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CHEMISTRY (595 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 247)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 199)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 218)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 310)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 14)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 181)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 147)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 256)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 61)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
  [SJR: 0.349]   [H-I: 26]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Online) 0846-5371
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3051 journals]
  • Defending the Truth in a Post-Truth Era
    • Authors: Peter L. Munk; Michael E. O'Keeffe
      First page: 231
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 3
      Author(s): Peter L. Munk, Michael E. O'Keeffe

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T07:01:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.06.001
  • A Golden Opportunity for Radiologists: Bringing Clinical Relevance
           to Undergraduate Anatomy Through Virtual Dissection
    • Authors: Kathryn E. Darras; Bruce B. Forster; Savvas Nicolaou; Peter L. Munk
      Pages: 232 - 233
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 3
      Author(s): Kathryn E. Darras, Bruce B. Forster, Savvas Nicolaou, Peter L. Munk

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T07:01:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.08.006
  • Quality Initiative Program in Its Sixth Year: Has It Become Part of Our
           Radiology Culture'
    • Authors: Heather Ritchie; Ania Z. Kielar; Fraser Hill; Joseph P. O'Sullivan
      Pages: 243 - 248
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 3
      Author(s): Heather Ritchie, Ania Z. Kielar, Fraser Hill, Joseph P. O'Sullivan
      Purpose The study sought to determine if the Quality Initiative Program (QUIP) has become part of the radiology culture at our institution. Methods After Research Ethics approval, QUIPs from January 2009 to December 2014 were assessed. We evaluated the response rates of radiologists receiving QUIPs to ensure they reviewed them. We performed a survey of radiologists and trainees to gain feedback regarding their perception of QUIPs in February 2014 and in June 2015. Results Response rates of radiologists receiving a QUIP improved, with 76% response rate in 2014 up from 66% in the first year and 42% in the second year. Based on the 2015 survey including radiologists and trainees, 75% agreed that QUIPs were educational, compared with 67% 16 months earlier. Fifty percent of respondents had changed their overall practice of reporting based on feedback from the QUIP in 2015 compared with 32% in 2014. In both surveys, 100% of respondents indicated that QUIPs have not been used against them for any disciplinary measure (or other negatively perceived action). When asked if there was a perceived decrease in stigma felt when a QUIP was received, 71% agreed or were neutral and 28% disagreed. Conclusions The QUIP is educational to radiologists and trainees, leading to positive changes in clinical practice. The majority accepts this program but there is still a stigma felt when a QUIP is received, particularly among residents. Nevertheless, we feel that QUIP has been integrated into our radiology culture and, hopefully, imminent transition to commercial quality software will be smooth.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T13:00:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.08.003
  • Canadian Radiologists Do Not Support Screening Mammography Guidelines of
           the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    • Authors: Jean M. Seely; Jiyon Lee; Gary J. Whitman; Paula B. Gordon
      Pages: 257 - 266
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 3
      Author(s): Jean M. Seely, Jiyon Lee, Gary J. Whitman, Paula B. Gordon
      Purpose The study sought to determine screening mammography recommendations that radiologists in Canada promote to average-risk patients and family or friends, and do or would do for themselves. Methods An online survey was delivered from February 19, 2014, to July 11, 2014. Data included radiologists' recommendations for mammography and their personal screening habits based on gender. The 3 radiologists' cohorts were women ≥40 years of age, women <40 years of age, and men. The distribution of responses for each question was summarized, and proportions for the entire group and individual cohorts were computed. Results Of 402 surveys collected, 97% (299 of 309) radiologists recommended screening every 1-2 years, 62% (192 of 309) starting ≥40 years of age and 2% (5 of 309) recommended screening every 2-3 years for women 50-74 years of age. Recommendations were similar for family and friends: 96% (294 of 305) recommended screening every 1-2 years, 66% (202 of 305) recommended screening every 1-2 years for women ≥40 years of age, and 2% (5 of 305) recommended screening every 2-3 years. For women radiologists ≥40 years of age, 76% (48 of 63) underwent screening every 1-2 years and started at 40 years of age, 76% (16 of 21) female radiologists <40 years of age would undergo screening ≥40 years of age, 100% every 1-2 years, and 90% (151 of 167) male radiologists would undergo screening every 1-2 years, with 71% (120 of 169) beginning at 40 years of age. Conclusion The majority of Canadian radiologists recommend screening mammography every 1-2 years for average-risk women ≥40 years of age, whether they are patients or family and friends.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T13:00:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.08.004
  • Educational Review of Predictive Value and Findings of Computed Tomography
           Scan in Diagnosing Bowel and Mesenteric Injuries After Blunt Trauma:
           Correlation With Trauma Surgery Findings in 163 Patients
    • Authors: Francesco Cinquantini; Gregorio Tugnoli; Alice Piccinini; Carlo Coniglio; Sergio Mannone; Andrea Biscardi; Giovanni Gordini; Salomone Di Saverio
      Pages: 276 - 285
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 3
      Author(s): Francesco Cinquantini, Gregorio Tugnoli, Alice Piccinini, Carlo Coniglio, Sergio Mannone, Andrea Biscardi, Giovanni Gordini, Salomone Di Saverio
      Background and Aims Laparotomy can detect bowel and mesenteric injuries in 1.2%–5% of patients following blunt abdominal trauma. Delayed diagnosis in such cases is strongly related to increased risk of ongoing sepsis, with subsequent higher morbidity and mortality. Computed tomography (CT) scanning is the gold standard in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma, being accurate in the diagnosis of bowel and mesenteric injuries in case of hemodynamically stable trauma patients. Aims of the present study are to 1) review the correlation between CT signs and intraoperative findings in case of bowel and mesenteric injuries following blunt abdominal trauma, analysing the correlation between radiological features and intraoperative findings from our experience on 25 trauma patients with small bowel and mesenteric injuries (SBMI); 2) identify the diagnostic specificity of those signs found at CT with practical considerations on the following clinical management; and 3) distinguish the bowel and mesenteric injuries requiring immediate surgical intervention from those amenable to initial nonoperative management. Materials and Methods Between January 1, 2008, and May 31, 2010, 163 patients required laparotomy following blunt abdominal trauma. Among them, 25 patients presented bowel or mesenteric injuries. Data were analysed retrospectively, correlating operative surgical reports with the preoperative CT findings. Results We are presenting a pictorial review of significant and frequent findings of bowel and mesenteric lesions at CT scan, confirmed intraoperatively at laparotomy. Moreover, the predictive value of CT scan for SBMI is assessed. Conclusions Multidetector CT scan is the gold standard in the assessment of intra-abdominal blunt abdominal trauma for not only parenchymal organs injuries but also detecting SBMI; in the presence of specific signs it provides an accurate assessment of hollow viscus injuries, helping the trauma surgeons to choose the correct initial clinical management.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T07:01:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.07.003
  • Initial Experience Using a Telerobotic Ultrasound System for Adult
           Abdominal Sonography
    • Authors: Scott J. Adams; Brent E. Burbridge; Andreea Badea; Leanne Langford; Vincent Vergara; Rhonda Bryce; Luis Bustamante; Ivar M. Mendez; Paul S. Babyn
      Pages: 308 - 314
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 3
      Author(s): Scott J. Adams, Brent E. Burbridge, Andreea Badea, Leanne Langford, Vincent Vergara, Rhonda Bryce, Luis Bustamante, Ivar M. Mendez, Paul S. Babyn
      Purpose The study sought to assess the feasibility of performing adult abdominal examinations using a telerobotic ultrasound system in which radiologists or sonographers can control fine movements of a transducer and all ultrasound settings from a remote location. Methods Eighteen patients prospectively underwent a conventional sonography examination (using EPIQ 5 [Philips] or LOGIQ E9 [GE Healthcare]) followed by a telerobotic sonography examination (using the MELODY System [AdEchoTech] and SonixTablet [BK Ultrasound]) according to a standardized abdominal imaging protocol. For telerobotic examinations, patients were scanned remotely by a sonographer 2.75 km away. Conventional examinations were read independently from telerobotic examinations. Image quality and acceptability to patients and sonographers was assessed. Results Ninety-two percent of organs visualized on conventional examinations were sufficiently visualized on telerobotic examinations. Five pathological findings were identified on both telerobotic and conventional examinations, 3 findings were identified using only conventional sonography, and 2 findings were identified using only telerobotic sonography. A paired sample t test showed no significant difference between the 2 modalities in measurements of the liver, spleen, and diameter of the proximal aorta; however, telerobotic assessments overestimated distal aorta and common bile duct diameters and underestimated kidney lengths (P values < .05). All patients responded that they would be willing to have another telerobotic examination. Conclusions A telerobotic ultrasound system is feasible for performing abdominal ultrasound examinations at a distant location with minimal training and setup requirements and a moderate learning curve. Telerobotic sonography (robotic telesonography) may open up the possibility of remote ultrasound clinics for communities that lack skilled sonographers and radiologists, thereby improving access to care.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T07:01:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.08.002
  • Radiology of Osteoporosis
    • Authors: Brian Lentle; Ian Hammond
      Pages: 342 - 343
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 3
      Author(s): Brian Lentle, Ian Hammond

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T07:01:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2015.10.002
  • The Paradigm Shift
    • Authors: Peter L. Munk; Kieran J. Murphy
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Peter L. Munk, Kieran J. Murphy

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.03.001
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Neurologic Complications Through the
           Treatment of Childhood Leukaemia and Lymphoma
    • Authors: Taner Arpaci; Anil Ozgur; Tugana Akbas; Rabia B. Arpaci; Barbaros S. Karagun; Gamze Ugurluer
      Pages: 98 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Taner Arpaci, Anil Ozgur, Tugana Akbas, Rabia B. Arpaci, Barbaros S. Karagun, Gamze Ugurluer

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2015.10.004
  • Imaging Findings in Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Pictorial Essay
    • Authors: Niamh Coffey; Carlos Torres; Rafael Glikstein; Taleb Al Mansoori; Raquel del Carpio-O'Donovan; Satya Patro
      Pages: 106 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Niamh Coffey, Carlos Torres, Rafael Glikstein, Taleb Al Mansoori, Raquel del Carpio-O'Donovan, Satya Patro

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2015.12.001
  • Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cholesteatoma Using
           PROPELLER at 1.5T: A Single-Centre Retrospective Study
    • Authors: Sharon E. Clarke; Dipan Mistry; Talal AlThubaiti; M. Naeem Khan; David Morris; Manohar Bance
      Pages: 116 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sharon E. Clarke, Dipan Mistry, Talal AlThubaiti, M. Naeem Khan, David Morris, Manohar Bance
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the diffusion-weighted periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique in the detection of cholesteatoma at our institution with surgical confirmation in all cases. Methods A retrospective review of 21 consecutive patients who underwent diffusion-weighted PROPELLER magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 1.5T MRI scanner prior to primary or revision/second-look surgery for suspected cholesteatoma from 2009-2012 was performed. Results Diffusion-weighted PROPELLER had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 60%, positive predictive value of 86%, and negative predictive value of 43%. In the 15 patients for whom the presence or absence of cholesteatoma was correctly predicted, there were 2 cases where the reported locations of diffusion restriction did not correspond to the location of the cholesteatoma observed at surgery. Conclusion On the basis of our retrospective study, we conclude that diffusion-weighted PROPELLER MRI is not sufficiently accurate to replace second look surgery at our institution.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.05.002
  • Rapid Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: What a General
           Radiologist Should Know
    • Authors: Elizabeth H.Y. Du; Jai J.S. Shankar
      Pages: 154 - 160
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Elizabeth H.Y. Du, Jai J.S. Shankar
      Stroke is the second leading cause of mortality and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years worldwide. For each minute of an ischemic stroke, an estimated 1.9 million brain cells die. The year 2015 saw the unprecedented publication of 5 multicentre, randomized, controlled trials. These studies showed that patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large-vessel thrombus occlusion of the proximal anterior circulation had significantly reduced disability at 90 days when treated with endovascular thrombectomy and usual stroke care compared to usual stroke care alone. As a result, endovascular thrombectomy is now the new North American and European standard of care for suitable patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large-vessel proximal anterior circulation occlusion. We review key take-home messages in this paradigm shift for radiologists, including the importance of time and workflow efficiency, what currently constitutes appropriate preimaging patient selection and imaging criteria, the use of newer generation thrombectomy devices, safety outcomes, as well as further areas still in need of elucidation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T13:00:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.002
  • Intradiscal O2O3: Rationale, Injection Technique, Short- and Long-term
           Outcomes for the Treatment of Low Back Pain Due to Disc Herniation
    • Authors: Francesco Giurazza; Gianluigi Guarnieri; Kieran J. Murphy; Mario Muto
      Pages: 171 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Francesco Giurazza, Gianluigi Guarnieri, Kieran J. Murphy, Mario Muto
      The management of low back pain should always start with a conservative approach; however, when it fails, intervention is required and at that moment the most appropriate choice remains unclear. Before invasive surgery, minimally invasive techniques can be adopted. In European trials and in a trans-Canadian clinical trial 03 ozone has been used successfully. In total over 50,000 patients have been treated safely. Ozone is a gas normally present in the atmosphere with potent oxidizing power; it has been used for percutaneous intradiscal injection combined with oxygen (O2O3) at very low concentrations for 15 years in Europe. The main indication is back pain with or without radicular pain but without motor deficits, which is refractory to 4-6 weeks of conservative therapies. Its mechanism of action on the disc is mechanical (volume reduction by subtle dehydration of the nucleus pulposis) and antinflammatory. The intradiscal ozone injection is performed with a thin needle (18-22 gauge) image guided by computed tomography or angiofluoroscopy and is usually complimented by periganglionic injection of corticosteroids and anesthetics. This combination gives immediate pain relief and allows time for the ozone to act. It is a cost-effective procedure that presents a very low complication rate (0.1%). The radicular pain is resolved before the back pain does, as is seen with microdiscectomy. Peer-reviewed publications of large randomized trials, case series, and meta analysis from large samples of patients have demonstrated the procedure to be safe and effective in the short and the long terms, with benefits recognized up to 10 years after treatment. We aim to review the principles of action of O2O3 and report the injection techniques, complications, and short- and long-term outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.12.007
  • Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A Radiological Review With Intraoperative
    • Authors: Elaine Ni Mhurchu; Javier Ospina; Arif S. Janjua; Jason R. Shewchuk; Alexandra T. Vertinsky
      Pages: 178 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Elaine Ni Mhurchu, Javier Ospina, Arif S. Janjua, Jason R. Shewchuk, Alexandra T. Vertinsky
      The interaction between fungi and the sinonasal tract results in a range of clinical presentations with a broad spectrum of clinical severity. The most commonly accepted classification system divides fungal rhinosinusitis into invasive and noninvasive subtypes based on histopathological evidence of tissue invasion by fungi. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is subdivided into acute invasive and chronic invasive categories. The chronic invasive category includes a subcategory of chronic granulomatous disease. Noninvasive fungal disease includes localized fungal colonization, fungal ball, and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Noninvasive disease is simply fungal material (or the products of the inflammatory reaction of the sinus mucosa) that fills the sinuses but does not invade tissue. Bone loss is related to expansion of the sinus(es). Invasive disease causes tissue destruction, such that it expands past the bony confines of the sinuses. It can rapidly spread, causing acute necrosis. Alternatively, there may be slow tissue invasion characterized by symptoms confused with normal sinusitis, but destruction of normal nasal and paranasal structures.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.12.009
  • Adverse Reactions to Contrast Material: A Canadian Update
    • Authors: Alexander Morzycki; Anuj Bhatia; Kieran J. Murphy
      Pages: 187 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Alexander Morzycki, Anuj Bhatia, Kieran J. Murphy
      Imaging techniques frequently employ contrast agents to improve image resolution and enhance pathology detection. These gadolinium- and iodine-based media, although generally considered safe, are associated with a number of adverse effects ranging from mild to severe. Reactions are classified as either anaphylactoid (“anaphylaxis-like”) or nonanaphylactoid, depending on a number of elements that will be reviewed. Herein, we have summarized predisposing risk factors for adverse events resulting from the use of contrast, their associated pathophysiological mechanisms as well as known prophylaxis for the antitreatment of high-risk patients. In the unlikely event that a serious adverse reaction does occur, we have provided a comprehensive summary of treatment protocols. Our goal was to thoroughly evaluate the current literature regarding adverse reactions to radiocontrast agents and provide an up to date review for the health care provider.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.05.006
  • What Is the Role of the Bacterium Propionibacterium acnes in Type 1 Modic
           Changes' A Review of the Literature
    • Authors: Mark Georgy; Mark Stern; Kieran Murphy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Mark Georgy, Mark Stern, Kieran Murphy
      This review presents a summary of the pathology and epidemiology of Modic changes and the possible role of Propionibacterium acnes. This information is followed by a synthesis of the most recent clinical research involved in culturing the discs of patients with degenerative disc disease for the presence of bacteria. We also discuss a randomized controlled trial that investigates the effects of antibiotics on patients with chronic low back pain and type 1 Modic changes. We conclude with a brief discussion of the difficulties involved in this research and the significance of the findings.

      PubDate: 2017-10-06T16:20:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.07.004
  • Variable Appearances of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Calcifications on Digital
           Mammography, Synthesized Mammography, and Tomosynthesis: A Pictorial Essay
    • Authors: Esther Hwang; Janet Szabo; Emily B. Sonnenblick; Laurie R. Margolies
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Esther Hwang, Janet Szabo, Emily B. Sonnenblick, Laurie R. Margolies
      This pictorial essay demonstrates the variable appearances of ductal carcinoma in situ on full-field digital mammography, synthesized mammography, and digital breast tomosynthesis. The spectrum of intercase and intracase variability suggests further refinement of reconstruction algorithms for synthesized mammography may be necessary to maximize early detection of ductal carcinoma in situ.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T13:00:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.04.005
  • Comparative Evaluation of Iodine-125 Radioactive Seed Localization and
           Wire Localization for Resection of Breast Lesions
    • Authors: Vi Thuy Tran; Julie David; Erica Patocskai; Mathieu Zummo-Soucy; Rami Younan; Lucie Lalonde; Maude Labelle; Mona El Khoury; André Robidoux; Isabelle Trop
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Vi Thuy Tran, Julie David, Erica Patocskai, Mathieu Zummo-Soucy, Rami Younan, Lucie Lalonde, Maude Labelle, Mona El Khoury, André Robidoux, Isabelle Trop
      Purpose Radioactive seed localization (RSL) uses a titanium seed labeled with iodine-125 energy for surgery of nonpalpable breast lesions. RSL facilitates radiology–surgery scheduling and allows for improved oncoplasty compared with wire localization (WL). The purpose of this work was to compare the 2 techniques. Methods We performed a retrospective study of all breast lesions operated with RSL between February 2013 and March 2015 at our university institution, and compared with an equivalent number of surgeries performed with a single WL. Imaging and pathology reports were reviewed for information on guidance mode, accuracy of targeting, nature of excised lesion, size and volume of surgical specimen, status of margins, and reinterventions. Results A total of 254 lesions (247 women) were excised with RSL and compared with 257 lesions (244 women) whose surgery was guided by WL. Both groups were comparable in lesion pathology, guidance mode for RSL or WL positioning, and accuracy of targeting (98% correct). Mean delay between biopsy and surgery was 84 days for RSL versus 103 after WL (P = .04). No differences were noted after RSL or WL for surgical specimen mean weight, largest diameter, and volume excised. For malignancies, the rate of positive margins was comparable (2.8%-3%), with 5 of 10 women in the RSL group who underwent a second surgery displaying residual malignancy compared with 3 of 9 women in the WL group. Conclusions RSL is safe and accurate, and has comparable surgical endpoints to WL. Because RSL offers flexible scheduling and facilitated oncoplasty, RSL may replace WL for resection of nonpalpable single breast lesions.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T13:00:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.04.006
  • Magnetic Resonance Signal Abnormalities Within the Pericruciate Fat Pad: A
           Possible Secondary Sign for Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears
    • Authors: Ferdinando Draghi; Mario Torresi; Luigi Urciuoli; Salvatore Gitto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Ferdinando Draghi, Mario Torresi, Luigi Urciuoli, Salvatore Gitto
      Purpose The study sought to investigate the presence of magnetic resonance (MR) signal alterations within the pericruciate fat pad in patients with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear as well as evaluate its diagnostic value in comparison with the main secondary signs of ACL tears. Methods Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed knee MR examinations performed from May to October 2015. The ACL was considered as torn or intact based on either previous arthroscopic findings or unequivocal MR imaging interpretation if arthroscopic correlation was unavailable. Abnormalities of the pericruciate fat pad were evaluated as increased signal on the fluid-sensitive sequences; the main secondary signs of ACL tears were identified. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each sign. Results A total of 182 patients entered this study: 22 with an acute ACL tear, 160 with intact ACL. Signal hyperintensity of the pericruciate fat pad was demonstrated in all patients with an acutely torn ACL, resulting significantly different between individuals with intact ACL and those with ligament tear (P < .0001). This sign was much more sensitive (100%) but less specific (72.5%-75%) than other secondary signs. Conclusions Signal hyperintensity of the pericruciate fat pad on the fluid-sensitive sequences is associated with acute ACL tears and could be considered as a possible indicator of these injuries.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T13:00:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.04.003
  • The Positive Outcome of MRI-Guided Vacuum Assisted Core Needle Breast
           Biopsies Is Not Influenced by a Prior Negative Targeted Second-Look
    • Authors: Romuald Ferré; Shaza AlSharif; Ann Aldis; Benoît G. Mesurolle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Romuald Ferré, Shaza AlSharif, Ann Aldis, Benoît G. Mesurolle
      Purpose The study sought to investigate the outcome of breast magnetic resonance–guided biopsies as a function of the indication for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the MRI features of the lesions, and the performance or not of a targeted second-look ultrasound (SLUS) prior breast MRI-guided biopsy. Methods We identified 158 women with MRI-detected breast lesions scheduled for MRI-guided biopsy (2007-2013). Patient demographics, performance of targeted SLUS, imaging characteristics, and subsequent pathology results were reviewed. Results Three biopsies were deferred, and 155 lesions were biopsied under MRI guidance (155 women; median age 55.14 years; range 27-80 years). Ninety-eight women underwent a SLUS prior to the MRI-guided biopsy (63%). Of the 155 biopsied lesions, 23 (15%) were malignant, 106 (68%) were benign, and 26 (17%) were high risk. Four of 15 surgically excised high-risk lesions were upgraded to malignancy (27%). Most of the biopsied lesions corresponded to non–mass-like enhancement (81%, 126 of 155) and most of the biopsies (52%, 81 of 155) were performed in a screening context. No demographic or MRI features were associated with malignancy. No differences were noted between the 2 subgroups (prior SLUS vs no prior SLUS) except for the presence of a synchronous carcinoma associated with a likelihood of targeted SLUS before MRI-guided biopsy (P = .001). Conclusion A negative SLUS does not influence the pathology outcome of a suspicious lesion biopsied under MR guidance.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T13:00:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.03.003
  • Assessment of Cirrhotic Liver Enhancement With Multiphasic Computed
           Tomography Using a Faster Injection Rate, Late Arterial Phase, and
           Weight-Based Contrast Dosing
    • Authors: Kathleen Eddy; Andreu F. Costa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Kathleen Eddy, Andreu F. Costa
      Purpose This study aimed to update our liver computed tomography (CT) protocol according to published guidelines, and to quantitatively evaluate the effect of these modifications. Methods The modified liver CT protocol employed a faster injection rate (5 vs 3 mL/s), later arterial phase (20-second vs 10-second postbolus trigger), and weight-based dosing of iodinated contrast (1.7 mL/kg vs 100 mL fixed dose). Liver and vascular attenuation values were measured on CTs of patients with cirrhosis from January to September 2015 (old protocol, n = 49) and from October to December 2015 (modified protocol, n = 31). CTs were considered adequate if liver enhancement exceeded 50 Hounsfield units (HU) in portal venous phase, or when the unenhanced phase was unavailable, if a minimum iodine concentration of 500 mg I/kg was achieved. Attenuations and iodine concentrations were compared using the t test and the number of suboptimal studies was compared with Fisher's exact test. Results CTs acquired with the modified protocol demonstrated higher aortic (P = .001) and portal vein (P < .0001) attenuations in the arterial phase as well as greater hepatic attenuation on all postcontrast phases (P = .0006, .002, and .003 for arterial, venous, and equilibrium phases, respectively). Hepatic enhancement in the portal venous phase (61 ± 15 HU vs 51 ± 16 HU; P = .0282) and iodine concentrations (595 ± 88 mg I/kg vs 456 ± 112 mg I/kg; P < .0001) were improved, and the number of suboptimal studies was reduced from 57% to 23% (P = .01). Conclusions A liver CT protocol with later arterial phase, faster injection rate, and weight-based dosing of intravenous contrast significantly improves liver enhancement and iodine concentrations in patients with cirrhosis, resulting in significantly fewer suboptimal studies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T13:00:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.01.001
  • Identification and Avoidance of Vessels During Imaging Guided Biopsies: An
           Additional Role of Breast Tomosynthesis
    • Authors: Benoît Mesurolle; Fabienne Brun; Mona El Khoury; Agnès Pétrou; Christine Bagard; Camille Monghal; Armelle Travade
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Benoît Mesurolle, Fabienne Brun, Mona El Khoury, Agnès Pétrou, Christine Bagard, Camille Monghal, Armelle Travade

      PubDate: 2017-09-22T11:02:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.07.001
  • Antithrombotic Use Predicts Recanalization of Embolized
           Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations in Hereditary
           Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
    • Authors: Jason L. Martin; Marie E. Faughnan; Vikramaditya Prabhudesai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 September 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Jason L. Martin, Marie E. Faughnan, Vikramaditya Prabhudesai

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T10:06:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.05.001
  • FRAX vs CAROC for the Canadian Imaging Physician: An Existential Dilemma
    • Authors: Ian Hammond; Steven Burrell; David J. Lyons; Brian C. Lentle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Ian Hammond, Steven Burrell, David J. Lyons, Brian C. Lentle

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T08:34:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.08.002
  • Brain Diffusion Changes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
    • Authors: Ebru Unlu; Alper H. Duran; Cinar Balcik; Mehtap Beker-Acay; Yunus Yildiz; Ozlem B. Tulmac; Bekir S. Unlu; Aylin Yucel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Ebru Unlu, Alper H. Duran, Cinar Balcik, Mehtap Beker-Acay, Yunus Yildiz, Ozlem B. Tulmac, Bekir S. Unlu, Aylin Yucel

      PubDate: 2017-09-11T08:34:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.04.004
  • Imaging of Ankle Impingement Syndromes
    • Authors: Abeer Mohamed Al-Riyami; Hsien Khai Tan; Wilfred C.G. Peh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Abeer Mohamed Al-Riyami, Hsien Khai Tan, Wilfred C.G. Peh
      Ankle impingement syndromes are a commonly encountered clinical entity seen in athletes, secondary to repetitive forceful microtrauma. Symptoms are related to impingement of osseous or soft tissue abnormalities in the ankle joint, in particular the tibiotalar joint, which may result in painful limitation of ankle movements. Imaging modalities, such as radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging, are very useful in diagnosing osseous and soft tissue abnormalities seen in different types of ankle impingement syndromes. This article reviews the classification of ankle impingement syndromes, their etiology, and clinical and radiological findings.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T08:32:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.04.001
  • Risk Stratification in Multinodular Goiter: A Retrospective Review of
           Sonographic Features, Histopathological Results, and Cancer Risk
    • Authors: Brendan S. Kelly; Pradeep Govender; Michael Jeffers; John Kinsella; James Gibney; Mark Sherlock; William C. Torreggiani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 August 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Brendan S. Kelly, Pradeep Govender, Michael Jeffers, John Kinsella, James Gibney, Mark Sherlock, William C. Torreggiani
      Purpose In the management of thyroid nodules, although the potential for malignancy exists, there is also the potential for overtreatment of subclinical disease. Although the TI-RADS (Thyroid Imaging-Reporting and Data System) system outlines a risk stratification score based on suspicious ultrasound findings, it has not been universally accepted. Many TI-RADS 2 or 3 patients proceed to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), potentially unnecessarily. The aim of the study was to identify whether lesions within a multinodular goiter (MNG) without suspicious features can be followed with ultrasound rather than biopsied as is recommended for single nodules. Methods Pathology records were retrospectively analysed for proven MNGs over a 5-year period. A total of 293 cases were identified. FNAB, prebiopsy ultrasound images, and reports were identified for each case. Images were reviewed and assessed for sonographically suspicious criteria guided by TI-RADS. Logistic regression was applied to determine if any sonographic features were associated with neoplasia. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results Of 293 samples, 14 (4.7%) were neoplastic. Having no suspicious features conferred an average risk of 0.0339 (95% confidence interval: 0.02831-0.04087) of neoplasia. Risk of neoplasm significantly increased by having 1 and >1 suspicious feature (P < .001). Regarding cytological results, of 237 patients with Thy-2 cytology, 159 were followed up and 8 had a neoplasm. Conclusion Ultrasound can be used to estimate risk of neoplasia in MNG. In the absence of suspicious radiological findings, follow-up with ultrasound rather than FNAB may be appropriate in patients who have a low clinical suspicion for neoplasia.

      PubDate: 2017-08-21T07:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.03.002
  • Peer Review in Radiology: How Can We Learn From Our Mistakes'
    • Authors: Elena P. Scali; Alison C. Harris; Michael L. Martin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Elena P. Scali, Alison C. Harris, Michael L. Martin

      PubDate: 2017-08-21T07:46:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.04.002
  • Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Diagnosis of Appendicitis
           During Pregnancy: A Canadian Experience
    • Authors: Michael Burns; Cameron J. Hague; Patrick Vos; Pari Tiwari; Sam M. Wiseman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Michael Burns, Cameron J. Hague, Patrick Vos, Pari Tiwari, Sam M. Wiseman
      Purpose The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of appendicitis during pregnancy. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of all MRI scans performed at our institution, between 2006 and 2012, for the evaluation of suspected appendicitis in pregnant women. Details of the MRI scans performed were obtained from the radiology information system as well as details of any ultrasounds carried out for the same indication. Clinical and pathological data were obtained by retrospective chart review. Results The study population comprised 63 patients, and 8 patients underwent a second MRI scan during the same pregnancy. A total of 71 MRI scans were reviewed. The appendix was identified on 40 scans (56.3%). Sensitivity of MRI was 75% and specificity was 100% for the diagnosis of appendicitis in pregnant women. When cases with right lower quadrant inflammatory fat stranding or focal fluid, without appendix visualization, were classified as positive for appendicitis, MRI sensitivity increased to 81.3% but specificity decreased to 96.4%. Conclusions MRI is sensitive and highly specific for the diagnosis of appendicitis during pregnancy and should be considered as a first line imaging study for this clinical presentation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T07:01:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.02.004
  • Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate for Tumour
           Detection and Local Staging: Imaging in 1.5T and Histopathologic
    • Authors: Dimitra Loggitsi; Anastasios Gyftopoulos; Nikolaos Economopoulos; Aikaterini Apostolaki; Theodoros Kalogeropoulos; Anastasios Thanos; Efthimia Alexopoulou; Nikolaos L. Kelekis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Dimitra Loggitsi, Anastasios Gyftopoulos, Nikolaos Economopoulos, Aikaterini Apostolaki, Theodoros Kalogeropoulos, Anastasios Thanos, Efthimia Alexopoulou, Nikolaos L. Kelekis
      Purpose The study sought to prospectively evaluate which technique among T2-weighted images, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI, or a combination of the 2, is best suited for prostate cancer detection and local staging. Methods Twenty-seven consecutive patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent MRI on a 1.5T scanner with a surface phased-array coil prior radical prostatectomy. Combined anatomical and functional imaging was performed with the use of T2-weighted sequences, DCE MRI, and DW MRI. We compared the imaging results with whole mount histopathology. Results For the multiparametric approach, significantly higher sensitivity values, that is, 53% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.0-64.1) were obtained as compared with each modality alone or any combination of the 3 modalities (P < .05). The specificity for this multiparametric approach, being 90.3% (95% CI: 86.3-93.3) was not significantly higher (P < .05) as compared with the values of the combination of T2+DCE MRI, DW+DCE MRI, or DCE MRI alone. Among the 3 techniques, DCE had the best performance for tumour detection in both the peripheral and the transition zone. High negative predictive value rates (>86%) were obtained for both tumour detection and local staging. Conclusions The combination of T2-weighted sequences, DCE MRI, and DW MRI yields higher diagnostic performance for tumour detection and local staging than can any of these techniques alone or even any combination of them.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T07:01:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.02.003
  • Vascular Compression of the Anterior Optic Pathway: A Rare Occurrence'
    • Authors: Satoshi Tsutsumi; Hideo Ono; Yukimasa Yasumoto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
      Background Vascular compression of the anterior optic pathway has been documented as an infrequent cause of visual impairments. Here we characterize such vascular compression using magnetic resonance imaging. Methods A total of 183 patients without pathologies affecting the optic pathways underwent T2-weighted or constructive interference steady-state sequence magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data from coronal sections were analyzed. Results A vascular compression of the anterior optic pathway was identified in 20 patients (11%). They comprised 13 men and 7 women with a mean age of 60.8 years. The vascular compressions were observed at 22 sites, 15 on the optic nerve (ON) and 7 on the optic chiasm (OC). Twelve of them were on the right and 10 were on the left side. The offending vessels were the supraclinoid portion of the internal carotid artery in 86.4% and the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery in 13.6%. Compression sites at the ON and OC were variable, with the inferolateral surface being the most frequent (77.3% occurrences). In 2 patients (9.1%), the ON was compressed in a sandwich manner. Conclusions Vascular compression of the ON and OC may not be an infrequent occurrence in the cranial cavity. Progressive and unexplainable visual impairment might possibly be caused by vascular-compressive neuropathy.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T07:01:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.02.001
  • Global Health Imaging in Radiology Residency: A Survey of Canadian
           Radiology Residents
    • Authors: Rebecca Zener; Ian Ross
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Rebecca Zener, Ian Ross
      Purpose The study sought to determine Canadian radiology resident perception of and interest in global health imaging (GHI) and the barriers they encounter in pursuing GHI experiences during residency training. Methods A peer-reviewed, online, anonymous, multiple-choice survey was distributed to Canadian radiology residents at English-language programs. Results Fifty residents responded to the survey (∼16% response rate); 72% of respondents perceived an unmet need for medical imaging in the developing world. A majority of residents (60%) would have been likely to participate in a GHI experience if one had been available during their residency; 65% planned on pursuing international outreach work as future radiologists, 81% of whom with on-site collaboration in education and training of local staff. However, 82% of respondents were uncertain or believed they would not be adequately prepared to help improve access and availability of medical imaging services in developing countries upon completion of residency. Overall, residents believed a GHI program would increase their knowledge of infectious diseases, increase their exposure to diseases at advanced stage presentation, enhance their knowledge of basic imaging modalities, and improve their cultural competence. Lack of information about opportunities, lack of funding, and lack of infrastructure were ranked as the most important barriers to participating in a radiology rotation in a developing country during residency. Conclusion While many Canadian radiology residents are interested in participating in GHI, their preparation to do so may be inadequate. Formalizing international GHI rotations may alleviate barriers impeding their pursuit.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T07:01:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.02.002
  • Congenital Anomalies of the Superior Vena Cava: Embryological Correlation,
           Imaging Perspectives, and Clinical Relevance
    • Authors: Abed Ghandour; Karunakaravel Karuppasamy; Prabhakar Rajiah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Abed Ghandour, Karunakaravel Karuppasamy, Prabhakar Rajiah
      There is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies of the superior vena cava, which are more increasingly recognized in cross-sectional imaging. Although some of these anomalies are asymptomatic, others have important clinical and interventional implications. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in the accurate characterization of these anomalies, which is essential for mapping prior to surgeries or interventions. In this article, we review a wide range of anomalies of the superior vena cava, including the embryological basis, cross-sectional imaging findings, and clinical implications, particularly from an interventional radiology perspective. We also discuss the treatments and complications of these anomalies.

      PubDate: 2017-07-15T06:27:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.11.003
  • Managing Incidentalomas Safely: Do Computed Tomography Requisitions Tell
           Us What We Need to Know'
    • Authors: Matthew Walker; Joy Borgaonkar; Daria Manos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Matthew Walker, Joy Borgaonkar, Daria Manos
      Purpose Technological advancements and the ever-increasing use of computed tomography (CT) have greatly increased the detection of incidental findings, including tiny pulmonary nodules. The management of many “incidentalomas” is significantly influenced by a patient's history of cancer. The study aim is to determine if CT requisitions include prior history of malignancy. Methods Requisitions for chest CTs performed at our adult tertiary care hospital during April 2012 were compared to a cancer history questionnaire, administered to patients at the time of CT scan. Patients were excluded from the study if the patient questionnaire was incomplete or if the purpose of the CT was for cancer staging or cancer follow-up. Results A total of 569 CTs of the chest were performed. Of the 327 patients that met inclusion criteria, 79 reported a history of cancer. After excluding patients for whom a history of malignancy could not be confirmed through a chart review and excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer, dysplasia, and in situ neoplasm, 68 patients were identified as having a history of malignancy. We found 44% (95% confidence interval [0.32-0.57]) of the chest CT requisitions for these 68 patients did not include the patient's history of cancer. Of the malignancies that were identified by patient questionnaire but omitted from the clinical history provided on the requisitions, 47% were malignancies that commonly metastasize to the lung. Conclusions A significant number of requisitions failed to disclose a history of cancer. Without knowledge of prior malignancy, radiologists cannot comply with current guidelines regarding the reporting and management of incidental findings.

      PubDate: 2017-07-15T06:27:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.11.004
  • Canadian Association of Radiologists: Guide on Computed Tomography
           Screening for Lung Cancer
    • Authors: Jana Taylor; Daria Manos; Heidi Schmidt; Marie-Hélène Lévesque; Micheal C. McInnis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Jana Taylor, Daria Manos, Heidi Schmidt, Marie-Hélène Lévesque, Micheal C. McInnis

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T06:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.01.002
  • A Pictorial Review of Hepatobiliary Magnetic Resonance Imaging With
           Hepatocyte-Specific Contrast Agents: Uses, Findings, and Pitfalls of
           Gadoxetate Disodium and Gadobenate Dimeglumine
    • Authors: Elena P. Scali; Triona Walshe; Hina Arif Tiwari; Alison C. Harris; Silvia D. Chang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Elena P. Scali, Triona Walshe, Hina Arif Tiwari, Alison C. Harris, Silvia D. Chang
      Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a well-established role as a highly specific and accurate modality for characterizing benign and malignant focal liver lesions. In particular, contrast-enhanced MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agents (HSCAs) improves lesion detection and characterization compared to other imaging modalities and MRI techniques. In this pictorial review, the mechanism of action of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents, with a focus on HSCAs, is described. The clinical indications, protocols, and emerging uses of the 2 commercially available combined contrast agents available in the United States, gadoxetate disodium and gadobenate dimeglumine, are discussed. The MRI features of these agents are compared with examples of focal hepatic masses, many of which have been obtained within the same patient therefore allowing direct lesion comparison. Finally, the pitfalls in the use of combined contrast agents in liver MRI are highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T05:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.008
  • Imaging Intra-abdominal Burkitt's Lymphoma: From Discrete Bowel Wall
           Thickening to Diffuse Soft Tissue Infiltration
    • Authors: Alison C. Harris; Kelly A. MacLean; Gilat L. Grunau; Silvia D. Chang; Nancy Martin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Alison C. Harris, Kelly A. MacLean, Gilat L. Grunau, Silvia D. Chang, Nancy Martin
      Burkitt's lymphoma is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma, which often presents with intra-abdominal involvement. The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate the various intra-abdominal imaging findings of Burkitt's lymphoma. Extranodal disease at presentation is common, including involvement of the bowel, stomach, pancreas, spleen, and mesentery.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T05:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.08.007
  • Clinical Decision Support in Computerized Providers' Order Entry for
           Imaging Tests in Canada
    • Authors: Santanu Chakraborty; Martin Reed; Frank J. Rybicki; James Fraser; Phyllis Glanc; Jacques Lévesque; Deljit Dhanoa; Matthias Schmidt; William Miller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Santanu Chakraborty, Martin Reed, Frank J. Rybicki, James Fraser, Phyllis Glanc, Jacques Lévesque, Deljit Dhanoa, Matthias Schmidt, William Miller

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T05:08:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.01.003
  • Development of an Undergraduate Radiology Curriculum: Ten-Year Experience
           From the University of British Columbia
    • Authors: Kathryn E. Darras; Sheldon J. Clark; David K. Tso; Teresa I. Liang; Claudia Krebs; R. Petter Tonseth; Silvia D. Chang; Bruce B. Forster; Savvas Nicolaou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Kathryn E. Darras, Sheldon J. Clark, David K. Tso, Teresa I. Liang, Claudia Krebs, R. Petter Tonseth, Silvia D. Chang, Bruce B. Forster, Savvas Nicolaou

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T03:49:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.12.008
  • Greening the Radiology Department: Not a Big Mountain to Climb
    • Authors: Ashish Chawla; Dinesh Chinchure; Laurel Owen Marchinkow; Peter L. Munk; Wilfred C.G. Peh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Ashish Chawla, Dinesh Chinchure, Laurel Owen Marchinkow, Peter L. Munk, Wilfred C.G. Peh
      An environmental-friendly radiology department should be a requirement of the future era. The aim of this article is to make radiologists aware of their responsibilities for a greener world. We have suggested a number of minor but important changes in various sections of a radiology department that can make the radiology department more environmentally friendly. These small steps require relatively little effort on our part but cumulatively, may have a huge positive impact on our environment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.009
  • Radiology Exposure in the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Medical Student
           Perspective on Quality and Opportunities for Positive Change
    • Authors: Kari L. Visscher; Lisa Faden; Georges Nassrallah; Stacey Speer; Daniele Wiseman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Kari L. Visscher, Lisa Faden, Georges Nassrallah, Stacey Speer, Daniele Wiseman
      Purpose This article is a continuation of a qualitative study designed to explore how radiology exposures can impact medical student opinions and perceptions of radiology and radiologists. We focused on: 1) conducting a radiology exposure inventory from the perspective of the medical student; 2) student evaluation of the quality of the radiology exposures and suggestions for positive change; and 3) development of a framework to address the needs of medical students as it relates to radiology education in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods Research methodology and design for this qualitative study were described in detail in a previous article by Visscher et al [1]. Results Participants included 28 medical students; 18 were in medical school years 1 and 2 (preclerkship), and 10 were in years 3 and 4 (clerkship). Specific to the focus of this article, the data revealed 3 major findings: 1) multiple exposures to radiology exist, and they are received and valued differently depending on the medical student's stage of professional development; 2) medical students value radiology education and want their radiology exposure to be comprehensive and high quality; 3) Medical students have constructive suggestions for improving the quality of both formal and informal radiology exposures. Conclusions Performing a radiology exposure inventory from a medical student perspective is a useful way to explore how students receive and value radiology instruction. Medical students want a more comprehensive radiology education that can be summarized using the 5 C's of Radiology Education framework. The 5 C's (curriculum, coaching, collaborating, career and commitment) reflect medical students' desires to learn content that will support them in clinical practice, be supported in their professional development, and have the necessary information to make informed career decisions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.004
  • Early Radiographic and Tomographic Manifestations of Legionnaires' Disease
    • Authors: Rémi Poirier; Jean Rodrigue; Jasmin Villeneuve; Yves Lacasse
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Rémi Poirier, Jean Rodrigue, Jasmin Villeneuve, Yves Lacasse
      Purpose Legionnaires' disease (LD) may occur sporadically or in the course of outbreaks, where the typical radiological manifestations of the disease may better be delineated. We took advantage of a rare community-based epidemic of LD (181 patients) that occurred in 2012 in Quebec City, Canada, to describe the radiographic features of LD and compare the its tomographic presentation with that of community-acquired pneumonia caused by common bacteria other than Legionella pneumophila. Methods From the 181 individuals affected in the outbreak, we obtained the chest radiographs of 159 individuals (mean 63 ± 15 years of age) for detailed analysis; 33 patients had a computed tomography (CT) scan performed during the course of their illness. In a case-control study, we compared the CT scans of patients with LD with those of patients who had received a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia caused by a pathogen other than Legionella and confirmed by chest CT scan. Results Overall, LD most often presented as an airspace consolidation involving 1 of the lower lobes. Pleural effusion and mediastinal adenopathies were apparent only in a minority, whereas no pneumothorax or cavitation was noted. We did not find any significant difference in chest CT scan findings in patients with LD vs those with community-acquired pneumonia from other bacterial origin. No radiological finding was clearly associated with an increased risk of intensive care unit admission or mortality. Conclusions The early radiographic and tomographic manifestations of LD are nonspecific and similar to those found in community-acquired pneumonia from other bacterial origin.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T21:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.005
  • Tomosynthesis-Directed Coaxial Core Biopsy of Tomosynthesis-Detected
           Architectural Distortion: Indications and Logistics
    • Authors: Priscilla J. Slanetz; Ann L. Brown; Marissa Bradley; E. Jane Karimova
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Priscilla J. Slanetz, Ann L. Brown, Marissa Bradley, E. Jane Karimova

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T17:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.11.001
  • Gender Identity and Bone Densitometry
    • Authors: Ian Hammond; Brian Lentle; Lucretia van den Berg; Megan Vitols-McKay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Ian Hammond, Brian Lentle, Lucretia van den Berg, Megan Vitols-McKay

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T17:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.006
  • Transradial Access for Interventional Radiology: Single-Centre
           Procedural and Clinical Outcome Analysis
    • Authors: Avnesh S. Thakor; Mohammed T. Alshammari; David M. Liu; John Chung; Stephen G.F. Ho; Gerald M. Legiehn; Lindsay Machan; Aaron M. Fischman; Rahul S. Patel; Darren Klass
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Avnesh S. Thakor, Mohammed T. Alshammari, David M. Liu, John Chung, Stephen G.F. Ho, Gerald M. Legiehn, Lindsay Machan, Aaron M. Fischman, Rahul S. Patel, Darren Klass
      Purpose The study sought to describe a single centre's technical approach to transradial intervention and report on clinical outcomes and safety. Methods A total of 749 transradial access (TRA) procedures were performed at a single hospital in 562 patients (174 women and 388 men). Procedures included 445 bland embolizations or chemoembolizations of the liver, 88 uterine artery embolizations, and 148 procedures for Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (Y90), which included mapping and administration. The mean age of the patients was 62 years (range 27–96 years). Results Four cases (0.5%) required crossover to transfemoral (tortuous anatomy, inability to secure a stable position for embolization, vessel spasm and base catheter not being of a sufficient length). A single asymptomatic, short-segment radial artery occlusion occurred (0.3%), 3 patients (0.4%) developed small hematomas postprocedurally, and 2 patients (0.7%) had transient neurological pain, which was resolved within a week without treatment. It was found that 98% of patients who had a previous femoral access procedure would choose radial access for subsequent procedures. Conclusions Transradial access is a safe, effective technique, with a learning curve; however, this procedure has the potential to significantly improve departmental workflow and cost savings for the department and patient experience.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T17:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.09.003
  • Disinfection of the Radiologist Workstation and Radiologist Hand Hygiene:
           A Single Institution Practice Quality Improvement Project
    • Authors: Jeffrey S. Quon; Marc Dilauro; John G. Ryan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Jeffrey S. Quon, Marc Dilauro, John G. Ryan
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the workstation disinfection rates and hand hygiene of radiologists and trainees at shared departmental workstations and assess the impact of education and reminder placards on daily habits. Methods A 10-question survey was administered to all staff radiologists, fellows, and residents at our institution. The questions pertained to workstation disinfection, hand hygiene habits, and accessibility to disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer stations. Subsequently, a short educational PowerPoint presentation was emailed to the department and small reminder placards were placed at each workstation. A follow-up survey was administered. Chi-square and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to analyse the results. Results The percentage of participants who disinfect their workstations 1-2 times/week, 3-4 times/week or everyday increased from 53.4% (45 of 84 participants) to 74.3% (55 of 74 participants; P = .01), while the number who disinfect their workstation <1 time/week or never decreased from 46.4% (39 of 84 participants) to 25.7% (19 of 74 participants; P = .01). Hand washing before working at the workstation increased from 41.6% (35 of 84 participants) to 48.7% (36 of 74 participants; P = .76) and hand washing after working at the workstation increased from 50.0% (42 of 84 participants) to 56.8% (42 of 74 participants; P = .49). Conclusions At our institution, the implementation of daily reminder placards at each workstation and the administration of an educational PowerPoint presentation improved the rate of radiologist workstation disinfection.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T17:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.09.004
  • Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging Perspective
    • Authors: Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano; Umesh Chandra Garga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Vikas Chaudhary, Shahina Bano, Umesh Chandra Garga
      The increasing prevalence of tuberculosis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals in recent years makes the disease a topic of universal concern. It has insidious onset and can affect virtually any organ system in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). CNS tuberculosis (TB) is becoming more and more complex and atypical with onset of multidrug-resistant TB. Routine diagnostic techniques using serology and body tissue are time consuming and may delay the definitive management. Hence, it is important to be familiar with various radiologic features of CNS TB to ensure early and accurate diagnosis, thereby reducing high morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. The newer imaging techniques further help to improve the characterization and diagnosis of atypical CNS TB. The authors review the imaging characteristics of different forms of CNS tuberculosis involving the brain and spine and discuss the role of advanced imaging modalities in differentiating CNS TB from other disease process.

      PubDate: 2017-03-07T23:28:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.007
  • Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Brain: Beyond Stroke
    • Authors: Adam A. Dmytriw; Vijay Sawlani; Jai Shankar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Adam A. Dmytriw, Vijay Sawlani, Jai Shankar
      Diffusion-weighted imaging provides image contrast that is different from that provided by conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. It is highly sensitive for detection of cytotoxic oedema, and as such has gained favor in the detection of acute infarcts. However, diffusion-weighted imaging is underrepresented in the characterisation of many other disease processes. Our objective is to differentiate diseases that manifest with various neurological disorders, based on diffusion contrast and apparent diffusion coefficient values and review of hyper- and hypointense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T10:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.001
  • Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome: A Review
    • Authors: Jai Shankar; Jillian Banfield
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Jai Shankar, Jillian Banfield
      Radiologists may be the first to suggest the diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). PRES is associated with many diverse clinical entities, the most common of which are eclampsia, hypertension, and immunosuppressive treatment. Radiologists should be aware of the spectrum of imaging findings in PRES. When promptly recognized and treated, the symptoms and radiological abnormalities can be completely reversed. When unrecognized, patients can progress to ischemia, massive infarction, and death. In this review, we present an overview of the unique signs observed on computed tomography and magnetic resonance images in PRES that can help in the early diagnosis and treatment that is highly effective in this syndrome.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T10:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.08.005
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