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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 877 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 409)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 182)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 138)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Depression and Anxiety
  [SJR: 2.491]   [H-I: 85]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1091-4269 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6394
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1577 journals]
  • COMT val158met polymorphism links to altered fear conditioning and
           extinction are modulated by PTSD and childhood trauma
    • Authors: Jessica Deslauriers; Dean T. Acheson, Adam X. Maihofer, Caroline M. Nievergelt, Dewleen G. Baker, Mark A. Geyer, Victoria B. Risbrough,
      Abstract: BackgroundRisk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is thought to be mediated by gene × environment (G × E) interactions that affect core cognitive processes such as fear learning. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism has been associated with risk for PTSD and impaired fear inhibition. We used a large, relatively homogenous population to (1) replicate previous findings of poor fear inhibition in COMT Met/Met carriers with PTSD; (2) determine if COMT association with fear inhibition is moderated by childhood trauma (CT), an environmental risk factor for PTSD; and (3) determine if COMT is associated with altered fear processes after recent exposure to combat trauma.MethodsMale Marines and Navy Corpsmen of European-American ancestry were assessed prior to (n = 714) and 4–6 months after deployment to Afghanistan (n = 452). Acquisition and extinction of fear-potentiated startle, childhood and combat trauma history, and PTSD diagnosis were assessed at both time points.ResultsBefore deployment, Met/Met genotype was associated with fear inhibition deficits in participants with current PTSD; however, this association was dependent on CT exposure. After deployment, combat trauma was associated with a modest reduction in fear extinction in Met/Met compared with Val/Val carriers. There were no associations of COMT genotype with fear extinction within healthy and nontraumatized individuals.ConclusionsThese findings support the hypothesis that G × E interactions underlie associations of COMT val158met with fear inhibition deficits. These studies confirm that Met/Met carriers with PTSD have poor fear inhibition, and support further research in understanding how this polymorphism might impact response to extinction-based therapies.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T10:20:43.709456-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22678
       
  • Nonremission and time to remission among remitters in major depressive
           disorder: Revisiting STAR*D
    • Authors: Ramin Mojtabai
      Abstract: BackgroundSome individuals with major depressive disorder do not experience a remission even after one or more adequate treatment trials. In some others who experience remission, it happens at variable times. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of nonremission in a large sample of patient participating in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial and to identify correlates of nonremission and time to remission among remitters.MethodsUsing data from 3,606 participants of STAR*D, the study used cure regression modeling to estimate nonremission and jointly model correlates of nonremission and time to remission among the remitters.ResultsOverall, 14.7% of the STAR*D participants were estimated to be nonremitters. Among remitters, the rate of remission declined over time. Greater severity, poorer physical health, and poor adherence with treatments were associated with both nonremission and a longer time to remission among the remitters in multivariable analyses, whereas unemployment, not having higher education, and longer duration of current episode were uniquely associated with nonremission; whereas, treatment in specialty mental health settings, poorer mental health functioning, and greater impairment in role functioning with a longer time to remission among remitters.ConclusionPoor treatment adherence and poor physical health appear to be common risk factors for both nonremission and longer time to remission, highlighting the importance of integrated care models that address both medical and mental healthcare needs and interventions aimed at improving treatment adherence.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T10:20:32.56116-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22677
       
  • Early childhood trajectories of separation anxiety: Bearing on mental
           health, academic achievement, and physical health from mid-childhood to
           preadolescence
    • Authors: Marco Battaglia; Gabrielle Garon-Carrier, Sylvana M. Côté, Ginette Dionne, Evelyne Touchette, Frank Vitaro, Richard E. Tremblay, Michel Boivin
      Abstract: BackgroundSeparation anxiety disorder is the most prevalent childhood anxiety condition, but no study assessed children for separation anxiety at preschool age and followed them longitudinally and directly until mid-childhood/early adolescence.MethodsMulti-informant (children, teachers, family), multipoint (at age 8, 10, 12, 13) assessments of 1,290 children of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, who had been categorized between age 1.5 and 6 into four specific separation anxiety trajectories (1, low-persistent; 2, low-increasing; 3, high-decreasing, and the less common: 4, high-increasing) by growth mixture modeling. Participants in the high-increasing trajectory were compared to participants in the other three trajectories for: (a) child's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior; (b) physical health; (c) academic achievement; (d) maternal anxiety.ResultsMultivariate analyses of variance/covariance at separate time points showed the high-increasing trajectory mostly associated with: (a) higher internalizing, but not externalizing, behavior; (b) worse academic achievement (most consistently by comparisons to the normative low-persistent trajectory; (c) higher rates of maternal panic/agoraphobic anxiety; (d) worse physical health (most consistently by comparisons to the low-persistent trajectory). The high-increasing trajectory had twofold to threefold higher incidences of physical illnesses than the normative low-persistent group; this was specific for headaches at age 12 years, chronic asthma at age 10 and 13, and having received asthma-related medication during the past 12 months.ConclusionsHigh-increasing separation anxiety in preschool maintains longitudinal relationships to independent health and academic outcomes, at least until preadolescence. This knowledge can inform the deployment of clinical resources at the earlier signs of the more impairing manifestations.
      PubDate: 2017-08-18T10:20:27.384083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22674
       
  • Amygdala and regional volumes in treatment-resistant versus
           nontreatment-resistant depression patients
    • Authors: Anca-Larisa Sandu; Eric Artiges, André Galinowski, Thierry Gallarda, Frank Bellivier, Hervé Lemaitre, Bernard Granger, Damien Ringuenet, Eleni T. Tzavara, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough treatment-resistant and nontreatment-resistant depressed patients show structural brain anomalies relative to healthy controls, the difference in regional volumetry between these two groups remains undocumented.MethodsA whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional volumes was performed in 125 participants’ magnetic resonance images obtained on a 1.5 Tesla scanner; 41 had treatment-resistant depression (TRD), 40 nontreatment-resistant depression (non-TRD), and 44 were healthy controls. The groups were comparable for age and gender. Bipolar/unipolar features as well as pharmacological treatment classes were taken into account as covariates.ResultsTRD patients had higher gray matter (GM) volume in the left and right amygdala than non-TRD patients. No difference was found between the TRD bipolar and the TRD unipolar patients, or between the non-TRD bipolar and non-TRD unipolar patients. An exploratory analysis showed that lithium-treated patients in both groups had higher GM volume in the superior and middle frontal gyri in both hemispheres.ConclusionsHigher GM volume in amygdala detected in TRD patients might be seen in perspective with vulnerability to chronicity, revealed by medication resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T10:55:27.539766-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22675
       
  • Examining the diagnostic utility of the DSM-5 PTSD symptoms among male and
           female returning veterans
    • Authors: Jonathan D. Green; Anthony Annunziata, Sarah E. Kleiman, Michelle J. Bovin, Aaron M. Harwell, Annie M.L. Fox, Shimrit K. Black, Paula P. Schnurr, Darren W. Holowka, Raymond C. Rosen, Terence M. Keane, Brian P. Marx
      Abstract: BackgroundPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria have been criticized for including symptoms that overlap with commonly comorbid disorders, which critics argue undermines the validity of the diagnosis and inflates psychiatric comorbidity rates. In response, the upcoming 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) will offer PTSD diagnostic criteria that are intended to promote diagnostic accuracy. However, diagnostic utility analyses have not yet assessed whether these criteria minimize diagnostic errors. The present study examined the diagnostic utility of each PTSD symptom in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) for males and females.MethodsParticipants were 1,347 individuals enrolled in a longitudinal national registry of returning veterans receiving care at a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facility. Doctoral level clinicians assessed all participants using the PTSD module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM.ResultsOf the 20 symptoms examined, the majority performed in the fair to poor range on test quality indices. Although a few items did perform in the good (or better) range, only half were ICD-11 symptoms. None of the 20 symptoms demonstrated good quality of efficiency. Results demonstrated few sex differences across indices. There were no differences in the proportion of comorbid psychiatric disorders or functional impairment between DSM-5 and ICD-11 criteria.ConclusionsICD-11 PTSD criteria demonstrate neither greater diagnostic specificity nor reduced rates of comorbidity relative to DSM-5 criteria and, as such, do not perform as intended. Modifications to existing symptoms or new symptoms may improve differential diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T09:35:56.406814-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22667
       
  • Treatment of premenstrual dysphoria with continuous versus intermittent
           dosing of oral contraceptives: Results of a three-arm randomized
           controlled trial
    • Authors: Tory A. Eisenlohr-Moul; Susan S. Girdler, Jacqueline L. Johnson, Peter J. Schmidt, David R. Rubinow
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough traditionally dosed combined oral contraceptives (COCs) (21 days of active pills, 7 days of inactive pills) have not been demonstrated as superior to placebo for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria (PMD), some randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that oral contraceptives administered with a shortened or eliminated hormone-free interval are superior to placebo. However, results of such trials are mixed, and no existing studies have directly compared continuous and intermittent dosing schedules of the same oral contraceptive. The present study compared placebo, intermittent dosing of oral contraceptives, and continuous dosing of contraceptives for the treatment of PMD.MethodsFifty-five women with prospectively confirmed PMD completed a three-arm, RCT in which they were randomized to 3 months of placebo (n = 22), intermittent drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol dosed on a 21–7 schedule (n = 17), or continuous drospirenone/estradiol (n = 16) following a baseline assessment month.ResultsAll three groups demonstrated similar, robust reductions in premenstrual symptoms over time. A marked placebo response was observed.ConclusionsThe study fails to replicate a uniquely beneficial effect of continuous COC on PMD. Additional work is needed to understand the psychosocial context bolstering the placebo response in women with PMD.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T18:51:37.670544-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22673
       
  • How willing are you' Willingness as a predictor of change during
           treatment of adults with obsessive–compulsive disorder
    • Authors: Adam M. Reid; Lauryn E. Garner, Nathaniel Kirk, Christina Gironda, Jason W. Krompinger, Brian P. Brennan, Brittany M. Mathes, Sadie Cole Monaghan, Eric D. Tifft, Marie-Christine André, Jordan Cattie, Jesse M. Crosby, Jason A. Elias
      Abstract: ObjectiveExposure and response prevention (ERP) is an effective treatment for individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), yet a substantial number of individuals with OCD do not fully respond to this intervention. Based on emerging experimental and clinical research on acceptance, this study sought to explore whether willingness to experience unpleasant thoughts, emotions, and bodily sensations during ERP was associated with improved treatment response.MethodsTwo hundred eighty-eight adults with OCD receiving residential ERP provided self-rated willingness and other exposure-related variables during each daily coached ERP session. Obsessive–compulsive and depressive symptom severity was assessed every week. Multilevel modeling was used to study the impact of willingness on treatment outcome during the first 6 weeks of residential care.ResultsData indicated that individuals with higher willingness during ERP reported faster symptom reduction during residential treatment, even when controlling for length of stay, psychopharmacological intervention, depression, adherence, and rituals performed during ERP. These results appear to have both statistical and clinical significance.ConclusionsWillingness to fully experience unpleasant and unwanted thoughts, emotions, and bodily sensations during exposures appears to be a marker of successful exposure therapy in adults with OCD. Future research should examine how willingness may enhance extinction learning during ERP.
      PubDate: 2017-07-17T18:51:15.384134-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22672
       
  • Prediction of treatment outcomes to exercise in patients with nonremitted
           major depressive disorder
    • Authors: Chad D. Rethorst; Charles C. South, A. John Rush, Tracy L. Greer, Madhukar H. Trivedi
      Abstract: BackgroundOnly one-third of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) achieve remission with initial treatment. Consequently, current clinical practice relies on a “trial-and-error” approach to identify an effective treatment for each patient. The purpose of this report was to determine whether we could identify a set of clinical and biological parameters with potential clinical utility for prescription of exercise for treatment of MDD in a secondary analysis of the Treatment with Exercise Augmentation in Depression (TREAD) trial.MethodsParticipants with nonremitted MDD were randomized to one of two exercise doses for 12 weeks. Participants were categorized as “remitters” (≤12 on the IDS-C), nonresponders (
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T13:25:23.345011-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22670
       
  • Transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities linking obsessive-compulsive and
           depressive symptoms in a community-based sample of adolescents
    • Authors: Gregory S. Chasson; Mariel S. Bello, Alexandria M. Luxon, Trevor A. A. Graham, Adam M. Leventhal
      Abstract: Background: Transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities are suspected to underlie psychopathologic comorbidity but have received little attention in adolescent emotional pathology literature. We examined distress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, and anhedonia as concomitant transdiagnostic mechanisms that account for (i.e., statistically mediate) the covariance between adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) symptoms.MethodData on MDD, OCD, and the three aforementioned transdiagnostic vulnerabilities were collected from a community-based sample of 3,094 ninth graders in a large metropolitan area and analyzed using mixed effects modeling to evaluate mediation effects.ResultsIndividually and when controlling for each other, all three transdiagnostic vulnerabilities mediated the relation between OCD and MDD symptoms both before and after adjusting for demographics.ConclusionsDistress tolerance, anxiety sensitivity, and anhedonia may be unique mechanisms accounting for comorbidity between OCD and MDD symptoms in youth. Longitudinal evaluation of these candidate transdiagnostic emotional vulnerabilities in adolescent OCD-MDD comorbidity is warranted.
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:52:02.040117-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22669
       
  • Examining the scope and patterns of deliberate self-injurious cutting
           content in popular social media
    • Authors: Elizabeth M. Miguel; Tommy Chou, Alejandra Golik, Danielle Cornacchio, Amanda L. Sanchez, Mariah DeSerisy, Jonathan S. Comer
      Abstract: BackgroundSocial networking services (SNS) have rapidly become a central platform for adolescents’ social interactions and media consumption patterns. The present study examined a representative sample of publicly accessible content related to deliberate self-injurious cutting across three SNS platforms: Twitter, Tumblr, and Instagram.MethodsData collection simulated searches for publicly available deliberate self-injury content on Twitter, Tumblr, and Instagram. Over a six-month period at randomly generated time points, data were obtained by searching “#cutting” on each SNS platform and collecting the first 10 posts generated. Independent evaluators coded posts for presence of the following: (a) graphic content, (b) negative self-evaluations, (c) references to mental health terms, (d) discouragement of deliberate self-injury, and (e) recovery-oriented resources. Differences across platforms were examined.ResultsData collection yielded a sample of 1,155 public posts (770 of which were related to mental health). Roughly 60% of sampled posts depicted graphic content, almost half included negative self-evaluations, only 9.5% discouraged self-injury, and
      PubDate: 2017-06-29T04:51:38.514668-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22668
       
  • Atypical depression and double depression predict new-onset cardiovascular
           disease in U.S. adults
    • Authors: Stephanie M. Case; Manisha Sawhney, Jesse C. Stewart
      Abstract: BACKGROUNDAlthough depression is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), it is unknown whether this risk varies across depressive disorder subtypes. Thus, we investigated atypical major depressive disorder (MDD) and double depression as predictors of new-onset CVD in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults.METHODSProspective data from 28,726 adults initially free of CVD who participated in Wave 1 (2001–2002) and Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Lifetime depressive disorder subtypes (Wave 1) and incident CVD (Wave 2) were determined by structured interviews.RESULTSWe identified 1,116 incident CVD cases. In demographics adjusted models, the atypical MDD group had a higher odds of incident CVD than the no depression history (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.71–2.81, P 
      PubDate: 2017-06-22T12:40:21.369156-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22666
       
  • Is cannabis treatment for anxiety, mood, and related disorders ready for
           prime time'
    • Authors: Jasmine Turna; Beth Patterson, Michael Ameringen
      Abstract: Anxiety and related disorders are the most common mental conditions affecting the North American population. Despite their established efficacy, first-line antidepressant treatments are associated with significant side effects, leading many afflicted individuals to seek alternative treatments. Cannabis is commonly viewed as a natural alternative for a variety of medical and mental health conditions. Currently, anxiety ranks among the top five medical symptoms for which North Americans report using medical marijuana. However, upon careful review of the extant treatment literature, the anxiolytic effects of cannabis in clinical populations are surprisingly not well-documented. The effects of cannabis on anxiety and mood symptoms have been examined in healthy populations and in several small studies of synthetic cannabinoid agents but there are currently no studies which have examined the effects of the cannabis plant on anxiety and related disorders. In light of the rapidly shifting landscape regarding the legalization of cannabis for medical and recreational purposes, it is important to highlight the significant disconnect between the scientific literature, public opinion, and related policies. The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the current cannabis treatment literature, and to identify the potential for cannabis to be used as a therapeutic intervention for anxiety, mood, and related disorders. Searches of five electronic databases were conducted (PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar), with the most recent in February 2017. The effects of cannabis on healthy populations and clinical psychiatric samples will be discussed, focusing primarily on anxiety and mood disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-06-21T11:22:07.856509-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22664
       
  • Maternal depression and bullying victimization among adolescents: Results
           from the 2004 Pelotas cohort study
    • Authors: Catarina Machado Azeredo; Iná S. Santos, Aluísio J. D. Barros, Fernando C. Barros, Alicia Matijasevich
      Abstract: BackgroundMaternal depression impacts on several detrimental outcomes during a child's life course, and could increase their risk of victimization. This longitudinal study examined the association between antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization at 11 years.MethodsWe included 3,441 11-year-old adolescents from the 2004 Pelotas Cohort Study. Antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression data were assessed during the follow-up waves. Bullying victimization was self-reported by the adolescents. We used ordinal logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for the association between maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization.ResultsThe most prevalent type of bullying was verbal victimization (37.9%). We observed a positive association between antenatal maternal depression, postnatal trajectories, and current maternal depression and physical bullying victimization. Maternal mood symptoms during pregnancy were associated with physical (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.11–1.53), verbal (OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.12–1.49), and any victimization (OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.05–1.41). Severe current maternal depression was associated with physical (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.10–1.62), social manipulation (OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.08–1.53), attacks on property (OR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.08–1.57) and any victimization (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 1.12–1.56). Regarding maternal depression trajectories, the “chronic-high” group was associated with higher risk of social manipulation, attacks on property and any victimization, than the “low” group.ConclusionsOur results strengthen the evidence of association between maternal depression and offspring bullying victimization, and physical victimization appears to be the main component. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to elucidate the theoretical pathways for this longitudinal association.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T13:17:40.68489-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22662
       
  • Increased neural response to social rejection in major depression
    • Authors: Poornima Kumar; Gordon D Waiter, Magda Dubois, Maarten Milders, Ian Reid, J Douglas Steele
      Abstract: BackgroundBeing a part of community is critical for survival and individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have a greater sensitivity to interpersonal stress that makes them vulnerable to future episodes. Social rejection is a critical risk factor for depression and it is said to increase interpersonal stress and thereby impairing social functioning. It is therefore critical to understand the neural correlates of social rejection in MDD.MethodsTo this end, we scanned 15 medicated MDD and 17 healthy individuals during a modified cyberball passing game, where participants were exposed to increasing levels of social exclusion. Neural responses to increasing social exclusion were investigated and compared between groups.ResultsWe showed that compared to controls, MDD individuals exhibited greater amygdala, insula, and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activation to increasing social exclusion and this correlated negatively with hedonic tone and self-esteem scores across all participants.ConclusionsThese preliminary results support the hypothesis that depression is associated with hyperactive response to social rejection. These findings highlight the importance of studying social interactions in depression, as they often lead to social withdrawal and isolation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-20T13:17:30.622188-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22665
       
  • Genetic variants in 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, HTR1A, COMT, and FKBP5 and risk for
           treated depression after cancer diagnosis
    • Authors: Nis P. Suppli; Jens D. Bukh, Terrie E. Moffitt, Avshalom Caspi, Christoffer Johansen, Anne Tjønneland, Lars V. Kessing, Susanne O. Dalton
      Abstract: BackgroundThe role of gene–environment interactions in the pathogenesis of depression is unclear. Previous studies addressed vulnerability for depression after childhood adversity and stressful life events among carriers of numerous specific genetic variants; however, the importance of individual genetic variants, the environmental exposures with which they interact, and the magnitude of the risk conveyed by these interactions remain elusive.MethodsWe included 7,320 people with a first primary cancer identified in the prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study in an exposed-only cohort study. The mean age of the individuals was 68 years (5th, 95th percentiles: 58, 78) at cancer diagnosis. Using Cox regression models and cumulative incidence plots, we analyzed the associations between genetic variants in 5-HTTLPR, BDNF, HTR1A, COMT, and FKBP5 and use of antidepressants as well as hospital contact for depression after diagnosis of cancer.ResultsOverall, we observed no statistically significant associations, with nonsignificant hazard ratio estimates for use of antidepressants of 0.95–1.07.ConclusionsThis study of elderly people indicates that it is unlikely that the investigated genetic variants are clinically relevantly associated with depression after diagnosis of cancer. The mechanisms for gene–environment interactions in younger individuals are probably different, and we advise caution in extrapolating our results to early life stress. However, conclusion from the present study might be generalizable to elderly persons exposed to other stressful life events.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T08:16:20.645894-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22660
       
  • Clinical and neurobiological effects of aerobic exercise in dental phobia:
           A randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Brigitt L. Lindenberger; Jens Plag, Sarah Schumacher, Katharina Gaudlitz, Sophie Bischoff, Thomas Bobbert, Fernando Dimeo, Moritz B. Petzold, Clemens Kirschbaum, Zsuzsa Dudás, Andreas Ströhle
      Abstract: BackgroundPhysical activity has shown to be effective in anxiety disorders. For specific phobia, no studies are available that systematically examined the effects of an aerobic exercise intervention on phobic fear within a randomized-controlled design. Therefore, we investigated the acute effect of a standardized aerobic training on clinical symptoms of dental phobia as well as on stress-related neurobiological markers.MethodsWithin a crossover design, 30 patients with dental phobia (mean age: 34.1 years; mean score of the Dental Anxiety Scale: 18.8) underwent two minor dental interventions separated by 7 days. Dental treatment was performed after 30 min of physical activity at either 20% VO2 max (control) or 70% VO2 max (intervention), respectively. To control for habituation, patients were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions prior to the first intervention. Moreover, saliva samples were collected at five times in order to determine changes in salivary cortisol (sC) and alpha-amylase (sAA) due to treatment.ResultsIn comparison to baseline, aerobic exercise within 70% VO2 max significantly reduced clinical anxiety and sC concentrations before, during, and after the dental treatment. In contrast, the control condition led to decreased sAA levels at different time points of measurement. Habituation occurred at the second study day, independent of the order.ConclusionsOur study provides evidence for an effect of moderate–intense exercise on clinical symptoms and sC in patients with dental phobia. Therefore, acute aerobic exercise might be a simple and low-cost intervention to reduce disorder-specific phobic fear.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26T12:45:24.968345-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22659
       
  • Uncertainty increases neural indices of attention in obsessive-compulsive
           disorder
    • Authors: Raoul Dieterich; Tanja Endrass, Norbert Kathmann
      Abstract: BackgroundPatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience abnormally high levels of uncertainty, and unpredictability is evaluated negatively and not well tolerated. The current study examined neural correlates of attentional processing in response to experimentally induced uncertainty in OCD.MethodsTwenty-four OCD patients and 24 healthy controls performed a task where neutral and negative pictures were preceded by a cue, either being predictive (certain condition) or nonpredictive (uncertain condition) of subsequent picture valence. We examined prepicture anticipatory attention through α (∼8–12 Hz) suppression, and attentional allocation during picture presentation with the P1, N1, P2, N2, and late positive potential (LPP) of the event-related potential. Additionally, we tested how clinical measures related to these attentional markers.ResultsSubjectively, patients overestimated the frequency of negative pictures after nonpredictive cues. Patients, but not controls, showed upper α(10–12 Hz) suppression after nonpredictive and predictive negative cues relative to predictive neutral cues. Only patients showed increased P2 and decreased N2 amplitudes for pictures after nonpredictive cues, and, whereas both groups showed increased LPP amplitudes for pictures after nonpredictive cues, this modulation was more pronounced in OCD during the early LPP (
      PubDate: 2017-05-25T12:25:26.694345-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22655
       
  • Cognitive enhancing effects of rTMS administered to the prefrontal cortex
           in patients with depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of
           individual task effects
    • Authors: Donel M. Martin; Shawn M. McClintock, Jane J. Forster, Tin Yan Lo, Colleen K. Loo
      Abstract: BackgroundRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an approved therapeutic treatment of major depressive disorder and has increasing clinical use throughout the world. However, it remains unclear whether an rTMS course for depression may also produce cognitive enhancement. In a recent meta-analysis of sham-controlled randomized controlled studies (RCTs) conducted in patients with neuropsychiatric conditions, no evidence was found for generalized cognitive enhancing effects across cognitive domains with active compared to sham rTMS. Notwithstanding, there remains the possibility of cognitive effects following an rTMS course that are more highly specific, for example, in specific clinical conditions, or at the individual task level. This study aimed to determine whether a therapeutic rTMS course in patients with depression is associated with cognitive enhancing effects at the task level.MethodsA systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes on individual neuropsychological tasks from sham-controlled RCTs where an rTMS course was administered to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with depression.ResultsEighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Active rTMS treatment showed no specific enhancing effects on the majority of cognitive tasks. Modest effect size improvements with active compared to sham rTMS treatment were found for performance on the Trail Making Test Parts A (g = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.06–0.50) and B (g = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.06–0.47).ConclusionA therapeutic rTMS course administered to the prefrontal cortex for depression may produce modest cognitive enhancing effects specific to psychomotor speed, visual scanning, and set-shifting ability.
      PubDate: 2017-05-24T11:30:27.915514-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22658
       
  • Are there sensitive periods when child maltreatment substantially elevates
           suicide risk' Results from a nationally representative sample of
           adolescents
    • Authors: Stephanie H. Gomez; Jenny Tse, Yan Wang, Brianna Turner, Alexander J. Millner, Matthew K. Nock, Erin C. Dunn
      Abstract: BackgroundAlthough child maltreatment is a well documented risk factor for suicidal behavior, little is known about whether the timing of child maltreatment differentially associates with risk of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, or suicide attempts. The goal of this study was to examine whether a first exposure to physical or sexual abuse during specific developmental periods significantly elevated risk for suicidal behavior in adolescents.MethodsData came from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement, a population-based sample of US adolescents aged 13–18 years old (n = 9,272). Using discrete time survival analysis, we assessed the association between timing of first abuse (early childhood: ages 0–5; middle childhood: ages 6–10; adolescence: ages 11–18) and suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts.ResultsExposure to either physical or sexual abuse increased the odds of reporting suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = 5.06 and OR = 3.56, respectively), plans (OR = 3.63 and OR = 3.58, respectively), and attempts (OR = 5.80 and OR = 4.21, respectively), even after controlling for sociodemographic covariates and psychiatric disorders. However, the timing of physical and sexual abuse exposure was unassociated with suicidal behavior (all P values>.05).ConclusionsExposure to child maltreatment is strongly associated with the risk for adolescent suicidal behaviors, though this association did not vary based on the timing of first exposure. These findings suggest that prevention efforts should be implemented throughout early development and target all children, regardless of when they were first exposed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-23T12:00:23.860154-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22650
       
  • Latent structure of negative valence measures in childhood
    • Authors: Minyoung Lee; Steven H. Aggen, Dever M. Carney, Shannon Hahn, Elizabeth Moroney, Laura Machlin, Melissa A. Brotman, Kenneth E. Towbin, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S. Pine, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M. Hettema
      Abstract: BackgroundInternalizing disorders (IDs), consisting of the syndromes of anxiety and depression, are common, debilitating conditions often having onsets in adolescence. Scientists have developed dimensional self-report instruments that assess putative negative valence system (NVS) trait-like constructs as complimentary phenotypes to clinical symptoms. These include various measures that index temperamental predispositions to IDs and correlate with neural substrates of fear, anxiety, and affective regulation. This study sought to elucidate the overarching structure of putative NVS traits and their relationship to early manifestations of ID symptomatology.MethodsThe sample consisted of 768 juvenile twin subjects ages 9–13. Together with ID symptoms, extant validated instruments were chosen to assess a broad spectrum of NVS traits: anxiety sensitivity, irritability, fearfulness, behavioral activation and inhibition, and neuroticism and extraversion. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA/CFA) were used to investigate the latent structure of the associations among these different constructs and ID symptoms. Bifactor modeling in addition to standard correlated-factor analytic approaches were applied.ResultsFactor analyses produced a primary tripartite solution comprising anxiety/fear, dysphoria, and positive affect among all these measures. Competing DSM-like correlated factors and an RDoC-like NVS bifactor structure provided similar fit to these data.ConclusionsOur findings support the conceptual organization of a tripartite latent internalizing domain in developing children. This structure includes both clinical symptoms and a variety of self-report dimensional traits currently in use by investigators. These various constructs are, therefore, most informatively investigated using an inclusive, integrated approach.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22T12:35:25.351342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22656
       
  • The efficacy of benzodiazepines as acute anxiolytics in children: A
           meta-analysis
    • Authors: Heide Kuang; Jessica A. Johnson, Jilian M. Mulqueen, Michael H. Bloch
      Abstract: ObjectiveCurrent practice guidelines do not recommend benzodiazepines for acute management of anxiety disorders in pediatric patients. However, in procedural settings, benzodiazepines are commonly used to relieve acute preprocedural stress. This meta-analysis examines the efficacy and tolerability of benzodiazepines as short-term anxiolytics in children.MethodPubMed was searched for randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of benzodiazepines as short-term anxiolytics in pediatric patients. Twenty-one trials involving 1,416 participants were included. A fixed effects model was used to examine the standardized mean difference of improvement in anxiety levels compared to control conditions. In stratified subgroup and meta-regression, the effect of the specific agent, dose, timing, and setting of benzodiazepine treatment was examined.ResultsA significant benefit was seen for benzodiazepines compared to control (standardized mean difference = 0.71 [95% confidence interval, 0.60–0.82], k = 24, z = 12.7, P < .001). There was also funnel plot asymmetry in this meta-analysis, suggesting some evidence of publication bias. Moderator analyses found that when benzodiazepines were used in dental or nonoperating room procedures, they were more effective than when they were used in operating room procedures (test for subgroup differences Q2 = 6.34, P = .04). Tolerability analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the risk of developing irritability or behavioral changes between benzodiazepine and control groups.ConclusionsBenzodiazepines are effective and well-tolerated when used as short-term anxiolytics in procedural settings for pediatric patients. Further research is needed to determine whether benzodiazepines are effective in pediatric anxiety disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T10:30:26.663561-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22643
       
  • Perceiving social pressure not to feel negative predicts depressive
           symptoms in daily life
    • Authors: Egon Dejonckheere; Brock Bastian, Eiko I. Fried, Sean C. Murphy, Peter Kuppens
      Abstract: BackgroundWestern societies often overemphasize the pursuit of happiness, and regard negative feelings such as sadness or anxiety as maladaptive and unwanted. Despite this emphasis on happiness, the amount of people suffering from depressive complaints is remarkably high. To explain this apparent paradox, we examined whether experiencing social pressure not to feel sad or anxious could in fact contribute to depressive symptoms.MethodsA sample of individuals (n = 112) with elevated depression scores (Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9] ≥ 10) took part in an online daily diary study in which they rated their depressive symptoms and perceived social pressure not to feel depressed or anxious for 30 consecutive days. Using multilevel VAR models, we investigated the temporal relation between this perceived social pressure and depressive symptoms to determine directionality.ResultsPrimary analyses consistently indicated that experiencing social pressure predicts increases in both overall severity scores and most individual symptoms of depression, but not vice versa. A set of secondary analyses, in which we adopted a network perspective on depression, confirmed these findings. Using this approach, centrality analysis revealed that perceived social pressure not to feel negative plays an instigating role in depression, reflected by the high out- and low instrength centrality of this pressure in the various depression networks.ConclusionsTogether, these findings indicate how perceived societal norms may contribute to depression, hinting at a possible malignant consequence of society's denouncement of negative emotions. Clinical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T11:25:47.18961-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22653
       
  • Predictors of PTSD 40 years after combat: Findings from the National
           Vietnam Veterans longitudinal study
    • Authors: Maria M. Steenkamp; William E. Schlenger, Nida Corry, Clare Henn-Haase, Meng Qian, Meng Li, Danny Horesh, Karen-Inge Karstoft, Christianna Williams, Chia-Lin Ho, Arieh Shalev, Richard Kulka, Charles Marmar
      Abstract: BackgroundFew studies have longitudinally examined predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nationally representative sample of US veterans. We examined predictors of warzone-related PTSD over a 25-year span using data from the National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS).MethodsThe NVVLS is a follow-up study of Vietnam theater veterans (N = 699) previously assessed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS), a large national-probability study conducted in the late 1980s. We examined the ability of 22 premilitary, warzone, and postmilitary variables to predict current warzone-related PTSD symptom severity and PTSD symptom change in male theater veterans participating in the NVVLS. Data included a self-report Health Questionnaire survey and a computer-assisted telephone Health Interview Survey. Primary outcomes were self-reported PTSD symptoms assessed by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL 5) and Mississippi PTSD Scale (M-PTSD).ResultsPredictors of current PTSD symptoms most robust in hierarchical multivariable models were African-American race, lower education level, negative homecoming reception, lower current social support, and greater past-year stress. PTSD symptoms remained largely stable over time, and symptom exacerbation was predicted by African-American race, lower education level, younger age at entry into Vietnam, greater combat exposure, lower current social support, and greater past-year stressors.ConclusionsFindings confirm the robustness of a select set of risk factors for warzone-related PTSD, establishing that these factors can predict PTSD symptom severity and symptom change up to 40 years postdeployment.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T10:35:40.826931-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22628
       
  • Nicotine deprivation attenuates panic reactivity in smokers: Findings from
           a placebo-controlled nicotine patch study
    • Authors: Kenneth Abrams; Sam Krimmel, Stacey Johnson, Kate Cieslowski, Helen Strnad, Arielle Melum, Caroline Kryder
      Abstract: BackgroundProspective studies consistently find that smoking is a risk factor for the development of panic disorder (PD). A possible explanation is that nicotine deprivation promotes heightened sensitivity to bodily sensations and/or arterial carbon dioxide (CO2). Abrams et al. (2011) previously found that, in response to a CO2 rebreathing challenge, smokers experiencing more (vs. less) intense nicotine withdrawal had more severe panic symptoms and a stronger urge to escape. However, participants were aware of the last time they smoked, leaving unclear the extent to which fear reactivity was influenced by the pharmacologic effects of nicotine deprivation versus beliefs regarding when nicotine was most recently used. The present study aimed to ascertain whether nicotine deprivation, independent of beliefs regarding recent nicotine use, promotes fear reactivity among smokers.MethodsModerate to heavy smokers without PD (N = 25) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study consisting of two sessions spaced 1 week apart. Participants abstained from nicotine for 2 hr prior to sessions. During one session participants were given a 21 mg nicotine replacement patch and, during the other, a placebo patch, with the order counterbalanced. For both sessions, after a 3-hr absorption period, participants underwent a 10-min CO2 rebreathing challenge.ResultsWearing a nicotine (vs. placebo) patch increased self-reported panic reactivity among participants, but did not significantly affect physiological and behavioral measures of reactivity.ConclusionsIn smokers without a history of PD, nicotine deprivation attenuates subjective panic reactivity. Possible explanations for the contrast between theory and laboratory findings as well as clinical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T10:35:37.876433-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22652
       
  • The role of family history of depression and the menopausal transition in
           the development of major depression in midlife women: Study of women's
           health across the nation mental health study (SWAN MHS)
    • Authors: Alicia Colvin; Gale A. Richardson, Jill M. Cyranowski, Ada Youk, Joyce T. Bromberger
      Abstract: BackgroundThis study evaluated whether family history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women above and beyond static risk factors (such as personal history of depression prior to midlife) and risks that may change dynamically across midlife (such as menopausal, psychosocial, and health profiles).MethodsParticipants were 303 African American and Caucasian women (42–52 years at baseline) recruited into the Study of Women's Health across the Nation (SWAN) Mental Health Study (MHS) in Pittsburgh. Major depression was assessed annually with Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV. Family mental health history was collected at the ninth or tenth annual follow-up. Random effects logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between family history of depression and midlife depression, controlling for baseline sociodemographic characteristics and time-varying risk factors.ResultsFamily history of depression was associated with midlife depression after adjusting for participant's history of major depression prior to midlife, trait anxiety and baseline age, and time-varying menopausal status, body mass index, very upsetting life events, and chronic difficulties (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.17–4.29, P = .02). Higher odds of major depression were found when women were late perimenopausal or postmenopausal relative to when they were premenopausal or early perimenopausal (OR = 3.01, 95% CI = 1.76–5.15, P < .0001). However, menopausal status was only associated with major depression among women without a family history.ConclusionsFamily history of depression predicts major depression in midlife women independent of the menopausal transition and other time-varying covariates. Notably, the menopausal transition was associated with increased risk only among women without a family history of depression.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T10:35:35.1894-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22651
       
  • Fear learning alterations after traumatic brain injury and their role in
           development of posttraumatic stress symptoms
    • Authors: Daniel E. Glenn; Dean T. Acheson, Mark A. Geyer, Caroline M. Nievergelt, Dewleen G. Baker, Victoria B. Risbrough,
      Abstract: BackgroundIt is unknown how traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One potential mechanism is via alteration of fear-learning processes that could affect responses to trauma memories and cues. We utilized a prospective, longitudinal design to determine if TBI is associated with altered fear learning and extinction, and if fear processing mediates effects of TBI on PTSD symptom change.MethodsEight hundred fifty two active-duty Marines and Navy Corpsmen were assessed before and after deployment. Assessments included TBI history, PTSD symptoms, combat trauma and deployment stress, and a fear-potentiated startle task of fear acquisition and extinction. Startle response and self-reported expectancy and anxiety served as measures of fear conditioning, and PTSD symptoms were measured with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale.ResultsIndividuals endorsing “multiple hit” exposure (both deployment TBI and a prior TBI) showed the strongest fear acquisition and highest fear expression compared to groups without multiple hits. Extinction did not differ across groups. Endorsing a deployment TBI was associated with higher anxiety to the fear cue compared to those without deployment TBI. The association of deployment TBI with increased postdeployment PTSD symptoms was mediated by postdeployment fear expression when recent prior-TBI exposure was included as a moderator. TBI associations with increased response to threat cues and PTSD symptoms remained when controlling for deployment trauma and postdeployment PTSD diagnosis.ConclusionsDeployment TBI, and multiple-hit TBI in particular, are associated with increases in conditioned fear learning and expression that may contribute to risk for developing PTSD symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T10:35:32.855431-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22642
       
  • Low physical activity as a key differentiating factor in the potential
           high-risk profile for depressive symptoms in older adults
    • Authors: Sofie Holmquist; Sabina Mattsson, Ingrid Schele, Peter Nordström, Anna Nordström
      Abstract: BackgroundThe identification of potential high-risk groups for depression is of importance. The purpose of the present study was to identify high-risk profiles for depressive symptoms in older individuals, with a focus on functional performance.MethodsThe population-based Healthy Ageing Initiative included 2,084 community-dwelling individuals (49% women) aged 70. Explorative cluster analysis was used to group participants according to functional performance level, using measures of basic mobility skills, gait variability, and grip strength. Intercluster differences in depressive symptoms (measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]-15), physical activity (PA; measured objectively with the ActiGraph GT3X+), and a rich set of covariates were examined.ResultsThe cluster analysis yielded a seven-cluster solution. One potential high-risk cluster was identified, with overrepresentation of individuals with GDS scores>5 (15.1 vs. 2.7% expected; relative risk = 6.99, P < .001); the prevalence of depressive symptoms was significantly lower in the other clusters (all P < .01). The potential high-risk cluster had significant overrepresentations of obese individuals (39.7 vs. 17.4% expected) and those with type 2 diabetes (24.7 vs. 8.5% expected), and underrepresentation of individuals who fulfilled the World Health Organization's PA recommendations (15.6 vs. 59.1% expected; all P < .01), as well as low levels of functional performance.ConclusionsThe present study provided a potential high-risk profile for depressive symptoms among elderly community-dwelling individuals, which included low levels functional performance combined with low levels of PA. Including PA in medical screening of the elderly may aid in identification of potential high-risk individuals for depressive symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10T10:35:26.504172-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22638
       
  • Predicting suicide with the SAD PERSONS scale
    • Authors: Cara Katz; Jason R. Randall, Jitender Sareen, Dan Chateau, Randy Walld, William D. Leslie, JianLi Wang, James M. Bolton
      Abstract: BackgroundSuicide is a major public health issue, and a priority requirement is accurately identifying high-risk individuals. The SAD PERSONS suicide risk assessment scale is widely implemented in clinical settings despite limited supporting evidence. This article aims to determine the ability of the SAD PERSONS scale (SPS) to predict future suicide in the emergency department.MethodsFive thousand four hundred sixty-two consecutive adults were seen by psychiatry consultation teams in two tertiary emergency departments with linkage to population-based administrative data to determine suicide deaths within 6 months, 1, and 5 years.ResultsSeventy-seven (1.4%) individuals died by suicide during the study period. When predicting suicide at 12 months, medium- and high-risk scores on SPS had a sensitivity of 49% and a specificity of 60%; the positive and negative predictive values were 0.9 and 99%, respectively. Half of the suicides at both 6- and 12-month intervals were classified as low risk by SPS at index visit. The area under the curve at 12 months for the Modified SPS was 0.59 (95% confidence interval [CI] range 0.51–0.67). High-risk scores (compared to low risk) were significantly associated with death by suicide over the 5-year study period using the SPS (hazard ratio 2.49; 95% CI 1.34–4.61) and modified version (hazard ratio 2.29; 95% CI 1.24–2.29).ConclusionsAlthough widely used in educational and clinical settings, these findings do not support the use of the SPS and Modified SPS to predict suicide in adults seen by psychiatric services in the emergency department.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T09:30:55.790991-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22632
       
  • Maternal choline status during pregnancy, but not that of betaine, is
           related to antenatal mental well-being: The growing up in Singapore toward
           healthy outcomes cohort
    • Authors: Linde Lee; Phaik Ling Quah, Seang Mei Saw, Fabian K. P. Yap, Keith M. Godfrey, Yap Seng Chong, Michael J Meaney, Helen Chen, Mary Foong-Fong Chong
      Abstract: BackgroundCholine and betaine status have previously been associated with symptoms of depression. However, the relation of maternal plasma choline and betaine concentrations in pregnancy to peripartum maternal mood is unknown.MethodsMaternal plasma choline and betaine concentrations (μmol/L) were measured at 26–28 weeks gestation in the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother–offspring cohort. Participants completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) at 26–28 weeks gestation (n = 949) and at 3 months postnatal (n = 689): higher scores are indicative of more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate the association of choline and betaine with ante- and postnatal mental well-being adjusting for covariates.ResultsMean (SD) antenatal plasma choline and betaine concentrations were 9.2 μmol/L (1.6) and 13.1 μmol/L (2.7), respectively. Plasma choline concentrations were positively associated with antenatal depressive (β = .24 EPDS score [95% CI: 0.05–0.43] per μmol/L] and anxiety symptoms (β = .46 STAI-state score [95% CI: 0.03–0.88] per μmol/L) adjusting for covariates. Plasma betaine concentrations were not associated with antenatal depression or anxiety symptoms. No associations were observed between pregnancy choline or betaine and postnatal mental well-being.ConclusionThis study suggests that higher maternal plasma choline status during pregnancy is associated with more symptoms of antenatal depression and anxiety, whereas plasma betaine concentrations showed no associations. No associations were observed for postnatal mental well-being. Prospective studies are required to replicate these findings and further examine the direction of causality and possible biological mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T09:30:36.310962-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22637
       
  • Less is more: Patient-level meta-analysis reveals paradoxical
           dose-response effects of a computer-based social anxiety intervention
           targeting attentional bias
    • Authors: Rebecca B. Price; Jennie M. Kuckertz, Nader Amir, Yair Bar-Haim, Per Carlbring, Meredith L. Wallace
      Abstract: BackgroundThe past decade of research has seen considerable interest in computer-based approaches designed to directly target cognitive mechanisms of anxiety, such as attention bias modification (ABM).MethodsBy pooling patient-level datasets from randomized controlled trials of ABM that utilized a dot-probe training procedure, we assessed the impact of training "dose" on relevant outcomes among a pooled sample of 693 socially anxious adults.ResultsA paradoxical effect of the number of training trials administered was observed for both posttraining social anxiety symptoms and behavioral attentional bias (AB) toward threat (the target mechanism of ABM). Studies administering a large (>1,280) number of training trials showed no benefit of ABM over control conditions, while those administering fewer training trials showed significant benefit for ABM in reducing social anxiety (P = .02). These moderating effects of dose were not better explained by other examined variables and previously identified moderators, including patient age, training setting (laboratory vs. home), or type of anxiety assessment (clinician vs. self-report).ConclusionsFindings inform the optimal dosing for future dot-probe style ABM applications in both research and clinical settings, and suggest several novel avenues for further research.
      PubDate: 2017-04-28T13:23:02.884652-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22634
       
  • Between-visit changes in suicidal ideation and risk of subsequent suicide
           attempt
    • Authors: Gregory E. Simon; Susan M. Shortreed, Eric Johnson, Arne Beck, Karen J. Coleman, Rebecca C. Rossom, Ursula S. Whiteside, Belinda H. Operskalski, Robert B. Penfold
      Abstract: BackgroundWhile clinicians are expected to routinely assess and address suicide risk, existing data provide little guidance regarding the significance of visit-to-visit changes in suicidal ideation.MethodsElectronic health records from four large healthcare systems identified patients completing the Patient Health Questionnaire or PHQ9 at outpatient visits. For patients completing two questionnaires within 90 days, health system records and state vital records were used to identify nonfatal and fatal suicide attempts. Analyses examined how changes in PHQ9 item 9 responses between visits predicted suicide attempt or suicide death over 90 days following the second visit.ResultsAnalyses included 430,701 pairs of item 9 responses for 118,696 patients. Among patients reporting thoughts of death or self-harm “nearly every day” at the first visit, risk of suicide attempt after the second visit ranged from approximately 2.0% among those reporting continued thoughts “nearly every day” down to 0.5% among those reporting a decrease to “not at all.” Among those reporting thoughts of death or self-harm “not at all” at the first visit, risk of suicide attempt following the second visit ranged from approximately 0.2% among those continuing to report such thoughts “not at all” up to 1.2% among those reporting an increase to “nearly every day”.ConclusionsResolution of suicidal ideation between visits does imply a clinically important reduction in short-term risk, but prior suicidal ideation still implies significant residual risk. Onset of suicidal ideation between visits does not imply any special elevation compared to ongoing suicidal ideation. Risk is actually highest for patients repeatedly reporting thoughts of death or self-harm.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T09:18:29.069758-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22623
       
  • Well-being therapy in depression: New insights into the role of
           psychological well-being in the clinical process
    • Authors: Giovanni A. Fava; Fiammetta Cosci, Jenny Guidi, Elena Tomba
      Abstract: A specific psychotherapeutic strategy for increasing psychological well-being and resilience, well-being therapy (WBT), has been developed and validated in a number of randomized controlled trials. The findings indicate that flourishing and resilience can be promoted by specific interventions leading to a positive evaluation of one's self, a sense of continued growth and development, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relations with others, the capacity to manage effectively one's life, and a sense of self-determination. The evidence supporting the use of WBT and its specific contribution when it is combined with other psychotherapeutic techniques is still limited. However, the insights gained by the use of WBT may unravel innovative approaches to assessment and treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, to be confirmed by controlled studies, with particular reference to decreasing vulnerability to relapse and modulating psychological well-being and mood. An important characteristic of WBT is self-observation of psychological well-being associated with specific homework. Such perspective is different from interventions that are labeled as positive but are actually distress oriented. Another important feature of WBT is the assumption that imbalances in well-being and distress may vary from one illness to another and from patient to patient. Customary clinical taxonomy and evaluation do not include psychological well-being, which may demarcate major prognostic and therapeutic differences among patients who otherwise seem to be deceptively similar since they share the same diagnosis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:06:13.924454-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22629
       
  • Meta-analysis of interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder and
           depression in adult survivors of mass violence in low- and middle-income
           countries
    • Authors: Nexhmedin Morina; Mina Malek, Angela Nickerson, Richard A. Bryant
      Abstract: BackgroundMost survivors of mass violence live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled psychotherapy trials for adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression in LMICs.MethodsWe included 18 clinical trials (3,058 participants), in which 25 and 18 treatment arms measured symptoms of PTSD and depression, respectively.ResultsActive treatments for PTSD yielded a large aggregated pre–post effect size (g = 1.29; 95% CI = [0.99; 1.59]) and a small to medium effect size at posttreatment when compared to control conditions (g = 0.39; 95% CI = [0.24; 0.55]). Effect sizes were similar for pretreatment versus follow-up (g = 1.75; 95% CI = [1.17; 2.32]) and in comparison to waitlist at follow-up (g = 0.93; 95% CI = [0.56; 1.31]). Active treatments for depression produced large pre–post (g = 1.28; 95% CI = [0.96; 1.61]) and controlled effect sizes (posttreatment, comparison to control conditions, g = 0.86; 95% CI = [0.54; 1.18]).ConclusionsOur findings suggest that psychological interventions can effectively reduce symptoms of PTSD and depression in LMICs. Future research needs to focus on cost-effective interventions that are likely to be disseminated to the large numbers of war survivors in LMICs.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18T12:06:05.741111-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22618
       
  • Prevention of insulin resistance in adolescents at risk for type 2
           
    • Authors: Lauren B. Shomaker; Nichole R. Kelly, Rachel M. Radin, Omni L. Cassidy, Lisa M. Shank, Sheila M. Brady, Andrew P. Demidowich, Cara H. Olsen, Kong Y. Chen, Eric Stice, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Jack A. Yanovski
      Abstract: BackgroundDepression is associated with poor insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the long-term effects of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for prevention of depression on insulin sensitivity in adolescents at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) with depressive symptoms.MethodsOne-hundred nineteen adolescent females with overweight/obesity, T2D family history, and mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were randomized to a 6-week CBT group (n = 61) or 6-week health education (HE) control group (n = 58). At baseline, posttreatment, and 1 year, depressive symptoms were assessed, and whole body insulin sensitivity (WBISI) was estimated from oral glucose tolerance tests. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry assessed fat mass at baseline and 1 year. Primary outcomes were 1-year changes in depression and insulin sensitivity, adjusting for adiposity and other relevant covariates. Secondary outcomes were fasting and 2-hr insulin and glucose. We also evaluated the moderating effect of baseline depressive symptom severity.ResultsDepressive symptoms decreased in both groups (P < .001). Insulin sensitivity was stable in CBT and HE (ΔWBISI: .1 vs. .3) and did not differ between groups (P = .63). However, among girls with greater (moderate) baseline depressive symptoms (N = 78), those in CBT developed lower 2-hr insulin than those in HE (Δ-16 vs. 16 μIU/mL, P < .05). Additional metabolic benefits of CBT were seen for this subgroup in post hoc analyses of posttreatment to 1-year change.ConclusionsAdolescent females at risk for T2D decreased depressive symptoms and stabilized insulin sensitivity 1 year following brief CBT or HE. Further studies are required to determine if adolescents with moderate depression show metabolic benefits after CBT.
      PubDate: 2017-03-31T16:10:24.821229-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22617
       
  • Ultra-brief behavioral skills trainings for blood injection injury phobia
    • Authors: Alicia E. Meuret; Erica Simon, Lavanya Bhaskara, Thomas Ritz
      Abstract: BackgroundBlood injection injury (BII) phobia is common, with debilitating consequences to the health and well being of many of its sufferers. BII phobia presents with a unique fear response that can involve drops in blood pressure and ultimately fainting. The aim of this study was to provide proof of concept for a line of brief, easy to implement, video-based interventions for reducing phobic avoidance and fears in BII sufferers. One of the interventions was a novel Hypoventilation Respiratory Training (HRT) aimed at reducing the exaggerated ventilation response (hyperventilation) seen in BII phobia. The response has been linked to cerebral vasoconstriction and fainting symptoms.MethodSixty BII patients were randomly assigned to one of three 12-min video-guided trainings: Symptom-Associated Tension (SAT) training, Relaxation Skills Training (RST), or HRT. Experiential and cardiorespiratory activity to phobic stimuli was assessed before and after training.ResultsBoth SAT and HRT resulted in overall greater reductions of phobic fears and symptoms than RST. SAT significantly increased heart rate during exposure, and HRT led to significantly reduced ventilation, increases in PCO2, and elevated blood pressure throughout exposure and recovery. Treatment expectancy was rated equally high across conditions, whereas credibility ratings were highest for HRT.ConclusionsBrief, video-based instructions in muscle tension and normocapnic breathing are effective in reducing BII symptom severity and require minimal time and expertise. HRT may be particularly helpful in reducing fainting caused by cerebral vasoconstriction.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T06:25:37.522168-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22616
       
  • Depression and Anxiety Issue Information
    • Pages: 663 - 669
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T09:36:22.398117-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22567
       
  • President's Letter August 2017
    • Authors: Karen Lynn Cassiday
      Pages: 670 - 670
      PubDate: 2017-08-03T09:36:21.377569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22676
       
  • History of sexual trauma moderates psychotherapy outcome for posttraumatic
           stress disorder
    • Authors: John C. Markowitz; Yuval Neria, Karina Lovell, Page E. Meter, Eva Petkova
      First page: 692
      Abstract: BackgroundModerators of differential psychotherapy outcome for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are rare, yet have crucial clinical importance. We tested the moderating effects of trauma type for three psychotherapies in 110 unmedicated patients with chronic DSM-IV PTSD.MethodsPatients were randomized to 14 weeks of prolonged exposure (PE, N = 38), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT, N = 40), or relaxation therapy (RT, N = 32). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) was the primary outcome measure. Moderator candidates were trauma type: interpersonal, sexual, physical. We fit a regression model for week 14 CAPS as a function of treatment (a three-level factor), an indicator of trauma type presence/absence, and their interactions, controlling for baseline CAPS, and evaluated potential confounds.ResultsThirty-nine (35%) patients reported sexual, 68 (62%) physical, and 102 (93%) interpersonal trauma. Baseline CAPS scores did not differ by presence/absence of trauma types. Sexual trauma as PTSD criterion A significantly moderated treatment effect: whereas all therapies had similar efficacy among nonsexually-traumatized patients, IPT had greater efficacy among sexually traumatized patients (efficacy difference with and without sexual trauma: IPT vs. PE and IPT vs. RT P’s < .05), specifically in PTSD symptom clusters B and D (P’s < .05).ConclusionsFew studies have assessed effects of varying trauma types on effects of differing psychotherapies. In this exploratory study, sexual trauma moderated PTSD outcomes of three therapies: IPT showed greater benefit for sexually traumatized patients than PE or RT. The IPT focuses on affect to help patients determine trust in their current environments may particularly benefit patients who have suffered sexual assault.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T10:30:29.771412-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22619
       
  • Associations of childhood bullying victimization with lifetime suicidal
           behaviors among new U.S. Army soldiers
    • Authors: Laura Campbell-Sills; Ronald C. Kessler, Robert J. Ursano, Anthony J. Rosellini, Tracie O. Afifi, Lisa J. Colpe, Steven G. Heeringa, Matthew K. Nock, Nancy A. Sampson, Jitender Sareen, Michael Schoenbaum, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Murray B. Stein,
      First page: 701
      Abstract: BackgroundPrior studies have documented associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors. However, many failed to adjust for concomitant risk factors and none investigated this relationship in military personnel. This study aimed to estimate independent associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors among U.S. Army soldiers.MethodsSoldiers reporting for basic training completed a cross-sectional survey assessing mental disorders, suicidal behaviors, and childhood adversities including two types of bullying victimization: (1) Physical Assault/Theft and (2) Bullying Comments/Behaviors. Associations of childhood bullying experiences with suicidal behaviors were estimated using discrete-time survival analysis of person–year data from 30,436 soldiers. Models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, childhood maltreatment by adults, and mental disorders.ResultsAfter comprehensive adjustment for other risk factors, more frequent Physical Assault/Theft by peers during childhood was associated with increased odds of lifetime suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11–1.26, P < .001) and attempt (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13-1.50, P < .001). More frequent Bullying Comments/Behaviors were associated with increased risk of ideation (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.35, P < .001), plan (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.35-1.54, P < .001), attempt (AOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.15-1.33, P < .001), and onset of plan among ideators (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03-1.15, P = .002). Relative to no bullying victimization, exposure to the most persistent bullying was associated with two- to fourfold increase in risk for suicidal behaviors.ConclusionsChildhood bullying victimization is associated with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers. Exposure to Bullying Comments/Behaviors during childhood is associated with progression from suicidal ideation to plan. Improved recognition of these relationships may inform risk mitigation interventions for soldiers.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T09:10:25.286808-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22621
       
 
 
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