Authors:W. Miles Cox; Eric Klinger; Javad Salehi Fadardi Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): W. Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance. People who are at such risk are likely to choose to use addictive substances even though doing so entails negative consequences. In the sense of complete freedom from being determined by causal factors, we believe that there is no such thing as free will, but defined as ability to make choices from among multiple options, even though the choices are ultimately governed by natural processes, addicted individuals are free to choose. Although they might appear unable to exercise this kind of free will in decisions about their substance use, addictive behaviors are ultimately always goal-directed and voluntary. Such goal pursuits manifest considerable flexibility. Even some severely addicted individuals can cease their use when the value of continuing the use abruptly declines or when the subjective cost of continuing the use is too great with respect to the incentives in other areas of their lives. Formal treatment strategies (e.g., contingency management, Systematic Motivational Counseling, cognitive training) can also be used to facilitate this reversal.
Authors:Hugh Webb; Benjamin M. Jones; Kathleen McNeill; Li Lim; Andrew J. Frain; Kerry J. O'Brien; Daniel P. Skorich; Peta Hoffmann; Tegan Cruwys Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Hugh Webb, Benjamin M. Jones, Kathleen McNeill, Li Lim, Andrew J. Frain, Kerry J. O'Brien, Daniel P. Skorich, Peta Hoffmann, Tegan Cruwys This study tests a social identity based mechanism for the effectiveness of plain tobacco packaging legislation, introduced in Australia in December 2012, to reduce cigarette smoking. 178 Australian smokers rated their sense of identification with fellow smokers of their brand, positive brand stereotypes, quitting behaviours and intentions, and smoking intensity, both before and seven months after the policy change. Mediation analyses showed that smokers, especially those who initially identified strongly with their brand, experienced a significant decrease in their brand identity following the introduction of plain packaging and this was associated with lower smoking behaviours and increased intentions to quit. The findings provide the first quantitative evidence that brand identities may help maintain smoking behaviour, and suggest the role of social-psychological processes in the effectiveness of public health policy.
Authors:Rayna Sariyska; Bernd Lachmann; Sebastian Markett; Martin Reuter; Christian Montag Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Rayna Sariyska, Bernd Lachmann, Sebastian Markett, Martin Reuter, Christian Montag
Authors:Gene M. Heyman Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2017 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Gene M. Heyman Introduction This paper addresses two overlapping questions: Do addicts have the capacity to voluntarily quit drugs? And do individuals knowingly pursue courses of action that they realize are bad for them, such as excessive drug use? Methods I propose two testable versions of free will. First, activities that vary as a function of their consequences (e.g., costs and benefits) are widely accepted as voluntary activities. Thus, we can ask if drug use in addicts is susceptible to its consequences. For instance, do laws that promise legal sanctions for drug use reduce drug use in addicts? Second, the philosopher Harry Frankfurt proposed a definition of free will that takes into account desires and self-reflection. I propose that addicts who do not want to desire drugs and successfully stop craving drugs pass his test. Results Dependence on illicit drugs typically ends after about four to six years. Dependence on cigarettes and alcohol persists for much longer, but most smokers and alcoholics eventually voluntarily quit using. Smokers and heroin addicts can voluntarily regulate their drug cravings as a function of the availability of their drug of choice. They have the capacity to pass Frankfurt's test of free will. Conclusions Addicts have free will as defined by the capacity to voluntary quit using drugs and to voluntarily regulate their cravings.
Authors:Roy F. Baumeister Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Roy F. Baumeister Opinions differ widely as to whether addicts lose the ability to control their behavior and employ free will. This article reviews empirical findings regarding multiple questions relevant to the issue of free will among addicted smokers: Is smoking voluntary behavior? Can people quit smoking? Why don't people quit smoking? Why do smokers relapse when they try to quit? Do addicted smokers suffer from irresistible cravings? Are there some people who cannot quit? Are there conditions that make resistance impossible? Why would they smoke knowing it can kill them? The evidence reviewed here seems most consistent with the view that smokers retain control over their actions but cannot easily stop having frequent desires to smoke.
Authors:Andrew J. Vonasch; Cory J. Clark; Stephan Lau; Kathleen D. Vohs; Roy F. Baumeister Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Andrew J. Vonasch, Cory J. Clark, Stephan Lau, Kathleen D. Vohs, Roy F. Baumeister Introduction It is widely believed that addiction entails a loss of free will, even though this point is controversial among scholars. There is arguably a downside to this belief, in that addicts who believe they lack the free will to quit an addiction might therefore fail to quit an addiction. Methods A correlational study tested the relationship between belief in free will and addiction. Follow-up studies tested steps of a potential mechanism: 1) people think drugs undermine free will 2) people believe addiction undermines free will more when doing so serves the self 3) disbelief in free will leads people to perceive various temptations as more addictive. Results People with lower belief in free will were more likely to have a history of addiction to alcohol and other drugs, and also less likely to have successfully quit alcohol. People believe that drugs undermine free will, and they use this belief to self-servingly attribute less free will to their bad actions than to good ones. Low belief in free will also increases perceptions that things are addictive. Conclusions Addiction is widely seen as loss of free will. The belief can be used in self-serving ways that may undermine people's efforts to quit.
Authors:L. Darren Kruisselbrink; Adriana C. Bervoets; Suzanne de Klerk; Aurora J.A.E. van de Loo; Joris C. Verster Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): L. Darren Kruisselbrink, Adriana C. Bervoets, Suzanne de Klerk, Aurora J.A.E. van de Loo, Joris C. Verster Background Resistance to alcohol hangover may be a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. Previous research to establish the prevalence of hangover resistance in a drinking population has either not used comparable intoxication levels or has considered hangover resistance over a limited time frame. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of lifetime hangover negative (LHN) drinkers across comparable eBAC values ranging from 0 to 500mg/dl. Methods Students at an eastern Canadian university were surveyed about their heaviest drinking episode in the past month and indicated whether they had ever experienced a hangover in their lifetime (LHN) and, if they had, the hangover severity they experienced the next day. eBACs were calculated and the percentage of LHN drinkers was computed at each 10mg/dl eBAC increment from 0 to 500mg/dl. Results Most LHN drinkers (58% female, 71% male) had an eBAC on their heaviest drinking occasion below 80mg/dl. Above eBACs of 80mg/dl, 5.8% of female and 5.1% of male drinkers were lifetime hangover negative. Conclusions The results suggest that only a small percentage of heavy drinkers lay claim to being lifetime hangover negative.
Authors:Timothy Liu; Jason Ferris; Angela Higginson; Anthony Lynham Pages: 1 - 12 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Timothy Liu, Jason Ferris, Angela Higginson, Anthony Lynham Alcohol-related violence remains to be a health concern, and the oral and maxillofacial surgeons are routinely exposed to its impact on the victims and the healthcare system. At a community level, various policing interventions have been implemented to address this violent crime in and around licensed premises. Current study sought to examine the effectiveness of these interventions in Australia. Ten eligible studies, that evaluated the impact of 15 Australian policing interventions on reducing alcohol-related violence in the night-time economy, were included in this systematic review. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs and the insufficiency of the reported data, quantitative meta-analysis of the findings was precluded. Instead, a critical narrative approach was used. Police-recorded assault rate was the primary outcome measured to assess the level of alcohol-related violence, which was influenced by the level of police duties implemented during the intervention period. The overall evidence base to support Australian policing interventions was found to be poor and was limited by the low-quality study design observed in the majority of the included studies. However, there is some evidence to suggest interventions involving proactive policing to be more effective than traditional reactive policing. There was also an increased emphasis on developing policing interventions in collaborative partnerships, demonstrating the synergistic benefits in crime prevention through community partnerships, where communities were encouraged to take ownerships of their own problems and develop targeted responses to alcohol-related violence rather than a one-size-fits-all approach. Further research is required to define their effectiveness with the use of more appropriate and robust methodologies.
Authors:Christopher P. Salas-Wright; Jennifer M. Reingle Gonzalez; Michael G. Vaughn; Seth J. Schwartz; Katelyn K. Jetelina Pages: 13 - 17 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Christopher P. Salas-Wright, Jennifer M. Reingle Gonzalez, Michael G. Vaughn, Seth J. Schwartz, Katelyn K. Jetelina Background Despite the accumulation of studies examining the link between alcohol use and violence, no studies to our knowledge have systematically set out to detect age-related differences in these relationships. This limitation inhibits important insights into the stability of the relationship between alcohol use and violence among youth across varying ages. Method Study findings are based on repeated, cross-sectional data collected annually as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2013. We combined a series of nationally representative cross-sections to provide a multi-year string of data that, in effect, reflects a nationally representative non-traditional cohort. We conducted logistic regression analyses to examine the cross-sectional association between non-binge and binge drinking and violent attacks among youth between ages 12 (2002) and 24/25 (2013). Results With respect to the association between non-binge alcohol use and violence, the only significant relationship identified—while controlling for sociodemographic and drug use factors—was for youth at age 13 (2003; OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.04-3.72). For binge drinking, we identified a distinct pattern of results. Controlling for sociodemographic, drug use factors, and school enrollment, binge drinking was significantly associated with violence between ages 13 (2003) and 20 (2010) with the largest odds ratios observed during the early adolescent period. Conclusions Non-binge drinking is associated with violent behavior at age 13. Binge drinking was found to be associated with violence among youth through age 20; however, the relationship dissipates when youth arrive at the legal drinking age of 21.
Authors:Philip Veliz; Carol J. Boyd; Sean Esteban McCabe Pages: 18 - 23 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Philip Veliz, Carol J. Boyd, Sean Esteban McCabe Aims While a robust literature exists regarding substance use patterns among adolescent athletes, no studies have examined substance use among adolescent sexual minority athletes; a subpopulation of adolescents that may experience greater rates of substance use due to their marginalized status within the context of sport. Methods This study uses data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2009–2013). Adolescents (N =26,940) from four states were included in the analyses that assessed past 30-day cigarette use, alcohol use, binge drinking and marijuana use among sexual minority athletes, heterosexual athletes, heterosexual non-athletes, and sexual minority non-athletes. Results Approximately 4 % of the sample included athletes who identified as a sexual minority (3.7% males and 5.3% females). While the bivariate analyses found that sexual minority athletes had higher past 30-day prevalence rates of substance use when compared to heterosexual athletes and non-athletes, these rates were similar to sexual minority non-athletes. Moreover, when demographic characteristics and history of substance use were included in the multivariate analytic models, many of these differences were no longer statistically significant. These results were generally consistent for both males and females. Conclusions The results of the study suggest that the context of sport may not be an additional site for stress among adolescent athletes who identify as a sexual minority, and subsequently may have little impact on substance use behaviors. However, participating in sport may not serve as a protective context for adolescent sexual minorities given that substance use behaviors may be learned and reinforced.
Authors:Dean Kaptsis; Daniel L. King; Paul H. Delfabbro; Michael Gradisar Pages: 24 - 30 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Dean Kaptsis, Daniel L. King, Paul H. Delfabbro, Michael Gradisar Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The IGD criteria refer to withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, or sadness, that follow cessation of Internet gaming (APA, 2013). The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the nature of Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms, if they occur, under gaming abstinence conditions. This study employed a repeated-measures protocol to examine the cognitive-affective reactions of participants undertaking an 84-hour Internet gaming abstinence period. The sample included individuals who met the IGD criteria as well as those who regularly played Internet games but did not meet the IGD criteria. Outcome variables included affect (positive and negative), psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress), and Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms (craving/urge, thoughts about gaming, inability to resist gaming). A total of 24 participants (M age =24.6 years, SD =5.8), including 9 who met the DSM-5 criteria for IGD, were recruited from online gaming communities, and completed a series of online surveys before, during, and after abstaining from Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) games. Both the IGD group and the non-IGD group experienced an abstinence-induced decline in withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect, and psychological distress. The IGD group experienced its largest decline in withdrawal symptomatology within the first 24 hours of abstinence. These preliminary data suggest that gaming withdrawal symptoms may follow, at least initially, negative linear and quadratic trends. Further prospective work in larger samples involving longer periods of abstinence is required to verify and expand upon these observations.
Authors:Shane Rebgetz; Leanne Hides; David J. Kavanagh; Anand Choudhary Pages: 31 - 36 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Shane Rebgetz, Leanne Hides, David J. Kavanagh, Anand Choudhary Introduction There is growing evidence for natural recovery from cannabis use by people with psychosis, but mechanisms underpinning it need further exploration. This study prospectively explored this issue. Method Twenty-two people with psychosis and cannabis misuse were recruited: 19 provided data for at least one follow-up assessment, and 13 of these (68%) reduced or ceased using cannabis. A semi-structured interview with the latter group explored reasons for initiating the attempt, strategies they employed, and context/s where any relapse occurred. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to identify themes. Results Participants who reduced or ceased cannabis use had fewer negative symptoms at Baseline, and were more likely to only use cannabis. Major reasons for starting an attempt were worsening mental health, relationship and lifestyle difficulties. Effective strategies fell into psychological, relationship, lifestyle and medication themes. Only three participants reported a relapse: triggers involved substance-using peers, relationship difficulties, and problems with negative emotions including ones from past trauma. Conclusions An encouragingly high rate of maintained reductions in cannabis use was seen. Increased awareness of the benefits across multiple life domains from addressing cannabis use may be critical to the initiation and maintenance of attempts, both to maximise motivation, and avoid over-dependence on improvements in any single domain. Negative symptoms, multiple substance use, dysphoria and pressure from substance-using peers clearly offer additional challenges for control.
Authors:Antony C. Moss; Ian P. Albery; Khaleda Rahman Pages: 37 - 43 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 July 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Antony C. Moss, Ian P. Albery, Khaleda Rahman Dual process accounts of the alcohol-behaviour link hypothesise that differences in drinking patterns will moderate the effects of exposure to alcohol-related cues on behaviour, such as when a placebo is administered. We test this hypothesis by adapting a paradigm used in alcohol myopia research to examine the effects of alcohol-related priming on self-enhancement behaviour amongst social drinkers. Participants were asked to engage in a computerised self-rating task prior to being exposed to alcohol related and/or motivational primes. A staged computer error then occurred, and participants were then asked to complete their self ratings again – this method allowed for an immediate assessment of the impact of alcohol and motivational primes on self enhancement. As predicted by alcohol myopia theory, the overall effect of priming with alcohol-related cues was not significant irrespective of response-conflict manipulations. However, drinker type moderated this effect such that heavier drinkers self-enhanced more after exposure to alcohol-related cues, but only in high-conflict conditions. This suggests that the efficacy of a placebo may be significantly moderated by individual differences in reactions to alcohol-related stimuli, and that dual process accounts of the effects of alcohol on behaviour better explains this variation than alcohol myopia theory.
Authors:Angelina Pilatti; Marcos Cupani; Francisco Tuzinkievich; Walter Winfree Pages: 44 - 50 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Angelina Pilatti, Marcos Cupani, Francisco Tuzinkievich, Walter Winfree Introduction: Cognitive distortions are related to gambling frequency and gambling severity. Having a culturally sensitive measure to assess cognitive distortions will facilitate the early detection of people who might be at risk of developing problematic gambling behaviors. The Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire was translated into Spanish (GBQ-S) but no previous study explored the structure of the GBQ-S in a non-US sample with different levels of gambling involvement. Aim: The present study examined the factor structure of the GBQ-S in a community sample of gamblers from Argentina. It also analyzed the association between cognitive distortions and type of gambling activity and frequency of gambling behaviors and the predictive utility of the GBQ-S on gambling severity. Participants: 508 youth and adults completed the GBQ-S. Results: The CFA showed an overall acceptable fit to the data confirming the proposed two-factor model. Scores of the two GBQ sub-scales were positively and significantly correlated with scores on gambling severity. Cognitive distortions have a significant effect on gambling severity after controlling for frequency of engagement in gambling activities. Luck and perseverance, but not illusion of control, was positively related to gambling severity. Discussion: scores measured by the GBQ-S exhibit adequate psychometric properties for the accurate assessment of cognitive distortions across adults and youth from the general community of Argentina.
Authors:Olga Geisel; Julia Behnke; Michael Schneider; Klaus-Dieter Wernecke; Christian A. Müller Pages: 51 - 57 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Olga Geisel, Julia Behnke, Michael Schneider, Christian A. Müller Background In the majority of patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), the clinical course is characterized by multiple relapses to drinking, frequently preceded by intense craving for alcohol. The present pilot study aimed to assess the effects of a repetitive imaginary cue-exposure protocol in reducing craving in recently abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. Methods Sixty-four patients were randomly assigned to six intervention groups and were instructed to repetitively imagine: i) drinking a glass of their preferred alcoholic drink (low vs. high number of repetitions); or ii) drinking a glass of water (low vs. high number of repetitions); or iii) performing an analogous movement or performed no imagination. Additionally, 10 healthy controls were instructed to repetitively imagine drinking a glass of their preferred alcoholic drink (high number of repetitions). The levels of craving before and after intervention were measured using the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ) and the Visual Analogue Scale for Craving (VASC). Results Repetitive imagination of alcohol consumption did not lead to a significant decrease in craving in alcohol-dependent patients as measured by the AUQ and VASC. In contrast, healthy controls showed a trendwise decrease of the urge to drink alcohol after applying the protocol with a high number of repetitions. Conclusions The findings of this pilot study might indicate an aberrant ability to habituate to alcohol-related stimuli in patients with AUD compared to healthy subjects. Future studies in larger samples are needed to further explore the effectiveness of imaginary cue-exposure interventions in alcohol dependence.
Authors:Adam E. Green; Darren Mays; Emily B. Falk; Donna Vallone; Natalie Gallagher; Amanda Richardson; Kenneth P. Tercyak; David B. Abrams; Raymond S. Niaura Pages: 28 - 32 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Adam E. Green, Darren Mays, Emily B. Falk, Donna Vallone, Natalie Gallagher, Amanda Richardson, Kenneth P. Tercyak, David B. Abrams, Raymond S. Niaura Introduction The study examined young adult smokers' neural response to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Nineteen young adult smokers (M age 22.9, 52.6% male, 68.4% non-white, M 4.3 cigarettes/day) completed pre-scan, self-report measures of demographics, cigarette smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence, and an fMRI scanning session. During the scanning session participants viewed cigarette pack images (total 64 stimuli, viewed 4s each) that varied based on the warning label (graphic or visually occluded control) and pack branding (branded or plain packaging) in an event-related experimental design. Participants reported motivation to quit (MTQ) in response to each image using a push-button control. Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional images were acquired during the task. Results GWLs produced significantly greater self-reported MTQ than control warnings (p <.001). Imaging data indicate stronger neural activation in response to GWLs than the control warnings at a cluster-corrected threshold p <.001 in medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, medial temporal lobe, and occipital cortex. There were no significant differences in response to warnings on branded versus plain cigarette packages. Conclusions In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.
Authors:Mia Beck Lichtenstein; Tanja Tang Jensen Pages: 33 - 37 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Tanja Tang Jensen Introduction CrossFit is a mix of aerobic and anaerobic exercise regimes with the stated goal of improving fitness and physical performance. It is growing in popularity and has a strong community known to motivate and push the participants to maximal performance. The negative consequences of these extreme exercise patterns have rarely been described. The prevalence of injuries in CrossFit is high but exercise addiction and harmful exercise attitudes have not yet been assessed. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of exercise addiction in CrossFit and to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) in a CrossFit population. Methods We invited crossfitters to participate in an online survey using Facebook groups. A total of 603 regular crossfitters completed the EAI and additional questions concerning exercise amounts and negative exercise attitudes and beliefs. We used principal component analyses and structural equation models to test the psychometric properties of the EAI and to describe the characteristics of the addicted crossfitters. Results We found that 5% of the crossfitters were addicted to exercise and that young males had a higher risk. The EAI had good internal reliability (0.73) and construct validity. Thus we found significant positive associations between exercise addiction and the tendency to exercise in spite of injury, feelings of guilt when unable to exercise, passion turning into obsession and taking medication to be able to exercise. Conclusions Exercise addiction is prevalent in CrossFit and needs further exploration. The EAI is recommended for research in CrossFit communities and applied settings.
Authors:T.D.W. Wilcockson; N.E.M. Sanal Pages: 38 - 42 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): T.D.W. Wilcockson, N.E.M. Sanal Objectives Cannabis is now the most widely used illicit substance in the world. Previous research demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with dysfunctional affect regulation and anxiety. Anxiety is characterised by attentional biases in the presence of emotional information. This novel study therefore examined the attentional bias of cannabis users when presented with anxiety-related stimuli. The aim was to establish whether cannabis users respond to anxiety-related stimuli differently to control participants. Methods A dot-probe paradigm was utilised using 40 undergraduate students. Trials contained anxiety-related stimuli and neutral control stimuli. Eye-tracking was used to measure attention for the stimuli. Results Results indicated that cannabis users demonstrated attentional-avoidance behaviour when presented with anxiety-related stimuli. Conclusions The findings suggest a difference in processing of emotional information in relation to neutral information between groups. It would appear that cannabis users avoid anxiety provoking stimuli. Such behaviour could potentially have motivational properties that could lead to exacerbating anxiety disorder-type behaviour.
Authors:Ragnhild Bø; Joël Billieux; Nils Inge Landrø Pages: 43 - 47 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Ragnhild Bø, Joël Billieux, Nils Inge Landrø Background Impulsive binge drinking is a serious public health issue, and to reveal predisposing factors to this consumption pattern is, therefore, required. Impulsivity-related traits are important predictors of alcohol use and abuse. Nonetheless, previous research in binge drinking has been confounded by various definitions and cut-off scores, implying that existing studies contributed to limited comprehension on the specific role of different impulsivity facets. The current study thus disentangles the role of impulsivity facets in binge drinking by adopting a dimensional approach, considering the condition on a continuum, to avoid relying on debatable and non-definitive criteria. Methods 162 students underwent assessment of alcohol consumption, including drinking patterns and impulsive traits, as captured in the UPPS-P framework (i.e., negative urgency, positive urgency, sensation seeking, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation). Multiple regression analyses were utilized in order to investigate the predictive role of each impulsivity facet in binge drinking. Results Binge drinking was associated with sensation seeking. However, when statistically controlling for gender, age and global alcohol consumption, this effect disappeared, and negative urgency remained the only impulsivity component that significantly predicted binge drinking. Conclusion We found the severity of binge drinking to be associated with negative urgency, suggesting that the binge drinking pattern is displayed in reaction to negative emotional states, and can be conceptualized as a maladaptive and short-term emotional coping. The study calls for prevention and treatment interventions designed to improve self-control, and more adaptive emotion regulation strategies.
Authors:Ezemenari M. Obasi; Lucia Cavanagh; Delishia M. Pittman; Jessica J. Brooks Pages: 48 - 55 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Ezemenari M. Obasi, Lucia Cavanagh, Delishia M. Pittman, Jessica J. Brooks Introduction A large body of literature has substantiated the relationship between alcohol use and violent behaviors, but little consideration has been given to implicit interactions between the two. This study examines the implicit attitudes associated with alcoholic drinks and violent behaviors, and their relationship to explicit reports of problematic behaviors associated with alcohol use. Methods The Go/No-Go Association Task (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) was used to test the effect of distracters (noise) on implicit cognitions associated with alcoholic drinks and violent behaviors. Data was collected from 148 students enrolled in a Midwestern university. Results Irrespective of contextual distractions, participants consistently exhibited negative implicit cognitions associated with violent behaviors. However, context impacted the valence of cognitions associated with alcoholic beverages. Implicit cognitions associated with alcoholic beverages were negative when nonalcoholic beverages were used as distracters, but were positive when licit and illicit drugs were used as distracters. Implicit cognitions associated with alcoholic drinks were correlated with implicit cognitions associated with violent behaviors and explicit measures of problem drinking, problem drug-related behaviors, and measures of craving, to name a few. Conclusion Evaluative context can have an effect on the expressed appraisal of implicit attitudes. Implications, limitations, and future directions for using the GNAT in addictions research are discussed.
Authors:Michael Lyvers; James Karantonis; Mark S. Edwards; Fred Arne Thorberg Pages: 56 - 60 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Michael Lyvers, James Karantonis, Mark S. Edwards, Fred Arne Thorberg The present study sought to determine whether certain personality traits associated with problematic substance use may also characterize young adults who report problematic internet use. An index of internet addiction as well as measures of traits previously linked to problematic substance use were administered to a sample of 86 young adults aged 18–30years. Measures included the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ), Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and the Fear of Intimacy Scale (FIS). Results indicated that IAT scores were significantly positively correlated with TAS-20, DASS-21, SPSRQ and FIS scores, as predicted. When age, gender and negative mood were controlled in a hierarchical regression, sensitivity to punishment (SP), sensitivity to reward (SR) and FIS significantly contributed to variance in IAT in the final model. SP partially mediated the relationship between TAS-20 and IAT, whereas no such mediation was indicated for SR or FIS. Present findings suggest that alexithymia and reward sensitivity may be important risk factors for internet addiction as for problematic substance use, whereas sensitivity to punishment may account for at least part of the association between alexithymia and problematic use of the internet.
Authors:Richard J.E. James; Claire O'Malley; Richard J. Tunney Pages: 61 - 69 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Richard J.E. James, Claire O'Malley, Richard J. Tunney This paper reports a series of analyses examining the predictors of gambling subtypes identified from a latent class analysis of problem gambling assessment data, pooled from four health and gambling surveys conducted in Britain between 2007 and 2012. Previous analyses have indicated that gambling assessments have a consistent three class structure showing quantitative and potentially qualitative differences. Bringing this data together is useful for studying more severe problem gamblers, where the small number of respondents has been a chronic limitation of gambling prevalence research. Predictors were drawn from sociodemographic indicators and engagement with other legal addictive behaviours, namely smoking and alcohol consumption. The pooled data was entered into a multinomial logistic regression model in which class membership was regressed along a series of demographic variables and survey year, based on previous analyses of gambling prevalence data. The results identified multiple demographic differences (age, general health, SES, being single, membership of ethnic minority groups) between the non-problem and two classes endorsing some problem gambling indicators. Although these two groups tended to share a sociodemographic profile, the odds of being male, British Asian and a smoker increased between the three groups in line with problem gambling severity. Being widowed was also found to be associated with the most severe gambling class. A number of associations were also observed with other addictive behaviours. However these should be taken as indicative as these were limited subsamples of a single dataset. These findings identify specific groups in which gambling problems are more prevalent, and highlight the importance of the interaction between acute and determinant aspects of impulsivity, suggesting that a more complex account of impulsivity should be considered than is currently present in the gambling literature.
Authors:Roberta Biolcati; Stefano Passini; Giacomo Mancini Pages: 70 - 76 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Biolcati Roberta, Passini Stefano, Mancini Giacomo Introduction: The main aim of this study is to improve our knowledge on binge drinking behavior in adolescents. In particular, we tested a model of predictors of binge drinking focusing on boredom proneness; we also examined the predictive and mediating role of drinking expectancies on binge drinking. Methods: A questionnaire designed to assess current drinking behavior, such as binge drinking, drinking expectancies and boredom proneness, was administered to 721 Italian adolescents (61% females) aged between 13 and 19 years (M = 15.98, SD = 1.61). Results. Structural equation modeling confirmed the evidence on drinking expectancies as predicted by boredom proneness and as predictive of adolescents’ binge drinking. Interestingly, disinhibition and relief from pain seem to play a more important mediating role between boredom and alcohol outcome. Conversely, no mediation was found for interpersonal and social confidence expectancies on binge drinking. Conclusions. In general, the results suggest that preventative interventions on alcohol misuse should focus on personality traits and underlying drinking expectancies.
Authors:Daniel Frings; Michael Collins; Gavin Long; Isabel R. Pinto; Ian P. Albery Pages: 77 - 85 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Daniel Frings, Michael Collins, Gavin Long, Isabel Pinto, Ian Albery Engagement with self-help groups is a predictor of positive outcomes for those attempting to control their addictive behaviours. In common with other groups, self-help groups have to manage non-normative (‘deviant’) behaviour to ensure the social values of the group remain preserved, and the group can fulfil its aims. These processes may protect group members from relapse. Drawing on the Social Identity Model of Cessation Maintenance, the current study asked a number (n = 44) of attendees of Fellowship (AA/NA/CA) and of SMART groups to list behaviours they saw as normative and deviant, and rate a variety of responses to deviant behaviours. Costs of relapse to both the self and the group were also measured alongside self-efficacy regarding cessation and identity as both an active addict and as a member of a self-help group. Results suggest that social control responses to deviance grouped into education, punishment and avoidant type responses. More social control was perceived by highly identifying self-help group members. Educational responses were seen as used by groups more extensively than other responses. Punishment responses were mediated by the perceived costs an individual’s relapse incurred on the rest of the group. These findings inform our understanding of what standards of normative and deviant behaviour self-help groups hold, and how they react to violations of such norms. They also have a number of implications for practitioners and facilitators in regard to using social identities as part of the treatment process.
Authors:Daniel Frings; Lucinda Melichar; Ian P. Albery Pages: 86 - 91 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Daniel Frings, Lucinda Melichar, Ian P. Albery Introduction Having an identity as a ‘drinker’ has been linked to increased alcohol-related harm, self-reported consumption and self-reported intention to engage in risky drinking behavior. These effects have been observed when identities have been measured using explicit measures (e.g. via questionnaires) and implicitly (e.g. using Implicit Association Tests [IATs] adapted to measure identity). Little research has used actual behavioral measures to measure alcohol consumption in-the-moment, nor compared the effects of implicit and explicit identities directly. Methods Participants' (n =40) implicit and explicit identities associated with being a drinker were measured. Attitudes towards one's own drinking were measured explicitly. Participants completed a Pouring Taste Preference Task [PTPT] involving the consumption and rating of non-alcoholic wine. This provided a behavioral measure of intention (pouring), a behavioral measure of consumption and a measure of the implementation of intention into behavior. Results Results showed an interactive effect of implicit and explicit identities on attitudes and behavior. Explicit identities predicted attitudes towards drinking, but not behavior. Neither identity predicted the amount poured. Implicit identities predicted the amount consumed. A greater proportion of wine poured was predicted by higher implicit identities when explicit identities were absent. Conclusion These results suggest that explicit identities may be associated more with those beliefs about drinking that one is aware of than behavioral intention. In addition, explicit identities may not predict behavioral enactment well. Implicit identity shows effects on actual behavior and not behavioral intention. Together this highlights the differential influence of reflective (explicit) and impulsive (implicit) identity in-the-moment behavior.
Authors:Christian Laier; Matthias Brand Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Christian Laier, Matthias Brand Internet-pornography-viewing disorder (IPD) is considered one type of Internet-use disorder. For IPD's development, it was assumed theoretically that a dysfunctional use of Internet pornography to cope with depressive mood or stress might be considered as a risk factor. To address the effect of Internet pornography use on mood, an online study with three measuring points with a sample of male participants was conducted. Participants were investigated regarding their tendencies towards IPD, personal use of Internet pornography, general mood, perceived stress, and their Internet pornography use motivation. Moreover, participants were asked regarding their current mood, sexual arousal, and need to masturbate before and following they watched Internet pornography self-determinedly in a private environment. Data showed that tendencies towards IPD were associated negatively with feeling generally good, awake, and calm and positively with perceived stress in daily life and using Internet pornography for excitation seeking and emotional avoidance. Self-determined use of Internet pornography in private environment was accompanied by changes in mood and indicators of sexual arousal. Moreover, tendencies towards IPD were negatively related to mood before and after Internet-pornography use as well as an actual increase of good and calm mood. The results showed effects of watching Internet pornography on mood and sexual arousal which can be considered having reinforcing effects for the user. Thus, the results are in line with theoretical assumptions on IPD's development, in which the positive (and negative) reinforcement received by Internet-pornography use is related to cue-reactivity and craving reactions.
Authors:Emeka Dumbili Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Emeka Dumbili Background Most research on drinking games (DGs) and the associated risks focuses on Western countries. In the Nigerian context, DGs activity has not attracted scholarly attention but growing media reports indicate that Nigerian youths play DGs, and that a number of gamers have died during or immediately after game-playing. Methods Drawing on gender performance scripts, we explored the performance of DGs practices and the factors that motivate DGs participation. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with male and female college students (aged 19–23years) at a university in south-eastern Nigeria. Results The participants discussed the popularity of the DGs that students play on this campus, identifying the spaces where each game is played and the motivations for game-playing. Collective, contextual constructions of gender identities through ‘Fastest-Drinker’ DG were identified, and the participants also performed gender through ‘Truth-or-Dare’ and ‘Endurance’ DGs. Men dominated ‘First-to-Finish’ DGs, which are played at parties and bars, and consumed beer or stout, while women, who mainly played Truth-or-Dare games, drank spirits or sweetened alcoholic beverages. Boredom and fun seeking provoked game-playing among women while adherence to masculinity norms, which engendered the public performance of masculinity and gambling activities, motivated men to play DGs. To avoid ‘collective shame’, men's friendship groups provided support/care for inebriated game-playing members, but the immediacy of this support/care varied according to DGs type. Conclusion DGs appear to normalize heavy drinking and the culture of intoxication on this campus. Measures to monitor alcohol sales outlets around campuses and interventions that target students' leisure spaces should be developed.
Authors:Laura Baines; Andrew Jones; Paul Christiansen Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Laura Baines, Andrew Jones, Paul Christiansen Introduction Heavy drinking is a considerable public health concern. There is a broad evidence-base examining the separate contributions of personality characteristics, motives and alcohol-expectancies on subsequent alcohol use to identify those at risk. However, little is known about the complex relationships by which these variables may interact to predict drinking behavior. Feelings of hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity are hypothesized to be distal predictors of alcohol use, with outcome expectancies and drinking motives more proximal. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether hopelessness and anxiety sensitivity influenced alcohol use via drinking to cope and alcohol - outcome expectancies. Methods We recruited 230 participants to complete an online questionnaire consisting of the brief drinking motives questionnaire, the Substance Use Risk Profile scale and Brief Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol scale. We conducted path analyses using structural equation modelling. Results We demonstrated a significant direct effect of anxiety sensitivity on alcohol use, and a significant serial indirect effect of hopelessness through coping motives and alcohol outcome expectancies. Conclusions These findings suggest feelings of hopelessness may predict alcohol consumption through a complex pathway and future research should use these findings to identify individuals at risk of increased alcohol use.
Authors:Kristen P. Lindgren; Jason J. Ramirez; Nauder Namaky; Cecilia C. Olin; Bethany A. Teachman Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Kristen P. Lindgren, Jason J. Ramirez, Nauder Namaky, Cecilia C. Olin, Bethany A. Teachman Introduction Drinking identity strength (how strongly one views oneself as a drinker) is a promising risk factor for hazardous drinking. A critical next step is to investigate whether the centrality of drinking identity (i.e., the relative importance of drinking vs. other identity domains, like well-being, relationships, education) also plays a role. Thus, we developed explicit and implicit measures of drinking identity centrality and evaluated them as predictors of hazardous drinking after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. Methods Two studies were conducted (Ns=360 and 450, respectively). Participants, who self-identified as full-time students, completed measures of explicit identity strength, explicit and implicit centrality, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Study 1a evaluated two variants of the implicit measure (short- vs. long-format of the Multi-category Implicit Association Test); Study 1b only included the long form and also assessed alcohol consumption. Results In Study 1a, implicit and explicit centrality measures were positively and significantly associated with AUDIT scores after controlling for explicit drinking identity strength. There were no significant differences in the implicit measure variants, but the long format had slightly higher internal consistency. In Study 1b, results replicated for explicit, but not implicit, centrality. Conclusions These studies provide preliminary evidence that drinking identity centrality may be an important factor for predicting hazardous drinking. Future research should improve its measurement and evaluate implicit and explicit centrality in experimental and longitudinal studies.
Authors:Amy Hastings; Niamh McNamara; Jacqueline Allan; Mike Marriott Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Amy Hastings, Niamh McNamara, Jacqueline Allan, Mike Marriott Introduction A significant barrier to recovery for individuals with co-morbid eating disorders and type 1 diabetes is the way in which group members self-categorise. Nonetheless, identity issues are neglected during the recovery process. The aim of this paper is to explore how group memberships (and the associated identities) both contribute to and hinder recovery in this cohort. Method Transcripts from five online focus groups with 13 members of an online support group for individuals with ‘Diabulimia’ were thematically analysed. Results Findings suggested that those with whom one shares a recovery identity can be well placed to provide psychological resources necessary for successful recovery although such connections can be damaging if group norms are not managed. Members recognised that other important relationships (including family and friends and health professionals) are also key to recovery; these other group memberships (and the associated identities) can be facilitated through the recovery identity group membership, which allows for external validation of the recovery identity, provides encouragement to disclose the illness to supportive others, and provides information to facilitate positive service interactions. Conclusions While clinical interventions typically focus on eliminating disordered behaviours, we suggest that these should also include strengthening important group memberships that promote recovery.
Authors:Satoko Mihara; Yoneatsu Osaki; Hideki Nakayama; Hiroshi Sakuma; Maki Ikeda; Osamu Itani; Yoshitaka Kaneita; Hideyuki Kanda; Takashi Ohida; Susumu Higuchi Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Satoko Mihara, Yoneatsu Osaki, Hideki Nakayama, Hiroshi Sakuma, Maki Ikeda, Osamu Itani, Yoshitaka Kaneita, Hideyuki Kanda, Takashi Ohida, Susumu Higuchi Introduction Japan is assumed to have serious health and social problems due to Internet overuse, but little is known about the actual conditions. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) and associated Internet use in adolescents in Japan. Methods A nationwide survey of adolescent Internet use was conducted in 2012 and 2013. The participants were 100,050 students from randomly selected junior and senior high schools nationwide who gave valid responses to a self-reported questionnaire. The questionnaire included questions on Internet use and the Japanese version of the Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) as well as other questions related to lifestyle habits. Internet users were classified by gender according to three categories on the basis of their YDQ scores: adaptive use, maladaptive use, and PIU. Results The estimated prevalence of PIU was 6.2% in males, 9.8% in females, and 7.9% in total; it closely correlated with female gender, school grades, and number of Internet hours. The following common and gender-specific applications that conferred a risk of PIU were identified: downloading (both genders), online gaming (males), social networking services, blogs, and bulletin boards (females). Conclusions A cross-sectional survey using YDQ of a large number of high school students yielded a PIU prevalence of 7.9% in Japan. This study showed that problems associated with Internet overuse have already become serious; therefore, planning and implementation of prevention and control measures is urgently required.
Authors:E. Mawson; D. Best; D.I. Lubman Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 October 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): E. Mawson, D. Best, D.I. Lubman This study explored associations between group memberships and recovery capital amongst 20 young adults aged 18 to 21years in residential alcohol and drug treatment. Method Participants completed an interviewer administered research interview based on measures of recovery capital and a social networks assessment mapping group memberships, group substance use, and relationships between groups. Results Higher personal and social recovery capital was associated with lower diversity of group memberships, a higher number of positive links between groups, and greater compatibility of lower substance-using groups with other groups in the network. Higher compatibility of heavier-using groups was also associated with having a higher number of negative, antagonistic ties between groups. Conclusions These findings indicate that it is higher compatibility of a lower substance-using social identity and lower-using group memberships that contributes to recovery capital. Further, positive ties between groups and lower diversity of group memberships appear to be key aspects in how multiple social identities that are held by young adults relate to personal and social recovery capital.
Authors:Anke Snoek; Neil Levy; Jeanette Kennett Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 September 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Anke Snoek, Neil Levy, Jeanette Kennett Introduction Philosophers, cognitive and social psychologists and laypeople often subscribe to the view that willpower is central to recovery from addiction. But there are reasons to suspect that willpower is much less important to explaining recovery than this view suggests. Methods Here we report findings from a qualitative longitudinal study on how substance dependent people see their agency and self-control, and how their self-control develops over time. 69 opioid, alcohol and methamphetamine dependent people were interviewed over a 3year period. Results Most of the participants described themselves as strong willed; in fact, as very strong willed. However, there seemed no correlation between having a (self-assessed) strong will and recovery status. Rather, the number of strategies cited by participants distinguished those in stable recovery from those who were not. Participants in recovery were also more enthusiastic about strategies than those who have not succeeded in controlling substance use. Willpower remained important, but was itself used strategically. Conclusions People with addiction seem not to be short on willpower; rather, recovery is dependent on developing strategies to preserve willpower by controlling the environment.
Authors:Stanton Peele Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2016 Source:Addictive Behaviors Reports Author(s): Stanton Peele The world, led by the United States, is hell bent on establishing the absence of choice in addiction, an expressed by the defining statement that addiction is a “chronic relapsing brain disease” (my emphasis). The figure most associated with this model, the director of the American National Institute on Drug Abuse, Nora Volkow, claims that addiction vitiates free will through its effects on the brain. In reality, while by no means a simple task, people regularly quit their substance addictions, often by moderating their consumption, usually through mindfulness-mediated processes (Peele, 2007). Ironically, the brain disease model's ascendance in the U.S. corresponds with epidemic rises in opiate addiction, both painkillers (Brady et al., 2016) and heroin (CDC, n.d.), as well as heroin, painkiller, and tranquilizer poisoning deaths (Rudd et al., 2016). More to the point, the conceptual and treatment goal of eliminating choice in addiction and recovery is not only futile, but iatrogenic.Indeed, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's epidemiological surveys, while finding natural recovery for both drug and alcohol disorders to be typical, has found a decline in natural recovery rates (Dawson et al., 2005) and a sharp increase in AUDs (Grant et al., 2015).