with chloroacetic acid and ethylene diamine to form carboxylated improved graphene oxide (IGO-COOH), aminated improved graphene oxide (IGO-NH2), and imino-diacetic acid improved graphene oxide (Imino-IGO). These novel solid phase adsorbents are utilized to adsorb mercury ions from aqueous solutions. The IGO, IGO-COOH, IGO-NH2, and Imino-IGO adsorbents are fully characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, XPS, XRD, SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments are conducted to evaluate the adsorption of Hg(II) ions by IGO, IGO-COOH, and Imino-IGO under different conditions. The effects of pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, contact time, and initial concentrations on the removal of Hg(II) ions are studied. The results reveal that, at pH 5, the maximum adsorption capacity for the removal of mercury (mg Hg / g adsorbent) follows the order: Imino-IGO (230.0) < IGO-COOH (122.0) < IGO (24.0 mg/g), in which mercury ions’ complexation is highly dependent on the concentrations of (NH), and (OH) containing functional groups in the adsorbent.The IGO-COOH, and Imino-IGO adsorbents show 100% removal of Hg(II) at concentrations as low as 10 ppm. The equilibrium isotherms for evaluating the mechanism of adsorption process show good fits to the Langmuir model. The Imino-IGO could retain more than 93.0% of its original adsorption capacity after six adsorption-desorption cycles. All data confirmed that the Imino-IGO is a promising material to extract Hg (II) from wastewater.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Oxidative desulfurization of fuels at room temperature using ordered

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Du Yue, Jiaheng Lei, Lina Zhou, Xiaodi Du, Zhenran Guo, Junsheng Li Ordered meso/macroporous H3PW12O40/SiO2 nanocomposites with high specific surface areas were prepared using cationic surfactant and monodispersed polystyrene spheres (PS) as dual-template. The characterization results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, and small-angle XRD patterns confirmed the existence of ordered meso/macroporous structure and the wide-angle XRD patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements suggested the high dispersivity of the Keggin-type heteropolyacid (HPA) on silica matrix. There was an optimum value of cationic surfactant usage and proper calcination temperature of ordered meso/macroporous H3PW12O40/SiO2 catalyst leading to ultra-high specific surface areas. Furthermore, the ordered meso/macroporous H3PW12O40/SiO2 catalyst was evaluated for ultra-deep oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of cyclic sulphur-containing compounds using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant. Under optimum reaction conditions, dibenzothiophene (DBT) could be removed within 100 min at 30 °C by meso/macroporous H3PW12O40/SiO2 catalyst. The excellent catalytic activity should be attributed to the combination of ordered meso/macroporous architecture and high surface area of H3PW12O40/SiO2 catalyst which promoted the mass transport of reactants and products in the pore channel and provided more accessible catalytic active sites. In addition, the meso/macroporous H3PW12O40/SiO2 catalyst showed good stability with only 1.9% efficiency decreased after 6 cycles.
  • Bio-guided fractionation and characterization of powerful antioxidant
           compounds from the halophyte Inula crithmoїdes

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Inès Jallali, Pierre waffo Téguo, Abderrazek Smaoui, Jean-Michel Mérillon, Chedly Abdelly, Riadh Ksouri The investigation of natural and safe antioxidants from natural origin is highly encouraged since it was revealed that synthetic antioxidants have restricted use in foods due to their toxicological effects and suspected carcinogenic potential. Purification of most active phenolics from the halophyte Inula crithmoїdes was the objective fixed for this work. The separation of the flower phenolics was carried using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) and yielded 24 fractions. A bio-guided selection of the most active fractions was done based on their antioxidant activities. Fractions 2, 7, 11 and 19 were the most active ones, even more potent than positive controls BHT, BHA and ascorbic acid. The semi-preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) purification of the antioxidant molecules from these active fractions and their identification by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) revealed that the most potent phenolics of I. crithmoїdes are the chlorogenic acid and its two derivatives 3-p-coumaroyl-5-caffeoyl quinic acid and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, in addition to the quercetin and its derivative quercimeritrin. All identified compounds are powerful antioxidants, as they have many biological properties allowing their use in agro-food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Effect of number and position of methoxy substituents on fine-tuning the
           electronic structures and photophysical properties of designed
           carbazole-based hole-transporting materials for perovskite solar cells:
           DFT calculations

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Nuha Wazzan, Zaki Safi In perovskite solar cells (PSCs), the state-of-art Spiro-OMeTAD, which used as a hole-transporting material (HTM), suffered from complicated multistep synthesis and difficult purification that make this material cost ineffective, in addition to it being UV-unstable. Thus, new, cost-effective and easy to synthesize small organic molecules is still required. As reported, a carbazole-based compound (R01) was synthesized using a simple two steps method from low-cost commercially available compounds and used as an HTM. R01 exhibited higher conductivity and hole-mobility compared to that of the Spiro-OMeTAD. PSCs fabricated with R01 produced a power conversion efficiency of 12.03%, equivalent to that obtained in devices where Spiro-OMeTAD was the HTM. These findings highlighted R01 as a highly promising HTM with high performance, facile synthesis, and low cost. From a structural perspective, methoxy groups (–OCH3) in the HTM structure are controlling the HOMO level of the compound, apart from the critical role they play in anchoring the material onto the core perovskite layer. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the electronic structures and photophysical properties of twelve designed derivatives of R01. R01 was modified by substituting some hydrogen in the carbazole rings by two, four and six methoxy groups at different positions. The ground and excited state geometries are optimized by applying density functional theory (DFT) and its time-dependent functional (TDDFT), respectively. Detailed investigation of two factors: (i) the number and (ii) position of methoxy groups on the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), absorption and emission wavelengths, ionization potential, electron affinity, reorganization energies and charge mobility are examined and discussed. The electro-optical and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties are finely tuned in the R01 derivatives. By incorporating methoxy substituents into this carbazole-based compound, systematic design of potential materials for PSCs can be feasible.
  • Enhanced performance of BiFeO3@nitrogen doped TiO2 core-shell structured
           nanocomposites: Synergistic effect towards solar cell amplification

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Mohamed Mokhtar Mohamed, S.M. Reda, Ahmed A. Amer A core-shell nano-heterostructured perovskite BiFO3@nitrogen doped mesoporous TiO2 (BFO/n-TiO2) hydrothermally assembled via using citric acid and polyethlene glycol (PEG) was characterized through XRD, TEM, FTIR, UV–Vis diffuse reflectance, IPCE, N2 adsorption and impedance spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that the photovoltaic yield of the 90%N-TiO2-10%BFO electrode achieves a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.5%, which is 1.85, 2.5, 3 and 1202 times higher than those of 10%N-TiO2-90%BFO, 50%N-TiO2-50%BFO, n-TiO2 and pristine BFO, respectively. It is acknowledged that the former electrode exhibits a significant visible light harvesting capability, lowest band gap (Eg = 2.0 eV) as well as the highest IPCE% (36% at 460 nm) values. The EIS and capacitance results illustrated that 90%N-TiO2-10%BFO owns excessive charge carriers (e− − h+); compared to rest of nanocomposites, with a great sparation, to assist boosting the PCE value. This was highly aided by the surface defects seen on the core represented by BFO, which worked as a rational carrier trapper between the N719 dye and the n-TiO2 shell structure. The surface texturing properties of the nanocomposite forming the 90%N-TiO2-10%BFO electrode including SBET (Asahi et al., 2001) and pore volume (0.48 cm3 g−1) have shared significantly in improving the conversion efficiency of such p-n heterojunction based solar cells; which never achieved as such in all BFO-based solar cell devices, with acceptable tunability.
  • A new way of assessing the interaction of a metallic phase precursor with
           a modified oxide support substrate as a source of information for
           predicting metal dispersion

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Waldemar Nowicki, Zbigniew Piskuła, Piotr Kirszensztejn, Dorota Bartkowiak, Erhard Kemnitz Well-dispersed nanosized clusters of metallic platinum were obtained by decomposition of ethylenediamine complexes immobilized on amorphous silica surfaces. Samples before reduction were obtained by potentiometric titration in a heterogeneous liquid/solid system in different pH ranges. The proposed easy and inexpensive method for characterization of metal-ligand interactions provides new information about phenomena taking place at the molecular level, depending on the type of support, type of agent coupling with the ligand, and type of metal. The systems obtained were characterized by TEM, XRPD and hydrogen chemisorption. The catalytic properties of the systems studied were tested in N2O decomposition.
  • Adsorption thermodynamics of cationic dyes (methylene blue and crystal
           violet) to a natural clay mineral from aqueous solution between 293.15 and
           323.15 K

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s): Omer Sakin Omer, Mohammed Ali Hussein, Belal H.M. Hussein, Arbi Mgaidi Wastewater from dyestuff production is one of the main water pollutants. Several methods have been applied for the remediation of contaminated water. Currently, adsorption using a cheap, abundant, and environmental-friendly adsorbent such as natural clay is the simplest and most useful method. This study aimed to determine the enthalpies of adsorption of the organic cationic dyes, methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV), from polluted water onto a natural clay mineral. Early on, we performed mineralogical and textural analyses of a clay sample using various techniques, namely X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry, before and after adsorption. The experimental results showed that this adsorbent is a mesoporous and non-swelling clay with illite and kaolinite as the major components. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH, and temperature were examined. The experimental data were analyzed using the linear forms of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and showed a good fit with the Langmuir equation for MB adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters such as the changes in Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy were determined from batch experiments. Results revealed that the adsorption of MB onto illitic clay was endothermic, while that of CV was an exothermic and spontaneous process.
  • Development and performance analysis of PEMFC stack based on bipolar
           plates fabricated employing different designs

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s): M. ElSayed Youssef, R.S. Amin, K.M. El-Khatib A low-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (LT-PEMFC) is a promising clean and effective technology for power generation because of its simplified water and heat management. Due to the non-uniform of H2 and air distributions within fuel cells, the stack design is one of the key factors to enhance the performance and efficiency of LT-PEMFC. In this study, a single, two cells, 6 cells and 11 cells LT-PEMFC stack was investigated with cell active area 114 cm2, Nafion membrane 112 and catalyst loading 0.4 mg/cm2 working at 25 °C and atmospheric pressure using hydrogen and air as a fuel and oxidant, respectively. The power output that is obtained from each stack is presented and the overall power output is compared with single cell stack. The stack prototype has been fabricated, constructed and tested producing a maximum value of 70 W electrical power using 11 cells stack.
  • Evaluation of non-covalent interactions of chlorambucil (monomer and
           dimer) and its interaction with biological targets: Vibrational frequency
           shift, electron density topological and automated docking analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s): T. Karthick, Poonam Tandon, Karnica Srivastava, Swapnil Singh Chlorambucil is a well-known chemotherapy drug that is being used to treat chronic myelogenous leukemia. As it contains ten flexible rotational bonds, the possible spatial conformations have been identified theoretically. The spectral signatures of monomer and dimer structures of chlorambucil and the frequency shifts due to non-covalent interactions (NCIs) have been illustrated using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The bond correlation between carbon and hydrogen nuclei of chlorambucil has been obtained using 2D-HSQC NMR spectrum. The assignments of harmonic normal modes have been done in order to find the vibrational contributions of each functional group. Besides the spectroscopic studies, the electron density based quantum topological atoms in molecule analysis have been performed to explore the possible interactions between the non-bonded atoms. The reduced density gradient and isosurface plots have been used in this study to understand the strength of NCIs. The charge delocalization patterns of monomer and dimer structures were explained so as to investigate the chemical stability profile. The active sites for the electrophilic and nucleophilic attack on the monomer conformers have been determined by applying Hirshfeld charges and atomic spin densities into Fukui and Parr functions, respectively. From the automated docking analysis, it is found that chlorambucil interacts with the aldo-keto reductase family 1 (AKR1B1, AKR1B10, AKR1B15) and FAD-linked sulfhydryl oxidase ALR proteins through strong hydrogen bonds and shows a potential inhibition. In order to take into account the interactions ranging from short to long range, the modern density functionals viz. M06-2X, wB97XD, B97D which includes dispersion-corrected repulsion terms have been employed and the theoretical results were found coincide with the experimental observations.
  • Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s):
  • Adsorption of aflatoxin B1 on magnetic carbon nanocomposites prepared from

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s): Muhammad Zahoor, Farhat Ali Khan A novel adsorbent for the removal of aflatoxin from poultry feed was prepared from bagasse and was characterized by surface area analyzer, SEM, XRD, FTIR, TG/DTA and EDX. A specially designed chamber was used for the preparation of the adsorbent. SEM, XRD and FTIR analysis showed the iron oxide presence on the adsorbent surface. The adsorption parameters were determined for aflatoxin adsorption using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The equilibrium time was 115 min for 200 ppm at pH 3 while 150 min at pH 7. At high pH there was a decline in percent adsorption. Best fit was obtained with pseudo first order kinetics model for the kinetics data of adsorption. The value of ΔS0 (30.67 kJ mol−1 deg−1) was positive while that of ΔH0 (−5.9 kJ mol−1) and ΔG0 (−9.303, −9.610, −9.916 and −10.226 kJ mol−1 correspond to 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C) was negative. The increase in ΔG0 values with temperature showed that the adsorption process was favorable at high temperature.
  • Novel supercapacitor electrodes based semiconductor nanoheterostructure of
           CdS/rGO/CeO2 as efficient candidates

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s): Asma A. Ali, Ahmed Abdel Nazeer, Metwally Madkour, Ali Bumajdad, Fakhreia Al Sagheer In this study, we have synthesized metal oxide/metal sulphide based nanoheterostuctures mediated with graphene nanosheets. The synthesized nanoheterostructures were characterized via different techniques such as XRD, XPS, and TEM. The electrochemical characteristics of the investigated nanoheterostucture (CdS/rGO/CeO2) were investigated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The specific capacitance of the single rGO, binary CdS/CeO2 and ternary CdS/rGO/CeO2 heterostructures were measured. The CdS/rGO/CeO2 nanoheterostucture showed the most excellent cycling stability with high specific capacitance of 407 F g−1 achieved at a charge-discharge rate of 1 A/g. The investigated supercapacitor retained about 96% of the initial energy density after charge-discharge at a 10 A/g for 5000 cycles. The ternary CdS/rGO/CeO2 nanoheterostucture revealed the best specific capacitance as the graphene nanosheets increased interfacial electron transfer. The results revealed that the investigated novel nanoheterostucture is among the best reported ones in the literature.
  • DFT calculations, spectroscopic studies, thermal analysis and biological
           activity of supramolecular Schiff base complexes

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s): Omaima E. Sherif, Nora S. Abdel-Kader Metal complexes of Schiff base (H2L) prepared from condensation reaction of o-phenylenediamine and 6-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylbenzopyran-4-one with metal ions: Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) were synthesized. Different analysis tools such as elemental analyses, mass spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermal analysis, conductivity, electronic spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements are all used to elucidate the structure of the prepared metal complexes. The ligand behaves as a monobasic bidentate in case of mononuclear NiHL and CoHL complexes and acts as dibasic tetradentate in binuclear Mn2L and Cu2L complexes. All formed complexes are non-electrolytes. The thermal decomposition of Mn2L and CoHL complexes was studied by thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). The Schiff base and its complexes were screened for antibacterial activities. The Mn2L Complex has the highest antimicrobial activity among the complexes almost close to that of the standard. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/3-21G level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the ligand. The optimized geometry parameters of the complexes were evaluated using LANL2DZ basis set. Moreover, total energy, energy of HOMO and LUMO and Mullikan atomic charges were calculated. In addition, dipole moment and orientation have been performed.
  • Annona muricata: A comprehensive review on its traditional medicinal uses,
           phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, mechanisms of action and

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s): Ana V. Coria-Téllez, Efigenia Montalvo-Gónzalez, Elhadi M. Yahia, Eva N. Obledo-Vázquez Annona muricata L. (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) is a tropical plant species known for its edible fruit which has some medicinal merits, but also some toxicological effects. This review focuses on the phytochemicals contents, bioactivity, biological actions and toxicological aspects of extracts and isolated compounds, as well as medicinal uses of A. muricata, with the objective of stimulating further studies on extracts and fruit pulp used for human consumption. Traditional medicinal uses of A. muricata have been identified in tropical regions to treat diverse ailments such as fever, pain, respiratory and skin illness, internal and external parasites, bacterial infections, hypertension, inflammation, diabetes and cancer. More than 200 chemical compounds have been identified and isolated from this plant; the most important being alkaloids, phenols and acetogenins. Using in vitro studies, extracts and phytochemicals of A. muricata have been characterized as an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-protozoan, antioxidant, insecticide, larvicide, and cytotoxic to tumor cells. In vivo studies of the crude extracts and isolated compounds of A. muricata were shown to possess anxiolytic, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, contraceptive, anti-tumoral, antiulceric, wound healing, hepato-protective, anti-icteric and hypoglycemic activities. In addition, clinical studies support the hypoglycemic activity of the ethanolic extracts of A. muricata leaves. Mechanisms of action of some pharmacological activities have been elucidated, such as cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antinociception and hypotensive activities. However, some phytochemical compounds isolated from A. muricata have shown a neurotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo, and therefore, these crude extracts and isolated compounds need to be further investigated to define the magnitude of the effects, optimal dosage, mechanisms of action, long-term safety, and potential side effects. Additionally, clinical studies are necessary to support the therapeutic potential of this plant.
  • Characterization of a sensitive biosensor based on an unmodified DNA and
           gold nanoparticle composite and its application in diquat determination

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s): Ling Mei Niu, Ying Liu, Kao Qi Lian, Li Ma, Wei Jun Kang DNA usually adsorbs gold nanoparticles by virtue of mercapto or amino groups at one end of a DNA molecule. However, in this paper, we report a sensitive biosensor constructed using unmodified DNA molecules with consecutive adenines (CA DNA) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs). The CA DNA–GNP composite was fabricated on gold electrodes and characterized by using of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the electrochemical method. Using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), the mechanism by which the CA DNA and GNPs combined was also studied. The modified electrode exhibited an ultrasensitive response to diquat. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to study the linear relationships between concentrations and reduction peak currents, ranging from 1.0 × 10−9 M to 1.2 × 10−6 M. The detection limit of it is 2.0 × 10−10 M. The feasibility of the proposed assay for use in human urine and grain was investigated, and the satisfactory results were obtained.
  • Magnesium incorporated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Preparation,
           characterization, antibacterial and larvicidal activity

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s): B. Gayathri, N. Muthukumarasamy, Dhayalan Velauthapillai, S.B. Santhosh, Vijayshankar asokan Mosquito-borne diseases cause several deaths every year in tropical and subtropical climate countries. Control of vectors is an alarming problem in today’s world due to the resistance matters. In this study magnesium incorporated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have been synthesized by microwave irradiation method. Magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2·6H2O) calcium nitrate tetra hydrate (Ca (NO3)2·6H2O) and disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) were used as magnesium, calcium and phosphorous sources to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The FT-IR studies show the presence of hydroxyl and phosphate functional groups. The structural properties have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM). The energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) revealed the presence of Ca, Mg, P and O in the prepared samples. The antibacterial activity of the as-synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against two prokaryotic strains, the gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli for three different concentrations of as-synthesized nanoparticles and they showed excellent antibacterial activity. The as-synthesized Mg-HAp nanoparticles were tested against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus and the nanoparticles exhibited significant mortality against the selected mosquitoes. The observed results suggest that the magnesium incorporated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an effective mosquito larvae control agent against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. From the detailed literature review it has been observed that no work has been carried out so far on the larvicidal activity using hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles and magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite (Mg-HAp) nanoparticles.
  • Effect of homogeneous acidic catalyst on mechanical strength of
           trishydrazone hydrogels: Characterization and optimization studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s): Nor Hakimin Abdullah, Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar, Rafaqat Hussain, Mohd Bakri Bakar, Jan H. van Esch Characterization utilizing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed the presence of all the expected elements found in trishydrazone hydrogels (3). Morphological study on confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the branching and bundling of fibers that led hydrogels network as well as the presence of cross-linked nanofibrillar network structure. A three-factor three-level Box Behnken design was implemented to study the concurrent effects of three main variables (concentration of precursor; 10–20 mM, pH; 3–7, and concentration of buffer; 50–150 mM) on mechanical strength of hydrogels. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to investigate the potential interactive and quadratic effects between these variables and revealed that interaction between the pH value and the concentration of buffer (X2X3) showed a significant effect on the response since the significance of the design model (p-value) was set at
  • Influence of the ligand nature on the in situ laser-induced synthesis of
           the electrocatalytically active copper microstructures

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s): Lev S. Logunov, Maxim S. Panov, Liubov A. Myund, Ilya I. Tumkin, Evgeniia M. Khairullina, Mikhail N. Ryazantsev, Irina A. Balova, Vladimir A. Kochemirovsky In this work we demonstrate the role of a ligand in formation of the conductive and electrocatalytically active copper microstructures produced using the in situ laser-induced metal deposition technique. For this purpose, the alkaline solutions of different concentrations containing copper(II) chloride and Rochelle salt, which is used as the ligand and exhibits both coordination and reduction properties, were studied by ATR-FTIR, UV–Vis, and Raman spectroscopy. According to spectroscopic studies and theoretical considerations, it was observed that at certain concentrations and proportion of copper(II) chloride and sodium potassium tartrate, and also within pH range between 7 and 13 the components of the plating copper solution form the tartrate copper complex, in which copper ion is coordinated by four hydroxyl groups of the ligand and two hydroxyl groups of the environment. As a result, the laser-induced deposition from solutions, where copper coordination occurs via hydroxyls rather than through other functional groups (e.g. carboxylate), results in the synthesis of the sensory active materials. Furthermore, we figured out that the presence of the reducing agents such as polyols in the plating copper solution also enhances the electrical conductivity and electrochemical characteristics of the resulting copper microdeposits, among which sorbitol displays the most attractive results. Thus, it was shown that the regime of copper coordination in an organic ligand and number of hydroxyl groups in a ligand and a reducing agent directly affect the properties of the synthesized copper microstructures. In addition, the overall results obtained in this study are quite useful for better understanding the mechanisms of the laser-induced metal deposition process, and very perspective for development and design of new non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors and biosensors.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
  • Antibacterial, in vitro antitumor activity and structural studies of
           rhodium and iridium complexes featuring the two positional isomers of
           pyridine carbaldehyde picolinic hydrazone ligand

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 11, Issue 5Author(s): Narasinga Rao Palepu, J. Richard Premkumar, Akalesh Kumar Verma, Kaushik Bhattacharjee, S.R. Joshi, Scott Forbes, Yurij Mozharivskyj, Kollipara Mohan Rao Half-sandwich organometallic rhodium and iridium complexes [1–6] have been synthesized with ligands L1 (L1 = Pyridin-2-ylmethylene picolinichydrazine) and L2 (L2 = Pyridin-3-ylmethylene picolinichydrazine). Treatment of [{Cp∗MCl2}2] (M = Rh/Ir) with L1 in methanol has yielded mononuclear cationic complexes such as [{Cp∗M(L1N∩N)Cl}]PF6 where {M = Rh (1) and Ir (2)} and dinuclear complexes such as [{(Cp∗MCl)2(L1N∩N, N∩N)}]PF6 where {M = Rh (3) and Ir (4)} in 1:2 and 1:1 metal dimer to ligand ratios respectively. Reactions of [{Cp∗MCl2}2] with L2 in both 1:2 and 1:1 metal dimer to ligand ratios have yielded two metalla-macrocyclic dinuclear and dicationic complexes such as [{Cp∗M(L2N∩NμN)}2](PF6)2 where {M = Rh (5) and Ir (6)}. Spectroscopic and crystallographic data were used to elucidate the structures of the synthesized complexes. The in vitro antitumor evaluation of the complexes 1 and 2 by fluorescence based apoptosis study revealed their antitumor activity against Dalton’s ascites lymphoma (DL) cells. The antibacterial evaluation of complexes 1, 2, 5 and 6 by agar well-diffusion method revealed their significant activity against the two species considered viz., Proteus vulgaris (MTCC 426) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (MTCC 451) with zone of inhibition up to 43 mm. The docking study with few key enzymes associated with cancer viz., ribonucleotide reductase, thymidylate synthase, thymidylate phosphorylase and topoisomerase II revealed their strong interactions with complexes under study. Complexes 1–6 exhibited a HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) – LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energy gap from 2.95 eV to 3.59 eV. TDDFT calculations explain the nature of electronic transitions and found well agreement with the experiments.Graphical abstractReaction of rhodium and iridium precursor compounds with ligand L1 in 1:2 and 1:1 metal dimer to ligand ratio has yielded mononuclear and dinuclear complexes respectively. In contrast, ligand L2 has yielded dinuclear metalla-macrocyclic complexes irrespective of the ratios. Complexes 1 and 2 are more cytotoxic against Dalton’s ascites lymphoma (DL) cells and comparatively less toxic on normal cells. Complexes 1, 2, 5 and 6 are considerably bactericidal against the two species considered viz., Proteus vulgaris and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.Graphical abstract for this article
  • Synthesis of 2D boron nitride doped polyaniline hybrid nanocomposites for
           photocatalytic degradation of carcinogenic dyes from aqueous solution

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018Source: Arabian Journal of ChemistryAuthor(s): Syed Shahabuddin, Rashmin Khanam, Mohammad Khalid, Norazilawati Muhamad Sarih, Juan Joon Ching, Sharifah Mohamad, R. Saidur This investigation focused on the photocatalytic treatment of pollutants in waste water using methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) as the model dyes. In this study, conducting polyaniline (PANI) based nanocomposites doped with 2D hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) were synthesised using simplistic oxidative in-situ polymerization technique by employing ammonium persulfate as an initiator in acidic medium. The synthesised 2D h-BN doped PANI nanocomposites were comprehensively characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Degradation of MB and MO dyes under UV irradiations was performed to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of the synthesised nanocomposites. The results indicated that the h-BN nanosheets doped nanocomposites demonstrated better photocatalytic activities as compared to bare PANI or h-BN. Moreover, the nanocomposite P-BN-2, with 2 wt% of 2D h-BN nanosheets was found to be an optimal composition with 93% and 95% degradation efficiency for MB and MO within 90 min respectively.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
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