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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 871 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 389)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Psychotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 160)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 195)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 49)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 110)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 122)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
E-Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Depression and Anxiety
  [SJR: 2.491]   [H-I: 85]   [14 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1091-4269 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6394
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Between-visit changes in suicidal ideation and risk of subsequent suicide
    • Authors: Gregory E. Simon; Susan M. Shortreed, Eric Johnson, Arne Beck, Karen J. Coleman, Rebecca C. Rossom, Ursula S. Whiteside, Belinda H. Operskalski, Robert B. Penfold
      Abstract: BackgroundWhile clinicians are expected to routinely assess and address suicide risk, existing data provide little guidance regarding the significance of visit-to-visit changes in suicidal ideation.MethodsElectronic health records from four large healthcare systems identified patients completing the Patient Health Questionnaire or PHQ9 at outpatient visits. For patients completing two questionnaires within 90 days, health system records and state vital records were used to identify nonfatal and fatal suicide attempts. Analyses examined how changes in PHQ9 item 9 responses between visits predicted suicide attempt or suicide death over 90 days following the second visit.ResultsAnalyses included 430,701 pairs of item 9 responses for 118,696 patients. Among patients reporting thoughts of death or self-harm “nearly every day” at the first visit, risk of suicide attempt after the second visit ranged from approximately 2.0% among those reporting continued thoughts “nearly every day” down to 0.5% among those reporting a decrease to “not at all.” Among those reporting thoughts of death or self-harm “not at all” at the first visit, risk of suicide attempt following the second visit ranged from approximately 0.2% among those continuing to report such thoughts “not at all” up to 1.2% among those reporting an increase to “nearly every day”.ConclusionsResolution of suicidal ideation between visits does imply a clinically important reduction in short-term risk, but prior suicidal ideation still implies significant residual risk. Onset of suicidal ideation between visits does not imply any special elevation compared to ongoing suicidal ideation. Risk is actually highest for patients repeatedly reporting thoughts of death or self-harm.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:18:29.069758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22623
  • Clinically useful brain imaging for neuropsychiatry: How can we get
    • Authors: Michael P. Milham; R. Cameron Craddock, Arno Klein
      Abstract: Despite decades of research, visions of transforming neuropsychiatry through the development of brain imaging-based “growth charts” or “lab tests” have remained out of reach. In recent years, there is renewed enthusiasm about the prospect of achieving clinically useful tools capable of aiding the diagnosis and management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The present work explores the basis for this enthusiasm. We assert that there is no single advance that currently has the potential to drive the field of clinical brain imaging forward. Instead, there has been a constellation of advances that, if combined, could lead to the identification of objective brain imaging-based markers of illness. In particular, we focus on advances that are helping to (1) elucidate the research agenda for biological psychiatry (e.g., neuroscience focus, precision medicine), (2) shift research models for clinical brain imaging (e.g., big data exploration, standardization), (3) break down research silos (e.g., open science, calls for reproducibility and transparency), and (4) improve imaging technologies and methods. Although an arduous road remains ahead, these advances are repositioning the brain imaging community for long-term success.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T12:19:58.433474-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22627
  • The feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of PRIME-D: A novel mobile
           intervention treatment for depression
    • Authors: Danielle A. Schlosser; Timothy R. Campellone, Brandy Truong, Joaquin A. Anguera, Silvia Vergani, Sophia Vinogradov, Patricia Arean
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite decades of research and development, depression has risen from the fifth to the leading cause of disability in the United States. Barriers to progress in the field are (1) poor access to high-quality care; (2) limited mental health workforce; and (3) few providers trained in the delivery of evidence-based treatments (EBTs). Although mobile platforms are being developed to give consumers greater access to high-quality care, too often these tools do not have empirical support for their effectiveness. In this study, we evaluated PRIME-D, a mobile app intervention that uses social networking, goal setting, and a mental health coach to deliver text-based, EBT's to treat mood symptoms and functioning in adults with depression.MethodsThirty-six adults with depression remotely participated in PRIME-D over an 8-week period with a 4-week follow-up, with 83% retained over the 12-week course of thestudy.ResultsOn average, participants logged into the app 5 days/week. Depression scores (PHQ-9) significantly improved over time (over 50% reduction), with coach interactions enhancing these effects. Mood-related disability (Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS)) also significantly decreased over time with participants no longer being impaired by their mood symptoms. Overall use of PRIME-D predicted greater gains in functioning. Improvements in mood and functioning were sustained over the 4-week follow-up.ConclusionsResults suggest that PRIME-D is a feasible, acceptable, and effective intervention for adults with depression and that a mobile service delivery model may address the serious public health problem of poor access to high-quality mental health care.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:06:16.50864-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22624
  • Well-being therapy in depression: New insights into the role of
           psychological well-being in the clinical process
    • Authors: Giovanni A. Fava; Fiammetta Cosci, Jenny Guidi, Elena Tomba
      Abstract: A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy (WBT), has been developed and validated in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one's self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one's life, and a sense of self-determination. The evidence supporting the use of WBT and its specific contribution when it is combined with other psychotherapeutic techniques is still limited. However, the insights gained by the use of WBT may unravel innovative approaches to assessment and treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, to be confirmed by controlled studies, with particular reference to decreasing vulnerability to relapse and modulating psychological well-being and mood. An important characteristic of WBT is self-observation of psychological well-being associated with specific homework. Such perspective is different from interventions that are labeled as positive but are actually distress oriented. Another important feature of WBT is the assumption that imbalances in well-being and distress may vary from one illness to another and from patient to patient. Customary clinical taxonomy and evaluation do not include psychological well-being, which may demarcate major prognostic and therapeutic differences among patients who otherwise seem to be deceptively similar since they share the same diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:06:13.924454-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22629
  • Subjective and objective sleep quality modulate emotion regulatory brain
           function in anxiety and depression
    • Authors: Heide Klumpp; Julia Roberts, Mary C. Kapella, Amy E. Kennedy, Anand Kumar, K. Luan Phan
      Abstract: BackgroundDisturbances in emotion regulation and sleep are shared across anxiety and mood disorders. Poor sleep has been shown to impair cognitive processes which may undermine cognitive regulatory function. However, it remains unknown if sleep quality impacts regulatory mechanisms in clinical anxiety and depression.MethodsDuring fMRI, 78 patients with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and/or major depressive disorder completed a validated emotion regulation task, which involved reappraisal (i.e., decrease negative affect) as compared to viewing aversive images. Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and actigraphy, representing subjective and objective measures of sleep, respectively. Regression analysis was conducted with the PSQI and actigraphy sleep efficiency, duration, and wake-after sleep onset variables.ResultsPSQI and actigraphy measures indicated that the majority of patients experienced problematic sleep, however, subjective and objective sleep measures were uncorrelated. Whole-brain voxel-wise regression analysis, controlling for diagnosis, revealed worse self-reported sleep corresponded with less reappraise-related activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (DACC). The same analysis performed with actigraphy data showed less sleep efficiency positively corresponded with DACC activation. Post-hoc stepwise regression analysis showed these sleep measures predicted DACC activity whereas anxiety and depression symptoms did not.ConclusionsIndividual differences in self-perceived and objective sleep quality differentially modulated the DACC, which is implicated in cognitive reappraisal. Findings suggest neural correlates of emotion regulation tracks different aspects of the sleep experience. Results also indicate sleep disturbance may play a role in the emotion dysregulation observed in anxiety and depressive disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:06:08.973993-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22622
  • Meta-analysis of interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder and
           depression in adult survivors of mass violence in low- and middle-income
    • Authors: Nexhmedin Morina; Mina Malek, Angela Nickerson, Richard A. Bryant
      Abstract: BackgroundMost survivors of mass violence live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled psychotherapy trials for adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression in LMICs.MethodsWe included 18 clinical trials (3,058 participants), in which 25 and 18 treatment arms measured symptoms of PTSD and depression, respectively.ResultsActive treatments for PTSD yielded a large aggregated pre–post effect size (g = 1.29; 95% CI = [0.99; 1.59]) and a small to medium effect size at posttreatment when compared to control conditions (g = 0.39; 95% CI = [0.24; 0.55]). Effect sizes were similar for pretreatment versus follow-up (g = 1.75; 95% CI = [1.17; 2.32]) and in comparison to waitlist at follow-up (g = 0.93; 95% CI = [0.56; 1.31]). Active treatments for depression produced large pre–post (g = 1.28; 95% CI = [0.96; 1.61]) and controlled effect sizes (posttreatment, comparison to control conditions, g = 0.86; 95% CI = [0.54; 1.18]).ConclusionsOur findings suggest that psychological interventions can effectively reduce symptoms of PTSD and depression in LMICs. Future research needs to focus on cost-effective interventions that are likely to be disseminated to the large numbers of war survivors in LMICs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:06:05.741111-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22618
  • Targeting memory reconsolidation to prevent the return of fear in patients
           with fear of flying
    • Authors: Jessica L. Maples-Keller; Matthew Price, Tanja Jovanovic, Seth D. Norrholm, Lydia Odenat, Loren Post, Liza Zwiebach, Kathryn Breazeale, Robin Gross, Sae-Jin Kim, Barbara Olasov Rothbaum
      Abstract: BackgroundWhen a memory is recalled, it may again exist in a labile state and stored information becomes amenable to change, a psychobiological process known as reconsolidation. Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders involves accessing a fear memory and modifying it with less fearful information. A preclinical study reported that providing a reminder of a fear memory 10 min prior to extinction training in humans decreased fear up to 1 year later (Schiller et al., 2010). Methods: For this pilot clinical study, we used virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) for fear of flying (FoF) to determine if using a cue to reactivate the memory of the feared stimulus 10 min prior to exposure sessions leads to fewer anxiety-related behaviors and a more durable response compared to a neutral cue. FoF participants (N = 89) received four sessions of anxiety management training followed by four sessions of VRE. Participants were randomly assigned to receive an FoF cue (reactivation group) or a neutral cue (control group) prior to the VRE sessions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance levels (SCLs) were collected during posttreatment and 3-month follow-up assessments as objective markers of fear responding. Results: Treatment was effective and all clinical measures improved equally between groups at posttreatment with maintained gains through follow-ups. Significant differences were identified with regard to HR and SCL indices. Conclusions: These results suggest that memory reactivation prior to exposure therapy did not have an impact on clinical measures but may enhance the effect of exposure therapy at the physiological level.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T11:03:23.322562-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22626
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder and accelerated aging: PTSD and leukocyte
           telomere length in a sample of civilian women
    • Authors: Andrea L. Roberts; Karestan C. Koenen, Qixuan Chen, Paola Gilsanz, Susan M. Mason, Jennifer Prescott, Andrew Ratanatharathorn, Eric B. Rimm, Jennifer A. Sumner, Ashley Winning, Immaculata Vivo, Laura D. Kubzansky
      Abstract: BackgroundStudies in male combat veterans have suggested posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with shorter telomere length (TL). We examined the cross-sectional association of PTSD with TL in women exposed to traumas common in civilian life.MethodsData are from a substudy of the Nurses’ Health Study II (N = 116). PTSD and subclinical PTSD were assessed in trauma-exposed women using diagnostic interviews. An array of health behaviors and conditions were assessed. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes (collected 1996–1999). Telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) was determined by quantitative real-time PCR telomere assay. We used linear regression models to assess associations and examine whether a range of important health behaviors (e.g., cigarette smoking) and medical conditions (e.g., hypertension) previously associated with TL might explain a PTSD-TL association. We further examined whether type of trauma exposure (e.g., interpersonal violence) was associated with TL and whether trauma type might explain a PTSD-TL association.ResultsRelative to not having PTSD, women with a PTSD diagnosis had shorter log-transformed TL (β = −.112, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −0.196, −0.028). Adjustment for health behaviors and medical conditions did not attenuate this association. Trauma type was not associated with TL and did not account for the association of PTSD with TL.ConclusionsOur results add to growing evidence that PTSD may be associated with more rapid cellular aging as measured by telomere erosion. Moreover, the association could not be explained by health behaviors and medical conditions assessed in this study, nor by type of trauma exposure.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05T11:03:09.415038-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22620
  • History of sexual trauma moderates psychotherapy outcome for posttraumatic
           stress disorder
    • Authors: John C. Markowitz; Yuval Neria, Karina Lovell, Page E. Meter, Eva Petkova
      Abstract: BackgroundModerators of differential psychotherapy outcome for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are rare, yet have crucial clinical importance. We tested the moderating effects of trauma type for three psychotherapies in 110 unmedicated patients with chronic DSM-IV PTSD.MethodsPatients were randomized to 14 weeks of prolonged exposure (PE, N = 38), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT, N = 40), or relaxation therapy (RT, N = 32). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was the primary outcome measure. Moderator candidates were trauma type: interpersonal, sexual, physical. We fit a regression model for week 14 CAPS as a function of treatment (a three-level factor), an indicator of trauma type presence/absence, and their interactions, controlling for baseline CAPS, and evaluated potential confounds.ResultsThirty-nine (35%) patients reported sexual, 68 (62%) physical, and 102 (93%) interpersonal trauma. Baseline CAPS scores did not differ by presence/absence of trauma types. Sexual trauma as PTSD criterion A significantly moderated treatment effect: whereas all therapies had similar efficacy among nonsexually-traumatized patients, IPT had greater efficacy among sexually traumatized patients (efficacy difference with and without sexual trauma: IPT vs. PE and IPT vs. RT P’s < .05), specifically in PTSD symptom clusters B and D (P’s < .05).ConclusionsFew studies have assessed effects of varying trauma types on effects of differing psychotherapies. In this exploratory study, sexual trauma moderated PTSD outcomes of three therapies: IPT showed greater benefit for sexually traumatized patients than PE or RT. The IPT focuses on affect to help patients determine trust in their current environments may particularly benefit patients who have suffered sexual assault.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T10:30:29.771412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22619
  • Associations of childhood bullying victimization with lifetime suicidal
           behaviors among new U.S. Army soldiers
    • Authors: Laura Campbell-Sills; Ronald C. Kessler, Robert J. Ursano, Anthony J. Rosellini, Tracie O. Afifi, Lisa J. Colpe, Steven G. Heeringa, Matthew K. Nock, Nancy A. Sampson, Jitender Sareen, Michael Schoenbaum, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Murray B. Stein,
      Abstract: BackgroundPrior studies have documented associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors. However, many failed to adjust for concomitant risk factors and none investigated this relationship in military personnel. This study aimed to estimate independent associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors among U.S. Army soldiers.MethodsSoldiers reporting for basic training completed a cross-sectional survey assessing mental disorders, suicidal behaviors, and childhood adversities including two types of bullying victimization: (1) Physical Assault/Theft and (2) Bullying Comments/Behaviors. Associations of childhood bullying experiences with suicidal behaviors were estimated using discrete-time survival analysis of person–year data from 30,436 soldiers. Models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, childhood maltreatment by adults, and mental disorders.ResultsAfter comprehensive adjustment for other risk factors, more frequent Physical Assault/Theft by peers during childhood was associated with increased odds of lifetime suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11–1.26, P < .001) and attempt (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13-1.50, P < .001). More frequent Bullying Comments/Behaviors were associated with increased risk of ideation (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.35, P < .001), plan (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.35-1.54, P < .001), attempt (AOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.15-1.33, P < .001), and onset of plan among ideators (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.15, P = .002). Relative to no bullying victimization, exposure to the most persistent bullying was associated with two- to fourfold increase in risk for suicidal behaviors.ConclusionsChildhood bullying victimization is associated with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers. Exposure to Bullying Comments/Behaviors during childhood is associated with progression from suicidal ideation to plan. Improved recognition of these relationships may inform risk mitigation interventions for soldiers.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T09:10:25.286808-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22621
  • Prevention of insulin resistance in adolescents at risk for type 2
    • Authors: Lauren B. Shomaker; Nichole R. Kelly, Rachel M. Radin, Omni L. Cassidy, Lisa M. Shank, Sheila M. Brady, Andrew P. Demidowich, Cara H. Olsen, Kong Y. Chen, Eric Stice, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Jack A. Yanovski
      Abstract: BackgroundDepression is associated with poor insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the long-term effects of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for prevention of depression on insulin sensitivity in adolescents at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) with depressive symptoms.MethodsOne-hundred nineteen adolescent females with overweight/obesity, T2D family history, and mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were randomized to a 6-week CBT group (n = 61) or 6-week health education (HE) control group (n = 58). At baseline, posttreatment, and 1 year, depressive symptoms were assessed, and whole body insulin sensitivity (WBISI) was estimated from oral glucose tolerance tests. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry assessed fat mass at baseline and 1 year. Primary outcomes were 1-year changes in depression and insulin sensitivity, adjusting for adiposity and other relevant covariates. Secondary outcomes were fasting and 2-hr insulin and glucose. We also evaluated the moderating effect of baseline depressive symptom severity.ResultsDepressive symptoms decreased in both groups (P < .001). Insulin sensitivity was stable in CBT and HE (ΔWBISI: .1 vs. .3) and did not differ between groups (P = .63). However, among girls with greater (moderate) baseline depressive symptoms (N = 78), those in CBT developed lower 2-hr insulin than those in HE (Δ-16 vs. 16 μIU/mL, P < .05). Additional metabolic benefits of CBT were seen for this subgroup in post hoc analyses of posttreatment to 1-year change.ConclusionsAdolescent females at risk for T2D decreased depressive symptoms and stabilized insulin sensitivity 1 year following brief CBT or HE. Further studies are required to determine if adolescents with moderate depression show metabolic benefits after CBT.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T16:10:24.821229-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22617
  • PTSD and cognitive symptoms relate to inhibition-related prefrontal
           activation and functional connectivity
    • Authors: Ashley N. Clausen; Alex J. Francisco, Joan Thelen, Jared Bruce, Laura E. Martin, Joan McDowd, W. Kyle Simmons, Robin L. Aupperle
      Abstract: BackgroundPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with reduced executive functioning and verbal memory performance, as well as abnormal task-specific activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC). The current study examined how PTSD symptoms and neuropsychological performance in combat veterans relates to (1) medial PFC and ACC activity during cognitive inhibition, and (2) task-independent PFC functional connectivity.MethodsThirty-nine male combat veterans with varying levels of PTSD symptoms completed the multisource interference task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Robust regression analyses were used to assess relationships between percent signal change (PSC: incongruent–congruent) and both PTSD severity and neuropsychological performance. Analyses were conducted voxel-wise and for PSC extracted from medial PFC and ACC regions of interest. Resting-state scans were available for veterans with PTSD. Regions identified via task-based analyses were used as seeds for resting-state connectivity analyses.ResultsWorse PTSD severity and neuropsychological performance related to less medial PFC and rostral ACC activity during interference processing, driven partly by increased activation to congruent trials. Worse PTSD severity related to reduced functional connectivity between these regions and bilateral, lateral PFC (Brodmann area 10). Worse neuropsychological performance related to reduced functional connectivity between these regions and the inferior frontal gyrus.ConclusionsPTSD and associated neuropsychological deficits may result from difficulties regulating medial PFC regions associated with “default mode,” or self-referential processing. Further clarification of functional coupling deficits between default mode and executive control networks in PTSD may enhance understanding of neuropsychological and emotional symptoms and provide novel treatment targets.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T07:40:32.443592-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22613
  • Disruption of white matter structural integrity and connectivity in
           posttraumatic stress disorder: A TBSS and tractography study
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Olson; Jiaolong Cui, Rena Fukunaga, Lisa D. Nickerson, Scott L. Rauch, Isabelle M. Rosso
      Abstract: BackgroundMost studies of brain white matter (WM) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have focused on combat trauma, and often were confounded by neurological and substance dependence comorbidity. This study used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography to characterize WM microstructure in a mixed-sex community sample of PTSD patients exposed to diverse and multiple traumas, and in trauma-exposed normal comparison (TENC) subjects.MethodsTBSS compared diffusion measures between 20 adults with DSM-IV PTSD and 17 TENC, using a whole-brain voxel-wise approach. Probabilistic tractography using Freesurfer's TRACULA was employed to measure diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics within anatomically defined pathways. DTI metrics were compared between groups and correlated with PTSD symptom severity and trauma load.ResultsControlling for age, sex, and motion, PTSD subjects had significantly reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in a left frontal lobe cluster compared with TENC, at p < .05, family-wise error corrected. Tractography identified significant group differences in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), including lower FA and higher radial diffusivity in PTSD compared with TENC. Within the PTSD group, FA values were not correlated with symptom severity or trauma load. Results remained significant after removing participants using psychotropic medication or those with comorbid major depression.ConclusionsPTSD patients had reduced WM integrity in left hemisphere frontal WM and temporal-occipital WM tracts, compared to trauma-exposed controls. Reduced frontal FA is consistent with compromised top-down attentional control and emotion regulation in PTSD, while reduced ILF FA may be related to sensory processing and gating abnormalities in this disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T06:25:47.383674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22615
  • Ultra-brief behavioral skills trainings for blood injection injury phobia
    • Authors: Alicia E. Meuret; Erica Simon, Lavanya Bhaskara, Thomas Ritz
      Abstract: BackgroundBlood injection injury (BII) phobia is common, with debilitating consequences to the health and well being of many of its sufferers. BII phobia presents with a unique fear response that can involve drops in blood pressure and ultimately fainting. The aim of this study was to provide proof of concept for a line of brief, easy to implement, video-based interventions for reducing phobic avoidance and fears in BII sufferers. One of the interventions was a novel Hypoventilation Respiratory Training (HRT) aimed at reducing the exaggerated ventilation response (hyperventilation) seen in BII phobia. The response has been linked to cerebral vasoconstriction and fainting symptoms.MethodSixty BII patients were randomly assigned to one of three 12-min video-guided trainings: Symptom-Associated Tension (SAT) training, Relaxation Skills Training (RST), or HRT. Experiential and cardiorespiratory activity to phobic stimuli was assessed before and after training.ResultsBoth SAT and HRT resulted in overall greater reductions of phobic fears and symptoms than RST. SAT significantly increased heart rate during exposure, and HRT led to significantly reduced ventilation, increases in PCO2, and elevated blood pressure throughout exposure and recovery. Treatment expectancy was rated equally high across conditions, whereas credibility ratings were highest for HRT.ConclusionsBrief, video-based instructions in muscle tension and normocapnic breathing are effective in reducing BII symptom severity and require minimal time and expertise. HRT may be particularly helpful in reducing fainting caused by cerebral vasoconstriction.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T06:25:37.522168-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22616
  • The predictive value of dorsal cingulate activity and fractional
           anisotropy on long-term PTSD symptom severity
    • Authors: Mitzy Kennis; PhD, Sanne J. H. Rooij, PhD, Alieke Reijnen, MSc, Elbert Geuze, PhD
      Abstract: BackgroundPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be treated with trauma-focused therapy, although only about 50% of the patients recover on the short-term. In order to improve response rates it is important to identify who will and will not recover from trauma-focused therapy. Although previous studies reported dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, as well as dorsal cingulum bundle white matter microstructure integrity as markers for the persistence of PTSD symptoms on the short-term, it remains unclear whether these markers also predict long-term PTSD symptom severity.MethodsPTSD patients (n = 57) were investigated with clinical interviews and an MRI protocol before the start of treatment. Clinical interviews were repeated after 6–8 months of treatment (short-term follow-up), and on average 4 years later (long-term follow-up). Twenty-eight PTSD patients returned for the long-term follow-up. Dorsal ACC activity in response to negative images, and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the dorsal cingulum were the neural markers investigated.ResultsIn this long-term follow-up sample (n = 28), dorsal ACC activity and dorsal cingulum FA values significantly predicted CAPS scores on short- and long-term follow-up. The results remained significant after controlling for baseline CAPS score, early trauma, and comorbidity.ConclusionThis study confirms the importance of the cingulate cortex activation and white matter integrity not only for short-term treatment outcome, but also for PTSD long-term symptom severity. Future treatments should target ACC function in particular during treatment in order to improve response rates.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T06:25:26.28275-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22605
  • Mobile assessment of heightened skin conductance in posttraumatic stress
    • Authors: Rebecca Hinrichs; Vasiliki Michopoulos, Sterling Winters, Alex O. Rothbaum, Barbara O. Rothbaum, Kerry J. Ressler, Tanja Jovanovic
      Abstract: BackgroundIncreased psychophysiological reactivity is a hallmark intermediate phenotype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Individuals with PTSD exhibit greater skin conductance (SC) responses to trauma scripts than trauma survivors without PTSD. However, trauma scripts require time for development and cannot be easily used in a single visit. Thus, there is a need for a low-cost, easy-to-use, SC recording protocol for PTSD assessment.MethodsUsing a mobile device (eSense) connected to a portable tablet computer, we assessed SC reactivity to a standard trauma interview (STI) in 63 participants recruited from Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, GA, approximately 1 year after trauma exposure. SC response (SCR) was calculated by subtracting the SC level (SCL) at the end of the baseline recording from the maximum SCL during the STI.ResultsSCL was significantly higher during the STI compared to baseline (P < .001), and individuals with PTSD showed significantly greater SCR than individuals without PTSD (P = .006). Logistic regression using SCR with PTSD diagnosis as the outcome showed an odds ratio of 1.76 (95% CI: 1.11–2.78). Lastly, higher SCR during the STI was also significantly associated with PTSD symptom total score controlling for demographics and trauma severity (b = 0.42, P = .001).ConclusionsThe current study demonstrated feasibility of the use of a mobile device for assessing psychophysiological reactivity in those with PTSD. The use of this low-cost, easy-to-use mobile device to collect objective physiological data in concert with a STI can be easily disseminated in clinical and research settings.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T10:41:20.78788-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22610
  • Technology to train the brain: Pushing methodology and treatment in the
           scientific research symposium 2016
    • Authors: Sheila A. M. Rauch
      PubDate: 2017-02-18T11:10:27.6106-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22611
  • Age of onset and family history as indicators of polygenic risk for major
    • Authors: Anna R. Docherty; Alexis C. Edwards, Fuzhong Yang, Roseann E. Peterson, Chelsea Sawyers, Daniel E. Adkins, Ashlee A. Moore, Bradley T. Webb, Silviu A. Bacanu, Jonathan Flint, Kenneth S. Kendler
      Abstract: BackgroundThe extent to which earlier age of onset (AO) is a reflection of increased genetic risk for major depression (MD) is still unknown. Previous biometrical research has provided mixed empirical evidence for the genetic overlap of AO with MD. If AO is demonstrated to be relevant to molecular polygenic risk for MD, incorporation of AO as a phenotype could enhance future genetic studies.MethodsThis research estimated the SNP-based heritability of AO in the China, Oxford and VCU Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology (CONVERGE) case-control sample (N = 9,854; MD case, n = 4,927). Common single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of MD was also examined across both high and low median-split AO groups, and best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) scores of polygenic risk, in split-halves, were used to predict AO. Distributions of genetic risk across early and late AO were compared, and presence of self-reported family history (FH) of MD was also examined as a predictor of AO.ResultsAO was not significantly heritable and polygenic risk derived from the aggregated effects of common genetic variants did not significantly predict AO in any analysis. AO was modestly but significantly lower in cases with a first-degree genetic FH of MD.ConclusionsFindings indicate that AO is associated with greater self-reported genetic risk for MD in cases, yet not associated with common variant polygenic risk for MD. Future studies of early MD may benefit more from the examination of important moderating variables such as early life events.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T17:30:27.238872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22607
  • Acute stress disorder and the transition to posttraumatic stress disorder
           in children and adolescents: Prevalence, course, prognosis, diagnostic
           suitability, and risk markers
    • Authors: Richard Meiser-Stedman; Anna McKinnon, Clare Dixon, Adrian Boyle, Patrick Smith, Tim Dalgleish
      Abstract: BackgroundEarly recovery from trauma exposure in youth is poorly understood. This prospective longitudinal study examined the early course of traumatic stress responses in recently trauma-exposed youth, evaluated the revised DSM-5 acute stress disorder (ASD) and PTSD diagnoses and alternative diagnoses, and identified risk factors for persistent traumatic stress.MethodParticipants were 8- to 17-year-old emergency departments attendees exposed to single incident traumas. Structured clinical interviews were undertaken at 2 (n = 226) and 9 weeks (n = 208) posttrauma.ResultsUsing the revised criteria in DSM-5, 14.2% met criteria for ASD at week 2 and 9.6% met criteria for PTSD at week 9. These prevalences were similar to the corresponding DSM-IV diagnoses (18.6% ASD at week 2; 8.7% PTSD at week 9). Using the same diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV or DSM-5) across assessments (i.e., “2-week PTSD”) suggested that caseness declined in prevalence by approximately half. Overlap between DSM-IV and DSM-5 ASD and DSM-5 preschool child PTSD diagnoses was considerable. Two diagnoses were strongly predictive of corresponding week 9 diagnoses. Youth with ASD who subsequently had PTSD reported more negative alterations in cognition and mood at 2 weeks than those youth who did not develop PTSD.ConclusionsYouth exposed to single-event traumas experience considerable natural recovery in the first months posttrauma. Using DSM-5 criteria, ASD may not capture all clinically significant traumatic stress in the acute phase and is only moderately sensitive for later PTSD. Future research needs to address the role and etiology of negative alterations in cognition and mood symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T10:26:14.964889-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22602
  • Relationship between the hippocampal shape abnormality and serum cortisol
           levels in first-episode and drug-naïve major depressive disorder patients
    • Authors: Rieko Watanabe; Shingo Kakeda, Keita Watanabe, Xiaodan Liu, Asuka Katsuki, Wakako Umeno-Nakano, Hikaru Hori, Osamu Abe, Reiji Yoshimura, Yukunori Korogi
      Abstract: BackgroundWe aimed to investigate the relationship between the hippocampal shape deformations and the serum cortisol levels in first-episode and drug-naïve major depression disorder (MDD) patients.MethodsThirty first-episode and drug-naïve MDD patients and 40 healthy subjects were recruited. High-resolution T1-weighted imaging and morning blood samples for cortisol measurement were obtained from all MDD patients and healthy subjects. In the hippocampal shape analysis, we compared the hippocampal shape between MDD patients and healthy subjects and evaluated the linear correlation between hippocampal shape deformations and the serum cortisol levels in MDD patients and healthy subjects.ResultsMDD patients showed significant inward deformations predominantly in the cornu ammonis (CA) 1 and subiculum in bilateral hippocampi compared to healthy subjects (false discovery rate (FDR) corrected, P < .05). Furthermore, in MDD patients, a significant linear correlation between inward deformations and high cortisol levels were found predominantly in the CA1 and subiculum, extending into the CA2–3 (FDR-corrected, P < .05), whereas no significant linear correlation was observed in healthy subjects.ConclusionsThe serum cortisol levels are therefore considered to be associated with hippocampal shape abnormalities in MDD.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T12:25:43.943639-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22604
  • Stressful life events and catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) gene in
           bipolar disorder
    • Authors: Georgina M. Hosang; Helen L. Fisher, Sarah Cohen-Woods, Peter McGuffin, Anne E. Farmer
      Abstract: BackgroundA small body of research suggests that gene–environment interactions play an important role in the development of bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study is to contribute to this work by exploring the relationship between stressful life events and the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism in bipolar disorder.MethodsFour hundred eighty-two bipolar cases and 205 psychiatrically healthy controls completed the List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire. Bipolar cases reported the events experienced 6 months before their worst depressive and manic episodes; controls reported those events experienced 6 months prior to their interview. The genotypic information for the COMT Val158Met variant (rs4680) was extracted from GWAS analysis of the sample.ResultsThe impact of stressful life events was moderated by the COMT genotype for the worst depressive episode using a Val dominant model (adjusted risk difference = 0.09, 95% confidence intervals = 0.003–0.18, P = .04). For the worst manic episodes no significant interactions between COMT and stressful life events were detected.ConclusionsThis is the first study to explore the relationship between stressful life events and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism focusing solely on bipolar disorder. The results of this study highlight the importance of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors for bipolar depression.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T06:36:38.460113-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22606
  • An examination of the etiologic overlap between the genetic and
           environmental influences on insomnia and common psychopathology
    • Authors: Mackenzie J. Lind; Sage E. Hawn, Christina M. Sheerin, Steven H. Aggen, Robert M. Kirkpatrick, Kenneth S. Kendler, Ananda B. Amstadter
      Abstract: BackgroundInsomnia is comorbid with internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders. However, the extent to which the etiologic influences on insomnia and common psychopathology overlap is unclear. There are limited genetically informed studies of insomnia and internalizing disorders and few studies of overlap exist with externalizing disorders.MethodsWe utilized twin data from the Virginia Adult Twin Studies of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (total n = 7,500). Insomnia, internalizing disorders (major depressive disorder [MDD], generalized anxiety disorder [GAD]), and alcohol abuse or dependence (AAD) were assessed at two time points, while antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was assessed once. Cholesky decompositions were performed in OpenMx and longitudinal measurement models were run on available phenotypes to reduce measurement error.ResultsThe latent additive genetic influences on insomnia overlapped significantly (56% for females, 74% for males) with MDD and were shared completely (100%) with GAD. There was significant overlap of latent unique environmental influences, with overlap ranging from 38 to 100% across disorders. In contrast, there was less genetic overlap between insomnia and externalizing disorders, with 18% of insomnia's heritability shared with AAD and 23% with ASPD. Latent unique environmental overlap between insomnia and both externalizing disorders was negligible.ConclusionsThe evidence for substantial genetic overlap between insomnia and stable aspects of both internalizing disorders suggests that there may be few insomnia-specific genes and investigation into unique environmental factors is important for understanding insomnia development. The modest overlap between insomnia and externalizing disorders indicates that these disorders are genetically related, but largely etiologically distinct.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16T11:12:12.778674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22587
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and cognitive function in a large
           cohort of middle-aged women
    • Authors: Jennifer A. Sumner; Kaitlin Hagan, Fran Grodstein, Andrea L. Roberts, Brian Harel, Karestan C. Koenen
      Abstract: BackgroundPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to cognitive decline, but research in women is generally lacking. We examined whether trauma and elevated PTSD symptoms were associated with worse cognitive function in middle-aged civilian women. A secondary objective was to investigate the possible role of depression in the relation of PTSD symptoms to cognitive function.MethodsThe sample comprised 14,029 middle-aged women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Lifetime trauma exposure, lifetime PTSD symptoms, and past-week depressive symptoms were measured in 2008. Cognitive function was measured in 2014–2016 using the Cogstate Brief Battery, a self-administered online cognitive battery that assesses psychomotor speed, attention, learning, and working memory. We used linear regression models to estimate mean differences in cognition across PTSD symptom levels.ResultsCompared to no trauma, elevated PTSD symptoms consistent with probable PTSD (i.e., 4+ symptoms on a screening questionnaire) were associated with worse performance on psychomotor speed/attention (b = −0.08 standard units, p = .001) and learning/working memory (b = −0.09, p < .001) composites, after adjusting for sociodemographics. Although attenuated, associations remained significant when adjusted for depressive symptoms and other cognitive risk factors. We found the strongest associations among women with comorbid probable PTSD and depression.ConclusionsPTSD symptoms were negatively related to measures of psychomotor speed/attention and learning/working memory in middle-aged women. Our study adds to a growing literature that suggests that mental disorders are associated with worse cognitive function over the life course.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T10:20:24.033771-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22600
  • Improving late life depression and cognitive control through the use of
           therapeutic video game technology: A proof-of-concept randomized trial
    • Authors: Joaquin A. Anguera; Faith M. Gunning, Patricia A. Areán
      Abstract: BackgroundExisting treatments for depression are known to have only modest effects, are insufficiently targeted, and are inconsistently utilized, particularly in older adults. Indeed, older adults with impaired cognitive control networks tend to demonstrate poor response to a majority of existing depression interventions. Cognitive control interventions delivered using entertainment software have the potential to not only target the underlying cerebral dysfunction associated with depression, but to do so in a manner that is engaging and engenders adherence to treatment protocol.MethodsIn this proof-of-concept trial ( #: NCT02229188), individuals with late life depression (LLD) (22; 60+ years old) were randomized to either problem solving therapy (PST, n = 10) or a neurobiologically inspired digital platform designed to enhance cognitive control faculties (Project: EVO™, n = 12). Given the overlapping functional neuroanatomy of mood disturbances and executive dysfunction, we explored the impact of an intervention targeting cognitive control abilities, functional disability, and mood in older adults suffering from LLD, and how those outcomes compare to a therapeutic gold standard.ResultsEVO participants demonstrated similar improvements in mood and self-reported function after 4 weeks of treatment to PST participants. The EVO participants also showed generalization to untrained measures of working memory and attention, as well as negativity bias, a finding not evident in the PST condition. Individuals assigned to EVO demonstrated 100% adherence.ConclusionsThis study provides preliminary findings that this therapeutic video game targeting cognitive control deficits may be an efficacious LLD intervention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03T13:00:01.50571-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22588
  • Depression and Anxiety Issue Information
    • First page: 307
      PubDate: 2017-04-01T08:56:17.702193-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22563
  • President's Letter April 2017
    • Authors: Karen Lynn Cassiday
      First page: 314
      PubDate: 2017-04-01T08:56:14.665006-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22625
  • Moral injury in U.S. combat veterans: Results from the national health and
           resilience in veterans study
    • Authors: Blair E. Wisco; Brian P. Marx, Casey L. May, Brenda Martini, John H. Krystal, Steven M. Southwick, Robert H. Pietrzak
      First page: 340
      Abstract: BackgroundCombat exposure is associated with increased risk of mental disorders and suicidality. Moral injury, or persistent effects of perpetrating or witnessing acts that violate one's moral code, may contribute to mental health problems following military service. The pervasiveness of potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) among U.S. combat veterans, and what factors are associated with PMIEs in this population remains unknown.MethodsData were analyzed from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS), a contemporary and nationally representative survey of a population-based sample of U.S. veterans, including 564 combat veterans, collected September–October 2013. Types of PMIEs (transgressions by self, transgressions by others, and betrayal) were assessed using the Moral Injury Events Scale. Psychiatric and functional outcomes were assessed using established measures.ResultsA total of 10.8% of combat veterans acknowledged transgressions by self, 25.5% endorsed transgressions by others, and 25.5% endorsed betrayal. PMIEs were moderately positively associated with combat severity (β = .23, P < .001) and negatively associated with white race, college education, and higher income (βs = .11–.16, Ps < .05). Transgressions by self were associated with current mental disorders (OR = 1.65, P < .001) and suicidal ideation (OR = 1.67, P < .001); betrayal was associated with postdeployment suicide attempts (OR = 1.99, P < .05), even after conservative adjustment for covariates, including combat severity.ConclusionsA significant minority of U.S combat veterans report PMIEs related to their military service. PMIEs are associated with risk for mental disorders and suicidality, even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, trauma and combat exposure histories, and past psychiatric disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T07:40:22.904215-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22614
  • Altered resting state functional connectivity of fear and reward circuitry
           in comorbid PTSD and major depression
    • Authors: Xi Zhu; Liat Helpman, Santiago Papini, Franklin Schneier, John C. Markowitz, Page E. Meter, Martin A. Lindquist, Tor D. Wager, Yuval Neria
      Abstract: BackgroundIndividuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder (PTSD-MDD) often exhibit greater functional impairment and poorer treatment response than individuals with PTSD alone. Research has not determined whether PTSD-MDD is associated with different network connectivity abnormalities than PTSD alone.MethodsWe used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) patterns of brain regions involved in fear and reward processing in three groups: patients with PTSD-alone (n = 27), PTSD-MDD (n = 21), and trauma-exposed healthy controls (TEHCs, n = 34). Based on previous research, seeds included basolateral amygdala (BLA), centromedial amygdala (CMA), and nucleus accumbens (NAcc).ResultsRegardless of MDD comorbidity, PTSD was associated with decreased connectivity of BLA-orbitalfrontal cortex (OFC) and CMA-thalamus pathways, key to fear processing, and fear expression, respectively. PTSD-MDD, compared to PTSD-alone and TEHC, was associated with decreased connectivity across multiple amygdala and striatal-subcortical pathways: BLA-OFC, NAcc-thalamus, and NAcc-hippocampus. Further, while both the BLA-OFC and the NAcc-thalamus pathways were correlated with MDD symptoms, PTSD symptoms correlated with the amygdala pathways (BLA-OFC; CMA-thalamus) only.ConclusionsComorbid PTSD-MDD may be associated with multifaceted functional connectivity alterations in both fear and reward systems. Clinical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T13:50:36.206874-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22594
  • Temporal discounting across three psychiatric disorders: Anorexia nervosa,
           obsessive compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder
    • Authors: Joanna E. Steinglass; Karolina M. Lempert, Tse-Hwei Choo, Marcia B. Kimeldorf, Melanie Wall, B. Timothy Walsh, Abby J. Fyer, Franklin R. Schneier, H. Blair Simpson
      Abstract: BackgroundTemporal discounting refers to the tendency for rewards to lose value as the expected delay to receipt increases. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been found to show reduced temporal discounting rates, indicating a greater preference for delayed rewards compared to healthy peers. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) commonly co-occur with AN, and anxiety has been related to development and prognosis of AN. We examined whether reduced temporal discounting is present across these potentially related disorders, and explored the relationship between temporal discounting and anxiety transdiagnostically.MethodsOne hundred ninety six individuals (75 healthy controls (HC); 50 OCD; 27 AN; 44 SAD) completed two temporal discounting tasks in which they chose between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. Two measures of discounting—discount rate and discount factor—were compared between diagnostic groups, and associations with anxious traits were examined.ResultsIndividuals with AN showed decreased temporal discounting compared to HC. OCD and SAD groups did not differ significantly from HC. Across the sample, anxiety was associated with decreased discounting; more anxious individuals showed a greater preference for delayed reward.ConclusionsWe replicated the findings that individuals with AN show an increased preference for delayed reward relative to HC and that individuals with OCD do not differ from HC. We also showed that individuals with SAD do not differ from HC in discounting. Across this large sample, two measures of anxious temperament were associated with temporal discounting. These data raise new questions about the relationship between this dimensional trait and psychopathology.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23T09:25:36.458131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22586
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder associated with unexpected death of a loved
           one: Cross-national findings from the world mental health surveys
    • Authors: Lukoye Atwoli; Dan J. Stein, Andrew King, Maria Petukhova, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Evelyn J. Bromet, Giovanni Girolamo, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Josep Maria Haro, Elie G. Karam, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, Jose Posada-Villa, Nancy A. Sampson, Margreet ten Have, Alan M. Zaslavsky, Ronald C. Kessler,
      Abstract: BackgroundUnexpected death of a loved one (UD) is the most commonly reported traumatic experience in cross-national surveys. However, much remains to be learned about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after this experience. The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative provides a unique opportunity to address these issues.MethodsData from 19 WMH surveys (n = 78,023; 70.1% weighted response rate) were collated. Potential predictors of PTSD (respondent sociodemographics, characteristics of the death, history of prior trauma exposure, history of prior mental disorders) after a representative sample of UDs were examined using logistic regression. Simulation was used to estimate overall model strength in targeting individuals at highest PTSD risk.ResultsPTSD prevalence after UD averaged 5.2% across surveys and did not differ significantly between high-income and low-middle income countries. Significant multivariate predictors included the deceased being a spouse or child, the respondent being female and believing they could have done something to prevent the death, prior trauma exposure, and history of prior mental disorders. The final model was strongly predictive of PTSD, with the 5% of respondents having highest estimated risk including 30.6% of all cases of PTSD. Positive predictive value (i.e., the proportion of high-risk individuals who actually developed PTSD) among the 5% of respondents with highest predicted risk was 25.3%.ConclusionsThe high prevalence and meaningful risk of PTSD make UD a major public health issue. This study provides novel insights into predictors of PTSD after this experience and suggests that screening assessments might be useful in identifying high-risk individuals for preventive interventions.
      PubDate: 2016-12-06T04:07:00.553949-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22579
  • Repeated trauma exposure does not impair distress reduction during
           imaginal exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder
    • Authors: Alissa B. Jerud; Frank J. Farach, Michele Bedard-Gilligan, Hillary Smith, Lori A. Zoellner, Norah C. Feeny
      Abstract: BackgroundBased on experimental research on threat extinction, individuals exposed to repeated traumatic events may have impaired outcome in exposure therapy compared to those who have experienced a single trauma (Lang & McTeague, ). This study examined whether repeated trauma exposure predicts smaller changes in self-reported distress during imaginal exposure and worse outcomes for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).MethodsAdults (N = 116) with chronic PTSD received up to 10 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy. Trauma exposure was assessed via interview and number of traumatic events were summed for each participant. To examine reductions in distress during treatment, mean and peak values of distress during imaginal exposure were calculated for the first imaginal session (initial distress activation) and subsequent sessions (between-session change in distress). Change in PTSD symptoms from pre- to posttreatment and follow-up provided an additional index of outcome.ResultsIn-session distress during imaginal exposure decreased over the course of treatment. PTSD symptoms also decreased over treatment, with gains being maintained through follow-up. Repeated trauma exposure was not significantly correlated with initial distress activation. Additionally, linear mixed-model analyses showed no significant association between repeated trauma exposure and between-session change in distress or PTSD symptoms.ConclusionsContrary to recent speculation, repeated trauma exposure did not predict less change in self-reported distress during imaginal exposure or worse PTSD outcomes. The bench-to-bedside linkage of threat extinction to exposure therapy is discussed, noting strengths and weaknesses. Patients with repeated trauma exposure show reductions in distress with exposure treatment and benefit from PE as much as patients with single-exposure trauma histories.
      PubDate: 2016-12-06T04:06:50.441283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22582
  • What people with PTSD symptoms do (and do not) know about PTSD: A national
    • Authors: Juliette M. Harik; Rebecca A. Matteo, Barbara A. Hermann, Jessica L. Hamblen
      Abstract: BackgroundIf people do not recognize posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, they may not realize they are suffering from the disorder. Likewise, if people do not know that effective treatments exist, they may be unlikely to seek care. This study examined what people with PTSD symptoms know about PTSD and its treatment. We hypothesized that military service and prior receipt of PTSD treatment would be associated with greater PTSD knowledge.MethodsWe conducted an online survey assessing knowledge in three domains: trauma, PTSD symptoms, and effective PTSD treatments. Participants were 301 adults (50% veterans) who were drawn from a national research panel and screened positive for PTSD.ResultsWhen asked to identify items from a list, participants had better recognition for traumatic events (M = 72.2% of items correct) and PTSD symptoms (M = 62.3%) than for effective PTSD treatments (M = 37.9%). Across domains, participants often identified false items as true. Most participants thought divorce was a trauma that could cause PTSD, that drug addiction was a PTSD symptom, and that support groups are effective PTSD treatments. Prior receipt of PTSD treatment was associated with better symptom recognition (b = .86, P = .003). Being a military veteran was associated with better trauma recognition (b = .56, P = .025), but poorer treatment recognition (b = −.65, P = .034).ConclusionsPeople with PTSD symptoms lack knowledge about the disorder, especially regarding effective treatments. Public education about PTSD is needed so that people recognize when to seek care and which treatments to choose.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T07:30:47.00104-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22558
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder after cancer diagnosis in adults: A
    • Authors: Samantha Swartzman; Josephine N. Booth, Alastair Munro, Fabio Sani
      Abstract: BackgroundSince the introduction of serious illness as a potential traumatic stressor in the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), research on the prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after cancer diagnosis has proliferated. Studies have reported widely varying estimates of the number of people with PTSD after cancer. The aim of this review is to synthesize quantitative data from studies reporting the proportion of people with PTSD among groups of cancer survivors.MethodsWe undertook a diversified literature search strategy and identified 120 samples from 110 sources reporting a proportion of cancer survivors with PTSD. Of these, 11 studies, containing 12 samples, reported estimates of PTSD in cancer survivors compared to matched controls.ResultsA random effects meta-analysis estimated the odds ratio as 1.66 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–2.53) for PTSD in cancer survivors compared to controls, although some of this apparent increase may have arisen from publication bias. Factors influencing the reported proportion of a postcancer sample with PTSD included measurement type (clinical interview vs. self-report instrument), type of cancer, type of treatment, geographic region, whether the term “posttraumatic stress” was in the title or abstract, prior trauma, age, and time since diagnosis.ConclusionsPTSD, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, is more common in survivors of cancer than it is in the general population. Estimates of the occurrence of PTSD in patients with a history of cancer depend upon clinical and demographic factors, as well as upon study design.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T11:20:35.92758-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22542
  • Disqualified qualifiers: evaluating the utility of the revised DSM-5
           definition of potentially traumatic events among area youth following the
           Boston marathon bombing
    • Authors: Tommy Chou; Aubrey L. Carpenter, Caroline E. Kerns, R. Meredith Elkins, Jennifer Greif Green, Jonathan S. Comer
      Abstract: BackgroundThe DSM-5 includes a revised definition of the experiences that qualify as potentially traumatic events. This revised definition now offers a clearer and more exclusive definition of what qualifies as a traumatic exposure, but little is known about the revision's applicability to youth populations. The present study evaluated the predictive utility of the revised DSM definitional boundaries of traumatic exposure in a sample of youth exposed to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing and related eventsMethodsCaregivers (N = 460) completed surveys 2 to 6 months postbombing about youth experiences during the events and youth posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptomsResultsExperiencing DSM-5 qualifying traumatic events (DSM-5 QTEs) significantly predicted child PTS symptoms (PTSS), whereas DSM-5 nonqualifying stressful experiences (DSM-5 non-QSEs) did not after accounting for DSM-5 QTEs. Importantly, child age moderated the relationship between DSM-5 QTEs and PTSS such that children 7 and older who experienced DSM-5 QTEs showed greater postbombing PTSS, whereas there was no such relationship in children ages 6 and belowConclusionsData largely support the revised posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) definition of QTEs in older youth, and also highlight the need for further refinement of the QTE definition for children ages 6 and below.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T16:11:11.571198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22543
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