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  Subjects -> CHEMISTRY (Total: 841 journals)
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CHEMISTRY (593 journals)                  1 2 3 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 735 Journals sorted alphabetically
2D Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ACS Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Macro Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
ACS Nano     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 233)
ACS Photonics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
ACS Synthetic Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Acta Chemica Iasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Chimica Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chimica Slovaca     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Chromatographica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis     Open Access  
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Acta Scientifica Naturalis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
adhäsion KLEBEN & DICHTEN     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Adsorption Science & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advanced Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advanced Science Focus     Free   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Drug Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuel Cells     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Nanoparticles     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Organometallic Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Protein Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Quantum Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Bacteriology Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agrokémia és Talajtan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
AMB Express     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ambix     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Plant Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Mineralogist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Analyst     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Angewandte Chemie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 222)
Angewandte Chemie International Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 213)
Annales UMCS, Chemia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Reports Section A (Inorganic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Reports Section B (Organic Chemistry)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Anti-Infective Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Spectroscopy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Applied Surface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Arabian Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ARKIVOC     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Atomization and Sprays     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Autophagy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Avances en Quimica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 295)
Biochemistry Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BioChip Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Bioinspired Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biointerphases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biology, Medicine, & Natural Product Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biomacromolecules     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
Biomedical Chromatography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biomolecular NMR Assignments     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
BioNanoScience     Partially Free   (Followers: 4)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121)
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 98)
Bioorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biopolymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biosensors     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
Boletin de la Sociedad Chilena de Quimica     Open Access  
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
C - Journal of Carbon Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cakra Kimia (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)     Open Access  
Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Mineralogist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Carbon     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Catalysis for Sustainable Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysis Science and Technology     Free   (Followers: 6)
Catalysis Surveys from Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cellulose     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cereal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
ChemCatChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 13)
Chemical Bulletin of Kazakh National University     Open Access  
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Research in Chinese Universities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Research in Toxicology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chemical Vapor Deposition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Week     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chemie in Unserer Zeit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik (Cit)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry - A European Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 142)
Chemistry - An Asian Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemistry and Materials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Education Research and Practice     Free   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 258)
Chemistry of Natural Compounds     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemistry World     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Chemistry-Didactics-Ecology-Metrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ChemistryOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemkon - Chemie Konkret, Forum Fuer Unterricht Und Didaktik     Hybrid Journal  
Chemoecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemosensors     Open Access  
ChemPhysChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
ChemPlusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
CHIMIA International Journal for Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chromatographia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clay Minerals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cogent Chemistry     Open Access  
Colloid and Interface Science Communications     Open Access  
Colloid and Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Combustion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comments on Inorganic Chemistry: A Journal of Critical Discussion of the Current Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Composite Interfaces     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Comptes Rendus Chimie     Full-text available via subscription  
Comptes Rendus Physique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Computational Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Coordination Chemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
CrystEngComm     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Current Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Metabolomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Current Science     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Dalton Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Detection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Developments in Geochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Diamond and Related Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Dislocations in Solids     Full-text available via subscription  
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Drying Technology: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eclética Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ecological Chemistry and Engineering S     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination     Open Access  
Educación Química     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry     Open Access  
Elements     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Environmental Chemistry Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Science & Technology Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Science : Nano     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)

        1 2 3 | Last

Journal Cover Biosensors
  [SJR: 0.618]   [H-I: 12]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2079-6374
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [156 journals]
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 41: Biosensor Technology Reveals the Disruption
           of the Endothelial Barrier Function and the Subsequent Death of Blood
           Brain Barrier Endothelial Cells to Sodium Azide and Its Gaseous Products

    • Authors: Dan Kho, Rebecca Johnson, Simon O’Carroll, Catherine Angel, E. Scott Graham
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Herein we demonstrate the sensitive nature of human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells to sodium azide and its gaseous product. Sodium azide is known to be acutely cytotoxic at low millimolar concentrations, hence its use as a biological preservative (e.g., in antibodies). Loss of barrier integrity was noticed in experiments using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) biosensor technology, to measure endothelial barrier integrity continuously in real-time. Initially the effect of sodium azide was observed as an artefact where it was present in antibodies being employed in neutralisation experiments. This was confirmed where antibody clones that were azide-free did not mediate loss of barrier function. A delayed loss of barrier function in neighbouring wells implied the influence of a liberated gaseous product. ECIS technology demonstrated that the BBB endothelial cells had a lower level of direct sensitivity to sodium azide of ~3 µM. Evidence of gaseous toxicity was consistently observed at 30 µM and above, with disrupted barrier function and cell death in neighbouring wells. We highlight the ability of this cellular biosensor technology to reveal both the direct and gaseous toxicity mediated by sodium azide. The sensitivity and temporal dimension of ECIS technology was instrumental in these observations. These findings have substantial implications for the wide use of sodium azide in biological reagents, raising issues of their application in live-cell assays and with regard to the protection of the user. This research also has wider relevance highlighting the sensitivity of brain endothelial cells to a known mitochondrial disruptor. It is logical to hypothesise that BBB endothelial dysfunction due to mitochondrial dys-regulation could have an important but underappreciated role in a range of neurological diseases.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7040041
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 24: Optical Tracking and Digital Quantification
           of Beating Behavior in Bioengineered Human Cardiac Organoids

    • Authors: Mahesh Devarasetty, Steven Forsythe, Thomas Shupe, Shay Soker, Colin Bishop, Anthony Atala, Aleksander Skardal
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Organoid and organ-on-a-chip technologies are rapidly advancing towards deployment for drug and toxicology screening applications. Liver and cardiac toxicities account for the majority of drug candidate failures in human trials. Liver toxicity generally produces liver cell death, while cardiac toxicity causes adverse changes in heart beat kinetics. In traditional 2D cultures, beating kinetics can be measured by electrode arrays, but in some 3D constructs, quantifying beating kinetics can be more challenging. For example, real time measurements of calcium flux or contractile forces are possible, yet rather complex. In this communication article, we demonstrate a simple sensing system based on software code that optically analyzes video capture files of beating cardiac organoids, translates these files in representations of moving pixels, and quantifies pixel movement activity over time to generate beat kinetic plots. We demonstrate this system using bioengineered cardiac organoids under baseline and drug conditions. This technology offers a non-invasive, low-cost, and incredibly simple method for tracking and quantifying beating behavior in cardiac organoids and organ-on-a-chip systems for drug and toxicology screening.
      PubDate: 2017-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030024
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 25: Detection of Lipid and Amphiphilic
           Biomarkers for Disease Diagnostics

    • Authors: Jessica Kubicek-Sutherland, Dung Vu, Heather Mendez, Shailja Jakhar, Harshini Mukundan
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Rapid diagnosis is crucial to effectively treating any disease. Biological markers, or biomarkers, have been widely used to diagnose a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases. The detection of biomarkers in patient samples can also provide valuable information regarding progression and prognosis. Interestingly, many such biomarkers are composed of lipids, and are amphiphilic in biochemistry, which leads them to be often sequestered by host carriers. Such sequestration enhances the difficulty of developing sensitive and accurate sensors for these targets. Many of the physiologically relevant molecules involved in pathogenesis and disease are indeed amphiphilic. This chemical property is likely essential for their biological function, but also makes them challenging to detect and quantify in vitro. In order to understand pathogenesis and disease progression while developing effective diagnostics, it is important to account for the biochemistry of lipid and amphiphilic biomarkers when creating novel techniques for the quantitative measurement of these targets. Here, we review techniques and methods used to detect lipid and amphiphilic biomarkers associated with disease, as well as their feasibility for use as diagnostic targets, highlighting the significance of their biochemical properties in the design and execution of laboratory and diagnostic strategies. The biochemistry of biological molecules is clearly relevant to their physiological function, and calling out the need for consideration of this feature in their study, and use as vaccine, diagnostic and therapeutic targets is the overarching motivation for this review.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030025
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 26: Lipid Bilayer Membrane in a Silicon Based
           Micron Sized Cavity Accessed by Atomic Force Microscopy and
           Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Muhammad Khan, Noura Dosoky, Darayas Patel, Jeffrey Weimer, John Williams
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are widely used in biophysical research to probe the functionality of biological membranes and to provide diagnoses in high throughput drug screening. Formation of SLBs at below phase transition temperature (Tm) has applications in nano-medicine research where low temperature profiles are required. Herein, we report the successful production of SLBs at above—as well as below—the Tm of the lipids in an anisotropically etched, silicon-based micro-cavity. The Si-based cavity walls exhibit controlled temperature which assist in the quick and stable formation of lipid bilayer membranes. Fusion of large unilamellar vesicles was monitored in real time in an aqueous environment inside the Si cavity using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the lateral organization of the lipid molecules was characterized until the formation of the SLBs. The stability of SLBs produced was also characterized by recording the electrical resistance and the capacitance using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Analysis was done in the frequency regime of 10−2–105 Hz at a signal voltage of 100 mV and giga-ohm sealed impedance was obtained continuously over four days. Finally, the cantilever tip in AFM was utilized to estimate the bilayer thickness and to calculate the rupture force at the interface of the tip and the SLB. We anticipate that a silicon-based, micron-sized cavity has the potential to produce highly-stable SLBs below their Tm. The membranes inside the Si cavity could last for several days and allow robust characterization using AFM or EIS. This could be an excellent platform for nanomedicine experiments that require low operating temperatures.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030026
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 27: A Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Immunosensor
           for Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Based on Graphene FETs

    • Authors: Kamrul Islam, Ahmed Suhail, Genhua Pan
      First page: 27
      Abstract: We report on a label-free immunosensor based on graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) for the ultrasensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG), as an indicator of pregnancy and related disorders, such as actopic pregnancy, choriocarcinoma and orchic teratoma. Pyrene based bioactive ester was non-covalently anchored onto the graphene channel in order to retain the sp2 lattice. The G-FET transfer characteristics showed repeatable and reliable responses in all surface modifying steps using a direct current (DC) readout system. The hCG concentration gradient showed a detection limit of ~1 pg·mL−1. The proposed method facilitates the cost-effective and viable production of graphene point-of-care devices for clinical diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030027
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 28: Development of an Immunosensor for PfHRP 2
           as a Biomarker for Malaria Detection

    • Authors: Aver Hemben, Jon Ashley, Ibtisam Tothill
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP 2) was selected in this work as the biomarker for the detection and diagnosis of malaria. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was first developed to evaluate the immunoreagent’s suitability for the sensor’s development. A gold-based sensor with an integrated counter and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode was first selected and characterised and then used to develop the immunosensor for PfHRP 2, which enables a low cost, easy to use, and sensitive biosensor for malaria diagnosis. The sensor was applied to immobilise the anti-PfHRP 2 monoclonal antibody as the capture receptor. A sandwich ELISA assay format was constructed using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the enzyme label, and the electrochemical signal was generated using a 3, 3′, 5, 5′tetramethyl-benzidine dihydrochloride (TMB)/H2O2 system. The performance of the assay and the sensor were optimised and characterised, achieving a PfHRP 2 limit of detection (LOD) of 2.14 ng·mL−1 in buffer samples and 2.95 ng∙mL−1 in 100% spiked serum samples. The assay signal was then amplified using gold nanoparticles conjugated detection antibody-enzyme and a detection limit of 36 pg∙mL−1 was achieved in buffer samples and 40 pg∙mL−1 in serum samples. This sensor format is ideal for malaria detection and on-site analysis as a point-of-care device (POC) in resource-limited settings where the implementation of malaria diagnostics is essential in control and elimination efforts.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030028
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 29: In Vitro Quantified Determination of
           β-Amyloid 42 Peptides, a Biomarker of Neuro-Degenerative Disorders, in
           PBS and Human Serum Using a Simple, Cost-Effective Thin Gold Film
           Biosensor

    • Authors: Yifan Dai, Alireza Molazemhosseini, Chung Liu
      First page: 29
      Abstract: A simple in vitro biosensor for the detection of β-amyloid 42 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and undiluted human serum was fabricated and tested based on our platform sensor technology. The bio-recognition mechanism of this biosensor was based on the effect of the interaction between antibody and antigen of β-amyloid 42 to the redox couple probe of K4Fe(CN)6 and K3Fe(CN)6. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) served as the transduction mechanism measuring the current output derived from the redox coupling reaction. The biosensor was a three-electrode electrochemical system, and the working and counter electrodes were 50 nm thin gold film deposited by a sputtering technique. The reference electrode was a thick-film printed Ag/AgCl electrode. Laser ablation technique was used to define the size and structure of the biosensor. Cost-effective roll-to-roll manufacturing process was employed in the fabrication of the biosensor, making it simple and relatively inexpensive. Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) was employed to covalently immobilize the thiol group on the gold working electrode. A carbodiimide conjugation approach using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N–hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) was undertaken for cross-linking antibody of β-amyloid 42 to the carboxylic groups on one end of the MPA. The antibody concentration of β-amyloid 42 used was 18.75 µg/mL. The concentration range of β-amyloid 42 in this study was from 0.0675 µg/mL to 0.5 µg/mL for both PBS and undiluted human serum. DPV measurements showed excellent response in this antigen concentration range. Interference study of this biosensor was carried out in the presence of Tau protein antigen. Excellent specificity of this β-amyloid 42 biosensor was demonstrated without interference from other species, such as T-tau protein.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030029
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 30: Point-of-Care-Testing in Acute Stroke
           Management: An Unmet Need Ripe for Technological Harvest

    • Authors: Dorin Harpaz, Evgeni Eltzov, Raymond C.S. Seet, Robert S. Marks, Alfred I.Y. Tok
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Stroke, the second highest leading cause of death, is caused by an abrupt interruption of blood to the brain. Supply of blood needs to be promptly restored to salvage brain tissues from irreversible neuronal death. Existing assessment of stroke patients is based largely on detailed clinical evaluation that is complemented by neuroimaging methods. However, emerging data point to the potential use of blood-derived biomarkers in aiding clinical decision-making especially in the diagnosis of ischemic stroke, triaging patients for acute reperfusion therapies, and in informing stroke mechanisms and prognosis. The demand for newer techniques to deliver individualized information on-site for incorporation into a time-sensitive work-flow has become greater. In this review, we examine the roles of a portable and easy to use point-of-care-test (POCT) in shortening the time-to-treatment, classifying stroke subtypes and improving patient’s outcome. We first examine the conventional stroke management workflow, then highlight situations where a bedside biomarker assessment might aid clinical decision-making. A novel stroke POCT approach is presented, which combines the use of quantitative and multiplex POCT platforms for the detection of specific stroke biomarkers, as well as data-mining tools to drive analytical processes. Further work is needed in the development of POCTs to fulfill an unmet need in acute stroke management.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-08-03
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030030
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 31: An Affordable Microsphere-Based Device for
           Visual Assessment of Water Quality

    • Authors: Azra Rajwani, Brendon Restall, Nathan J. Muller, Scott Roebuck, Stephanie M. Willerth
      First page: 31
      Abstract: This work developed a prototype of an affordable, long-term water quality detection device that provides a visual readout upon detecting bacterial contamination. This device prototype consists of: (1) enzyme-releasing microspheres that lyse bacteria present in a sample, (2) microspheres that release probes that bind the DNA of the lysed bacteria, and (3) a detector region consisting of gold nanoparticles. The probes bind bacterial DNA, forming complexes. These complexes induce aggregation of the gold nanoparticles located in the detector region. The nanoparticle aggregation process causes a red to blue color change, providing a visual indicator of contamination being detected. Our group fabricated and characterized microspheres made of poly (ε-caprolactone) that released lysozyme (an enzyme that degrades bacterial cell walls) and hairpin DNA probes that bind to regions of the Escherichia coli genome over a 28-day time course. The released lysozyme retained its ability to lyse bacteria. We then showed that combining these components with gold nanoparticles followed by exposure to an E. coli-contaminated water sample (concentrations tested—106 and 108 cells/mL) resulted in a dramatic red to blue color change. Overall, this device represents a novel low-cost system for long term detection of bacteria in a water supply and other applications.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030031
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 32: A Novel Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor
           for the Rapid Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins

    • Authors: Kruti Patel, Shmuel Halevi, Paul Melman, John Schwartz, Shuowei Cai, Bal Singh
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are Category A agents on the NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) priority pathogen list owing to their extreme toxicity and the relative ease of production. These deadly toxins, in minute quantities (estimated human i.v. lethal dose LD50 of 1–2 ng/kg body weight), cause fatal flaccid paralysis by blocking neurotransmitter release. The current gold standard detection method, the mouse-bioassay, often takes days to confirm botulism. Furthermore, there are no effective antidotes known to reverse the symptoms of botulism, and as a result, patients with severe botulism often require meticulous care during the prolonged paralytic illness. To combat potential bio-terrorism incidents of botulinum neurotoxins, their rapid detection is paramount. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a very sensitive technique to examine bio-molecular interactions. The label-free, real-time analysis, with high sensitivity and low sample consumption makes this technology particularly suitable for detection of the toxin. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility in an assay with a newly designed SPR instrument for the rapid detection of botulinum neurotoxins. The LOD (limit of detection) of the Newton Photonics (NP) SPR based assay is 6.76 pg/mL for Botulinum Neurotoxin type A Light Chain (BoNT/A LC). We established that the detection sensitivity of the system is comparable to the traditional mouse LD50 bioassay in BoNT/A using this SPR technology.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030032
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 33: Bloch Surface Waves Biosensors for High
           Sensitivity Detection of Soluble ERBB2 in a Complex Biological Environment
           

    • Authors: Alberto Sinibaldi, Camilla Sampaoli, Norbert Danz, Peter Munzert, Frank Sonntag, Fabio Centola, Agostino Occhicone, Elisa Tremante, Patrizio Giacomini, Francesco Michelotti
      First page: 33
      Abstract: We report on the use of one-dimensional photonic crystals to detect clinically relevant concentrations of the cancer biomarker ERBB2 in cell lysates. Overexpression of the ERBB2 protein is associated with aggressive breast cancer subtypes. To detect soluble ERBB2, we developed an optical set-up which operates in both label-free and fluorescence modes. The detection approach makes use of a sandwich assay, in which the one-dimensional photonic crystals sustaining Bloch surface waves are modified with monoclonal antibodies, in order to guarantee high specificity during the biological recognition. We present the results of exemplary protein G based label-free assays in complex biological matrices, reaching an estimated limit of detection of 0.5 ng/mL. On-chip and chip-to-chip variability of the results is addressed too, providing repeatability rates. Moreover, results on fluorescence operation demonstrate the capability to perform high sensitive cancer biomarker assays reaching a resolution of 0.6 ng/mL, without protein G assistance. The resolution obtained in both modes meets international guidelines and recommendations (15 ng/mL) for ERBB2 quantification assays, providing an alternative tool to phenotype and diagnose molecular cancer subtypes.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030033
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 34: Thermal Response Analysis of Phospholipid
           Bilayers Using Ellipsometric Techniques

    • Authors: Carmen González-Henríquez, Vanessa Villegas-Opazo, Dallits Sagredo-Oyarce, Mauricio Sarabia-Vallejos, Claudio Terraza
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Biomimetic planar artificial membranes have been widely studied due to their multiple applications in several research fields. Their humectation and thermal response are crucial for reaching stability; these characteristics are related to the molecular organization inside the bilayer, which is affected by the aliphatic chain length, saturations, and molecule polarity, among others. Bilayer stability becomes a fundamental factor when technological devices are developed—like biosensors—based on those systems. Thermal studies were performed for different types of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules: two pure PC bilayers and four binary PC mixtures. These analyses were carried out through the detection of slight changes in their optical and structural parameters via Ellipsometry and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) techniques. Phospholipid bilayers were prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett technique and deposited over a hydrophilic silicon wafer. Their molecular inclination degree, mobility, and stability of the different phases were detected and analyzed through bilayer thickness changes and their optical phase-amplitude response. Results show that certain binary lipid mixtures—with differences in its aliphatic chain length—present a co-existence of two thermal responses due to non-ideal mixing.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030034
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 35: A Novel Impedance Biosensor for Measurement
           of Trans-Epithelial Resistance in Cells Cultured on Nanofiber Scaffolds

    • Authors: Robert Schramm, Matthew Koslow, Deirdre Nelson, Melinda Larsen, James Castracane
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Nanofibrous scaffolds provide high surface area for cell attachment, and resemble the structure of the collagen fibers which naturally occur in the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. A label free and non-destructive method of assessing the interaction of cell tissue and scaffolds aids in the ability to discern the effective quality and magnitude of any scaffold modifications. Impedance cell spectroscopy is a biosensing method that employs a functional approach to assessing the cell monolayer. The electrical impedance barrier function of a cell monolayer represents the level of restriction to diffusion of charged species between all adjacent cells across an entire contiguous cellular monolayer. The impedance signals from many individual paracellular pathways contribute to the bulk measurement of the whole monolayer barrier function. However, the scaffold substrate must be entirely porous in order to be used with electrochemical cell impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) and cells must be closely situated to the electrodes. For purposes of evaluating cell-scaffold constructs for tissue engineering, non-invasive evaluation of cell properties while seeded on scaffolds is critical. A Transwell-type assay makes a measurement across a semi-permeable membrane, using electrodes placed on opposing sides of the membrane immersed in fluid. It was found that by suspending a nanofiber scaffold across a Transwell aperture, it is possible to integrate a fully functional nanofiber tissue scaffold with the ECIS Transwell apparatus. Salivary epithelial cells were grown on the nanofiber scaffolds and tight junction formation was evaluated using ECIS measurements in parallel with immunostaining and confocal imaging. The trans-epithelial resistance increased coordinate with cell coverage, culminating with a cell monolayer, at which point the tight junction proteins assemble and strengthen, reaching the peak signal. These studies demonstrate that ECIS can be used to evaluate tight junction formation in cells grown on nanofiber scaffolds and on effects of scaffold conditions on cells, thus providing useful biological feedback to inform superior scaffold designs.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030035
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 36: A Rationally Designed Reversible
           ‘Turn-Off’ Sensor for Glutathione

    • Authors: Sabrina Heng, Xiaozhou Zhang, Jinxin Pei, Andrew Abell
      First page: 36
      Abstract: γ-Glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine (GSH) plays a critical role in maintaining redox homeostasis in biological systems and a decrease in its cellular levels is associated with diseases. Existing fluorescence-based chemosensors for GSH acts as irreversible reaction-based probes that exhibit a maximum fluorescence (‘turn-on’) once the reaction is complete, regardless of the actual concentration of GSH. A reversible, reaction-based ‘turn-off’ probe (1) is reported here to sense the decreasing levels of GSH, a situation known to occur at the onset of various diseases. The more fluorescent merocyanine (MC) isomer of 1 exists in aqueous solution and this reacts with GSH to induce formation of the ring-closed spiropyran (SP) isomer, with a measurable decrease in absorbance and fluorescence (‘turn-off’). Sensor 1 has good aqueous solubility and shows an excellent selectivity for GSH over other biologically relevant metal ions and aminothiol analytes. The sensor permeates HEK 293 cells and an increase in fluorescence is observed on adding buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of GSH synthesis.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-09-06
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030036
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 37: Silicon Integrated Dual-Mode Interferometer
           with Differential Outputs

    • Authors: Niklas Hoppe, Pascal Scheck, Rami Sweidan, Philipp Diersing, Lotte Rathgeber, Wolfgang Vogel, Benjamin Riegger, Alexander Southan, Manfred Berroth
      First page: 37
      Abstract: The dual-mode interferometer (DMI) is an attractive alternative to Mach-Zehnder interferometers for sensor purposes, achieving sensitivities to refractive index changes close to state-of-the-art. Modern designs on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platforms offer thermally stable and compact devices with insertion losses of less than 1 dB and high extinction ratios. Compact arrays of multiple DMIs in parallel are easy to fabricate due to the simple structure of the DMI. In this work, the principle of operation of an integrated DMI with differential outputs is presented which allows the unambiguous phase shift detection with a single wavelength measurement, rather than using a wavelength sweep and evaluating the optical output power spectrum. Fluctuating optical input power or varying attenuation due to different analyte concentrations can be compensated by observing the sum of the optical powers at the differential outputs. DMIs with two differential single-mode outputs are fabricated in a 250 nm SOI platform, and corresponding measurements are shown to explain the principle of operation in detail. A comparison of DMIs with the conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometer using the same technology concludes this work.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030037
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 38: Mediatorless Impedance Studies with Titanium
           Dioxide Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection

    • Authors: Nur Abdul Halim, Yook Lee, Radha Marugan, Uda Hashim
      First page: 38
      Abstract: An impedimetric-based biosensor constructed using gold nanoparticles (AuNP) entrapped within titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection is the main feature of this research. The matrix of the biosensor employed the surface of TiO2, which was previously modified with an amine terminal group using 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) at a low temperature to create a ready to immobilise surface for the biosensor application. Hemoglobin (Hb), which exhibits peroxidase-like activity, was used as the bioreceptor in the biosensor to detect H2O2 in solution. The analysis was carried out using an alternative impedance method, in which the biosensor exhibited a wide linear range response between 1 × 10−4 M and 1.5 × 10−2 M and a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 × 10−5 M without a redox mediator.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030038
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 39: Substituting Sodium Hydrosulfite with Sodium
           Metabisulfite Improves Long-Term Stability of a Distributable Paper-Based
           Test Kit for Point-of-Care Screening for Sickle Cell Anemia

    • Authors: Kian Torabian, Dalia Lezzar, Nathaniel Piety, Alex George, Sergey Shevkoplyas
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a genetic blood disorder that is particularly lethal in early childhood. Universal newborn screening programs and subsequent early treatment are known to drastically reduce under-five SCA mortality. However, in resource-limited settings, cost and infrastructure constraints limit the effectiveness of laboratory-based SCA screening programs. To address this limitation our laboratory previously developed a low-cost, equipment-free, point-of-care, paper-based SCA test. Here, we improved the stability and performance of the test by replacing sodium hydrosulfite (HS), a key reducing agent in the hemoglobin solubility buffer which is not stable in aqueous solutions, with sodium metabisulfite (MS). The MS formulation of the test was compared to the HS formulation in a laboratory setting by inexperienced users (n = 3), to determine visual limit of detection (LOD), readout time, diagnostic accuracy, intra- and inter-observer agreement, and shelf life. The MS test was found to have a 10% sickle hemoglobin LOD, 21-min readout time, 97.3% sensitivity and 99.5% specificity for SCA, almost perfect intra- and inter-observer agreement, at least 24 weeks of shelf stability at room temperature, and could be packaged into a self-contained, distributable test kits comprised of off-the-shelf disposable components and food-grade reagents with a total cost of only $0.21 (USD).
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030039
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 40: Use of Wavelet Transform to Detect
           Compensated and Decompensated Stages in the Congestive Heart Failure
           Patient

    • Authors: Pratibha Sharma, Kimberly Newman, Carlin Long, A. Gasiewski, Frank Barnes
      First page: 40
      Abstract: This research work is aimed at improving health care, reducing cost, and the occurrence of emergency hospitalization in patients with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) by analyzing heart and lung sounds to distinguish between the compensated and decompensated states. Compensated state defines stable state of the patient but with lack of retention of fluids in lungs, whereas decompensated state leads to unstable state of the patient with lots of fluid retention in the lungs, where the patient needs medication. Acoustic signals from the heart and the lung were analyzed using wavelet transforms to measure changes in the CHF patient’s status from the decompensated to compensated and vice versa. Measurements were taken on CHF patients diagnosed to be in compensated and decompensated states by using a digital stethoscope and electrocardiogram (ECG) in order to monitor their progress in the management of their disease. Analysis of acoustic signals of the heart due to the opening and closing of heart valves as well as the acoustic signals of the lungs due to respiration and the ECG signals are presented. Fourier, short-time Fourier, and wavelet transforms are evaluated to determine the best method to detect shifts in the status of a CHF patient. The power spectra obtained through the Fourier transform produced results that differentiate the signals from healthy people and CHF patients, while the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) technique did not provide the desired results. The most promising results were obtained by using wavelet analysis. Wavelet transforms provide better resolution, in time, for higher frequencies, and a better resolution, in frequency, for lower frequencies.
      Citation: Biosensors
      PubDate: 2017-09-20
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7030040
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 15: Detection of 17 β-Estradiol in
           Environmental Samples and for Health Care Using a Single-Use,
           Cost-Effective Biosensor Based on Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV)

    • Authors: Yifan Dai, Chung Liu
      First page: 15
      Abstract: Environmental estrogen pollution and estrogen effects on the female reproductive system are well recognized scientifically. Among the estrogens, 17 β-estradiol is a priority in environmental estrogen pollution, and it is also a major contributor to estrogen which regulates the female reproductive system. 17 β-estradiol is carcinogenic and has a tumor promotion effect relating to breast cancer, lung cancer and others. It also affects psychological well-being such as depression, fatigue and others. Thus, a simple method of detecting 17 β-estradiol will be important for both environmental estrogen pollution and health care. This study demonstrates a single-use, cost-effective 17 β-estradiol biosensor system which can be used for both environmental and health care applications. The bio-recognition mechanism is based on the influence of the redox couple, K3Fe(CN)6/K4Fe(CN)6 by the interaction between 17 β-estradiol antigen and its α-receptor (ER-α; α-estrogen antibody). The transduction mechanism is an electrochemical analytical technique, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The levels of 17 β-estradiol antigen studied were between 2.25 pg/mL and 2250 pg/mL; Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), tap water from the Cleveland regional water district, and simulated urine were used as the test media covering the potential application areas for 17 β-estradiol detection. An interference study by testosterone, which has a similar chemical structure and molecular weight as those of 17 β-estradiol, was carried out, and this 17 β-estradiol biosensor showed excellent specificity without any interference by similar chemicals.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7020015
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 16: Electrochemical Field-Effect Transistor
           Utilization to Study the Coupling Success Rate of Photosynthetic Protein
           Complexes to Cytochrome c

    • Authors: Arash Takshi, Houman Yaghoubi, Jing Wang, Daniel Jun, J. Beatty
      First page: 16
      Abstract: Due to the high internal quantum efficiency, reaction center (RC) proteins from photosynthetic organisms have been studied in various bio-photoelectrochemical devices for solar energy harvesting. In vivo, RC and cytochrome c (cyt c; a component of the biological electron transport chain) can form a cocomplex via interprotein docking. This mechanism can be used in vitro for efficient electron transfer from an electrode to the RC in a bio-photoelectrochemical device. Hence, the success rate in coupling RCs to cyt c is of great importance for practical applications in the future. In this work, we use an electrochemical transistor to study the binding of the RC to cytochrome. The shift in the transistor threshold voltage was measured in the dark and under illumination to estimate the density of cytochrome and coupled RCs on the gate of the transistor. The results show that ~33% of the cyt cs on the transistor gate were able to effectively couple with RCs. Due to the high sensitivity of the transistor, the approach can be used to make photosensors for detecting low light intensities.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7020016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 17: Ultrasensitive Label-Free Sensing of IL-6
           Based on PASE Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Micro-Arrays with
           RNA-Aptamers as Molecular Recognition Elements

    • Authors: Farhad Khosravi, Seyed Loeian, Balaji Panchapakesan
      First page: 17
      Abstract: This study demonstrates the rapid and label-free detection of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) using carbon nanotube micro-arrays with aptamer as the molecular recognition element. Single wall carbon nanotubes micro-arrays biosensors were manufactured using photo-lithography, metal deposition, and etching techniques. Nanotube biosensors were functionalized with 1-Pyrenebutanoic Acid Succinimidyl Ester (PASE) conjugated IL-6 aptamers. Real time response of the sensor conductance was monitored with increasing concentration of IL-6 (1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL), exposure to the sensing surface in buffer solution, and clinically relevant spiked blood samples. Non-specific Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), PBS samples, and anti-IgG functionalized devices gave similar signatures in the real time conductance versus time experiments with no significant change in sensor signal. Exposure of the aptamer functionalized nanotube surface to IL-6 decreased the conductance with increasing concentration of IL-6. Experiments based on field effect transistor arrays suggested shift in drain current versus gate voltage for 1 pg and 1 ng of IL-6 exposure. Non-specific BSA did not produce any appreciable shift in the Ids versus Vg suggesting specific interactions of IL-6 on PASE conjugated aptamer surface gave rise to the change in electrical signal. Both Z axis and phase image in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) suggested unambiguous molecular interaction of the IL-6 on the nanotube-aptamer surface at 1 pg/mL concentration. The concentration of 1 pg falls below the diagnostic gray zone for cancer (2.3 pg-4 ng/mL), which is an indicator of early stage cancer. Thus, nanotube micro-arrays could potentially be developed for creating multiplexed assays involving cancer biomarker proteins and possibly circulating tumor cells all in a single assay using PASE functionalization protocol.
      PubDate: 2017-04-17
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7020017
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 18: Erratum: Irvine, G.W.; Tan, S.N.; Stillman,
           M.J. A Simple Metallothionein-Based Biosensor for Enhanced Detection of
           Arsenic and Mercury. Biosensors 2017, 7, 14

    • Authors: Biosensors Editorial Office
      First page: 18
      Abstract: n/a
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7020018
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 19: A Label-Free, Quantitative Fecal Hemoglobin
           Detection Platform for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    • Authors: Gita Soraya, Thanh Nguyen, Chathurika Abeyrathne, Duc Huynh, Jianxiong Chan, Phuong Nguyen, Babak Nasr, Gursharan Chana, Patrick Kwan, Efstratios Skafidas
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The early detection of colorectal cancer is vital for disease management and patient survival. Fecal hemoglobin detection is a widely-adopted method for screening and early diagnosis. Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) is favored over the older generation chemical based Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) as it does not require dietary or drug restrictions, and is specific to human blood from the lower digestive tract. To date, no quantitative FIT platforms are available for use in the point-of-care setting. Here, we report proof of principle data of a novel low cost quantitative fecal immunochemical-based biosensor platform that may be further developed into a point-of-care test in low-resource settings. The label-free prototype has a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 10 µg hemoglobin per gram (Hb/g) of feces, comparable to that of conventional laboratory based quantitative FIT diagnostic systems.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7020019
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 20: Raman Spectroscopy of Head and Neck Cancer:
           Separation of Malignant and Healthy Tissue Using Signatures Outside the
           “Fingerprint” Region

    • Authors: Stephen Holler, Elaina Mansley, Christopher Mazzeo, Michael Donovan, Maximiliano Sobrero, Brett Miles
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The ability to rapidly and accurately discriminate between healthy and malignant tissue offers surgeons a tool for in vivo analysis that would potentially reduce operating time, facilitate quicker recovery, and improve patient outcomes. To this end, we investigate discrimination between diseased tissue and adjacent healthy controls from patients with head and neck cancer using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Our results indicate previously unreported peaks in the Raman spectra that lie outside the conventional “fingerprint” region (400 cm-1–1800 cm -1) played an important role in our analysis and in discriminating between the tissue classes. Preliminary multivariate statistical analyses of the Raman spectra indicate that discrimination between diseased and healthy tissue is possible based on these peaks.
      PubDate: 2017-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7020020
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 21: An Enzyme-Induced Novel Biosensor for the
           Sensitive Electrochemical Determination of Isoniazid

    • Authors: Rajasekhar Chokkareddy, Natesh Bhajanthri, Gan Redhi
      First page: 21
      Abstract: In this present work, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified primarily with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and a composite of MWCNTs and titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs). The enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized to enhance the sensing ability of GCE. The proposed biosensor was used for the sensitive determination of isoniazid (INZ) in various pharmaceutical samples. The electrochemical behaviour of the developed MWCNT-TiO2NPs-HRP-GCE biosensor was studied by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) techniques. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to characterize the developed sensor. Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) with pH 7 was used as supporting electrolyte in the present investigation. The cyclic voltammetric results revealed that the increment of anodic peak currents for the enzyme-induced sensor was almost 8-fold greater than that of a bare GCE. The DPV technique exhibited good limit of detection and limit of quantification values, viz., 0.0335 μM and 0.1118 μM, respectively. Moreover, the developed sensor showed long-lasting stability and repeatability without any interferents. This strongly indicates that the fabricated sensor shows outstanding electrochemical performance towards INZ, with excellent selectivity and sensitivity. The developed sensor was successfully applied to pharmaceutical samples and gave good percentages of recoveries.
      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7020021
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 22: A Multi-Wavelength Opto-Electronic Patch
           Sensor to Effectively Detect Physiological Changes against Human Skin
           Types

    • Authors: Liangwen Yan, Sijung Hu, Abdullah Alzahrani, Samah Alharbi, Panagiotis Blanos
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Different skin pigments among various ethnic group people have an impact on spectrometric illumination on skin surface. To effectively capture photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals, a multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS) together with a schematic architecture of electronics were developed to overcome the drawback of present PPG sensor. To perform a better in vivo physiological measurement against skin pigments, optimal illuminations in OEPS, whose wavelength is compatible with a specific skin type, were optimized to capture a reliable physiological sign of heart rate (HR). A protocol was designed to investigate an impact of five skin types in compliance with Von Luschan’s chromatic scale. Thirty-three healthy male subjects between the ages of 18 and 41 were involved in the protocol implemented by means of the OEPS system. The results show that there is no significant difference (p: 0.09, F = 3.0) in five group tests with the skin types across various activities throughout a series of consistent measurements. The outcome of the present study demonstrates that the OEPS, with its multi-wavelength illumination characteristics, could open a path in multiple applications of different ethnic groups with cost-effective health monitoring.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7020022
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 23: Towards a Uniform Metrological Assessment of
           Grating-Based Optical Fiber Sensors: From Refractometers to Biosensors

    • Authors: Francesco Chiavaioli, Carlos Gouveia, Pedro Jorge, Francesco Baldini
      First page: 23
      Abstract: A metrological assessment of grating-based optical fiber sensors is proposed with the aim of providing an objective evaluation of the performance of this sensor category. Attention was focused on the most common parameters, used to describe the performance of both optical refractometers and biosensors, which encompassed sensitivity, with a distinction between volume or bulk sensitivity and surface sensitivity, resolution, response time, limit of detection, specificity (or selectivity), reusability (or regenerability) and some other parameters of generic interest, such as measurement uncertainty, accuracy, precision, stability, drift, repeatability and reproducibility. Clearly, the concepts discussed here can also be applied to any resonance-based sensor, thus providing the basis for an easier and direct performance comparison of a great number of sensors published in the literature up to now. In addition, common mistakes present in the literature made for the evaluation of sensor performance are highlighted, and lastly a uniform performance assessment is discussed and provided. Finally, some design strategies will be proposed to develop a grating-based optical fiber sensing scheme with improved performance.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7020023
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 2: Design and Development of Non-Contact
           Bio-Potential Electrodes for Pervasive Health Monitoring Applications

    • Authors: Anthony Portelli, Slawomir Nasuto
      First page: 2
      Abstract: For the advent of pervasive bio-potential monitoring, it will be necessary to utilize a combination of cheap, quick to apply, low-noise electrodes and compact electronics with wireless technologies. Once available, all electrical activity resulting from the processes of the human body could be actively and constantly monitored without the need for cumbersome application and maintenance. This could significantly improve the early diagnosis of a range of different conditions in high-risk individuals, opening the possibility for new treatments and interventions as conditions develop. This paper presents the design and implementation of compact, non-contact capacitive bio-potential electrodes utilising a low impedance current-to-voltage configuration and a bootstrapped voltage follower, demonstrating results applicable to research applications for capacitive electrocardiography and capacitive electromyography. The presented electrodes use few components, have a small surface area and are capable of acquiring a range of bio-potential signals.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010002
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 3: A Strategy to Establish a Quality
           Assurance/Quality Control Plan for the Application of Biosensors for the
           Detection of E. coli in Water

    • Authors: Nikou Hesari, Nursel Kıratlı Yılmazçoban, Mohamad Elzein, Absar Alum, Morteza Abbaszadegan
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Rapid bacterial detection using biosensors is a novel approach for microbiological testing applications. Validation of such methods is an obstacle in the adoption of new bio-sensing technologies for water testing. Therefore, establishing a quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) plan is essential to demonstrate accuracy and reliability of the biosensor method for the detection of E. coli in drinking water samples. In this study, different reagents and assay conditions including temperatures, holding time, E. coli strains and concentrations, dissolving agents, salinity and pH effects, quality of substrates of various suppliers of 4-methylumbelliferyl glucuronide (MUG), and environmental water samples were included in the QA/QC plan and used in the assay optimization and documentation. Furthermore, the procedural QA/QC for the monitoring of drinking water samples was established to validate the performance of the biosensor platform for the detection of E. coli using a culture-based standard technique. Implementing the developed QA/QC plan, the same level of precision and accuracy was achieved using both the standard and the biosensor methods. The established procedural QA/QC for the biosensor will provide a reliable tool for a near real-time monitoring of E. coli in drinking water samples to both industry and regulatory authorities.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010003
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 4: Alternating Current-Dielectrophoresis
           Collection and Chaining of Phytoplankton on Chip: Comparison of Individual
           Species and Artificial Communities

    • Authors: Coralie Siebman, Orlin Velev, Vera Slaveykova
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The capability of alternating current (AC) dielectrophoresis (DEP) for on-chip capture and chaining of the three species representative of freshwater phytoplankton was evaluated. The effects of the AC field intensity, frequency and duration on the chaining efficiency and chain lengths of green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. and diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana were characterized systematically. C. reinhardtii showed an increase of the chaining efficiency from 100 Hz to 500 kHz at all field intensities; C. meneghiniana presented a decrease of chaining efficiency from 100 Hz to 1 kHz followed by a significant increase from 1 kHz to 500 kHz, while Synechocystis sp. exhibited low chaining tendency at all frequencies and all field intensities. The experimentally-determined DEP response and cell alignment of each microorganism were in agreement with their effective polarizability. Mixtures of cells in equal proportion or 10-times excess of Synechocystis sp. showed important differences in terms of chaining efficiency and length of the chains compared with the results obtained when the cells were alone in suspension. While a constant degree of chaining was observed with the mixture of C. reinhardtii and C. meneghiniana, the presence of Synechocystis sp. in each mixture suppressed the formation of chains for the two other phytoplankton species. All of these results prove the potential of DEP to discriminate different phytoplankton species depending on their effective polarizability and to enable their manipulation, such as specific collection or separation in freshwater.
      PubDate: 2017-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010004
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 5: Aptamer Sensors

    • Authors: Giovanna Marrazza
      First page: 5
      Abstract: In the last years, great progress has been accomplished in the development of aptamer sensors with different transducers. In order to improve the sensitivity of these biosensors, several methodologies have been employed. In this Special Issue, the state of art and the future trends in the field of aptamer sensors have been explored.
      PubDate: 2017-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010005
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 6: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Biosensors in
           2016

    • Authors: Biosensors Editorial Office
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The editors of Biosensors would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...]
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010006
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 7: Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering-Based
           Immunoassay Technologies for Detection of Disease Biomarkers

    • Authors: Joseph Smolsky, Sukhwinder Kaur, Chihiro Hayashi, Surinder Batra, Alexey Krasnoslobodtsev
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Detection of biomarkers is of vital importance in disease detection, management, and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the development of novel diagnostic methods that detect and quantify biomarkers with higher sensitivity and reliability, contributing to better disease diagnosis and prognosis. When it comes to such devastating diseases as cancer, these novel powerful methods allow for disease staging as well as detection of cancer at very early stages. Over the past decade, there have been some advances in the development of platforms for biomarker detection of diseases. The main focus has recently shifted to the development of simple and reliable diagnostic tests that are inexpensive, accurate, and can follow a patient’s disease progression and therapy response. The individualized approach in biomarker detection has been also emphasized with detection of multiple biomarkers in body fluids such as blood and urine. This review article covers the developments in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and related technologies with the primary focus on immunoassays. Limitations and advantages of the SERS-based immunoassay platform are discussed. The article thoroughly describes all components of the SERS immunoassay and highlights the superior capabilities of SERS readout strategy such as high sensitivity and simultaneous detection of a multitude of biomarkers. Finally, it introduces recently developed strategies for in vivo biomarker detection using SERS.
      PubDate: 2017-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010007
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 8: Composite Hydrogels with Engineered
           Microdomains for Optical Glucose Sensing at Low Oxygen Conditions

    • Authors: Lindsey Bornhoeft, Aniket Biswas, Michael McShane
      First page: 8
      Abstract: There is a growing need for advanced tools that enable frequent monitoring of biomarkers for precision medicine. In this work, we present a composite hydrogel-based system providing real-time optical bioanalyte monitoring. The responsive material, alginate-in-alginate (AnA), is comprised of an alginate hydrogel with embedded bioactive, nanofilm-coated phosphorescent microdomains; palladium tetracarboxyphenylporphyrin serves as an optical indicator, glucose oxidase as a model enzyme, and layer-by-layer deposited polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) as the diffusion barrier. Glutaraldehyde crosslinking of the nanofilms resulted in a dramatic reduction in glucose diffusion (179%) while oxygen transport was not significantly affected. The responses of the AnA hydrogels to step changes of glucose at both ambient and physiological oxygen levels were evaluated, revealing controlled tuning of sensitivity and dynamic range. Stability, assessed by alternately exposing the responsive AnA hydrogels to extremely high and zero glucose concentrations, resulted in no significant difference in the response over 20 cycles. These AnA hydrogels represent an attractive approach to biosensing based on biocompatible materials that may be used as minimally-invasive, implantable devices capable of optical interrogation. The model glucose-responsive composite material studied in this work will serve as a template that can be translated for sensing additional analytes (e.g., lactate, urea, pyruvate, cholesterol) and can be used for monitoring other chronic conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-01-22
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010008
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 9: Carbon Nanotubes as an Effective Opportunity
           for Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    • Authors: Alessandro Sanginario, Beatrice Miccoli, Danilo Demarchi
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Despite the current progresses of modern medicine, the resistance of malignant tumors to present medical treatments points to the necessity of developing new therapeutic approaches. In recent years, numerous studies have focused their attention on the promising use of nanomaterials, like iron oxide nanowires, zinc oxide or mesoporous silica nanoparticles, for cancer and metastasis treatment with the advantage of operating directly at the bio-molecular scale. Among them, carbon nanotubes emerged as valid candidates not only for drug delivery, but also as a valuable tool in cancer imaging and physical ablation. Nevertheless, deep investigations about carbon nanotubes’ potential bio-compatibility and cytotoxicity limits should be also critically addressed. In the present review, after introducing carbon nanotubes and their promising advantages and drawbacks for fighting cancer, we want to focus on the numerous and different ways in which they can assist to reach this goal. Specifically, we report on how they can be used not only for drug delivery purposes, but also as a powerful ally to develop effective contrast agents for tumors’ medical or photodynamic imaging, to perform direct physical ablation of metastasis, as well as gene therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-02-15
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010009
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 10: A Single-Use, In Vitro Biosensor for the
           Detection of T-Tau Protein, A Biomarker of Neuro-Degenerative Disorders,
           in PBS and Human Serum Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV)

    • Authors: Yifan Dai, Alireza Molazemhosseini, Chung Liu
      First page: 10
      Abstract: A single-use, in vitro biosensor for the detection of T-Tau protein in phosphate-buffer saline (PBS) and undiluted human serum was designed, manufactured, and tested. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) served as the transduction mechanism. This biosensor consisted of three electrodes: working, counter, and reference electrodes fabricated on a PET sheet. Both working and counter electrodes were thin gold film, 10 nm in thickness. Laser ablation technique was used to define the size and structure of the biosensor. The biosensor was produced using cost-effective roll-to-roll process. Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were employed to covalently immobilize the anti-T-Tau (T-Tau antibody) on the gold working electrode. A carbodiimide conjugation approach using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N’-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N–hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linked anti-T-Tau to the carboxylic groups on one end of the MPA. A T-Tau protein ladder with six isoforms was used in this study. The anti-T-Tau concentration used was 500,000 pg/mL. The T-Tau protein concentration ranged from 1000 pg/mL to 100,000 pg/mL. DPV measurements showed excellent responses, with a good calibration curve. Thus, a practical tool for simple detection of T-Tau protein, a biomarker of neuro-degenerative disorders, has been successfully developed. This tool could also be extended to detect other biomarkers for neuro-degenerative disorders, such as P-Tau protein and β-amyloid 42.
      PubDate: 2017-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010010
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 11: State-of-the-Art Methods for Skeletal Muscle
           Glycogen Analysis in Athletes—The Need for Novel Non-Invasive Techniques
           

    • Authors: Jacob Greene, Julien Louis, Olga Korostynska, Alex Mason
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Muscle glycogen levels have a profound impact on an athlete’s sporting performance, thus measurement is vital. Carbohydrate manipulation is a fundamental component in an athlete’s lifestyle and is a critical part of elite performance, since it can provide necessary training adaptations. This paper provides a critical review of the current invasive and non-invasive methods for measuring skeletal muscle glycogen levels. These include the gold standard muscle biopsy, histochemical analysis, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and musculoskeletal high frequency ultrasound, as well as pursuing future application of electromagnetic sensors in the pursuit of portable non-invasive quantification of muscle glycogen. This paper will be of interest to researchers who wish to understand the current and most appropriate techniques in measuring skeletal muscle glycogen. This will have applications both in the lab and in the field by improving the accuracy of research protocols and following the physiological adaptations to exercise.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010011
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 12: High Bacterial Agglutination Activity in a
           Single-CRD C-Type Lectin from Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    • Authors: Leila Gasmi, Juan Ferré, Salvador Herrero
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Lectins are carbohydrate-interacting proteins that play a pivotal role in multiple physiological and developmental aspects of all organisms. They can specifically interact with different bacterial and viral pathogens through carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). In addition, lectins are also of biotechnological interest because of their potential use as biosensors for capturing and identifying bacterial species. In this work, three C-type lectins from the Lepidoptera Spodoptera exigua were produced as recombinant proteins and their bacterial agglutination properties were characterized. The lowest protein concentration producing bacterial agglutination against a panel of different Gram+ and Gram− as well as their carbohydrate binding specificities was determined for the three lectins. One of these lectins, BLL2, was able to agglutinate cells from a broad range of bacterial species at an extremely low concentration, becoming a very interesting protein to be used as a biosensor or for other biotechnological applications involving bacterial capture.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010012
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 13: A Urea Potentiometric Biosensor Based on a
           Thiophene Copolymer

    • Authors: Cheng-Yuan Lai, Peter Foot, John Brown, Peter Spearman
      First page: 13
      Abstract: A potentiometric enzyme biosensor is a convenient detector for quantification of urea concentrations in industrial processes, or for monitoring patients with diabetes, kidney damage or liver malfunction. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-thiopheneacetic acid) (P(3HT-co-3TAA)) was chemically synthesized, characterized and spin-coated onto conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrodes. Urease (Urs) was covalently attached to the smooth surface of this copolymer via carbodiimide coupling. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the modified Urs/P(3HT-co-3TAA)/ITO glass electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and the bound enzyme activity was confirmed by spectrophotometry. Potentiometric response studies indicated that this electrode could determine the concentration of urea in aqueous solutions, with a quasi-Nernstian response up to about 5 mM. No attempt was made to optimize the response speed; full equilibration occurred after 10 min, but the half-time for response was typically <1 min.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010013
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biosensors, Vol. 7, Pages 14: A Simple Metallothionein-Based Biosensor for
           Enhanced Detection of Arsenic and Mercury

    • Authors: Gordon Irvine, Swee Tan, Martin Stillman
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of cysteine-rich proteins whose biological roles include the regulation of essential metal ions and protection against the harmful effects of toxic metals. Due to its high affinity for many toxic, soft metals, recombinant human MT isoform 1a was incorporated into an electrochemical-based biosensor for the detection of As3+ and Hg2+. A simple design was chosen to maximize its potential in environmental monitoring and MT was physically adsorbed onto paper discs placed on screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs). This system was tested with concentrations of arsenic and mercury typical of contaminated water sources ranging from 5 to 1000 ppb. The analytical performance of the MT-adsorbed paper discs on SPCEs demonstrated a greater than three-fold signal enhancement and a lower detection limit compared to blank SPCEs, 13 ppb for As3+ and 45 ppb for Hg2+. While not being as low as some of the recommended drinking water limits, the sensitivity of the simple MT-biosensor would be potentially useful in monitoring of areas of concern with a known contamination problem. This paper describes the ability of the metal binding protein metallothionein to enhance the effectiveness of a simple, low-cost electrochemical sensor.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13
      DOI: 10.3390/bios7010014
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 1 (2017)
       
 
 
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