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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 918 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 441)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 207)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 248)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 151)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Eat, Sleep, Work     Open Access  
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
  [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2352-1546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Hypothalamic survival circuits related to social and predatory defenses
           and their interactions with metabolic control, reproductive behaviors and
           memory systems
    • Authors: Newton Sabino Canteras
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): Newton Sabino Canteras
      The hypothalamus may be viewed as the central piece of the survival circuits and is responsible for organizing endocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses to guarantee the survival of both the individual and the species. The hypothalamus is largely known to control the three basic classes of behavior required for animal survival, namely, ingestive, defensive, and reproductive behaviors. Over the years, a great deal has been learned regarding the hypothalamic circuits organizing these classes of behavior. In this review, we will focus on hypothalamic circuits involved in organizing anti-predatory and social defenses, noting putative interactions with other hypothalamic systems that mediate metabolic control and social responses, and exploring how the hypothalamic defensive circuits may influence emotional memory linked to predatory and social threats.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.017
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • Survival circuits and risk assessment
    • Authors: Neil McNaughton; Philip J Corr
      Pages: 14 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): Neil McNaughton, Philip J Corr
      Risk assessment (RA) behaviour is unusual in the context of survival circuits. An external object elicits eating, mating or fleeing; but conflict between internal approach and withdrawal tendencies elicits RA-specific behaviour that scans the environment for new information to bring closure. Recently rodent and human threat responses have been compared using ‘predators’ that can be real (e.g. a tarantula), robot, virtual, or symbolic (with the last three rendered predatory by the use of shock). ‘Quick and dirty’ survival circuits in the periaqueductal grey, hypothalamus, and amygdala control external RA behaviour. These subcortical circuits activate, and are partially inhibited by, higher-order internal RA processes (anxiety, memory scanning, evaluation and sometimes—maladaptive rumination) in the ventral hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.018
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • Survival circuits and therapy: from automaticity to the conscious
           experience of fear and anxiety
    • Authors: Steven C Hayes; Stefan G Hofmann
      Pages: 21 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): Steven C Hayes, Stefan G Hofmann
      We will briefly examine the implication of a multi-dimensional and multi-level view of evolution for addressing the role and function of survival circuits in the context of human cognition, and the underlying emotional, memory, and behavioral processes both impact. It is our contention that human cognition can partially direct and channel these more ancient neurobiological regulatory systems. We argue that while survival circuits can be helpful or hurtful to human functioning, they are particularly likely to be problematic when they occur in the context of cognitive processes that have become automatic and well-practiced, and thus beyond normal conscious processes of cognitive control. Psychotherapy can be of help in increasing access to such ‘unconscious’ process, reducing their automatic impact, and allowing human goals and values to over-ride maladaptive processes engaged by survival circuits.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • Prospection and natural selection
    • Authors: T Suddendorf; A Bulley; B Miloyan
      Pages: 26 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): T Suddendorf, A Bulley, B Miloyan
      Prospection refers to thinking about the future, a capacity that has become the subject of increasing research in recent years. Here we first distinguish basic prospection, such as associative learning, from more complex prospection commonly observed in humans, such as episodic foresight, the ability to imagine diverse future situations and organize current actions accordingly. We review recent studies on complex prospection in various contexts, such as decision-making, planning, deliberate practice, information gathering, and social coordination. Prospection appears to play many important roles in human survival and reproduction. Foreseeing threats and opportunities before they arise, for instance, drives attempts at avoiding future harm and obtaining future benefits, and recognizing the future utility of a solution turns it into an innovation, motivating refinement and dissemination. Although we do not know about the original contexts in which complex prospection evolved, it is increasingly clear through research on the emergence of these capacities in childhood and on related disorders in various clinical conditions, that limitations in prospection can have profound functional consequences.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.019
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2018)
  • The molecular basis for sex differences in depression susceptibility
    • Authors: Orna Issler; Eric J Nestler
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Orna Issler, Eric J Nestler
      Depression is a prevalent, devastating psychiatric disorder which women are twice as likely to suffer as men. Yet, until recently, most of the mechanistic studies shedding light on the molecular pathways involved in depression have focused on males, both animals and humans. It has been established that women have a more sensitive stress response, and that sex hormones contribute to depression onset. Recent genome-wide studies on human and mouse brain tissue have revealed that the overlap in the genes regulated by depression or chronic stress, respectively, between the sexes is surprisingly low. Such unbiased comprehensive screening approaches combined with advanced bioinformatics and in vivo validation studies enable identifying truly novel target genes that contribute to sex differences in depression susceptibility. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated sex bias in transgenerational passage of the effects of stress to the offspring. Elucidating the sex-specific mechanisms contributing to the development of depression can help design better diagnostic and therapeutic tools aimed at normalizing the unique abnormalities of each gender.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.019
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Let's talk about sex … differences in human fear conditioning
    • Authors: Christian J Merz; Valerie L Kinner; Oliver T Wolf
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Christian J Merz, Valerie L Kinner, Oliver T Wolf
      Fear conditioning represents an experimental paradigm ideally suited to investigate aversive learning and memory mechanisms that are fundamental to the development, maintenance and treatment of mental disorders. Men and women seem to differ in their capability to learn and retrieve fear and extinction memories. This review outlines how sex may influence human fear conditioning, with an emphasis on the sex hormones and oral contraceptives. Available evidence suggests women with high estrogen levels to acquire fear more readily, but also to extinguish fear more easily, leading to an enhanced extinction memory trace. By contrast, women with low estrogens (e.g. due to oral contraceptives) seem to show deficits in extinction recall. These findings are highly relevant for future basic and applied studies alike.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.021
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Oxytocin and sex differences in behavior
    • Authors: Heather K Caldwell
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Heather K Caldwell
      Oxytocin is an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide that is implicated in the neural modulation of behavior in vertebrates. While this system is well known for its species-specific effects, there is a lack of consensus regarding oxytocin's sex-specific effects—due in part to shortcomings in the way that studies have traditionally been designed. Sex differences in the neuroanatomy of the oxytocin system are not abundant and are generally not predictive of sex differences in behavior. Rather, it is possible that the differential evolution of these systems in males and females has resulted in sex differences in the sensitivity to oxytocin as well as sex differences in the function of the neural circuitry important for behavioral displays. This hypothesis is supported by work which suggests that sex differences in behavior are likely due to sex-specific patterns of activity between brain regions that have been implicated in the regulation of social behavior. It is also important to consider how oxytocin's sex-specific behavioral effects are shaped by social context, species evolution, and an animal's behavioral ecology.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Sex differences in the developmental neuroscience of adolescent substance
           use risk
    • Authors: Mary M Heitzeg; Jillian E Hardee; Adriene M Beltz
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Mary M Heitzeg, Jillian E Hardee, Adriene M Beltz
      Adolescence is a period associated with the initiation and escalation of substance use and is also a time during which substantial changes take place in neural development, personality and behavior. Although rates of substance use between adolescent girls and boys do not differ substantially, there is evidence for sex differences in underlying vulnerability pathways associated with the development of substance use disorder. Here we review sex differences in adolescent brain development and how these differences may contribute to different risk pathways between females and males that emerge during this developmental period. We also discuss methodological considerations in the study of sex differences in brain and behavior and their implications for interpretation. We close by highlighting promising areas for future work.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.020
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Modeling drug addiction in females: how internal state and environmental
           context facilitate vulnerability
    • Authors: Drew D Kiraly; Deena M Walker; Erin S Calipari
      Pages: 27 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23
      Author(s): Drew D Kiraly, Deena M Walker, Erin S Calipari
      A fundamental aspect of survival is the ability to refine behaviors based on internal and external contexts. Interpretation of rewarding stimuli is driven by integration of a diverse number of inputs including contextual cues, hormone levels, and perceived valence of potentially stressful stimuli. These factors can influence the way that an organism makes decisions in the short term and how information is learned and stored on a longer time scale. With respect to addiction vulnerability, the interaction between context, dopamine, and drugs is particularly important. Historically, a majority of addiction research has focused on male subjects; however, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated that sex chromosome and hormonal differences between males and females can acutely influence the pharmacodynamic properties of drugs as well as the way information about cues and drugs are stored and encoded within the brain. Here we present considerations for how contextual information such as stress and social hierarchy can differentially affect males and females. This review presents a framework in which these contextual factors can be addressed and incorporated in our conceptualization of animal models of substance use disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 23 (2018)
  • Apathy in Alzheimer's disease
    • Authors: Lisa Nobis; Masud Husain
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Lisa Nobis, Masud Husain
      Apathy is the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The presence of apathy has been related to greater caregiver distress, decreased quality of life, and increased morbidity. Here we review the most recent studies on this neuropsychiatric syndrome, focusing on prevalence, impact on quality of life, behavioural and neuroimaging studies, and treatment options. The results of some investigations on the behavioural and neuroanatomical profile of apathy in AD point to a role of frontostriatal circuits, specifically involving the anterior cingulate cortex. However, small and heterogeneous samples, lack of control for disease severity, and non-specific apathy scales complicate interpretation of results. Future studies might benefit from studying multiple dimensions of apathy within conceptual frameworks which allow for a deconstruction of underlying mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of apathy and impulsivity in
           frontotemporal lobar degeneration
    • Authors: L Passamonti; CJ Lansdall; JB Rowe
      Pages: 14 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): L Passamonti, CJ Lansdall, JB Rowe
      Apathy and impulsivity are common and often coexistent consequences of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). They increase patient morbidity and carer distress, but remain under-estimated and poorly treated. Recent trans-diagnostic approaches that span the spectrum of clinical presentations of FTLD and parkinsonism, indicate that apathy and impulsivity can be fractionated into multiple neuroanatomical and pharmacological systems. These include ventral/dorsal frontostriatal circuits for reward-sensitivity, response-inhibition, and decision-making; moderated by noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin. Improved assessment tools, formal models of cognition and behavior, combined with brain imaging and psychopharmacology, are creating new therapeutic targets and establishing principles for stratification in future clinical trials.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.015
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Translational approaches to evaluating motivation in laboratory rodents:
           conventional and touchscreen-based procedures
    • Authors: Benjamin U Phillips; Laura Lopez-Cruz; Jonathan Hailwood; Christopher J Heath; Lisa M Saksida; Timothy J Bussey
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Benjamin U Phillips, Laura Lopez-Cruz, Jonathan Hailwood, Christopher J Heath, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey
      Several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders are characterised by motivational impairments manifested as lack of behavioural activation or energy resulting in significant functional impairment. Given the clinical significance of these symptoms, the study of motivation in preclinical research has recently intensified. This review briefly summarises the tasks that have been implemented for the evaluation of motivation in different species, emphasising the recent use of touchscreen-based rodent testing systems. This methodology has been widely used in the evaluation of multiple cognitive domains emphasising their translational value and flexibility. Recently touchscreen-based versions of classical tasks for the evaluation of motivation have been or are currently being developed and validated, thus facilitating translation from animal to human research and promoting their implementation in clinical contexts.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Dopamine and proximity in motivation and cognitive control
    • Authors: Andrew Westbrook; Michael Frank
      Pages: 28 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Andrew Westbrook, Michael Frank
      Cognitive control—the ability to override a salient or prepotent action to execute a more deliberate one—is required for flexible, goal-directed behavior, and yet it is subjectively costly: decision-makers avoid allocating control resources, even when doing so affords more valuable outcomes. Dopamine likely offsets effort costs just as it does for physical effort. And yet, dopamine can also promote impulsive action, undermining control. We propose a novel hypothesis that reconciles opposing effects of dopamine on cognitive control: during action selection, striatal dopamine biases benefits relative to costs, but does so preferentially for ‘proximal’ motor and cognitive actions. Considering the nature of instrumental affordances and their dynamics during action selection facilitates a parsimonious interpretation and conserved corticostriatal mechanisms across physical and cognitive domains.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Updating the role of dopamine in human motivation and apathy
    • Authors: Trevor T-J Chong
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Trevor T-J Chong
      Apathy is a paradigmatic disorder of motivation, and is encountered across a breadth of neurological and psychiatric disease. Importantly, apathy is not a unitary symptom—rather, it is a syndrome comprising a constellation of impairments across multiple domains of behaviour. Recent work has focused on characterising the distinct neurophysiological mechanisms that give rise to clinical apathy. Although dopamine has long been known to have a central role in complex behaviour, current data indicate that its roles in the learning and valuation of effort and reward may underlie distinct subtypes of motivational impairment. A focus of future work will be to map the involvement of dopamine in motivated decision-making to separate domains of apathy. This will facilitate not only a greater understanding of the neurobiology of motivational disorders, but also the development of targeted, neurobiologically based treatments.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Multidimensional apathy: evidence from neurodegenerative disease
    • Authors: Ratko Radakovic; Sharon Abrahams
      Pages: 42 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Ratko Radakovic, Sharon Abrahams
      Apathy is a demotivation syndrome common in neurodegenerative diseases and is fundamentally multidimensional in nature. Different methodologies have been used to identify and quantify these dimensions, which has resulted in multifarious concepts, ranging in the number and characteristics of apathy subtypes. This has created an ambiguity over the fundamental substructure of apathy. Here we review the multidimensional concepts of apathy and demonstrate that overlapping elements exist, pointing towards commonalities in apathy subtypes. These can be subsumed under a unified Dimensional Apathy Framework: a triadic structure of Initiation, Executive and Emotional apathy. Distinct cognitive processes may underlie these domains, while self-awareness interplays with all subtypes. Evidence from neurodegenerative diseases supports this distinction with differing apathy profiles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.022
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • When decisions talk: computational phenotyping of motivation disorders
    • Authors: Mathias Pessiglione; Raphaël Le Bouc; Fabien Vinckier
      Pages: 50 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Mathias Pessiglione, Raphaël Le Bouc, Fabien Vinckier
      Clinical assessment of motivation disorders, such as apathy or compulsivity, is currently based on psychometric scales that do not provide any mechanistic insight susceptible to better target therapeutic intervention. Here, we expose a new approach that consists in phenotyping motivation states by fitting computational models to the behavioral responses made by patients in choice and/or learning tests. A computational phenotype is nothing but a set of fitted parameters that capture key motivational dimensions such as sensitivity to reward, punition, effort, delay and risk. These motivational dimensions have already been assessed in many neurological and psychiatric conditions, and related to clinical dimensions in a transnosographic manner. In some cases, computational phenotyping has also been applied to potential treatments, establishing correspondence with motivation disorders and hence opening a new avenue for personalized medicine. For instance, apathy related to reduced reward sensitivity might be better treated with dopaminergic than serotonergic medication.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Current perspectives on incentive salience and applications to clinical
    • Authors: Jeffrey J Olney; Shelley M Warlow; Erin E Naffziger; Kent C Berridge
      Pages: 59 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Jeffrey J Olney, Shelley M Warlow, Erin E Naffziger, Kent C Berridge
      Affective neuroscience research has revealed that reward contains separable components of ‘liking’, ‘wanting’, and learning. Here we focus on current ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ findings and applications to clinical disorders. ‘Liking’ is the hedonic impact derived from a pleasant experience, and is amplified by opioid and related signals in discrete sites located in limbic-related brain areas. ‘Wanting’ refers to incentive salience, a motivation process for reward, and is mediated by larger systems involving mesocorticolimbic dopamine. Deficits in incentive salience may contribute to avolitional features of depression and related disorders, whereas deficits in hedonic impact may produce true anhedonia. Excesses in incentive salience, on the other hand, can lead to addiction, especially when narrowly focused on a particular target. Finally, a fearful form of motivational salience may even contribute to some paranoia symptoms of schizophrenia and related disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Effort-based decision-making paradigms as objective measures of apathy in
    • Authors: Matthias Hartmann-Riemer; Matthias Kirschner; Stefan Kaiser
      Pages: 70 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Matthias Hartmann-Riemer, Matthias Kirschner, Stefan Kaiser
      In recent years, effort-based decision-making paradigms have been applied in patients with schizophrenia with the aim to establish a potentially ‘objective’ measure of apathy symptoms and shed light on underlying mechanisms. Initial studies have reported promising findings regarding symptom-level links to effort-based choice. However, a review of the recent and overall literature yields divergent findings. Published studies vary substantially in terms of clinical instruments and applied effort-based decision-making paradigms. This heterogeneity hampers comparability between studies and might partially explain divergent findings. A clear consensus on clinical assessment instruments and paradigms seems to be critical for further progress in the field.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Comparative evidence for the importance of the amygdala in regulating
           reward salience
    • Authors: Christopher R Pryce
      Pages: 76 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Christopher R Pryce
      Environmental stimuli and life events are often of emotional relevance to the individual. This is due to their recognition and processing by the brain's neural circuits for emotion. In terms of emotion valence, stimuli/events can be neutral (non-emotional), rewarding or aversive. In addition to its basic valence, the salience of an emotional stimulus, that is, how rewarding or how aversive it is, is also of critical importance. Quantitative changes in stimulus reward salience or aversion salience are likely to underlie some major symptoms in stress-related mental disorders. This includes low reward salience as the basis for diminished interest or pleasure in major depressive disorder (MDD) and for apathy (negative symptoms) in schizophrenia, and high aversion salience as the basis for depressed mood in MDD. Insight into the brain region(s) and cellular microcircuits wherein the saliences of reward and aversion stimuli are set is essential for understanding the neurobiology of emotion in health and mental disorders. Here I review the current evidence for the role of the amygdala in processing reward valence and salience, based on studies conducted in human, monkey and, in particular, rat and mouse. Human BOLD-fMRI studies demonstrate amygdala reactivity to reward and its reduction in MDD and schizophrenia. In monkey, some neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are responsive to reward, aversion, or both. In rat, BLA reward neurons regulate excitation of nucleus accumbens (NAcc) neurons, whereas chronic stress increases intra-amygdala synaptic activity. In mouse, there are BLA glutamatergic principal reward neurons and aversion neurons. Based on this comparative evidence, this review concludes that the mammalian BLA reward neurons could constitute a major contributor to the neural circuitry of reward salience and a critical node in reward pathology.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.023
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Overcoming apathy in frontotemporal dementia: challenges and future
    • Authors: Emma Johnson; Fiona Kumfor
      Pages: 82 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Emma Johnson, Fiona Kumfor
      Apathy is a common symptom in frontotemporal dementia that is associated with functional decline and carer stress. Evidence suggests that apathy presents differently depending on patterns of brain atrophy, and emerges earlier and is more severe in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia than in semantic dementia or progressive nonfluent aphasia. Previously, apathy was assessed as a unidimensional construct using informant report questionnaires. Recent theories, however, conceptualise apathy as a multidimensional construct manifesting with affective, behavioural and cognitive symptoms. Research has started to focus on developing more objective, multidimensional behavioural assessments of apathy to clarify the nature of apathy in frontotemporal dementia. This will facilitate development of better interventions to support optimal function in these syndromes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.022
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Inflammation-induced motivational changes: perspective gained by
           evaluating positive and negative valence systems
    • Authors: Elisabeth G Vichaya; Robert Dantzer
      Pages: 90 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Elisabeth G Vichaya, Robert Dantzer
      Inflammation can profoundly impact motivated behavior, as is the case with inflammation-induced depression. By evaluating objectively measurable basic neurobehavioral processes involved in motivation, recent research indicates that inflammation generally reduces approach motivation and enhances avoidance motivation. Increased effort valuation largely mediates the effects of inflammation on approach motivation. Changes in reward valuation are not uniformly observed in approach motivation. However, inflammation increases the averseness of negative stimuli. Within the context of both approach and avoidance motivation, inflammation appears to enhance the contrast between concurrently presented stimuli. While changes in both approach and avoidance motivation appear to be mediated by midbrain dopaminergic neurotransmission to the ventral striatum, it is unclear if the enhanced contrast is mediated by the same system.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Motivation for the greater good: neural mechanisms of overcoming costs
    • Authors: Alexander Soutschek; Philippe N Tobler
      Pages: 96 - 105
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Alexander Soutschek, Philippe N Tobler
      To obtain greater goods decision makers often have to incur and endure costs. Here we review mechanisms that enhance the willingness to accept and overcome costs in individual and social settings. General, cost-invariant mechanisms involve controlling and reducing reward-related impulsivity, abstracting from personal and situational circumstances, changing the availability of options in the choice set, and reinterpreting aspects of the choice alternatives. These mechanisms are based on fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal networks for valuation and goal-setting. More specific, cost-variant mechanisms include effort endurance, imagining future events, tolerating risk, and empathy. These mechanisms rely on cost-specific brain mechanisms, as well as interactions with the valuation network in accordance with cost-variant changes in the valuation of the costly choice alternatives. We identify knowledge gaps, which are exacerbated by studies typically focusing only on one cost type. Moreover, many of the identified mechanisms of enduring costs provide largely untrodden paths for interventions to increase cost endurance in clinical and non-clinical domains.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.025
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Brain mechanisms mediating effects of stress on reward sensitivity
    • Authors: Maria Ironside; Poornima Kumar; Min-Su Kang; Diego A Pizzagalli
      Pages: 106 - 113
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Maria Ironside, Poornima Kumar, Min-Su Kang, Diego A Pizzagalli
      Acute and chronic stress have dissociable effects on reward sensitivity, and a better understanding of these effects promises to elucidate the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders, particularly depression. Recent preclinical and human findings suggest that stress particularly affects reward anticipation; chronic stress perturbates dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum; and such effects are further moderated by early adversities. Additionally, a systems-level approach is uncovering the interplay among striatal, limbic and control networks giving rise to stress-related, blunted reward sensitivity. Together, this cross-species confluence has not only enriched our understanding of stress-reward links but also highlighted the role of neuropeptides and opioid receptors in such effects, and thereby identified novel targets for stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Neurobiology and pharmacology of activational and effort-related aspects
           of motivation: rodent studies
    • Authors: John D Salamone; Mercè Correa
      Pages: 114 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): John D Salamone, Mercè Correa
      Behavioral activation and exertion of effort are fundamental aspects of motivation. Exertion of effort enables organisms to overcome obstacles that separate them from significant stimuli. Moreover, organisms must frequently make effort-related decisions involving assessments of the relative benefits of available stimuli versus the costs of obtaining them. Effort-based decision making is studied using tasks that offer choices between high effort options leading to more highly valued reinforcers versus low effort/low reward options. These tasks have been used to study the involvement of neural systems, including mesolimbic dopamine and related circuits, in effort-related aspects of motivation. Recently, this research has led to the development of rodent pharmacological models of motivational symptoms that are seen in people with various psychiatric and neurological disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.026
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Chemical neuromodulation of cognitive control avoidance
    • Authors: Monja I Froböse; Roshan Cools
      Pages: 121 - 127
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Monja I Froböse, Roshan Cools
      Why do we so often fail to exert cognitive control, even though we are in principle able to do so' In this review, we begin to address this question by considering the contribution of the major ascending neuromodulators that are often implicated in cognitive control and motivation, in particular dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. Accumulating evidence indicates that cognitive control is subjectively costly and people generally choose to refrain from mentally effortful tasks, despite, at times, devastating consequences. This tendency to avoid cognitive control tasks has been shown to be sensitive to catecholaminergic interventions in rodents and humans, where choices about cognitive control can be altered even in the absence of performance changes. Such effects might reflect modulation by dopamine and/or noradrenaline of a variety of mechanisms that contribute to our motivation for cognitive control. These likely include the calculation and integration into behavior of both the expected value (i.e. cost vs benefit), as well as outcome uncertainty of exerting cognitive control. In addition, serotonin might impact cognitive control avoidance by modulating specifically the computation of effort costs. Advancing our understanding of the distinct roles of the various chemical neuromodulators will help elucidate the computational mechanisms that contribute to our tendency to avoid difficult cognitive tasks.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.027
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Anhedonia in depression: biological mechanisms and computational models
    • Authors: Jessica A Cooper; Amanda R Arulpragasam; Michael T Treadway
      Pages: 128 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Jessica A Cooper, Amanda R Arulpragasam, Michael T Treadway
      Anhedonia is a severe condition that describes a near-complete absence of enjoyment, motivation, and interest. A core feature of depression, clinical manifestations of anhedonia can include deficits in experiencing pleasure, approach-related motivated behavior, and learning how to match expectations to the environment. To date, the precise neurobiological mechanisms of anhedonia in major depression are still poorly understood. We have previously argued that contradictory findings and the inability to identify specific neurobiological substrates for anhedonic symptoms may result from sample heterogeneity, suboptimal methods of assessment, and the challenge of dissociating between different components of anhedonia. Recently, however, computational advances to the operationalization of psychiatric symptoms have enhanced the ability to evaluate the neurobiology of constituent elements of this symptom domain. In this paper, we review (1) advances in behavioral and computational methods of assessing reward processing and motivation and (2) the development of new self-report, neurological, and biological methods of subtyping that may be useful in future pursuits to expand our understanding of the neurobiology of anhedonia in depression.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.01.024
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2018)
  • Pragmatic flexibility in primate vocal production
    • Authors: Robert Seyfarth; Dorothy Cheney
      Pages: 56 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Robert Seyfarth, Dorothy Cheney
      The production of vocalizations by monkeys and apes is often described as highly constrained and fundamentally different from human speech. We review recent field studies of baboons and bonobos that suggest greater flexibility. Calls function to reduce the uncertainty inherent in social interactions. Vocal production, like individuals’ responses to calls, is subtly tuned to variation in the social context, including a caller's assessment of how a listener is likely to respond. We suggest parallels between the decision to vocalize and laboratory, neurophysiological tests of social decisions. We also discuss implications for theories of language evolution.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2018)
  • The role of prenatal experience in language development
    • Authors: Judit Gervain
      Pages: 62 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Judit Gervain
      Human infants are born linguistic citizens of the world, possessing broad-based, universal perceptual and learning abilities that allow them to start learning any language(s). After several months of experience, their linguistic system becomes tuned to the sound patterns of their native language(s). Recent results on newborns’ speech perception abilities suggest that this classical view might need to be nuanced, as fetuses seem to learn more from their prenatal experience with speech than previously believed. This paper reviews the growing body of evidence suggesting that newborns are familiar with the prosody of the languages heard in utero, and discusses the implications of this ‘prenatal prosodic bootstrapping’ for subsequent language acquisition.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T19:51:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2018)
  • Economic choice: the foraging perspective
    • Authors: Benjamin Y Hayden
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24
      Author(s): Benjamin Y Hayden
      Foraging theory offers an alternative foundation for understanding economic choice, one that sees economic choices as the outcome of psychological processes that evolved to help our ancestors search for food. Most of the choices encountered by foragers are between pursuing an encountered prey (accept) and ignoring it in favor of continued search (reject). Binary choices, which typically occur between simultaneously presented items, are special case, and are resolved through paired alternating accept–reject decisions limited by the narrow focus of attention. The foraging approach also holds out promise for helping to understand self-control and invites a reconceptualization of the mechanisms of binary choice, the relationship between choosing and stopping, and of the meaning of reward value.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T14:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 24 (2017)
  • Effort-based decision-making in schizophrenia
    • Authors: Adam J Culbreth; Erin K Moran; Deanna M Barch
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 22
      Author(s): Adam J Culbreth, Erin K Moran, Deanna M Barch
      Motivational impairment has long been associated with schizophrenia but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Recently, a small but growing literature has suggested that aberrant effort-based decision-making may be a potential contributory mechanism for motivational impairments in psychosis. Specifically, multiple reports have consistently demonstrated that individuals with schizophrenia are less willing than healthy controls to expend effort to obtain rewards. Further, this effort-based decision-making deficit has been shown to correlate with severity of negative symptoms and level of functioning, in many but not all studies. In the current review, we summarize this literature and discuss several factors that may underlie aberrant effort-based decision-making in schizophrenia.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T14:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 22 (2017)
  • The dopamine system, Parkinson's disease and language function
    • Authors: Patrick McNamara; Raymon Durso
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Patrick McNamara, Raymon Durso
      The mesocortical dopaminergic system innervates two major forebrain networks important in language processing: the frontal–parietal network (FPN) and the ‘social brain’ network. We argue that the FPN may contribute to mediation of grammatical/syntactic aspects of language function while the social brain network may support pragmatic language processes. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) evidence deficits in both brain networks and both linguistic domains: on grammatical sentence processing tasks and on pragmatic language tasks. The pragmatic deficits appear to be more pervasive than the syntactic/grammatical deficits, though a theoretical account of these deficits is lacking. While dopaminergic systems likely contribute to modulation of speech acts in patients with PD, there is, as yet, no clear theoretical account of how that is accomplished.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2017)
  • From bird calls to human language: exploring the evolutionary drivers of
           compositional syntax
    • Authors: Michael Griesser; David Wheatcroft; Toshitaka N Suzuki
      Pages: 6 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Michael Griesser, David Wheatcroft, Toshitaka N Suzuki
      Compositional syntax, where lexical items are combined into larger units, has been assumed to be unique to human language. Recent experiments, however, showed that Japanese tits combine alert and recruitment calls into alert-recruitment sequences when attracting conspecifics to join in mobbing a predator. We speculate that such call combinations are favoured when: Firstly, callers and receivers have shared interests in exchanging information; secondly, species produce different types of calls in different situations, leading to distinct behavioural responses in receivers; and finally, complex situations exist in which receivers benefit by combining two or more behaviours. These preconditions were also present in human ancestors. Thus, future work on bird calls may provide insights into the evolution of compositional syntax in human language.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T14:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2017)
  • The comparative study of grammar learning mechanisms: birds as models
    • Authors: Carel ten Cate
      Pages: 13 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Carel ten Cate
      Human language learning is based on the ability to acquire and apply grammar rules. Comparative studies using nonhuman animals may help to understand the nature, human uniqueness and evolution of language-related rule learning mechanisms. This brief review outlines what studies on birds can contribute to this understanding. It shows that birds are capable of categorization and concept learning and can detect structural regularities in strings of items. It next turns to studies inspired by artificial grammar learning studies in human infants and discusses whether and to what extent birds can learn rules that define structural relationships between arbitrary items. This ability seems present, but this issue calls for further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T14:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2017)
  • Connectivity and the search for specializations in the language-capable
    • Authors: Rogier B Mars; Nicole Eichert; Saad Jbabdi; Lennart Verhagen; Matthew F.S. Rushworth
      Pages: 19 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Rogier B Mars, Nicole Eichert, Saad Jbabdi, Lennart Verhagen, Matthew F.S. Rushworth
      The search for the anatomical basis of language has traditionally been a search for specializations. More recently such research has focused both on aspects of brain organization that are unique to humans and aspects shared with other primates. This work has mostly concentrated on the architecture of connections between brain areas. However, as specializations can take many guises, comparison of anatomical organization across species is often complicated. We demonstrate how viewing different types of specializations within a common framework allows one to better appreciate both shared and unique aspects of brain organization. We illustrate this point by discussing recent insights into the anatomy of the dorsal language pathway to the frontal cortex and areas for laryngeal control in the motor cortex.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T14:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2017)
  • Constraints and flexibility during vocal development: insights from
           marmoset monkeys
    • Authors: Asif A Ghazanfar; Diana A Liao
      Pages: 27 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Asif A Ghazanfar, Diana A Liao
      Human vocal development is typically conceived as a sequence of two processes—an early maturation phase where vocal sounds change as a function of body growth (‘constraints’) followed by a period during which social experience can influence vocal sound production (‘flexibility’). However, studies of other behaviors (e.g., locomotion) reveal that growth and experience are interactive throughout development. As it turns out, vocal development is not exceptional; it is also the on-going result of the interplay between an infant's growing biological system of production (the body and the nervous system) and experience with caregivers. Here, we review work on developing marmoset monkeys—a species that exhibits strikingly similar vocal developmental processes to those of prelinguistic human infants—that demonstrates how constraints and flexibility are parallel and interactive processes.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T14:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2017)
  • Genetic signatures of socio-communicative abilities in primates
    • Authors: Nicky Staes; Brenda J Bradley; William D Hopkins; Chet C Sherwood
      Pages: 33 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Nicky Staes, Brenda J Bradley, William D Hopkins, Chet C Sherwood
      Although many studies stress the distinctive aspects of human language abilities, others argue that its foundations stem from a complex reconfiguration of ancestral systems that are shared with other species. This homology is crucial for identifying the genetic basis of human language, as much of the current research focuses on the recent evolutionary changes of the human genome. Here we provide a review of studies describing genetic variation related to socio-communicative abilities in great apes. As human language potentially evolved in tandem with changes in social cognition, it is important to expand our candidate gene selection to those associated with both social and communicative skills in nonhuman primates to obtain a more complete picture of the genetic architecture underlying language.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T14:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2017)
  • Structured sequence learning across sensory modalities in humans and
           nonhuman primates
    • Authors: AE Milne; B Wilson; MH Christiansen
      Pages: 39 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): AE Milne, B Wilson, MH Christiansen
      Structured sequence processing tasks inform us about statistical learning abilities that are relevant to many areas of cognition, including language. Despite the ubiquity of these abilities across different tasks and cognitive domains, recent research in humans has demonstrated that these cognitive capacities do not represent a single, domain-general system, but are subject to modality-specific and stimulus-specific constraints. Sequence processing studies in nonhuman primates have provided initial insights into the evolution of these abilities. However, few studies have examined similarities and/or differences in sequence learning across sensory modalities. We review how behavioural and neuroimaging experiments assess sequence processing abilities across sensory modalities, and how these tasks could be implemented in nonhuman primates to better understand the evolution of these cognitive systems.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T14:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2017)
  • Probabilistic association learning in schizophrenia
    • Authors: Thomas W Weickert
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Thomas W Weickert
      Probabilistic association learning is a form of non-declarative learning that involves the gradual acquisition of cue-outcome associations based on feedback and is dependent on frontal-striatal activity in healthy adults. Prefrontal cortex dysfunction has been established in schizophrenia; however, striatal dysfunction is often ignored or attributed to antipsychotic effects. Probabilistic association learning is typically impaired in schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have shown reduced frontal-striatal activity in patients with schizophrenia; although a proportion of patients with schizophrenia who can learn the probabilistic associations utilize an alternate neural network that includes the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampus. Many studies support the hypothesis that probabilistic association learning impairment can be an intrinsic characteristic of the illness. Studies have begun to identify the molecular mechanisms underpinning probabilistic association learning deficits in schizophrenia which include the influence of dopamine, neurotrophins and estrogen.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T02:46:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Habits under stress: mechanistic insights across different types of
    • Authors: Lisa Wirz; Mario Bogdanov; Lars Schwabe
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Lisa Wirz, Mario Bogdanov, Lars Schwabe
      Learning can be controlled by reflective, ‘cognitive’ or reflexive, ‘habitual’ systems. An essential question is what factors determine which system governs behavior. Here we review recent evidence from navigation, classification, and instrumental learning, demonstrating that stressful events induce a shift from cognitive to habitual control of learning. We propose that this shift, mediated by noradrenaline and glucocorticoids acting through mineralocorticoid receptors, is orchestrated by the amygdala. Although generally adaptive for coping with acute stress, the bias toward habits comes at the cost of reduced flexibility of learning and may ultimately contribute to stress-related psychopathologies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T15:44:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • What are habits and do they depend on the striatum' A view from the
           study of neuropsychological populations
    • Authors: Karin Foerde
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Karin Foerde
      What are the neural substrates of habit learning in humans' Studies in neuropsychological populations have been central to answering the question, and for decades, research appeared to have provided a fairly consistent answer. However, developments in assays of habits in animals, as well as new approaches to dissecting habitual versus goal-directed control of behavior in humans, point to further complexities in human habit learning. This has raised new questions about the status of habits in neuropsychological populations and our understanding of how the brain supports habitual behavior. I review these emerging challenges and suggest a more nuanced approach to habit learning.

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T20:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Emotional modulation of habit memory: neural mechanisms and implications
           for psychopathology
    • Authors: Mark G Packard; Jarid Goodman; Reed L Ressler
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Mark G Packard, Jarid Goodman, Reed L Ressler
      Emotional arousal modulates the function of multiple memory systems. Extensive evidence employing both lower animals (i.e. rats and mice) and human subjects indicates that behavioral and pharmacological stressors enhance habit memory mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) at the expense of hippocampus-dependent cognitive memory. It has been the goal of several recent studies to uncover the neural mechanisms underlying this emotional enhancement of habit memory. Among the mechanisms implicated in this phenomenon are a modulatory role of the amygdala, stress hormones, and a competitive interaction between DLS-dependent and hippocampus-dependent memory systems. Studies investigating the emotional modulation of habit memory may be helpful for understanding how stress and anxiety promote maladaptive habitual behaviors in some human psychopathologies (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder, drug addiction/relapse, etc.).

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T20:28:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Current limits of experimental research into habits and future directions
    • Authors: P Watson; S de Wit
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): P Watson, S de Wit
      The outcome devaluation paradigm allows for the differentiation between goal-directed actions and habits and has been used extensively in both animal and human studies. This has been a fruitful avenue of research with translational human research reporting reduced sensitivity to devaluation in a number of clinical populations using various different paradigms. However, these paradigms do not provide a direct window on the extent to which impaired performance is due to strong habit formation or to weak goal-directed control. We review the indirect nature of the existing evidence from both animal and human studies and suggest avenues for future research including combining behavioral repetition with manipulations to reduce goal-directed control processes as well as alternative paradigms such as the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer task.

      PubDate: 2017-10-20T00:41:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Recent insights into corticostriatal circuit mechanisms underlying habits
    • Authors: Justin O’Hare; Nicole Calakos; Henry H Yin
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Justin O’Hare, Nicole Calakos, Henry H Yin
      Habits have been studied for decades, but it was not until recent years that experiments began to elucidate the underlying cellular and circuit mechanisms. The latest experiments have been enabled by advances in cell-type specific monitoring and manipulation of activity in large neuronal populations. Here we will review recent efforts to understand the neural substrates underlying habit formation, focusing on rodent studies on corticostriatal circuits.

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T20:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Towards a whole brain model of Perceptual Learning
    • Authors: Marcello Maniglia; Aaron R Seitz
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Marcello Maniglia, Aaron R Seitz
      A hallmark of modern Perceptual Learning (PL) is the extent to which learning is specific to the trained stimuli. Such specificity to orientation, spatial location and even eye of training has been used as psychophysical evidence of the neural basis of learning. This argument that specificity of PL implies regionalization of brain plasticity implicitly assumes that examination of a singular locus of PL is an appropriate approach to understand learning. However, recent research shows that learning effects once thought to be specific depend on subtleties of the training paradigm and that within even a simple training procedure there are multiple aspects of the task and stimuli that are learned simultaneously. Here, we suggest that learning on any task involves a broad network of brain regions undergoing changes in representations, read-out weights, decision rules, attention and feedback processes as well as oculomotor changes. However, importantly, the distribution of learning across the neural system depends upon the details of the training procedure and the characteristics of the individual being trained. We propose that to advance our understanding of PL, the field must move towards understanding how distributed brain processes jointly contribute to behavioural learning effects.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • In search of the engram, 2017
    • Authors: Eva Berlot; Nicola J Popp; Jörn Diedrichsen
      Pages: 56 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Eva Berlot, Nicola J Popp, Jörn Diedrichsen
      Based on evidence from lesion and imaging studies, some authors have suggested that the ‘motor engram’—a representation underlying skillful behavior—becomes more localized with learning. We critically review the evidence in favor of this view pointing out several caveats with the interpretation, most of which have been raised in Karl Lashley's classical paper from 1950. We argue that motor skills are likely not stored in a single area, but are instead encoded across multiple representations in both cortical and subcortical areas. To better understand these distributed neural changes with learning, we need a richer description of skilled performance and testable process models of skill acquisition.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Individual differences in sensorimotor skills among musicians
    • Authors: Shinichi Furuya
      Pages: 61 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Shinichi Furuya
      The grace of a musician has always fascinated people in the world. It has been widely accepted that quantity of musical practice is a prerequisite but not sufficient for acquisition of musical expertise. An increasing number of studies have recently proposed that an interaction between gene and environment underlies musical expertise, based on empirical evidences demonstrating roles of genetic predisposition. In contrast, it has not been elucidated how ways of musical practice play a role in the expertise, which limits optimizing musical training and education that realizes expressive and virtuosic performance. The present article proposes a theoretical framework for possible impacts of how to practice on acquisition of fast, accurate, and efficient musical performance, on the basis of principles and empirical evidences of motor learning.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Regulation of habit formation in the dorsal striatum
    • Authors: Melissa Malvaez; Kate M Wassum
      Pages: 67 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Melissa Malvaez, Kate M Wassum
      Habits are an essential and pervasive component of our daily lives that allow us to efficiently perform routine tasks. But their disruption contributes to the symptoms that underlie many psychiatric diseases. Emerging data are revealing the cellular and molecular mechanisms of habit formation in the dorsal striatum. New data suggest that in both the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity acts as a critical negative regulator of the transcriptional processes underlying habit formation. In this review, we discuss this recent work and draw conclusions relevant to the treatment of diseases marked by maladaptive habits.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • The effects of reward and punishment on motor skill learning
    • Authors: Xiuli Chen; Peter Holland; Joseph M Galea
      Pages: 83 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Xiuli Chen, Peter Holland, Joseph M Galea
      Motor skill learning consists of improvement in two main components: action selection and action execution. Although sports’ coaching identifies reward and punishment as having important but dissociable effects for optimising motor skill learning, it is unknown whether they influence selection and/or execution. In addition, whilst current laboratory-based motor skill tasks have investigated the impact of reward and punishment on learning, they have failed to distinguish between improvements in these components. To examine how reward and punishment may impact selection and execution, we discuss their effects in cognition and motor control. We highlight several similarities between these results and those reported in sports coaching and laboratory-based motor skill learning. However, to fully understand these links, we believe novel laboratory-based motor skill learning tasks that allow the effects of reward/punishment on selection and execution to be examined independently are required.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T14:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.011
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
  • Subregional specificity in human striatal habit learning: a meta-analytic
           review of the fMRI literature
    • Authors: Tara Patterson; Barbara Knowlton
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Tara K Patterson, Barbara J Knowlton
      Research on the neural basis of human habit learning has made significant advances in recent years, creating a need for synthesis of disparate results. We conducted a meta-analytic review of fMRI studies on human habit learning to evaluate the hypothesis that the human putamen plays a similar role to the rodent dorsolateral striatum in habitual behavior. Results from studies using outcome devaluation, sequential decision-making, and motor sequence learning tasks were consistent with this hypothesis, whereas results from studies using probabilistic classification and maze navigation tasks were not. It is possible that the lack of consistent activation of the putamen during the performance of probabilistic classification and maze navigation tasks may indicate that these tasks are not as well-suited for the study of habit behavior in humans, and that activations observed using these tasks reflect activity of both the goal-directed and habit learning systems.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
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Heriot-Watt University
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