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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 871 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 390)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Psychotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 163)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 196)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 110)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 123)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
E-Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Aggression and Violent Behavior
  [SJR: 1.385]   [H-I: 72]   [390 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1359-1789
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3051 journals]
  • Alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and aggression: The quest for a
           common underlying mechanism
    • Authors: Carlo Garofalo; Aidan G.C. Wright
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Carlo Garofalo, Aidan G.C. Wright
      Alcohol abuse and personality disorders are often comorbid, and their co-occurrence is associated with worse prognostic expectations, poor therapeutic outcomes, as well as deleterious behavioral and interpersonal consequences. The current review aims at untangling the association among alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and aggression. After reviewing the relevant literature on alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and related aggression, we propose that their association could be better understood by acknowledging common underlying mechanisms. Accordingly, we outline different potential avenues that can explain their association. In particular, we focus on impulsivity and emotion dysregulation as possible triggers of alcohol abuse and personality disorders, ultimately leading to self-harm and interpersonal violence. Also, the critical role of contextual influences in exacerbating both subjective and interpersonal dysfunctions is considered. Finally, we argue that emotion dysregulation and impulsivity could serve as useful intervention targets to treat clients with personality disorders and alcohol abuse who engage in aggressive behavior, by tackling these mechanisms underlying their complex pathology. Relevant implications for both clinical and research purposes are also highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T21:13:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • The pursuit of homeostasis: Closing the gap between science and practice
           in the treatment of aggression and violence
    • Authors: Kellie Rhodes; Aisland Rhodes
      Pages: 9 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 34
      Author(s): Kellie Rhodes, Aisland Rhodes
      Youth who demonstrate aggression, violence, and behaviors associated with a diagnosis of conduct disorder have comprised a large population of secure youth corrections for decades. Ameliorative treatment strategies have thus far fallen short. Contemporary neuroscience reveals youths' emotions and behaviors may be limbic adaptations to homeostatic demands. We review interdisciplinary research suggesting a resource-rich environment and strategically shared body-states might be therapeutically implemented to effect adjustments in youth's emotions and behaviors. Thus, a limbically informed treatment modality, invites innovative treatment technology to address youth aggression, violence and behaviors associated with conduct disorder.

      PubDate: 2017-03-28T21:31:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • A systematic review of coping among heterosexual female IPV survivors in
           the United States with a focus on the conceptualization and measurement of
           coping
    • Authors: Cynthia Fraga Rizo; Ashley Givens; Brianna Lombardi
      Pages: 35 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Cynthia Fraga Rizo, Ashley Givens, Brianna Lombardi
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant stressor associated with numerous negative consequences. Many IPV researchers have sought to understand survivors' experiences and to identify malleable factors that can enhance survivor well-being by focusing on survivors' coping efforts. To develop a better understanding of how coping has been conceptualized and measured in the context of U.S.-based research with heterosexual female IPV survivors, we conducted a systematic review of 48 research articles examining IPV and coping among this population. Additionally, the review assesses the state of this literature in terms of methodological strengths and limitations as well as what is known about these survivors' coping efforts. Review findings suggest that coping is a complex construct that has been conceptualized and measured in diverse ways. Findings also demonstrate that heterosexual, female survivors engage in various coping strategies and help-seeking behaviors, and some effort has been made to examine: (a) the relationship between coping and mental health, (b) the relationship between coping and other constructs (e.g., decision to leave an abusive partner, revictimization), and (c) differences in coping across diverse groups of survivors. Recommendations for future research are offered in light of review findings.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 34 (2017)
       
  • Situational prevention of domestic violence: A review of security-based
           programs
    • Authors: Tim Prenzler; Lauren Fardell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Tim Prenzler, Lauren Fardell
      This paper assesses the effectiveness of security-based programs to reduce repeat domestic violence. A systematic search was conducted of the scientific literature, as well as an electronic newspaper database and the Internet, for published reports of domestic violence prevention programs involving security applications. The study was unable to identify cases with full experimental designs showing clear evidence of positive effects. However, five types of applications were identified with promising evidence of reduced violence – Offender GPS tracking, shelter security, home security, personal duress alarms, and combined home security and duress alarms. Within this framework the study identified six specific programs showing evidence of success. An emerging potential model of good practice – which requires further empirical investigation – involves the deployment of home security and mobile duress alarms within a coordinated program of professional support for clients.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T16:30:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.003
       
  • Sexual offenders, violent offenders, and community reentry: Challenges and
           treatment considerations
    • Authors: Laura M. Grossi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Laura M. Grossi
      Sexual offenders and violent offenders compose two diverse subgroups of the United States' offender population, and individuals in these groups face unique challenges with respect to reentry and reintegration into the community upon release from controlled settings. Successful reintegration is typically defined by a lack of recidivism; however, an offender's quality of life may also be considered a critical consideration when defining success. Of the major challenges faced by sexual offenders and violent offenders, social stigma and barriers to housing and employment are among the most notable. These factors are often interrelated, such that difficulty in one domain may contribute to difficulties in other domains. As public perception of such offenders is largely driven by the media, stereotypes, and public policy, and less by research, offenders also face distinctive social barriers to successful community reentry and reintegration. Moreover, there is limited support for established policies and programs intended to maximize a violent/sexual offender's reentry success, in part due to the low base rate of reoffense. The present study reviews the literature examining factors associated with successful and unsuccessful community reintegration for sexual offenders and violent offenders released from controlled settings. Treatment of sexual offenders and violent offenders, and community-based support programs designed to facilitate reentry and reintegration, are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-19T16:30:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.04.005
       
  • From “real rape” to real justice: A systematic review of police
           officers' rape myth beliefs
    • Authors: Kayleigh A. Parratt; Afroditi Pina
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Kayleigh A. Parratt, Afroditi Pina
      This systematic review examined 18 documents that contained information about rape myths/cognitions of police officers with the goal of identifying the factors that influence police officers' beliefs of rape. Past research on sexual offence processing decisions has rarely considered the characteristics of police officers as active participants in the legal decision making process (Alderden & Ullman, 2012); meaning that the factors that directly influence police officers' rape myths and the implications these may have on rape victims' experiences when reporting to the police remain unclear. The current review systematically examines the literature on police officers' rape myth beliefs, and evaluates the current available research regarding, decision-making, victim credibility, police training and experiences, and police gender. It concludes by providing recommendations for policy makers in terms of best practice, continual police training and development and improving rape victims' reporting experiences.

      PubDate: 2017-04-04T18:15:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.005
       
  • Rape myth acceptance in convicted rapists: A systematic review of the
           literature
    • Authors: Larissa Gabrielle Johnson; Anthony Beech
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Larissa Gabrielle Johnson, Anthony Beech
      Aim The review examines studies on rape myth acceptance (RMA) within populations of convicted sexual offenders, changes in RMA due to interventions, comparisons between sexual offenders and community controls, comparisons within the offending population, and relationships between RMA and other psychological constructs linked to criminogenic need. Method The search employed electronic databases, OvidSP, Web of Science, and Proquest; hand searching reference lists; and contacting 35 experts in the field. Inclusion/exclusion and quality appraisal criteria were applied to each study. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Results highlighted differences in subgroups of rapists for different aspects of RMA; while rapists can be distinguished from non-offenders and non-sexual offenders on measures of RMA, they cannot be significantly discriminated from child molesters; rapists and sexual murders cannot be distinguished using RMA scores; RMA was not found to be a significant predictor of sexual or violence recidivism; and significant positive change in RMA was reported after sex offenders completed treatment programs. Conclusions Differences in scores on RMA subscales amongst rapists' typologies were discovered, which may indicate differences in beliefs within each type. Implications for practice are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-03-21T21:13:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.004
       
  • Reducing aggression with martial arts: A meta-analysis of child and youth
           studies
    • Authors: Anna Harwood; Michal Lavidor; Yuri Rassovsky
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Anna Harwood, Michal Lavidor, Yuri Rassovsky
      Martial arts are becoming a mainstream sport for energetic youth and their popularity extends globally. Following a comprehensive search of martial arts research, a critical review of the field and the psychological implications was conducted. The resulting meta-analysis examined the effect of martial arts on problematic externalizing behavior (aggression, anger, and violence). The final meta-analysis included twelve studies, with 507 participants (ages 6 to 18), where study type was a moderator. For nine intervention and longitudinal studies, there was a homogenous effect size of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.11, 1.03) indicating a medium effect, where martial arts improved aggression amongst the practicing youth. The other three one-time comparisons studies did not yield a homogenous effect size. Based on these analyses, it appears that martial arts has a potential to reduce externalizing behaviors in youth, although further research is needed to determine the mechanisms of change and specify the most relevant population groups for targeted interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T07:17:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.03.001
       
  • Police perceptions of rape victims and the impact on case decision making:
           A systematic review
    • Authors: Emma Sleath; Ray Bull
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Emma Sleath, Ray Bull
      Police officers are frequently perceived to hold negative attitudes about rape victims. The aim of this systematic review is to: (1) synthesise the current literature on police officers' attributions of rape victim blame, assessments of rape victim credibility, and rape myth acceptance; and, (2) examine the evidence that holding these attitudes impacts on police investigative decision making in rape cases. Twenty-four articles published between 2000 and 2016 were included following a systematic search of the available literature. The findings highlight that some police officers do hold problematic attitudes about rape victims e.g., blame, rape myth acceptance, although they are frequently noted to be at a low level. Furthermore, characteristics of the victim, e.g., alcohol intoxication and emotional expression, can affect attributions of victim credibility. Assessments of victim credibility were related to police investigative decision making e.g., recommendations to charge the perpetrator, perceptions of guilt. However, the impact of rape victim blaming and rape myth acceptance is less clear. Given that the literature was predominantly vignette-based, it is unclear how these judgements have an impact in real rape investigations.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T00:35:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.02.003
       
  • Gun violence and substance abuse
    • Authors: Gina Banks; Kyla Hadenfeldt; Madeline Janoch; Carol Manning; Karen Ramos; David A. Patterson Silver Wolf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Gina Banks, Kyla Hadenfeldt, Madeline Janoch, Carol Manning, Karen Ramos, David A. Patterson Silver Wolf
      Gun violence and substance abuse are prevalent, widespread public health issues that have recently received a great deal of media and political attention. In order to better understand how these phenomena are linked, this paper aims to explore the relationship between the two. First, it will describe the phenomena of gun violence and substance abuse individually. Next, this paper will detail the intersection of gun violence and substance abuse, including shared antecedents, the effect of intoxication on gun violence, and the effect of criminalization of drug use on gun violence. Finally, it will address treatment and policy recommendations.

      PubDate: 2017-02-17T15:25:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.02.002
       
  • A note on workplace psychopathic bullying – Measuring its frequency
           and severity
    • Authors: Clive Boddy; Ross Taplin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Clive Boddy, Ross Taplin
      In this short paper we discuss methods of measurement for investigating bullying under workplace psychopaths. We find that past estimates of bullying under workplace psychopaths may be too low due to the use of inadequate scales. We conclude that the use of actual numerical values is preferential for measuring psychopathic bullying due to the highly skewed nature of the results. Further, non-numerical measures of the severity of bullying may also need to adopt extreme end point descriptors in order to capture the severe violence of the threats that may be made by a psychopathic manager.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T15:15:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.02.001
       
  • Studying partner violence to understand gender motivations - or
           vice-versa?
    • Authors: Zeev Winstok; Michael Weinberg; Ronit Smadar-Dror
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Zeev Winstok, Michael Weinberg, Ronit Smadar-Dror
      This article critically reviews the literature on gender differences in intimate partner violence. The review reveals that many researchers view partner violence as an opportunity to learn about gender. This approach is examined and its limitations are pointed out. A reverse approach is proposed which views the study of gender as an opportunity to learn about partner violence. This alternative approach identifies gender motives in general and moves on to explore the expressions of these motives in violent and non-violent intimate relationships. Theoretical and practical implications for this alternative approach are suggested. An important implication is the moderating effect of the proposed approach on the ongoing controversy over the role of gender in partner violence.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T10:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.022
       
  • Special Issue on Systematic Reviews in Criminology
    • Authors: Darrick Jolliffe; David P. Farrington
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Darrick Jolliffe, David P. Farrington
      This article introduces the special issue on systematic reviews in criminology. It explains what a systematic review is, and how it is superior to the more usual narrative reviews. It also defines a meta-analysis. This article then summarizes the eight systematic reviews and two reviews of systematic reviews that are published in this special issue, advancing knowledge about epidemiology, risk factors, and the effectiveness of interventions for offending and violence.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T10:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.020
       
  • The unique needs of pregnant, violence-exposed women: A systematic review
           of current interventions and directions for translational research
    • Authors: Kathryn H. Howell; Laura E. Miller-Graff; Amanda J. Hasselle; Kathryn E. Scrafford
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Kathryn H. Howell, Laura E. Miller-Graff, Amanda J. Hasselle, Kathryn E. Scrafford
      Intimate partner violence (IPV) is, unfortunately, a common lifetime experience for women, with heightened risk of exposure during pregnancy. IPV exposure in pregnancy is associated with serious physical and mental health problems in the perinatal period, as well as detrimental effects on the health and well-being of the developing infant. The objectives of the current review are to: (1) present representative literature on the effects of IPV in pregnancy, (2) conduct a systematic review of existing interventions for IPV-exposed pregnant women and (3) provide recommendations for future translational research in this area. The review indicated that despite the broad range of negative effects associated with IPV exposure during pregnancy, interventions are scarce and largely limited to crisis intervention approaches. Available interventions seeking to address broader or intergenerational effects of violence are limited in scope, and effectiveness data are preliminary in nature. As such, there is a great need for theory-based interventions that address women's complex needs, including specific developmental necessities of both the pregnant woman and her child (e.g., breastfeeding, early parenting, infant care). Incorporating these elements within a strengths-based paradigm may also decrease stigma related to IPV and facilitate empowerment and self-efficacy for this at-risk group.

      PubDate: 2017-02-05T10:23:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.021
       
  • Evaluation of seclusion and restraint reduction programs in mental health:
           A systematic review
    • Authors: Marie-Hélène Goulet; Caroline Larue; Alexandre Dumais
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Marie-Hélène Goulet, Caroline Larue, Alexandre Dumais
      Context The effectiveness of seclusion and restraint (SR) reduction programs has not been well established. Objective To examine the effectiveness of SR reduction programs in mental health settings. Data sources A systematic review of English and French articles, using CINALH, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Additional studies were added by searching the references of identified papers. Study selection All evaluative studies on SR reduction programs in mental health were included based on predefined criteria (n =23 articles). Data extraction Data extraction of articles was performed using predefined data fields. The three authors conducted quality assessments independently. Data synthesis In the 23 articles analyzed, six key components were predominant in SR reduction programs: 1) leadership, 2) training, 3) post-seclusion and/or restraint review, 4) patient involvement, 5) prevention tools, and 6) the therapeutic environment. Conclusion Despite wide variability in SR indicators and methodological rigor, it remains that the outcomes argue in favor of SR reduction program implementation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T18:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.019
       
  • Domestic violence offending behaviors: A review of the literature
           examining childhood exposure, implicit theories, trait aggression and
           anger rumination as predictive factors
    • Authors: Anita Ruddle; Afroditi Pina; Eduardo Vasquez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Anita Ruddle, Afroditi Pina, Eduardo Vasquez
      The prevalence of domestic violence (DV) is an increasing public health concern globally. This paper outlines the current literature on what is known about DV proclivity, with particular attention to predictors for DV perpetration from childhood. We begin by reviewing key methodological issues that are inherent within DV literature and hinder the development of interventions and treatments for DV offenders. The main body of this article provides an overview of four main predictive components for DV perpetration: (1) developmental risk factors for DV offending (e.g. childhood exposure to DV); (2) specific implicit theories related to sexual, violent and DV offenders; (3) the role of anger rumination as a psychological process of DV offending; and (4) an exploration of the role of trait aggression in increasing DV Proclivity. Finally, it was concluded that there is a need for the development of a psychometric measure to encompass these four key predictors of DV Proclivity and future offending.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T18:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.016
       
  • Psychoeducational programs for reducing prison violence: A systematic
           review
    • Authors: Katherine M. Auty; Aiden Cope; Alison Liebling
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Katherine M. Auty, Aiden Cope, Alison Liebling
      Institutional violence presents significant challenges to the accomplishment of legitimate social order in prison. This systematic review examines the effect of psychoeducational programs on violent behaviour in prison. Comprehensive searches of the empirical research literature were conducted to identify randomized and non-randomized studies carried out in the last two decades (1996–2016) that compared psychoeducational programs with treatment as usual (TAU). The content of programs was analysed and classified. The design of the studies was subject to a risk of bias analysis and quality assessment. Violent behaviour in prison was measured by institutional reports, inmate self-reports, observer ratings, or using psychometrically-valid scales. We identified 21 separate studies with considerable variations in program quality and evaluation methodology. The majority of programs adopted a cognitive behavioural or social learning approach. There was limited evidence for the efficacy of these programs, although highly-structured programs showed the most promise. Programs that aimed to integrate their treatment ethos into the institutional regime and target specific criminogenic risks also produced evidence of effectiveness in reducing institutional violence. The current evidence base does not provide a clear answer to the ‘what works’ question in reducing institutional violence. However, there is evidence that some approaches are more successful than others and this should guide future program design and evaluation.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T18:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.018
       
  • Trauma responses to intimate partner violence: A review of current
           knowledge
    • Authors: Natalie Pill; Andrew Day; Helen Mildred
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Natalie Pill, Andrew Day, Helen Mildred
      It is now well established that those who are survivors of intimate partner violence are at increased risk of subsequently experiencing a wide range of mental health problems. Among the most significant of these is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), although relatively little is known about its course and onset in this particular group. It has also been suggested that the diagnosis of PTSD is often insufficient and, at times, inappropriate, when seeking to account for the effects of repeated trauma, with the construct of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder proposed as an alternative. This review critically evaluates current thinking and research in this area, highlighting the implications of this body of work for understanding the consequences of aggressive and violent behavior directed toward intimate partners.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T18:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.014
       
  • Does the pursuit of meaning explain the initiation, escalation, and
           disengagement of violent extremists?
    • Authors: Rosleenda B. Mohamed Ali; Simon A. Moss; Kate Barrelle; Peter Lentini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Rosleenda B. Mohamed Ali, Simon A. Moss, Kate Barrelle, Peter Lentini
      Researchers have uncovered an array of conditions, characteristics, and cognitions that can ignite, escalate, or reverse the radicalization of individuals. Because a multitude of events and circumstances determine the likelihood that people gravitate to violent extremism, practitioners cannot readily ascertain which individuals are most susceptible to this pathway. This paper explicates and explores a theory, derived from the meaning maintenance model and the socio-emotional selectivity theory, that integrates previous insights into a cohesive framework. According to this theory, to foster meaning in life, individuals are motivated to cultivate four conditions: a just and supportive environment, unambiguous standards, enduring values, and extensive capabilities. Violent extremism offers some individuals the opportunity to cultivate these conditions temporarily, galvanizing radicalization. Yet this pursuit can also impede these conditions, provoking the motivation to disengage from this endeavor. We presented a case study that illustrates this premise. In short, the motivations that can attract people to violent extremism can also promote disengagement as well.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T18:45:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.013
       
  • Attitudes towards sexual offenders: What do we know, and why are they
           important'
    • Authors: Craig A. Harper; Todd E. Hogue; Ross M. Bartels
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Craig A. Harper, Todd E. Hogue, Ross M. Bartels
      Over the past two decades, a large body of research on attitudes towards sexual offenders has been conducted across a number of different contexts. However, there has been less discussion of their implications. Clinically, attitudes may be related to therapeutic climates and treatment outcomes and risk judgments, while in the social context, the views of the public about sexual offenders may play a key role in the reintegration of these offenders, and the political responses associated with sexual offending. Sexual crime is advocated as a public health issue, with attitudes towards the perpetrators of such offenses being of critical importance when trying to create a social environment within which to successfully reduce rates of sexual offending. In this article, the research evidence currently available in this area is reviewed. An analysis of the conceptualization and measurement of attitudes towards sexual offenders is provided, before the existing literature on the factors underlying such attitudes is explored. Following this, the malleability of attitudes towards sexual offenders is examined. The review concludes with some suggestions for future theoretical, empirical, and practical advancements in this important area.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.011
       
  • Cyber violence: What do we know and where do we go from here'
    • Authors: Jillian Peterson; James Densley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Jillian Peterson, James Densley
      This paper reviews the existing literature on the relationship between social media and violence, including prevalence rates, typologies, and the overlap between cyber and in-person violence. This review explores the individual-level correlates and risk factors associated with cyber violence, the group processes involved in cyber violence, and the macro-level context of online aggression. The paper concludes with a framework for reconciling conflicting levels of explanation and presents an agenda for future research that adopts a selection, facilitation, or enhancement framework for thinking about the causal or contingent role of social media in violent offending. Remaining empirical questions and new directions for future research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.012
       
  • Youth exposure to violence in the community: Towards a theoretical
           framework for explaining risk and protective factors
    • Authors: Maria João Lobo Antunes; Eileen M. Ahlin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Maria João Lobo Antunes, Eileen M. Ahlin
      Exposure to community violence (ETV-C) negatively impacts youth development and is associated with many negative outcomes. Although attention has been paid to examining risk and protective factors that promote or reduce ETV-C, many of the studies in this growing body of literature do not place predictive models within a theoretical framework. In this review, we argue that the routine activity theory and lifestyles perspectives (RAT/LS) within an ecological framework is a useful strategy for examining how a series of behaviors and choices enacted by youth in their everyday lives affects their ETV-C. By focusing on the role of target suitability and capable guardianship within the neighborhood, family, peers, and individual levels of the mesosystem, we suggest scholars can examine the relative salience of these various components to determine whether they serve to increase youth's ETV-C or buffer against such experiences. We propose that the RAT/LS perspectives can not only be placed in an ecological framework, but it also provides effective tenets with which to explore ETV-C.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.015
       
  • Adult protective services and victim services: A review of the literature
           to increase understanding between these two fields
    • Authors: Shelly L. Jackson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Shelly L. Jackson
      Adult protective services (APS) is designated in each state to respond to elder abuse. As elder abuse is increasingly conceptualized as a crime, and victim services expands to encompass victims of elder abuse, these two fields will increasingly cross paths. The fields of APS and victim services are each guided by federal legislation, although the path to that legislation differed for each field. The historical development of each field helps to explain the existence of a sometimes challenging relationship between these two fields. A literature review was undertaken to compare these two fields across three domains: 1) the service providers, 2) the recipients of those services, and 3) how a case typically flows from reporting to outcomes. Four areas of possible contention were identified: mandatory reporting, APS investigation, cognitive capacity of victims, and involuntary interventions. It is anticipated that by illuminating these differences and providing an explanation for them, some tension between the fields may be assuaged. This article concludes, however, that in the myriad other ways in which comparisons were made, no meaningful differences emerged. Increasing an understanding of each other's field is intended to facilitate building relationships between these two fields, with the ultimate goal of benefiting victims.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.010
       
  • Emotion dysregulation as an underlying mechanism of impulsive aggression:
           Reviewing empirical data to inform treatments for veterans who perpetrate
           violence
    • Authors: Shannon R. Miles; Carla Sharp; Andra Teten Tharp; Matthew Stanford; Melinda Stanley; Karin E. Thompson; Thomas A. Kent
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Shannon R. Miles, Carla Sharp, Andra Teten Tharp, Matthew Stanford, Melinda Stanley, Karin E. Thompson, Thomas A. Kent
      Violence can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which in turn is related to perpetration of aggression. Importantly, not all aggression is motivated by the same mechanisms, and understanding the driving force behind the aggression is imperative in order to select treatments that will assist the individual in decreasing the behavior. PTSD is specifically related to impulsive aggression, or aggression that is emotionally charged and uncontrolled, rather than premeditated aggression, which is planned, unemotional, and goal-directed. Emotion regulation, or the ability to recognize emotions, accept them, and control emotion-related behaviors, is related to both PTSD and impulsive aggression. This conceptual paper uses the Catalyst Model to review the literature on PTSD, impulsive aggression, and emotion regulation. Because of their high rates of PTSD, veterans are presented as a demonstration of the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsive aggression. The integrative model can be viewed as an alternative to the traditional model that proposes anger is the primary underlying mechanism of impulsive aggression in adults. Treatment recommendations, such as helping clients develop emotion regulation skills, are offered for providers who are working with individuals who have experienced trauma and who are now perpetrating impulsive aggression.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.017
       
  • Exposure to fetal testosterone, aggression, and violent behavior: A
           meta-analysis of the 2D:4D digit ratio
    • Authors: Jillian J. Turanovic; Travis C. Pratt; Alex R. Piquero
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Jillian J. Turanovic, Travis C. Pratt, Alex R. Piquero
      The search for reliable risk factors is a staple among both scholars and policymakers concerned with structuring interventions designed to reduce aggressive and violent behavior. Within this line of work, strong claims have recently been made regarding the predictive capacity of a potential physical biomarker of criminogenic risk: the 2D:4D digit ratio, a purported indirect indicator of exposure to fetal testosterone. The results of studies assessing the link between the digit ratio and problematic behavior are, however, mixed. Accordingly, in the present study we subject this literature (N =32 studies; 361 effect size estimates) to a meta-analysis using multilevel modeling techniques. Our results reveal that the overall mean effect size of the 2D:4D digit ratio to measures of aggressive and violent behavior is weak but statistically significant (mean r =0.036, p <0.05). Moderator analyses confirm that these weak effects are generally consistent (and often non-significant) across a variety of methodological conditions (e.g., different outcome measures, different kinds of samples). We conclude with a call for caution against placing emphasis on the 2D:4D digit ratio as a reliable risk factor for aggressive and violent behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.008
       
  • A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Mental Health Disorders and
           Juvenile Recidivism
    • Authors: Carlijn J.M. Wibbelink; Machteld Hoeve; Geert Jan J.M. Stams; Frans J. Oort
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Carlijn J.M. Wibbelink, Machteld Hoeve, Geert Jan J.M. Stams, Frans J. Oort
      To investigate the association between mental disorders and recidivism in juveniles, a three-level meta-analysis of 20 manuscripts (17 independent studies, N =5737 juveniles) was conducted. The study focused on internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, and comorbid disorders (combinations of an internalizing and externalizing disorder). Small to moderate mean effect sizes were found for externalizing disorders (d =0.415, p <0.001) and comorbid disorders (d =0.366, p <0.001), and no relation was found between internalizing disorders and recidivism (d =0.016, p =0.877). For comorbid disorders, no significant variation was found between studies and between effect sizes within studies. Therefore, moderator analyses were only conducted for studies on internalizing and externalizing disorders. These analyses revealed that type of recidivism (e.g., rearrest, reincarceration), type of delinquency (e.g., overt and covert delinquency), and gender influenced the direction and magnitude of the associations between recidivism and internalizing and externalizing disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.005
       
  • Weapon carrying in and out of school among pure bullies, pure victims and
           bully-victims: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional
           and longitudinal studies
    • Authors: Sara Valdebenito; Maria M. Ttofi; Manuel Eisner; Hannah Gaffney
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Sara Valdebenito, Maria M. Ttofi, Manuel Eisner, Hannah Gaffney
      Weapon carrying has detrimental effects for perpetrators and victims alike. It is therefore imperative that research efforts are invested into establishing those contextual factors that are associated with this antisocial behavior. This systematic and meta-analytic review investigates the association of weapon carrying with bullying perpetration and victimization inside and outside the school context. Results on pure bullies, pure victims and bully-victims are also presented. Further to extensive searches, across 20 databases and 46 journals, and careful screening of reports, in line with pre-established methodological criteria, a total of 35 manuscripts are included in the meta-analysis. Narrative results based on longitudinal studies are also presented but not meta-analyzed given the variability in study characteristics and the small number of studies. Weapon carrying is significantly associated with both bullying perpetration (adjusted OR =2.64; p <0.001) and victimization (adjusted OR =1.58; p <0.05). Effect sizes are larger when looking at discrete categories of pure bullies (adjusted OR =3.24; p <0.01), pure victims (adjusted OR =1.79; p <0.05) and bully-victims (adjusted OR =5.66; p <0.001) when compared with non-involved school children. Subgroup analyses suggest that pure victims (Q =6.77; p <0.01) and bully-victims (Q =8.01; p <0.01) are significantly more likely to carry a weapon inside than outside the school, thus rendering support to the ‘vulnerability/self-protection’ hypothesis. Pure bullies have the same odds of carrying a weapon inside and outside the school context (Q =0.60; p =0.44), supporting a persistent antisocial personality theoretical framework. Implications for policy and practice arising from our results are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T07:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.004
       
  • Systematic review of early risk factors for life-course-persistent,
           adolescence-limited, and late-onset offenders in prospective longitudinal
           studies
    • Authors: Darrick Jolliffe; David P. Farrington; Alex R. Piquero; Rolf Loeber; Karl G. Hill
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Darrick Jolliffe, David P. Farrington, Alex R. Piquero, Rolf Loeber, Karl G. Hill
      This paper builds on our previous systematic review of prospective longitudinal studies and examines the early risk factors associated with life-course persistent offending (LCP), adolescence-limited (AL) and late-onset (LO) offending. Out of the 55 prospective longitudinal studies which theoretically could possess the relevant information, only four provided information about risk factors associated with the different offending types. An additional three provided data so that relevant analyses could be conducted. The results suggested that there was little evidence that specific early risk factors were associated with specific offending types. There was also limited evidence that specific risk factors predicted specific offending types when criminal career duration was included in the definitions of LCP, AL, and LO offending. However, LCP offenders tended to have a greater number of risk factors, and the magnitude of these was somewhat greater than for AL offenders, who in turn tended to have more risk factors (and of a greater magnitude) than LO offenders. LCP and AL offenders may differ more in degree (in the number and magnitude of risk factors) than in kind (in the specific risk factors that are predictive). Importantly, as the potential criminal career duration was increased in defining the offending types, those with longer careers tended to have more risk factors, but, LCP and AL offenders were not predicted by different risk factors. Much more research is needed on risk factors for offending types defined according to criminal career durations.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T04:45:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.009
       
  • Dating and intimate partner violence among young persons ages 15–30:
           Evidence from a systematic review
    • Authors: Wesley G. Jennings; Chidike Okeem; Alex R. Piquero; Christine S. Sellers; Delphine Theobald; David P. Farrington
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Wesley G. Jennings, Chidike Okeem, Alex R. Piquero, Christine S. Sellers, Delphine Theobald, David P. Farrington
      While there has been much empirical research on adult dating violence, only recently has research began to also focus on young adult dating violence in general and teen dating violence specifically. With recognition of the growing research and media attention toward youth and young adult dating violence, the current study provides a systematic review of the extant literature devoted toward examinations of dating/intimate partner violence among individuals aged 15 to 30 and, more narrowly, on the prior research that has tested the effectiveness of dating/intimate partner violence interventions with this age group. Results from a comprehensive literature search of a number of existing databases revealed 169 studies that met the inclusion criteria, and 42 of these 169 studies were also characterized as intervention studies. Descriptive results are discussed for the 169 studies overall, and for the 42 intervention studies in particular in greater detail. Evidence gleaned from this systematic review revealed a number of similarities and differences between the studies in general, but also pointed toward the potential effectiveness of interventions to prevent the occurrence and re-occurrence of dating/intimate partner violence. Study limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T04:45:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.007
       
  • Unraveling the link between maltreatment and juvenile antisocial behavior:
           A meta-analysis of prospective longitudinal studies
    • Authors: Teresa Braga; Leonel Cunha Gonçalves; Miguel Basto-Pereira; Ângela Maia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Teresa Braga, Leonel Cunha Gonçalves, Miguel Basto-Pereira, Ângela Maia
      The maltreatment-antisocial behavior relationship has been a focus of research for decades. However, understanding this association has been largely based on individual empirical studies or on reviews of maltreatments' broad consequences or of delinquency's diverse risk factors. To thoroughly examine the relationship between maltreatment and juvenile antisocial behaviors, we conducted a meta-analysis exclusively of prospective longitudinal studies and explored moderator effects. Overall maltreatment, physical, sexual and emotional abuse, and neglect were included, and general and aggressive antisocial behaviors were considered. The final data set consisted of 33 studies, including 23,973 youth, and 69 correlations. Results showed that maltreatment is associated with higher rates of general antisocial behaviors (r =0.11; 95% CI [0.08, 0.14]) and aggressive antisocial behaviors (r =0.11; 95% CI [0.07, 0.14]), and the relationship holds in the presence of potential confounders, as common risk factors and methodological variations. Furthermore, sexual and physical abuse were more strongly linked to aggressive rather than general antisocial behaviors, while neglected youth had an increased risk of general antisocial involvement. The causal mechanisms underlying these dissimilar relationships warrant further research to prevent the adverse antisocial consequences of maltreatment.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T04:45:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.006
       
  • Differences between biological and sociolegal incest offenders: A
           meta-analysis
    • Authors: Lesleigh E. Pullman; Megan L. Sawatsky; Kelly M. Babchishin; Ian V. McPhail; Michael C. Seto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Lesleigh E. Pullman, Megan L. Sawatsky, Kelly M. Babchishin, Ian V. McPhail, Michael C. Seto
      There is an important theoretical distinction between biological and sociolegal incest offenders, but this is not always recognized in clinical or empirical work. The purpose of the current meta-analysis was to examine the extent to which biological and sociolegal incest offenders differ on a number of theoretically or clinically relevant domains. In this meta-analysis, we compared a total of 4192 biological incest offenders to 2322 sociolegal incest offenders across 27 samples that were disseminated between 1984 and 2012 (Mdn =1993). Sociolegal incest offenders exhibited more antisocial tendencies (general self-regulation problems, impulsivity, drug and alcohol problems) compared to biological incest offenders. Biological incest offenders exhibited more psychopathology (repression, mental health difficulties) compared to sociolegal incest offenders. Differences were generally small to moderate in magnitude. Contrary to expectations, there were no meaningful differences between groups on atypical sexual interests (ds ranged from −0.09 to 0.11), though sociolegal incest offenders were more likely to have sexual self-regulation problems. One meaningful moderator emerged: whether the biological incest offender group was composed only of biological fathers or of both biological fathers and other biological relatives (e.g., uncles and grandfathers). The theoretical implications of these results are discussed, and areas of future research are highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T04:45:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.003
       
  • Prevalence of life-course-persistent, adolescence-limited, and late-onset
           offenders: A systematic review of prospective longitudinal studies
    • Authors: Darrick Jolliffe; David P. Farrington; Alex R. Piquero; John F. MacLeod; Steve van de Weijer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Darrick Jolliffe, David P. Farrington, Alex R. Piquero, John F. MacLeod, Steve van de Weijer
      Little is known about the prevalence, frequency, onset, and criminal career duration of life-course-persistent offenders (LCP), compared to adolescence-limited (AL) and late-onset offenders (LO), despite the importance of these categories in criminology. This article is the first to use a systematic approach to identify the prospective longitudinal studies which could possess relevant information and to summarize the outputs of these studies. The principal investigators of these studies were also contacted to assist in identifying relevant data. Overall, 55 prospective longitudinal studies were identified; of these 14 had produced information on the prevalence of the various offending types. In seven additional studies, data was made available to explore criminal career parameters of the various offending types. The results showed that the estimates of the prevalence of LCP, AL, and LO offending varied considerably, and that few studies include criminal career duration in their definitions of LCP offenders. Surprisingly, the average ages of onset for LCP and Al offenders were similar. Much more research on LCP, AL, and LO offenders, which includes a consideration of criminal career duration, is desperately needed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T04:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.002
       
  • A framework for understanding sexual violence: Incentive-motivation and
           hierarchical control
    • Authors: Frederick Toates; Wineke Smid; Jan van den Berg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Frederick Toates, Wineke Smid, Jan van den Berg
      The article applies an incentive-motivation model to sexual violence. It suggests that insights can be gained by looking at the biopsychological processes that underlie ‘conventional behavior’. It argues that sexual violence, as in rape, arises from a fusion between (i) sexual motivation and (ii) sensation-seeking and varying strengths of dominance/aggression motivations. The excitatory part of the motivational system is rooted in brain dopamine and sexual violence is expressed in behavior when excitation exceeds inhibition. The assumptions are framed within the principle of the hierarchical control of behavior. The incentive-motivation and hierarchical framework can yield insights into such phenomena as planning and impulsivity, future discounting, habituation and escalation, violence as addiction, the role of fetishes, sexual fantasy, stress, drugs and brain development.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T04:32:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.001
       
  • Causes and Cures XIII: Global Medicine Approaches
    • Authors: Bandy X. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Bandy X. Lee
      The past two years have been a landmark moment for violence prevention, with the publication of The Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014; a historic resolution on violence by the 67th World Health Assembly; and the release of multiple documents on violence by international and United Nations entities, with a corresponding building of momentum in scholarship. Most notably, in September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, addressing the need for violence prevention at an unprecedented scale. In this context, more than ever, violence studies have become a field of its own right. Still, a systematic approach of the topic has been lacking, and no textbook yet synthesizes the knowledge of multiple disciplines toward a cogent understanding. This article is the thirteenth of a series of fifteen articles that will cover, as an example, an outline of the Global medicine Studies course entitled, “Violence: Causes and Cures,” reviewing the major bio-psycho-social and structural-environmental perspectives on violence. Global medicine bases its principles after public health applied to global populations, while maintaining sensitivity to the local situation, which requires special consideration.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T03:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.009
       
  • Causes and Cures XIII: Global Medicine Approaches
    • Authors: Bandy X. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Bandy X. Lee
      The past two years have been a landmark moment for violence prevention, with the publication of The Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014; a historic resolution on violence by the 67th World Health Assembly; and the release of multiple documents on violence by international and United Nations entities, with a corresponding building of momentum in scholarship. Most notably, in September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, addressing the need for violence prevention at an unprecedented scale. In this context, more than ever, violence studies have become a field of its own right. Still, a systematic approach of the topic has been lacking, and no textbook yet synthesizes the knowledge of multiple disciplines toward a cogent understanding. This article is the thirteenth of a series of fifteen articles that will cover, as an example, an outline of the Global medicine Studies course entitled, “Violence: Causes and Cures,” reviewing the major bio-psycho-social and structural-environmental perspectives on violence. Global medicine bases its principles after public health applied to global populations, while maintaining sensitivity to the local situation, which requires special consideration.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T03:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.009
       
  • Causes and Cures XII: Public Health Approaches
    • Authors: Bandy X. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Bandy X. Lee
      The past two years have been a landmark moment for violence prevention, with the publication of The Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014; a historic resolution on violence by the 67th World Health Assembly; and the release of multiple documents on violence by international and United Nations entities, with a corresponding building of momentum in scholarship. Most notably, in September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, addressing the need for violence prevention at an unprecedented scale. In this context, more than ever, violence studies have become a field of its own right. Still, a systematic approach of the topic has been lacking, and no textbook yet synthesizes the knowledge of multiple disciplines toward a cogent understanding. This article is the twelfth of a series of fifteen articles that will cover, as an example, an outline of the Global Health Studies course entitled, “Violence: Causes and Cures,” reviewing the major bio-psycho-social and structural-environmental perspectives on violence. Violence is a public health problem that requires a multi-factorial understanding for its causes and consequences and needs action at all levels, involving all the stakeholders, whether they are directly or indirectly concerned. The field of public health has contributed greatly to the understanding and prevention of violence.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T03:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.010
       
  • Causes and Cures XII: Public Health Approaches
    • Authors: Bandy X. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Bandy X. Lee
      The past two years have been a landmark moment for violence prevention, with the publication of The Global Status Report on Violence Prevention 2014; a historic resolution on violence by the 67th World Health Assembly; and the release of multiple documents on violence by international and United Nations entities, with a corresponding building of momentum in scholarship. Most notably, in September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, addressing the need for violence prevention at an unprecedented scale. In this context, more than ever, violence studies have become a field of its own right. Still, a systematic approach of the topic has been lacking, and no textbook yet synthesizes the knowledge of multiple disciplines toward a cogent understanding. This article is the twelfth of a series of fifteen articles that will cover, as an example, an outline of the Global Health Studies course entitled, “Violence: Causes and Cures,” reviewing the major bio-psycho-social and structural-environmental perspectives on violence. Violence is a public health problem that requires a multi-factorial understanding for its causes and consequences and needs action at all levels, involving all the stakeholders, whether they are directly or indirectly concerned. The field of public health has contributed greatly to the understanding and prevention of violence.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T03:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.010
       
  • Assessment of protective factors in clinical practice
    • Authors: Michiel de Vries Robbé; Gwenda M. Willis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Michiel de Vries Robbé, Gwenda M. Willis
      Protective factors safeguard against undesirable outcomes such as violence, sexual violence and criminal behavior in general. While a growing body of theoretical and empirical literature has identified plausible protective factors and explored their underlying mechanisms and additional value to risk factors, little has been written concerning clinical assessment of protective factors. A challenge faced by clinicians working in correctional and forensic settings is how to translate emerging knowledge into applied approaches to assessment and treatment. The current paper explores the clinical assessment of protective factors. Within often time-pressed legal and clinical practice environments, feasible assessment methods are needed that add value to the current predominantly risk-focused assessment practice. The valid and reliable assessment of protective factors should aid in risk-management decision-making and help inform strengths-based treatment efforts. This paper aims to demonstrate ways to bridge the gap between theoretical and empirical knowledge regarding protective factors and their clinical applicability, and to highlight the added value of assessing protective factors. Several protective factor assessment tools are described and short cases are used to exemplify how consideration of protective factors can enhance clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T03:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.006
       
  • Assessment of protective factors in clinical practice
    • Authors: Michiel de Vries Robbé; Gwenda M. Willis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Michiel de Vries Robbé, Gwenda M. Willis
      Protective factors safeguard against undesirable outcomes such as violence, sexual violence and criminal behavior in general. While a growing body of theoretical and empirical literature has identified plausible protective factors and explored their underlying mechanisms and additional value to risk factors, little has been written concerning clinical assessment of protective factors. A challenge faced by clinicians working in correctional and forensic settings is how to translate emerging knowledge into applied approaches to assessment and treatment. The current paper explores the clinical assessment of protective factors. Within often time-pressed legal and clinical practice environments, feasible assessment methods are needed that add value to the current predominantly risk-focused assessment practice. The valid and reliable assessment of protective factors should aid in risk-management decision-making and help inform strengths-based treatment efforts. This paper aims to demonstrate ways to bridge the gap between theoretical and empirical knowledge regarding protective factors and their clinical applicability, and to highlight the added value of assessing protective factors. Several protective factor assessment tools are described and short cases are used to exemplify how consideration of protective factors can enhance clinical practice.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T03:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.006
       
  • Theoretical and Practical Issues for the Measurement of Protective Factors
    • Authors: Jacinta R. Cording; Sarah M. Beggs Christofferson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Jacinta R. Cording, Sarah M. Beggs Christofferson
      Although research into the theoretical and practical implications of protective factors within a rehabilitative context is still in its infancy, it is possible that they can provide improvements in a number of key areas related to offender management and treatment. However, there are several important issues that must be considered and resolved for the measurement of protective factors to be regarded as valid and reliable. Some of these relate to core questions regarding the nature of protective factors, including how to best clarify current conceptualisations of protective factors and questions regarding our current approach to the identification and validation of protective factors. We additionally discuss more practical issues related to the incorporation of protective factors into current risk assessment methodologies, including implications that this will have for the scoring of actuarial tools. We hope that raising awareness of these issues results in fruitful directions for further discussions and research in this area.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T03:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.007
       
  • Theoretical and Practical Issues for the Measurement of Protective Factors
    • Authors: Jacinta R. Cording; Sarah M. Beggs Christofferson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Jacinta R. Cording, Sarah M. Beggs Christofferson
      Although research into the theoretical and practical implications of protective factors within a rehabilitative context is still in its infancy, it is possible that they can provide improvements in a number of key areas related to offender management and treatment. However, there are several important issues that must be considered and resolved for the measurement of protective factors to be regarded as valid and reliable. Some of these relate to core questions regarding the nature of protective factors, including how to best clarify current conceptualisations of protective factors and questions regarding our current approach to the identification and validation of protective factors. We additionally discuss more practical issues related to the incorporation of protective factors into current risk assessment methodologies, including implications that this will have for the scoring of actuarial tools. We hope that raising awareness of these issues results in fruitful directions for further discussions and research in this area.

      PubDate: 2016-12-23T03:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.007
       
  • Problems in protective factor research and practice
    • Authors: Clare-Ann Fortune; Tony Ward
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Clare-Ann Fortune, Tony Ward
      The concept of protective factors and allied constructs such as strengths or resilience has been the focus of increased research and practice attention within the criminal justice domain over the last ten years or so. A major reason for this interest is that assisting individuals to desist from further offending means helping them to live their lives in fulfilling and prosocial social ways. While this is a laudable aim several research problems are now apparent in the literature that threatens to undermine this goal. In this paper we focus on four of these problems and thereby set the scene for the remaining papers of this special issue. The four problems are definitional ambiguity, practitioner uncertainty, explanatory confusion, and the dual nature of protective factors.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T03:34:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.008
       
  • Protective Factors, Correctional Treatment and Desistance
    • Authors: Devon L.L. Polaschek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Devon L.L. Polaschek
      A confusing array of empirical and conceptual definitions has been offered for protective factors and related terms. This paper reviews these, and recent scales that include protective factors, for their treatment implications. The scales, and the small volume of treatment research on protective factors reveal a similar amount of confusion: most notably with regard to whether protective factors are really different from risk factors except in name. Next, I argue that research on desistance has also examined several protective factors, such as the relationship of release planning to various positive intermediate community outcomes that may mediate desistance effects. Three conceptualizations of protective factors in treatment and desistance are described, before I conclude that calling a factor protective may not automatically enhance treatment effectiveness or desistance support, and that more research is needed, including studies that examine the potential effects of correctional treatment on positive outcomes.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T03:34:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.005
       
  • Protective Factors and Mental Illness in Men with a History of Sexual
           Offending
    • Authors: David Thornton; Sharon M. Kelley; Kerry E. Nelligan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): David Thornton, Sharon M. Kelley, Kerry E. Nelligan
      According to the Risk-Need-Responsivity framework dynamic risk factors play a central role in effective correctional services. Recently this risk-focused clinical response has been supplemented by attention to the development of protective factors. The theoretical and clinical use of these constructs has been handicapped by a failure to analyze how they work and implicit assumption that they work in the same way for all clients. This paper seeks to remedy the first difficulty by applying to protective factors a theoretical model originally developed to understand the processes underlying dynamic risk factors. It seeks to address the second difficulty by examining how the protective factors developed for mainstream sexual offenders differ from those developed when problematic sexual behavior co-occurs with major mental illness. What emerges is a need for a three-level analysis to understand protective factors. At the most abstract level, protective processes can be understood within the same theoretical model used to explicate the operation of risk factors. At an intermediate level, much of what are called “protective factors” can be better understood as arenas within which protective processes can operate. To this must be added, however, a third tier defined by the needs and responsivity of the individual. This tier determines the particular form that protective factors will need to take for them to constitute arenas in which relevant protective processes can operate.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T03:34:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.003
       
  • Expertise and its Contribution to the Notion of Protective Factors in
           Offender Rehabilitation and Desistance
    • Authors: Claire Nee; Zarah Vernham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Claire Nee, Zarah Vernham
      In the field of offender corrections, a preoccupation with risk prediction has come at the expense of explanation, and an overemphasis on risk factors has come at the expense of understanding protective factors. Some strides have been made in describing and categorising the types of factors that protect young people from a life of crime, or promote competencies and potentials that help them avoid it altogether. We argue, however, that like the field of dynamic risk factors, we know very little about the nature and function of these features, beyond describing them. The article describes theory and research associated with expertise and its qualities and value as both a risk and a protective factor in the prevention of crime. It draws from literature in forensic psychology, criminology, resilience and neuroscience.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T03:34:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.004
       
  • Understanding Protective Factors for Violent Reoffending in Adults
    • Authors: Gabrielle Klepfisz; Michael Daffern; Andrew Day
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Gabrielle Klepfisz, Michael Daffern, Andrew Day
      Although there has been long-standing interest in identifying those factors that have the potential to increase the likelihood of violence, it is only relatively recently that attention has been given to those factors that act in the opposite way, or what are commonly referred to as protective factors. This paper considers the meaning of the term protective factor and how this and similarly termed constructs have been conceptualized and operationalized in violent offender assessment instruments. We discuss the relationship between risk and protective factors and identify a number of conceptual and definitional issues that arise. Finally, we consider the measurement of protective factors as they pertain to their inclusion in contemporary violent offender assessment instruments.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T03:34:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.001
       
  • Why do protective factors protect? An evolutionary developmental
           perspective
    • Authors: Russil Durrant
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Russil Durrant
      A growing body of research has identified a list of protective factors that decrease the likelihood of an individual engaging in criminal and antisocial behaviour. However, despite substantial empirical advances in our understanding of the factors that protect against offending, relatively little theoretical work has been directed at explaining why these factors serve a protective function and the notion of protective factors, like risk factors, is conceptually problematic. In this article I argue that we can advance our understanding of what protective factors are and why they serve a protective function by taking an evolutionary developmental perspective. More specifically, an evolutionary informed framework is provided that outlines two broad models for understanding individual differences in antisocial and prosocial behaviour. First, I suggest that individual differences in antisocial (and prosocial behaviour) are linked to the development of alternative life history strategies in response to different environmental contexts. More specifically, I argue that ‘protective’ factors can often be conceptualised in terms of features of the environment and/or feature of individuals that promote and/or reflect the development of slow life history strategies. Second, drawing from recent research on individual differences in plasticity I highlight how our conceptualisation of protective (and, indeed, risk) factors is contingent on the interaction between individual susceptibility to environmental influence and relevant environmental contexts. In other words, often what counts as a ‘protective’ factor depends on individual differences in plasticity. Inevitably, as our understanding of why protective factors protect improves, there will be advances in the nature and scope of our interventions to improve prosocial outcomes and prevention efforts will be enhanced.

      PubDate: 2016-12-07T15:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.12.002
       
  • Prediction and Agency: The Role of Protective factors in Correctional
           Rehabilitation and Desistance
    • Authors: Tony Ward
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Tony Ward
      In this paper I present a preliminary theory of protective factors. First, I briefly discuss the concept of protective factors and associated ideas such as resilience and strengths. Second, I critically examine three recent attempts to conceptualize the role of protective factors in the explanation of offending and desistance, those by Serinet al. (2016), de Vries Robbé (2014), and MacDonald (2016). Third, I weave together concepts from evolutionary biology, psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and metaphysics to develop a tentative theory of protective factors. This theory is based on the core idea that agency is underpinned by the capacities associated with a robust first person perspective, which includes the ability to construct models of actual and possible situations and to use them to predict possible outcomes prior to acting. Fourth, I apply my theoretical ideas to the problem of dynamic risk and protective factors and review their ability to inform treatment and desistance. I also reflect on some of the research and practice implications of my conceptualization of protective factors.

      PubDate: 2016-12-07T15:04:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.11.012
       
  • Dilemmas in applying strengths-based approaches in working with offenders
           with mental illness: A critical multidisciplinary review
    • Authors: S. Vandevelde; F. Vander Laenen; L. Van Damme; W. Vanderplasschen; K. Audenaert; E. Broekaert; T. Vander Beken
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): S. Vandevelde, F. Vander Laenen, L. Van Damme, W. Vanderplasschen, K. Audenaert, E. Broekaert, T. Vander Beken
      The recent focus on extending risk assessment and treatment in forensic mental health with protective factors relates to the increasing interest in strengths-based approaches in various professional disciplines: law (e.g. human rights), criminology (e.g. desistance), mental health care (e.g. recovery), forensic psychology (e.g. the Good Lives Model), special needs education (e.g. Quality of Life) and family studies (e.g. family recovery). In this article, we aim at discussing the available knowledge with regard to strengths-based approaches for offenders with mental illness, in relation to these different disciplines. Several dilemmas are observed across these disciplines: (1) “Living apart together”: the integration of different disciplines; (2) “Beyond Babylonian confusion and towards more theoretical research”: conceptualization of strengths-based practices in different fields; (3) “No agency without autonomy”: the individual in context; and (4) “Risks, strengths and capabilities”: the search for an integrated paradigm. In our view, these different disciplines share a shift in how mankind is viewed, respecting agency in the interaction with people who have offended. Yet, differences apply to the objectives that the disciplines strive for, which warrants not to eclectically consider strengths-based working in each of the disciplines as ‘being small variations of the same theme’.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T09:45:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.11.008
       
  • Strength based approaches and protective factors from a criminological
           perspective
    • Authors: Stephanie Kewley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): Stephanie Kewley
      This paper provides a review of the current criminological landscape in relation to positive criminology and strengths based responses to crime. It does this by drawing on four forms of ‘offender’ rehabilitation as detailed in Fergus McNeill's (2012) seminal work. By using the four domains of psychological, social, moral and legal; this paper outlines current criminological literature, policy, and practice, highlighting some of its limitations. In all, the paper supports the call made by McNeill that in order to work with those mandated by the criminal justice system, a strengths based and integrated approach to rehabilitation is needed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T09:45:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.11.010
       
  • Systematic Reviews of the Effectiveness of Developmental Prevention
           Programs in Reducing Delinquency, Aggression, and Bullying
    • Authors: David P. Farrington; Hannah Gaffney; Friedrich A. Lösel; Maria M. Ttofi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): David P. Farrington, Hannah Gaffney, Friedrich A. Lösel, Maria M. Ttofi
      The main aim of this article is to identify systematic reviews of the effects of developmental prevention programs. These programs are defined as community-based programs designed to prevent antisocial behavior, targeted on children and adolescents up to age 18, and aiming to change individual, family, or school risk factors. Only evaluations that reported effects on the outcomes of delinquency, offending, violence, aggression, or bullying were included. In total, 50 systematic reviews were assessed: five general reviews, 11 reviews of individually focused interventions, nine reviews of family-based programs, and 25 reviews of school-based programs. It was possible to calculate effect sizes from 33 reviews. Every summary odds ratio effect size was greater than 1, indicating that all types of programs were effective. Furthermore, the effect size was statistically significant in 22 out of 26 cases. The median effect size was 1.46, which corresponds (on some reasonable assumptions) to a decrease in aggression of about a quarter. This article makes recommendations about how to improve systematic reviews and concludes that more investment in developmental prevention is warranted.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T10:45:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.11.003
       
  • Systematic reviews of explanatory risk factors for violence, offending,
           and delinquency
    • Authors: David P. Farrington; Hannah Gaffney; Maria M. Ttofi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2016
      Source:Aggression and Violent Behavior
      Author(s): David P. Farrington, Hannah Gaffney, Maria M. Ttofi
      The main aim of this article is to identify systematic reviews of explanatory risk factors for violence, offending, and delinquency. Explanatory risk factors are factors that are clearly measuring an underlying construct that is different from antisocial behavior. Based on searches for articles published between 2000 and 2016, 215 relevant studies were located and screened, and 43 systematic reviews were included in the analysis: 11 concerned with crime or violence, eight with delinquency or youth violence, eight with sex offending, and 16 with dating or intimate partner violence. Twenty systematic reviews included meta-analyses, but few of these reviewed a wide range of risk factors. More systematic reviews and meta-analyses of risk factors are needed to advance knowledge. It is highly desirable to have reviews of longitudinal studies, reviews that focus on explanatory risk factors, and reviews that report both overall effect sizes and effect sizes after controlling for other risk factors.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T10:45:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2016.11.004
       
 
 
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