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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 870 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Activités     Open Access  
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 379)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Psychotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 156)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 191)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 110)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 119)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology : Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
E-Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Depression and Anxiety
  [SJR: 2.491]   [H-I: 85]   [14 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1091-4269 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6394
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1616 journals]
  • Disruption of white matter structural integrity and connectivity in
           posttraumatic stress disorder: A TBSS and tractography study
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Olson; Jiaolong Cui, Rena Fukunaga, Lisa D. Nickerson, Scott L. Rauch, Isabelle M. Rosso
      Abstract: BackgroundMost studies of brain white matter (WM) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have focused on combat trauma, and often were confounded by neurological and substance dependence comorbidity. This study used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography to characterize WM microstructure in a mixed-sex community sample of PTSD patients exposed to diverse and multiple traumas, and in trauma-exposed normal comparison (TENC) subjects.MethodsTBSS compared diffusion measures between 20 adults with DSM-IV PTSD and 17 TENC, using a whole-brain voxel-wise approach. Probabilistic tractography using Freesurfer's TRACULA was employed to measure diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics within anatomically defined pathways. DTI metrics were compared between groups and correlated with PTSD symptom severity and trauma load.ResultsControlling for age, sex, and motion, PTSD subjects had significantly reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in a left frontal lobe cluster compared with TENC, at p < .05, family-wise error corrected. Tractography identified significant group differences in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), including lower FA and higher radial diffusivity in PTSD compared with TENC. Within the PTSD group, FA values were not correlated with symptom severity or trauma load. Results remained significant after removing participants using psychotropic medication or those with comorbid major depression.ConclusionsPTSD patients had reduced WM integrity in left hemisphere frontal WM and temporal-occipital WM tracts, compared to trauma-exposed controls. Reduced frontal FA is consistent with compromised top-down attentional control and emotion regulation in PTSD, while reduced ILF FA may be related to sensory processing and gating abnormalities in this disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T06:25:47.383674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22615
       
  • Ultra-brief behavioral skills trainings for blood injection injury phobia
    • Authors: Alicia E. Meuret; Erica Simon, Lavanya Bhaskara, Thomas Ritz
      Abstract: BackgroundBlood injection injury (BII) phobia is common, with debilitating consequences to the health and well being of many of its sufferers. BII phobia presents with a unique fear response that can involve drops in blood pressure and ultimately fainting. The aim of this study was to provide proof of concept for a line of brief, easy to implement, video-based interventions for reducing phobic avoidance and fears in BII sufferers. One of the interventions was a novel Hypoventilation Respiratory Training (HRT) aimed at reducing the exaggerated ventilation response (hyperventilation) seen in BII phobia. The response has been linked to cerebral vasoconstriction and fainting symptoms.MethodSixty BII patients were randomly assigned to one of three 12-min video-guided trainings: Symptom-Associated Tension (SAT) training, Relaxation Skills Training (RST), or HRT. Experiential and cardiorespiratory activity to phobic stimuli was assessed before and after training.ResultsBoth SAT and HRT resulted in overall greater reductions of phobic fears and symptoms than RST. SAT significantly increased heart rate during exposure, and HRT led to significantly reduced ventilation, increases in PCO2, and elevated blood pressure throughout exposure and recovery. Treatment expectancy was rated equally high across conditions, whereas credibility ratings were highest for HRT.ConclusionsBrief, video-based instructions in muscle tension and normocapnic breathing are effective in reducing BII symptom severity and require minimal time and expertise. HRT may be particularly helpful in reducing fainting caused by cerebral vasoconstriction.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T06:25:37.522168-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22616
       
  • The predictive value of dorsal cingulate activity and fractional
           anisotropy on long-term PTSD symptom severity
    • Authors: Mitzy Kennis; PhD, Sanne J. H. Rooij, PhD, Alieke Reijnen, MSc, Elbert Geuze, PhD
      Abstract: BackgroundPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be treated with trauma-focused therapy, although only about 50% of the patients recover on the short-term. In order to improve response rates it is important to identify who will and will not recover from trauma-focused therapy. Although previous studies reported dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, as well as dorsal cingulum bundle white matter microstructure integrity as markers for the persistence of PTSD symptoms on the short-term, it remains unclear whether these markers also predict long-term PTSD symptom severity.MethodsPTSD patients (n = 57) were investigated with clinical interviews and an MRI protocol before the start of treatment. Clinical interviews were repeated after 6–8 months of treatment (short-term follow-up), and on average 4 years later (long-term follow-up). Twenty-eight PTSD patients returned for the long-term follow-up. Dorsal ACC activity in response to negative images, and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the dorsal cingulum were the neural markers investigated.ResultsIn this long-term follow-up sample (n = 28), dorsal ACC activity and dorsal cingulum FA values significantly predicted CAPS scores on short- and long-term follow-up. The results remained significant after controlling for baseline CAPS score, early trauma, and comorbidity.ConclusionThis study confirms the importance of the cingulate cortex activation and white matter integrity not only for short-term treatment outcome, but also for PTSD long-term symptom severity. Future treatments should target ACC function in particular during treatment in order to improve response rates.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T06:25:26.28275-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22605
       
  • Mobile assessment of heightened skin conductance in posttraumatic stress
           disorder
    • Authors: Rebecca Hinrichs; Vasiliki Michopoulos, Sterling Winters, Alex O. Rothbaum, Barbara O. Rothbaum, Kerry J. Ressler, Tanja Jovanovic
      Abstract: BackgroundIncreased psychophysiological reactivity is a hallmark intermediate phenotype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Individuals with PTSD exhibit greater skin conductance (SC) responses to trauma scripts than trauma survivors without PTSD. However, trauma scripts require time for development and cannot be easily used in a single visit. Thus, there is a need for a low-cost, easy-to-use, SC recording protocol for PTSD assessment.MethodsUsing a mobile device (eSense) connected to a portable tablet computer, we assessed SC reactivity to a standard trauma interview (STI) in 63 participants recruited from Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, GA, approximately 1 year after trauma exposure. SC response (SCR) was calculated by subtracting the SC level (SCL) at the end of the baseline recording from the maximum SCL during the STI.ResultsSCL was significantly higher during the STI compared to baseline (P < .001), and individuals with PTSD showed significantly greater SCR than individuals without PTSD (P = .006). Logistic regression using SCR with PTSD diagnosis as the outcome showed an odds ratio of 1.76 (95% CI: 1.11–2.78). Lastly, higher SCR during the STI was also significantly associated with PTSD symptom total score controlling for demographics and trauma severity (b = 0.42, P = .001).ConclusionsThe current study demonstrated feasibility of the use of a mobile device for assessing psychophysiological reactivity in those with PTSD. The use of this low-cost, easy-to-use mobile device to collect objective physiological data in concert with a STI can be easily disseminated in clinical and research settings.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T10:41:20.78788-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22610
       
  • Technology to train the brain: Pushing methodology and treatment in the
           scientific research symposium 2016
    • Authors: Sheila A. M. Rauch
      PubDate: 2017-02-18T11:10:27.6106-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22611
       
  • Age of onset and family history as indicators of polygenic risk for major
           depression
    • Authors: Anna R. Docherty; Alexis C. Edwards, Fuzhong Yang, Roseann E. Peterson, Chelsea Sawyers, Daniel E. Adkins, Ashlee A. Moore, Bradley T. Webb, Silviu A. Bacanu, Jonathan Flint, Kenneth S. Kendler
      Abstract: BackgroundThe extent to which earlier age of onset (AO) is a reflection of increased genetic risk for major depression (MD) is still unknown. Previous biometrical research has provided mixed empirical evidence for the genetic overlap of AO with MD. If AO is demonstrated to be relevant to molecular polygenic risk for MD, incorporation of AO as a phenotype could enhance future genetic studies.MethodsThis research estimated the SNP-based heritability of AO in the China, Oxford and VCU Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology (CONVERGE) case-control sample (N = 9,854; MD case, n = 4,927). Common single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of MD was also examined across both high and low median-split AO groups, and best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) scores of polygenic risk, in split-halves, were used to predict AO. Distributions of genetic risk across early and late AO were compared, and presence of self-reported family history (FH) of MD was also examined as a predictor of AO.ResultsAO was not significantly heritable and polygenic risk derived from the aggregated effects of common genetic variants did not significantly predict AO in any analysis. AO was modestly but significantly lower in cases with a first-degree genetic FH of MD.ConclusionsFindings indicate that AO is associated with greater self-reported genetic risk for MD in cases, yet not associated with common variant polygenic risk for MD. Future studies of early MD may benefit more from the examination of important moderating variables such as early life events.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T17:30:27.238872-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22607
       
  • Acute stress disorder and the transition to posttraumatic stress disorder
           in children and adolescents: Prevalence, course, prognosis, diagnostic
           suitability, and risk markers
    • Authors: Richard Meiser-Stedman; Anna McKinnon, Clare Dixon, Adrian Boyle, Patrick Smith, Tim Dalgleish
      Abstract: BackgroundEarly recovery from trauma exposure in youth is poorly understood. This prospective longitudinal study examined the early course of traumatic stress responses in recently trauma-exposed youth, evaluated the revised DSM-5 acute stress disorder (ASD) and PTSD diagnoses and alternative diagnoses, and identified risk factors for persistent traumatic stress.MethodParticipants were 8- to 17-year-old emergency departments attendees exposed to single incident traumas. Structured clinical interviews were undertaken at 2 (n = 226) and 9 weeks (n = 208) posttrauma.ResultsUsing the revised criteria in DSM-5, 14.2% met criteria for ASD at week 2 and 9.6% met criteria for PTSD at week 9. These prevalences were similar to the corresponding DSM-IV diagnoses (18.6% ASD at week 2; 8.7% PTSD at week 9). Using the same diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV or DSM-5) across assessments (i.e., “2-week PTSD”) suggested that caseness declined in prevalence by approximately half. Overlap between DSM-IV and DSM-5 ASD and DSM-5 preschool child PTSD diagnoses was considerable. Two diagnoses were strongly predictive of corresponding week 9 diagnoses. Youth with ASD who subsequently had PTSD reported more negative alterations in cognition and mood at 2 weeks than those youth who did not develop PTSD.ConclusionsYouth exposed to single-event traumas experience considerable natural recovery in the first months posttrauma. Using DSM-5 criteria, ASD may not capture all clinically significant traumatic stress in the acute phase and is only moderately sensitive for later PTSD. Future research needs to address the role and etiology of negative alterations in cognition and mood symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T10:26:14.964889-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22602
       
  • Relationship between the hippocampal shape abnormality and serum cortisol
           levels in first-episode and drug-naïve major depressive disorder patients
           
    • Authors: Rieko Watanabe; Shingo Kakeda, Keita Watanabe, Xiaodan Liu, Asuka Katsuki, Wakako Umeno-Nakano, Hikaru Hori, Osamu Abe, Reiji Yoshimura, Yukunori Korogi
      Abstract: BackgroundWe aimed to investigate the relationship between the hippocampal shape deformations and the serum cortisol levels in first-episode and drug-naïve major depression disorder (MDD) patients.MethodsThirty first-episode and drug-naïve MDD patients and 40 healthy subjects were recruited. High-resolution T1-weighted imaging and morning blood samples for cortisol measurement were obtained from all MDD patients and healthy subjects. In the hippocampal shape analysis, we compared the hippocampal shape between MDD patients and healthy subjects and evaluated the linear correlation between hippocampal shape deformations and the serum cortisol levels in MDD patients and healthy subjects.ResultsMDD patients showed significant inward deformations predominantly in the cornu ammonis (CA) 1 and subiculum in bilateral hippocampi compared to healthy subjects (false discovery rate (FDR) corrected, P < .05). Furthermore, in MDD patients, a significant linear correlation between inward deformations and high cortisol levels were found predominantly in the CA1 and subiculum, extending into the CA2–3 (FDR-corrected, P < .05), whereas no significant linear correlation was observed in healthy subjects.ConclusionsThe serum cortisol levels are therefore considered to be associated with hippocampal shape abnormalities in MDD.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T12:25:43.943639-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22604
       
  • Stressful life events and catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) gene in
           bipolar disorder
    • Authors: Georgina M. Hosang; Helen L. Fisher, Sarah Cohen-Woods, Peter McGuffin, Anne E. Farmer
      Abstract: BackgroundA small body of research suggests that gene–environment interactions play an important role in the development of bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study is to contribute to this work by exploring the relationship between stressful life events and the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism in bipolar disorder.MethodsFour hundred eighty-two bipolar cases and 205 psychiatrically healthy controls completed the List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire. Bipolar cases reported the events experienced 6 months before their worst depressive and manic episodes; controls reported those events experienced 6 months prior to their interview. The genotypic information for the COMT Val158Met variant (rs4680) was extracted from GWAS analysis of the sample.ResultsThe impact of stressful life events was moderated by the COMT genotype for the worst depressive episode using a Val dominant model (adjusted risk difference = 0.09, 95% confidence intervals = 0.003–0.18, P = .04). For the worst manic episodes no significant interactions between COMT and stressful life events were detected.ConclusionsThis is the first study to explore the relationship between stressful life events and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism focusing solely on bipolar disorder. The results of this study highlight the importance of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors for bipolar depression.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T06:36:38.460113-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22606
       
  • An examination of the etiologic overlap between the genetic and
           environmental influences on insomnia and common psychopathology
    • Authors: Mackenzie J. Lind; Sage E. Hawn, Christina M. Sheerin, Steven H. Aggen, Robert M. Kirkpatrick, Kenneth S. Kendler, Ananda B. Amstadter
      Abstract: BackgroundInsomnia is comorbid with internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders. However, the extent to which the etiologic influences on insomnia and common psychopathology overlap is unclear. There are limited genetically informed studies of insomnia and internalizing disorders and few studies of overlap exist with externalizing disorders.MethodsWe utilized twin data from the Virginia Adult Twin Studies of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (total n = 7,500). Insomnia, internalizing disorders (major depressive disorder [MDD], generalized anxiety disorder [GAD]), and alcohol abuse or dependence (AAD) were assessed at two time points, while antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) was assessed once. Cholesky decompositions were performed in OpenMx and longitudinal measurement models were run on available phenotypes to reduce measurement error.ResultsThe latent additive genetic influences on insomnia overlapped significantly (56% for females, 74% for males) with MDD and were shared completely (100%) with GAD. There was significant overlap of latent unique environmental influences, with overlap ranging from 38 to 100% across disorders. In contrast, there was less genetic overlap between insomnia and externalizing disorders, with 18% of insomnia's heritability shared with AAD and 23% with ASPD. Latent unique environmental overlap between insomnia and both externalizing disorders was negligible.ConclusionsThe evidence for substantial genetic overlap between insomnia and stable aspects of both internalizing disorders suggests that there may be few insomnia-specific genes and investigation into unique environmental factors is important for understanding insomnia development. The modest overlap between insomnia and externalizing disorders indicates that these disorders are genetically related, but largely etiologically distinct.
      PubDate: 2017-01-16T11:12:12.778674-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22587
       
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and cognitive function in a large
           cohort of middle-aged women
    • Authors: Jennifer A. Sumner; Kaitlin Hagan, Fran Grodstein, Andrea L. Roberts, Brian Harel, Karestan C. Koenen
      Abstract: BackgroundPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked to cognitive decline, but research in women is generally lacking. We examined whether trauma and elevated PTSD symptoms were associated with worse cognitive function in middle-aged civilian women. A secondary objective was to investigate the possible role of depression in the relation of PTSD symptoms to cognitive function.MethodsThe sample comprised 14,029 middle-aged women in the Nurses’ Health Study II. Lifetime trauma exposure, lifetime PTSD symptoms, and past-week depressive symptoms were measured in 2008. Cognitive function was measured in 2014–2016 using the Cogstate Brief Battery, a self-administered online cognitive battery that assesses psychomotor speed, attention, learning, and working memory. We used linear regression models to estimate mean differences in cognition across PTSD symptom levels.ResultsCompared to no trauma, elevated PTSD symptoms consistent with probable PTSD (i.e., 4+ symptoms on a screening questionnaire) were associated with worse performance on psychomotor speed/attention (b = −0.08 standard units, p = .001) and learning/working memory (b = −0.09, p < .001) composites, after adjusting for sociodemographics. Although attenuated, associations remained significant when adjusted for depressive symptoms and other cognitive risk factors. We found the strongest associations among women with comorbid probable PTSD and depression.ConclusionsPTSD symptoms were negatively related to measures of psychomotor speed/attention and learning/working memory in middle-aged women. Our study adds to a growing literature that suggests that mental disorders are associated with worse cognitive function over the life course.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T10:20:24.033771-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22600
       
  • Improving late life depression and cognitive control through the use of
           therapeutic video game technology: A proof-of-concept randomized trial
    • Authors: Joaquin A. Anguera; Faith M. Gunning, Patricia A. Areán
      Abstract: BackgroundExisting treatments for depression are known to have only modest effects, are insufficiently targeted, and are inconsistently utilized, particularly in older adults. Indeed, older adults with impaired cognitive control networks tend to demonstrate poor response to a majority of existing depression interventions. Cognitive control interventions delivered using entertainment software have the potential to not only target the underlying cerebral dysfunction associated with depression, but to do so in a manner that is engaging and engenders adherence to treatment protocol.MethodsIn this proof-of-concept trial (Clinicaltrials.gov #: NCT02229188), individuals with late life depression (LLD) (22; 60+ years old) were randomized to either problem solving therapy (PST, n = 10) or a neurobiologically inspired digital platform designed to enhance cognitive control faculties (Project: EVO™, n = 12). Given the overlapping functional neuroanatomy of mood disturbances and executive dysfunction, we explored the impact of an intervention targeting cognitive control abilities, functional disability, and mood in older adults suffering from LLD, and how those outcomes compare to a therapeutic gold standard.ResultsEVO participants demonstrated similar improvements in mood and self-reported function after 4 weeks of treatment to PST participants. The EVO participants also showed generalization to untrained measures of working memory and attention, as well as negativity bias, a finding not evident in the PST condition. Individuals assigned to EVO demonstrated 100% adherence.ConclusionsThis study provides preliminary findings that this therapeutic video game targeting cognitive control deficits may be an efficacious LLD intervention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03T13:00:01.50571-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22588
       
  • Depression and Anxiety Issue Information
    • Pages: 199 - 205
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T21:16:18.346727-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22562
       
  • President's Letter March 2017 Journal
    • Pages: 206 - 206
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T21:16:20.173269-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22612
       
  • Marijuana and other cannabinoids as a treatment for posttraumatic stress
           disorder: A literature review
    • Authors: Maria M. Steenkamp; Esther M. Blessing, Isaac R. Galatzer-Levy, Laura C. Hollahan, William T. Anderson
      Pages: 207 - 216
      Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common in the general population, yet there are limitations to the effectiveness, tolerability, and acceptability of available first-line interventions. We review the extant knowledge on the effects of marijuana and other cannabinoids on PTSD. Potential therapeutic effects of these agents may largely derive from actions on the endocannabinoid system and we review major animal and human findings in this area. Preclinical and clinical studies generally support the biological plausibility for cannabinoids’ potential therapeutic effects, but underscore heterogeneity in outcomes depending on dose, chemotype, and individual variation. Treatment outcome studies of whole plant marijuana and related cannabinoids on PTSD are limited and not methodologically rigorous, precluding conclusions about their potential therapeutic effects. Reported benefits for nightmares and sleep (particularly with synthetic cannabinoid nabilone) substantiate larger controlled trials to determine effectiveness and tolerability. Of concern, marijuana use has been linked to adverse psychiatric outcomes, including conditions commonly comorbid with PTSD such as depression, anxiety, psychosis, and substance misuse. Available evidence is stronger for marijuana's harmful effects on the development of psychosis and substance misuse than for the development of depression and anxiety. Marijuana use is also associated with worse treatment outcomes in naturalistic studies, and with maladaptive coping styles that may maintain PTSD symptoms. Known risks of marijuana thus currently outweigh unknown benefits for PTSD. Although controlled research on marijuana and other cannabinoids’ effects on PTSD remains limited, rapid shifts in the legal landscape may now enable such studies, potentially opening new avenues in PTSD treatment research.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T08:50:22.588846-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22596
       
  • Beliefs about the causes of depression and recovery and their impact on
           adherence, dosage, and successful tapering of antidepressants
    • Authors: Nicola S. Klein; Gerard D. Rijsbergen, Mascha C. ten Doesschate, Steven D. Hollon, Huibert Burger, Claudi L. H. Bockting
      Pages: 227 - 235
      Abstract: BackgroundContinuation of antidepressant medication (ADM) after remission is widely used to prevent depressive relapse/recurrence. Little is known about predictors of ADM use in terms of adherence, dosage, and successful tapering. The current study aimed to explore beliefs about the causes of depression and recovery (i.e., causal beliefs) and to examine whether they predict ADM use.MethodsThe data were drawn from a controlled trial and an extension of this trial with additional experience sampling. In total, 289 remitted patients with recurrent depression (ADM ≥ 6 months) were randomly assigned to Preventive Cognitive Therapy (PCT) with ADM tapering, PCT with maintenance ADM, or maintenance ADM alone. Adherence, ADM dosage, and causal beliefs regarding the first and last depressive episodes were explored via questionnaires.ResultsMost patients mentioned stressful life events as cause of depression, although more patients tended to endorse external causes for the first episode and internal causes for the last episode. ADM was most often mentioned as helpful during recovery from both episodes. Over half of all patients were adherent and under half of the patients in the tapering condition were able to complete the taper. Causal beliefs did not predict ADM use.ConclusionsThe results suggest that causal beliefs play little role in the use of maintenance ADM. More information is needed on factors contributing to successful tapering. The results must be interpreted with caution as this is not a naturalistic study and the results might be biased toward a more favorable view regarding ADM.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T06:35:45.777513-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22598
       
  • Upregulating the positive affect system in anxiety and depression:
           Outcomes of a positive activity intervention
    • Authors: Charles T. Taylor; Sonja Lyubomirsky, Murray B. Stein
      Pages: 267 - 280
      Abstract: BackgroundResearch suggests that the positive affect system may be an important yet underexplored treatment target in anxiety and depression. Existing interventions primarily target the negative affect system, yielding modest effects on measures of positive emotions and associated outcomes (e.g., psychological well-being). The objective of the present pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new transdiagnostic positive activity intervention (PAI) for anxiety and depression.MethodTwenty-nine treatment-seeking individuals presenting with clinically impairing symptoms of anxiety and/or depression were randomly allocated to a 10-session protocol comprised of PAIs previously shown in nonclinical samples to improve positive thinking, emotions, and behaviors (e.g., gratitude, acts of kindness, optimism; n = 16) or a waitlist (WL) condition (n = 13). Participants were assessed at pre- and posttreatment, as well as 3- and 6-month follow-up, on measures of positive and negative affect, symptoms, and psychological well-being. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02330627ResultsThe PAI group displayed significantly larger improvements in positive affect and psychological well-being from pre- to posttreatment compared to WL. Posttreatment and follow-up scores in the PAI group were comparable to general population norms. The PAI regimen also resulted in significantly larger reductions in negative affect, as well as anxiety and depression symptoms, compared to WL. Improvements across all outcomes were large in magnitude and maintained over a 6-month follow-up period.ConclusionsTargeting the positive affect system through a multicomponent PAI regimen may be beneficial for generating improvements in positive emotions and well-being, as well as reducing negative affect and symptoms, in individuals with clinically impairing anxiety or depression.
      PubDate: 2017-01-06T09:30:26.895858-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22593
       
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol do not
           affect 6-month mood-stabilizing treatment outcome among 482 patients with
           bipolar disorder
    • Authors: Ole Köhler-Forsberg; Louisa Sylvia, Michael Thase, Joseph R. Calabrese, Thilo Deckersbach, Mauricio Tohen, Charles L. Bowden, Melvin McInnis, James H. Kocsis, Edward S. Friedman, Terence A. Ketter, Susan McElroy, Richard C. Shelton, Andrew A. Nierenberg
      Pages: 281 - 290
      Abstract: BackgroundMany mood disorder patients need analgesics due to increased pain sensitivity. Recent studies have suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may inhibit antidepressant treatment, which requires replication before clinical recommendations.MethodsThe Clinical and Health Outcomes Initiatives in Comparative Effectiveness for Bipolar Disorder Study randomized participants to 6 months lithium or quetiapine treatment. Use of NSAIDs and paracetamol was assessed throughout the study period and psychopathology measured with the Clinical Global Impression Scale for Bipolar Disorder (CGI-BP) and Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS). The effects of NSAIDs and paracetamol on treatment outcome were examined using mixed effects linear regression adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, exercise, and somatic diseases.ResultsAmong 482 participants, 177 (36.7%) used NSAIDs and/or paracetamol during the study. NSAID and paracetamol users did not differ from nonusers with respect to treatment outcome with lithium or quetiapine at any time point during 6 months treatment on the overall CGI-BP (β = 0.001 (95% CI = −0.01 to −0.01), P = .87), the BISS (β = 0.01 (95% CI = −0.17 to 0.15), P = .91), nor the CGI-BP subscales for depression or mania. Users of NSAIDs only (n = 76), paracetamol only (n = 62), and users of both NSAIDs and paracetamol (n = 39) showed no statistical difference compared to nonusers (all P> .3).ConclusionsThis is the first trial to show that use of NSAIDs and paracetamol, alone or in combination, does not affect lithium- or quetiapine-based bipolar disorder mood-stabilizing treatment outcomes. Prior studies have suggested that NSAIDs may inhibit antidepressant treatment, whereas our results support findings indicating no detrimental effects of NSAIDs or paracetamol on affective disorder treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T10:26:10.797958-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22601
       
  • Depression care among depressed adults with and without comorbid substance
           use disorders in the United States
    • Authors: Beth Han; Mark Olfson, Ramin Mojtabai
      Pages: 291 - 300
      Abstract: ObjectiveWe compared the prevalence of receiving depression care between adults with past-year major depressive episodes (depressed) and substance use disorders (SUD) in the United States and their depressed counterparts without SUD.MethodData were from 25,500 adults who participated in the 2008–2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression models were applied.ResultsDuring 2008–2014, approximately 55.4% of depressed U.S. adults with SUD received past-year depression care, while 60.1% of depressed adults without SUD received such care. Overall, co-occurring SUD was associated with an 8% decreased likelihood of receiving past-year depression care (risk ratio (RR) = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.89–0.96). For depressed adults with severe functional impairment, co-occurring SUD was associated with a 9% decreased likelihood of receiving past-year depression care (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.87–0.95). For depressed men, co-occurring SUD was associated with a 13% decreased likelihood of receiving past-year depression care (RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.81–0.94). The following depressed adults were at increased risk of not receiving depression care: those without functional impairment, without suicidal ideation, and without physical comorbidities, aged 18–29, male, racial/ethnic minorities, having less than high school education, uninsured, and never married.ConclusionsAmong depressed adults in the United States, comorbid SUD modestly but significantly decreases the likelihood of receiving past-year depression care. Depressed young adults, men, racial/ethnic minorities, less educated individuals, uninsured adults, and never married adults are also at increased risk for not receiving depression care. Outreach efforts are needed to broaden access to depression care for these underserved adults.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T14:40:24.805813-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22592
       
  • Altered resting state functional connectivity of fear and reward circuitry
           in comorbid PTSD and major depression
    • Authors: Xi Zhu; Liat Helpman, Santiago Papini, Franklin Schneier, John C. Markowitz, Page E. Meter, Martin A. Lindquist, Tor D. Wager, Yuval Neria
      Abstract: BackgroundIndividuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder (PTSD-MDD) often exhibit greater functional impairment and poorer treatment response than individuals with PTSD alone. Research has not determined whether PTSD-MDD is associated with different network connectivity abnormalities than PTSD alone.MethodsWe used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) patterns of brain regions involved in fear and reward processing in three groups: patients with PTSD-alone (n = 27), PTSD-MDD (n = 21), and trauma-exposed healthy controls (TEHCs, n = 34). Based on previous research, seeds included basolateral amygdala (BLA), centromedial amygdala (CMA), and nucleus accumbens (NAcc).ResultsRegardless of MDD comorbidity, PTSD was associated with decreased connectivity of BLA-orbitalfrontal cortex (OFC) and CMA-thalamus pathways, key to fear processing, and fear expression, respectively. PTSD-MDD, compared to PTSD-alone and TEHC, was associated with decreased connectivity across multiple amygdala and striatal-subcortical pathways: BLA-OFC, NAcc-thalamus, and NAcc-hippocampus. Further, while both the BLA-OFC and the NAcc-thalamus pathways were correlated with MDD symptoms, PTSD symptoms correlated with the amygdala pathways (BLA-OFC; CMA-thalamus) only.ConclusionsComorbid PTSD-MDD may be associated with multifaceted functional connectivity alterations in both fear and reward systems. Clinical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T13:50:36.206874-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22594
       
  • Temporal discounting across three psychiatric disorders: Anorexia nervosa,
           obsessive compulsive disorder, and social anxiety disorder
    • Authors: Joanna E. Steinglass; Karolina M. Lempert, Tse-Hwei Choo, Marcia B. Kimeldorf, Melanie Wall, B. Timothy Walsh, Abby J. Fyer, Franklin R. Schneier, H. Blair Simpson
      Abstract: BackgroundTemporal discounting refers to the tendency for rewards to lose value as the expected delay to receipt increases. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been found to show reduced temporal discounting rates, indicating a greater preference for delayed rewards compared to healthy peers. Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) commonly co-occur with AN, and anxiety has been related to development and prognosis of AN. We examined whether reduced temporal discounting is present across these potentially related disorders, and explored the relationship between temporal discounting and anxiety transdiagnostically.MethodsOne hundred ninety six individuals (75 healthy controls (HC); 50 OCD; 27 AN; 44 SAD) completed two temporal discounting tasks in which they chose between smaller-sooner and larger-later monetary rewards. Two measures of discounting—discount rate and discount factor—were compared between diagnostic groups, and associations with anxious traits were examined.ResultsIndividuals with AN showed decreased temporal discounting compared to HC. OCD and SAD groups did not differ significantly from HC. Across the sample, anxiety was associated with decreased discounting; more anxious individuals showed a greater preference for delayed reward.ConclusionsWe replicated the findings that individuals with AN show an increased preference for delayed reward relative to HC and that individuals with OCD do not differ from HC. We also showed that individuals with SAD do not differ from HC in discounting. Across this large sample, two measures of anxious temperament were associated with temporal discounting. These data raise new questions about the relationship between this dimensional trait and psychopathology.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23T09:25:36.458131-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22586
       
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder associated with unexpected death of a loved
           one: Cross-national findings from the world mental health surveys
    • Authors: Lukoye Atwoli; Dan J. Stein, Andrew King, Maria Petukhova, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Evelyn J. Bromet, Giovanni Girolamo, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Josep Maria Haro, Elie G. Karam, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, Jose Posada-Villa, Nancy A. Sampson, Margreet ten Have, Alan M. Zaslavsky, Ronald C. Kessler,
      Abstract: BackgroundUnexpected death of a loved one (UD) is the most commonly reported traumatic experience in cross-national surveys. However, much remains to be learned about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after this experience. The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative provides a unique opportunity to address these issues.MethodsData from 19 WMH surveys (n = 78,023; 70.1% weighted response rate) were collated. Potential predictors of PTSD (respondent sociodemographics, characteristics of the death, history of prior trauma exposure, history of prior mental disorders) after a representative sample of UDs were examined using logistic regression. Simulation was used to estimate overall model strength in targeting individuals at highest PTSD risk.ResultsPTSD prevalence after UD averaged 5.2% across surveys and did not differ significantly between high-income and low-middle income countries. Significant multivariate predictors included the deceased being a spouse or child, the respondent being female and believing they could have done something to prevent the death, prior trauma exposure, and history of prior mental disorders. The final model was strongly predictive of PTSD, with the 5% of respondents having highest estimated risk including 30.6% of all cases of PTSD. Positive predictive value (i.e., the proportion of high-risk individuals who actually developed PTSD) among the 5% of respondents with highest predicted risk was 25.3%.ConclusionsThe high prevalence and meaningful risk of PTSD make UD a major public health issue. This study provides novel insights into predictors of PTSD after this experience and suggests that screening assessments might be useful in identifying high-risk individuals for preventive interventions.
      PubDate: 2016-12-06T04:07:00.553949-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22579
       
  • Repeated trauma exposure does not impair distress reduction during
           imaginal exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder
    • Authors: Alissa B. Jerud; Frank J. Farach, Michele Bedard-Gilligan, Hillary Smith, Lori A. Zoellner, Norah C. Feeny
      Abstract: BackgroundBased on experimental research on threat extinction, individuals exposed to repeated traumatic events may have impaired outcome in exposure therapy compared to those who have experienced a single trauma (Lang & McTeague, ). This study examined whether repeated trauma exposure predicts smaller changes in self-reported distress during imaginal exposure and worse outcomes for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).MethodsAdults (N = 116) with chronic PTSD received up to 10 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy. Trauma exposure was assessed via interview and number of traumatic events were summed for each participant. To examine reductions in distress during treatment, mean and peak values of distress during imaginal exposure were calculated for the first imaginal session (initial distress activation) and subsequent sessions (between-session change in distress). Change in PTSD symptoms from pre- to posttreatment and follow-up provided an additional index of outcome.ResultsIn-session distress during imaginal exposure decreased over the course of treatment. PTSD symptoms also decreased over treatment, with gains being maintained through follow-up. Repeated trauma exposure was not significantly correlated with initial distress activation. Additionally, linear mixed-model analyses showed no significant association between repeated trauma exposure and between-session change in distress or PTSD symptoms.ConclusionsContrary to recent speculation, repeated trauma exposure did not predict less change in self-reported distress during imaginal exposure or worse PTSD outcomes. The bench-to-bedside linkage of threat extinction to exposure therapy is discussed, noting strengths and weaknesses. Patients with repeated trauma exposure show reductions in distress with exposure treatment and benefit from PE as much as patients with single-exposure trauma histories.
      PubDate: 2016-12-06T04:06:50.441283-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22582
       
  • What people with PTSD symptoms do (and do not) know about PTSD: A national
           survey
    • Authors: Juliette M. Harik; Rebecca A. Matteo, Barbara A. Hermann, Jessica L. Hamblen
      Abstract: BackgroundIf people do not recognize posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, they may not realize they are suffering from the disorder. Likewise, if people do not know that effective treatments exist, they may be unlikely to seek care. This study examined what people with PTSD symptoms know about PTSD and its treatment. We hypothesized that military service and prior receipt of PTSD treatment would be associated with greater PTSD knowledge.MethodsWe conducted an online survey assessing knowledge in three domains: trauma, PTSD symptoms, and effective PTSD treatments. Participants were 301 adults (50% veterans) who were drawn from a national research panel and screened positive for PTSD.ResultsWhen asked to identify items from a list, participants had better recognition for traumatic events (M = 72.2% of items correct) and PTSD symptoms (M = 62.3%) than for effective PTSD treatments (M = 37.9%). Across domains, participants often identified false items as true. Most participants thought divorce was a trauma that could cause PTSD, that drug addiction was a PTSD symptom, and that support groups are effective PTSD treatments. Prior receipt of PTSD treatment was associated with better symptom recognition (b = .86, P = .003). Being a military veteran was associated with better trauma recognition (b = .56, P = .025), but poorer treatment recognition (b = −.65, P = .034).ConclusionsPeople with PTSD symptoms lack knowledge about the disorder, especially regarding effective treatments. Public education about PTSD is needed so that people recognize when to seek care and which treatments to choose.
      PubDate: 2016-10-27T07:30:47.00104-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22558
       
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder after cancer diagnosis in adults: A
           meta-analysis
    • Authors: Samantha Swartzman; Josephine N. Booth, Alastair Munro, Fabio Sani
      Abstract: BackgroundSince the introduction of serious illness as a potential traumatic stressor in the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), research on the prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after cancer diagnosis has proliferated. Studies have reported widely varying estimates of the number of people with PTSD after cancer. The aim of this review is to synthesize quantitative data from studies reporting the proportion of people with PTSD among groups of cancer survivors.MethodsWe undertook a diversified literature search strategy and identified 120 samples from 110 sources reporting a proportion of cancer survivors with PTSD. Of these, 11 studies, containing 12 samples, reported estimates of PTSD in cancer survivors compared to matched controls.ResultsA random effects meta-analysis estimated the odds ratio as 1.66 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–2.53) for PTSD in cancer survivors compared to controls, although some of this apparent increase may have arisen from publication bias. Factors influencing the reported proportion of a postcancer sample with PTSD included measurement type (clinical interview vs. self-report instrument), type of cancer, type of treatment, geographic region, whether the term “posttraumatic stress” was in the title or abstract, prior trauma, age, and time since diagnosis.ConclusionsPTSD, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, is more common in survivors of cancer than it is in the general population. Estimates of the occurrence of PTSD in patients with a history of cancer depend upon clinical and demographic factors, as well as upon study design.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T11:20:35.92758-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22542
       
  • Disqualified qualifiers: evaluating the utility of the revised DSM-5
           definition of potentially traumatic events among area youth following the
           Boston marathon bombing
    • Authors: Tommy Chou; Aubrey L. Carpenter, Caroline E. Kerns, R. Meredith Elkins, Jennifer Greif Green, Jonathan S. Comer
      Abstract: BackgroundThe DSM-5 includes a revised definition of the experiences that qualify as potentially traumatic events. This revised definition now offers a clearer and more exclusive definition of what qualifies as a traumatic exposure, but little is known about the revision's applicability to youth populations. The present study evaluated the predictive utility of the revised DSM definitional boundaries of traumatic exposure in a sample of youth exposed to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing and related eventsMethodsCaregivers (N = 460) completed surveys 2 to 6 months postbombing about youth experiences during the events and youth posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptomsResultsExperiencing DSM-5 qualifying traumatic events (DSM-5 QTEs) significantly predicted child PTS symptoms (PTSS), whereas DSM-5 nonqualifying stressful experiences (DSM-5 non-QSEs) did not after accounting for DSM-5 QTEs. Importantly, child age moderated the relationship between DSM-5 QTEs and PTSS such that children 7 and older who experienced DSM-5 QTEs showed greater postbombing PTSS, whereas there was no such relationship in children ages 6 and belowConclusionsData largely support the revised posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) definition of QTEs in older youth, and also highlight the need for further refinement of the QTE definition for children ages 6 and below.
      PubDate: 2016-07-19T16:11:11.571198-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22543
       
  • The association of antidepressant drug usage with cognitive impairment or
           dementia, including Alzheimer disease: A systematic review and
           meta-analysis
    • Authors: John Moraros; Chijioke Nwankwo, Scott B. Patten, Darrell D. Mousseau
      Pages: 217 - 226
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo determine if antidepressant drug usage is associated with cognitive impairment or dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD).MethodWe conducted a systematic search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library. An initial screen by abstracts and titles was performed, and relevant full articles were then reviewed and assessed for their methodologic quality. Crude effect estimates were extracted from the included articles and a pooled estimate was obtained using a random effects model.ResultsFive articles were selected from an initial pool of 4,123 articles. Use of antidepressant drugs was associated with a significant twofold increase in the odds of some form of cognitive impairment or dementia (OR = 2.17). Age was identified as a likely modifier of the association between antidepressant use and some form of cognitive impairment or AD/dementia. Studies that included participants with an average age equal to or greater than 65 years showed an increased odds of some form of cognitive impairment with antidepressant drug usage (OR = 1.65), whereas those with participants less than age 65 revealed an even stronger association (OR = 3.25).ConclusionsAntidepressant drug usage is associated with AD/dementia and this is particularly evident if usage begins before age 65. This association may arise due to confounding by depression or depression severity. However, biological mechanisms potentially linking antidepressant exposure to dementia have been described, so an etiological effect of antidepressants is possible. With this confirmation that an association exists, clarification of underlying etiologic pathways requires urgent attention.
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T08:40:23.76272-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22584
       
  • Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for major depressive disorder: A
           randomized controlled trial
    • Authors: Isabelle M. Rosso; William D.S. Killgore, Elizabeth A. Olson, Christian A. Webb, Rena Fukunaga, Randy P. Auerbach, Hannah Gogel, Jennifer L. Buchholz, Scott L. Rauch
      Pages: 236 - 245
      Abstract: BackgroundPrior research has shown that the Sadness Program, a technician-assisted Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) intervention developed in Australia, is effective for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study aimed to expand this work by adapting the protocol for an American population and testing the Sadness Program with an attention control group.MethodsIn this parallel-group, randomized controlled trial, adult MDD participants (18–45 years) were randomized to a 10-week period of iCBT (n = 37) or monitored attention control (MAC; n = 40). Participants in the iCBT group completed six online therapy lessons, which included access to content summaries and homework assignments. During the 10-week trial, iCBT and MAC participants logged into the web-based system six times to complete self-report symptom scales, and a nonclinician technician contacted participants weekly to provide encouragement and support. The primary outcome was the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), and the secondary outcomes were the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Kessler-10.ResultsIntent-to-treat analyses revealed significantly greater reductions in depressive symptoms in iCBT compared with MAC participants, using both the self-report measures and the clinician-rated HRSD (d = −0.80). Importantly, iCBT participants also showed significantly higher rates of clinical response and remission. Exploratory analyses did not support illness severity as a moderator of treatment outcome.ConclusionsThe Sadness Program led to significant reductions in depression and distress symptoms. With its potential to be delivered in a scalable, cost-efficient manner, iCBT is a promising strategy to enhance access to effective care.
      PubDate: 2016-12-23T09:25:30.204032-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22590
       
  • Melancholic and atypical depression as predictor and moderator of outcome
           in cognitive behavior therapy and pharmacotherapy for adult depression
    • Authors: Pim Cuijpers; Erica Weitz, Femke Lamers, Brenda W. Penninx, Jos Twisk, Robert J. DeRubeis, Sona Dimidjian, Boadie W. Dunlop, Robin B. Jarrett, Zindel V. Segal, Steven D. Hollon
      Pages: 246 - 256
      Abstract: BackgroundMelancholic and atypical depression are widely thought to moderate or predict outcome of pharmacological and psychological treatments of adult depression, but that has not yet been established. This study uses the data from four earlier trials comparing cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) versus antidepressant medications (ADMs; and pill placebo when available) to examine the extent to which melancholic and atypical depression moderate or predict outcome in an “individual patient data” meta-analysis.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search for studies directly comparing CBT versus ADM, contacted the researchers, integrated the resulting datasets from these studies into one big dataset, and selected the studies that included melancholic or atypical depressive subtyping according to DSM-IV criteria at baseline (n = 4, with 805 patients). After multiple imputation of missing data at posttest, mixed models were used to conduct the main analyses.ResultsIn none of the analyses was melancholic or atypical depression found to significantly moderate outcome (indicating a better or worse outcome of these patients in CBT compared to ADM; i.e., an interaction), predict outcome independent of treatment group (i.e., a main effect), or predict outcome within a given modality. The outcome differences between patients with melancholia or atypical depression versus those without were consistently very small (all effect sizes g < 0.10).ConclusionsWe found no indication that melancholic or atypical depressions are significant or relevant moderators or predictors of outcome of CBT and ADM.
      PubDate: 2016-12-06T04:06:56.238853-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22580
       
  • Brain activation during fear extinction predicts exposure success
    • Authors: Tali Manber Ball; Sarah E. Knapp, Martin P. Paulus, Murray B. Stein
      Pages: 257 - 266
      Abstract: BackgroundExposure therapy, a gold-standard treatment for anxiety disorders, is assumed to work via extinction learning, but this has never been tested. Anxious individuals demonstrate extinction learning deficits, likely related to less ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and more amygdala activation, but the relationship between these deficits and exposure outcome is unknown. We tested whether anxious individuals who demonstrate better extinction learning report greater anxiety reduction following brief exposure.MethodsTwenty-four adults with public speaking anxiety completed (1) functional magnetic resonance imaging during a conditioning paradigm, (2) a speech exposure session, and (3) anxiety questionnaires before and two weeks postexposure. Extinction learning was assessed by comparing ratings to a conditioned stimulus (neutral image) that was previously paired with an aversive noise against a stimulus that had never been paired. Robust regression analyses examined whether brain activation during extinction learning predicted anxiety reduction two weeks postexposure.ResultsOn average, the conditioning paradigm resulted in acquisition and extinction effects on stimulus ratings, and the exposure session resulted in reduced anxiety two weeks post-exposure. Consistent with our hypothesis, individuals with better extinction learning (less negative stimulus ratings), greater activation in vmPFC, and less activation in amygdala, insula, and periaqueductal gray reported greater anxiety reduction two weeks postexposure.ConclusionTo our knowledge, this is the first time that the theoretical link between extinction learning and exposure outcome has been demonstrated. Future work should examine whether extinction learning can be used as a prognostic test to determine who is most likely to benefit from exposure therapy.
      PubDate: 2016-12-06T04:07:21.295691-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22583
       
  • The Role of Response Inhibition in Medicated and Unmedicated
           Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients: Evidence from the Stop-Signal Task
           
    • Authors: Eyal Kalanthroff; Tobias Teichert, Michael G. Wheaton, Marcia B. Kimeldorf, Omer Linkovski, Susanne E. Ahmari, Abby J. Fyer, Franklin R. Schneier, Gideon E. Anholt, H. Blair Simpson
      Pages: 301 - 306
      Abstract: BackgroundNumerous studies have investigated response inhibition (RI) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), with many reporting that OCD patients demonstrate deficits in RI as compared to controls. However, reported effect sizes tend to be modest and results have been inconsistent, with some studies finding intact RI in OCD. To date, no study has examined the effect of medications on RI in OCD patients.MethodsWe analyzed results from a stop-signal task to probe RI in 65 OCD patients (32 of whom were medicated) and 58 healthy controls (HCs).ResultsThere was no statistically significant difference in stop-signal reaction time between the OCD group and the HC group, or between the medicated and unmedicated OCD patients. However, variability was significantly greater in the medicated OCD group compared to the unmedicated group.ConclusionsThese results indicate that some samples of OCD patients do not have deficits in RI, making it unlikely that deficient RI underlies repetitive behaviors in all OCD patients. Future research is needed to fully elucidate the impact of medication use on stop-signal performance. Implications for future research on the cognitive processes underlying repetitive thoughts and behaviors are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-03-17T12:05:39.375591-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/da.22492
       
 
 
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