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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 845 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (51 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (595 journals)
    - CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (21 journals)
    - ELECTROCHEMISTRY (25 journals)
    - INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (41 journals)
    - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (45 journals)
    - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY (67 journals)

CHEMISTRY (595 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 246)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 310)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 14)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 181)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 146)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 255)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Chemical Engineering Research and Design
  [SJR: 0.873]   [H-I: 65]   [24 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0263-8762 - ISSN (Online) 0263-8762
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3051 journals]
  • Extracting and recovering diesel from oil-based drill cuttings using
           switchable hydrophilic solvents
    • Authors: Shuai Wang; Cunchuan Zheng; Jihe Zhao; Xiaojiang Li; Hongsheng Lu
      Pages: 27 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): Shuai Wang, Cunchuan Zheng, Jihe Zhao, Xiaojiang Li, Hongsheng Lu
      Switchable hydrophilic solvent (SHS) has been developed as a green extractant for separate lipophilic substances. This article reported an efficient method to extract and recovery diesel in oil-based drill cuttings by using SHS. 1H NMR spectroscopy and pH measurement provided the possibility of SHS can be applied to the recovery of diesel. The screenings of SHS were carried out by CO2 absorption experiments and the solubility of SHS and diesel, which depended on the absorption rate and the solubility parameter model, respectively. The recovery process analyzed the reclaim performance of diesel and DMCHA. The dynamic analysis indicated that the process of DMCHA recovery was consistent with the first-order kinetic, and proved the conclusion of the influence of temperature and aeration rate on DMCHA recovery. Ultimately, the rate constant was used to obtain the DMCHA recovery activation energy of 30.37kJmol−1, which provided a reference for the study of low energy consumption. All above studies provided guidance for the design of recycling diesel oil in oil-based drill cuttings by SHS, and therefore, it can achieve the safety and environmental protection of oil-based drill cuttings.

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T16:27:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.09.036
      Issue No: Vol. 128 (2017)
       
  • Optimization-based integration and analysis of a complex renewable energy
           system for the transportation sector
    • Authors: Seulki Han; Jiyong Kim
      Pages: 222 - 234
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Seulki Han, Jiyong Kim
      This paper aims to propose a new optimization-based approach to design and operate an integrated renewable energy sources (RES)-based energy system. In achieving the goal, we first generate the RES-based energy superstructure, which includes different sources (wind, solar, biomass and carbon dioxide), different energy conversion technologies, and different energy demands (electricity, hydrogen and fuels). We then develop a network optimization model using mixed integer linear programming (MILP) to design and analyze the energy supply system to the transportation sector. In this model, we set minimizing total cost as an objective function subject to various constraints including resource availability, demand satisfaction, energy flow conservation, and the limited capacity of technologies. Finally, we construct different scenarios of future demand portfolios in the transportation sector. We illustrate the applicability of the suggested model through the design problem of a complex renewable energy systems in Jeju Island, Korea. As a result, the total annual cost was estimated to range from 46 to 76 M$/year according to the demand scenarios. Through sensitivity study, we also analyzed the effect of demand structure, in particular the share of liquid fuels, to the configuration and economics of the examined system.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T21:36:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2017.05.030
      Issue No: Vol. 112 (2017)
       
  • Thermodynamic modeling of hydrate formation conditions using different
           activity coefficient models in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Arghavan Beheshtimaal, Ali Haghtalab
      The clathrate hydrate is a major problem in gas transportation lines and on the other hand, can be used as a tool for natural gas storage. Moreover, it could be used for gas separation such as monoxide and dioxide carbon from combustion chambers. In this work, a thermodynamic model is developed to calculate gas hydrate formation conditions of single and binary gases in the absence and presence of the thermodynamic promoter such as tetrahydrofuran (THF). A three-phase solid-liquid-gas equilibrium calculation is carried out so that the van der Waals-Platteeuw model is applied for the hydrate phase, SRK EoS for the gas phase and the different activity coefficient models such as local composition and group contributions models for the aqueous solution. The binary interaction parameters for the present activity coefficient models are adjusted through the optimization of the hydrate formation data for the single gases in the presence and absence of THF. Using the local composition and group contribution models, allows one to compare the calculated results with experiment through the percent of Absolute Average Deviation (AAD %)-in pressures and temperatures of the gas hydrate formation conditions so that it is observed the present results are in a good agreement with the experiment.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Emulsion ionic liquid membrane for recovery process of lead. Comparative
           study of experimental and response surface design
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Meryem Mesli, Nasr-Eddine Belkhouche
      The technique of emulsion ionic liquid membrane (EILM) was used as chemical process for Pb(II) recovery, from nitrate medium, using Aliquat 336 as ionic liquid carrier. The Tween20 as a dispersive non-ionic surfactant was used for the emulsion formation. The optimization of the extraction and pre-concentration of Pb(II) was determined by optimizing one parameter at the time. So, several experimental parameters as: carrier concentration, surfactant concentration, time and stirring speed of feed phase, initial concentration and pH of feed phase, were studied. The results showed that the lead ions were extracted at 82.61% by Aliquat336 and recovered at 82.16%, in aqueous solution of the nitric acid, from a feed phase of lead(II) nitrate of 207.2ppm at pH equal to 5.5, in presence of 1%w/w Aliquat336 and 0.5%w/w of Tween20 under 30minutes of stirring at 210rpm. The tests of separation experiments of Pb(II) and Cu(II) were carried on the basis of the optimal conditions of lead (II) recovery. Thus, the separation factor of lead over copper was equal to 1.30, obtained from their equimolar synthetic mixture. Indeed, the recovery of Cu(II) can be advantageous towards of Pb(II) if the molar composition of Cu/Pb in mixture was of 0.65. Response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Benheken Design (BBD) was used for the statistical study. So, the reduced cubic of the quadratic model showed that the predicted values were in good agreement with those found experimentally and the parameter of ionic liquid concentration has an important individual effect on the response. Therefore, the recovery of Pb(II) can be predicted at 82.14% with the best desirability of the chosen model under our experimental conditions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Synthesis of high growth rate SWCNTs and their magnetite cobalt sulfide
           nanohybrid as super-adsorbent for mercury removal
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Hassan Alijani, Zahra Shariatinia
      Water assisted synthesis of high quality and high yield single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was performed over Co–Mo/MgO catalyst by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The effect of varying the water amount on the yield and quality of SWCNTs was studied. The as-synthesized SWCMTs were employed for mercury adsorption from aqueous solution. Also, in order to improve the adsorption process, the two magnetite SWCNTs (MSWCNTs) and magnetite SWCNTs–CoS (MSWCNTs–CoS) nanohybrids were prepared. The XRD, TGA, FE-SEM, TEM, Raman, VSM and EDX analysis were carried out to study the effects of water vapor on quality, growth rate and yield of SWCNTs as well as to verify the nanohybrids structures. It was found that with increasing the water/methane up to 8% volume ratio, the quality and yield of nanotubes were reached to their maximum levels. However, more increasing the water vapor up to 20% caused dramatic decreases in the yield and quality. Mercury adsorption properties of SWCNTs, MSWCNTs and MSWCNTs-CoS were studied with the aid of response surface methodology (RSM). Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies revealed that MSWCNTs–CoS had a very high efficiency for mercury adsorption with a very much low equilibrium time (7min) indicating its super-adsorbent property.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • An optimized process for treating sodium acetate waste residue: Coupling
           of diffusion dialysis or electrodialysis with bipolar membrane
           electrodialysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Shuai Xue, Cuiming Wu, Yonghui Wu, Chuanyang Zhang
      The sodium acetate waste residue produced by insecticide factories contains mostly CH3COONa (∼76.6wt%) and other organic impurities, and had been treated by bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED) to generate CH3COOH and NaOH. Nevertheless, the energy consumption was high (22.3 kWh/kg for CH3COOH and 29.7kW h/kg for NaOH) and the purity of products was insufficient, as the total organic carbon (TOC) was 1.61g/L and 0.16g/L in acid and base compartments respectively. Accordingly, the BMED is coupled with diffusion dialysis (DD) or electrodialysis (ED) here to obtain an optimized process. The DD or ED is used to purify the waste residue, which has the advantage of low energy consumption or high capacity. Then the purified solution is taken for BMED to produce CH3COOH and NaOH. The coupled process shows that the product purities are improved, and the energy consumption is reduced. Coupling of BMED with DD process can have the output of 0.33mol/L CH3COOH and 0.35mol/L NaOH, current efficiency of 85.5% for CH3COOH and 93.7% for NaOH. The TOC values are 0.52g/L and 0.04g/L in acid and base compartments respectively, and the energy consumption for BMED process is reduced to 11.7 kWh/kg CH3COOH and 16.0 kWh/kg NaOH. Meanwhile, the BMED process after coupling with ED has energy consumption of 7.4 kWh/kg CH3COOH and 10.4 kWh/kg NaOH, and can yield products with TOC values of 0.13g/L and 0.01g/L in acid and base compartments respectively. In summary, the optimized DD-BMED or ED-BMED process for treating sodium acetate waste residue has significant advantages as compared with direct BMED process.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Life cycle assessment of optimised chemical looping air separation systems
           for electricity production
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Carla Tagliaferri, Richard Görke, Stuart Scott, John Dennis, Paola Lettieri
      Chemical looping air separation (CLAS) is as a very promising technology for the production of pure oxygen through the cyclic reduction and oxidation of a solid material at elevated temperatures. This study focused on the environmental potential of electricity and CO2 production through oxyfuel combustion of lignite. First, an attributional LCA assessed the operations which mainly contribute to the total environmental impacts for two different scenarios at the limits of the operating window (100% and 25% active material). Then, this study analysed the potential of electricity and pure CO2 production through CLAS when compared with conventional power production technologies from renewable and fossil alternatives, including electricity from hydro power, electricity from wind power, electricity from nuclear, electricity from photovoltaic, electricity from biogas, electricity from biomass, electricity from waste, electricity from hard coal and electricity from natural gas. Overall the results, analysed per MJ of electricity produced, showed how the chemical looping technology consistently performs better than the other technologies, especially thanks to the recovery of the pure CO2 stream used for industrial purposes, which avoids the production of CO2 from fossil resources. However, the cleaning of the flue gas of the oxyfuel combusted lignite strongly limits the toxicities indicators.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Adsorption of cationic dyes onto Fe@graphite core-shell magnetic
           nanocomposite: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Wojciech Konicki, Agnieszka Hełminiak, Walerian Arabczyk, Ewa Mijowska
      Magnetically separable Fe@graphite core-shell nanocomposite particles (Fe@G) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition CVD process and characterized by XRD, HRTEM, HAADF-STEM, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, BET and zeta potential measurements. Nanocomposite was used to adsorb two cationic dyes, Basic Yellow 28 (BY28) and Basic Red 46 (BR46), from aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was investigated under different experimental conditions of pH (3-11), initial dye concentration (10–50mgL−1) and temperature (20–60°C). The adsorption kinetics were examined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion model. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The results revealed that the pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm fit the kinetics and equilibrium data, respectively. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters, such as change in free energy (ΔGoo), enthalpy (ΔHoo) and entropy (ΔSoo), were also calculated. The thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption of BY28 and BR46 was spontaneous and endothermic.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Experimental investigation on an aerated mixing vessel through electrical
           resistance tomography (ERT) and response surface methodology (RSM)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Divya Malik, Leila Pakzad
      Aerated mixing vessel is highly applied in such industrial processes as oxidation, hydrogenation, and biological fermentation where gas and liquid are contacted and mixed to reach steady condition. However, the design of an aerated mixing vessel is challenging specially in case of non-Newtonian fluids. To enhance the efficiency of the process, it is essential to assess the effect of the gas sparged to the vessel on the mixing performance. In the present work, an electrical resistance tomography (ERT) system was utilized to assess the mixing of the activated sludge as shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid in presence of aeration. ERT results revealed that shorter mixing time can be achieved in presence of aeration. The following three central impellers were employed: ASI (a combination of A200 and the Scaba impellers), ARI (a combination of A200 and the Rushton impellers), and Rushton (fully radial impeller). An ERT system with a two-plane assembly equipped with 16 sensors on each plane was employed to assess the impact of the impeller type, impeller speed, and gas flow rate on the mixing of activated sludge in terms of mixing time, specific power consumption, and gas flow number. A statistical-based experimental design with RSM (response surface methodology) was applied to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of the design parameters and operating conditions. Experiments and RSM demonstrated that among all independent variables in this study, impeller speed was the common independent variable which impacts mixing time, specific power consumption, and gas flow number significantly.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • CO2 capture by amine-based aqueous solution containing atorvastatin
           functionalized mesocellular silica foam in a counter-current rotating
           packed bed: Central composite design modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Behnam Jafari, Mahmood Reza Rahimi, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Kheibar Dashtian, Soleiman Mosleh
      Novel mesocellular silica foam functionalized with atorvastatin (MCF-AT) was synthesized and applied to overcome the mass transfer limitation in carbon dioxide absorption by rotating packed bed (RPB). The MCF-AT with high order pore distribution and regular rod morphology material was dispersed in monoethanolamine (MEA) by ultrasonic dispersion method without any surfactant addition. Structural and chemical properties of MCF-AT were characterized by low angle XRD, FE-SEM, FTIR, BET and BJH analysis. The effect of operational parameters such as the gas and solution flow rate, MCF-AT dosage and rotational speed have been investigated and optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF) method. The maximum achieved carbon dioxide absorption percentage was 99.46% at condition which set at 15Lmin−1 gas flow rate, 0.2Lmin−1 solution flow rate, 0.15g MCF-AT and 800rpm rotational speed. Results indicated that using MEA solution in absence of MCF-AT has ability to 76.96% CO2 capture percentage which significantly improved following addition of MCF-AT to MEA solution due to the availability of appropriate pores and reactive functional groups which have more tendency for trapping and/or binding CO2.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Adsorption and visible-light photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline
           hydrochloride from aqueous solutions using 3D hierarchical mesoporous
           BiOI: Synthesis and characterization, process optimization, adsorption and
           degradation modeling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Aliakbar Dehghan, Mohammad Hadi Dehghani, Ramin Nabizadeh, Navid Ramezanian, Mahmood Alimohammadi, Ali Asghar Najafpoor
      Presence of antibiotics in aquatic environment has raised public concerns due to potential adverse effects. In this study, we synthesized two different bismuth oxyiodide (BiOI) by hydrolysis (BiOI-H) and solvothermal (BiOI-ST) methods and characterized using FTIR, XRD, FESEM, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, DRS and PLS. The results of characterization tests showed that the BiOI-ST sample is a better adsorbent and may be more active in photocatalytic reactions as the result of more surface area, higher light absorption ability lower band-gap energy and PL intensity, than BiOI-H. Tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) antibiotic was selected to evaluate adsorption and photocatalytic efficiency of BiOI-ST using Response Surface Methodology. The optimum conditions of contact time, TCH initial concentration, BiOI dosage and pH for adsorption and photocatalytic processes were obtained 37.5min, 2.1mg/L, 1.5g/L, 8.5 and 101.5min, 2mg/L, 0.68g/L, respectively. Based on kinetic and isotherm studies, experimental data fitted to pseudo-second order kinetics model and followed the Freundlich and D-R isotherm models. The apparent pseudo-first order rate constant of BiOI-ST was higher than that of BiOI-H. Therefore, BiOI-ST can be used as a promising option to treat low level concentration of TCH in hospital wastewaters.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • An investigation on the evolution of granule formation by in-process
           sampling of a high shear granulator
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Faiz Mahdi, Ali Hassanpour, Frans Muller
      Understanding the growth mechanisms in granulation process is an important topic, providing valuable insights and supports control strategies. Typically, observations in high shear granulators are made after stopping the process. In this work, an in-process sampling technique is described and applied to a high shear wet granulation process. Different samples can be collected over the cause of the high shear granulation process. This allowed observation of the evolution of granules during addition of water at a constant flowrate. For a typical pharmaceutical formulation, we observed that granules nucleate in the first 2minutes after water addition starts and then grows in size and strength to an average size of 200–1200μm at 12.5minutes, corresponding to a sharp increase in torque. Longer water addition times lead to oversized granules and eventually a paste and highly fluctuating torque. Sampling was continued after stopping water addition which showed with time larger formed granules smoothen, whilst the smaller weaker ones disintegrate. The work shows the in-process sampling can facilitate the identification of the required binder quantity in high shear granulation.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • An MILP model for optimal design of multi-period natural gas transmission
           network
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Bohong Wang, Meng Yuan, Haoran Zhang, WenJie Zhao, Yongtu Liang
      This paper develops an MILP model for designing multi-period natural gas transmission network to determine the connections of pipeline and the sites of compressor stations with consideration of terrains and obstacles. Equations of mass balance of network nodes, pressure drop of pipelines and pressure increase of compressors are all taken into account. A piece-wise linearization method is applied to the model. Four cases of natural gas transmission networks in Shanxi province (China) are studied. The result illustrates that the model can tackle complicated natural gas transmission network optimization problems. The developed model is of practical value for natural gas sales enterprises to minimize the construction cost and is a good designing reference for construction contractors.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Production and performance of activated carbon from rice husks for removal
           of natural organic matter from water: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): E. Menya, P.W. Olupot, H. Storz, M. Lubwama, Y. Kiros
      Adsorption by activated carbon has great potential to improve natural organic matter (NOM) removal from water. However, the high production and regeneration costs limit its wide scale application. To address these limitations, research efforts have been focused on finding low cost materials that can be transformed into activated carbon. Rice husk is one of such materials of research focus, especially in the developing countries, where over 96% of rice husks are generated globally. Although numerous investigations have been made concerning the production of activated carbon from rice husks, the existing scientific information still remains widely scattered in literature. Furthermore, the scientific information regarding performance of rice husk activated carbon during NOM removal from water still remains poorly documented. This review article therefore provides ample information on efforts made by various researchers concerning production of activated carbon from rice husks and its adsorption performance in relation to NOM removal from water. Properties and pretreatment of rice husks in relation to production of activated carbon are discussed. Activation of rice husks by physical and chemical methods under numerous conditions is reviewed. Factors affecting NOM adsorption by activated carbon are briefly discussed. Adsorption performance of rice husk activated carbon is also reviewed with respect to NOM removal from water, and where possible compared with other source derived activated carbons. The data from literature revealed that NOM removal by rice husk activated carbon can be as effective as commercial activated carbon. Consequently, rice husk activated carbon has potential to serve as an alternative to commercial activated carbon.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Graphene composites as dye adsorbents: Review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): George Z. Kyzas, Eleni A. Deliyanni, Dimitrios N. Bikiaris, Athanasios C. Mitropoulos
      One of the most important decontamination techniques is considered to be adsorption. It is fast, simple, low-cost with many opportunities to modify the initial materials after appropriate synthesis routes etc. Numerous adsorbent materials are prepared the last years having as ultimate scope to remove some toxic pollutants especially from contaminated waters (effluents originated from industries). But the composition of each type of effluents is varying. Dyes are some major components of industrial wastewaters. In the last years, graphene attracted many researchers employing with adsorption technique, because of its excellent properties and two-dimensional structure. Researchers started to synthesize more effective graphene adsorbents making some additions to initial structure, preparing many graphene composites. This review summarizes the important contribution of graphene composites to adsorption technique. Many preparation routes of graphene composites are given along with the respective characterization techniques, properties of the materials, and of course detailed adsorption evaluation of graphene composites. The latter is based on some adsorption parameters as maximum adsorption capacity, kinetic behavior, thermodynamics, and possible reuse ability. The data clearly demonstrate that the adsorption capacity of graphene composites is very high (up to 1300mg/g depending on the dye molecule). The majority of works has been successfully fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetic equation. To highlight the superiority of graphene composites, comparison with other adsorbents is mandatory. This work summarizes the very recently published works of the last years.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Adsorption Modeling of CO2 in Fluidized Bed Reactor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Saeed Yaghoobi-Khankhajeh, Reza Alizadeh, Reza Zarghami
      A model was proposed for studying the adsorption of CO2 in fluidized bed reactor based on combination of two-phase fluidization with tanks-in-series model. Logical combinations of ideal reactors can be of critical importance in gaining insights into the nature of FBRs and might better be further utilized in process simulation software. Implementation of the tanks-in-series model, in addition, is more consistent with hydrodynamics of the bed compared to one-phase and two-phase models. Considering this model, the fluidized bed was divided into 4 equal-volume stages, in which gas flows as completely mixed flow in emulsion phase and in bubble phase as plug flow. Using experimental data, the number of sections was found as a function of Hata number, superficial gas velocity and minimum fluidization velocity. The experimental results in a laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor with two particle sizes (335 and 605μm) at different superficial gas velocities (0.47, 0.62, 0.79, 0.94 and 1.25m/s) and aspect ratios were used for model validation. Obtained breakthrough curves from modeling were compared against experimental data to verify the validity of the model and acceptable agreement was observed. By fitting the results of the proposed model with experimental data, the reaction constant and Langmuir equilibrium constant were determined to be 0.04 1/s and 0.019m3/mol, respectively. Increasing the superficial gas velocity and better mixing of adsorbent result in greater adsorption capacity. Moreover, it was observed that smaller particles have higher adsorption capacity due to higher specific surface area and mass transfer coefficient than larger particles. It has also been found that the optimum superficial gas velocity was in the range of 0.62 and 0.79m/s for both particles sizes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Effect of water addition on flow properties of lignite particles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Yong Jin, Haifeng Lu, Xiaolei Guo, Xin Gong
      The effect of moisture content on the packing and flow properties of lignite powders was experimentally investigated using an FT4 Powder Rheometer and a PT-X powder tester to gain flow parameters like angle of repose, packing density, Hausner ratio, and shear test profiles. Flow criteria showed that flowability decreased with increasing moisture content. The flowability and packing properties were different both above and below the critical moisture content. To explain this phenomenon, a model was proposed to relate the inter-particle force at the microscale from shear test data to the packing properties at the macroscale. The model was further modified to predict effects of moisture content on flowability and packing properties. The term ρ p d 3gφ 2 ε was defined to describe the influence of water addition.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Pressure-swing-adsorption of gaseous mixture in isotropic porous medium:
           Numerical sensitivity analysis in CFD
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): R. Gautier, T. Dbouk, J.-L. Harion, L. Hamon, P. Pré
      In the present manuscript, a numerical sensitivity analysis is conducted on different physical parameters in order to assess the robustness of a 3D CFD simulation of adsorption process cycles. It is demonstrated that the effective thermal conductivity of the porous medium, the mass transfer coefficient, the column dead volumes, the equilibrium isotherm model choice, are all crucial parameters to model accurately adsorption kinematics and heat transfer through a packed porous bed using 3D CFD approach. Moreover, it is found that the initial condition imposed on the adsorbed phase at the start of a steady PSA cycle, is a crucial point to predict accurately the mass transfer and the displacement of the adsorption front in 3D CFD computations.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Energy efficient methanol-to-olefins process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Alexandre C. Dimian, Costin Sorin Bildea
      This paper deals with the conceptual design of an energy efficient and cost-effective methanol-to-olefin (MTO) process. The innovative solution consists in full recovery of the energy generated by reaction. The reactor effluent enthalpy can cover feed preheating, evaporation and superheating in a sequence of three feed-effluent-heat exchanger units. The novel method employs mechanical vapour compression for upgrading the temperature/enthalpy profile of the condensing water/hydrocarbon mixture, recovering a considerable amount of energy, otherwise lost by water quenching. Saved energy may pay back the compressor cost in about one year. The energy released in the reactor is used for running a combined heat and power cycle. The power is sufficient for driving the compressors, while the low-pressure steam may run an ammonia-absorption refrigeration plant that supplies most of the cold utilities in separations. The olefin separation and purification is handled in a compact scheme of five columns, energetically integrated with the reaction and preliminary separation sections. The ethylene/propylene splitter is designed for high recovery and flexible operation. Heat pump is implemented for propylene purification. Rigorous sizing is performed for the key units. Operation and capital costs are minimised since the design is almost neutral regarding energy requirements and employs a minimum number of units.

      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • CFD Simulation of Sieve-Fixed Valve Tray Hydrodynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Hongkang Zhao, Lun Li, Junsu Jin, Qunsheng Li
      In this work, the sieve-fixed valve (SFV) tray was designed by adding flow-guiding and sieve holes on the valve caps of the original trapezoid valve (OTV). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of three-dimensional two-phase flow was developed to describe the flow structure of SFV tray. Based on the experimental clear liquid height, the modified correlation of Bennett was adopted for liquid-gas interaction and the gas-liquid momentum transfer term MGL was also obtained. To demonstrate the function of flow-guiding hole and sieve hole, the hydrodynamics of the OTV and SFV trays including pressure drop, weeping, entrainment and clear liquid height were experimented and compared. What’s more, local information such as velocity profile and flow field around the valves were simulated. CFD results showed that the new valve tray with flow-guiding holes was capable of promoting liquid flow and homogenizing liquid flow. This study proved that CFD research can test modification of devices, and provide information which could not be obtained by experiment. The CFD method tends to be a necessary part for designing and modifying new distillation internals.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-16T18:33:02Z
       
  • Lead time estimation for modular production plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): Stefan Sievers, Tim Seifert, Marcel Franzen, Gerhard Schembecker, Christian Bramsiepe
      Modular plant design is an approach for making chemical production more flexible and more efficient. Different approaches for modular plant design have been developed, for example in the CoPIRIDE or F3 factory project. They have in common, that lead time reductions for modular equipment are expected e.g. by utilizing design repetition or parallelization of preassembly of modules. To support the decision for or against a modular concept, besides cost effects possible lead time changes compared to conventional concepts should be anticipated in early economic evaluations already. In this article, a lead time estimation method will be presented that correlates project costs and project durations and can be applied to modular and non-modular plants enabling comparative studies. An example from a previous paper was used to investigate the impact of modularization on lead time. It includes modular production lines and a non-modular backbone facility that provides energy and utility supply. A range of investment sizes (FCI of 3–95mio.€) was investigated and compared with a conventional reference plant. Total lead time reduction was in the range from 2.6 to 5.5 month depending on investment size. For a more significant impact on the lead time the modularization approach needs to be modified by also applying modular design to the backbone facility. In this case depending on investment size total lead time reduction would be between 3.9 and 18.7 months representing a very significant reduction of 23%–60% compared to the lead time of the conventionally designed reference plant. This is considered as the maximum expectable lead time reduction that can be achieved through modular plant design. This reduction would represent a major potential for speeding up construction of chemical plants.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • Framework to decide for a volume flexible chemical plant during early
           phases of plant design
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): Matthias Heitmann, Gerhard Schembecker, Christian Bramsiepe
      As consequence of increasing market volatility in chemical industry, plants should be designed for a certain flexible capacity. In order to meet fluctuating market demands a volume flexible plant with an increased capacity range may enable a more profitable production by avoiding a cost-intensive inventory of products. However, the profitability increase gained during production must be balanced with additional investment costs to build a plant with increased capacity range. During early project phases decision-making on such plant design requires a quantification of flexibility to evaluate the additional investment that may be spent for realization. This study presents a framework evaluating the additional investment that may be spent for a plant design with increased capacity range regarding volatile markets. A production planning method is integrated to determine sales and inventory costs adapting the production rate. Economic and investment risk analysis is applied to evaluate the economic improvement by additional volume flexibility in a volatile market. The maximum viable investment as a key performance indicator is introduced to evaluate the investment for increasing the capacity range economically. The framework is applied to a case study demonstrating its value during early design phases.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • Cascade design for isotopically modified molybdenum as an alternative to
           zirconium alloys
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): V.D. Borisevich, J. Yan, A.Y. Smirnov, A.K. Bonarev, S. Zeng, G.A. Sulaberidze, D. Jiang
      Search of the optimum design used in practical squared-off cascades is usually started with optimization of various model cascades with the specified concentrations of a target component in their outgoing flows. After that, the approximation of the found model cascade is carried out. These two stages of research have been executed in solution of the problem of manufacturing the isotopically modified molybdenum (IMM), which is considered as an alternative construction material for nuclear power plants. A quasi-ideal cascade is chosen as a model cascade. Based on the results obtained for model cascades, the performance of single-cascade and double-cascade schemes has been analyzed under various requirements for thermal neutron capture cross section of the produced isotope product, and design of the squared-off cascades is completed. It is demonstrated that the most efficient separation scheme could be realized by means of either a single-cascade or double-cascade scheme, depending on the specific requirement. The 4-section squared-off cascades provide the highest metrics for cascade efficiency. The results of this research could provide necessary guidance for further design and construction of a separation plant for large-scale production of IMM.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • Immobilization of laccase on the fibrous polymer-grafted film and study of
           textile dye degradation by MALDI–ToF-MS
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): M. Yakup Arica, Bekir Salih, Omur Celikbicak, Gulay Bayramoglu
      This study assessed the immobilization of laccase on fibrous polymer-grafted polypropylene chloride film and the removal of three different dyes (i.e., Procion Green H4G, Brilliant Blue G, and Crystal Violet) using immobilized laccase. The polypropylene chloride (PP) film and poly(glycidylmethacrylate)-grafted (PP-g-pGMA) film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and contact angle studies. The PP-g-pGMA film was used for the direct immobilization of laccase. The amount of immobilized enzyme and the enzyme activity on the film were found to be 1.185μg/cm2 and 1.71×10−2 U/cm2 film, respectively. The retained activity of the immobilized laccase was 72.3%. The optimal conditions for the free and immobilized enzymes and the kinetic parameters were determined. Additionally, the thermal, storage, and operational stabilities of the immobilized laccase were increased compared with those of the free form. Kinetic parameters Vmax and Km values were determined as 23.4U/mg protein and 0.38mmol/L for free enzyme and 17.5U/mg protein and 0.53mmol/L for the immobilized laccase, respectively. The removal of the tested dyes with the immobilized laccases was evaluated in batch system and enzyme reactor. The maximum enzymatic removal of tested dyes was achieved at a pH of 5.5 and a temperature of 30°C. The complete degradation time of the tested dyes was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI–ToF-MS). These results indicate that the immobilized laccase system can be effectively used for the removal of dyes, and it has a great potential for various biotechnological applications.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • Intensification of the chlor-alkali process by using a spinning disc
           membrane electrolyzer
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): P. Granados Mendoza, S. Moshtarikhah, A.S. Langenhan, M.T. de Groot, J.T.F. Keurentjes, J.C. Schouten, J. van der Schaaf
      A zero-gap spinning disc membrane electrochemical reactor (SDMER) is presented for the intensification of the chlor-alkali process at high current densities up to 20kA/m2. Two configurations of the SDMER, namely rotor-stator (RS) and thin-film (TF), are investigated and compared with a conventional parallel plate (PP) cell. The cell voltage as a function of current density is virtually identical for both SDMER configurations, and lower when compared to PP cell. The effect of the rotational speed on the cell voltage shows a decrease of 0.9V at 6kA/m2 when the rotational speed is increased from 40 to 60rad/s. The estimated membrane permselectivity, increases with increasing current density to values between 0.95 and 0.98. The intensification of the chlor-alkali process was successful with the SDMER by obtaining an approximately three times higher production compared to the PP cell when increasing the current density from 6kA/m2 to 20kA/m2.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • Investigation of mass transfer performance in an L-shaped pulsed sieve
           plate extraction column using axial dispersion model
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): Vahid Rafiei, Jaber Safdari, Sadegh Moradi, Pouria Amani, Mohammad H. Mallah
      This research revolves studying the mass transfer performance of an L-shaped pulsed sieve-plate extraction column using the axial dispersion model (ADM) for two chemical systems: water–acetone–toluene and water–acetone-butyl acetate with mass transfer d → c direction. The effects of operating parameters including pulsation intensity and flow rates of the dispersed and the continuous phases on the mass transfer performance are evaluated. According to the results, incrementing pulsation intensity increases the volumetric overall mass transfer coefficients in the horizontal section, whereas it slightly decreases the mass transfer coefficients in the vertical section. Furthermore, the axial dispersion coefficient of each phase is found to be mainly affected by the pulsation intensity and the flow rate of the phase itself. The continuous phase axial dispersion is found to be significantly higher than that of the dispersed phase. Finally, new empirical correlations are proposed for predicting the overall mass transfer and axial dispersion coefficients.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • Effect of oxygen-containing functional groups on the adsorption of
           cationic dye by magnetic graphene nanosheets
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): Fang Wang
      Since its high stability, large specific surface area, honeycomb structure, high recovery and reproducibility, magnetic graphene has become a research hotspot in recent years. Batch equilibrium experiments of methylene blue (MB) were conducted on magnetic graphene nanosheets (Fe3O4@GNs) and magnetic graphene oxide (Fe3O4@GO) to probe effect of oxygen-containing functional groups (OFGs) on the potential active centers and adsorption mechanism of the cationic dyes. The microstructure and morphology of the magnetic graphene-based materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technologies. Owing to the OFGs attenuation, Fe3O4@GNs presented a very high maximum monolayer MB adsorption capacity of 211.34mgg−1 at 318K and can be recycled easily by an external magnet. The kinetic results prove that the adsorption rate of MB mainly controlled by a chemical-sorption involving π–π force through sharing and electrons exchange between Fe3O4@GNs and MB molecular. It indicates that the enhanced hydrophobic and the strong π–π interaction can be influenced from the disappearing of CO functional groups. This group may be responsible for the attractive performance of Fe3O4@GNs. In addition, SEM results confirm that the role of Fe3O4 nanoparticles is not only can effectively prevent the aggregation of GNs but also be beneficial to improving the adsorption ability.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • A new experimental and modeling strategy to determine asphaltene
           precipitation in crude oil
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): Javad Sayyad Amin, Somayye Nikkhah, Sohrab Zendehboudi
      Asphaltene precipitation phenomenon which exhibits considerable influence on enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes is taken into account as an important matter in the petroleum and chemical engineering processes/operational units. Available mathematical methods to investigate crucial aspects of this production problem (e.g., precipitation conditions and determination of amount of precipitated asphaltene) seem difficult to be implemented at a variety of process conditions and oil properties. Thus, it is important to evaluate the influences of different controlling variables on the asphaltene precipitation for practical purposes through introduction of proper mathematical/empirical correlations. In this research work, an experimental approach and response surface methodology (RSM) are employed to study the impacts of main factors, including pressure, molecular weight (Mw) of n-alkanes (n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane) and dilution ratio on the asphaltene precipitation in a dead oil sample through a systematic parametric sensitivity analysis. The extent of precipitated asphaltene is mathematically modeled as a function of independent variables such as dilution ratio and molecular weight. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique is also conducted to examine the efficiency of the proposed model. It was found that the simple predictive tool works fairly well to estimate the precipitation values over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions. The correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9908 and the mean absolute error percentage of less than 3.1% show a pretty good agreement between the modeling and experimental results. The RSM model appears to be a strong tool for calculation of asphaltene precipitation at statistic and dynamic conditions in oil industry.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • Laser rapid-prototyping and modular packaging of chip-based microreactors
           for direct fluorination reactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): Dawid Cichowski, Pengcheng Zhang, Peter Woias, Ingo Krossing, Keith Cobry
      We have developed a laser rapid-prototyping method for the realization of microchannels and nozzles in silicon and nickel chips. A practical application of such microreactors, made by rapid prototyping, is the direct fluorination of organic substrates via microbubbles, a highly exothermic and chemically harsh reaction. By employing optimized laser raster ablation procedures, different channel cross-section shapes could be manufactured with adjustable channel wall angles. Modular compressive chip packaging allowed for safe reactor sealing without permanent chip-to-chip bonding. Fluorine gas was introduced into the microchannels, producing a monodisperse chain of bubbles (diameter ∼200μm) with the reaction taking place at the gas/liquid interfaces. Successful direct fluorinations of fluoroethylene carbonate were carried out over 107h at room temperature without noticeable leakage or corrosion. High reaction efficiency and an excellent space–time yield for the four products (4,4-F2EC: trans-F2EC: cis-F2EC: F3EC) was demonstrated (65% F2-usage, 1.41×106 molm−3 h−1). cis- and trans-F2EC have shown great potential as electrolyte additives for increasing the lifetime of lithium ion batteries, and trifluorinated F3EC, with eventually improved characteristics, was for the first time fully characterized, e.g. by NMR spectroscopy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • Seven-bore hollow fiber membrane (HFM) for ultrafiltration (UF)
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): Peng Wan, Jun Yin, Baolin Deng
      Membrane technology has been widely applied for wastewater reclamation and desalination due to the water shortage in various regions resulted from an ever growing demand of fresh water. Between hollow fiber membrane (HFM) and flat sheet membrane, HFM has advantages sometime to address the water shortage and quality issue because of its high water productivity per unit volume and its self-supporting structure. Traditional HFMs, however, have only one single bore and may suffer from a decreased stability and potting durability with time. This study explored the development of a seven-bore polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) HFM for ultrafiltration (UF) with a goal to manipulate water flux and membrane durability and antifouling property. This new type of HFM with seven-bores was spun on a custom-made spinning system, using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the pore forming agent with different weight ratios: 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%. The membranes were characterized by the contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and mechanical strength test. Results showed the membrane hydrophilicity and water flux were enhanced with the addition of PEG. Compared to a single-bore HFM, the tensile strength of the seven-bore HFM was improved. The pure water flux of membrane prepared at 16wt% PVDF and 3wt% PEG (16_3_81) was around 12.5L/m2 h under 6psi transmembrane pressure, as measured on a cross-flow testing system. When a humic acid (HA) solution was used as feed, the membrane rejected approximately 98% of the HA. This study demonstrated the novel seven-bore HFMs had an improved durability and life time when used for water ultrafiltration.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • Facile and rapid separation of oil from emulsions by hydrophobic and
           lipophilic Fe3O4/sawdust composites
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Xin Di, Wenbo Zhang, Zishuai Jiang, Ming Zhang, YaZhou Wang, Feng Liu, Shih-Hsin Ho, Chengyu Wang
      A novel method is demonstrated for effective separation of surfactant-free oil-in-water emulsions via hydrophobic and lipophilic Fe3O4/sawdust composites (HFSCs) under magnetic stirring. The HFSCs were able to capture micron-sized oil droplets from the emulsion under electromagnetic stirring due to its adsorption, underwater lipophilicity and exceptional magnetic property. Surfactant-free oil-in-water emulsions, such as diesel, toluene and soybean, were separated less than 1.5min. After being measured by a total organic carbon analyzer, the initial content of toluene was reduced by 97.6% in separated emulsion, demonstrating that the toluene was almost entirely removed from the emulsion. Furthermore, for water-in-oil emulsions, the oil is selectively allowed to pass through HFSCs-based composite membranes with initial flux of ∼1134Lm−2 h−1 and oil purity of the filtrate more than 99.9%. Moreover, the HFSCs can be reused for emulsion separation at least 10 times with little reduction of water contact angles (WCAs) and initial fluxes. The purity of the toluene filtrate was no less than 97% in the last separation. Therefore, the cost-effective and easily-operated preparation, reusable and eco-friendly material and convenient and efficient emulsions separation methodology offer great technological promise in the field of wastewater treatment, cleanup of oil spills, and fuel purification.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • Breakup and coalescence regularity of non-dilute oil drops in a vane-type
           swirling flow field
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Shuo Liu, Dong Zhang, Le-le Yang, Jing-yu Xu
      In this work, in order to investigate the behavior of non-dilute drops, including breakup, coalescence and trajectory, in a 100-mm inner-diameter horizontal swirling flow field with low inlet mixture velocity, both an experimental study and numerical simulation were conducted. Inlet oil phase concentration was under 3.0% volume fraction, with an inlet flow rate ranging from 12m3/h to 18m3/h. Malvern RTsizer and Electrical Resistance Tomography were applied for measuring the drop size distribution and oil phase concentration, respectively. Correspondingly, numerical simulations applying a Renormalization-group k-ε turbulent model, coupled with a Discrete Phase Model simulating oil phase, were conducted as well. The results showed that small drops in the flow field tended to coalescence, while the behavior of large drops was determined by the inlet flow rate. A higher inlet flow rate led to a thinner oil core with constant inlet oil concentration. Moreover, the simulation results, which corresponded well with the experimental observations, presented oil drops distribution laws of breakup, coalescence and trajectory in a 100-mm inner diameter swirling flow field and established a prediction model in a similar flow field. Finally, regularity of swirling intense distribution and drop-turbulence interaction in a swirling flow field with a low inlet velocity was established. These results provide new information helpful for the design of vane-type separator.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • Corrigendum to “Modeling the hydrodynamic forces between fluid-granular
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): S. Al-Arkawazi, C. Marie, K. Benhabib, P. Coorevits


      PubDate: 2017-11-09T18:13:02Z
       
  • Resolving Steady-State Multiplicities for Diffusion with Surface Chemical
           Reaction by Invoking the Prigogine Principle of Minimum Entropy Production
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Rajamani Krishna
      The process of coupled multicomponent diffusion and surface reaction is described by combining the Maxwell-Stefan (M-S) and Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) formulations. Five different systems are investigated: epoxidation of ethene C 2 H 4 + 1 2 O 2 ⇄ C 2 H 4 O , oxidation of carbon monoxide CO + 1 2 O 2 ⇄ CO 2 , hydrogenation of ethene H 2 + C 2 H 4 ⇄ C 2 H 6 , CO methanation CO + 3H 2 ⇄ CH 4 + H 2 O , and chemical vapor deposition WF6 +2SiH4 →W(s) +2SiHF3 +3H2. For isothermal, isobaric operations under steady-state conditions, multiplicity of solutions are found for all five reaction systems. The origin of the multiplicities is traceable to the non-linear characteristics of the L-H kinetics. Application of the Prigogine principle of minimum entropy production indicates that the low-conversion steady-state is the stable one that can be realized in practice. The reported results have important consequences for modelling and design of chemical vapor deposition processes and micro-channel reaction devices consisting of thin catalyst coatings on the walls.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T18:06:01Z
       
  • Numerical assessment of two phase flow modeling using plunging jet
           configurations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Amine Boualouache, Faiza Zidouni Kendil, Amina Mataoui
      This paper presents unsteady numerical simulation of air entrainment by water plunging jet using Volume of fluid model coupled to PLIC algorithm for phase interface reconstruction and Euler–Euler model considering continuous water phase and dispersed air phase. Plunging jet simulations aim to find out the ability of each model to reproduce air entrainment phenomenon. The investigation tackled the air plume depth, air entrainment rate and velocity profiles. Further simulations were performed to highlight the influence of the free jet length on the entrainment rate and plume development below the free surface. The results show good agreement with the available experimental data particularly velocity profiles in both radial and axial directions, plume shape and development along transient intervals. The initial impact is well reproduced referring to literature and bubbles penetration depth is comparable to the empirical correlations. It is noticed that further improvements are required for interfacial forces modeling in volume of fluid model to ensure good control of bubbles migration in the plume region. Entrainment rate discrepancies in Euler–Euler model are related to the lack of information about interface location due to averaging process; hence, an appropriate interface detection function is needed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T18:06:01Z
       
  • Comparison between three types of ammonia synthesis reactor configurations
           in terms of cooling methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Mohammad Hasan Khademi, Reyhaneh Sadat Sabbaghi
      In this study, simulation and optimization of ammonia synthesis reactor based on the implemented cooling methods was presented in three cases: Internal direct cooling reactor (IDCR), adiabatic quench cooling reactor (AQCR), and adiabatic indirect cooling reactor (AICR). A one-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model was developed to investigate the effect of various parameters on maximum N2 conversion at the outlet of IDCR, 2-bed AQCR and 2-bed AICR. Differential Evolution algorithm was applied to optimize three types of ammonia synthesis reactor, considering N2 conversion as the main objective. A comparison between IDCR, 2/3/4-bed AQCR and 2/3/4-bed AICR was carried out under the optimal operating conditions by considering the same catalyst volume, operating pressure and feed mass flow rate for all three types of reactor. The optimization results show that a maximum conversion of 0.26 was achieved in 3-bed AQCR, in which the temperature of feed gas to the first bed was 635K, dimensionless lengths of each bed were 0.13, 0.25 and 0.62, and fractions of total feed flow rate quenching from the first to end bed were 0.2, 0.26 and 0.54, respectively. The optimum value of N2 conversion was found 0.3 in IDCR at the gas temperature to the cooling tube of 495K. In 3-bed AICR, the highest conversion of 0.3 was determined at temperature of inlet gas to each bed, 696K, and dimensionless length of each bed, 0.33. Generally, IDCR, 3-bed AICR and 3-bed AQCR were suggested as ammonia synthesis reactor configurations from the most favorable to the least favorable.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T18:06:01Z
       
  • Flexible supply chain network design under uncertainty
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Anastasia Chatzikontidou, Pantelis Longinidis, Panagiotis Tsiakis, Michael C. Georgiadis
      Flexibility in supply chain networks dealing with uncertainty, has become a research challenge over the past years. This work proposes a flexible supply chain network design (SCND) model that uses generalized production/warehousing nodes instead of individual production plants and warehouses while conquers with demand uncertainty using a scenario-based approach. It also deals with inventory management and decisions on strategical and tactical level (facility location, production rate, warehouse capacity, demand allocation between generalized nodes, inventory levels, product flows, suppliers’ product availability and links between all facilities). The proposed Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model allows intra-layer flows between generalized nodes and aims at minimizing total network cost. A case study is formed to test the applicability of the model for a medium sized European company. A comparison was made between a classic supply chain network and generalized network that deals with uncertainty. Results have revealed cost benefits for this model, making it not only applicable, but also cost effective for the company that will apply it. This decision support system, can help managers in taking strategic decisions such as facility location, with a higher level of accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T18:06:01Z
       
  • Cocurrent and countercurrent extraction based on a novel three-dimensional
           vortex microextractor
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): Tingliang Xie, Shan Jing, Cong Xu
      A single-stage cocurrent arrangement was described based on a three-dimensional (3-D) vortex microextractor using the vortex effect, and the 3-D microextractor was further modified to establish a countercurrent arrangement without any interstage pumps or check valves. The 3-D vortex microextractor mainly composed of an inlet channel, two circular chambers, a slender cylindrical connection channel, and an outlet channel. In both cocurrent and countercurrent operations, the flow pattern and extraction performance were investigated and analyzed. In the cocurrent arrangement, the hydraulics experiment results demonstrated that the 3-D vortex microextractor could passively and effectively produce droplets even at high fluxes of the dispersed phase. The extraction experiment results confirmed that the vortex effect of the 3-D microextractor could enhance the shear force and facilitate the production of droplets, consequently enhancing the extraction efficiency. Furthermore, it was experimentally proved that the countercurrent arrangement could be realized relying on the modified 3-D microextractor and alternatively pulsed feeding of both phases.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T16:50:48Z
       
  • Heat and mass transfer of binary distillation in a vertical wetted-wall
           column
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 128
      Author(s): Hong-ran Park, Yeongmin Kim, Sung Jo Kwak, Jiyeon Choi, SeungCheol Yang, Moon Hee Han, Dong Kook Kim
      In this study, we investigated the effects of partial condensation on the heat and mass transfer rates during ethanol–water binary distillation based on a laminar boundary layer theory applied to a wetted-wall column, as well as the characteristics of the boundary layer behavior on the vapor phase. The thickness of the thermal and concentration boundary layers were shown to decrease with an increase in partial condensation, whereas the heat and mass transfer rates were demonstrated to increase. The results of this study show that the dimensionless rates considered for the convective fluxes Sh/(1+ α M) and Nu/(1+ α H) can be determined through a combined application of the laminar boundary layer theory and function g(β) of a partial condensation ratio β (mole basis), where β is linearly proportional to υ s/u ∞ (dimensionless velocity), which is a term for the boundary condition at a vapor–liquid interface. A numerical analysis of the experiment data show that both Sh/(1+ α M) and Nu/(1+ α H) are approximately proportional to the Reynolds number (Re), and not to Re1/2, as is generally the case, under the condition υ s =0. Therefore, we established the functional relationship g(β′)=0.4288–0.2844eβ″, i.e., the exponential function of β′, which was converted into a mass basis. The modified boundary layer theory was found to be completely self-consistent.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T16:50:48Z
       
  • Activated carbon–clay composite as an effective adsorbent from the spent
           bleaching sorbent of olive pomace oil: Process optimization and adsorption
           of acid blue 29 and methylene blue
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): F. Marrakchi, M. Bouaziz, B.H. Hameed
      An activated carbon–clay (ACC) composite was prepared using spent bleaching sorbent generated from refined olive pomace oil through carbonization followed by K2CO3 activation. The adsorption-removal efficiencies for acid blue 29 (AB 29) and methylene blue (MB) of the developed ACC were examined. The K2CO3 activation process was optimized using Box–Behnken design. The optimum conditions were a K2CO3 impregnation ratio of 1:1, an activation temperature of 800°C, and an activation time of 120min, under which the optimized ACC achieved 83.81% AB 29 and 96.20% MB removal. The surface properties of the optimized ACC were characterized by different physicochemical measures and techniques, including surface area, point of zero charge, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models best fitted the adsorption kinetics and isotherm experimental data. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of the ACC was 104.83 and 178.64mg/g for AB 29 and MB, respectively, at 30°C. All these results indicated the potential application of ACC in dye adsorption.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T16:50:48Z
       
  • Investigation on the ethylbenzene/styrene separation efficiency with ionic
           liquids in liquid-liquid extraction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Monika Karpińska, Michał Wlazło, Urszula Domańska
      The objective of this work was to explore the feasibility of four ionic liquids (ILs), namely 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifuoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide, [EMIM][NTf2], 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifuoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide, [AMIM][NTf2], 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifuoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide, [BzMIM][NTf2], and 1-butyl-4-cyanopyridinium bis{(trifuoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide, [BCN4PY][NTf2] for the separation of ethylbenzene/styrene compounds. The liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) in ternary systems of {IL (1) + styrene (2) + ethylbenzene (3)} at T =298.15 K and ambient pressure are presented. The final chromatography analysis has shown that the studied ILs have not been found in the raffinate phase, which is very convenient for new technology. The effect of IL cation was examined with respect to the selectivity and solute distribution ratio of styrene extraction. The comparison of different ILs is presented in the studied separation problem. It was observed that the best separation effectiveness has [EMIM][NTf2] in comparison with other studied ILs in this work but lower than [EMIM][DCA] presented previously by us. The experimental tie-lines were correlated with the non-random two liquid NRTL model.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T16:50:48Z
       
  • The application of an electrochemical microflow reactor for the
           electrosynthetic aldol reaction of acetone to diacetone alcohol
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Danny Pauwels, Bart Geboes, Jonas Hereijgers, Daniel Choukroun, Karolien De Wael, Tom Breugelmans
      The design and application of an electrochemical micro-flow reactor for the aldol reaction of acetone to diacetone alcohol (DAA) is reported. The modular reactor could be readily disassembled and reassembled to change the electrodes, incorporate a membrane and remove possible obstructions. The productivity and efficiency was quantified. Using a platinum deposit as electrocatalyst or an inert glassy carbon electrode as working electrode, the maximum obtainable equilibrium concentration of ±15 m% was reached after a single pass up to a flow rate of 8mlmin−1, yielding 0.57gmin−1 DAA (3.46mmolcm−3 min−1) at an efficiency of 0.33gC−1 on platinum and 0.50gmin−1 (3.04mmolcm−3 min−1) at 1.20gC−1 on glassy carbon. Note that no optimisation studies have been made in the present paper.

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T16:50:48Z
       
  • Hydrodynamics of low temperature carbonization furnace for production of
           polyacrilonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fiber
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Hung H. Pham, Young-il Lim, Cheol-Ho Cho, Yun-Hyuk Bang
      An incompressible gas phase three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model with turbulence and radiation was developed to investigate hydrodynamics of a low temperature furnace (LTF) for polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based fiber carbonization. Thirty PAN-fiber tows moving at a constant linear speed emitted off-gas and their porosity increased during carbonization. The CFD model included off-gas mass flow rates of eight species with respect to temperature, which were treated as a source term from the tows. Velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles along the furnace length were examined according to three duct positions (e.g., front, middle and rear sides of LTF). The off-gas residence time, dead-zone (or stagnant gas region) ratio, and temperature uniformity were used as performance criteria of LTF. An optimal duct position was determined on the front side of LTF considering the three performance criteria.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-25T16:50:48Z
       
  • Improved catalytic functionalities of purified pristine and
           chitosan-immobilized polygalacturonase, and pectin lyase
    • Authors: Fouzia Bibi; Muhammad Irshad; Zahid Anwar; Khizar Hayat Bhatti; Akash Raza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Fouzia Bibi, Muhammad Irshad, Zahid Anwar, Khizar Hayat Bhatti, Akash Raza
      In this study, novel fractions of polygalacturonase (PG), and pectin lyase (PL) were extracted from Neurospora crassa-fermented citrus peel waste. A central composite design from Response Surface Methodology was used to study the in-depth interactions between various fermentation parameters. The active PG and PL fractions were purified to homogeneity and surface immobilized using various concentrations of chitosan (CHI) and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. A significant increase in the specific activities of PG and PL with 12.3-fold and 6.52-fold purification after Sephadex G-100 column chromatography was achieved. Evidently, the successful immobilization was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The catalytic characterization of free parts, i.e., FP-PG and FP-PL and CHI-immobilized parts, i.e., CHI-PG and CHI-PL was investigated using various parameters including pH, thermal behavior, Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants, inhibitors/stimulators, i.e., divalent cations and chelating agents including Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Sodium dodecyl sulfate. The immobilized fractions were highly stable over a broader pH and temperature range from 4-9 and 45–85°C, respectively. The catalytic=constants K m and V max were 0.20, 0.13, 0.14, and 0.10mg/mL and 204, 154, 208, and 143U/mL/min for FP-PG, FP-PL, CHI-PG, and CHI-PL, respectively. The negligible difference between the K m and Vmax values of free and immobilized fractions revealed that the conformational flexibility was retained as such. The CHI-PG and CHI-PL fractions retained more than 75% of their operational activities even after seven consecutive cycles.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T16:27:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.10.008
       
  • Modeling and optimization of a photocatalytic process: Degradation of
           endocrine disruptor compounds by Ag/ZnO
    • Authors: Alma Berenice Jasso-Salcedo; Sandrine Hoppe; Fernand Pla; Vladimir Alonso Escobar-Barrios; Mauricio Camargo; Dimitrios Meimaroglou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Alma Berenice Jasso-Salcedo, Sandrine Hoppe, Fernand Pla, Vladimir Alonso Escobar-Barrios, Mauricio Camargo, Dimitrios Meimaroglou
      Artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was applied to study the photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol-A. The operating conditions of the Ag/ZnO photocatalyst synthesis and its performance were simultaneously modeled and subsequently optimized to target the highest efficiency in terms of the degradation reaction rate. Two ANN models were developed to simulate the stages of the photocatalyst synthesis and photodegradation performance, respectively. A direct dependence between the two networks was also established, thus making it possible to directly relate the degradation rate of the contaminant, not only to the photodegradation conditions, but also to the photocatalyst synthesis conditions. In this respect, an optimization study was carried out, by means of an evolutionary algorithm, in order to identify the optimal synthesis and photodegradation conditions that would result in the degradation of a maximal amount of the contaminant. Through this integrated approach it was demonstrated that neural network models can be proven valuable tools in the evaluation, simulation and, ultimately, the optimization of different stages of complex photocatalytic processes towards the maximization of the efficiency of the synthesized photocatalyst.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T16:27:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.10.012
       
  • A new genetic algorithm based on prenatal genetic screening (PGS-GA) and
           its application in an automated process flowsheet synthesis problem for a
           membrane based carbon capture case-study
    • Authors: Alireza Shafiee; Mobin Nomvar; Zongwen Liu; Ali Abbas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Alireza Shafiee, Mobin Nomvar, Zongwen Liu, Ali Abbas
      The genetic algorithm (GA) is a widely used optimization algorithm that mimics the process of natural selection to search and find useful solutions among sets of generations. In GA, generations are sets of possible solutions, known as chromosomes, which consist of a set of manipulating parameters, known as genes. In this study we introduce a new optimization algorithm called ‘Prenatal Genetic Screening’ Genetic Algorithm (PGS-GA) and investigate the comparative performance of this new algorithm against standard GA. This new evolutionary computation technique mimics the PGS procedure whereby a trained surrogate model is used to estimate the performance of each possible generated individual in GA generations and then diagnoses and replaces weak fetuses with stronger individuals. Firstly, the performance of this new algorithm is investigated on a set of known benchmark functions to assess the closeness to the global optimum in least number of generations as compared to GA. The results reveal that PGS-GA shows an efficient performance for optimization of multivariable multimodal functions and leads to noticeable improvements in convergence speed and closeness of the solution to the global optimum in all studied benchmark functions. This new optimization technique is then implemented for this automated process synthesis algorithm to generate the optimum process flowsheet for a membrane based CO2 capture process. It is shown that using PGS-GA leads to 2.3% improvement in the value of the objective function (product CO2 purity) over the GA algorithm. In addition, the presence of repeated flowsheets (structure, operating and design condition) among different solutions achieved using the algorithm starting from different randomly generated starting points that provide higher objective function values, approximately implies closeness of the solution to the global optimum. This consistency of the algorithm brings about a more robust flowsheeting algorithm that can provide higher performance solutions. Implementing more robust surrogate models, will facilitate the use of this algorithm in numerous other process design applications and beyond.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T16:27:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.10.009
       
  • A kinetic model for calculating total membrane fouling resistance in
           chemical cleaning process
    • Authors: Lei Hou; Kui Gao; Ping Li; Ximing Zhang; Zhan Wang; Peng Song; Wei Yao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Lei Hou, Kui Gao, Ping Li, Ximing Zhang, Zhan Wang, Peng Song, Wei Yao
      In this study, a kinetic model was developed based on Hom–Haas model to describe the total membrane fouling resistance (Rtf (t)) during the chemical cleaning process of 0.1μm PAN microfiltration (MF) membrane fouled with activated sludge suspension from submerged membrane bioreactors (SBR). The quantitative effects of different chemical cleaning conditions (temperature, TMP and stirring speed) on model parameters were determined. Results showed that the cleaning effency of NaOCl was superior compared to SDS and NaOH. Furthermore, the chemical cleaning activation energy and the surface free energy between the foulants and the membrane for NaOCl cleaning process was maxmium. Meanwhile, the model played an excellent agreement (R2 > 0.90) with NaOCl/NaOH/SDS cleaning process under different conditions for 0.1 μm PAN membrane fouled with activated sludge suspension. Moreover, the model was also possessed higher accurancy with other suspention (yeast suspension) and membrane (0.1 μm PVDF).

      PubDate: 2017-10-18T16:27:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.10.004
       
  • The Role of Surface Carboxylates in Catalytic Ozonation of Acetone on
           Alumina-Supported Manganese Oxide
    • Authors: Mostafa Aghbolaghy; Jafar Soltan; Ronny Sutarto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Mostafa Aghbolaghy, Jafar Soltan, Ronny Sutarto
      This study addresses gas phase reaction of acetone with ozone on alumina-supported manganese oxide catalyst, the reaction intermediates, and the reaction pathways. Catalytic ozonation was conducted at 25 and 90°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure and a number of temperature programmed analyses were used to characterize the catalyst and investigate the nature and role of reaction intermediates. It was found that Mn2O3 was the major manganese phase on the catalyst. During the reaction, alumina interacted effectively with the adsorbed acetone to create surface carboxylate intermediates such as acetate; and ozone enhanced formation of these intermediates. The presence of manganese sites was necessary to further oxidize the surface carboxylates. A stable catalytic activity was achieved at 90°C. However, at 25°C, byproducts such as acetic acid and acetic anhydride, produced from incomplete oxidation accumulated on the surface of the catalyst and reduced the catalyst activity. Deactivation caused by these byproducts could be reversed by their desorption from the surface of the spent catalyst at 425°C.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T16:16:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2017.10.002
       
  • Specific energy requirement of direct contact membrane distillation
    • Authors: Waritha Jantaporn; Aamer Ali Pierre Aimar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design
      Author(s): Waritha Jantaporn, Aamer Ali, Pierre Aimar
      The study aims to provide a clear picture of the thermal energy requirements of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) system as function of different variables influencing the specific energy consumption. This includes membrane properties, operating conditions, recovery factor and the option of heat recovery from the permeate and retentate streams. We simultaneously analyze the variation in specific energy demand and membrane surface area needed as a function of the membrane characteristics, operating conditions and recovery rate, taken as a design parameter. We observe that the specific energy demand of DCMD shows a relatively weak dependence on temperature polarization and membrane properties considered in the current study and a strong dependence on the recovery rate. The advantages of using a heat exchanger very much depends on the recovery rate of the process.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T21:36:03Z
       
 
 
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