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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 995 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 84)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 469)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 234)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 283)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 198)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 173)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Cahiers d’Études sur la Représentation     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health     Open Access  
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clocks & Sleep     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)

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Addictive Behaviors Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.755
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2352-8532
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3185 journals]
  • Alcohol's harms to others in Wales, United Kingdom: Nature, magnitude and
           associations with mental well-being

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Zara Quigg, Mark A. Bellis, Hannah Grey, Jane Webster, Karen Hughes AimTo explore the nature and magnitude of alcohol's harms to others (AHTOs), and associations with mental well-being.MethodsCross-sectional survey implemented amongst 891 randomly selected Welsh residents (aged 18+ years), via computer assisted telephone interviews. Questions established past 12-month experience of nine direct harms resulting from another person's alcohol consumption (e.g. violence) and five linked outcomes (e.g. concern for a child). The source (e.g. partner/stranger) and frequency of the AHTO were collected, and respondents' socio-demographics, drinking behaviours and mental well-being status.ResultsDuring the past 12 months, 43.5% of respondents had experienced at least one direct harm (45.5% at least one direct harm/linked outcome). In demographically adjusted analyses, the odds of experiencing any direct harm decreased sequentially as age group increased (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AORs]: 1.9 [age 65–74 years] - 4.2 [age 18–34 years]), and was higher amongst binge drinkers (AOR, 1.5, p 
       
  • The relative contribution of motives and maladaptive cognitions to levels
           of Internet Gaming Disorder

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Socayna Moudiab, Marcantonio M. Spada This study aimed at determining whether motives and/or maladaptive cognitions would predict levels of Internet Gaming Disorder independently of negative affect and problematic Internet use. Seventy-nine Internet gamers completed the following questionnaires: Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test, Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short Form, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21, Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire, and Maladaptive Gaming-Related Cognitions Scale. Results showed that all variables were positively and significantly correlated with levels of Internet Gaming Disorder with the exception of motives relating to recreation. Furthermore, a hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that motives relating to coping and skills development and maladaptive cognitions relating to overvaluing of game rewards were the only significant predictors of levels of Internet Gaming Disorder when controlling for negative affect and problematic Internet use. The implications of these findings are discussed.
       
  • Pilot randomized controlled trial of an online intervention for problem
           gamblers

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): John A. Cunningham, Alexandra Godinho, David C. Hodgins IntroductionThis pilot randomized controlled trial sought to evaluate whether an online intervention for problem gambling could lead to improved gambling outcomes compared to a no intervention control. Participants were recruited through a crowdsourcing platform.MethodsParticipants were recruited to complete an online survey about their gambling through the Mechanical Turk platform. Those who scored 5 or more on the Problem Gambling Severity Index and were thinking about quitting or reducing their gambling were invited to complete 6-week and 6-month follow-ups. Each potential participant who agreed was sent a unique password. Participants who used their password to log onto the study portal were randomized to either access an online intervention for gambling or to a no intervention control.ResultsA total of 321 participants were recruited, of which 87% and 88% were followed-up at 6 weeks and 6 months, respectively. Outcome analyses revealed that, while there were reductions in gambling from baseline to follow-ups, there was no significant observable impact of the online gambling intervention, as compared to a no intervention control condition.ConclusionsWhile the current trial observed no impact of the intervention, replication is merited with a larger sample size, and with participants who are not recruited through a crowdsourcing platform.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03124589
       
  • Psychosocial well-being and efforts to quit smoking in pregnant women of
           South-Central Appalachia

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Brittney Stubbs, Valerie Hoots, Andrea Clements, Beth Bailey IntroductionPsychosocial well-being variables from the Tennessee Intervention for Pregnant Smokers (TIPS) study, a longitudinal smoking cessation study in South-Central Appalachia, were investigated as potential predictors of smoking status.MethodsA sample of 1031 pregnant women participated in an expanded 5A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) program, from 2008 to 2011. Measures of stress, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating collected by interview during the first trimester, or during the third trimester in a combined interview if participants began prenatal care late, were hypothesized to differ among three groups of participants: pregnant women who never smoked, pregnant women who smoked but quit prior to birth, and pregnant women who smoked and did not quit prior to birth. Smoking status was measured throughout the study. Whether or not a participant quit smoking was assessed at delivery.ResultsNon-smokers were lowest in stress F(2,1027) = 46.38, p 
       
  • Evaluation of a family-oriented parenting intervention for
           methamphetamine-involved mothers and fathers – The SHIFT Parent Training
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Janina Dyba, Diana Moesgen, Michael Klein, Fabian Pels, Birgit Leyendecker IntroductionA large number of people who use crystal methamphetamine in Germany are parents of young children. In the context of methamphetamine use, family situations and parenting are frequently impacted, and children are at risk of developing behavioral or emotional difficulties. SHIFT Parent Training was developed as a parenting intervention targeted specifically to the needs of methamphetamine-involved parents. The eight-session group training is delivered in substance use treatment settings and aims to foster abstinence and improve parenting skills and resilience within the families.MethodsThe primary goal of this pilot study was to assess the initial effectiveness and acceptance of the SHIFT intervention. The quasi-experimental study design included pre-, post- and 6-month follow-up measurements. Sixty-eight methamphetamine-involved parents participated in all stages of the study. Substance use, parenting practices, and family functioning and resilience were primary effectiveness outcome measures. Additionally, acceptance was assessed by participants' and professionals' feedback.ResultsSubstance use problems were significantly lower in the intervention condition at the 6-month follow-up. Positive parenting of mothers and fathers also increased in the intervention group directly after participation. Both the intervention and control groups showed significant improvements in family functioning, parenting stress and children's behavioral issues. Participants and facilitators reported that they were highly satisfied with the program.ConclusionOur findings suggest that SHIFT Parent Training is an effective intervention and is well-accepted among parents and health professionals. The program improves relevant aspects of substance use-related issues and parenting and therefore poses a valuable addition to support services for methamphetamine-involved families.
       
  • A structural MRI study of differential neuromorphometric characteristics
           of binge and heavy drinking

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Arkadiy L. Maksimovskiy, Catherine B. Fortier, William P. Milberg, Regina E. McGlinchey BackgroundAlcohol misuse often manifests in two different patterns of drinking; Binge Drinking (BD; ≥4 (women) or ≥ 5 (men) drinks/day, ≤12 days/month) or Heavy Drinking (HD; ≥3 (women) or ≥4 (men) drinks/day, ≥16 days/month). Although direct comparisons have not been made, structural MRI studies indicate that the two types of drinking behaviors might be associated with different neuromorphometric characteristics.MethodsThis study used a cross-sectional design to compare brain structure (using MRI derived subcortical volume and cortical thickness measures) between participants with histories of BD (N = 16), HD (N = 15), and Healthy Controls (HC; N = 21). Whole-brain analyses were used to quantify group differences in subcortical volume and cortical thickness. Resulting cortical thickness clusters were quantified for their areas of overlap with resting-state network parcellations.ResultsBD was associated with decreased volumes of the bilateral global pallidus and decreased cortical thickness within the left superior-parietal cluster (p 
       
  • Validation of a substance craving questionnaire (SCQ) in Italian
           population

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Natale Salvatore Bonfiglio, Roberta Renati, Mirian Agus, Maria Pietronilla Penna BackgroundThis study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Substance Craving Questionnaire (SCQ-NOW), extended version of the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire (CCQ-NOW), defined as a multidimensional measure assessing the craving about cocaine, as conceptualized by Tiffany, Singleton, Haertzen, and Henningfield (1993).Method344 substance addicts (age 38.56 ± 10.63 years old; 20.6% females) took part in the research. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that the Italian SCQ-NOW retains good psychometric properties, supporting the conception of substances craving as a multifold concept.ResultsThe internal consistencies were good; correlations between the SCQ-NOW, the Symptom Check List 90 – R (SCL-90-R), and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) were consistent with literature.ConclusionOur findings confirm the application of SCQ-NOW as a psychometric useful measure of the craving in the Italian context, highlighting its validity and reliability. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.
       
  • Association between altitude, prescription opioid misuse, and fatal
           overdoses

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Hendrik J. Ombach, Lindsay S. Scholl, Amanda V. Bakian, Kai T. Renshaw, Young-Hoon Sung, Perry F. Renshaw, Shami Kanekar ObjectivePrescription opioid misuse and fatal overdoses have increased significantly over the last two decades. Living at altitude has been linked to greater reward benefits of other drugs of abuse, and living at altitude may also exacerbate the respiratory depression linked to opioid use. Therefore, we examined the relationships between living at altitude, and prescription opioid misuse and fatal overdoses.MethodState-level past year rates of prescription opioid misuse were retrieved from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. County-level overdose data were extracted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multiple linear regression models were fit to determine the relationship between average state elevation and state rates of opioid misuse. Logistic regression models were fit to determine the relationship between county elevation and county-level fatal opioid overdose prevalence.ResultsAfter controlling for state opioid prescribing rates and other confounders, we identified a significant positive association between mean state altitude and state-level opioid misuse rates for women, but not men. We also found a significant positive association between county-level altitude and prevalence of fatal opioid overdose.ConclusionsLiving at altitude is thus demographically associated with increasing rates of misuse of prescription opioids, as well as of cocaine and methamphetamine. Animal studies suggest that the hypobaric hypoxia exposure involved with living at altitude may disrupt brain neurochemistry, to increase reward benefits of drugs of abuse. This increased misuse of both stimulants and opioids may increase likelihood of overdose at altitude, with overdoses by opioid use also potentially facilitated by altitude-related hypoxia.
       
  • Support person interventions to increase use of quitline services among
           racially diverse low-income smokers: A pilot study

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Christi A. Patten, Steven Fu, Katrina Vickerman, Martha J. Bock, David Nelson, Shu-Hong Zhu, Joyce E. Balls-Berry, Alula Jimenez Torres, Tabetha A. Brockman, Christine A. Hughes, Abigail E. Klein, Miguel Valdez-Soto, Paula A. Keller IntroductionSocial support from nonsmokers may have a role in prompting smokers to use evidence-based cessation treatment. Prior studies found that an intervention for nonsmoking support persons (SPs) was effective for promoting smokers' use of free, state quitline services. This pilot study adapted and assessed feasibility of this intervention for a racially diverse, low-income population.MethodsSingle group, non-randomized design enrolling SP-smoker dyads with low income status enrolled in one of three study “waves” of 10 pairs each. Participants were recruited using flyers and in-person outreach methods. The SP intervention included a 1-session coaching call and written materials; study waves 2 and 3 also included text messaging and a monetary incentive for smokers who used quitline services. Using content analysis, the intervention was iteratively adapted based on SP feedback. Baseline measures assessed socio-demographics, dyad and tobacco use characteristics. Follow-up assessments were conducted among SPs at 1-month follow-up and among smokers at 3-months follow-up. Feasibility indicators were recruitment, retention, and SP intervention acceptability and adherence. Secondary outcomes were smokers' use of any quitline service verified by quitline staff and 7-day, point prevalence, biochemically verified smoking abstinence at 3 months.ResultsRecruitment of 30 dyads was feasible; in-person recruitment methods were the most successful. SPs who completed follow-up assessments found the intervention acceptable, suggesting only minor content modifications, and they perceived the quitline information as novel. But the study had some feasibility challenges (e.g., SP coaching call completion: 60% and SP study retention: 53%). At 3 months, 2 smokers (7%) had used any quitline service and 13% were biochemically confirmed smoking abstinent.ConclusionsThis pilot study demonstrated feasibility of recruiting SP-smoker dyads from diverse, low-income communities. While the intervention was well received, its delivery was not feasible in this population. Results suggest that further consumer adaptation of the intervention is needed among both SPs and smokers.
       
  • Learning functions in short-term cocaine users

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Danusha Selva Kumar, Elysia Benedict, Olivia Wu, Eric Rubin, Mark A. Gluck, Richard W. Foltin, Catherine E. Myers, Nehal P. Vadhan ObjectiveThis study examined learning functions in short-term cocaine users and control participants.MethodSeventeen active cocaine users (reporting 3.5 mean years of cocaine use) and seventeen non-cocaine-using controls (with similar reported levels of alcohol and marijuana use) were compared on tasks measuring different aspects of learning.ResultsThe cocaine users performed more poorly on the Weather Prediction and List-Learning tasks, as well as supplementary executive and psychomotor function tasks, than controls.ConclusionsIndividuals with a relatively short duration of cocaine use exhibited moderate weaknesses in probabilistic category learning, verbal learning and psychomotor functions, relative to controls. These weaknesses may underpin difficulty in learning from the probabilistic consequences of behavior and hinder the ability to respond to cognitive-behavioral treatments.
       
  • A latent class analysis of the past-30-day substance use patterns among
           lifetime cocaine users: Findings from a community sample in North Central
           Florida

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Yiyang Liu, Amy L. Elliott, Mirsada Serdarevic, Robert F. Leeman, Linda B. Cottler ObjectivesCocaine use is increasing and many cocaine users engage in polysubstance use. Within polysubstance use, relationships among use of individual substances are necessarily complex. To address this complexity, we used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of polysubstance use among lifetime cocaine users and examine associations among these patterns, demographics, and risk profiles.MethodsMembers of HealthStreet, an ongoing community engagement program, were asked about lifetime and past 30-day use of cocaine, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and prescription medications, mental health conditions, recent Emergency Department (ED) visits and demographics. LCA was used to identify classes of past 30-day polysubstance use among individuals who endorsed lifetime cocaine use. Multinomial logistic regression identified factors associated with these classes.ResultsAmong 1797 lifetime cocaine users, a five-class LCA model was identified: 1) past 30-day tobacco use only (45%), 2) past 30-day alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use (31%), 3) past 30-day tobacco, prescription opioid and sedative use (13%), 4) past 30-day cocaine, alcohol, marijuana and tobacco use (9%), 5) past 30-day cocaine and multiple polysubstance use (2%). Demographics, ED visits and mental health conditions were associated with class membership.ConclusionsApproximately 11% of lifetime cocaine users used cocaine in the past 30 days with two different concurrent substance use patterns. Prescription medication (opioids and sedatives) and complex polysubstance use patterns were stronger indicators of negative outcomes than current cocaine use. Cocaine was not used frequently with other stimulants. In addition to polysubstance use, prescription medication use should be targeted for intervention among lifetime cocaine users.
       
  • Predictors of quickly progressing from initiating alcohol use to engaging
           in binge drinking among adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Meghan E. Morean, Julia Peterson, Alexa L'Insalata BackgroundA short delay to first intoxication confers alcohol-related risk, but risk factors for a short delay have yet to be examined.Methods230 high school students (55.7% male; age 16.52 [1.19] years; 70.9% White) were surveyed about alcohol use. We examined whether sex, race, parental history of alcohol problems, age of onset, type of alcohol consumed, drinking company, and subjective response to alcohol were associated with 1) delay to first binge episode and 2) binge drinking status (i.e., never bingers, individuals who binge drank on their first drinking occasion, and individuals who binge drank at a later date). Finally, we examined whether first-occasion bingers reported heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems than later-occasion and never bingers.ResultsOverall, a shorter delay was associated with being male an older age of onset, and, during one's first drinking experience, consuming liquor, drinking with friends or alone, and experiencing high arousal negative alcohol effects. First-occasion bingers were more likely to be male, consume liquor, and experience stronger high arousal positive and negative alcohol effects than never bingers and to have a later age of onset, experience stronger high arousal negative, and weaker low arousal negative alcohol effects than later-occasion bingers. First-occasion bingers also reported heavier current drinking and more alcohol-related problems.ConclusionsCharacteristics of underage drinkers that confer risk for a shorter delay and first-occasion binging may provide fruitful targets for intervention, as efforts to delay binge drinking may mitigate alcohol-related risk associated with underage alcohol use.
       
  • Content, perceptions and impact of alcoholic drink promotions in nightlife
           venues that are targeted towards students

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Kim Ross-Houle, Zara Quigg BackgroundBinge drinking is generally considered socially acceptable for students across Western culture. Social norms within the student population have meant that excessive drinking plays a key role in socialising and reinforcing peer group identity. Research has highlighted the United Kingdom (UK) as having elevated levels of alcohol consumption especially within the student population, and the role that drink promotions have in influencing consumption practices. This paper considers promotions of alcoholic drinks in UK nightlife venues and student perceptions of these promotions. Bourdieu's concepts of social and cultural capital are applied to the findings.MethodContent analysis of social media posts by nightlife venues (n = 12), observations of nightlife venues (n = 20) and semi-structured focus groups and paired interviews with 32 undergraduate students, from one city in the North West of England.ResultsNightlife venues target promotions of alcoholic drinks at students through social media, advertisements throughout nightlife venues, and by promoters outside of venues. These promotions will often influence the course of a night out in terms of venues visited and the drinks consumed. Alcohol holds importance within mainstream student culture; it plays a key role in achieving cultural capital and is a means for students to obtain social capital through the creation of shared experiences, which are key for those who are new to university.ConclusionsNightlife venues will target alcoholic drink promotions at students and will use the notion of creating a shared experience as part of this targeted promotion. This contributes to the overall social and cultural capital that alcohol holds within the student population. This is an important consideration for alcohol policy – it demonstrates how prevention activities need to take into consideration the importance of shared experiences for the students; alternatives to excessive alcohol consumption need to offer a similar opportunity.
       
  • Process evaluation of counseling delivered by a patient navigator in an
           efficacious smoking cessation intervention among low-income primary care
           patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Lisa M. Quintiliani, Ve Truong, Melanie E. Ulrich, Jennifer Murillo, Cheryl Jean, Ziming Xuan, Karen E. Lasser IntroductionThis exploratory study examined the relationship between receipt of counseling by a patient navigator and socio-demographic characteristics of primary care patients enrolled in a smoking cessation trial.MethodsWe grouped intervention participants (n = 177) into two categories: 1) no or some contact with the navigator or 2) minimum counseling intervention dose or higher delivered.ResultsIn logistic regression analyses, controlling for patient race/ethnicity, education, age, gender, household annual income, stress/chaos/hassles composite score, heavy smoking, and substance use, non-Hispanic white participants had lower odds (aOR 0.30; 95% CI 0.13–0.70, p 
       
  • Dealing with gender-related and general stress: Substance use among
           Brazilian transgender youth

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Anna Martha Vaitses Fontanari, Paola Fagundes Pase, Siobhan Churchill, Bianca Machado Borba Soll, Karine Schwarz, Maiko Abel Schneider, Angelo Brandelli Costa, Maria Inês Rodrigues Lobato IntroductionAdolescent substance use is a major public health concern since it enhances adolescent morbidity and mortality, affecting adulthood health and well-being. Although current evidence shows a high risk for substance use among transgender populations, to date, few studies evaluate substance use among transgender youth.MethodBrazilian transgender youth (ages between 16 and 25 years old) answered an online questionnaire measuring demographics, substance use and modifiable factors associated with drug use to deal with general stress, gender-related stress, and recreational use.ResultsCannabis was the most frequent substance used among transgender youth (20.88%; CI 95% 23.71–36.19), whereas 11.45% (CI 95% 11.38–21.47) of volunteers disclosed use of pain medication, such as codeine, and 5.05% (CI 95% 3.71–10.78) revealed use of sedatives and tranquilizers in the last 30 days. ADH medication (not prescribed), as well as cocaine and other drugs (such as antihistamines and Hookah), was also reported by 2.36% (CI 95% 0.92–5.84), 2.69% (CI 95% 1.24–6.49) and 4.04% (CI 95% 2.61–8.98) of transgender youth.ConclusionA logistic regression model showed that discrimination and home instability were the primary determinants of vulnerable to substance use among youth. Therefore, the harm reduction strategies must affect the social and physical aspects of transgender youth lives.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Experiences of responsible gambling tools among non-problem gamblers: A
           survey of active customers of an online gambling platform

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Ekaterina Ivanova, Jonas Rafi, Philip Lindner, Per Carlbring IntroductionResponsible gambling (RG) tools, aiming at helping gamblers to avoid gambling-related harms, are common in online gambling platforms. Gambling industry, policy makers, and researchers have warned that RG tools can potentially disturb recreational gamblers, channeling them to less protective operators. No evidence exists to support these concerns, and they can hinder the development of effective RG tools. The current study aimed to investigate the recreational gamblers' experiences of RG tools.MethodsA total of 10,200 active customers of an online gambling service were invited to complete an online survey and rate their overall reactions, attitudes, disturbance and irritation towards RG tools, as well as their inclination to abandon a gambling service due to overexposure to RG tools. N = 1223 surveys were completed.ResultsNon-problem gamblers had positive experiences of RG tools. Moderate-risk gamblers had more positive overall reaction and less irritation to previous experiences of RG tools compared to non-problem gamblers. Problem gamblers had least positive attitudes, most disturbance and most irritation towards RG pictures. Non-problem gamblers had lowest rates of having abandoned a service because of perceived overexposure to RG tools (5.2% compared to 25.9% of problem gamblers), with a significant between-group difference (OR [95% CI] = 7.17 [3.61–14.23], p 
       
  • Stop smoking practitioner consensus on barriers and facilitators to
           smoking cessation in pregnancy and how to address these: A modified Delphi
           survey

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Libby Fergie, Katarzyna A. Campbell, Tom Coleman-Haynes, Michael Ussher, Sue Cooper, Tim Coleman IntroductionPregnant women can experience barriers and facilitators towards achieving smoking cessation. We sought consensus from smoking cessation practitioners on how influential pre-identified barriers and facilitators can be on pregnant women's smoking behaviour, and how difficult these might be to manage. Suggestions for techniques that could help overcome the barriers or enhance the facilitators were elicited and consensus sought on the appropriateness for their use in practice.MethodsForty-four practitioners who provided cessation support to pregnant women completed a three-round modified Delphi survey. Round one sought consensus on the ‘influence’ and ‘difficulty’ of the barriers and facilitators, and gathered respondents' suggestions on ways to address these. Rounds two and three sought further consensus on the barriers and facilitators and on ‘appropriateness’ of the respondent-suggested techniques. The techniques were coded for behaviour change techniques (BCTs) content using existing taxonomies.ResultsBarriers and facilitators considered to be the most important mainly related to the influence of significant others and the women's motivation & self-efficacy. Having a supportive partner was considered the most influential, whereas lack of support from partner was the only barrier that reached consensus as being difficult to manage. Barriers relating to social norms were also considered influential, however these received poor coverage of respondent-suggested techniques. Those considered the easiest to address mainly related to aspects of cessation support, including misconceptions surrounding the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Barriers and facilitators relating to the women's motivation & self-efficacy, such as the want to protect the baby, were also considered as being particularly easy to address. Fifty of the 54 respondent-suggested techniques reached consensus as being appropriate. Those considered the most appropriate ranged from providing support early, giving correct information on NRT, highlighting risks and benefits and reinforcing motivating beliefs. Thirty-three BCTs were identified from the respondent-suggested techniques. ‘Social support (unspecified)’, ‘Tailor interactions appropriately’ and ‘Problem solving’ were the most frequently coded BCTs.ConclusionsInvolving partners in quit attempts was advocated. Existing support could be potentially improved by establishing appropriate ways to address barriers relating to pregnant smokers' ‘social norms’. In general, providing consistent and motivating support seemed favourable.
       
  • Graduate degree completion: Associations with alcohol and marijuana use
           before and after enrollment

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Hannah K. Allen, Flavius Lilly, Kenneth H. Beck, Kathryn B. Vincent, Amelia M. Arria Research has shown that alcohol and marijuana use are associated with academic performance difficulties, but the relationship to completion of a graduate degree has not been explored. Undergraduate students (n = 1253) were assessed during their first year of college and annually thereafter until age 29. Among the subset of the original sample who enrolled in graduate school (n = 520), measures of alcohol and marijuana use were averaged separately for the time periods before and after graduate school enrollment. Logistic regression models were developed to examine the associations between these variables and graduate degree completion, adjusting for other factors. In general, a minority of the sample were excessive drinkers or frequent marijuana users. The majority of drinkers (70%) drank an average of twice a week or less each year, and 62% of marijuana users used marijuana once a month or less each year. After adjusting for demographic and program characteristics, marijuana use frequency after graduate school enrollment was negatively associated with odds of graduate degree completion. Alcohol use frequency before graduate school enrollment was positively associated with odds of graduate degree completion. Results add to the growing body of literature on marijuana use and decreased academic achievement, but results should be interpreted with caution given the small, but significant, effect sizes found. The positive association between alcohol use frequency and degree completion might be attributed to engagement in the academic environment. Future studies should examine the potential mechanisms through which alcohol and marijuana use are related to the academic achievement of graduate students.
       
  • Associations between attention deficit hyperactivity and internet gaming
           disorder symptoms: Is there consistency across types of symptoms, gender
           and countries'

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 9Author(s): Vasilis Stavropoulos, Baxter L.M. Adams, Charlotte L. Beard, Emma Dumble, Steven Trawley, Rapson Gomez, Halley M. Pontes BackgroundVideogame addiction has been suggested as a tentative disorder in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and was recently officially recognized as a mental health disorder by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although a few studies have identified attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a key risk factor for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD), the interplay between ADHD and IGD symptoms with gender differences across cultures remains to be further examined.ObjectiveThis study examined the moderating effects of gender in the association between ADHD and IGD across two nations.MethodA cross-sectional online survey was developed to recruit 164 Australian (Mage = 23.01, SD = 3.35, Minage = 18, Maxage = 31, Males n = 121, 73.80%) and 457 U.S.-North American (Mage = 25.25 years, SD = 2.76, Minage = 18 years, Maxage = 29 years, Males = 265, 57.98%) Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) players aged between 18 and 29 years.ResultsThe hierarchical linear regression, moderation and moderated moderation analyses revealed that participants presenting greater inattention and hyperactivity symptoms exhibited higher levels of IGD-related behaviors in the two samples. Moreover, these associations differed across genders between the two countries. Specifically, more hyperactive-impulsive, as well as inattentive males in the USA presented higher levels of disordered gaming.ConclusionThe results highlight the need for more cross-cultural and symptom-focused research in the broader IGD field.
       
  • Health-related internet use among opioid treatment patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Carmen L. Masson, Ida Q. Chen, Jacob A. Levine, Michael S. Shopshire, James L. Sorensen The Internet and smartphones have become commonplace and can be effective in overcoming traditional barriers to accessing health information about substance use disorders (SUD), and their prevention or treatment. Little is known, however, about specific factors that may influence the use of these technologies among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations with SUDs. This study characterized the use of digital technologies and the Internet among individuals receiving treatment for opioid use disorder, focusing on identifying predictors of Internet use for health-related purposes. Participants came from an urban opioid replacement therapy program and completed a face-to-face survey on Internet and technology use. We examined the association between online health information seeking and technology acceptance variables, including perceived usefulness, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions (e.g., availability of devices/services and technical support). Participants (N = 178, ages 18–64) endorsed high rates of current smartphone ownership (94%) and everyday Internet use (67%). 88% of participants reported searching online for information about health or medical topics in the past 3 months. Predictors of Internet use for health-related purposes were higher technology acceptance for mobile Internet use, younger age, current employment, and less bodily pain. Our results demonstrate high acceptance and use of mobile technology and the Internet among this sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals with SUDs. However, these findings also highlight the importance of identifying barriers that disadvantaged groups face in using mobile technologies when designing technology-based interventions for this population.
       
  • Substance use and impaired driving prevalence among Francophone and
           Anglophone postsecondary students in Western Canada

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Ndeye Rokhaya Gueye, Monique Bohémier, Danielle de Moissac IntroductionSubstance use and impaired driving increase risk of motor vehicle crashes and deaths. Individual, socio-economic and -cultural factors are associated with these at-risk behaviors; however, little is known if differences exist between the Anglophone majority and minority Francophone populations in Canada. This article describes prevalence of substance use, impaired driving and driving practices by postsecondary student and compares Francophones and Anglophones with respect to these behaviors.MethodsPostsecondary students between 18 and 24 years attending a Francophone university in Western Canada completed a paper-based survey during class-time.ResultsPrevalence of alcohol consumption, binge drinking and marijuana use in the past month were 88.6%, 64.2% and 22.7% respectively. Francophone participants were more likely to consume more alcohol, participate in drinking games, and consume marijuana during the past month than Anglophones. They were also more likely to report impaired-driving, speeding, distracted driving and being passenger in a motor vehicle driven by an impaired driver.ConclusionAwareness campaigns on campus highlighting the risks of substance use and unsafe driving practices should be strengthened and target Francophone students in linguistic minority communities.
       
  • Relationship between social media engagement and e-cigarette policy
           support

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Anuja Majmundar, Chih-Ping Chou, Tess B. Cruz, Jennifer B. Unger IntroductionGiven increasing efforts to regulate e-cigarettes, it is important to understand factors associated with support for tobacco regulatory policies. We investigate such factors found in social media and hypothesize that greater online engagement with tobacco content would be associated with less support for e-cigarette regulatory policies.MethodsWe constructed social networks of Twitter users who tweet about tobacco and categorized them using a combination of social network and Twitter metrics. Twitter users were identified as representing leaders, followers or general users in online discussions of tobacco products, and invited to complete an online survey. Participants responded to questions about their engagement with tobacco-related content online, degree of support for e-cigarette regulations, exposure to tobacco marketing, e-cigarette use and other demographic information. We examined links between their reported engagement with tobacco-related content and support for e-cigarette regulatory policies using structural equation modelling.ResultsThe analytic sample consisted of 470 participants. The conceptualized structural equation model had a good fit (χ2 (32) = 24.85, p = 0.09, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.03). Findings support our hypothesis: engagement with online tobacco content was negatively associated with support for e-cigarette policies, while controlling for e-cigarette use, tobacco marketing exposure, social media use frequency and demographic factors.ConclusionsFindings suggest that our hypothesis was supported. Twitter users engaging with tobacco-related content and harboring negative attitudes toward e-cigarette regulatory policies could be an important audience segment to reach with tailored e-cigarette policy education messages.
       
  • Adolescent smoking: The relationship between cigarette consumption and BMI

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Molly Jacobs BackgroundStudies relating cigarette smoking and body weight yield conflicting results. Weight-lowering effects in women and men have been associated with smoking, however, no effects on weight have been proven. This study examined the association between cigarette smoking and relative weight in adolescent males and females as they age into young adults.MethodsData from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth—a nationally representative survey conducted annually—was used for this analysis. The sample consists of 4225 males and females observed annually from 1997 at age 12 to 17 through 2011 at age 27 to 31. Hierarchical generalized models (HGM) assess the impact of smoking on the likelihood of having higher BMI controlling for demographic, household and environmental impacts. The second estimation considers the possibility that smoking is endogenous and utilizes a multinomial instrument (IV) for smoking level.ResultsHGM models reveal a negative association between cigarette smoking and BMI for both males and females. Individuals who smoke more have lower BMI compared to infrequent or non-smokers. General health rating, region of residence and income were used instrument for smoking in a linear two-stage IV specification. The instrument is highly correlated with BMI and results mirror the HGM. Finally, models run on early, middle and advanced adolescents show that the relationship diminishes over time. The relationship between BMI and smoking decreases as females age but increases for males.ConclusionsEmpirical models confirm an association cigarette consumption and BMI in both males and females. This negative relationship varies with age. It is important to identify health risks—obesity—and modifiable risk factors—smoking—that contribute to health disparities among adolescents. However, the increase in one risky behavior leading to the decrease in the prevalence of the other, complicates the issue. The higher prevalence of frequent cigarette uses among both adolescents and young adults of lower BMI suggest that smoking could be used curb or suppress appetite.
       
  • Three-month effects of Project EX: A smoking intervention pilot program
           with Korean adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Sheila Yu, Artur Galimov, Steve Sussman, Goo Churl Jeong, Sung Rae Shin Despite current prevention and cessation efforts, adolescent smoking remains a pressing issue worldwide, including in Korea. The current study evaluates Project EX-Korea, a teen tobacco use cessation program, three months after baseline. The quasi-experimental trial intervention involved 160 smokers in 10th to 12th grade, 85 from the program condition schools and 75 from the control. At three-month follow-up, the intent-to-treat (ITT) quit rate in the program group (30.2%) was 3.6 times that of the rate in the standard care control group (9.2%; p 
       
  • An exploration into “do-it-yourself” (DIY) e-liquid mixing: Users'
           motivations, practices and product laboratory analysis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Sharon Cox, Noel J. Leigh, Taylor S. Vanderbush, Emma Choo, Maciej L. Goniewicz, Lynne Dawkins BackgroundE-liquids are commercially available and manufactured, however some users of e-cigarettes prefer to prepare them at home (Do-it-Yourself; DIY) using individual ingredients. To date there is a paucity of research on how and why users make their own e-liquids.MethodsForty-one European and US based exclusive users of e-cigarettes (ex-smokers) were individually interviewed. Structured interviews focused on motivations for home-mixing, practices, buying habits and broader themes around reasons for long-term vaping. We also measured nicotine and solvent concentrations and analysed 33 DIY e-liquids collected from 16 participants for nicotine, solvents, flavourings, and potentially harmful chemicals.ResultsThere were four main reasons for DIY: 1) economical (financial savings), 2) self-control over manufacturing process, 3) novelty, fun and 4) higher nicotine concentrations. Twelve out of 16 participants achieved nicotine concentration within 20% of their intended limit. Samples from five participants were above the EU Tobacco Products Directive's (TPD) 20 mg/ml nicotine concentration upper limit. Most samples contained more vegetable glycerine (VG) than propylene glycol (PG) and the most commonly used flavourings were dessert, e.g., vanilla and caramel. Chemical analysis also revealed presence of several potentially harmful chemicals and respiratory irritants, including cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and acetoin.ConclusionDIY may offer users of e-cigarettes a long-term affordable practical method of vaping. Recommended safety advice needs to reflect actual and fast moving user behaviour.
       
  • Comparison of the locations where young adults smoke, vape, and eat/drink
           cannabis: Implications for harm reduction

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Connor B. Jones, Madeline H. Meier, Dustin A. Pardini BackgroundCannabis vaping and edible use are increasingly popular methods of cannabis use. These discreet methods could increase risk of cannabis-related problems by facilitating cannabis use in a wider range of settings.MethodsA sample of 1018 college students were recruited to complete a survey about their health and behavior. Participants who used cannabis in the past year (35.1%, n = 357) answered questions about their cannabis use, including where they were the last time they smoked, vaped, or ate/drank cannabis, and their experience of cannabis-related problems.ResultsCompared with cannabis smoking, participants were more likely to have vaped cannabis (15.8% smoked vs. 24.6% vaped; X2 = 4.59, p = .032), and were slightly, but not statistically significantly, more likely to have used cannabis edibles (17.5% smoked vs. 24.2% used edibles; X2 = 3.57, p = .059), in locations other than a private residence. For example, participants were more likely to have vaped cannabis in a car than to have smoked cannabis in a car (8.8% vaped vs. 3.5% smoked; X2 = 4.26, p = .039). More frequent cannabis vaping was associated with driving while high on cannabis, even after accounting for overall frequency of cannabis use and other covariates (OR = 1.22, p = .047). More frequent cannabis vaping and edible use were associated with various cannabis-related problems, but, in general, these associations became statistically non-significant after accounting for overall frequency of cannabis use.ConclusionsCannabis vaporizers and edibles facilitate cannabis use in locations that require discretion. Increased availability of cannabis vaporizers and edibles could increase risk of cannabis-related problems by enabling use in more settings.
       
  • Messages matter: The Tobacco Products Directive nicotine addiction health
           warning versus an alternative relative risk message on smokers'
           willingness to use and purchase an electronic cigarette

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Sharon Cox, Daniel Frings, Reeda Ahmed, Lynne Dawkins IntroductionMany countries have now mandated warning labels on e-cigarette products. One example, the EU TPD health warning states, “This product contains nicotine which is a highly addictive substance. [It is not recommended for use by non-smokers]”. The impact of the EU TPD warning message on intentions to use, has not been explored within an EU population.AimsExamine the effect of i) the TPD e-cigarette health warning and ii) an alternative relative risk message, on smokers' willingness to use, likelihood of purchase, and intention to use as a quit aid.MethodsCross-sectional online study. Ninety-five smokers (55 males; 18–55 years old) were randomly allocated to one of three conditions and viewed ten individually presented e-cigarettes images with either no message, TPD message, or relative risk message. Participants rated i) willingness to use, and likelihood of: ii) purchase, iii) using in the next month, and iv) using in a quit attempt, before and after viewing the images.ResultsFor willingness to use and likelihood of purchase, ANCOVAs showed a significant main effect of Message Type (ps,
       
  • Data mining techniques for drug use research

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Rafael Jiménez, Joella Anupol, Berta Cajal, Elena Gervilla Drug use motives are relevant to understand substance use amongst students. Data mining techniques present some advantages that can help to improve our understanding of drug use issue. The aim of this paper is to explore, through data mining techniques, the reasons why students use drugs.A random cluster sampling of schools was conducted in the island of Mallorca. Participants were 9300 students (52.9% girls) aged between 14 and 18 years old (M = 15.59, SD = 1.17). They answered an anonymous questionnaire about the frequency and type of drug used, as well as the motives.Five classifiers techniques are compared; all of them have much better performance (% of correct classifications) than the simplest classifier (more repeated category: drug use/never drug use) in all the compared drugs (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine). Nevertheless, alcohol and tobacco have the lower percentage of correct classifications concerning the drug use motives, whereas these use motives have better classification performance when predicts cannabis and cocaine use. When we analyse the specific motives that better predicts the category classification (drug use/never drug use), the following reasons are highlighted in all of them: “pleasant activity” (most frequent among drug users), and “friends consume” and “addiction” (both of them most frequent among never drug users). These results relate to the social dimension of drug use and agree with the statement that environmental context influences adolescent's involvement in risk behaviours. Implications of these results are discussed.
       
  • Patterns, prevalence and determinants of environmental tobacco smoke
           exposure among adults in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Mohammad Alamgir Kabir, Md. Moyazzem Hossain, Farhana Afrin Duty BackgroundExposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been suggested as a risk factor for various health problems. Thus, this study examines the patterns and predictors of ETS exposure among adults at home, workplace and public places.MethodsThe dataset covered a nationally representative sample of 9629 respondents extracted from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Diamond-shaped equiponderant graphs were used to exhibit the prevalence of ETS. In Logistic regressions, ETS exposure at home, workplace and public places were used as response variables. Demographic and socioeconomic variables, health knowledge about ETS, attitude towards ETS, perception of smoking restrictions were considered as predictors.ResultsAdults in higher age groups and females were less exposed to ETS. Better education, high wealth status, better health knowledge on ETS, practice of no smoking at home, and support smoking restrictions were significantly associated with lower ETS exposure at home. Those residing in rural areas and living with many people together were more likely to be exposed to ETS at home. In contrast with home and workplace exposure, adults with higher education, better wealth status, good knowledge on ETS, and support smoking restrictions experienced a high level of exposure at public places. Interestingly, results suggest that those with high levels of ETS exposure at home and workplace had lower exposure to ETS in public places.ConclusionsETS control should not be overlooked in public health policy. Protection from ETS at home is particularly important, given its impact on the attitude towards and awareness about ETS exposure at all places.
       
  • Self-efficacy, sensation seeking, right attitude, and readiness to change
           among alcohol drinkers in a Thai vocational school

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Pimpisa Chomsri, Surinporn Likhitsathian, Apinun Aramrattana, Penprapa Siviroj IntroductionThe prevalence of alcohol use in teenagers has been increasing every year. The majority of alcohol drinkers were vocational students when compared with other educational settings. Sixty percent of Thai vocational students were found to use alcohol.MethodsOur research was a cross-sectional study in 306 vocational students, using the Alcohol Consumption Questionnaire, the ASSIST-Y (Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test-Youth) screening tool and a self-administered questionnaire. The association between alcohol drinking with sensation seeking, self-efficacy, right attitude and readiness to change factors were analyzed by binary logistic regression.ResultsMost students were males (57.5%) and 15–17 years of age (70.9%). Seventy-six-point eight percent of vocational students were in the lifetime drinker group. The binge drinker group was 32.7% and 10.5% were classified in a light drinker group. Sensation seeking was strongly associated with the binge drinker group and the light drinker group, especially the disinhibition dimension (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.34–2.00 and [OR] = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.19–2.06, respectively).ConclusionsOur research found sensation seeking, especially the disinhibition dimension was a significant factor for monitoring drinking behavior. We recommended that every vocational student should be monitored for sensation seeking factors.
       
  • Exploring cannabis concentrates on the legal market: User profiles,
           product strength, and health-related outcomes

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): L. Cinnamon Bidwell, Sophie L. YorkWilliams, Raeghan L. Mueller, Angela D. Bryan, Kent E. Hutchison BackgroundConcentrated cannabis products are increasingly available and used, particularly in states with legal cannabis, but little is known about the profiles and characteristics of concentrate users. We aimed to characterize user profiles of cannabis users living in states with legal medical or recreational cannabis who reported using concentrates to those who do not use concentrates.MethodsAn anonymous online survey was advertised in California, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. We compared respondents who endorsed frequent concentrate use (FC; N = 67) (i.e. 4 days/week) with cannabis users who never use concentrates (NC; N = 64), and with those who smoke/vaporize cannabis flower frequently but never or very rarely use concentrates (FF; N = 60), on measures related to cannabis use patterns and cannabinoid product strength, other substance use, and occupational functioning and health.ResultsFC endorsed more symptoms of cannabis use disorder as compared to non-concentrate users (p 
       
  • Understanding drinking among midlife men in the United Kingdom: A
           systematic review of qualitative studies

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Hannah Parke, Monika Michalska, Andrew Russell, Antony C. Moss, Clare Holdsworth, Jonathan Ling, John Larsen ObjectivesThis study reviews qualitative research into the sociocultural meanings and subjective experiences that midlife men in the United Kingdom (UK) associate with their drinking. In the UK, average weekly alcohol consumption is highest among midlife men, and they are disproportionately affected by alcohol harm. There is increasing recognition that public health messages to support behaviour change must be based on an in-depth understanding of drinking motivations and experiences.Study design and methodsSystematic literature review of studies exploring motivations for and experiences of drinking among UK men aged 45–60 using qualitative methodology. Medline, PsycINFO and the Social Science Citation Index were used, along with manual searches of key journals, Google searches and a call for evidence. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool was used to quality-assess papers. Thematic synthesis was used to combine and analyse the data.ResultsFrom 5172 titles and abstracts (1995–2018), 11 publications were included, representing 6 unique studies. Five themes were identified: ‘Drinking Motivations’; ‘Drinking Justifications’; ‘Drinking Strategies and Control’; ‘Social Norms and Identity’ and ‘Harm’. Motivations for drinking among midlife men were associated with relaxation, socialising and maintenance of male friendships. They justified drinking as a choice and emphasised their ability to meet responsibilities, which they contrasted with ‘problem drinkers’. Social norms governed drinking behaviours as an expression of masculinity.ConclusionThis review highlights the significance of the meanings and social importance of alcohol consumption among midlife men. Interventions using information and guidance should consider these when aiming to effectively influence the way this group drinks.
       
  • Problem gambling and gaming in elite athletes

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): A. Håkansson, G. Kenttä, C. Åkesdotter BackgroundHigh-level sports have been described as a risk situation for mental health problems and substance misuse. This, however, has been sparsely studied for problem gambling, and it is unknown whether problem gaming, corresponding to the tentative diagnosis of internet gaming disorder, may be overrepresented in athletes. This study aimed to study the prevalence and correlates of problem gambling and problem gaming in national team-level athletes.MethodsA web-survey addressing national team-level athletes in university studies (survey participation 60%) was answered by 352 individuals (60% women, mean age 23.7), assessing mental health problems, including lifetime history of problem gambling (NODS-CLiP) and problem gaming (GASA).ResultsLifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 7% (14% in males, 1% in females, p 
       
  • Access to information in school and the use of psychoactive substances in
           Brazilian students – A multilevel study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Cristine Scattolin Andersen, Rogério Lessa Horta, Marcos Pascoal Pattussi IntroductionUse of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs can be considered a global health problem, which typically begins in adolescence. Unsupervised access to information may arouse the adolescent's interest and predispose the use of drugs.MethodologyThis is a cross-sectional study using data from National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE, 2012), with sample of 109,104 Brazilian students in 42.717 schools. Outcomes were: self-reported use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in the past 30 days. Main exposures were contextual and included: library and media resources availability, computer room and internet available at school. Data analysis included multilevel logistic regression.ResultsPrevalence of alcohol use was 25.2% (IC95% 24.7–25.6), tobacco use was 5.3% (IC95% 5.1–5.5) and use of other drugs was 2.6% (IC95% 2.5–2.7). Multilevel analysis showed that recent use of alcohol and tobacco was associated to the presence of computer room and internet, while the use of other drugs presented an association with all media.ConclusionResults indicate that supervision in access to information and communication resources may play a role on the prevention of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs use by students.
       
  • Long-term smoking cessation rates in elderly versus other adult smokers: A
           3-year follow-up study in Taiwan

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Chiao-Lin Hsu, Kuang-Chieh Hsueh, Ming-Yueh Chou, Hsien-Chung Yu, Guang-Yuan Mar, Hong-Jhe Chen, Robert West IntroductionSmoking cessation improves life expectancy at any age. There is some evidence that elderly smokers have at least as good a chance of successfully stopping as other smokers but direct comparisons with long-term follow up are rare. This study aimed to compare success rates up to 3 years in smokers aged 65+ versus other adult smokers with and without adjustment for a range of other smoker characteristics.MethodsThis was a prospective study of 1065 smokers who attended a stop-smoking clinic in Taiwan. Participants (896 
       
  • Drinking wine to “get high”: The influence of awareness of the
           negative effects among young adults

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Fabio Ferretti, Andrea Pozza, Pepita Harri, Claudia Francalanci, Giacomo Gualtieri, Anna Coluccia IntroductionIn a group of university students, the current study investigated the relationship between drinking wine to get high and the awareness about its characteristics, composition, positive and negative effects on health.MethodsThrough a web-based survey, 1685 students at the University of Siena completed a self-report questionnaire to assess consumption behaviours, knowledge about wine and the awareness about its effects.ResultsSeventy-three percent reported drinking wine. Males were more frequently wine consumers (p = 0.037). Among the students who reported drinking, 69.3% engaged this habit during the weekend. Almost 12% reported drinking wine to get high. Drinking wine to get high correlated with the consideration of its consumption: using this beverage to get high was strongly associated with considering wine like other spirits (p = 0.033).ConclusionsOlder age, female gender, and considering wine as a part of the diet were found to be protective factors against wine drinking-to get high. In contrast with some literature, awareness of the negative effects correlated with higher propensity to use wine to get high. Potential interpretations and limitations are addressed.
       
  • Associations of personality traits with marijuana use in a nationally
           representative sample of adolescents in the United States

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Angela E. Lee-Winn, Tamar Mendelson, Renee M. Johnson IntroductionIdentifying adolescents at risk for marijuana use who can be targeted for intervention efforts is critical. Certain personality traits are strongly associated with substance use, including marijuana use. We investigated the associations of impulsivity (and its subscales sensation seeking and lack of planning), aggression, and neuroticism with marijuana use (lifetime and frequency of past 12-month use) in a national sample of adolescents.MethodsWe used data from the National Comorbidity Survey: Adolescent Supplement, a nationally representative, cross-sectional study of 8495 U.S. adolescents aged 14 to 18 years. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios and odds ratios to assess associations of the five personality scales with lifetime use and frequency of past 12-month use and examined gender as a potential moderator of these associations.ResultsEach of the personality traits was positively associated with lifetime use (all p 
       
  • The association between self-reported varenicline adherence and
           varenicline blood levels in a sample of cancer patients receiving
           treatment for tobacco dependence

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Grace Crawford, Nancy Jao, Annie R. Peng, Frank Leone, Ravi Kalhan, Rachel F. Tyndale, Jessica Weisbrot, Brian Hitsman, Robert Schnoll IntroductionThe degree to which smokers quit successfully with varenicline is strongly associated with their adherence to the medication regimen. Thus, measuring varenicline adherence to identify smokers needing additional intervention is a priority. Few studies, however, have examined the validity of self-reported varenicline adherence, using a biological assessment of adherence as a reference. No study has examined this issue among cancer patients trying to quit smoking, who may show unique patterns of adherence given their medical comorbidity.MethodsThis study used data from 76 cancer patients who received varenicline and provided self-reported varenicline adherence data (pill count) and a blood sample to determine varenicline metabolites 4 weeks after initiating varenicline.ResultsReceiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses of plasma varenicline levels showed that 4 ng/ml was the optimal cut-point for differentiating adherence with significant (p's 
       
  • Examining co-patterns of depression and alcohol misuse in emerging adults
           following university graduation

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Jona R. Frohlich, Karli K. Rapinda, Roisin M. O'Connor, Matthew T. Keough Depression and alcohol use disorders are highly comorbid. Typically, alcohol use peaks in emerging adulthood (e.g., during university), and many people also develop depression at this time. Self-medication theory predicts that depressed emerging adults drink to reduce negative emotions. While research shows that depression predicts alcohol use and related problems in undergraduates, far less is known about the continuity of this association after university. Most emerging adults “mature out” of heavy drinking; however, some do not and go on to develop an alcohol use disorder. Depressed emerging adults may continue to drink heavily to cope with the stressful (e.g., remaining unemployed) transition out of university. Accordingly, using parallel process latent class growth modelling, we aimed to distinguish high- from low-risk groups of individuals based on joint patterns of depression and alcohol misuse following university graduation. Participants (N = 123) completed self-reports at three-month intervals for the year post-graduation. Results supported four classes: class 1: low stable depression and low decreasing alcohol misuse (n = 52), class 2: moderate stable depression and moderate stable alcohol misuse (n = 35), class 3: high stable depression and low stable alcohol misuse (n = 29), and class 4: high stable depression and high stable alcohol misuse (n = 8). Our findings show that the co-development of depression and alcohol misuse after university is not uniform. Most emerging adults in our sample continued to struggle with significant depressive symptoms after university, though only two classes continued to drink at moderate (class 2) and high (class 4) risk levels.
       
  • Exercise addiction is associated with emotional distress in injured and
           non-injured regular exercisers

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen, Claire Gudex, Cecilie Juul Hinze, Uffe Jørgensen IntroductionExercise addiction is characterized by the use of physical activity to cope with emotions and mood, while sports injuries can lead to psychological distress such as depression and anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between risk of exercise addiction and psychological distress, and whether this association was modified by injury status.MethodsA cross-sectional study with injured and non-injured recreational exercisers (n = 1083). Using the Exercise Addiction Inventory participants were classified into the following groups: High risk of exercise addiction (HREA) with musculoskeletal injury (n = 44); HREA without musculoskeletal injury (n = 31); Low risk of addiction (LREA) with injury (n = 563); LREA without injury (n = 445). The outcomes were depression using the Major Depression Inventory, and emotional stress using the Perceived Stress Scale. Data were analyzed using binomial regression analysis with prevalence proportion difference (PPD) as measure of association.ResultsCompared with LREA-exercisers, more HREA exercisers were depressed (PPD = 13% points [95%CI 3.6; 22.4]) or experienced emotional stress (PPD = 26.2% points [95%CI 14.5; 37.8]). Amongst injured exercisers, more HREA exercisers had depression (PPDHREA-injured = 15.9% points [95%CI 2.5; 29.3]) compared with LREA-exercisers.ConclusionsRecreational exercisers with high risk of exercise addiction reported more symptoms of depression and emotional stress, and this relationship seemed exacerbated in the presence of musculoskeletal injury. Psychological assessment and counseling may be useful supplements to somatic injury interventions for addressing emotional distress.
       
  • Excluded, then inebriated: A preliminary investigation into the role of
           ostracism on alcohol consumption

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Amy K. Bacon, Blair Engerman IntroductionOstracism has only recently been investigated as a relevant social stressor that might precede college student alcohol use. The present study continues initial efforts to examine the effects of ostracism on subsequent alcohol consumption in the laboratory. A 2 (sex: male, female) × 2 (condition: ostracism, control) between-subjects experimental design was conducted to examine the effects of these variables on alcohol consumption in the laboratory.MethodsSocial drinking college students (N = 40; 43% female) were randomly assigned to one of two social interaction tasks: either an in-person conversation from which the participant was excluded by two confederates, or independently rating neutrally valenced photographs alongside confederates. Participants then consumed a priming drink (targeted dose = 0.03 BrAC) before completing a mock taste test of up to 710 ml of light beer. Amount consumed (in ml) during the mock taste test served as the primary dependent variable.ResultsThe ostracism condition was effective at decreasing mood and psychological need variables (i.e., control, belonging) compared to the control condition. After removing from analyses those who identified the confederates as part of the study (n = 7; 3 control, 4 ostracism), results indicated that males consumed more beer than females, and that ostracized participants trended toward consuming more beer than control participants.ConclusionsFindings contribute important methodological additions to a burgeoning literature on the effects of ostracism on drinking, and suggest that ostracism may be a valuable addition to studies examining drinking to cope behaviors.
       
  • Psychometric evaluation of a lifetime version of the marijuana problems
           scale

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): David C. Hodgins, Jonathan N. Stea IntroductionThe Marijuana Problems Scale (MPS) is a widely-used self-report measure of cannabis-related negative consequences that has a past three-month reporting window. This report describes the psychometric characteristics of a lifetime version (MPS-L).MethodsAs part of a larger study, 119 individuals who had recovered from cannabis use disorder completed the MPS-L on two occasions 2 weeks apart and 91 participant-nominated family and friends also completed a collateral version of the scale.ResultsItem analyses and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that three of the 19 items were relatively weaker. Omitting these items, the MPS-L showed good internal reliability (α = 0.88, for summed severity total, α = 0.85 for number of consequences identified) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.81 and 0.73). As expected, correlations with collateral reports were moderate (r = 0.33 and 0.29), and collaterals reported significantly fewer negative consequences than participants. MPS total scores also correlated as expected with external validity measures (e.g., number of cannabis use disorder symptoms reported, motives for use, lifetime depression, treatment history). PCA supported the use of a total score summed score, but also revealed two secondary factors, measuring internal consequences (e.g., low self-esteem) and external consequences (e.g., financial difficulties).ConclusionsThese analyses provide good preliminary support for a lifetime version of the MPS, with the summed severity total score performing slightly better than the total number of consequences endorsed.
       
  • Parental belief and adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors: A
           propensity score matching study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Hei Wan Mak This research examines the effects of parental belief on adolescent later smoking and drinking behaviors. Previous studies show that parental belief may have detrimental or beneficial influences on adolescents' behaviors. Analysis is based on Wave 1 and 2 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), N = 3232, and is conducted using an OLS regression estimation and propensity score matching (PSM; nearest-neighbor and kernel matching). Results show that, of adolescents who used cigarettes and alcohol at Wave 1, they are more likely to continue the activity if their parents were aware of it. Adolescents are also more likely to use cigarettes if their parents believed they smoked when in fact they did not. Of adolescents who did not use alcohol, no significant association is found between parental belief and their later alcohol use. Self-fulfilling prophecy is proposed to explain the effects of parental belief. Results obtained from PSM show weaker effects of parental belief, suggesting that part of the effects is explained by shared factors which are responsible for the belief and adolescent substance use. Adolescent concealment is proposed as an important unobserved confounder that influences the association between parental belief and adolescent substance use. The study suggests that research on parent-adolescent communication affected by the self-fulfilling prophecy needs to consider adolescents' intentional concealment, which may help avoid conflicts elicited by discussing topics that adolescents feel uncomfortable confiding in.
       
  • Prior prescription opioid misuse in a cohort of heroin users in a
           treatment study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Michael Fendrich, Jessica Becker This study investigates prior prescription opioid misuse in a cohort of heroin users whose progress was tracked in a treatment study conducted in the US from 2006 to 2010. Half of the sample misused prescription opioids (“other opiates/analgesics”) prior to their onset of heroin misuse (POBs). We found that POBs were demographically younger and more likely to be white than other heroin users (OHUs). There were differences between the two groups with respect to the reporting of at least one year of regular use of substances and age of onset of substance use. POBs were more likely to report regular use, and earlier onset of use of several substances, mostly of the type potentially obtained via prescription. POBs were more persistent in their opioid use and more likely to suffer near-term elevated depressive symptoms compared with OHUs. These findings suggest that heroin addiction treatment may need to be tailored according to opioid misuse history.
       
  • Correlates of attempting to quit smoking among adults in Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Shariful Hakim, Muhammad Abdul Baker Chowdhury, Md Jamal Uddin BackgroundQuit attempts are very essential in population-based smoking cessation. Little is known about the correlates of making a quit attempt of smoking in Bangladesh. We aimed to examine correlates of making a quit attempt of smoking among adults in Bangladesh.MethodsWe used data from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Bangladesh. A total of 2217 adult current smokers (2141 males and 76 females) aged 15 years and older who participated in the survey were included. We compared socio-demographic, behavioral, motivational, knowledge and attitudes towards smoking, quitting methods utilized, use of social media to quit smoking, and environmental characteristics of current smokers who made an attempt to quit with those who made no quit attempt during the previous 12 months of the survey. We applied multivariable logistic regression models for analyzing the data.ResultsAmong the 2217 current smokers, 1058 (47.72%) made attempt to quit. We found respondents who smoked their first cigarette within 6 to 30 min of waking up were more likely to make an attempt to quit than those who smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of waking. Moreover, among daily current smokers who smoked 10–19 manufactured cigarettes per day were less likely to make a quit attempt. We also found intention to quit smoking, smoking rules inside the home, and exposure to anti-smoking advertisements as significant correlates of making a quit attempt of smoking among adults in Bangladesh.ConclusionsPolicymakers should consider our findings when implementing tobacco control programs in Bangladesh.
       
  • Treatment of an HIV-affected adolescent with heroin dependence in a
           low-income country: A clinical case study from Zambia

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Christopher Akiba, Jeremy C. Kane, Stephanie Skavenski van Wyk, Ravi Paul, Chombalelo Mukunta, Laura K. Murray IntroductionAlthough the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended guidelines for the treatment of opioid dependence, there are myriad challenges to successfully implementing such guidelines in resource constrained settings, such as in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). To highlight these challenges, this paper presents a clinical case study of an adolescent study participant in a randomized controlled trial comparing two counseling programs in Lusaka, Zambia.Case descriptionThis 15 year-old male reported smoking marijuana and heroin daily, and injecting heroin monthly (while needle sharing). The patient was linked to the only physician capable of treating heroin addiction in Zambia. The patient was placed on a 30-day detox regimen of Tramadol administered from home, as in-patient detox services are unavailable in Zambia. The patient experienced complications with out-patient detox, including a relapse that led to violent behavior and temporary incarceration. The patient's treatment regimen was altered to include Lorazepam, a mild sedative, and psychosocial counseling. After completing detox the client was prescribed Naltrexone for maintenance as Methadone is listed as a banned substance in Zambia, and Buprenorphine is not available and is cost prohibitive.ConclusionsDespite a considerable amount of time and resources expended to successfully treat the patient, the majority of WHO guidelines for opioid dependence treatment were not attainable within the Zambian context. Additional research into the effectiveness and implementation of evidence-based interventions for substance use in LMICs is warranted.
       
  • What matters is when you play: Investigating the relationship between
           online video games addiction and time spent playing over specific day
           phases

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Stefano Triberti, Luca Milani, Daniela Villani, Serena Grumi, Sara Peracchia, Giuseppe Curcio, Giuseppe Riva Online video gaming is now widely considered an activity possibly related to addictive behaviors, so that the diagnosis of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is now included both in DSM-5 and ICD-11; however, there is still debate about some specific features of such disorder. One debated aspect is time spent playing: IGD gamers certainly play a high amount of time, but, on the other hand, also highly-engaged individuals or people working with video games (e.g.: eSports professional players) may play a lot without developing IGD. The literature agrees on the importance of deepening the role of time spent playing video games in IGD, to understand if it can be considered a symptom useful for the diagnosis, or not: one possibility is that time spent playing is not important in an absolute sense, but relatively to specific day phases. The present research involved 133 participants to test the relationship between average time spent playing over day phases (morning, afternoon, night; week, weekend days), age, game preferences and IGD. IGD score positively predicted time spent playing during weekend mornings, which are a day phase usually dedicated to other activities. Instead, time spent playing during afternoon was negatively predicted by age, according to this day phase being more related to youngsters' spare time, while night playing was related to preference for game genres which need dedicated time to organize multi-playing. Discussion deals with the utility of these preliminary results for future, more systematic research on IGD and its distinctive symptoms.
       
  • Psychometric assessment of the Internet Gaming Disorder diagnostic
           criteria: An Item Response Theory study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Bruno Schivinski, Magdalena Brzozowska-Woś, Erin M. Buchanan, Mark D. Griffiths, Halley M. Pontes Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been recognized by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) as a tentative disorder in the latest fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). In order to advance research on IGD, the APA has suggested that further research on the nine IGD criteria to investigate its clinical and empirical feasibility is necessary. The aim of the present study was to develop the Polish the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale–Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) and scrutinize the nine IGD criteria empirically. To achieve this, the newly developed IGDS9-SF was examined using a wide range of psychometric methods, including a polytomous Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis to evaluate the measurement performance of the nine IGD criteria. A sample of 3377 gamers (82.7% male, mean age 20 years, SD = 4.3 years) was recruited online for the present study. Overall, the findings obtained confirmed that suitability of the Polish IGDS9-SF to assess IGD amongst Polish gamers given the adequate levels of validity and reliability found. The IRT analysis revealed that the IGDS9-SF is a suitable tool to measure IGD levels above the average; however, criteria “continuation” (item 6), “deception” (item 7), and “escape” (item 8) presented with poor fit. Taken together, these results suggest that some of the diagnostic criteria may present with a different clinical weighting towards final diagnosis of IGD. The implications of these findings are further discussed.
       
  • Quality of life of young adults with non-paraphilic problematic sexual
           behaviors: An exploratory study

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Austin W. Blum, Samuel R. Chamberlain, Jon E. Grant IntroductionMany young adults are unable to control their sexual behavior despite distress or negative consequences created by these activities—a clinical phenomenon described as non-paraphilic problematic sexual behavior (PSB). Little is known about clinical features associated with quality of life in PSB.Methods54 participants affected by PSB (ages 18–29 years) were recruited for a study on impulsivity in young adults. PSB was defined as the experience of sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors that feel overwhelming or out of control. Participants were assessed using the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), other validated instruments, and questions examining aspects of health and well-being. Clinical measures associated with variation in quality of life were identified using the statistical technique of partial least squares (PLS).ResultsLower quality of life in PSB was associated with greater behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity (specifically, Barratt attentional impulsiveness, lower age at first alcohol use), emotional dysregulation, problematic use of the internet, current suicidality, higher state anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem.ConclusionsImpulsivity and affective problems are correlated with lower quality of life in PSB. These associations may provide a means to distinguish PSB from healthy sexual behavior.
       
  • Factors associated with changing cigarette consumption patterns among
           low-intensity smokers: Longitudinal findings across four waves
           (2008–2012) of ITC Mexico Survey

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors Reports, Volume 8Author(s): Kamala Swayampakala, James F. Thrasher, James W. Hardin, Andrea R. Titus, Jihong Liu, Geoffrey T. Fong, Nancy L. Fleischer BackgroundLight and intermittent smoking has become increasingly prevalent as smokers shift to lower consumption in response to tobacco control policies. We examined changes in cigarette consumption patterns over a four-year period and determined which factors were associated with smoking transitions.MethodsWe used data from a cohort of smokers from the 2008–2012 ITC Mexico Survey administrations to investigate transitions from non-daily (ND; n = 669), daily light (DL; ≤5 cigarettes per day (cpd); n = 643), and daily heavy (DH;>5 cpd; n = 761) smoking patterns. To identify which factors (i.e., sociodemographic measures, perceived addiction, quit behavior, social norms) were associated with smoking transitions, we stratified on smoking status at time t (ND, DL, DH) and used multinomial (ND, DL) and binomial (DH) logistic regression to examine transitions (quitting/reducing or increasing versus same level for ND and DL, quitting/reducing versus same level for DH).ResultsND smokers were more likely to quit at follow-up than DL or DH smokers. DH smokers who reduced their consumption to ND were more likely to quit eventually compared to those who continued as DH. Smokers who perceived themselves as addicted had lower odds of quitting/reducing smoking consumption at follow-up compared to smokers who did not, regardless of smoking status at the prior survey. Quit attempts and quit intentions were also associated with quitting/reducing consumption.ConclusionsReducing consumption may eventually lead to cessation, even for heavier smokers. The findings that perceived addiction and quit behavior were important predictors of changing consumption for all groups may offer insights into potential interventions.
       
  • Linking Internet Communication and Smartphone Use Disorder by taking a
           closer look at the Facebook and WhatsApp applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Peng Sha, Rayna Sariyska, René Riedl, Bernd Lachmann, Christian Montag IntroductionSmartphones are ubiquitous in the digital society. Although this powerful device is useful because it supports and simplifies many tasks in everyday life, a growing number of researchers is concerned that smartphones might have detrimental effects on the human brain and related psychological processes. Evidence indicates that social media platforms such as WhatsApp and Facebook are essential drivers of smartphone usage. Thus, a critical, yet unexplored issue is how excessive use of those platforms is related to Smartphone Use Disorder (SUD). Furthermore, since the roles of life satisfaction and fear of missing out (FoMo) have been demonstrated to be of particular importance for Internet Use and Internet Communication Disorder, those constructs were examined in the context of SUD.MethodsIn total, n = 2299 participants filled in questionnaires assessing SUD, WhatsApp and Facebook Use Disorder, FoMO, life satisfaction, and reported owning a WhatsApp and Facebook account.ResultsThe study revealed that SUD was linked to WhatsApp Use Disorder, and to a lesser extent, to Facebook Use Disorder. Associations between SUD and WhatsApp Use Disorder were most strongly pronounced in females. Additionally, FoMo predicted SUD, WhatsApp, Facebook Use Disorder, and (fully) mediated the relationship between life satisfaction and those variables.ConclusionThe findings of the present study suggest that WhatsApp use plays an important role to understand SUD. Regarding the mediating role of FoMO, the present work might help disentangle inconsistent results on the link between life satisfaction and (excessive) social networking sites use.
       
  • Need fulfilment and internet gaming disorder: A preliminary integrative
           model

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Matthew Scerri, Alastair Anderson, Vasileios Stavropoulos, Elwin Hu BackgroundThe need for a better understanding of the risk factors underpinning disordered gaming has been consistently emphasized. Although, gaming may offer a simple and straightforward means of alleviating distress, relying on gaming to address one's unmet psychological needs could invite problematic usage. Self-determination theory highlights the significance of three universally inherent psychological needs for relatedness, competency, and autonomy. A motivation to engage in gaming may be to address unmet needs and may become problematic.ObjectiveThis study aimed to assess whether experienced levels of loneliness, depression and self-esteem mediate the association between Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) behaviours and Need-Fulfilment deficits.MethodThe participants comprised of 149 adults (83 males, 66 females), aged between 18 and 62 years. A series of self-reported questionaries assessing their levels of IGD behaviours, depression, loneliness, self-esteem and need-fulfilment were completed.ResultsNeed-fulfilment deficits were linked to higher IGD behaviours. Interestingly, this association was mediated by the reported levels of self-esteem and depression and not loneliness.ConclusionsThe findings lend further empirical support for the mediating role of psychological distress between need fulfilment deficits and IGD behaviours.
       
  • The cross-cultural expression of internet gaming distress in North
           America, Europe, and China

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Jeffrey G. Snodgrass, Wen Zhao, Michael G. Lacy, Shaozeng Zhang, Rachel Tate We compare the forms online gaming-related distress takes cross-culturally, and examine how much such distress resembles the World Health Organization's (WHO) “Gaming disorder,” understood to be an “addiction.” Our preliminary exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in North America (n = 2025), Europe (n = 1198), and China (n = 841) revealed a constant four-factor structure across the three regions, with classic “addiction” symptoms always clustering together on the first and most important factor, though with some variability in regional factors' exact item composition. In the present study, we use second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to further examine this factor structure and the cultural similarities and differences. Specifically, we focus on confirming the regional structure and composition of an ethnographically developed 21-item gaming distress scale, which contains a wider symptoms pool than typical gaming disorder scales, and thus allows us to better separate generalized gaming distress's “addictive” from other culturally-influenced “problem” experiences and behaviors in each regional case. We use propensity score matching to separate the impact on gaming-related distress of regional culture from demographic variables (North America/Europe: n = 1043 pairs; North America/China: n = 535 pairs). Although our results support current WHO formulations of gaming-related distress as an addictive disorder, we show how cultural forces can shape how “addictive” and “problem” gaming are experienced and thus psychiatrically presented in different parts of the world. In particular, generalized gaming distress's addictive and problematic dimensions seem to be shaped by culture-specific expressions of achievement motivations, social connection and disconnection, and unique psychosomatic experiences.
       
  • Smoking, alcohol consumption and mental health: Data from the Brazilian
           study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Vanessa Roriz Ferreira, Thiago Veiga Jardim, Ana Luiza Lima Sousa, Brunella Mendonça Chinem Rosa, Paulo César Veiga Jardim IntroductionPrevious researches have indicated a strong association of alcohol and tobacco use with psychiatric disorders, but the relationship with depression and anxiety symptoms is still uncertain. We investigated the association of psychological distress and alcohol consumption, tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among adolescents in a developing country.MethodsThe authors evaluated 73,399 individuals (12–17 years) who participated in the Cardiovascular Risks Study in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, carried out in 124 Brazilian municipalities. The variables considered were alcoholic beverages (experimentation, consumption in the previous month and frequency of use) and smoking (experimentation, current smoking habits, frequent smoking and SHS exposure). Psychological distress was defined as a score ≥ 3 points in GHQ-12. Analyses included multiple logistic regression modeling.ResultsThe frequency of individuals with psychological distress was higher in the group who smoked for at least 7 consecutive days (53.3% vs 31.2%; OR: 2.17; 95%CI: 1.65–2.86), were exposed to SHS indoors (37.8% vs 29.8%; OR:1.30; 95%CI: 1.14–1.48), and outdoors (37.7% vs 26.6%; OR: 1.49; 95%CI: 1.28–1.74), and among young people who consumed at least 1 drink of alcohol in the previous 30 days (42.4% vs 28.6%; OR: 1.70; 95%CI: 1.46–1.97), when compared to adolescents not exposed.ConclusionsSmoking (passively and actively) and the consumption of alcoholic beverages are associated to psychological distress in the adolescent population. Avoiding smoking and the use of alcohol may have beneficial effects on the mental health. Our data reinforce the urgent necessity to prevent effectively underage access to legal drugs in Brazil.
       
  • Cultural socialization and alcohol use: The mediating role of alcohol
           expectancies among racial/ethnic minority youth

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Tamika C.B. Zapolski, Richelle L. Clifton IntroductionCultural socialization is associated with reduced risk for several health outcomes among racial/ethnic minority youth. However, to date, less is known about its effect on substance use or the mechanisms through which this process may operate. The current study aimed to examine the effect of cultural socialization on alcohol use through alcohol expectancies among racial/ethnic minority youth.Methods113 minority adolescents (69.9% African American; 13.3% Hispanic; 10.6% Multiracial; 2.7% American Indian/Alaskan Native) between ages 12 and 18 (mean age 15) were recruited from community-based after school centers. Participants completed measures on cultural socialization, four alcohol expectancy domains (i.e., positive social, wild and crazy, negative arousal, and sedation), and past year alcohol use.ResultsA significant indirect pathway between cultural socialization, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use was found for negative arousal expectancies (b = −0.160, Boot CI [95] = −0.413, −0.021). Indirect paths were non-significant for the other three alcohol expectancies.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that cultural socialization can help reduce alcohol use among racial/ethnic minority adolescents, in part though influencing negative arousal expectancies. Given evidence that alcohol expectancies play an important and long-lasting role in alcohol use across development, incorporating cultural socialization into intervention programming for racial/ethnic minority youth may prove beneficial to reduce risk for alcohol use.
       
  • Age of initiation of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among
           western Alaska Native people: Secondary analysis of the WATCH study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Christi A. Patten, Kathryn R. Koller, Christie A. Flanagan, Gretchen E. Day, Jason G. Umans, Melissa A. Austin, Scarlett E. Hopkins, Bert Boyer ObjectiveThis study examined self-reported age of tobacco initiation (cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco [ST] use) and explored potential sex and generational group influences on tobacco use onset among Alaska Native (AN) adult ever tobacco users.MethodsSecondary analysis of consolidated data from the Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health (WATCH) study comprised 2800 AN adult ever tobacco users (1490 women, 1310 men; mean age = 39.2 years) from two rural western Alaska regions. ST use data were limited to one region. Logistic regression was used to examine potential sex and generational group (age 18–29, 30–49, ≥50) effects on initiation at ≤13 years of age.ResultsThirty-seven percent of the sample reported using any tobacco product by age 13 years. Initiation of any ST use by age 13 was greater than for cigarette smoking (52.7% vs. 18.2%), and women were more likely than men to report initiation of any ST use at ≤13 years (52.6% vs. 38.4%). Nearly one-third of ever smokers (31%) initiated in young adulthood (ages 18–29). For ST use, logistic regression analyses revealed significant sex differences (women more likely to initiate by 13 years of age than men) and generational group effects with younger and middle age groups more likely to report initiation ≤13 years compared to the eldest participants. For smoking, no sex differences were observed but the youngest generational group was more likely to report initiation by age 13 compared to the eldest group.ConclusionsEarlier age of tobacco initiation is found among younger generations of AN people. Findings highlight the need to focus prevention efforts on initiation of smoking in young adulthood and uptake of ST use among girls.
       
  • Predicting smokeless tobacco initiation and re-initiation in the United
           States Air Force

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Andrew Dunkle, Ryan Kalpinski, Jon Ebbert, Wayne Talcott, Robert Klesges, Melissa A. Little IntroductionActive Duty United States Air Force (USAF) members have substantially higher rates of smokeless tobacco (ST) use than the general population.MethodsWe longitudinally assessed demographics, tobacco use, intrapersonal factors, and interpersonal factors to determine associations with the initiation or re-initiation of ST in the year following a period of forced abstinence among 2188 newly recruited Airmen. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between baseline predictors and ST use at one-year follow-up.ResultsIn the final multivariate models compared to never users, the strongest predictors of ST use initiation after BMT were male gender (adjusted OR 8.93, 95% CI 3.82, 20.88), pre-BMT cigarette and cigar use (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.00, 2.57; adjusted OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.66, 3.81 respectively). Compared to former ST users, the strongest predictors of re-initiation were male gender (adjusted OR 10.68, 95% CI 2.25, 50.62) and intentions to use ST (adjusted OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.42, 3.12). Compared to initiators of ST, the strongest predictors of re-initiation were intentions to use ST and peer use (adjusted OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.94, 5.49; OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.92, 3.41 respectively).ConclusionsOur results suggest that initiators may be exploring and viewing ST as a less harmful alternative to cigarette smoking and ST users reporting intentions to use ST in the future often return to use. The development of interventions able to disrupt the link between intentions to use tobacco and future tobacco use in the USAF is vital.
       
  • An exploration of the barriers to attendance at the English Stop Smoking
           Services

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Dimitra Kale, Hazel Gilbert, Stephen Sutton IntroductionDespite the availability of effective stop smoking assistance, most smokers do not utilise formal cessation programmes such as the English Stop Smoking Services (SSS). We modified the Treatment Barriers Questionnaire (TBQ), developed in the USA, and distributed it to a sample of English smokers to explore the most important barriers to the use of the SSS.MethodsParticipants of Start2quit, a randomised controlled trial aiming to increase attendance at the SSS using tailored risk information and ‘taster’ sessions, who reported at follow-up that they had not attended the SSS, were asked to complete the TBQ; 672 (76.9% response rate) were retained for analysis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted to examine the structure of the data. Multiple linear regressions were used to determine whether any participant characteristics were associated with particular barriers.ResultsThe most commonly endorsed items related to a lack of information on and a lack of confidence in the efficacy of the SSS. PCA yielded seven factors: Work and time constraints (Factor1); Smokers should quit on their own (Factor2); Nothing can help in quitting smoking(Factor3); Disinterest in quitting (Factor4); Lack of social support to attend (Factor5); Lack of privacy at programmes (Factor6); Lack of information and perceived availability (Factor7). Age was associated with Factors 1, 3 and 4, motivation to quit with Factors 2 and 4, and confidence in quitting with Factors 1, 2, and 3.ConclusionsThe findings suggest that many barriers exist, and they vary according to smoker demographics and characteristics, pointing to the need for tailored recruitment strategies.Trial registrationISRCTN76561916.
       
  • A preliminary cross-cultural study of Hikikomori and Internet Gaming
           Disorder: The moderating effects of game-playing time and living with
           parents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Vasileios Stavropoulos, Emma Ela Anderson, Charlotte Beard, Mohammed Qasim Latifi, Daria Kuss, Mark Griffiths BackgroundInternet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and Hikikomori (an extreme form of social real-life withdrawal, where individuals isolate themselves from society) have both been suggested as mental disorders that require further clinical research, particularly among young adult populations.ObjectiveTo add to the extant literature, the present study used a cross-cultural, cross-sectional design to investigate the association between Hikikomori and IGD, and the potential moderating effects of reported game-playing time and living with parents.MethodTwo online samples of 153 Australian and 457 U.S.-North American young adult players of Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) games were collected. The nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9), and the Hikikomori Social Withdrawal Scale were administered to dimensionally assess IGD and Hikikomori, respectively.ResultsLinear regression analyses confirmed that Hikikomori symptoms are associated with IGD. Additionally, moderation analyses indicated that the association was exacerbated by longer game playing time across both populations. Gamers living with their parents was a significant moderator of the relationship for the Australian sample.ConclusionsExtreme real-life social withdrawal and IGD are related, and this association is exacerbated for those who spend more time playing MMOs per day, and, for Australian participants, living with their parents.
       
  • Internet gaming disorder: Feeling the flow of social games

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2018Source: Addictive Behaviors ReportsAuthor(s): Elwin Hu, Vasileios Stavropoulos, Alastair Anderson, Matthew Scerri, James Collard IntroductionGaming Disorder (GD) was added to the recent publication of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization. This aligns with recommendations of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5), issued by the American Psychiatric Association. Accordingly, further relevant research has been invited. The interplay between preference for online social game genres, the degree of online Flow (or immersive pleasure) experienced, and the gamer's biological gender were examined here as contributing factors of IGD.MethodA normative sample of adult internet gamers was collected online (N = 237, Age = 18–59, Males = 157; 66%; Females = 80; 34%). Participants completed the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS-SF9), the Online Flow Questionnaire (OFQ), and also self-reported demographics and internet/gaming behaviours.ResultsMediation and moderated mediation analyses indicated that the level of online Flow experienced considerably mediated the association between the preference for social games genres and the intensity of IGD behaviours across both biological genders.ConclusionsResults suggest that the level of online Flow experienced constitutes a risk factor in relation to the development of IGD. Furthermore, games which mandate social interaction with others present to be conducive to online Flow, and thus enhancing IGD risk irrespective of the biological gender of the gamer. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
       
 
 
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