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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 889 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 418)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 200)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 227)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 141)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Developmental Psychobiology
  [SJR: 1.329]   [H-I: 72]   [9 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0012-1630 - ISSN (Online) 1098-2302
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Effect of mother's voice on neonatal respiratory activity and EEG delta
    • Authors: Mariko O. Uchida; Takeshi Arimitsu, Kiyomi Yatabe, Kazushige Ikeda, Takao Takahashi, Yasuyo Minagawa
      Abstract: While the influence of the mother's voice on neonatal heart-rate response and its relevant activity on cerebral cortex and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are well known, few studies have assessed its influence on respiratory activity. We investigated the relationship among the respiration rate, the delta wave amplitudes through electroencephalography, and the basal state of ANS through the respiratory variability index while 22 full-term neonates hear their mother's voice and an unknown voice. It was found that when respiratory variability was large, a transient (
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T23:50:31.482935-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21596
  • Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Modeling longitudinal change from 6 weeks to
           2 years of age among low-income Mexican Americans
    • Authors: Shannon L. Jewell; Hye Won Suk, Linda J. Luecken
      Abstract: Parasympathetically-mediated heart rate variability (HRV), commonly indexed via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), is theorized to support the physiological regulation of emotion; however, little is known about the trajectory of change in resting RSA across early development among high-risk populations for whom emotion regulation is crucial. This study characterized resting RSA change from 6 weeks to 2 years of age among 312 low-income Mexican American infants. RSA was assessed longitudinally at 6, 12, 18, 24, 52, 78, and 104 weeks of age. On average, resting RSA increased as infants aged, and this change accelerated over time. There was significant variance between infants in resting RSA at 6 weeks of age, and in the slope, and acceleration of resting RSA change. Intraclass correlation among infants’ resting RSA measures was minimal, indicating that resting RSA may not be “trait-like” during infancy. Results characterize early RSA development among a high-risk sample, which can inform theoretical understanding of the development of emotional, and behavioral self-regulation in a high-risk population, as well as efforts to promote wellbeing across early childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30T01:10:28.82344-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21595
  • Ankle muscle tenotomy does not alter ankle flexor muscle recruitment bias
           during locomotor-related repetitive limb movement in late-stage chick
    • Authors: Soo Yeon Sun; Lucinda L. Baker, Nina S. Bradley
      Abstract: In ovo, late-stage chick embryos repetitively step spontaneously, a locomotor-related behavior also identified as repetitive limb movement (RLM). During RLMs, there is a flexor bias in recruitment and drive of leg muscle activity. The flexor biased activity occurs as embryos assume an extremely flexed posture in a spatially restrictive environment 2–3 days before hatching. We hypothesized that muscle afferent feedback under normal mechanical constraint is a significant input to the flexor bias observed during RLMs on embryonic day (E) 20. To test this hypothesis, muscle afference was altered either by performing a tenotomy of ankle muscles or removing the shell wall restricting leg movement at E20. Results indicated that neither ankle muscle tenotomy nor unilateral release of limb constraint by shell removal altered parameters indicative of flexor bias. We conclude that ankle muscle afference is not essential to ankle flexor bias characteristic of RLMs under normal postural conditions at E20.
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T10:46:47.433122-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21594
  • Prenatal exposure to ketamine in rats: Implications on animal models of
    • Authors: Carlos M. Coronel-Oliveros; Renny Pacheco-Calderón
      Abstract: Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, anhedonia, flat affect and cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to propose a prenatal treatment with ketamine, a psychedelic drug that acts as a non-competitive inhibitor of glutamate NMDA receptors, as a neurodevelopmental animal model of schizophrenia. The drug was applied (i.m. 60−1 h−1) in pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats on gestational Day 14. Offspring behavior was studied on pubertal (4 weeks old) and adult (10 weeks old) stages. Also, hippocampal CA1-CA3 morphology was assessed in adult animals through a Nissl stain. Results showed a disinhibition and hyperactive behavior in pubertal animals exposed to ketamine, followed in adulthood with cognitive impairments, social withdrawal, anxiety, depression, and aggressive-like behaviors. In the hippocampus, a reduction of the CA3 layer thickness was observed, without changes in cell density. These results strongly suggest a robust link between prenatal pharmacologic manipulation of NMDA receptors and schizophrenia.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T01:55:34.968346-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21586
  • Children's anxiety symptoms and salivary immunoglobulin A: A mutual
           regulatory system'
    • Authors: Denise Ma; Lisa A. Serbin, Dale M. Stack
      Abstract: Anxiety can impact the immune system resulting in negative health outcomes. Salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is a first line of defense against foreign antigens, with lowered levels indicative of weakened mucosal immunity. Little is known about how anxiety symptoms affect the diurnal rhythm of sIgA secretion, or the longitudinal transactional sequence between the two in children and adolescents. The goals of the two studies were to: (i) explore the concurrent associations between self-reported anxiety symptoms and diurnal variations of sIgA across the day using repeated daily samples of sIgA; and (ii) examine transactional relations between children's anxiety and aggregated total amount of sIgA levels across successive periods from middle childhood (Wave 1; ages 9–12) to early adolescence (Wave 2; ages 12–15), and from early to mid- adolescence (Wave 3; ages 15–18). Concurrent results showed a steeper (positive) rise in diurnal slope of sIgA from awakening to 5 hr post-awakening in children with higher anxiety. Longitudinally, higher levels of total anxiety, and specifically, worries at Wave 1 significantly predicted lower cumulative daily levels of sIgA 3 years later at Wave 2. Lowered sIgA levels at Wave 2 in turn predicted higher anxiety at Wave 3, illustrating a “vicious cycle” feedback loop. These findings broaden our understanding of the developmental links between anxiety symptoms, the immune system, and health.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T01:55:29.419034-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21590
  • Cortisol profiles differentiated in adolescents and young adult males with
           fragile X syndrome versus autism spectrum disorder
    • Authors: Sara M. Matherly; Jessica Klusek, Angela J. Thurman, Andrea McDuffie, Leonard Abbeduto, Jane E. Roberts
      Abstract: BackgroundFragile X syndrome (FXS) and non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are distinct disorders with overlapping behavioral features. Both disorders are also highly associated with anxiety with abnormal physiological regulation implied mechanistically. Some reports suggest atypical hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, indexed via aberrant cortisol reactivity, in both FXS and non-syndromic ASD. However, no study has compared cortisol reactivity across these two disorders, or its relationship to ASD symptom severity.MethodsCortisol reactivity (prior to and following a day of assessments) was measured in 54 adolescent/young adult males with FXS contrasted to 15 males with non-syndromic ASD who had low cognitive abilities.ResultsGreater ASD symptom severity was related to increased cortisol reactivity and higher levels at the end of the day, but only in the non-syndromic ASD group. Elevated anxiety was associated with increased HPA activation in the group with FXS alone.ConclusionsTaken together, findings suggest a unique neuroendocrine profile that distinguishes adolescent/young adult males with FXS from those with non-syndromic ASD. Severity of ASD symptoms appears to be related to cortisol reactivity in the non-syndromic ASD sample, but not in FXS; while anxiety symptoms are associated with HPA activation in the FXS sample, but not in ASD despite a high prevalence of ASD, anxiety and physiological dysregulation characteristic in both populations.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24T01:55:22.60818-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21578
  • The development of neuromotor skills and hand preference during infancy
    • Authors: Julie M. Campbell; Emily C. Marcinowski, George F. Michel
      Abstract: Assessing infant handedness has been controversial. Different assessment techniques and theoretical approaches produce different results. Evidence from a dynamic systems perspective showed that the development of postural control during infancy affects the expression of an infant's handedness. However, others found that developmental changes in postural control influenced the amount of symmetrical (bimanual) reaching during infancy, but not hand preference. Since most studies of infant handedness use age to assess development, perhaps measures of an infant's developing neuromotor control, irrespective of age, would better predict changes in an infant's hand preference. To assess neuromotor development, items from [Touwen's (1976) Neurological development in infancy. Lavenham, Suffolk: The Lavenham Press, LTD]. “Group III” indices were used. These items assess developmental changes in neuromotor abilities throughout the 6–14-month age period. Hand preference for acquiring objects was measured during these same months. Group Based Trajectory Models (GBTM) of 380 infants identified four different groups of infants according to the trajectory of the development of their hand preferences (32% Early Right, 12% Early Left, 25% Late Right, 30% No Preference). A multilevel model was used to compare these four developmental trajectories according to age and neuromotor development. Age, not neuromotor development, is a better predictor of differences in developmental trajectories of the four hand preference groups. However, Late Right infants are significantly less developed at 6 months than No Preference, Early Right and Left infants and both Early Right and Left infants are most advanced at 6 months. All groups exhibit similar rates of neuromotor development indicating no “catch-up” by the Late Right infants. Thus, any assessment of infant handedness will incorporate necessarily four groups of infants with differently developing hand preferences and neuromotor abilities.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T00:28:52.622795-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21591
  • Sex and rank affect how infant rhesus macaques look at faces
    • Authors: Annika Paukner; Emily M. Slonecker, Ashley M. Murphy, Lauren J. Wooddell, Amanda M. Dettmer
      Abstract: We investigated how differences in infant sex and mothers’ dominance status affect infant rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta) interest in visually exploring emotional facial expressions. Thirty-eight infants were presented with animated avatars of macaque facial expressions during the first month of life. Sons of high-ranking mothers looked more at faces, especially the eye region, than sons of low-ranking mothers, but no difference in looking duration was found for daughters. Males looked significantly more at eyes than females, but this effect was reversed in infants who were reared without mothers in a primate nursery facility. In addition, in mother-infant interactions, mothers of sons were more likely to gaze at their infant's face compared to mothers of daughters. Combined with previous research indicating that rhesus macaque mothers interact differently with infants based on their own rank and infant's sex, these results support the view that social experiences shape early face preferences in rhesus macaques.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22T08:25:58.287943-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21579
  • Decision-making under risk of gain in young children and mangabey monkeys
    • Authors: James Rivière; Mathilde Stomp, Elisa Augustin, Alban Lemasson, Catherine Blois-Heulin
      Abstract: In contrast to human adults, risk proneness in the gain domain is usually observed in both young children and non-human primates. It is currently unclear what mechanism might be underlying such economic preferences. We investigated decision-making under risk of gain in toddlers and monkeys. The choices of 2.5-year-old children and red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) were examined in a gambling task for food reward in which participants have to choose between two options, a secure option and a risky option. In contrast to monkeys, toddlers showed a strong preference for the risky option over the safe option. In order to test the hypothesis that risky choices in participants reflect inhibitory control difficulties, toddlers and mangabeys were presented in Experiment 2 with a situation analogous to that used in Experiment 1 except for the fact that the opaque cover under which was placed the secure option was replaced by a transparent cover. In this second experiment, toddlers continued to show a preference for the risky option over the safe option. In contrast, mangabeys showed a preference for the safe option over the risky option in Trial 1 but they shifted their economic preferences in Trial 2. We argue that decision-making strategies under risk of gain in both toddlers and mangabeys (a) do not reflect poor behavioral control and (b) are not reducible to perception-action couplings.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T01:12:31.095316-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21592
  • Development of behavioral responses to thermal challenges
    • Authors: Delia S. Shelton; Jeffrey R. Alberts
      Abstract: Body temperature regulation involves the development of responses to cold and warm challenges. Matching our understanding of the development of body temperature regulation to warm challenges with that of cold challenges will enhance our understanding of the ontogeny of thermoregulation and reveal different adaptive specializations. Warm and cold thermoregulation are important processes, and they include direct thermal effects on offspring, as well as indirect effects on them, such as those imposed by thermally associated alterations of maternal behavior. The present paper is a selective review of the existing literature and a report of some new empirical data, aimed at processes of mammalian development, especially those affecting behavior. We briefly discuss the development of body temperature regulation in rats and mice, and thermal aspects of maternal behavior with emphasis on responses to high temperatures. The new data extend previous analyses of individual and group responses in developing rodents to warm and cool ambient temperatures. This literature not only reveals a variety of adaptive specializations during development, but it points to the earlier appearance in young mammals of abilities to combat heat loss, relative to protections from hyperthermia. These relative developmental delays in compensatory defenses to heating appear to render young mammals especially vulnerable to environmental warming. We describe cascading consequences of warming—effects that illustrate interactions across levels of physiological, neural, and behavioral development.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T01:12:27.08805-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21588
  • Protein deficiency decreases stereotypic behavior frequency and prevalence
           and activity in the striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae
    • Authors: Neville Pillay; Rebecca Rimbach
      Abstract: Diverse motivational triggers, including diet, elicit stereotypic behavior. We investigated whether diets comprised of different protein levels but similar levels of energy were associated with the occurrence of locomotor stereotypies in the striped mouse Rhabdomys dilectus chakae. In a first experiment, 20 stereotypic and 20 non-stereotypic (10 subjects per sex and per group) juvenile (40 days old) subjects were placed on baseline (BP), high (HP) or low protein (LP) diet treatments (120 subjects in total). All subjects initially identified as stereotypic displayed stereotypic behavior in the BP and HP treatments on Days 60–63 and Days 80–83 compared to 35% and 12.5% of LP subjects, respectively. Moreover, LP subjects displayed lower levels of activity and stereotypic behavior than BP and HP subjects. Those identified as non-stereotypic never displayed stereotypy. In a second experiment, 48 individuals, bred and reared on LP and whose parents were stereotypic, were assigned to either HP (13 males, 12 females) or LP (12 males, 11 females) treatments at 50 days of age for 30 days. Stereotypy was three times less likely to occur in the LP than the HP treatment, and activity was greater in LP-HP individuals than LP-LP individuals. In both experiments, LP individuals had the lowest body mass. Striped mice adjusted their behaviors in response to dietary protein levels. Protein deficiency reduced activity and stereotypic behavior and prevalence, possibly related to an energy or neurological deficit.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T01:12:17.81484-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21587
  • ERPs reveal weaker effects of spelling on auditory rhyme decisions in
           children than in adults
    • Authors: Suzanne E. Welcome; Marc F. Joanisse
      Abstract: A classic finding in psycholinguistics is that orthographic form influences the processing of auditory words. The aim of the present study was to examine how reading experience changes this effect. Specifically, we tested the prediction that top-down visual modulation of spoken word recognition is reduced in children compared to adults, owing to their reduced experience with print. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured as 8–10-year-old children and adults made rhyme decisions about spoken word pairs that were either orthographically similar or dissimilar. When orthography did not conflict (e.g., throat-boat), both age groups demonstrated a robust rhyme effect marked by greater N400 to no-rhyme versus rhyme trials. For rhyming trials that differed in orthography (e.g., vote-boat) and non-rhyming trials that shared orthography (e.g., warm-farm), adults showed more interference than children. Differences in orthographic interference suggest an extended developmental schedule for top-down mechanisms in speech recognition.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T01:07:03.609997-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21583
  • In-home salivary melatonin collection: Methodology for children and
    • Authors: Belinda N. Mandrell; Yvonne Avent, Breya Walker, Megan Loew, Brooklee Lightsey Tynes, Valerie McLaughlin Crabtree
      Abstract: In-home salivary collection quality and adherence to a prescribed collection methodology for evaluation of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is unknown in children. Primary aims of this study were to 1) describe a novel family centered methodology for in-home salivary collection; 2) determine the acceptance and feasibility of this methodology; 3) measure adherence to collection instructions; and 4) identify patterns between participants’ age and quality of samples collected. After receiving instructional handouts from the study team, families utilized in-home salivary melatonin collection. Participants (N = 64) included 39 children (21 female, mean age 9.5 ± 1.61 years) and 25 adolescents (11 female, mean age 15.9 ± 2.12 years) with craniopharyngioma. Participants were 90% adherent to collection schedule, and 89% of the samples collected were of sufficient quantity and quality, with no differences found between age (child vs. adolescent) and melatonin sample quantity and quality. In-home saliva collection provides an acceptable and feasible method to collect salivary melatonin and biomarkers in children and adolescents.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T01:06:52.829913-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21584
  • Trajectories of resting frontal brain activity and psychopathology in
           female adolescents exposed to child maltreatment
    • Authors: Alva Tang; Vladimir Miskovic, Ayelet Lahat, Masako Tanaka, Harriet MacMillan, Ryan J. Van Lieshout, Louis A. Schmidt
      Abstract: Resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry patterns reflecting different affective and motivational tendencies have been proposed as a putative mechanism underlying resilience among maltreated youth. This 2-year prospective study examined whether developmental stability of resting frontal alpha asymmetry moderated the relation between child maltreatment severity and psychopathology in female adolescents (n = 43; ages 12–16) recruited from child protection agencies. Results identified two trajectories of resting frontal asymmetry: 60.5% displayed stable right and 39.5% displayed stable left frontal alpha asymmetry. Although individuals with these alpha asymmetry profiles experienced comparable childhood trauma severity, adolescents with stable left alpha asymmetry and lower levels of trauma were less likely to present symptoms or an episode of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression over 2 years than those with stable right alpha asymmetry and lower levels of trauma. These findings suggest that developmental patterns of resting left frontal brain activity may buffer against psychopathology in maltreated female youth.
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T07:40:27.831476-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21585
  • Contributions of infant vagal regulation at 1 month to subsequent joint
           attention abilities
    • Authors: Vera Mateus; Sara Cruz, Fernando Ferreira-Santos, Ana Osório, Adriana Sampaio, Carla Martins
      Abstract: Since birth, humans develop an ability to regulate their inner states and behaviors, when facing demanding situations, in order to restore calmness and engage with other persons and the surrounding environment. The present study analyzed whether 1-month infant vagal regulation to auditory stimuli was associated with later joint attention abilities—responding to and initiating joint attention—in interaction with their mothers. Twenty-three infants were assessed and measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia—RSA (baseline and vagal tone change during auditory stimulation) were used as index of vagal regulation. At 12-months, joint attention behaviors were assessed in a 10-min toy-play mother-infant interaction. Correlational analyses showed that lower baseline RSA and larger increases in vagal tone during auditory stimulation were related to more instances of joint attention behaviors at 12 months, especially responding to joint attention. Results suggest that distinct profiles of autonomic functioning may contribute to joint attention skills.
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T07:40:21.833749-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21582
  • Salivary uric acid and C-reactive protein associations with hypertensionin
           Midwestern Latino preadolescents and their parents
    • Authors: Blake L. Jones; Salma Elwazeer, Zoe E. Taylor
      Abstract: Latino families face increased risk for hypertension. Serum-based uric acid and C-reactive protein have been linked to hypertension. However, a paucity of salivary biomarker data exists in this area for Latino families. Using salivary biomarkers enables less invasive options for biomedical and biosocial research, which is especially important among vulnerable populations facing increased health disparities. This study examined the associations between salivary uric (sUA) acid, salivary C-reactive protein (sCRP), and hypertension among 151 participants (57 children, 57 mothers, 37 fathers) from 57 Midwestern Latino families. Participants self-administered the salivary samples, and blood pressure was measured by researchers. Results showed sUA was associated across family members, and child hypertension was related to parents′ hypertension. sCRP was only related to sUA in fathers. Findings highlight the family-level health connections, along with the importance for further investigations using salivary biomarkers with Latinos, and the need for a robust sUA cut-off for hyperuricemia.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11T07:18:23.049445-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21577
  • Developmental social isolation affects adult behavior, social interaction,
           and dopamine metabolite levels in zebrafish
    • Authors: Soaleha Shams; Shahid Amlani, Christine Buske, Diptendu Chatterjee, Robert Gerlai
      Abstract: The zebrafish is a social vertebrate and an excellent translational model for a variety of human disorders. Abnormal social behavior is a hallmark of several human brain disorders. Social behavioral problems can arise as a result of adverse early social environment. Little is known about the effects of early social isolation in adult zebrafish. We compared zebrafish that were isolated for either short (7 days) or long duration (180 days) to socially housed zebrafish, testing their behavior across ontogenesis (ages 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 days), and shoal cohesion and whole-brain monoamines and their metabolites in adulthood. Long social isolation increased locomotion and decreased shoal cohesion and anxiety in the open-field in adult. Additionally, both short and long social isolation reduced dopamine metabolite levels in response to social stimuli. Thus, early social isolation has lasting effects in zebrafish, and may be employed to generate zebrafish models of human neuropsychiatric conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T09:15:49.497567-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21581
  • Correlation between maternal anxiety, reactivity of fetal cerebral
           circulation to auditory stimulation, and birth outcome in normotensive and
           gestational hypertensive women
    • Authors: Marina Vujović; Mirjana Sovilj, Ljiljana Jeličić, Miodrag Stokić, Darko Plećaš, Snežana Plešinac, Nadežda Nedeljković
      Abstract: This study investigated the correlation between maternal anxiety and blood flow changes through the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) after defined acoustic stimulation in 43 normotensive (C) and 40 gestational hypertensive (GH) subjects. Neonatal outcomes (gestational age at birth, Apgar score, birth weight) in the C and GH groups were analyzed. State (STAI-S) and trait (STAI-T) anxiety was assessed using Spielberger's questionnaire. The MCA blood flow was assessed once between 28 and 41 weeks of gestation using color Doppler ultrasound before and after application of defined acoustic stimulus. Relative size of the Pulsatility index (Pi) change (RePi) was calculated. The general hypotheses were: (1) women in GH group would have higher anxiety; (2) higher anxiety correlates with higher RePi change and poorer neonatal outcome; (3) fetuses from the GH group would have poorer neonatal outcome. Subjects from the GH group had higher STAI-T and RePi compared to the C group. A positive correlation between RePi and STAI-S, STAI-T, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure was found in both groups. There were more preterm deliveries in the GH group compared to the C group. A significant effect of STAI-T on body weight was observed in the C and GH group. There was a predictive effect of STAI-T and RePi on the C group, and STAI-S, STAI-T, diastolic blood pressure, and RePi on the GH group in terms of neonatal body weight. This study demonstrates an association between antenatal anxiety in GH women and increased fetal cerebral circulation in response to defined auditory stimulation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T09:15:43.478292-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21589
  • All bonds are not alike: A psychoendocrine evaluation of infant attachment
    • Authors: Sabrina Gaudin; Elodie Chaillou, Marie-Anne Wycke, Fabien Cornilleau, Chantal Moussu, Ludovic Calandreau, Anne-Lyse Lainé, Raymond Nowak
      Abstract: Characteristics of attachment were assessed in peer- and object-reared lambs, and compared to mothered subjects by taking into consideration distress, proximity seeking, and exploration during two separation-reunion tests in both the familiar and a novel environment. Plasma cortisol and oxytocin were assayed as physiological indicators of stress and being comforted during the separation-reunion test. Rewarding properties of the familiar figures were also determined in a conditioned place preference-like paradigm. Between-group analysis revealed the existence of secure attachment with the mother, alteration of secure attachment with the peer and weaker attachment with the object. Weaker attachment was expressed by a lack of distress during separation in the home pen and no preference for the place conditioned with the familiar object. Elevated basal plasma oxytocin levels, but not cortisol, observed in maternally deprived lambs were more likely linked to the absence of a maternal figure rather than social comfort during reunion.
      PubDate: 2017-10-31T11:25:37.881524-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21552
  • Prematurity and perinatal adversity effects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
           axis reactivity to social evaluative threat in adulthood
    • Authors: Mary C. Sullivan; Suzy B. Winchester, Crystal I. Bryce, Douglas A. Granger
      Abstract: This study examined the long-term effects of prematurity and perinatal adversity on individual differences in stress-related reactivity and regulation of the HPA axis. A prospective sample of 155 infants born preterm and healthy (n = 20), medical illness (n = 48), neurological illness (n = 26), and small for gestational age (n = 24) and full-term (n = 37) were recruited between 1985 and 1989. At age 23 years, multiple saliva samples were collected before and after participation in the Trier Social Stress Test and later assayed for cortisol. Results reveal that at age 23 years, infants born premature with neurological complications showed higher cortisol reactivity to social evaluative threat compared to either their full-term, small for gestation age, medically ill, or healthy preterm peers. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for contemporary theories that propose effects of early adversity on biological sensitivities and susceptibilities, which translate experience into developmental outcomes related to poor health and risk for disease.
      PubDate: 2017-10-28T06:05:30.023747-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21570
  • Rapid facial reactions in response to happy and angry expressions in
           7-month-old infants
    • Authors: Amy Datyner; Julie D. Henry, Jenny L. Richmond
      Abstract: Humans rapidly and spontaneously activate muscles in the face when viewing emotional facial expressions in others. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are thought to reflect low-level, bottom-up processes, and are theorized to assist an observer to experience and share the affect of another individual. It has been assumed that RFRs are present from birth; however to date, no study has investigated this response in children younger than 3 years of age. In the present study, we used facial electromyography (EMG) to measure corrugator supercilii (brow) and zygomaticus major (cheek) muscle activity in 7-month-old infants while they viewed happy and angry facial expressions. The results showed that 7-month olds exhibited greater zygomaticus activity in response to happy expressions than angry expressions, however, we found no evidence of differential corrugator muscle activity.
      PubDate: 2017-10-28T06:05:27.879949-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21575
  • The influence of grasping habits and object orientation on motor planning
           in children and adults
    • Authors: Bianca Jovanovic; Gudrun Schwarzer
      Abstract: We investigated the influence of habitual grasp strategies and object orientation on motor planning in 3-year-olds and 4- to 5-year-old children and adults. Participants were required to rotate different vertically oriented objects around 180°. Usually, adults perform this task by grasping objects with an awkward grip (thumb and index finger pointing downward) at the beginning of the movement, in order to finish it with a comfortable hand position. This pattern corresponds to the well-known end-state comfort effect (ESC) in grasp planning. The presented objects were associated with different habitual grasp orientations that either corresponded with the grasp direction required to reach end-state comfort (downward) or implied a contrary grasp orientation (upward). Additionally, they were presented either in their usual, canonical orientation (e.g., shovel with the blade oriented downward versus cup with its opening oriented upward) or upside down. As dependent variable we analyzed the number of grips conforming to the end-state comfort principle (ESC score) realized in each object type and orientation condition. The number of grips conforming to ESC strongly increased with age. In addition, the extent to which end-state comfort was considered was influenced by the actual orientation of the objects’ functional parts. Thus, in all age-groups the ESC score was highest when the functional parts of the objects were oriented downward (shovel presented canonically with blade pointing downward, cup presented upside down) and corresponded to the hand orientation needed to realize ESC.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T23:50:39.880481-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21573
  • Behavioral flexibility in learning to sit
    • Authors: Jaya Rachwani; Kasey C. Soska, Karen E. Adolph
      Abstract: What do infants learn when they learn to sit upright' We tested behavioral flexibility in learning to sit—the ability to adapt posture to changes in the environment—in 6- to 9-month-old infants sitting on forward and backward slopes. Infants began with slant at 0°; then slant increased in 2° increments until infants lost balance. Infants kept balance on impressively steep slopes, especially in the forward direction, despite the unexpected movements of the apparatus. Between slant adjustments while the slope was stationary, infants adapted posture to the direction and degree of slant by leaning backward on forward slopes and forward on backward slopes. Postural adaptations were nearly optimal for backward slopes. Sitting experience predicted greater postural adaptations and increased ability to keep balance on steeper changes of slant, but only for forward slopes. We suggest that behavioral flexibility is integral to learning to sit and increases with sitting experience.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T23:50:33.47947-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21571
  • Sensitivity to facial expressions among extremely low birth weight
           survivors in their 30s
    • Authors: Xiaoqing Gao; Ayelet Lahat, Daphne Maurer, Calan Savoy, Ryan J. Van Lieshout, Michael H. Boyle, Saroj Saigal, Louis A. Schmidt
      Abstract: The current study investigated the impact of birth weight on the ability to recognize facial expressions in adulthood among the longest known prospectively followed cohort of extremely low birth weight survivors (ELBW;
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T23:50:25.482489-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21580
  • Vigilance for threat accounts for inter-individual variation in
           physiological responses to adversity in rhesus macaques: A
           cognition × environment approach
    • Authors: Tara M. Mandalaywala; Lauren A. Petrullo, Karen J. Parker, Dario Maestripieri, James P. Higham
      Abstract: Early life adversity (ELA) can lead to poor health later in life. However, there is significant variation in outcomes, with some individuals displaying resilience even in the face of adversity. Using longitudinal data collected from free-ranging rhesus macaques between birth and 3 years, we examined whether individual variation in vigilance for threat, an early emerging attentional bias, can account for variation in long-term outcomes between individuals reared in similar environments. We found that ELA and vigilance during infancy interact to predict physiological dysregulation in Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) stress responses during juvenility. During high stress periods, High ELA juveniles with high vigilance exhibit less asymmetry than High ELA juveniles with low vigilance. This suggests that although increased vigilance is viewed as a negative consequence of ELA, it might also be a mechanism by which vulnerable individuals proactively buffer themselves from negative outcomes in unstable or threatening environments.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25T23:50:20.773134-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21572
  • Maternal emotion dysregulation, parenting stress, and child physiological
           anxiety during dark-enhanced startle
    • Authors: Minhnguyen Cao; Abigail Powers, Dorthie Cross, Bekh Bradley, Tanja Jovanovic
      Abstract: Maternal emotion dysregulation (ED) plays a crucial role in the development of psychopathology in children. The current study aimed to investigate parenting stress as a mediator of the relationship between maternal emotion dysregulation and child startle potentiation, with child sex as a moderator. Mothers were interviewed to obtain self-report of maternal ED and parenting stress and child's dark-enhanced startle (DES) response was measured using electromyographic recordings of the eye-blink muscle during the delivery of acoustic probes. We found that maternal ED was positively correlated with both her parenting stress and her child's DES. A bootstrap analysis yielded a full mediation of the association between ED and child DES via parenting stress. Child sex was not a significant moderator of these relationships. These results suggest that maternal ED has important consequences for the intergenerational transmission of risk and also highlight the interaction of behavioral and biological mechanisms of risk.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T06:55:35.298897-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21574
  • The role of cardiac vagal tone and inhibitory control in pre-schoolers'
           listening comprehension
    • Authors: Sara Scrimin; Elisabetta Patron, Elena Florit, Daniela Palomba, Lucia Mason
      Abstract: This study investigated the role of basal cardiac activity and inhibitory control at the beginning of the school year in predicting oral comprehension at the end of the year in pre-schoolers. Forty-three, 4-year-olds participated in the study. At the beginning of the school year children's electrocardiogram at rest was registered followed by the assessment of inhibitory control as well as verbal working memory and verbal ability. At the end of the year all children were administered a listening comprehension ability measure. A stepwise regression showed a significant effect of basal cardiac vagal tone in predicting listening comprehension together with inhibitory control and verbal ability. These results are among the first to show the predictive role of basal cardiac vagal tone and inhibitory control in pre-schoolers' oral text comprehension, and offer new insight into the association between autonomic regulation of the heart, inhibitory control, and cognitive activity at a young age.
      PubDate: 2017-10-13T06:55:21.238504-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21576
  • Early adolescent stress-induced changes in prefrontal cortex miRNA-135a
           and hippocampal miRNA-16 in male rats
    • Authors: Yuan Liu; Dexiang Liu, Jingjing Xu, Hong Jiang, Fang Pan
      Abstract: Early-life stress increases susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), in which the dysfunction of 5-hydroxytryptamine plays an important role. miRNA-135a in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and miRNA-16 in the hippocampus (HIP) are closely related to the 5-HT neurotransmitter system. Here, we investigated behavior, miRNA-135a in the PFC, miRNA-16 in the HIP, and 5-HT1AR expression in both brain regions in adolescent and adult rats that were exposed to inescapable stress during their adolescence. Paroxetine hydrochloride and corticotropin-releasing factor antagonist (CP-154,526) were used as intervening measures. Our study demonstrated that early adolescent stress induced anxiety-like behaviors and spatial memory damage, a reduction in miRNA-135a expression was associated with increased 5-HT1AR expression in PFC, and increased miRNA-16 expression in the HIP of stressed rats. Drug treatments alleviated behaviors and reversed the miRNA-135a, miRNA-16, and 5-HT1AR expression in stressed rats.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T01:06:40.417325-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21558
  • Glucocorticoid treatment earlier in childhood and adolescence show
           dose-response associations with diurnal cortisol levels
    • Authors: Martin Vestergaard; Sara K. Holm, Peter Uldall, Hartwig R. Siebner, Olaf B. Paulson, William F.C. Baaré, Kathrine S. Madsen
      Abstract: Heightened levels of glucocorticoids in children and adolescents have previously been linked to prolonged changes in the diurnal regulation of the stress-hormone cortisol, a glucocorticoid regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis). To address this question, we examined the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) and daily cortisol output in 36 children and adolescents (25 girls/11 boys) aged 7–16 years previously treated with glucocorticoids for nephrotic syndrome or rheumatic disorder and 36 healthy controls. Patients and controls did not significantly differ in the CAR or diurnal cortisol output; however, sex-dependent group differences were observed. Specifically, female patients had a higher CAR relative to female controls, while male patients had higher daily cortisol levels compared to male controls. Notably, CAR in female patients and daily cortisol levels in male patients showed a positive linear relationship with the mean daily glucocorticoid doses administered during treatment. The observed dose-response associations suggest that glucocorticoid therapy during childhood and adolescence might trigger long-term changes in HPA-axis regulation, which may differ for males and females.
      PubDate: 2017-09-09T09:00:33.605037-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21559
  • Parental depression and parent and child stress physiology: Moderation by
           parental hostility
    • Authors: Stephanie M. Merwin; Katherine A. Leppert, Victoria C. Smith, Lea R. Dougherty
      Abstract: This study examined the moderating role of parental hostility on the associations between parental depression and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and morning cortisol levels of both parents and children. 148 parents and 148 preschool-aged children provided salivary cortisol samples at waking, 30 and 45 min post-waking on two consecutive days. Parental depression was assessed using a clinical interview, and parental hostility was assessed using an observational parent-child interaction task. Results indicated that the combination of parental lifetime depression and high parental hostility was associated with lower morning cortisol levels in both parents and children. This interactive effect was present in children regardless of their exposure to parental depression. In addition, the combination of higher levels of parents’ current depressive symptoms and parental hostility was associated with lower parent CAR. Lastly, parents’ and children's lower morning cortisol levels were associated with parent-reported child externalizing symptoms. Findings demonstrate that parents and children have similar stress system functioning related to parental depression and the parenting context, as well as children's behavioral problems, which may play a role in the intergenerational transmission of risk for psychopathology.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T01:26:10.153627-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21556
  • “What” and “where” was when' Memory for the temporal order of
           episodic events in children
    • Authors: Damian Scarf; Hannah Boden, Lisa G. Labuschagne, Julien Gross, Harlene Hayne
      Abstract: In the past, researchers have shown that the individual components of episodic memory (i.e “what,” “where,” and “when”) may emerge at different points in development. Specifically, while children as young as three can accurately report the “what” and “where” of an event, they struggle to accurately report when the event occurred. One explanation for children's difficulty in reporting when an event took place is a rudimentary understanding, and ability to use, temporal terms. In the current experiment, we employed a physical timeline to aid children's reporting of the order in which a series of episodic events occurred. Overall, while 4-, 5-, and 6-year olds performed above chance, 3-year olds did not. Our findings suggest that 3-year olds’ limited ability to produce temporal terms may not be the rate-limiting step preventing them from identifying when events occurred in their recent past.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T06:50:30.957609-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21553
  • Prenatal programming of postnatal plasticity for externalizing behavior:
           Testing an integrated developmental model of genetic and temperamental
           sensitivity to the environment
    • Authors: Irene Tung; Julia E. Morgan, Amanda N. Noroña, Steve S. Lee
      Abstract: Although both gene- and temperament-environment interactions contribute to the development of youth externalizing problems, it is unclear how these factors jointly affect environmental sensitivity over time. In a 7-year longitudinal study of 232 children (aged 5–10) with and without ADHD, we employed moderated mediation to test a developmentally sensitive mechanistic model of genetic and temperamental sensitivity to prenatal and postnatal environmental factors. Birth weight, a global measure of the prenatal environment, moderated predictions of child negative emotionality from a composite of dopaminergic polymorphisms (i.e., DRD4 and DAT1), such that birth weight inversely predicted negative emotionality only for children with genetic plasticity. Negative emotionality, in turn, predicted externalizing behavior 4–5 years later, beyond genetic and postnatal parenting effects. Finally, birth weight moderated the indirect effect of dopaminergic genotypes on externalizing problems through negative emotionality, partially supporting a prenatal programming model. We discuss theoretical and empirical implications for models of environmental sensitivity.
      PubDate: 2017-08-21T06:50:27.505912-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21549
  • Cover, Ed Board and TOC
    • Pages: 933 - 936
      PubDate: 2017-11-16T09:16:34.728799-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/dev.21463
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