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CHEMISTRY (590 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal of Applied Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Argentine Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Catalyst & Catalysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Catalysts     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Chemical Health Risks     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemical Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemical Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Cheminformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Chemometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chromatography A     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Journal of Clinical Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Computational Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Coordination Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Flow Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Fluorescence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Fluorine Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Great Lakes Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Immunoassay and Immunochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Materials Chemistry A : Materials for Energy and Sustainability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Materials Chemistry B : Materials for Biology and Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Materials Chemistry C : Materials for Optical, Magnetic and Electronic Devices     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Materials Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Mathematical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 116)
Journal of Membrane and Separation Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Membrane Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Modern Chemistry & Chemical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Molecular Liquids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Recognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Molecular Structure     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nanoparticles     Open Access  
Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Nepal Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Nuclear Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Nucleic Acids Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Ocean University of China (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymer & Composites     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Journal of Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Research Updates in Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Saudi Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of Solid State Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Solution Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Structural Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Sulfur Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Superhard Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Surfactants and Detergents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Taibah University for Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American Chemical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 260)
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Bangladesh Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Theoretical Chemistry     Open Access  
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
JPC - Journal of Planar Chromatography - Modern TLC     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Jurnal Penelitian Sains (JPS)     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Informasi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Karbala International Journal of Modern Science     Open Access  
Kinetics and Catalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Korea-Australia Rheology Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Langmuir     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover   Photochemistry and Photobiology
  [SJR: 0.764]   [H-I: 96]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0031-8655 - ISSN (Online) 1751-1097
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Acute Effects of Light on Alternative Splicing in Light‐Grown Plants
    • Abstract: Light modulates plant growth and development to a great extent by regulating gene expression programs. Here we evaluated the effect of light on alternative splicing (AS) in light‐grown Arabidopsis thaliana plants using high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA‐seq). We found that an acute light pulse given in the middle of the night, a treatment that simulates photoperiod lengthening, affected AS events corresponding to 382 genes. Some of these AS events were associated with genes involved in primary metabolism and stress responses, which may help to adjust metabolic and physiological responses to seasonal changes. We also found that several core clock genes showed changes in AS in response to the light treatment, suggesting that light regulation of AS may play a role in clock entrainment. Finally, we found that many light‐regulated AS events were associated with genes encoding RNA processing proteins and splicing factors, supporting the idea that light regulates this post‐transcriptional regulatory layer through AS regulation of splicing factors. Interestingly, the effect of a red‐light pulse on AS of a gene encoding a splicing factor was not impaired in a quintuple phytochrome mutant, providing unequivocal evidence that non‐photosensory photoreceptors control AS in light‐grown plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17T10:02:01.981945-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12550
  • Comparing Handheld Meters and Electronic Dosimeters for Measuring UV
           Levels Under Shade and In The Sun
    • Authors: Suzanne Dobbinson; Philippa Niven, David Buller, Martin Allen, Peter Gies, Charles Warne
      Abstract: This study aimed to compare the validity, reliability and practicality of alternative portable methods for measuring erythemal UVR levels in passive recreation areas in public parks. UVR levels were measured for point in time comparisons between Solarmeter 6.5 handheld meters and time‐stamped electronic dosimeters in a large central park in Melbourne, Australia. Observations were made at 20 locations in the park by two research assistants under two conditions 1) matched shade 2) contrasting shade ‐ no shade. Comparisons were also made with scientific instruments on the UVR monitoring station rooftop and by remotely selecting UV records and forecasts on cloud‐free dates of park observations. There was good agreement between the portable UVR instruments in the park setting as confirmed via Bland Altman plots, while the dosimeter appeared less sensitive to change in shade conditions. The rooftop measurements showed the Solarmeter 6.5 UVR readings were comparable to those of the adjacent rooftop instruments. The practicalities of using the dosimeters and Solarmeters for behavioural studies are discussed. These findings provide a basis for use of the Solarmeter 6.5 to measure changes in UVR levels due to different environmental conditions with relative accuracy for intervention studies in outdoor settings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-11-17T08:47:07.64025-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12551
  • Phloroglucinol Reduces Photodamage in Hairless Mice via Matrix
           Metalloproteinase Activity Through MAPK Pathway
    • Abstract: We investigated the photoprotective activity of phloroglucinol on ultraviolet B (UVB)‐induced deleterious effects in hairless mice in vivo. To assess the photoprotective effect of phloroglucinol, phloroglucinol‐treated HR‐1 hairless male mice were exposed to UVB‐irradiation. The inhibitory activity of phloroglucinol on wrinkle formation was determined by analysis of skin replicas, epidermal thickness based on histological examination, and collagen damage. Matrix metalloproteinase‐1 (MMP‐1), matrix metalloproteinase‐9 (MMP‐9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) mRNA levels were measured by real‐time PCR. UVB induced transcription of pro‐inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin‐1 beta (IL‐1β, IL‐6), and IL‐8 (IL‐8). The protective effects of phloroglucinol on UVB‐induced skin photoaging were examined by measuring protein levels of MMPs and mitogen‐activated protein (MAP) kinases. The results of these experiments suggest that phloroglucinol has a significant beneficial effect on the barrier function of the skin. In hairless mice, signs of photoaging and photodamage, including coarse wrinkle formation, epidermal thickness, and elastic fiber degeneration, were reduced in severity by phloroglucinol application. The phloroglucinol‐treated group showed remarkably decreased mRNA levels of MMP‐1, MMP‐9, and inflammatory cytokines in comparison with those of the UVB‐induced group. Topical treatment with phloroglucinol attenuated phosphorylation of MAP kinases, including ERK, JNK, and p38. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-11-05T03:43:59.711672-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12549
  • Integration of Cyanine, Merocyanine and Styryl Dye Motifs with Synthetic
    • Authors: Eunkyung Yang; Nuonuo Zhang, Michael Krayer, Masahiko Taniguchi, James R. Diers, Christine Kirmaier, Jonathan S. Lindsey, David F. Bocian, Dewey Holten
      Abstract: Understanding the effects of substituents on spectral properties is essential for the rational design of tailored bacteriochlorins for light‐harvesting and other applications. Towards this goal, three new bacteriochlorins containing previously unexplored conjugating substituents have been prepared and characterized. The conjugating substituents include two positively charged species, 2‐(N‐ethyl 2‐quinolinium)vinyl‐ (B‐1) and 2‐(N‐ethyl 4‐pyridinium)vinyl‐ (B‐2), and a neutral group, acroleinyl‐ (B‐3); the charged species resemble cyanine (or styryl) dye motifs whereas the neutral unit resembles a merocyanine dye motif. The three bacteriochlorins are examined by static and time‐resolved absorption and emission spectroscopy and density functional theoretical calculations. B‐1 and B‐2 have Qy absorption bathochromically shifted well into the NIR region (822 and 852 nm), farther than B‐3 (793 nm) and other 3,13‐disubstituted bacteriochlorins studied previously. B‐1 and B‐2 have broad Qy absorption and fluorescence features with large peak separation (Stokes shift), low fluorescence yields, and shortened S1 (Qy) excited‐state lifetimes (~700 ps and ~100 ps). More typical spectra and S1 lifetime (~2.3 ns) are found for B‐3. The combined photophysical and molecular‐orbital characteristics suggest the altered spectra and enhanced nonradiative S1 decay of B‐1 and B‐2 derive from excited‐state configurations in which electron density is shifted between the macrocycle and the substituents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-27T09:43:49.745786-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12547
  • Interaction of Methanol Spray and Water Deficit Stress on Photosynthesis
           and Biochemical Characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Sadry
    • Authors: Nezam Armand; Hamzeh Amiri, Ahmad Ismaili
      Abstract: This study was a factorial experiment with a completely randomized design and three replications. The four levels of methanol spraying were used. Spraying was carried out three times during the growing season at 10 d intervals beginning at 4 wk after sowing. The spraying of solution continued until saturation of droplets on the leaves was achieved. The levels of water deficit stress applied were non‐stress, moderate water stress and severe water stress. The results showed there was a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the methanol and water deficit stress treatments for chlorophyll a (Chl a) and b (Chl b), carotenoid, total chlorophyll (Total Chl), net‐photosynthesis (PN), intercellular CO2 (Ci), maximal quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv/Fm), leaf moisture (LM), water use efficiency (WUE) and water relative content (RWC). The application of foliar methanol at all levels of water deficit stress significantly decreased the catalase activity (CAT) of the roots. Under all levels of water deficit stress, the 30% (v/v) methanol treatment significantly decreased peroxidase activity (POX) in the roots over that for the control. The results suggest that foliar application of methanol can decrease the negative effects of water deficit stress on Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Sadry. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-26T21:10:00.181454-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12548
  • In Situ Photo Sonosynthesis of Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites on Wool
           Fabric Introducing Multifunctional Properties
    • Authors: Amir Behzadnia; Majid Montazer, Mahnaz Mahmoudi Rad
      Abstract: Here, a novel and efficient process is introduced for producing wool fabric with multi‐functional features through facile in situ photo sonochemical synthesis of organic/inorganic nanocomposites. The fabric was treated with titanium isopropoxide, silver nitrate and ammonia in a sonobath for 1 h at 75‐80 °C. The crystal phase of the sonotreated samples were characterized by X‐ray diffraction. The uniform distribution of the nanocomposite on the fiber surface was proved by field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X‐ray and mapping patterns. Further, the composition of the nanocomposites was investigated by X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sonotreated wool fabrics illustrated excellent photocatalytic activities toward discoloration of Methylene Blue under sunlight and UV‐A irradiation. Also the fabrics indicated reasonable antibacterial/antifungal activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The tensile properties of the sonotreated fabrics enhanced comparing to the untreated and even conventional stirrer treated fabrics. Moreover, a central composite design based on response surface methodology was used to study the influence of titanium isopropoxide and silver molar ratio on the prepared nanocomposites sonobath. Finally, the optimum molar ratio was reported for the best responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-23T23:06:16.86686-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12546
  • Melanopsin and the Non‐visual Photochemistry in the Inner Retina of
    • Abstract: Melanopsin (Opn4), a member of the G protein‐coupled receptor family, is a vitamin A‐based opsin in the vertebrate retina that has been shown to be involved in the synchronization of circadian rhythms, pupillary light reflexes, melatonin suppression and other light‐regulated tasks. In non‐mammalian vertebrates there are two Opn4 genes, Opn4m and Opn4x, the mammalian and Xenopus orthologs, respectively. Opn4x is only expressed in non‐mammalian vertebrates including reptiles, fish and birds, while Opn4m is found in a subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the intrinsically photosensitive (ip) RGCs of the inner retina of both mammals and non‐mammalian vertebrates. All opsins described utilize retinaldehyde as chromophore, photoisomerized from 11‐cis‐ to all‐trans‐retinal upon light exposure. Visual retinal photoreceptor cones and rods, responsible for day and night vision respectively, recycle retinoids through a process called the visual cycle that involves the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or glial Müller cells. Although Opn4 has been characterized as a bistable photopigment, little is known about the mechanism/s involved in its chromophore regeneration. In this review, we will attempt to shed light on the visual cycle taking place in the inner retina and discuss the state of the art in the non‐visual photochemistry of vertebrates. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-23T23:05:58.227623-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12545
  • Assessment of Fatty Acid Profile and Seed Mineral Nutrients of Two Soybean
           (Glycine max L.) Cultivars Under Elevated Ultraviolet‐B: Role of
           ROS, Pigments and Antioxidants
    • Authors: Krishna Kumar Choudhary; Shashi Bhushan Agrawal
      Abstract: Current scenarios under global climate change envisage a considerable increase in ultraviolet B (UV‐B) radiation in near future which may affect the productivity and yield quality of major agricultural crops. Present investigation was conducted to examine various defence strategies adopted against elevated UV‐B (ambient + 7.2 kJ m−2 day−1) and their impact on seed nutrients, content and quality of oil including fatty acid profile of two soybean cultivars (JS‐335 and PS‐1042). Elevated UV‐B (eUV‐B) exposure leads towards higher unsaturation of fatty acids and changes in other oil quality parameters (acid, iodine and saponification value) indicated that eUV‐B favoured the synthesis of long chain fatty acids with fewer carboxylic acid groups, making the oil rancid, with undesirable flavour and low nutritional value. The effect was more severe in JS‐335 as compared to PS‐1042. Negative effects were also seen on nutrients of soybean seeds. Adverse effects resulted due to insufficient quenching of ROS (superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide) by the defence system and thus unable to overcome the imposed oxidative stress. Credit of better performance by PS‐1042 against eUV‐B may be given to the adoption of efficient defence strategies like higher wax deposition, increase of lignin and flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol) contents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-22T03:07:15.99399-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12544
  • Novel In Vitro Antioxidant and Photoprotection Capacity of Plants from
           High Altitude Ecosystems of Colombia
    • Abstract: Currently, plants have gained widespread interest as a source of natural sunscreen. In specific, plants from high altitude ecosystems are exposed to high UVR levels; therefore, they must produce an adaptive chemical response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photo‐protection and antioxidant capacity in vitro of nine plants from high altitude ecosystems in Antioquia, Colombia (S. meridense, C. effusa, L. alopecuroides, M. parvifolia, B. antioquensis, P. pulchella, C. fissifolia, H. ferruginea and H. juniperinum). B. antioquensis and P. pulchella extracts showed the best results over a broad spectrum UVA‐UVB with antioxidant capacity in vitro. However, B. antioquensis extracts presented the highest absorption coefficient in UVB‐UVA range among plants under study. Furthermore, the gel formulation containing the crude extract of B. antioquensis showed significant values of UVAPF, UVA/UVB ratio, critical wavelength (λc) and SPF (3, 0.78 380 nm and 4.73±0.26; respectively), indicating interesting photostability and antiradical capacities. All of these properties could be improve in order to satisfy the requirements for broad‐spectrum UVB/UVA protection. Finally, P. pulchella and B. antioquensis extracts could be a potential source of a new natural sunscreen compounds with photostable and antiradical properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-20T04:39:07.600229-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12543
  • Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the
           Outdoor Environments – Possible Implications for Pupils’
    • Abstract: More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2nd, 5th and 8th graders’ erythemal UV‐exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor environments differing in amount of shade, vegetation, and peripheral city‐scape quantified as percentage of free sky view calculated from fish‐eye photographs. Exposures correlated to the sky views (with exceptions in May) and were suberythemal. The exposures were also below the threshold limit of the International Commission on Non‐Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for hazard evaluation of UVR but were potentially enough for adequate vitamin D formation according to a cited model calculation ‐ as illustrated in the results and discussed. The school environments, typical in southern and middle Sweden, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils’ outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR‐protective environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-20T04:22:34.915624-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12540
  • Photobiological Origins of the Field of Genomic Maintenance
    • Authors: Ann Ganesan; Philip Hanawalt
      Abstract: Although sunlight is essential for life on earth, the ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths in its spectrum constitute a major threat to life. Various cellular responses have evolved to deal with the damage inflicted in DNA by UV, and the study of these responses in model systems has spawned the burgeoning field of DNA repair. Although we now know of many types of deleterious alterations in DNA, the approaches for studying them and the early mechanistic insights have come in large part from pioneering research on the processing of UV‐induced bipyrimidine photoproducts in bacteria. It is also notable that UV was one of the first DNA damaging agents for which exposure was directly linked to cancer; the sun‐sensitive syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, was the first example of a cancer‐prone hereditary disease involving a defect in DNA repair. We provide a short history of advances in the broad field of genomic maintenance as they have emerged from research in photochemistry and photobiology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-20T04:22:12.253053-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12542
  • Estimating Sun Exposure of Children in Day Care Nurseries in South
           Oxfordshire, UK
    • Authors: Katarzyna A. Baczynska; Luke L. A. Price, Michael P. Higlett, John B. O'Hagan
      Abstract: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation and sunburn during childhood and adolescence is linked to increased risks of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma later in life. Infants and toddlers are thought to be unusually vulnerable to UVR because of lower levels of melanin, a thinner stratum corneum and a higher surface area/body mass ratio. The aim of this study was to assess variations in available erythema effective radiant doses to young children in day care nurseries in South Oxfordshire, UK over seven years between 2008 and 2014. The data were analysed in three distinct seasons according to a series of realistic exposure scenarios taking into account nursery routines. The results indicate the time of year when high doses are to be expected and provide strong support for arguments in favour of raising public awareness of sun protection earlier in the year. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-09T08:27:22.085901-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12536
  • Oxidative Modification in Human Hair: The Effect of the Levels of Cu (II)
           Ions, UV Exposure, and Hair Pigmentation
    • Authors: Anita J. Grosvenor; Jennifer Marsh, Ancy Thomas, James A. Vernon, Duane P. Harland, Stefan Clerens, Jolon M. Dyer
      Abstract: Protein oxidative degradation is implicated in a wide range of deleterious effects. For human hair, this oxidative damage can lead to significant observable changes in fibre physical and visual properties. A redox proteomic approach was applied to map molecular modification in human hair proteins and correlate this modification with the abundance of copper (II) ions, the levels of UV exposure and the general level of hair pigmentation. An increase in oxidative modification was observed with increasing copper (II) ion levels, regardless of the pigmentation level. Significantly, increased protein oxidative modification was also observed to occur in both lightly and darkly pigmented hair tresses even in the absence of irradiation, albeit at lower relative levels. Modification levels increased with increased copper (II) ion concentration. This new finding indicates that the level of copper (II) ions in human hair plays a key role in mediating protein oxidation, with or without exposure to UV light. Overall, these results strongly suggest that minimization of the level of copper (II) ions in human hair will mitigate and/or slow protein oxidative modification and therefore lower overall hair damage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-09T07:26:21.360202-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12537
  • Fluorinated PDT Device Tips and Their Resistance to Fouling for
           In‐Vivo Sensitizer Release
    • Authors: Ashwini A. Ghogare; Joann M. Miller, Bikash Mondal, Alan M. Lyons, Keith A. Cengel, Theresa M. Busch, Alexander Greer
      Abstract: We describe progress on a one‐step PDT technique that is simple: device tip delivery of sensitizer, oxygen and light simultaneously. Control is essential for their delivery to target sites to generate singlet oxygen. One potential problem is the silica device tip may suffer from biomaterial fouling and the pace of sensitizer photorelease is slowed. Here, we have used biomaterial (e.g., proteins, cells, etc.) from SQ20B head and neck tumors and whole blood for an assessment of fouling of the silica tips by adsorption. It was shown that by exchanging the native silica tip for a fluorinated tip, a better non‐stick property led to an increased sensitizer output by ~10%. The fluorinated tip gave a sigmoidal photorelease where singlet oxygen is stabilized to physical quenching, whereas the native silica tip with unprotected SiO–H groups gave a slower (pseudolinear) photorelease. A further benefit from fluorinated silica is that 15% less biomaterial adheres to its surface compared to native silica based on a bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) and X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. We discuss how the fluorination of the device tip increases biofouling resistance and can contribute to a new pointsource PDT tool. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-09T07:24:44.125979-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12538
  • Sensitivity of UV Erythemal Radiation to Total Ozone Changes Under
           Different Sky Conditions: Results for Granada, Spain
    • Abstract: This paper focuses on the analysis of the sensitivity of UV erythemal radiation (UVER) to variations of the total ozone column (TOC) under different sky conditions at Granada (southeastern Spain). The sensitivity is studied both in relative terms by means of the Radiation Amplification Factor (RAF) and in absolute terms using the Ozone Efficiency (OE). These two variables are determined for diverse sky conditions characterized by the cloud cover information given by a sky camera (in oktas) and the cloud optical depth (COD) estimated from global solar radiation measurements. As expected, in absolute terms, the TOC variations cause substantially smaller UVER changes during completely overcast situations than during cloud‐free cases. For instance, the OE (SZA=30º, TOC=290 DU) decreases from 0.68 mW/m2 per unit of TOC (0 oktas) to 0.50 mW/m2 per unit of TOC (8 oktas). However, the opposite is observed when the analysis is performed in relative terms. Thus, the RAF (determined for SZA cases below 80º) increases from 1.1 for cloud‐free cases (0 oktas) to 1.4 for completely overcast situations (8 oktas). This opposite behavior is also found when both RAF and OE are analyzed as functions of COD. Thus, while the OE strongly decreases with increasing COD, the RAF increases as COD increases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-09T06:51:22.79858-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12539
  • Emerging Hubs in Plant Light and Temperature Signaling
    • Abstract: Due to their nature as sessile organisms, plants must accurately sense their surroundings and then translate this information into efficient acclimation responses in order to maximize development. Light and temperature are two major stimuli that provide immediate cues regarding energy availability, daylength, proximity of other species and seasonal changes. Both cues are sensed by complex systems and the integration of these signals is of very high value to properly respond to environmental changes without being disguised by random changes. For instance, a cold day has a different significance if it occurs during the illuminated phase of the day or during the night, or when days are shortening during the fall instead of a long‐day in spring. Here we summarize recent advances in the nature of signaling components that operate as connectors of light and temperature signaling, with emphasis on the emerging hubs. Despite the nature of the thermosensors is still in its infancy compared to an important body of knowledge about plant sensory photoreceptors, the interaction of both types of signaling will not only bring clues of how plants integrate environmental information, but also will help in leading research in the nature of the thermosensors themselves. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-06T00:39:19.439008-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12535
  • UV‐induced DNA Damage: The Role of Electronic Excited States
    • Authors: Dimitra Markovitsi
      Abstract: The knowledge of the fundamental processes induced by the direct absorption of UV radiation by DNA allows extrapolating conclusions drawn from in vitro studies to the in‐vivo DNA photo‐reactivity. In this respect, the characterization of the DNA electronic excited states plays a key role. For a long time, the mechanisms of DNA lesion formation were discussed in terms of generic “singlet” and “triplet” excited state reactivity. However, since the beginning of the 21st century, both experimental and theoretical studies revealed the existence of “collective” excited states, i.e. excited states delocalized over at least two bases. Two limiting cases are distinguished: Frenkel excitons (delocalized ππ* states) and charge transfer states in which positive and negative charges are located on different bases. The importance of collective excited states in photon absorption (in particular in the UVA spectral domain), the redistribution of the excitation energy within DNA, and the formation of dimeric pyrimidine photoproducts is discussed. The dependence of the behavior of the collective excited states on conformational motions of the nucleic acids is highlighted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-05T09:59:23.323033-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12533
  • Choline Chloride Assisted Synthesis of N and Metal Co‐doped TiO2 and
           Their Photocatalytic Activity Under Visible Light
    • Authors: Navneet Kaur; Satwant Kaur, Vasundhara Singh
      Abstract: A few nanocrystalline N,metal co‐doped TiO2 (metal= Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) have been synthesized by a simple sol‐gel method using choline chloride which is biodegradable, low cost, non‐toxic ionic salt both as a structure directing agent and source of nitrogen. The prepared samples were well characterized by XRD, HRTEM, FTIR, DRS, EDX, XPS and BET techniques. The photocatalytic activity of all synthesized N,metal co‐doped TiO2 has been carried out for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye under visible light irradiation and among them, N,Fe co‐doped TiO2 was found to be the best for the degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye. The effect of incorporated metals on the photocatalytic activity of the various modified TiO2 has been discussed in detail based on the mechanism involved in the degradation of dye and their physico‐chemical properties which includes surface area, particle size, defect sites, phase, band gap and electron‐hole recombination effect. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-05T09:59:03.561958-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12532
  • Charge separation and Catalytic activity of Fe3O4@Ag
    • Abstract: Nanospheres of Ag–coated Fe3O4 were successfully synthesized and characterized. Photocatalytic properties of Fe3O4@Ag composites have been investigated using steady state studies and laser pulse excitations. Accumulation of the electrons in the Ag shell was detected from the shift in the surface plasmon band from 430 to 405 nm, which was discharged when an electron acceptor such as O2, Thionine (TH), or C60 was introduced into the system. Charge equilibration with redox couple such as C60●–/C60 indicated the ability of these core–shell structures to carry out photocatalytic reduction reactions. As well, outer Ag layer could boost charge separation in magnetic core through dual effects of Schottky junction and localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR)–powered band gap breaking effect under sunlight irradiation; resulted in higher photocatalytic degradation of diphenylamine (DPA). The maximum photocatalytic degradation rate was achieved at optimum amount of Ag–NP loading to products. Adsorption studies confirmed that degradation of DPA dominantly occurred in solution. Moderately renewability of the nanocatalysts under sunlight was due to oxidation and dissolution of the outer Ag layer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-10-05T09:58:21.827045-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12534
  • Photosynthetic Performance of the Red Alga Pyropia haitanensis During
           Emersion, With Special Reference to Effects of Solar UV Radiation,
           Dehydration and Elevated CO2 Concentration
    • Authors: Juntian Xu; Kunshan Gao
      Abstract: Macroalgae distributed in intertidal zones experience a series of environmental changes, such as periodical desiccation associated with tidal cycles, increasing CO2 concentration and solar UVB (280‐315nm) irradiance in the context of climate change. We investigated how the economic red macroalga, Pyropia haitanensis, perform its photosynthesis under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and in the presence of solar UV radiation (280‐400nm) during emersion. Our results showed that elevated CO2 (800ppmv) significantly increased photosynthetic carbon fixation rate of P. haitanensis, by about 100% when the alga was dehydrated. Solar UV radiation had insignificant effects on the net photosynthesis without desiccation stress and under low levels of sunlight, but significantly inhibited it with increased levels of desiccation and sunlight intensity, to the highest extent at the highest levels of water loss and solar radiation. Presence of UV radiation and the elevated CO2 acted synergistically to cause higher inhibition of the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which exacerbated at higher levels of desiccation and sunlight. While P. haitanensis can benefit from increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration during emersion under low and moderate levels of solar radiation, combined effects of elevated CO2 and UV radiation acted synergistically to reduce its photosynthesis under high solar radiation levels during noon periods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-09-19T01:08:34.151985-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12531
  • Maximum Incident Erythemally Effective UV Exposure Received by
           Construction Workers, in Valencia, Spain
    • Abstract: This article analyzes the influence of Ultraviolet Erythematic Radiation (UVER) dose received by construction workers in Valencia highlighting the upper limit of the dose received for a worker in different periods of a year. Building construction usually implies workers to stand for several hours outdoors while working until roof top is finished. In Valencia, construction carried out near the coastline has been very intense in the last few years with the construction of a great amount of summer flats. This article focuses on the maximum values UVER can reach in different seasons of the year for cities with similar latitude to Valencia (39°28'N, 0°22'W), as an important way of warning construction workers about the necessity of taking preventive actions. Viospor dosimeters placed on a mannequin have been used in this study. The measurements took place between 2012 December and 2013 July. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T03:05:58.347687-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12530
  • Preparation of SnO2–TiO2/Fly Ash Cenospheres and its Application in
           Phenol Degradation
    • Authors: Shaomin Liu; Jinglin Zhu, Qing Yang, Pengpeng Xu, Jianhua Ge, Xuetao Guo
      Abstract: SnO2–TiO2/fly ash cenospheres (FAC) were prepared via hydrothermal method and used as an active photocatalyst in a photocatalytic system. Scanning electron microscopy, X‐ray diffraction analysis, UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and N2 adsorption–desorption measurements were used to determine the structure and optical property of SnO2–TiO2/FAC. Phenol was selected as the model substance for photocatalytic reactions to evaluate catalytic ability. Results showed that the degradation efficiency of phenol by SnO2–TiO2/FAC was 90.7% higher than that decomposed by TiO2/FAC. Increased efficiency could be due to the enhanced synergistic effect of semiconductors and FAC could provide more adsorption sites for the pollutant in the photocatalytic reaction. Furthermore, SnO2–TiO2/FAC composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic stability in four reuse cycles. Radical‐trapping experiments further revealed the dominating functions of holes in the photocatalytic reaction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-09-05T10:30:08.724086-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12529
  • Amino Acid–Porphyrin Conjugates: Synthesis and Study of their
           Photophysical and Metal Ion Recognition Properties
    • Authors: Albish K. Paul; Suneesh C. Karunakaran, Joshy Joseph, Danaboyina Ramaiah
      Abstract: Synthesis, photophysical and metal ion recognition properties of a series of amino acid linked free‐base and Zn‐porphyrin derivatives (5‐9) are reported. These porphyrin derivatives showed favourable photophysical properties including high molar extinction coefficients (>1 × 105 M‐1cm‐1 for the Soret band), quantum yields of triplet excited states (63%‐94%) and singlet oxygen generation efficiencies (59%‐91%). Particularly, the Zn‐porphyrin derivatives, 6 and 9 showed higher molar extinction coefficients, decreased fluorescence quantum yields and higher triplet and singlet oxygen quantum yields compared to the corresponding free base porphyrin derivatives. Further, the study of their interactions with various metal ions indicated that the proline conjugated Zn‐porphyrins (6 and 9) showed high selectivity towards Cu2+ ions and signaled the recognition through changes in fluorescence intensity. Our results provide insights on the role of nature of amino acid and metallation in the design of the porphyrin systems for application as probes and sensitizers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-09-03T06:27:36.910881-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12527
  • Protective Effect of Dermal Brimonidine Applications Against UV
           Radiation‐induced Skin Tumors, Epidermal Hyperplasia and Cell
           Proliferation in the Skin of Hairless Mice
    • Abstract: Brimonidine at 0.18%, 1% and 2% concentrations applied topically in hairless mice significantly decreased tumor burden and incidences of erythema, flaking, wrinkling and skin thickening induced by UVR. The unbiased median week to tumor ≥1 mm was increased by the 1% and 2% concentrations. The tumor yield was reduced by all concentrations at week 40 for all tumor sizes but the ≥4 mm tumors with the 0.18% concentration. At week 52 the tumor yield was reduced for all tumor sizes and all brimonidine concentrations. The tumor incidence was reduced by all concentrations at week 40 for all tumor sizes but the ≥4 mm tumor with the 0.18% concentration and at week 52 for all tumor sizes with the 1% and 2% concentrations and with the 0.18% concentration only for the ≥4 mm tumors. Reductions in ≥4 mm tumor incidences compared to the vehicle control group were 54%, 91% and 86% by week 52 for the 0.18%, 1% and 2% concentrations, respectively. Brimonidine at 2% applied 1 hour before or just after UVB irradiation on hairless mice decreased epidermal hyperplasia by 23% and 32% and epithelial cell proliferation by 59% and 64%, respectively, similarly to an EGFR inhibitor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-09-03T06:14:26.158164-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12528
  • In Vivo Spectrum of UVC‐induced Mutation in Mouse Skin Epidermis May
           Reflect the Cytosine Deamination Propensity of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine
    • Authors: Hironobu Ikehata; Toshio Mori, Masayuki Yamamoto
      Abstract: Although UVR has a genotoxicity for inducing skin cancers, the skin may tolerate UVC component because the epidermal layer prevents this short wavelength range from passing through. Here, UVC genotoxicity for mouse skin was evaluated in terms of DNA damage formation and mutagenicity. UVC induced UVR photolesions and mutations remarkably in the epidermis but poorly in the dermis, confirming the barrier ability of the epidermis against shorter UVR wavelengths. Moreover, the epidermis itself responded to UVC mutagenicity with mutation induction suppression, which suppressed the mutant frequencies to a remarkably low, constant level regardless of UVC dose. The mutation spectrum observed in UVC‐exposed epidermis showed a predominance of UV‐signature mutation, which occurred frequently in 5′‐TCG‐3′, 5′‐TCA‐3′ and 5′‐CCA‐3′ contexts. Especially, for the former two contexts, the mutations recurred at several sites with more remarkable recurrences at the 5′‐TCG‐3′ sites. Comparison of the UVC mutation spectrum with those observed in longer UVR wavelength ranges led us to a mechanism that explains why the sequence context preference of UV‐signature mutation changes according to the wavelength, which is based on the difference in the mCpG preference of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation among UVR ranges and the sequence context‐dependent cytosine deamination propensity of CPD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-09-03T02:42:01.419273-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12525
  • Pulsed Laser Driven Molecular Self‐assembly of Cephalexin:
           Aggregation Induced Fluorescence and its Utility as a Mercury Ion Sensor
    • Authors: Pradeep Kumar Singh; Asmita Prabhune, Satishchandra Ogale
      Abstract: A fluorescent self‐assembly of cephalexin is obtained by pulsed laser irradiation process. An intense fluorescence emission is found in the self‐assembled form due to occurrence of a typical aggregation‐induced emission in cephalexin molecules. It is observed that fluorescence quenching of the self‐assembled fluorescent nanostructures occurs in the presence of extremely low Hg++ ions concentrations (10‐7 m) as compared to other heavy metal ions e.g. Ferrous (Fe++), Manganese (Mn++), Magnesium (Mg++), Cobalt (Co++), Nickel (Ni++), and Zinc (Zn++) at the same concentrations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-09-03T02:41:10.469703-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12526
  • Early Diagnosis of Diabetes Through The Eye
    • Authors: Devi Kalyan Karumanchi; Elizabeth R. Gaillard, James Dillon
      Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels which give rise to complications in the eye, kidneys and the brain. Diabetes triggers the development of ocular diseases like diabetic retinopathy and cataracts which are the leading cause of blindness around the world. The most common method for the diagnosis of diabetes involves measuring the blood sugar levels in the body. One major disadvantage of this method is the fluctuating blood sugar levels which contribute to false negative results. This leads to delay in treatment, eventually causing permanent damage to the organs. Therefore, diagnosis of diabetes at an early stage is very crucial. One biomarker for diabetes related diseases is the formation of Advanced Glycation End‐products (AGEs) that result from the Maillard reaction of proteins with glucose. α‐crystallin in the ocular lens is a small heat shock protein with no protein turnover and hence acts as a record for post‐translational modifications especially glycation which forms AGEs. We have used steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements to study the spectroscopic changes in α‐crystallin with increase in time of glycation and the intact lenses from diabetic and non‐diabetic donors. Overall, this study was focused on developing a non‐invasive diagnostic tool for early detection of diabetes mellitus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-27T09:37:05.150788-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12524
  • More Than Just Light: Clinical Relevance of Light Perception in the
           Nosocomial Pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii and Other Members of the Genus
    • Abstract: A summary of the major findings concerning light modulation in Acinetobacter baumannii, which governs aspects related to the success of this microorganism as a nosocomial pathogen, is presented. Particularly, the evidence shows that light modulates the ability of the bacteria to persist in the environment, its virulence against eukaryotic hosts and even susceptibility to certain antibiotics. The light signal is sensed through different mechanisms, in some cases involving specialized photoreceptors of the BLUF‐type, while in others, directly by a photosensitizer molecule. We also provide new data concerning the genomic context of BLUF‐domain containing proteins within the genus Acinetobacter, as well as further insights into the mechanism of light‐mediated reduction of susceptibility to antibiotics. The overall information points towards light being a crucial stimulus in the lifestyle of members of the genus Acinetobacter as well as in other clinically‐relevant species, such as members of the ESKAPE group, playing therefore an important role in the clinical settings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:21:14.833256-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12523
  • Epigenetically Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy (ePDT) is Superior to
           Conventional Photodynamic Therapy for Inducing Apoptosis in Cutaneous
           T‐Cell Lymphoma
    • Authors: Katrin Agnes Salva; Gary S. Wood
      Abstract: Conventional photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinate (ALA‐PDT) selectively induces apoptosis in diseased cells and is highly effective for treating actinic keratoses. However, similar results are achieved only in a subset of patients with cutaneous T‐cell lymphoma (CTCL). Our previous work shows that the apoptotic resistance of CTCL correlates with low expression of death receptors like FAS, and that methotrexate upregulates FAS by inhibiting the methylation of its promoter, acting as an epigenetic derepressor that restores the susceptibility of FAS‐low CTCL to caspase 8‐mediated apoptosis. Here, we demonstrate that methotrexate increases the response of CTCL to ALA‐PDT, a concept we refer to as epigenetically enhanced PDT (ePDT). Multiple CTCL cell lines were subjected to conventional PDT versus ePDT. Apoptotic biomarkers were analyzed in situ with multispectral imaging analysis of immunostained cells, a method that is quantitative and 5x more sensitive than standard immunohistology for antigen detection. Compared to conventional PDT or methotrexate alone, ePDT led to significantly greater cell death in all CTCL cell lines tested by inducing greater activation of caspase 8‐mediated extrinsic apoptosis. Upregulation of FAS and/or TRAIL pathway components was observed in different CTCL cell lines. These findings provide a rationale for clinical trials of ePDT for CTCL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:08:49.732602-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12521
  • Caffeic Acid Inhibits UVB‐induced Inflammation and
           Photocarcinogenesis Through Activation of Peroxisome
           Proliferator‐activated Receptor‐γ in Mouse Skin
    • Authors: Agilan Balupillai; N. Rajendra Prasad, Karthikeyan Ramasamy, Ganesan Muthusamy, Mohana Shanmugham, Kanimozhi Govindasamy, Srithar Gunaseelan
      Abstract: In this study, the effect of caffeic acid (CA) on both acute and chronic UVB‐irradiation induced inflammation and photocarcinogenesis was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Animals were exposed to 180 mJ/cm2 of UVB once daily for 10 consecutive days and thrice weekly for 30 weeks for acute and chronic study, respectively. UVB exposure for 10 consecutive days showed edema formation, increased lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant status with activation of inflammatory molecules such as TNF‐α, IL‐6, COX‐2 and NF‐κB. Whereas, CA (15 mg/kg.b.wt.) administration before each UVB exposure decreased lipid peroxidation, inflammatory markers expression and enhanced antioxidant status probably through the activation of peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptors (PPARγ) in the mice's skin. PPARγ is considered to be a potential target for photochemoprevention because it inhibits UVB mediated inflammatory responses. In this study, UVB exposure for 30 weeks caused squamous cell carcinoma and upregulation of iNOS, VEGF, TGF‐β and down‐regulation of p53 and tumor incidence in the mice's skin. Both topical (CAT) and intraperitoneal (CAIP) treatment before each UVB exposure downregulates iNOS, VEGF, TGF‐β, upregulates p53 and reduces tumors multiplicity in the mice's skin. Thus, CA offers protection against UVB‐induced photocarcinogenesis probably through activation of anti‐inflammatory transcription factor PPARγ in the mice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T02:07:36.352906-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12522
  • Effect of LED Blue Light on Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum
    • Abstract: Studies on the antimicrobial properties of light have considerably increased due in part to the development of resistance to actual control methods. This study investigates the potential of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) blue light for controlling Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum. These fungi are the most devastating postharvest pathogens of citrus fruit and cause important losses due to contaminations and to the development of resistant strains against fungicides. The effect of different periods and quantum fluxes and of delaying light application on the growth and morphology of P. digitatum strains resistant and sensitive to fungicides and of P. italicum cultured at 20 °C was examined. Results showed that blue light controls the growth of all strains and that its efficacy increases with the quantum flux. Spore germination was always avoided by exposing the cultures to high quantum flux (700 μmolm−2s−1) for 18 h. Continuous light had an important impact on the fungus morphology and a fungicidal effect when applied at a lower quantum flux (120 μmolm−2s−1) to a growing fungus. Sensitivity to light increased with mycelium age. Results show that blue light may be a tool for P. digitatum and P. italicum infection prevention during handling of citrus fruits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19T10:14:23.424436-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12519
  • Photodynamic Diagnosis Using 5‐Aminolevulinic Acid in 41 Biopsies
           for Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma
    • Authors: Tetsuya Yamamoto; Eiichi Ishikawa, Shunichiro Miki, Noriaki Sakamoto, Alexander Zaboronok, Masahide Matsuda, Hiroyoshi Akutsu, Kei Nakai, Wataro Tsuruta, Akira Matsumura
      Abstract: We evaluated the feasibility of 5‐aminolevulinic acid (5‐ALA)‐mediated photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) in the biopsy for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). 5‐ALA (20 mg/kg) was administered orally 4 hours preoperatively. Forty‐one biopsies obtained under PDD in 47 consecutive biopsies (46 patients) that were finally pathologically diagnosed as PCNSL were evaluated. Positive fluorescence was observed in 34 of those 41 biopsies (82.9%). An intraoperative pathological diagnosis (IOD) of suspected PCNSL was made in 21 of the biopsies with positive fluorescence (61.8%). However, the 8 IODs in the remaining 13 biopsies (23.5%) were not correct (atypical cell, 4; high‐grade glioma, 1; gliosis, 1; unremarkable, 2). In those 8 biopsies, PCNSL was confirmed by the final pathological diagnosis. There was no difference in the mean Mib‐1 labeling index between the biopsies with positive fluorescence (86.5%) and those without (90.0%). IOD was not performed in 6 biopsies; however, 5 of those biopsies (83.3%) showed positive fluorescence and were finally pathologically diagnosed as PCNSL. Use of PDD in biopsies for patients with suspected PCNSL is a reliable way of obtaining specimens of adequate quality for the final pathological diagnosis and may lead to improved diagnostic yield in the biopsy of PCNSL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-16T04:43:56.708032-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12510
  • Thermal Effects and Structural Changes of Photosynthetic Reaction Centers
           Characterized by Wide Frequency Band Hydrophone: Effects of Carotenoids
           and Terbutryn
    • Abstract: Photothermal characteristics and light‐induced structural (volume) changes of carotenoid‐containing and non‐containing photosynthetic reaction centers were investigated by wide frequency band hydrophone. We found that the presence of carotenoid either does not play considerable role in the light‐induced conformational movements, or these rearrangements are too slow for inducing a photoacoustic (PA) signal. The kinetic component with a few tens of microseconds, exhibited by the carotenoid‐less reaction centers, appears to be similar to that of triplet state lifetimes, identified by other methods. The binding of terbutryn to the acceptor side is shown to affect the dynamics of the reaction center (RC). Our results do not confirm large displacements or volume changes induced by the charge movements and by the charge relaxation processes in the RCs in few hundreds of microseconds time scale that accompanies the electron transfer between the primary and secondary electron acceptor quinones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-16T04:43:33.512902-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12511
  • Rethinking the Concepts of Fluence (UV Dose) and Fluence Rate: The
           Importance of Photon‐based Units – A Systemic Review
    • Abstract: After a critical review of the fundamental equations describing photobiological and photochemical processes occurring in a medium exposed to a quasi‐collimated monochromatic UV light beam, the analysis in this review is extended to analogous processes driven by polychromatic UV light, such as that emitted by medium pressure mercury‐vapor arc lamps. The analysis is based on the Second Law of Photochemistry, namely that all photochemical events must be independent, and the rate of such events must be proportional to the rate of photon absorption. A consistent application of the Second Law of Photochemistry leads to a concept change; hence it is proposed herein to use photon fluence and photon fluence rate, rather than fluence (UV dose) and fluence rate, respectively, in the analysis and interpretation of photobiological and photochemical processes. As a consequence, many equations that have been used in the past must be revised, and some experimental information (e.g., action spectra) needs to be re‐analyzed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-16T04:43:08.689098-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12512
  • Synergistic Photobactericidal Activity Based on Ultraviolet‐A
           Irradiation and Ferulic Acid Derivatives
    • Authors: Akihiro Shirai; Masato Kajiura, Takeshi Omasa
      Abstract: Ultraviolet‐A (UV‐A)‐mediated bactericidal activity was enhanced by combined treatment with trans‐ferulic acid (trans‐FA, compound 1) or its derivatives. Derivative compounds 4 and 10 contain a phenyl group or an L‐tyrosine HCl tert‐butyl ester, respectively, linked to the carboxyl group of trans‐FA. Of the three compounds, 10 exhibited the highest synergistic activity in a photobactericidal assay based on treating Escherichia coli with a derivative compound and UV‐A irradiation (wavelength 350‐385 nm). Inactivation of viable cells at a 4.9 J/cm2 UV‐A fluence increased from 1.90 to 5.19 logs in the presence of 10 (100 μM); a 4.95‐log inactivation was achieved with 10 (5 μM) and a 7.4 J/cm2 UV‐A fluence. Addition of antioxidants significantly suppressed photosynergistic bactericidal activity, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the combined bactericidal mechanism. Flow cytometry revealed that combined treatment with UV‐A and compound 10, which showed the highest photobactericidal activity, generates an excess of oxidative radicals in bacterial cells. The bactericidal activity of compound 10 may be due to electrostatic interaction between the molecule's cationic moiety and the cell surface, followed by amplification of ROS generation in the cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-13T02:29:52.175033-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12507
  • Selective Activation of C=C Bond in Sustainable Phenolic Compounds from
           Lignin via Photooxidation: Experiment and DFT Calculations
    • Authors: Morgan Zielinski (Goldberg); Luke A. Burke, Alexander Samokhvalov
      Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass can be converted to high‐value phenolic compounds: food additives, antioxidants, fragrances, and fine chemicals. We investigated photochemical and heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of two isomeric phenolic compounds from lignin, isoeugenol and eugenol, in several non‐protic solvents, for the first time by experiment and the DFT calculations. Photooxidation was conducted under ambient conditions using air, near‐UV light, and commercial P25 TiO2 photocatalyst, and the products were determined by TLC, UV‐Vis absorption spectroscopy, HPLC‐UV, and HPLC‐MS. Photochemical and photocatalytic oxidation of isoeugenol proceeds via the mild oxidative “dimerization” to produce the lignan dehydrodiisoeugenol (DHDIE), while photooxidation of eugenol does not proceed. The DFT calculations suggest a radical step‐wise mechanism for the oxidative “dimerization” of isoeugenol to DHDIE as was calculated for the first time. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-13T02:29:28.239614-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12509
  • Photochemistry and Photobiology of the Spore Photoproduct: A Fifty Year
    • Authors: Peter Setlow; Lei Li
      Abstract: Fifty years ago, a new thymine dimer was discovered as the dominant DNA photolesion in UV irradiated bacterial spores [Donnellan, J. & Setlow R. (1965) Science, 149, 308‐310], which was later named the spore photoproduct (SP). Formation of SP is due to the unique environment in the spore core that features low hydration levels favoring an A‐DNA conformation, high levels of calcium dipicolinate that acts as a photosensitizer, and DNA saturation with small, acid‐soluble proteins that alters DNA structure and reduces side reactions. In vitro studies reveal that any of these factors alone can promote SP formation; however, SP formation is usually accompanied by the production of other DNA photolesions. Therefore, the nearly exclusive SP formation in spores is due to the combined effects of these three factors. SP photoreaction is proved to occur via a unique H‐atom transfer mechanism between the two involved thymine residues. Successful incorporation of SP into an oligonucleotide has been achieved via organic synthesis, which enables structural studies that reveal minor conformational changes in the SP‐containing DNA. Here, we review the progress on SP photochemistry and photobiology in the past fifty years, which indicates a very rich SP photobiology that may exist beyond endospores. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-12T03:23:10.995057-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12506
  • Baicalin Protects Keratinocytes From Toll‐Like Receptor‐4
           Mediated DNA Damage and Inflammation Following Ultraviolet Irradiation
    • Authors: Wei Min; Israr Ahmad, Michelle E. Chang, Erin M. Burns, Qihong Qian, Nabiha Yusuf
      Abstract: UVB radiation contributes to both direct and indirect damage to the skin including the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory responses, immunosuppression, and gene mutations, which can ultimately lead to photocarcinogenesis. A plant‐derived flavonoid, baicalin, has been shown to have antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and free radical scavenging activities. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that in murine skin, Toll like receptor‐4 (TLR4) enhanced both UVB‐induced DNA damage and inflammation. The aim of the current study is to investigate the efficacy of baicalin against TLR4‐mediated processes in the murine keratinocyte PAM 212 cell line. Our results demonstrate that treating keratinocytes with baicalin both before and after UV radiation (100 mJ/cm2) significantly inhibited the level of intracellular ROS and decreased cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 8‐Oxo‐2′‐deoxyguanosine (8‐oxo‐dG)—markers of DNA damage. Furthermore, cells treated with baicalin demonstrated an inhibition of TLR4 and its downstream signaling molecules, MyD88, TRIF, TRAF6, and IRAK4. TLR4 pathway inhibition resulted in NF‐κB inactivation and down‐regulation of iNOS and COX‐2 protein expression. Taken together, baicalin treatment effectively protected keratinocytes from UVB‐induced inflammatory damage through TLR pathway modulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-10T02:42:37.508711-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12505
  • Photoisomerization of Trans Ortho‐, Meta‐, Para‐ Nitro
           Diarylbutadienes: A Case of Regioselectivity
    • Authors: Harsha Agnihotri; Paramasivam Mahalingavelar, Veerabhadraiah Palakollu, Sriram Kanvah
      Abstract: A series of ortho, meta and para substituted trans‐nitro aryl (phenyl and pyridyl) butadienes have been synthesized and characterized. The effect of substitution and positional selectivity on their fluorescence and photoisomerization were systematically investigated. Among all dienes, meta‐ and para‐nitro phenyl substituted derivatives exhibit remarkable solvatochromic emission shifts due to intramolecular charge transfer. On the other hand, ortho derivatives undergo regioselective isomerisation upon photoexcitation in contrast to inefficient isomerization of para and meta nitro substituted dienes. Single crystal X‐ray analysis revealed existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the nitro group and the hydrogen of the proximal double bond. This restricts the rotation of the proximal double bond thereby allowing regioselective isomerization. The observations were also supported by NMR spectroscopic studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06T12:08:50.589709-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12504
  • Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyta) Avoids Cell Death Under
           Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) By Triggering Alternative Photoprotective
    • Abstract: The effect of different ultraviolet radiation (UVR) treatments combining PAR (P), UVA (A), and UVB (B) on the molecular physiology of Dunaliella tertiolecta was studied during 6 days to assess the response to chronic UVR exposure. UVR reduced cell growth but did not cause cell death, as shown by the absence of SYTOX Green labelling and cellular morphology. However, caspase‐like enzymatic activities (CLs), (cell death proteases), were active even though the cells were not dying. Maximal quantum yield of fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) dropped. Decreased non‐photochemical quenching (NPQ) paralleled a drop in xanthophyll cycle de‐epoxidation under UVB. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and D1 protein accumulation were inversely correlated. PAB exhibited elevated ROS production at earlier times. Once ROS decayed, D1 protein recovered 2‐fold compared with P and PA at later stages. Therefore PsbA gene was still transcribed, suggesting ROS involvement in D1 recovery by its direct effect on mRNA‐translation. We add evidence of an UVB‐induced positive effect on the cells when P is present, providing photoprotection and resilience, by means of D1 repair. This allowed cells to survive. The photoprotective mechanisms described here (which are counterintuitive in principle) conform to an important ecophysiological response regarding light stress acclimation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T03:39:30.730181-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12502
  • Noninvasive Optical Imaging of UV‐Induced Squamous Cell Carcinoma in
           Murine Skin: Studies of Early Tumor Development and Vitamin D Enhancement
           of Protoporphyrin IX Production
    • Authors: Kishore R. Rollakanti; Sanjay Anand, Scott C. Davis, Brian W. Pogue, Edward V. Maytin
      Abstract: Better noninvasive techniques are needed to monitor protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) levels before and during photodynamic therapy (PDT) of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Our aim was to evaluate: (1) multispectral fluorescent imaging of ultraviolet light (UV)‐induced cancer and precancer in a mouse model of SCC; (2) multispectral imaging and probe‐based fluorescence detection as a tool to study Vitamin D (VD) effects on aminolevulinic acid (ALA)‐induced PpIX synthesis. Dorsal skin of hairless mice was imaged weekly during a 24‐week UV carcinogenesis protocol. Hot spots of PpIX fluorescence were detectable by multispectral imaging beginning at 14 weeks of UV exposure. Many hot spots disappeared after cessation of UV at week 20, but others persisted or became visible after week 20, and corresponded to tumors that eventually became visible by eye. In SCC‐bearing mice pretreated with topical VD before ALA application, our optical techniques confirmed that VD preconditioning induces a tumor‐selective increase in PpIX levels. Fluorescence‐based optical imaging of PpIX is a promising tool for detecting early SCC lesions of the skin. Pretreatment with VD can increase the ability to detect early tumors, providing a potential new way to improve efficacy of ALA‐PDT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T03:37:29.773282-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12503
  • Biochemical Characterization of the DASH‐Type Cryptochrome CryD from
           Fusarium fujikuroi
    • Abstract: Proteins from the cryptochrome/photolyase family utilize UV‐A, blue or even red light to achieve such diverse functions as repair of DNA lesions by photolyases and signaling by cryptochromes. DASH‐type cryptochromes retained the ability to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in single‐stranded DNA regions in vitro. However, most organisms possess conventional CPD photolyases responsible for repair of these lesions in vivo. Recent work showed that the DASH‐type cryptochrome CryD plays a regulatory role in diverse light‐dependent processes in Fusarium fujikuroi. Here we report our in vitro studies on heterologously‐expressed FfCryD. The purified protein contains N5,N10‐methenyltetrahydrofolate and flavin adenine dinucleotide as cofactors. Photoreduction and DNA photorepair experiments confirmed that FfCryD is active in light‐driven electron transfer processes. However, the protein showed comparable affinities for CPD‐comprising and undamaged DNA probes. Surprisingly, after purification, full‐length FfCryD as well as a truncated version containing only the PHR domain bound RNA which influenced their behavior in vitro. Moreover, binding of FfCryD to RNA indicates a putative role in RNA metabolism or in posttranscriptional control of gene expression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-07-28T05:16:14.061427-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12501
  • UV Sensitivity of Vegetative and Reproductive Tissues of Two Antarctic
           Brown Algae is Related to Differential Allocation of Phenolic Substances
    • Abstract: UV sensitivity of the vegetative and reproductive tissues of two Antarctic brown macroalgae was compared. Photosynthesis as well as the content and localization of phenolic substances were determined. Responses to UV radiation were quantified as chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm). Ascoseira mirabilis showed high UV tolerance, while in Cystosphaera jaquinotii Fv/Fm decreased by 15‐21%, the receptacles being more tolerant than the vegetative blades. The phlorotannin contents showed an opposite pattern: the soluble fraction dominated in C. jacquinotii while in A. mirabilis the insoluble fraction was more abundant. Soluble phlorotannins were higher in the reproductive than in vegetative tissues in both species. Images of tissue cross‐sections under violet‐blue light excitation confirmed a high allocation of phenolic compounds (as blue autofluorescence) in C. jacquinotii, both in reproductive and vegetative blades. The allocation and proportions of the soluble and insoluble phlorotannins could be related with the observed UV tolerance of the vegetative and reproductive tissues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-07-27T09:37:30.967516-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12500
  • Modulation of Melanogenesis and Antioxidant Status of Melanocytes in
           Response to Phototoxic Action of Doxycycline
    • Abstract: Doxycycline is a commonly used tetracycline antibiotic showing the broad spectrum of antibacterial action. However, the use of this antibiotic is often connected with the risk of phototoxic reactions that lead to various skin disorders. One of the factors influencing the photosensitivity reactions is the melanin content in melanocytes. In this study, the impact of doxycycline and UVA irradiation on cell viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in cultured normal human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn‐DP) was examined. The exposure of cells to doxycycline and UVA radiation resulted in concentration‐dependent loss in melanocytes viability and induced melanin biosynthesis. Significant changes were stated in cellular antioxidant enzymes activity: SOD, CAT and GPx, which indicates alterations of antioxidant defense system. The results obtained in vitro may explain the mechanisms of phototoxic reactions that occur in normal human epidermal melanocytes in vivo after exposure of skin to doxycycline and UVA radiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-07-18T03:56:33.97808-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12497
  • Model for Optimization of the UV‐A/Riboflavin Strengthening
           (Cross‐Linking) of the Cornea: Percolation Threshold
    • Authors: Anton Semchishen; Michael Mrochen, Vladimir Semchishen
      Abstract: To achieve the maximum level of collagen strengthening within the shortest treatment time possible, we have developed a mathematical model which is used to optimize the process of corneal cross‐linking. This model is able to predict the temporal and spatial distribution of generated cross‐links within the corneal stroma and hence the increase of the elasticity modulus. Theory predicts corneal strengthening at low radiation intensities and the absence of the strengthening effect at radiation intensities above the threshold level, which agrees with the experimental results. The model takes account of the initial riboflavin concentration and bleaching, light intensity and time of illumination. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-07-18T03:51:30.880917-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12498
  • Preparation of Silver Carbonate and Its Application as Visible
           Light‐driven Photocatalyst Without Sacrificial Reagent
    • Authors: Wei Jiang; Ya Zeng, Xiaoyan Wang, Xiaoning Yue, Shaojun Yuan, Houfang Lu, Bin Liang
      Abstract: Visible‐light driven photocatalyst is the current research focus and silver oxyacid salts with p block elements are the promising candidates. In this research, Ag2CO3 was prepared by a facile precipitation method and used to degrade the pollutants from waters. The results revealed that the silver carbonate with monoclinic structure quickly decomposed methyl orange and rhodamine B in less than 15 minutes under visible light irradiation. When it was recycled six times, the degradation of methyl orange still can reach 87% after 30 minutes. The calculated band gap of Ag2CO3 was 2.312 eV with Valence band edge potential of 2.685 eV and Conduction band 0.373 eV vs. NHE, which endowed the excellent photo‐oxidation ability of silver carbonate. Photo‐generated holes and ozone anion radicals were the primary active species in the photo‐oxidization degradation of dye. The generation of metallic silver resulted from photo‐corrosion and the consequent reduction of the ozone anion radical amount led to the performance degradation of Ag2CO3. The simple preparation method and high photocatalytic performance of Ag2CO3 increases its prospect of application in future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T03:31:22.656862-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12495
  • The Synthesis and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nano‐Tube Array
           by Starch Modified Anodic Oxidation
    • Authors: Fengjun Zhang; Zijian Liu, Wei Lu, Cong Lyu, Chuan Lyu, Xiansheng Wang
      Abstract: In this study, the characterization and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanotube arrays prepared by anodization process with starch addition were investigated in detail. The results suggested that the optimum mass fraction of starch added in anodization process was 0.1 %, with which TiO2 nanotube arrays owning good tubular structure were synthesized. The tube length and average inner diameter of nanotubes were approximately 4 μm and 30 nm, respectively. Through the characterization of TiO2 nanotube arrays by energy dispersive spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X‐ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, it was found that the as‐prepared nanotubes possessed well uniformed and higher photo‐degradation responsive than the pure TiO2. Moreover, it was expected that the as‐prepared nanotubes exhibited good photocatalytic activity for the degradation of RhB under UV‐light irradiation, which could be ascribed to their good morphology, enhanced UV‐light absorption property and electron transmission ability during the photocatalytic reaction. In addition, the nanotubes was not significantly regenerated during the cycling runs experiment. Overall, this study could provide a principle method to synthesize TiO2 nanotube arrays with enhanced photocatalytic activity by anodization process with starch addition for environmental purification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
      PubDate: 2015-05-23T09:26:45.39142-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12471
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Jean Cadet
      Pages: 1251 - 1251
      PubDate: 2015-11-03T00:19:01.430944-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/php.12541
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