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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 889 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 418)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 200)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 227)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 141)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2352-1546
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • The dopamine system, Parkinson's disease and language function
    • Authors: Patrick McNamara; Raymon Durso
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 21
      Author(s): Patrick McNamara, Raymon Durso
      The mesocortical dopaminergic system innervates two major forebrain networks important in language processing: the frontal–parietal network (FPN) and the ‘social brain’ network. We argue that the FPN may contribute to mediation of grammatical/syntactic aspects of language function while the social brain network may support pragmatic language processes. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) evidence deficits in both brain networks and both linguistic domains: on grammatical sentence processing tasks and on pragmatic language tasks. The pragmatic deficits appear to be more pervasive than the syntactic/grammatical deficits, though a theoretical account of these deficits is lacking. While dopaminergic systems likely contribute to modulation of speech acts in patients with PD, there is, as yet, no clear theoretical account of how that is accomplished.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.10.010
      Issue No: Vol. 21 (2017)
       
  • Probabilistic association learning in schizophrenia
    • Authors: Thomas W Weickert
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Thomas W Weickert
      Probabilistic association learning is a form of non-declarative learning that involves the gradual acquisition of cue-outcome associations based on feedback and is dependent on frontal-striatal activity in healthy adults. Prefrontal cortex dysfunction has been established in schizophrenia; however, striatal dysfunction is often ignored or attributed to antipsychotic effects. Probabilistic association learning is typically impaired in schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies have shown reduced frontal-striatal activity in patients with schizophrenia; although a proportion of patients with schizophrenia who can learn the probabilistic associations utilize an alternate neural network that includes the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampus. Many studies support the hypothesis that probabilistic association learning impairment can be an intrinsic characteristic of the illness. Studies have begun to identify the molecular mechanisms underpinning probabilistic association learning deficits in schizophrenia which include the influence of dopamine, neurotrophins and estrogen.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T02:46:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.08.015
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
       
  • Habits under stress: mechanistic insights across different types of
           learning
    • Authors: Lisa Wirz; Mario Bogdanov; Lars Schwabe
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Lisa Wirz, Mario Bogdanov, Lars Schwabe
      Learning can be controlled by reflective, ‘cognitive’ or reflexive, ‘habitual’ systems. An essential question is what factors determine which system governs behavior. Here we review recent evidence from navigation, classification, and instrumental learning, demonstrating that stressful events induce a shift from cognitive to habitual control of learning. We propose that this shift, mediated by noradrenaline and glucocorticoids acting through mineralocorticoid receptors, is orchestrated by the amygdala. Although generally adaptive for coping with acute stress, the bias toward habits comes at the cost of reduced flexibility of learning and may ultimately contribute to stress-related psychopathologies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T15:44:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.08.009
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
       
  • What are habits and do they depend on the striatum' A view from the
           study of neuropsychological populations
    • Authors: Karin Foerde
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Karin Foerde
      What are the neural substrates of habit learning in humans' Studies in neuropsychological populations have been central to answering the question, and for decades, research appeared to have provided a fairly consistent answer. However, developments in assays of habits in animals, as well as new approaches to dissecting habitual versus goal-directed control of behavior in humans, point to further complexities in human habit learning. This has raised new questions about the status of habits in neuropsychological populations and our understanding of how the brain supports habitual behavior. I review these emerging challenges and suggest a more nuanced approach to habit learning.

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T20:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.08.011
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
       
  • Emotional modulation of habit memory: neural mechanisms and implications
           for psychopathology
    • Authors: Mark G Packard; Jarid Goodman; Reed L Ressler
      Pages: 25 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Mark G Packard, Jarid Goodman, Reed L Ressler
      Emotional arousal modulates the function of multiple memory systems. Extensive evidence employing both lower animals (i.e. rats and mice) and human subjects indicates that behavioral and pharmacological stressors enhance habit memory mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) at the expense of hippocampus-dependent cognitive memory. It has been the goal of several recent studies to uncover the neural mechanisms underlying this emotional enhancement of habit memory. Among the mechanisms implicated in this phenomenon are a modulatory role of the amygdala, stress hormones, and a competitive interaction between DLS-dependent and hippocampus-dependent memory systems. Studies investigating the emotional modulation of habit memory may be helpful for understanding how stress and anxiety promote maladaptive habitual behaviors in some human psychopathologies (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder, drug addiction/relapse, etc.).

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T20:28:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
       
  • Current limits of experimental research into habits and future directions
    • Authors: P Watson; S de Wit
      Pages: 33 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): P Watson, S de Wit
      The outcome devaluation paradigm allows for the differentiation between goal-directed actions and habits and has been used extensively in both animal and human studies. This has been a fruitful avenue of research with translational human research reporting reduced sensitivity to devaluation in a number of clinical populations using various different paradigms. However, these paradigms do not provide a direct window on the extent to which impaired performance is due to strong habit formation or to weak goal-directed control. We review the indirect nature of the existing evidence from both animal and human studies and suggest avenues for future research including combining behavioral repetition with manipulations to reduce goal-directed control processes as well as alternative paradigms such as the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer task.

      PubDate: 2017-10-20T00:41:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.09.012
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
       
  • Recent insights into corticostriatal circuit mechanisms underlying habits
    • Authors: Justin O’Hare; Nicole Calakos; Henry H Yin
      Pages: 40 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Justin O’Hare, Nicole Calakos, Henry H Yin
      Habits have been studied for decades, but it was not until recent years that experiments began to elucidate the underlying cellular and circuit mechanisms. The latest experiments have been enabled by advances in cell-type specific monitoring and manipulation of activity in large neuronal populations. Here we will review recent efforts to understand the neural substrates underlying habit formation, focusing on rodent studies on corticostriatal circuits.

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T20:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
       
  • Towards a whole brain model of Perceptual Learning
    • Authors: Marcello Maniglia; Aaron R Seitz
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Marcello Maniglia, Aaron R Seitz
      A hallmark of modern Perceptual Learning (PL) is the extent to which learning is specific to the trained stimuli. Such specificity to orientation, spatial location and even eye of training has been used as psychophysical evidence of the neural basis of learning. This argument that specificity of PL implies regionalization of brain plasticity implicitly assumes that examination of a singular locus of PL is an appropriate approach to understand learning. However, recent research shows that learning effects once thought to be specific depend on subtleties of the training paradigm and that within even a simple training procedure there are multiple aspects of the task and stimuli that are learned simultaneously. Here, we suggest that learning on any task involves a broad network of brain regions undergoing changes in representations, read-out weights, decision rules, attention and feedback processes as well as oculomotor changes. However, importantly, the distribution of learning across the neural system depends upon the details of the training procedure and the characteristics of the individual being trained. We propose that to advance our understanding of PL, the field must move towards understanding how distributed brain processes jointly contribute to behavioural learning effects.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
       
  • In search of the engram, 2017
    • Authors: Eva Berlot; Nicola J Popp; Jörn Diedrichsen
      Pages: 56 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Eva Berlot, Nicola J Popp, Jörn Diedrichsen
      Based on evidence from lesion and imaging studies, some authors have suggested that the ‘motor engram’—a representation underlying skillful behavior—becomes more localized with learning. We critically review the evidence in favor of this view pointing out several caveats with the interpretation, most of which have been raised in Karl Lashley's classical paper from 1950. We argue that motor skills are likely not stored in a single area, but are instead encoded across multiple representations in both cortical and subcortical areas. To better understand these distributed neural changes with learning, we need a richer description of skilled performance and testable process models of skill acquisition.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
       
  • Individual differences in sensorimotor skills among musicians
    • Authors: Shinichi Furuya
      Pages: 61 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Shinichi Furuya
      The grace of a musician has always fascinated people in the world. It has been widely accepted that quantity of musical practice is a prerequisite but not sufficient for acquisition of musical expertise. An increasing number of studies have recently proposed that an interaction between gene and environment underlies musical expertise, based on empirical evidences demonstrating roles of genetic predisposition. In contrast, it has not been elucidated how ways of musical practice play a role in the expertise, which limits optimizing musical training and education that realizes expressive and virtuosic performance. The present article proposes a theoretical framework for possible impacts of how to practice on acquisition of fast, accurate, and efficient musical performance, on the basis of principles and empirical evidences of motor learning.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
       
  • Regulation of habit formation in the dorsal striatum
    • Authors: Melissa Malvaez; Kate M Wassum
      Pages: 67 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Melissa Malvaez, Kate M Wassum
      Habits are an essential and pervasive component of our daily lives that allow us to efficiently perform routine tasks. But their disruption contributes to the symptoms that underlie many psychiatric diseases. Emerging data are revealing the cellular and molecular mechanisms of habit formation in the dorsal striatum. New data suggest that in both the dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity acts as a critical negative regulator of the transcriptional processes underlying habit formation. In this review, we discuss this recent work and draw conclusions relevant to the treatment of diseases marked by maladaptive habits.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 20 (2017)
       
  • On the interaction of social affect and cognition: empathy, compassion and
           theory of mind
    • Authors: Katrin Preckel; Philipp Kanske; Tania Singer
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Katrin Preckel, Philipp Kanske, Tania Singer
      Empathy, compassion and Theory of Mind (ToM) are central topics in social psychology and neuroscience. While empathy enables the sharing of others’ emotions and may result in empathic distress, a maladaptive form of empathic resonance, or compassion, a feeling of warmth and concern for others, ToM provides cognitive understanding of someone else's thoughts or intentions. These socio-affective and socio-cognitive routes to understanding others are subserved by separable, independent brain networks. Nonetheless they are jointly required in many complex social situations. A process that is critical for both, empathy and ToM, is self-other distinction, which is implemented in different temporoparietal brain regions. Thus, adaptive social behavior is a result of dynamic interplay of socio-affective and socio-cognitive processes.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T09:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.010
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • The positivity effect: a negativity bias in youth fades with age
    • Authors: Laura L Carstensen; Marguerite DeLiema
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Laura L Carstensen, Marguerite DeLiema
      Relative to younger adults, older adults attend to and remember positive information more than negative information. This shift from a negativity bias in younger age to a preference for positive information in later life is termed the ‘positivity effect.’ Based on nearly two decades of research and recent evidence from neuroscience, we argue that the effect reflects age-related changes in motivation that direct behavior and cognitive processing rather than neural or cognitive decline. Understanding the positivity effect, including conditions that reduce and enhance it, can inform effective public health and educational messages directed at older people.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T16:00:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.009
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • The influence of physiological signals on cognition
    • Authors: Hugo D Critchley; Sarah N Garfinkel
      Pages: 13 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Hugo D Critchley, Sarah N Garfinkel
      Dynamic changes in bodily physiology influence perceptual, affective and cognitive processes. Behaviour is shaped by interoception, that is the processing of afferent information concerning internal state. Physiological signals, such as heartbeats, selectively facilitate, compete with, or inhibit, information processing across psychological domains, often providing a proximate mechanism for pervasive effects of emotions. There is increasing recognition of these influences on cognition, and a growing knowledge concerning underlying neural substrates. Recent theoretical models, notably interoceptive predictive coding, apply concepts of the ‘Bayesian brain’ and active inference to feeling states, agency and embodiment. Here we describe the impact of interoceptive signals on cognitive processes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T04:36:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.08.014
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • Understanding emotion with brain networks
    • Authors: Luiz Pessoa
      Pages: 19 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Luiz Pessoa
      Emotional processing appears to be interlocked with perception, cognition, motivation, and action. These interactions are supported by the brain's large-scale nonmodular anatomical and functional architectures. An important component of this organization involves characterizing the brain in terms of networks. Two aspects of brain networks are discussed: brain networks should be considered as inherently overlapping (not disjoint) and dynamic (not static). Recent work on multivariate pattern analysis shows that affective dimensions can be detected in the activity of distributed neural systems that span cortical and subcortical regions. More broadly, the paper considers how we should think of causation in complex systems like the brain, so as to inform the relationship between emotion and other mental aspects, such as cognition.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T20:28:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • The role of attention bias to threat in anxiety: mechanisms, modulators
           and open questions
    • Authors: Hadas Okon-Singer
      Pages: 26 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Hadas Okon-Singer
      Individuals at risk of developing anxiety and those with (sub-) clinical anxiety have robust attention biases to irrelevant threats, among them facilitated engagement, difficulty in disengaging and later avoidance of threat. These attention biases are thought to be associated with abnormal activation and connectivity in prefrontal-limbic-sensory neural circuits. Attention biases were shown to be related to other processing biases, but more empirical data are needed to better understand the causal role of each processing bias and to develop effective treatments. These attention biases have further been suggested as playing a causal role in anxiety, although mixed findings from attention bias modification studies challenge this contention.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T20:28:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.09.008
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • Stress, sleep, and the selective consolidation of emotional memories
    • Authors: Jessica D Payne; Elizabeth A Kensinger
      Pages: 36 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Jessica D Payne, Elizabeth A Kensinger
      Memory consolidation processes can be highly selective. For example, emotional aspects of events tend to be consolidated more readily than other, more neutral aspects. We first describe evidence that the sleeping brain provides an ideal environment for memory consolidation, and that active, as opposed to passive, sleep-based consolidation processes are particularly important in explaining why emotional memories are retained so well. We then briefly review evidence that elevated levels of stress support emotional memory consolidation. Finally, we propose a working model that describes why stress at encoding may set the stage for sleep to etch emotional memories in the brain on a lasting, if not permanent, basis, and we present recent data to support this model.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T21:36:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • Flexibility in the face of fear: hippocampal–prefrontal regulation
           of fear and avoidance
    • Authors: Justin M Moscarello; Stephen Maren
      Pages: 44 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Justin M Moscarello, Stephen Maren
      Generating appropriate defensive behaviors in the face of threat is essential to survival. Although many of these behaviors are ‘hard-wired’, they are also flexible. For example, Pavlovian fear conditioning generates learned defensive responses, such as conditioned freezing, that can be suppressed through extinction. The expression of extinguished responses is highly context-dependent, allowing animals to engage behavioral responses appropriate to the contexts in which threats are encountered. Likewise, animals and humans will avoid noxious outcomes if given the opportunity. In instrumental avoidance learning, for example, animals overcome conditioned defensive responses, including freezing, in order to actively avoid aversive stimuli. Recent work has greatly advanced understanding of the neural basis of these phenomena and has revealed common circuits involved in the regulation of fear. Specifically, the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex play pivotal roles in gating fear reactions and instrumental actions, mediated by the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, respectively. Because an inability to adaptively regulate fear and defensive behavior is a central component of many anxiety disorders, the brain circuits that promote flexible responses to threat are of great clinical significance.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T21:36:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.09.010
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • A brief introduction to the neurogenetics of cognition-emotion
           interactions
    • Authors: Matthew A Scult; Ahmad R Hariri
      Pages: 50 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Matthew A Scult, Ahmad R Hariri
      Neuroscience research has demonstrated that cognition, emotion, and their dynamic interactions emerge from complex and flexible patterns of activity across distributed neural circuits. A parallel branch of research in genetics has begun to identify common variation in the human DNA sequence (i.e., genome) that may shape individual differences in cognition-emotion interactions by altering molecular and cellular pathways that modulate the activity of these neural circuits. Here we provide a brief introduction to neurogenetics research and how it may usefully inform our understanding of the biological mechanisms through which dynamic cognition-emotion interactions emerge and, subsequently, help shape normal and abnormal behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-10-20T00:41:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.09.014
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • Emotional arousal regulation of memory consolidation
    • Authors: James L McGaugh
      Pages: 55 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): James L McGaugh
      Recent findings provide increased understanding of how emotional arousal creates lasting memories. The findings are consistent with those of prior studies suggesting that the enhancement assessed in human subjects results from activation of adrenergic and glucocorticoid stress hormones. Additionally, fMRI imaging findings indicate that the enhancement is influenced by activation of the amygdala and its subsequent influences on other brain systems. Findings of recent animal studies using posttraining noradrenergic or optogenetic activation of the amygdala provide extensive evidence that the basolateral amygdala modulates memory consolidation by influencing neuroplasticity in downstream brain systems involved in processing different forms of memory. Activation of these systems helps to insure that emotionally significant experiences are well remembered.

      PubDate: 2017-11-10T22:09:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • The somatic marker hypothesis: revisiting the role of the
           ‘body-loop’ in decision-making
    • Authors: Tasha Poppa; Antoine Bechara
      Pages: 61 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Tasha Poppa, Antoine Bechara
      The somatic marker hypothesis is one of the most influential neurocognitive theories of emotion and decision-making. A key aspect of the somatic marker hypothesis is the ‘body-loop’, which is the claim that emotive events that are expressed in the body can influence decision-making via afferent feedback to the brain. The body-loop has often been the subject of debate. However, evidence for the neural and peripheral mechanisms that support interactions between bodily states and cognitive functions has consistently emerged. The purpose of this article is to outline an updated neurophysiological account of how somatic states may be triggered, and how they bias decisions through afferent feedback. We largely focus on vagus nerve-dependent feedback mechanisms, which demonstrate how interoceptive signals can shape high order cognition and goal-directed behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.10.007
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • The subjective experience of emotion: a fearful view
    • Authors: Joseph E LeDoux; Stefan G Hofmann
      Pages: 67 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Joseph E LeDoux, Stefan G Hofmann
      We argue that subjective emotional experience, the feeling, is the essence of an emotion, and that objective manifestations in behavior and in body or brain physiology are, at best, indirect indicators of these inner experiences. As a result, the most direct way to assess conscious emotional feelings is through verbal self-report. This creates a methodological barrier to studies of conscious feelings in animals. While the behavioral and physiological responses are not ‘emotions,’ they contribute to emotions indirectly, and sometimes profoundly. Whether non-verbal animals have emotional experiences is a difficult, maybe impossible, question to answer in the positive or negative. But because behavioral and physiological responses are important contributors to emotions, and the circuits underlying these are highly conserved, studies of animals have an important role in understanding how emotions are expressed and regulated in the brain. Conflation of circuits that directly give rise to conscious emotional feelings with circuits that indirectly influences these conscious feelings has hampered progress in efforts to understand emotions, and also to understand and to develop treatments for emotional disorders. Recognition of differences in these circuits will allow research in animals to have a lasting impact on understanding of human emotions as research goes forward.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.09.011
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • Bias in predicted and remembered emotion
    • Authors: Linda J Levine; Heather C Lench; Melissa M Karnaze; Steven J Carlson
      Pages: 73 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Linda J Levine, Heather C Lench, Melissa M Karnaze, Steven J Carlson
      Predicting and remembering emotion both rely on the episodic memory system which is constructive and subject to bias. In keeping with the common cognitive processes underlying prospection and retrospection, people show similar strengths and weaknesses when they predict how they will feel in the future and remember how they felt in the past. Recent findings reveal that people predict and remember the intensity of emotion more accurately than their overall or general emotional response, and whether emotion is overestimated or underestimated depends on how people's attention to, and appraisals about, events change over time. People's phenomenological experience differs markedly when they are predicting versus remembering emotion, however. Phenomenological cues, such as intensity and autonoetic experience, make predicted emotion a more compelling guide for decisions, even when inaccurate.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • Affect and cognition: three principles
    • Authors: Gerald L Clore; Alexander J Schiller; Adi Shaked
      Pages: 78 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 19
      Author(s): Gerald L Clore, Alexander J Schiller, Adi Shaked
      Affect and its object are separable, so the same affective reaction can have different effects. Relevant principles from the affect-as-information approach include: first, the impact of affect depends on implicit attributions—what it appears to be about. Second, affect is always taken to be about whatever is currently mentally accessible. Affective reactions can therefore serve as appraisals of objects of judgment or of initial thoughts and opinions about such objects when they are more accessible. During problem solving, affect can serve as appraisals of thought style rather than thought content. Then, third, positive and negative affect serve as go and stop signals for current inclinations. Affective influences on cognition are therefore not fixed, but malleable and context-dependent.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2017)
       
  • Policy and population behavior in the age of Big Data
    • Authors: Kai Ruggeri; Hojeong Yoon; Ondřej Kácha; Sander van der Linden; Peter Muennig
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Kai Ruggeri, Hojeong Yoon, Ondřej Kácha, Sander van der Linden, Peter Muennig
      Policies are large-scale interventions that typically aim to influence behaviors and decision-making across entire populations to obtain a desired outcome. With the rapid increase in Big Data and its growing influence on policy, there is an emerging opportunity to produce meaningful and efficient mechanisms for improving public policy outcomes. However, there are still considerable gaps between existing theories in the behavioral sciences and evidence generated by Big Data, including the representation of key groups within the population. We outline the need for replicating established behavioral insights through Big Data that should coincide with clear ethical standards for implementing such approaches through evidence-based policymaking.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T23:32:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Using Big Data as a window into consumers’ psychology
    • Authors: Sandra C Matz; Oded Netzer
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Sandra C Matz, Oded Netzer
      The rise of ‘Big Data’ had a big impact on marketing research and practice. In this article, we first highlight sources of useful consumer information that are now available at large scale and very little or no cost. We subsequently discuss how this information – with the help of new analytical techniques – can be translated into valuable insights on consumers’ psychological states and traits that can, in turn, be used to inform marketing strategy. Finally, we discuss opportunities and challenges related to the use of Big Data as a window into consumers’ psychology, and provide recommendations for how to implement related technologies in a way that benefits both businesses and consumers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:26:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • The datafication of talent: how technology is advancing the science of
           human potential at work
    • Authors: Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic; Reece Akhtar; Dave Winsborough; Ryne A Sherman
      Pages: 13 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, Reece Akhtar, Dave Winsborough, Ryne A Sherman
      This article reviews three innovations that not only have the potential to revolutionize the way organizations identify, develop and engage talent, but are also emerging as tools used by practitioners and firms. Specifically, we discuss (a) machine-learning algorithms that can evaluate digital footprints, (b) social sensing technology that can automatically decode verbal and nonverbal behavior to infer personality and emotional states, and (c) gamified assessment tools that focus on enhancing the user-experience in personnel selection. The strengths and limitations of each of these approaches are discussed, and practical and theoretical implications are considered.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T02:21:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Video capture of human behaviors: toward a Big Data approach
    • Authors: Louis Tay; Andrew T Jebb; Sang Eun Woo
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Louis Tay, Andrew T Jebb, Sang Eun Woo
      The lowering costs of cameras and data storage have led to an increasing volume of video data from a wide variety of sources. In this review, we analyze four sources of video data (i.e., traditional laboratory cameras, wearable cameras, public cameras, and private cameras), highlighting the strengths and limitations of each source regarding its utility for capturing human behaviors. While there will be technical and ethical challenges in using video camera data for human behavior research, we see promise in increased fidelity for assessing and analyzing various types of human behaviors, including behavioral occurrence, change, and development, and socio-ecological contexts. We encourage the judicious collection and secure storage of large-scale video data and the development of integrative video analytics for human behavior research.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T20:38:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.026
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Big data and student engagement among vulnerable youth: A review
    • Authors: Ryan J Watson; John L Christensen
      Pages: 23 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Ryan J Watson, John L Christensen
      Vulnerable (e.g., LGBTQ, homeless, disabled, racial/ethnic minority, and/or poor) youth disproportionally report challenges at school compared to their majority counterparts, but we are not always sure of the best ways to support these students. How might big data help to ameliorate experiences for vulnerable students who are not part of the majority (e.g., White, middle class, straight)' We review current ways that using big data can promote student engagement specific to school experiences where vulnerable youth share a disproportional amount of burden. We review extant uses of big data to track, involve, and monitor student progress and attendance. Additionally, we review the potential privacy implications and threats to students’ civil liberties.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T08:03:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.004
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Using Big Data to study subjective well-being
    • Authors: Maike Luhmann
      Pages: 28 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Maike Luhmann
      Subjective well-being comprises emotional experiences and life satisfaction. This article reviews how Big Data can be used to measure, study, and change subjective well-being. Most Big Data approaches measure subjective well-being by analyzing language patterns on Twitter or Facebook. These approaches provide satisfactory accuracy for emotional experiences, but not yet for life satisfaction. Other measurement approaches include the analysis of other digital traces such as Facebook profiles and the analysis of mobile phone usage patterns. Big Data can be used to study subjective well-being on individual levels, regional levels, and across time. Potentials and limitations of using Big Data in studies on subjective well-being are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T08:03:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • What big data can do for treatment in psychiatry
    • Authors: Claire M .Gillan; Robert Whelan
      Pages: 34 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Claire M .Gillan, Robert Whelan
      Treatments for psychiatric disorders are only as effective as the precision with which we administer them. We have treatments that work; we just cannot always accurately predict who they are going to work for and why. In this article, we discuss how big data can help identify robust, reproducible and generalizable predictors of treatment response in psychiatry. Specifically, we focus on how machine-learning approaches can facilitate a move beyond discovery studies and toward model validation. We will highlight some recent exemplary studies in this area, describe how one can assess the merits of studies reporting treatment biomarkers, and discuss what we consider to be best practice for prediction research in psychiatry.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T08:03:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Detecting depression and mental illness on social media: an integrative
           review
    • Authors: Sharath Chandra Guntuku; David B Yaden; Margaret L Kern; Lyle H Ungar; Johannes C Eichstaedt
      Pages: 43 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Sharath Chandra Guntuku, David B Yaden, Margaret L Kern, Lyle H Ungar, Johannes C Eichstaedt
      Although rates of diagnosing mental illness have improved over the past few decades, many cases remain undetected. Symptoms associated with mental illness are observable on Twitter, Facebook, and web forums, and automated methods are increasingly able to detect depression and other mental illnesses. In this paper, recent studies that aimed to predict mental illness using social media are reviewed. Mentally ill users have been identified using screening surveys, their public sharing of a diagnosis on Twitter, or by their membership in an online forum, and they were distinguishable from control users by patterns in their language and online activity. Automated detection methods may help to identify depressed or otherwise at-risk individuals through the large-scale passive monitoring of social media, and in the future may complement existing screening procedures.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T09:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.005
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Music and big data: a new frontier
    • Authors: David M Greenberg; Peter J Rentfrow
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): David M Greenberg, Peter J Rentfrow
      There is an unprecedented opportunity for psychologists and behavioral scientists to merge prior theory and research with big data to develop profound insights into the way people use and are affected by music. There are now streaming services that store data from millions of people on their day-to-day musical listening habits; song-level data that tags sonic and emotion attributes for millions of songs; wearable devices (e.g. watches and earbuds) that capture physiological metrics including heartrate and galvanic skin response; mobile technologies that track a person's moment-to-moment activity, location, mood, and sociability; and survey instruments and digital footprints that capture personality and other biopsychosocial metrics in just under a minute. We propose that merging these technologies can create a new age in music psychology that exponentially expands the present knowledge and scope of the field. The new data will advance general areas of music psychology, but will also provide an important opportunity to establish new knowledge about health and well-being that can have a direct impact on the public. By scientifically mapping how music changes behavior and health in the short-term and long-term, Big Music Data can lead to future health initiatives including the development of new evidence-based treatment modalities to be utilized by medical physicians and mental health practitioners. Importantly, industry and streaming services can use these new insights to optimize their technologies and develop music-based health and wellness platforms aimed at improving the well-being of its users, ultimately impacting the way music is used by millions of people globally.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T09:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Big Data approaches in social and behavioral science: four key trade-offs
           and a call for integration
    • Authors: J Mahmoodi; M Leckelt; MWH van Zalk; K Geukes; MD Back
      Pages: 57 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): J Mahmoodi, M Leckelt, MWH van Zalk, K Geukes, MD Back
      Big Data approaches have given rise to novel methodological tools to investigate human decisions and behaviors beyond what is possible with traditional forms of analysis. Like any other paradigm in the social and behavioral sciences, however, Big Data is not immune to a number of typical trade-offs: (1) Prediction versus explanation, pertaining to the overall research goals; (2) induction versus deduction, regarding the epistemological focus; (3) bigness versus representativeness in sampling approaches; and (4) data access versus scientific independence, addressing the forms of data usage. In this paper, we discuss these trade-offs and how Big Data and traditional approaches typically relate to them, and propose ways to overcome each trade-off by integrating advantages of different research approaches in the social and behavioral sciences with Big Data.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T09:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Language-based personality: a new approach to personality in a digital
           world
    • Authors: Ryan L Boyd; James W Pennebaker
      Pages: 63 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Ryan L Boyd, James W Pennebaker
      Personality is typically defined as the consistent set of traits, attitudes, emotions, and behaviors that people have. For several decades, a majority of researchers have tacitly agreed that the gold standard for measuring personality was with self-report questionnaires. Surveys are fast, inexpensive, and display beautiful psychometric properties. A considerable problem with this method, however, is that self-reports reflect only one aspect of personality—people's explicit theories of what they think they are like. We propose a complementary model that draws on a big data solution: the analysis of the words people use. Language use is relatively reliable over time, internally consistent, and differs considerably between people. Language-based measures of personality can be useful for capturing/modeling lower-level personality processes that are more closely associated with important objective behavioral outcomes than traditional personality measures. Additionally, the increasing availability of language data and advances in both statistical methods and technological power are rapidly creating new opportunities for the study of personality at ‘big data’ scale. Such opportunities allow researchers to not only better understand the fundamental nature of personality, but at a scale never before imagined in psychological research.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T09:17:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.017
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • The quest for the entrepreneurial culture: psychological Big Data in
           entrepreneurship research
    • Authors: Martin Obschonka
      Pages: 69 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Martin Obschonka
      Entrepreneurship is an important topic of our time due to its effect on economic development and social change. However, economic research struggled to explain entrepreneurial activities of regions with standard economic models, assuming perfect rationality of individuals and populations. Economic research has thus developed a strong interest in understanding the more ‘hidden’ informal institutions such as cultural factors. Here, a new generation of psychological research based on Big Data delivers a series of interesting results. Drawing from a personality-based approach to assess and to study the effects and origins of an entrepreneurial culture, this new research illustrates the great potential of psychological Big Data for economic, sociological, geographical, and psychological approaches to entrepreneurship. However, future research should employ new, complex analytic methods that utilise the full potential of Big Data.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T16:00:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.014
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Social networks and financial outcomes
    • Authors: Raghavendra Rau
      Pages: 75 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Raghavendra Rau
      Academic research on whether social networks influence financial outcomes is still undeveloped. The literature has typically focused on three major questions—whether social networks affect investor behavior, firm behavior, or intermediary behavior. Because the theoretical framework in finance is organized around an accepted set of paradigms, and because data on intermediaries and firms have been publicly available for a long time, the financial economics area has just started using big data in its analysis. This note describes the extant research in this area and outlines how the field is likely to evolve.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T16:00:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.08.010
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Using big data to advance personality theory
    • Authors: Wiebke Bleidorn; Christopher J Hopwood; Aidan GC Wright
      Pages: 79 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Wiebke Bleidorn, Christopher J Hopwood, Aidan GC Wright
      Big data has led to remarkable advances in society. One of the most exciting applications in psychological science has been the development of computer-based assessment tools to assess human behavior and personality traits. Thus far, machine learning approaches to personality assessment have been focused on maximizing predictive validity, but have been underused to advance our understanding of personality. In this paper, we review recent machine learning studies of personality and discuss recommendations for how big data and machine learning research can be used to advance personality theory.

      PubDate: 2017-09-04T16:00:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Smartphone sensing methods for studying behavior in everyday life
    • Authors: Gabriella M Harari; Sandrine R Müller; Min SH Aung; Peter J Rentfrow
      Pages: 83 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Gabriella M Harari, Sandrine R Müller, Min SH Aung, Peter J Rentfrow
      Human behavior is the focus of many studies in the social, health, and behavioral sciences. Yet, few studies use behavioral observation methods to collect objective measures of behavior as it occurs in daily life, out in the real world — presumably the context of ultimate interest. Here, we provide a review of recent studies focused on measuring human behavior using smartphones and their embedded mobile sensors. To draw attention to current advances in the field of smartphone sensing, we describe the daily behaviors captured using these methods, which include movement behaviors (physical activity, mobility patterns), social behaviors (face-to-face encounters, computer-mediated communications), and other daily activities (non-mediated and mediated activities). We conclude by pointing to promising areas of future research for studies using Smartphone Sensing Methods (SSMs) in the behavioral sciences.

      PubDate: 2017-09-10T02:46:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.07.018
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Studying political communication on Twitter: the case for small data
    • Authors: Joyojeet Pal; A'Ndre Gonawela
      Pages: 97 - 102
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Joyojeet Pal, A'Ndre Gonawela
      Big data has dramatically changed the study of political communications online as researchers access massive feeds of data on social media behavior, networks, and language. However, the nature political communication remains inherently message-driven, where the composition, timing, and metaphor are necessary components of the overall message. This article surveys research on political communication on Twitter and classifies it into seven subjective domains of research. The methodological approaches that have been applied toward these domains include quantitative technique studying the size, shape, profile of the networks and their nodes; large-scale data mining techniques applied to study the contents of Twitter messaging; and qualitative methods for in-depth study of messages. Showing that qualitative research methods have extended our understanding of political communications domains, we propose that small data approaches, through interpretive analysis and commentary by human readers, can be coupled with large-scale data analysis for deeper, contextual understanding of political messaging.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T21:36:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.09.009
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Big data methods in the social sciences
    • Authors: Frederick L Oswald; Dan J Putka
      Pages: 103 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Frederick L Oswald, Dan J Putka


      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2017)
       
  • Editorial overview: Memory in time and space
    • Authors: Lila Davachi; Neil Burgess
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Lila Davachi, Neil Burgess


      PubDate: 2017-11-03T20:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
       
  • Editorial overview: Bound together through space and time: reminiscences
           of Howard Eichenbaum
    • Authors: Neal J Cohen
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Neal J Cohen


      PubDate: 2017-11-03T20:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
       
  • Editorial overview: Memory in time and space: Remembering Howard:
           perspectives on life in the Eichenbaum lab
    • Authors: John Bladon; Nathaniel Kinsky; Samuel Levy; Wing Ning; William Mau; Catherine Mikkelsen; Daniel Orlin; Ryan Place; Geoffrey Schoenbaum; Daniel Sheehan; David Sullivan
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): John Bladon, Nathaniel Kinsky, Samuel Levy, Wing Ning, William Mau, Catherine Mikkelsen, Daniel Orlin, Ryan Place, Geoffrey Schoenbaum, Daniel Sheehan, David Sullivan


      PubDate: 2017-11-03T20:14:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
       
  • Manipulating memory in space and time
    • Authors: Dheeraj S Roy; Susumu Tonegawa
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 17
      Author(s): Dheeraj S Roy, Susumu Tonegawa
      One of the most fascinating aspects of an animal’s brain is its ability to acquire new information from experience and retain this information over time as memory. The search for physical correlates of memory, the memory engram, has been a longstanding endeavor in modern neurobiology. Recent advances in transgenic and optogenetic tools have enabled the identification, visualization, and manipulations of natural, sensory-evoked, engram cells for a specific memory residing in specific brain regions. These studies are paving the way not only to understand memory mechanisms in unprecedented detail, but also to repair the abnormal state of mind associated with memory by engineering.

      PubDate: 2017-06-08T02:21:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.05.020
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
       
  • Subregional specificity in human striatal habit learning: a meta-analytic
           review of the fMRI literature
    • Authors: Tara Patterson; Barbara Knowlton
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 20
      Author(s): Tara K Patterson, Barbara J Knowlton
      Research on the neural basis of human habit learning has made significant advances in recent years, creating a need for synthesis of disparate results. We conducted a meta-analytic review of fMRI studies on human habit learning to evaluate the hypothesis that the human putamen plays a similar role to the rodent dorsolateral striatum in habitual behavior. Results from studies using outcome devaluation, sequential decision-making, and motor sequence learning tasks were consistent with this hypothesis, whereas results from studies using probabilistic classification and maze navigation tasks were not. It is possible that the lack of consistent activation of the putamen during the performance of probabilistic classification and maze navigation tasks may indicate that these tasks are not as well-suited for the study of habit behavior in humans, and that activations observed using these tasks reflect activity of both the goal-directed and habit learning systems.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
       
  • Editorial overview: Big data in the behavioral sciences
    • Authors: Michal Kosinski; Tara Behrend
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
      Author(s): Michal Kosinski, Tara Behrend


      PubDate: 2017-11-23T02:37:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2017.11.007
       
  • Using big data to solve real problems through academic and industry
           partnerships
    • Authors: Stephen Mitroff; Benjamin Sharpe
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 18
      Author(s): Stephen R Mitroff, Benjamin Sharpe
      Big data has revolutionized a number of industries as it provides a powerful tool for asking and answering questions in novel ways. Academic researchers can join this trend and use immense and complex datasets to explore previously intractable questions. Yet, accessing and analyzing big data can be difficult. The goal of this chapter is to outline various benefits and challenges of using big data for academic purposes, and to provide thoughts on how to succeed. The primary suggestion is for academics to collaborate with appropriate industry partners to simultaneously achieve both theoretical and practical advances.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T21:36:35Z
       
 
 
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