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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 846 journals)
    - ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY (50 journals)
    - CHEMISTRY (597 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (597 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription  
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Fluorine Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 204)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 278)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access  
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 109)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 99)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 165)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 189)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access  
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chromatography Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access  
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Science : Nano     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
  [SJR: 0.349]   [H-I: 26]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Online) 0846-5371
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • The Paradigm Shift
    • Authors: Peter L. Munk; Kieran J. Murphy
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Peter L. Munk, Kieran J. Murphy


      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2017.03.001
       
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Neurologic Complications Through the
           Treatment of Childhood Leukaemia and Lymphoma
    • Authors: Taner Arpaci; Anil Ozgur; Tugana Akbas; Rabia B. Arpaci; Barbaros S. Karagun; Gamze Ugurluer
      Pages: 98 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Taner Arpaci, Anil Ozgur, Tugana Akbas, Rabia B. Arpaci, Barbaros S. Karagun, Gamze Ugurluer


      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2015.10.004
       
  • Imaging Findings in Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Pictorial Essay
    • Authors: Niamh Coffey; Carlos Torres; Rafael Glikstein; Taleb Al Mansoori; Raquel del Carpio-O'Donovan; Satya Patro
      Pages: 106 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Niamh Coffey, Carlos Torres, Rafael Glikstein, Taleb Al Mansoori, Raquel del Carpio-O'Donovan, Satya Patro


      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2015.12.001
       
  • Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cholesteatoma Using
           PROPELLER at 1.5T: A Single-Centre Retrospective Study
    • Authors: Sharon E. Clarke; Dipan Mistry; Talal AlThubaiti; M. Naeem Khan; David Morris; Manohar Bance
      Pages: 116 - 121
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Sharon E. Clarke, Dipan Mistry, Talal AlThubaiti, M. Naeem Khan, David Morris, Manohar Bance
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the diffusion-weighted periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique in the detection of cholesteatoma at our institution with surgical confirmation in all cases. Methods A retrospective review of 21 consecutive patients who underwent diffusion-weighted PROPELLER magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 1.5T MRI scanner prior to primary or revision/second-look surgery for suspected cholesteatoma from 2009-2012 was performed. Results Diffusion-weighted PROPELLER had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 60%, positive predictive value of 86%, and negative predictive value of 43%. In the 15 patients for whom the presence or absence of cholesteatoma was correctly predicted, there were 2 cases where the reported locations of diffusion restriction did not correspond to the location of the cholesteatoma observed at surgery. Conclusion On the basis of our retrospective study, we conclude that diffusion-weighted PROPELLER MRI is not sufficiently accurate to replace second look surgery at our institution.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.05.002
       
  • Intradiscal O2O3: Rationale, Injection Technique, Short- and Long-term
           Outcomes for the Treatment of Low Back Pain Due to Disc Herniation
    • Authors: Francesco Giurazza; Gianluigi Guarnieri; Kieran J. Murphy; Mario Muto
      Pages: 171 - 177
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Francesco Giurazza, Gianluigi Guarnieri, Kieran J. Murphy, Mario Muto
      The management of low back pain should always start with a conservative approach; however, when it fails, intervention is required and at that moment the most appropriate choice remains unclear. Before invasive surgery, minimally invasive techniques can be adopted. In European trials and in a trans-Canadian clinical trial 03 ozone has been used successfully. In total over 50,000 patients have been treated safely. Ozone is a gas normally present in the atmosphere with potent oxidizing power; it has been used for percutaneous intradiscal injection combined with oxygen (O2O3) at very low concentrations for 15 years in Europe. The main indication is back pain with or without radicular pain but without motor deficits, which is refractory to 4-6 weeks of conservative therapies. Its mechanism of action on the disc is mechanical (volume reduction by subtle dehydration of the nucleus pulposis) and antinflammatory. The intradiscal ozone injection is performed with a thin needle (18-22 gauge) image guided by computed tomography or angiofluoroscopy and is usually complimented by periganglionic injection of corticosteroids and anesthetics. This combination gives immediate pain relief and allows time for the ozone to act. It is a cost-effective procedure that presents a very low complication rate (0.1%). The radicular pain is resolved before the back pain does, as is seen with microdiscectomy. Peer-reviewed publications of large randomized trials, case series, and meta analysis from large samples of patients have demonstrated the procedure to be safe and effective in the short and the long terms, with benefits recognized up to 10 years after treatment. We aim to review the principles of action of O2O3 and report the injection techniques, complications, and short- and long-term outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.12.007
       
  • Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A Radiological Review With Intraoperative
           Correlation
    • Authors: Elaine Ni Mhurchu; Javier Ospina; Arif S. Janjua; Jason R. Shewchuk; Alexandra T. Vertinsky
      Pages: 178 - 186
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Elaine Ni Mhurchu, Javier Ospina, Arif S. Janjua, Jason R. Shewchuk, Alexandra T. Vertinsky
      The interaction between fungi and the sinonasal tract results in a range of clinical presentations with a broad spectrum of clinical severity. The most commonly accepted classification system divides fungal rhinosinusitis into invasive and noninvasive subtypes based on histopathological evidence of tissue invasion by fungi. Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is subdivided into acute invasive and chronic invasive categories. The chronic invasive category includes a subcategory of chronic granulomatous disease. Noninvasive fungal disease includes localized fungal colonization, fungal ball, and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Noninvasive disease is simply fungal material (or the products of the inflammatory reaction of the sinus mucosa) that fills the sinuses but does not invade tissue. Bone loss is related to expansion of the sinus(es). Invasive disease causes tissue destruction, such that it expands past the bony confines of the sinuses. It can rapidly spread, causing acute necrosis. Alternatively, there may be slow tissue invasion characterized by symptoms confused with normal sinusitis, but destruction of normal nasal and paranasal structures.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.12.009
       
  • Adverse Reactions to Contrast Material: A Canadian Update
    • Authors: Alexander Morzycki; Anuj Bhatia; Kieran J. Murphy
      Pages: 187 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Alexander Morzycki, Anuj Bhatia, Kieran J. Murphy
      Imaging techniques frequently employ contrast agents to improve image resolution and enhance pathology detection. These gadolinium- and iodine-based media, although generally considered safe, are associated with a number of adverse effects ranging from mild to severe. Reactions are classified as either anaphylactoid (“anaphylaxis-like”) or nonanaphylactoid, depending on a number of elements that will be reviewed. Herein, we have summarized predisposing risk factors for adverse events resulting from the use of contrast, their associated pathophysiological mechanisms as well as known prophylaxis for the antitreatment of high-risk patients. In the unlikely event that a serious adverse reaction does occur, we have provided a comprehensive summary of treatment protocols. Our goal was to thoroughly evaluate the current literature regarding adverse reactions to radiocontrast agents and provide an up to date review for the health care provider.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.05.006
       
  • Visibility of Different Intraorbital Foreign Bodies Using Plain
           Radiography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and
           Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: An In Vitro Study
    • Authors: Reza Javadrashid; Masoud Golamian; Maryam Shahrzad; Parisa Hajalioghli; Zahra Shahmorady; Daniel F. Fouladi; Shohreh Sadrarhami; Leila Akhoundzadeh
      Pages: 194 - 201
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2
      Author(s): Reza Javadrashid, Masoud Golamian, Maryam Shahrzad, Parisa Hajalioghli, Zahra Shahmorady, Daniel F. Fouladi, Shohreh Sadrarhami, Leila Akhoundzadeh
      Purpose The study sought to compare the usefulness of 4 imaging modalities in visualizing various intraorbital foreign bodies (IOFBs) in different sizes. Methods Six different materials including metal, wood, plastic, stone, glass. and graphite were cut in cylindrical shapes in 4 sizes (dimensions: 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm) and placed intraorbitally in the extraocular space of fresh sheep's head. Four skilled radiologists rated the visibility of the objects individually using plain radiography, spiral computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in accordance with a previously described grading system. Results Excluding wood, all embedded foreign bodies were best visualized in CT and CBCT images with almost equal accuracies. Wood could only be detected using MRI, and then only when fragments were more than 2 mm in size. There were 3 false-positive MRI reports, suggesting air bubbles as wood IOFBs. Conclusions Because of lower cost and using less radiation in comparison with conventional CT, CBCT can be used as the initial imaging technique in cases with suspected IOFBs. Optimal imaging technique for wood IOFBs is yet to be defined.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2015.09.011
       
  • Caution Without Paralysis: Does Magnetic Resonance Imaging Affect DNA
           Integrity?
    • Authors: Peter L. Munk; Kieran J. Murphy
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 1
      Author(s): Peter L. Munk, Kieran J. Murphy


      PubDate: 2017-01-28T10:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.12.005
       
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Induced DNA Damage
    • Authors: Hussein Jaffer; Kieran J. Murphy
      Pages: 2 - 3
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 1
      Author(s): Hussein Jaffer, Kieran J. Murphy


      PubDate: 2017-01-28T10:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.12.004
       
  • Greening the Radiology Department: Not a Big Mountain to Climb
    • Authors: Ashish Chawla; Dinesh Chinchure; Laurel Owen Marchinkow; Peter L. Munk; Wilfred C.G. Peh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Ashish Chawla, Dinesh Chinchure, Laurel Owen Marchinkow, Peter L. Munk, Wilfred C.G. Peh
      An environmental-friendly radiology department should be a requirement of the future era. The aim of this article is to make radiologists aware of their responsibilities for a greener world. We have suggested a number of minor but important changes in various sections of a radiology department that can make the radiology department more environmentally friendly. These small steps require relatively little effort on our part but cumulatively, may have a huge positive impact on our environment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.009
       
  • Radiology Exposure in the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Medical Student
           Perspective on Quality and Opportunities for Positive Change
    • Authors: Kari L. Visscher; Lisa Faden; Georges Nassrallah; Stacey Speer; Daniele Wiseman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Kari L. Visscher, Lisa Faden, Georges Nassrallah, Stacey Speer, Daniele Wiseman
      Purpose This article is a continuation of a qualitative study designed to explore how radiology exposures can impact medical student opinions and perceptions of radiology and radiologists. We focused on: 1) conducting a radiology exposure inventory from the perspective of the medical student; 2) student evaluation of the quality of the radiology exposures and suggestions for positive change; and 3) development of a framework to address the needs of medical students as it relates to radiology education in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods Research methodology and design for this qualitative study were described in detail in a previous article by Visscher et al [1]. Results Participants included 28 medical students; 18 were in medical school years 1 and 2 (preclerkship), and 10 were in years 3 and 4 (clerkship). Specific to the focus of this article, the data revealed 3 major findings: 1) multiple exposures to radiology exist, and they are received and valued differently depending on the medical student's stage of professional development; 2) medical students value radiology education and want their radiology exposure to be comprehensive and high quality; 3) Medical students have constructive suggestions for improving the quality of both formal and informal radiology exposures. Conclusions Performing a radiology exposure inventory from a medical student perspective is a useful way to explore how students receive and value radiology instruction. Medical students want a more comprehensive radiology education that can be summarized using the 5 C's of Radiology Education framework. The 5 C's (curriculum, coaching, collaborating, career and commitment) reflect medical students' desires to learn content that will support them in clinical practice, be supported in their professional development, and have the necessary information to make informed career decisions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:01:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.004
       
  • Early Radiographic and Tomographic Manifestations of Legionnaires' Disease
    • Authors: Rémi Poirier; Jean Rodrigue; Jasmin Villeneuve; Yves Lacasse
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Rémi Poirier, Jean Rodrigue, Jasmin Villeneuve, Yves Lacasse
      Purpose Legionnaires' disease (LD) may occur sporadically or in the course of outbreaks, where the typical radiological manifestations of the disease may better be delineated. We took advantage of a rare community-based epidemic of LD (181 patients) that occurred in 2012 in Quebec City, Canada, to describe the radiographic features of LD and compare the its tomographic presentation with that of community-acquired pneumonia caused by common bacteria other than Legionella pneumophila. Methods From the 181 individuals affected in the outbreak, we obtained the chest radiographs of 159 individuals (mean 63 ± 15 years of age) for detailed analysis; 33 patients had a computed tomography (CT) scan performed during the course of their illness. In a case-control study, we compared the CT scans of patients with LD with those of patients who had received a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia caused by a pathogen other than Legionella and confirmed by chest CT scan. Results Overall, LD most often presented as an airspace consolidation involving 1 of the lower lobes. Pleural effusion and mediastinal adenopathies were apparent only in a minority, whereas no pneumothorax or cavitation was noted. We did not find any significant difference in chest CT scan findings in patients with LD vs those with community-acquired pneumonia from other bacterial origin. No radiological finding was clearly associated with an increased risk of intensive care unit admission or mortality. Conclusions The early radiographic and tomographic manifestations of LD are nonspecific and similar to those found in community-acquired pneumonia from other bacterial origin.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T21:21:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.005
       
  • Classified Advertising
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2


      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
       
  • Classified Advertising
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 2


      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:25:20Z
       
  • Tomosynthesis-Directed Coaxial Core Biopsy of Tomosynthesis-Detected
           Architectural Distortion: Indications and Logistics
    • Authors: Priscilla J. Slanetz; Ann L. Brown; Marissa Bradley; E. Jane Karimova
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Priscilla J. Slanetz, Ann L. Brown, Marissa Bradley, E. Jane Karimova


      PubDate: 2017-04-08T17:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.11.001
       
  • Gender Identity and Bone Densitometry
    • Authors: Ian Hammond; Brian Lentle; Lucretia van den Berg; Megan Vitols-McKay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Ian Hammond, Brian Lentle, Lucretia van den Berg, Megan Vitols-McKay


      PubDate: 2017-04-08T17:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.006
       
  • Transradial Access for Interventional Radiology: Single-Centre
           Procedural and Clinical Outcome Analysis
    • Authors: Avnesh S. Thakor; Mohammed T. Alshammari; David M. Liu; John Chung; Stephen G.F. Ho; Gerald M. Legiehn; Lindsay Machan; Aaron M. Fischman; Rahul S. Patel; Darren Klass
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Avnesh S. Thakor, Mohammed T. Alshammari, David M. Liu, John Chung, Stephen G.F. Ho, Gerald M. Legiehn, Lindsay Machan, Aaron M. Fischman, Rahul S. Patel, Darren Klass
      Purpose The study sought to describe a single centre's technical approach to transradial intervention and report on clinical outcomes and safety. Methods A total of 749 transradial access (TRA) procedures were performed at a single hospital in 562 patients (174 women and 388 men). Procedures included 445 bland embolizations or chemoembolizations of the liver, 88 uterine artery embolizations, and 148 procedures for Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (Y90), which included mapping and administration. The mean age of the patients was 62 years (range 27–96 years). Results Four cases (0.5%) required crossover to transfemoral (tortuous anatomy, inability to secure a stable position for embolization, vessel spasm and base catheter not being of a sufficient length). A single asymptomatic, short-segment radial artery occlusion occurred (0.3%), 3 patients (0.4%) developed small hematomas postprocedurally, and 2 patients (0.7%) had transient neurological pain, which was resolved within a week without treatment. It was found that 98% of patients who had a previous femoral access procedure would choose radial access for subsequent procedures. Conclusions Transradial access is a safe, effective technique, with a learning curve; however, this procedure has the potential to significantly improve departmental workflow and cost savings for the department and patient experience.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T17:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.09.003
       
  • Disinfection of the Radiologist Workstation and Radiologist Hand Hygiene:
           A Single Institution Practice Quality Improvement Project
    • Authors: Jeffrey S. Quon; Marc Dilauro; John G. Ryan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Jeffrey S. Quon, Marc Dilauro, John G. Ryan
      Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the workstation disinfection rates and hand hygiene of radiologists and trainees at shared departmental workstations and assess the impact of education and reminder placards on daily habits. Methods A 10-question survey was administered to all staff radiologists, fellows, and residents at our institution. The questions pertained to workstation disinfection, hand hygiene habits, and accessibility to disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer stations. Subsequently, a short educational PowerPoint presentation was emailed to the department and small reminder placards were placed at each workstation. A follow-up survey was administered. Chi-square and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to analyse the results. Results The percentage of participants who disinfect their workstations 1-2 times/week, 3-4 times/week or everyday increased from 53.4% (45 of 84 participants) to 74.3% (55 of 74 participants; P = .01), while the number who disinfect their workstation <1 time/week or never decreased from 46.4% (39 of 84 participants) to 25.7% (19 of 74 participants; P = .01). Hand washing before working at the workstation increased from 41.6% (35 of 84 participants) to 48.7% (36 of 74 participants; P = .76) and hand washing after working at the workstation increased from 50.0% (42 of 84 participants) to 56.8% (42 of 74 participants; P = .49). Conclusions At our institution, the implementation of daily reminder placards at each workstation and the administration of an educational PowerPoint presentation improved the rate of radiologist workstation disinfection.

      PubDate: 2017-04-08T17:16:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.09.004
       
  • Canadian Radiologists Do Not Support Screening Mammography Guidelines of
           the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
    • Authors: Jean M. Seely; Jiyon Lee; Gary J. Whitman; Paula B. Gordon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Jean M. Seely, Jiyon Lee, Gary J. Whitman, Paula B. Gordon
      Purpose The study sought to determine screening mammography recommendations that radiologists in Canada promote to average-risk patients and family or friends, and do or would do for themselves. Methods An online survey was delivered from February 19, 2014, to July 11, 2014. Data included radiologists' recommendations for mammography and their personal screening habits based on gender. The 3 radiologists' cohorts were women ≥40 years of age, women <40 years of age, and men. The distribution of responses for each question was summarized, and proportions for the entire group and individual cohorts were computed. Results Of 402 surveys collected, 97% (299 of 309) radiologists recommended screening every 1-2 years, 62% (192 of 309) starting ≥40 years of age and 2% (5 of 309) recommended screening every 2-3 years for women 50-74 years of age. Recommendations were similar for family and friends: 96% (294 of 305) recommended screening every 1-2 years, 66% (202 of 305) recommended screening every 1-2 years for women ≥40 years of age, and 2% (5 of 305) recommended screening every 2-3 years. For women radiologists ≥40 years of age, 76% (48 of 63) underwent screening every 1-2 years and started at 40 years of age, 76% (16 of 21) female radiologists <40 years of age would undergo screening ≥40 years of age, 100% every 1-2 years, and 90% (151 of 167) male radiologists would undergo screening every 1-2 years, with 71% (120 of 169) beginning at 40 years of age. Conclusion The majority of Canadian radiologists recommend screening mammography every 1-2 years for average-risk women ≥40 years of age, whether they are patients or family and friends.

      PubDate: 2017-03-26T12:35:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.08.004
       
  • Can Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Predict the Clinical Outcome
           in Drowned Children'
    • Authors: Adrian Hruşcã; Andreea Liana Rãchişan; Siegfried Rödl; Erich Sorantin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Adrian Hruşcã, Andreea Liana Rãchişan, Siegfried Rödl, Erich Sorantin
      Introduction Pediatric cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury frequently results in severe neurological outcome. Imaging with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWi) demonstrates that the acute cerebral injury and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) allow the assessment of the severity of brain damage. The main objective was to examine if spatial distribution of reductions in ADC values is associated with clinical outcome in drowned children. Methods This is a retrospective study of 7 children (7 examinations) suffering from a hypoxic-ischemic event who underwent DWi. Seven subjects with normal DWi served as controls. The mean patient age was 4.88 ± 2.93 years and the male-to-female ratio was 5:2. The neurological outcome was divided into 2 categories: 4 children with Apallic syndrome and 3 deaths. We analysed the differences between the drowned children and the control group regarding clinical data, DWi abnormalities, and ADC values. Results The ADC values in the occipital and parietal grey matter were significantly different between the drowned children (765.14 ± 65.47 vs 920.95 ± 69.62; P = .003) and the control group (670.82 ± 233.99 vs 900.66 ± 92.72; P = .005). The ADC showed low values in the precentral area also (P = .044). Conclusion The ADC reduction may be useful to predict the poor outcome in drowned children and can be a valuable tool for clinical assessment.

      PubDate: 2017-03-26T12:35:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.12.001
       
  • Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging Perspective
    • Authors: Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano; Umesh Chandra Garga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Vikas Chaudhary, Shahina Bano, Umesh Chandra Garga
      The increasing prevalence of tuberculosis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals in recent years makes the disease a topic of universal concern. It has insidious onset and can affect virtually any organ system in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). CNS tuberculosis (TB) is becoming more and more complex and atypical with onset of multidrug-resistant TB. Routine diagnostic techniques using serology and body tissue are time consuming and may delay the definitive management. Hence, it is important to be familiar with various radiologic features of CNS TB to ensure early and accurate diagnosis, thereby reducing high morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. The newer imaging techniques further help to improve the characterization and diagnosis of atypical CNS TB. The authors review the imaging characteristics of different forms of CNS tuberculosis involving the brain and spine and discuss the role of advanced imaging modalities in differentiating CNS TB from other disease process.

      PubDate: 2017-03-07T23:28:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.007
       
  • Guidelines for Use of Computed Tomography Angiogram as an Ancillary Test
           for Diagnosis of Suspected Brain Death
    • Authors: Santanu Chakraborty; Sonny Dhanani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Santanu Chakraborty, Sonny Dhanani


      PubDate: 2017-02-28T20:23:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.12.002
       
  • Association Between Measures of Vertebral Endplate Morphology and Lumbar
           Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
    • Authors: Semra Duran; Mehtap Cavusoglu; Hatice Gul Hatipoglu; Deniz Sozmen Cılız; Bulent Sakman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Semra Duran, Mehtap Cavusoglu, Hatice Gul Hatipoglu, Deniz Sozmen Cılız, Bulent Sakman
      Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between vertebral endplate morphology and the degree of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods In total, 150 patients who met the inclusion criteria and were 20–60 years of age were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were evaluated for the presence of intervertebral disc degeneration or herniation, and the degree of degeneration was assessed at all lumbar levels. Vertebral endplate morphology was evaluated based on the endplate sagittal diameter, endplate sagittal concave angle (ECA), and endplate sagittal concave depth (ECD) on sagittal MRI. The association between intervertebral disc degeneration or herniation and endplate morphological measurements was analysed. Results In MRI, superior endplates (ie, inferior endplates of the superior vertebra) were concave and inferior endplates (ie, superior endplates of the inferior vertebra) were flat at all disc levels. A decrease in ECD and an increase in ECA were detected at all lumbar levels as disc degeneration increased (P < .05). At the L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels, a decrease in ECD and an increase in ECA were detected in the group with herniated lumbar discs (P < .05). There was no association between lumbar disc degeneration or herniation and endplate sagittal diameter at lumbar intervertebral levels (P > .05). At all levels, ECD of women was significantly lesser than that of men and ECA of women was significantly greater than that of men (P < .05). Conclusions There is an association between vertebral endplate morphology and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Vertebral endplates at the degenerated disc level become flat; the severity of this flattening is correlated with the degree of disc degeneration.

      PubDate: 2017-02-21T19:34:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.11.002
       
  • A Golden Opportunity for Radiologists: Bringing Clinical Relevance
           to Undergraduate Anatomy Through Virtual Dissection
    • Authors: Kathryn E. Darras; Bruce B. Forster; Savvas Nicolaou; Peter L. Munk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Kathryn E. Darras, Bruce B. Forster, Savvas Nicolaou, Peter L. Munk


      PubDate: 2017-02-03T11:10:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.08.006
       
  • Quality Initiative Program in Its Sixth Year: Has It Become Part of Our
           Radiology Culture'
    • Authors: Heather Ritchie; Ania Z. Kielar; Fraser Hill; Joseph P. O'Sullivan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Heather Ritchie, Ania Z. Kielar, Fraser Hill, Joseph P. O'Sullivan
      Purpose The study sought to determine if the Quality Initiative Program (QUIP) has become part of the radiology culture at our institution. Methods After Research Ethics approval, QUIPs from January 2009 to December 2014 were assessed. We evaluated the response rates of radiologists receiving QUIPs to ensure they reviewed them. We performed a survey of radiologists and trainees to gain feedback regarding their perception of QUIPs in February 2014 and in June 2015. Results Response rates of radiologists receiving a QUIP improved, with 76% response rate in 2014 up from 66% in the first year and 42% in the second year. Based on the 2015 survey including radiologists and trainees, 75% agreed that QUIPs were educational, compared with 67% 16 months earlier. Fifty percent of respondents had changed their overall practice of reporting based on feedback from the QUIP in 2015 compared with 32% in 2014. In both surveys, 100% of respondents indicated that QUIPs have not been used against them for any disciplinary measure (or other negatively perceived action). When asked if there was a perceived decrease in stigma felt when a QUIP was received, 71% agreed or were neutral and 28% disagreed. Conclusions The QUIP is educational to radiologists and trainees, leading to positive changes in clinical practice. The majority accepts this program but there is still a stigma felt when a QUIP is received, particularly among residents. Nevertheless, we feel that QUIP has been integrated into our radiology culture and, hopefully, imminent transition to commercial quality software will be smooth.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T11:10:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.08.003
       
  • Initial Experience Using a Telerobotic Ultrasound System for Adult
           Abdominal Sonography
    • Authors: Scott J. Adams; Brent E. Burbridge; Andreea Badea; Leanne Langford; Vincent Vergara; Rhonda Bryce; Luis Bustamante; Ivar M. Mendez; Paul S. Babyn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Scott J. Adams, Brent E. Burbridge, Andreea Badea, Leanne Langford, Vincent Vergara, Rhonda Bryce, Luis Bustamante, Ivar M. Mendez, Paul S. Babyn
      Purpose The study sought to assess the feasibility of performing adult abdominal examinations using a telerobotic ultrasound system in which radiologists or sonographers can control fine movements of a transducer and all ultrasound settings from a remote location. Methods Eighteen patients prospectively underwent a conventional sonography examination (using EPIQ 5 [Philips] or LOGIQ E9 [GE Healthcare]) followed by a telerobotic sonography examination (using the MELODY System [AdEchoTech] and SonixTablet [BK Ultrasound]) according to a standardized abdominal imaging protocol. For telerobotic examinations, patients were scanned remotely by a sonographer 2.75 km away. Conventional examinations were read independently from telerobotic examinations. Image quality and acceptability to patients and sonographers was assessed. Results Ninety-two percent of organs visualized on conventional examinations were sufficiently visualized on telerobotic examinations. Five pathological findings were identified on both telerobotic and conventional examinations, 3 findings were identified using only conventional sonography, and 2 findings were identified using only telerobotic sonography. A paired sample t test showed no significant difference between the 2 modalities in measurements of the liver, spleen, and diameter of the proximal aorta; however, telerobotic assessments overestimated distal aorta and common bile duct diameters and underestimated kidney lengths (P values < .05). All patients responded that they would be willing to have another telerobotic examination. Conclusions A telerobotic ultrasound system is feasible for performing abdominal ultrasound examinations at a distant location with minimal training and setup requirements and a moderate learning curve. Telerobotic sonography (robotic telesonography) may open up the possibility of remote ultrasound clinics for communities that lack skilled sonographers and radiologists, thereby improving access to care.

      PubDate: 2017-02-03T11:10:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.08.002
       
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 1


      PubDate: 2017-01-28T10:39:17Z
       
  • Erratum
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 1


      PubDate: 2017-01-28T10:39:17Z
       
  • Classified Advertising
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Volume 68, Issue 1


      PubDate: 2017-01-28T10:39:17Z
       
  • Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Brain: Beyond Stroke
    • Authors: Adam A. Dmytriw; Vijay Sawlani; Jai Shankar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Adam A. Dmytriw, Vijay Sawlani, Jai Shankar
      Diffusion-weighted imaging provides image contrast that is different from that provided by conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. It is highly sensitive for detection of cytotoxic oedema, and as such has gained favor in the detection of acute infarcts. However, diffusion-weighted imaging is underrepresented in the characterisation of many other disease processes. Our objective is to differentiate diseases that manifest with various neurological disorders, based on diffusion contrast and apparent diffusion coefficient values and review of hyper- and hypointense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T10:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.001
       
  • Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome: A Review
    • Authors: Jai Shankar; Jillian Banfield
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Jai Shankar, Jillian Banfield
      Radiologists may be the first to suggest the diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). PRES is associated with many diverse clinical entities, the most common of which are eclampsia, hypertension, and immunosuppressive treatment. Radiologists should be aware of the spectrum of imaging findings in PRES. When promptly recognized and treated, the symptoms and radiological abnormalities can be completely reversed. When unrecognized, patients can progress to ischemia, massive infarction, and death. In this review, we present an overview of the unique signs observed on computed tomography and magnetic resonance images in PRES that can help in the early diagnosis and treatment that is highly effective in this syndrome.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T10:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.08.005
       
  • Rapid Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: What a General
           Radiologist Should Know
    • Authors: Elizabeth H.Y. Du; Jai J.S. Shankar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Elizabeth H.Y. Du, Jai J.S. Shankar
      Stroke is the second leading cause of mortality and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years worldwide. For each minute of an ischemic stroke, an estimated 1.9 million brain cells die. The year 2015 saw the unprecedented publication of 5 multicentre, randomized, controlled trials. These studies showed that patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large-vessel thrombus occlusion of the proximal anterior circulation had significantly reduced disability at 90 days when treated with endovascular thrombectomy and usual stroke care compared to usual stroke care alone. As a result, endovascular thrombectomy is now the new North American and European standard of care for suitable patients with acute ischemic stroke caused by large-vessel proximal anterior circulation occlusion. We review key take-home messages in this paradigm shift for radiologists, including the importance of time and workflow efficiency, what currently constitutes appropriate preimaging patient selection and imaging criteria, the use of newer generation thrombectomy devices, safety outcomes, as well as further areas still in need of elucidation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T10:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.002
       
  • Educational Review of Predictive Value and Findings of Computed Tomography
           Scan in Diagnosing Bowel and Mesenteric Injuries After Blunt Trauma:
           Correlation With Trauma Surgery Findings in 163 Patients
    • Authors: Francesco Cinquantini; Gregorio Tugnoli; Alice Piccinini; Carlo Coniglio; Sergio Mannone; Andrea Biscardi; Giovanni Gordini; Salomone Di Saverio
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2017
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Francesco Cinquantini, Gregorio Tugnoli, Alice Piccinini, Carlo Coniglio, Sergio Mannone, Andrea Biscardi, Giovanni Gordini, Salomone Di Saverio
      Background and Aims Laparotomy can detect bowel and mesenteric injuries in 1.2%–5% of patients following blunt abdominal trauma. Delayed diagnosis in such cases is strongly related to increased risk of ongoing sepsis, with subsequent higher morbidity and mortality. Computed tomography (CT) scanning is the gold standard in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma, being accurate in the diagnosis of bowel and mesenteric injuries in case of hemodynamically stable trauma patients. Aims of the present study are to 1) review the correlation between CT signs and intraoperative findings in case of bowel and mesenteric injuries following blunt abdominal trauma, analysing the correlation between radiological features and intraoperative findings from our experience on 25 trauma patients with small bowel and mesenteric injuries (SBMI); 2) identify the diagnostic specificity of those signs found at CT with practical considerations on the following clinical management; and 3) distinguish the bowel and mesenteric injuries requiring immediate surgical intervention from those amenable to initial nonoperative management. Materials and Methods Between January 1, 2008, and May 31, 2010, 163 patients required laparotomy following blunt abdominal trauma. Among them, 25 patients presented bowel or mesenteric injuries. Data were analysed retrospectively, correlating operative surgical reports with the preoperative CT findings. Results We are presenting a pictorial review of significant and frequent findings of bowel and mesenteric lesions at CT scan, confirmed intraoperatively at laparotomy. Moreover, the predictive value of CT scan for SBMI is assessed. Conclusions Multidetector CT scan is the gold standard in the assessment of intra-abdominal blunt abdominal trauma for not only parenchymal organs injuries but also detecting SBMI; in the presence of specific signs it provides an accurate assessment of hollow viscus injuries, helping the trauma surgeons to choose the correct initial clinical management.

      PubDate: 2017-01-28T10:39:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.07.003
       
  • Book Review: Effective Medical Writing—The Write Way to Get
           Published
    • Authors: Peter L. Munk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Peter L. Munk


      PubDate: 2016-12-27T13:24:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.09.002
       
  • Variations in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Provision and Processes Among
           Canadian Academic Centres
    • Authors: Sonia Vanderby; Andreea Badea; Juan Nicolás Peña Sánchez; Neil Kalra; Paul Babyn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Sonia Vanderby, Andreea Badea, Juan Nicolás Peña Sánchez, Neil Kalra, Paul Babyn
      Purpose Increasing demand has led to questions regarding the appropriateness of advanced imaging exams, particularly for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The study aimed to explore variability in MRI service provision and request variation within Canadian academic medical imaging departments, particularly factors potentially affecting appropriate MRI service provision. Methods All Canadian academic centres with medical imaging residency programs were invited to participate. Participation involved completing an institution-level survey and submitting exam requests for all MRI exams completed in a common 24-hour period. The surveys and request forms were analysed and contrasted. Results The 13 participating institutions reported scanner operating hours per week ranging from 101-672; large urban centres typically had higher hours. A total of 42% of sites housed multiple scanners, and 28% housed a 3-T scanner. Most accept requests from all general practitioners and specialists. Only 1 institution has a solely electronic request submission process. Requisitions are focused on patient safety, including contrast considerations, metallic foreign bodies, and implants. Request prioritization scales vary substantially across institutions. Few use referral guidelines to evaluate request appropriateness. Conclusions Our analysis showed great variation among facility-level factors such as hours of operation, request forms, and prioritization scales among institutions and facilities. Opportunities exist to create standardized processes and improve request forms to focus more on specific information required for appropriateness, increase consistency in patient care, and promote demand balancing, minimizing unnecessary exams and therefore reducing wait times.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T13:24:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.07.007
       
  • Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography in Intensive Care Unit Patients with
           Acute Clinical Deterioration: Impact of Hyperattenuating Adrenal Glands
    • Authors: Johannes Boos; Julia Schek; Patric Kröpil; Philipp Heusch; Niklas Heinzler; Gerald Antoch; Rotem Shlomo Lanzman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Johannes Boos, Julia Schek, Patric Kröpil, Philipp Heusch, Niklas Heinzler, Gerald Antoch, Rotem Shlomo Lanzman
      Purpose The study sought to assess the frequency and prognostic value of hyperattenuating adrenal glands on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans of surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute clinical deterioration. Methods Eighty-eight consecutive ICU patients (63.2 ± 14.5 years of age) were included in this retrospective analysis. All patients underwent biphasic contrast-enhanced CT due to an acute clinical deterioration. Hyperattenuation of the adrenal glands was assessed subjectively and objectively. Subjective presence or absence of hyperattenuating adrenal glands was assessed by 2 blinded radiologists (J.B. and R.S.L.) in consensus. Hounsfield units (HU) were measured in the adrenal glands and in the inferior vena cava. Objective hyperattenuation was defined as HU (adrenal glands) > HU (inferior vena cava) with a 15-HU threshold. Death within 14 days following CT was set as endpoint and acquired from electronic patient data. Results Thirty-eight patients (43.2%, Group Asubj) exhibited hyperattenuation of the adrenal glands, whereas 50 patients (56.8%, Group Bsubj) did not. Concerning the objective analysis, 31 patients (35.2%, Group Aobj) exhibited hyperdense adrenal glands, whereas 53 patients (64.8%, Group Bobj) did not. Overall 27 of 88 patients (30.6%) died within 14 days following the CT examination. Lethal outcome was significantly more frequent among patients in Group Asubj and Aobj (19 of 38 patients [50.0%] and 15 of 31 patients [48.4%]) as compared with patients in Group Bsubj (8 of 50 patients [16.0%]) and Group Bobj (12 of 57 patients [21.1%]; P < .05). Subjective and objective analysis correlated significantly (P < .05). Conclusions Hyperattenuation of adrenal glands on contrast-enhanced CT of ICU patients with acute clinical deterioration is associated with a high mortality and might serve as a prognostic marker for patients' outcome.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T13:24:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.07.006
       
  • Pterygopalatine Fossa: Not a Mystery!
    • Authors: Betul Emine Derinkuyu; Oznur Boyunaga; Cigdem Oztunali; Ayse Gul Alimli; Murat Ucar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Betul Emine Derinkuyu, Oznur Boyunaga, Cigdem Oztunali, Ayse Gul Alimli, Murat Ucar
      The pterygopalatine fossa is an important anatomic crossroads that is connected with numerous intra- and extracranial spaces via foramina and fissures. Although this fossa is small, its central location in the skull base and its communications provide clinical, radiological, and anatomical significance. In this pictorial review, we aimed to describe the radiologic anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa, as well as to give some pathologic examples to better understand this major conduit.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T09:19:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.08.001
       
  • Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm of the Bile Duct: Multimodality Imaging
           Appearances and Pathological Correlation
    • Authors: Csilla Egri; Wan Wan Yap; Charles H. Scudamore; Douglas Webber; Alison Harris
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Csilla Egri, Wan Wan Yap, Charles H. Scudamore, Douglas Webber, Alison Harris


      PubDate: 2016-12-05T05:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.07.005
       
  • Shaping the Future of Neuroradiology
    • Authors: Amanda Murphy; Allan J. Fox; Rob Sevick; Karel ter Brugge
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Amanda Murphy, Allan J. Fox, Rob Sevick, Karel ter Brugge


      PubDate: 2016-12-05T05:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.10.003
       
  • Quality Improvement Initiative to Increase Consistent Use of Intraluminal
           Contrast in the Identification of Anastomotic Bowel Leaks on Computed
           Tomography, Using the Plan-Do-Study-Act Service Approach
    • Authors: Karim Samji; Ania Kielar; Michael Connolly; Etienne Hache; Geoffrey Doherty; Najla Fasih
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Karim Samji, Ania Kielar, Michael Connolly, Etienne Hache, Geoffrey Doherty, Najla Fasih


      PubDate: 2016-12-05T05:45:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.07.008
       
  • Prostate Artery Embolization for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Current
           Status
    • Authors: Anirudh Mirakhur; Justin P. McWilliams
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Anirudh Mirakhur, Justin P. McWilliams
      Prostate artery embolization has garnered much attention as a promising treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. We aim to provide an up-to-date review of this minimally invasive technique, including discussion of potential benefits and technical challenges. Current evidence suggests it is a safe and effective option for patients with medication-refractory urinary obstructive symptoms who are poor surgical candidates or refuse surgical therapy. Larger, randomized studies with long-term follow-up data are needed for this technique to be formally established in the treatment paradigm for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T11:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.06.003
       
  • Currarino Syndrome in a Fetus, Infant, Child, and Adolescent: Spectrum of
           Clinical Presentations and Imaging Findings
    • Authors: Pablo Caro-Domínguez; Juan Bass; Julie Hurteau-Miller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Pablo Caro-Domínguez, Juan Bass, Julie Hurteau-Miller
      In 1981, Currarino et al described a triad of findings that consist of partial sacral dysgenesis, presacral mass (anterior meningocele, enteric cyst, or presacral teratoma) and anorectal malformation. Currarino syndrome exhibits variable expressivity and the clinical presentation tends to vary with the age of the subject such as spinal anomaly detected in the fetus, imperforate anus in the newborn, and intractable constipation or neurologic symptoms in the infant and older child. At any age, meningitis can be the presenting symptom and imaging is required for proper investigation. Meningitis, sepsis, urinary tract infections, and, rarely, malignant transformation of a teratoma are serious potential complications. This pictorial review describes the imaging findings, clinical history, surgical interventions, and genetic background in 5 children with this syndrome who presented in our hospital in the interval of 1 year.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T11:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.05.007
       
  • Prevalence of Extracranial Venous Narrowing on Magnetic Resonance
           Venography is Similar in People With Multiple Sclerosis, Their Siblings,
           and Unrelated Healthy Controls: A Blinded, Case-Control Study
    • Authors: Nancy Martin; Anthony L. Traboulsee; Lindsay Machan; Darren Klass; Tasha Ellchuk; Yinshan Zhao; Katherine B. Knox; David Kopriva; Shantilal Lala; Darren Nickel; Robert Otani; Warren R. Perera; Alexander Rauscher; A. Dessa Sadovnick; Peter Szkup; David K. Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Nancy Martin, Anthony L. Traboulsee, Lindsay Machan, Darren Klass, Tasha Ellchuk, Yinshan Zhao, Katherine B. Knox, David Kopriva, Shantilal Lala, Darren Nickel, Robert Otani, Warren R. Perera, Alexander Rauscher, A. Dessa Sadovnick, Peter Szkup, David K. Li
      Purpose The study sought to assess and compare the prevalence of narrowing of the major extracranial veins in subjects with multiple sclerosis and controls, and to assess the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance venography (MRV) for describing extracranial venous narrowing as it applies to the chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency theory, using catheter venography (CV) as the gold standard. Methods The jugular and azygos veins were assessed with time-of-flight MRV in this assessor-blinded, case-control study of subjects with multiple sclerosis, their unaffected siblings, and unrelated controls. The veins were evaluated by diameter and area, and compared with CV. Collateral vessels were also analyzed for maximal diameter, as a potential indicator of compensatory flow. Results A high prevalence of extracranial venous narrowing was demonstrated in all study groups, collectively up to 84% by diameter criteria and 90% by area, with no significant difference between the groups when assessed independently (P = .34 and .63, respectively). There was high interobserver variability in the reporting of vessel narrowing (kappa = 0.32), and poor vessel per vessel correlation between narrowing on MRV and CV (kappa = 0.064). Collateral neck veins demonstrated no convincing difference in maximum size or correlation with jugular narrowing. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of narrowing of the major extracranial veins on MRV in all 3 study groups, with no significant difference between them. These findings do not support the chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency theory. Although MRV has shown a high sensitivity for identifying venous narrowing, time-of-flight imaging demonstrates poor interobserver agreement and poor specificity when compared with the gold standard CV.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28T11:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.07.002
       
  • Imaging Findings in Elder Abuse: A Role for Radiologists in Detection
    • Authors: Natalie Z. Wong; Tony Rosen; Allen M. Sanchez; Elizabeth M. Bloemen; Kevin W. Mennitt; Keith Hentel; Refky Nicola; Kieran Murphy; Veronica M. LoFaso; Neal E. Flomenbaum; Mark S. Lachs
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Natalie Z. Wong, Tony Rosen, Allen M. Sanchez, Elizabeth M. Bloemen, Kevin W. Mennitt, Keith Hentel, Refky Nicola, Kieran Murphy, Veronica M. LoFaso, Neal E. Flomenbaum, Mark S. Lachs
      Purpose Emergency department assessment represents a critical but often missed opportunity to identify elder abuse, which is common and has serious consequences. Among emergency care providers, diagnostic radiologists are optimally positioned to raise suspicion for mistreatment when reviewing imaging of geriatric injury victims. However, little literature exists describing relevant injury patterns, and most radiologists currently receive neither formal nor informal training in elder abuse identification. Methods We present 2 cases to begin characterisation of the radiographic findings in elder abuse. Results Findings from these cases demonstrate similarities to suspicious findings in child abuse including high-energy fractures that are inconsistent with reported mechanisms and the coexistence of acute and chronic injuries. Specific injuries uncommon to accidental injury are also noted, including a distal ulnar diaphyseal fracture. Conclusions We hope to raise awareness of elder abuse among diagnostic radiologists to encourage future large-scale research, increased focus on chronic osseous findings, and the addition of elder abuse to differential diagnoses.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T05:21:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.06.001
       
  • Departmental h-Index: Evidence for Publishing Less?
    • Authors: Pascal N. Tyrrell; Alan R. Moody; J. Oscar C. Moody; Neda Ghiam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Pascal N. Tyrrell, Alan R. Moody, J. Oscar C. Moody, Neda Ghiam
      Purpose The h-index is an established method for determining an individual faculty member's impact on the scientific literature. The purpose of this study was to measure and describe over time the combined h-index of a large university medical imaging department. Materials and Methods All faculty members from the Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, were identified from administrative records for 6 separate years between 2000-2014. Individual members' and the departmental h-index were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. Descriptive univariate statistics were reported. Factors contributing to the change in departmental h-index over time were assessed using linear regression analysis. Results The number of faculty members increased from 117 in 2000 to 186 in 2014. The departmental h-index increased from 48 in 2000 to 142 in 2014. During this time period, the median h-index for faculty members increased from 4 (interquartile range 2-8) to 10 (interquartile range 5-19). Regression analysis revealed that for every additional staff member, the departmental h-index increased by 1.4 (standard error = 0.1, P < .01), whereas, by increasing the median h-index of members by 1 the departmental h-index increased by 15.7 (standard error = 0.6, P < .01). Conclusion Our study suggests that to increase a department's h-index, it is important to foster impactful research from within the faculty ranks of the department. The h-index of academic radiology departments is a meaningful tool that allows for evaluation from within and against other academic centres.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T05:21:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.05.005
       
  • Multidetector Computed Tomographic Angiography Imaging of Congenital
           Pulmonary Venous Anomalies: A Pictorial Review
    • Authors: Aysel Türkvatan; Alper Güzeltaş; Hasan Tahsin Tola; Yakup Ergül
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Aysel Türkvatan, Alper Güzeltaş, Hasan Tahsin Tola, Yakup Ergül
      Congenital pulmonary venous anomalies are not uncommon that can occur either in isolation or in association with different forms of congenital heart disease. Clinical presentation of these anomalies may vary from the relatively benign single anomalous partial pulmonary venous return to life-threatening critical obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous return. Accurate delineation of these anomalies and accompanied cardiovascular anomalies are crucial to guide decision making in these patients. Low-dose high-pitch dual-source 256-detector multidetector computed tomographic angiography is a fast and reliable imaging modality allowing comprehensive noninvasive anatomic imaging in neonates and children with congenital pulmonary venous anomalies with lower radiation doses and should be preferred for these patients after transthoracic echocardiography.

      PubDate: 2016-10-10T05:41:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.05.003
       
  • Evaluation of Knee Pain in Athletes: A Radiologist's Perspective
    • Authors: Umer Salati; Orla Doody; Peter Munk; William Torreggiani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Umer Salati, Orla Doody, Peter Munk, William Torreggiani
      Lower limb injuries account for most of all injuries suffered by athletes and the knee joint accounts for over half of these. The etiology of knee pain is multifactorial; a good history focusing on the mechanism of injury and the chronicity of pain is extremely useful in correlating with radiologic findings and establishing a clinically meaningful diagnosis. This review article will discuss several important and common causes of acute and chronic knee pain in athletes, focusing on their mechanism of injury and site of pain as well as their salient imaging findings.

      PubDate: 2016-09-27T10:00:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.04.003
       
  • Preoperative Imaging in Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Literature
           Review and Recommendations
    • Authors: Stephen Liddy; Daniel Worsley; William Torreggiani; John Feeney
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Stephen Liddy, Daniel Worsley, William Torreggiani, John Feeney


      PubDate: 2016-09-27T10:00:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.07.004
       
  • Bone and Gallium Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography-Computed
           Tomography is Equivalent to Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of
           Infectious Spondylodiscitis: A Retrospective Study
    • Authors: Alexander S. Tamm; Jonathan T. Abele
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2016
      Source:Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal
      Author(s): Alexander S. Tamm, Jonathan T. Abele
      Objectives Spondylodiscitis has historically been a difficult clinical diagnosis. Two imaging techniques that address this problem are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and combined bone (99mTc-methylene diphosphonate) and gallium-67 single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT). Their accuracies have not been adequately compared. The purpose of this study is to compare the sensitivities and specificities of bone and gallium SPECT-CT and MRI in infectious spondylodiscitis. Methods This retrospective study assessed all patients who underwent a bone or gallium SPECT-CT of the spine to assess for infectious spondylodiscitis from January 1, 2010, to May 2, 2012, at a single tertiary care centre. Thirty-four patients (23 men; average 62 ± 14 years of age) were included. The results of the bone or gallium SPECT-CT were compared against MRI for all patients in the cohort who underwent an MRI within 12 weeks of the SPECT-CT. A diagnosis of spondylodiscitis in the discharge summary was considered the reference standard, and was based on a combination of clinical scenario, response to therapy, imaging, or microbiology. Results Spondylodiscitis was diagnosed in 18 patients and excluded in 16. Bone or gallium SPECT-CT and MRI had similar (P > .05; κ = 0.74) sensitivities (0.94 vs 0.94), specificities (1.00 vs 1.00), positive predictive values (1.00 vs 1.00), negative predictive values (0.94 vs 0.80), and accuracies (0.97 vs 0.95) when compared to the reference standard. Conclusion Although MRI remains the initial modality of choice in diagnosing spondylodiscitis, bone and gallium SPECT-CT appears diagnostically equivalent and should be considered a viable supplementary or alternative imaging modality particularly if there is contraindication or inaccessibility to MRI.

      PubDate: 2016-08-12T05:50:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.carj.2016.02.003
       
 
 
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