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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 880 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 405)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 229)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 223)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 145)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 126)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 137)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
  [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2196-2979
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • You Need Guts to Make New Neurons
    • Authors: Susanne A. Wolf; Daniele Mattei
      Abstract: Purpose of the Review In the present review, we discuss the very recent findings that the gut microbiota composition can modulate cell-based plasticity in the brain, namely, adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and thereby alter hippocampal dependent behavior. Recent Findings Absence of gut microbiota from birth or antibiotic-induced dysbiosis in adults leads to an aberrant metabolite production and immune functions. Both scenarios compromise a proper postnatal brain development, or brain wiring in adults, including aberrant neurogenesis. This in turn leads to a hippocampal mismanagement of environmental cues and renders the animals to be more susceptible to stress and less cognitively flexible which contribute to general impairments in learning and memory functions and social behavior. Summary Mounting evidence indicates that certain behavior aberrances in germ-free and dysbiotic mice are mediated by changes in neurogenesis. The mechanisms and the relevance of this complex regulation remain to be elucidated by future research.
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0127-4
       
  • What Effect Does tDCS Have on the Brain' Basic Physiology of tDCS
    • Authors: Asif Jamil; Michael A. Nitsche
      Abstract: Purpose of the Review Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can effectively modulate a wide range of clinical and cognitive outcomes by modulating cortical excitability. Here, we summarize the main findings from both animal and human neurophysiology literature, which have revealed mechanistic evidence for the acute and neuroplastic after-effects of tDCS. Recent Findings Insights into the magnitude and geometric orientation of transcranially induced currents have been provided by the combination of computational modeling of current flow in animal slice preparations and intracranial recordings in humans. In addition to its synaptic effects, stimulation also induces after-effects on the glial and vascular systems, the latter also observed in humans by magnetic resonance imaging. Several studies have also observed non-linear or antagonistic effects of tDCS parameters, which warrants further systematic studies to explore and understand the basic mechanisms. Summary tDCS is a valuable and promising technique across the neurophysiological, cognitive neuroscience, and clinical domains of research. Primary and secondary effects of tDCS still remain to be completely understood. An important challenge for the field is advancing tDCS protocols forward for optimal intervention and treatment strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0134-5
       
  • The Nature of the Relationship Between Anxiety and the Error-Related
           Negativity Across Development
    • Authors: Jason S. Moser
      Abstract: Purpose of Review I review the literature on the relationship between anxiety and the error-related negativity (ERN), a neurophysiological marker of performance monitoring, across development. I cover the development of the ERN, its functional significance, and its different relationship with anxiety in young children compared to adolescents and adults. Recent Findings Contemporary research indicates that the ERN becomes larger with age and shows primary sources in cingulate, frontal, and motor cortices. Functional accounts of the ERN and its relationship with anxiety emphasize either cognitive control or affective mechanisms. Converging evidence across development suggests a reduced ERN characterizes anxious young children whereas an enlarged ERN characterizes older children, adolescents, and adults. Summary The mechanisms involved in the developmental change in the relationship between the ERN and anxiety have important implications for better understanding interactions between cognitive control, anxiety, and motivation across the life span. Further research is needed to address extant methodological limitations and make stronger links to related neuroscience findings and theory on the development of anxiety and self-control.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0132-7
       
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in Neurodevelopmental Disorders
    • Authors: Kristy R. Howell; Jennifer Armstrong
      Abstract: Purpose of the Review Neurovascular dysfunction and the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been explored in neurodevelopmental disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive and mood disorders, and autism. These disorders are correlated with hypoxia-ischemia insults during early life and are strongly associated with cognitive dysfunction. This review focuses on the hypoxia-regulated protein, VEGF, to discuss its crucial roles in brain development and function. These data implicate that alterations to VEGF signaling during early life can impair neural development, underlying the severe cognitive deficits observed in neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent Findings VEGF has been linked to neurological processes that influence learning and memory. VEGF is advancing towards being a novel biomarker and possible therapeutic for neurological disorders. Prenatal environmental enrichment positively impacted neurotrophic factors, brain structure, and memory in rodent models. Summary Understanding the molecular mechanisms of VEGF in neurodevelopment will create intervention strategies for at-risk children born to adverse early-life events. By proactively working with those in a pliable neurodevelopmental state, we hope to ameliorate cognitive deficits to increase their chance to develop into high-functioning adults with disabilities.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0130-9
       
  • Shifts in Audiovisual Processing in Healthy Aging
    • Authors: Sarah H. Baum; Ryan A. Stevenson
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The integration of information across sensory modalities into unified percepts is a fundamental sensory process upon which a multitude of cognitive processes are based. We review the body of literature exploring aging-related changes in audiovisual integration published over the last 5 years. Specifically, we review the impact of changes in temporal processing, the influence of the effectiveness of sensory inputs, the role of working memory, and the newer studies of intra-individual variability during these processes. Recent Findings Work in the last 5 years on bottom-up influences of sensory perception has garnered significant attention. Temporal processing, a driving factors of multisensory integration, has now been shown to decouple with multisensory integration in aging, despite their co-decline with aging. The impact of stimulus effectiveness also changes with age, where older adults show maximal benefit from multisensory gain at high signal-to-noise ratios. Following sensory decline, high working memory capacities have now been shown to be somewhat of a protective factor against age-related declines in audiovisual speech perception, particularly in noise. Finally, newer research is emerging focusing on the general intra-individual variability observed with aging. Summary Overall, the studies of the past 5 years have replicated and expanded on previous work that highlights the role of bottom-up sensory changes with aging and their influence on audiovisual integration, as well as the top-down influence of working memory.
      PubDate: 2017-08-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0124-7
       
  • Transdiagnostic Dimensional Assessment of Psychopathology in Later Life
    • Authors: Thomas M. Achenbach; Masha Y. Ivanova; Leslie A. Rescorla; Julie A. Dumas
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to present a transdiagnostic dimensional approach to evidence-based assessment designed to facilitate applications of neuroscientific advances to phenotypic psychopathology in later life. Recent Findings Standardized assessment forms were developed to obtain collateral- and self-ratings of a broad spectrum of behavioral, emotional, social, and thought problems, as well as strengths. Factor analyses of ratings of American elders yielded seven syndromes, while judgments by international panels of expert clinicians yielded six DSM-oriented scales. Gender-specific norms for ages 60–75 and >75 years enable users to view individuals’ scale scores in relation to scores for population samples of peers. Cross-informant comparisons are designed to reveal important discrepancies and consistencies between collateral- and self-ratings. Significant associations are found between the dimensional measures and psychiatric disorders. Multicultural research supports the generalizability of the statistically derived syndromes. Indigenous researchers are obtaining data for testing syndromes and comparing problems and strengths across many societies. Summary Standardized transdiagnostic dimensional assessments can be used in multiple societies to construct multicultural norms based on collateral- and self-ratings and can foster international collaboration to advance clinical services, neuroscientific research, and training.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0123-8
       
  • The Vicious Cycle of Chronic Pain in Aging Requires Multidisciplinary
           Non-pharmacological Approach to Treatment
    • Authors: Marina Shpaner; Lindsey J. Tulipani; James H. Bishop; Magdalena R. Naylor
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This review summarizes how aging contributes to pain chronification and how recent developments in neuroscience can inform management of chronic pain in the elderly. Recent Findings Normal aging can boost pain chronification through neurodegeneration, alterations in circadian rhythms, inflammaging, as well as musculoskeletal deterioration and metabolic dysregulation. These processes are interconnected and bidirectional. There is accumulating evidence for the central role of inflammaging in chronic pain, and novel therapies are in development to address inflammaging. Social support and relapse prevention are particularly important aspects of interventions in the elderly. Summary The confluence of multiple neurobiological mechanisms in the course of aging and pain chronification calls for an integrative health approach to management. In addition to pharmacotherapy, a comprehensive approach should include nutritional, psychological, and physical interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-08-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0126-5
       
  • Molecular Basis of Cannabis-Induced Schizophrenia-Relevant Behaviours:
           Insights from Animal Models
    • Authors: Rose Chesworth; Tim Karl
      Abstract: Introduction Cannabis use is a well-established component risk factor for schizophrenia; however, the mechanisms by which cannabis use increases schizophrenia risk are unclear. Animal models can elucidate mechanisms by which chronic cannabinoid treatment can induce schizophrenia-relevant neural changes, in a standardised manner often not possible using patient-based data. Methods We review recent literature (within the past 10 years) using animal models of chronic and subchronic treatment with cannabinoids which target the cannabinoid 1 receptor [i.e. ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CP55,940 and WIN55,212-2]. Schizophrenia-relevant behavioural consequences of chronic cannabinoid treatment are first briefly summarised, followed by a detailed account of changes to several receptor systems [e.g. cannabinoid, dopaminergic, glutamatergic, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAe)rgic, serotonergic, noradrenergic], dendritic spine morphology and inflammatory markers following chronic cannabinoids. We distinguish between adolescent and adult cannabinoid treatments, to determine if adolescence is a period of susceptibility to schizophrenia-relevant molecular changes. Results Chronic cannabinoid treatment induces behaviours relevant to positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Chronic cannabinoids also cause region- and subtype-specific changes to receptor systems (e.g. cannabinoid, dopaminergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic), as well as changes in dendritic spine morphology and upregulation of inflammatory markers. These changes often align with molecular changes observed in post-mortem tissue from schizophrenia patients and correspond with schizophrenia-relevant behavioural change in rodents. There is some indication that adolescence is a period of susceptibility to cannabinoid-induced schizophrenia-relevant neural change, but more research in this field is required to confirm this hypothesis. Conclusions Animal models indicate several molecular mechanisms by which chronic cannabinoids contribute to schizophrenia-relevant neural and behavioural change. It is likely that a number of these mechanisms are simultaneously impacted by chronic cannabinoids, thereby increasing schizophrenia risk in individuals who use cannabis. Understanding how cannabinoids can affect several molecular targets provides critical insight into the complex relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia risk.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0120-y
       
  • Yoga for Schizophrenia: a Review of Efficacy and Neurobiology
    • Authors: David Dodell-Feder; Annesly Gates; Donna Anthony; Smita Agarkar
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric illness requiring multimodal treatments. Besides pharmacotherapy, several adjunct treatments have been recommended, including yoga. We review recent findings speaking to yoga’s efficacy and towards gaining a better understanding of why yoga may affect positive change, evidence on putative neurobiological mechanisms. Recent Findings Recent research with schizophrenia patients suggests that yoga may lead to improvements in symptoms, cognition, and functioning. These changes may occur through a variety of mechanisms including yoga-induced changes in neural plasticity, the neural mechanisms supporting internal mentation, oxytocin release, BDNF, and other factors. We review reports of possible mechanisms through which yoga is believed to impact response in schizophrenia. Summary Our current review cannot provide a conclusive statement on the use of yoga as a standard treatment for schizophrenia; however, the available evidence suggests that yoga may positively impact aspects of the illness in patients with schizophrenia. Further research with adequately powered randomized controlled trials is essential.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0125-6
       
  • Non-invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) in Motor Recovery After Stroke:
           Concepts to Increase Efficacy
    • Authors: Takuya Morishita; Friedhelm C. Hummel
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is a promising tool for promoting motor recovery after stroke. However, the effects of NIBS on functional recovery are heterogeneous and not yet satisfactory in the majority of the patients. Thus, there is a strong need for further development of NIBS-based interventions with the aim of increasing the efficacy on motor recovery. Here, we review the up-to-date use of NIBS in motor rehabilitation, discuss the results critically and provide an outlook on novel NIBS strategies. Recent Findings So far, mainly NIBS to the primary motor cortex as a ‘one suits all’ strategy has been used to enhance motor recovery. It did not achieve satisfactory effects on motor recovery. Summary Current NIBS-based approaches applied to enhance motor recovery after stroke led to heterogeneous and not yet satisfactory effects in patients. To achieve more homogeneous improvements with maximal magnitude, it is necessary to change the strategy from imprecision medicine approaches towards patient-tailored precision medicine approaches that take into account the specifics of each individual patient. To accomplish this, it is mandatory to define systems-neuroscience ‘biomarkers’ allowing to stratify the patients towards individualized treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-07-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0121-x
       
  • Genetics and Antipsychotic Response in Schizophrenia: an Update
    • Authors: Adriana Foster; Asim Nisar; Gabriel Sanchez; Michelle Trieu
      Abstract: Purpose of Review In this article, we will review the recent progress in pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic drugs in regard to treatment response in schizophrenia. Recent Findings Research yielded new frontiers in schizophrenia over the past decade: progress in characterizing the first episode, understanding treatment-resistant illness, deciphering the role of inflammation, and developing tools for treatment of neurocognitive deficits. Notwithstanding the new insights into pathogenesis and treatment targets, our ability to individualize the treatment of schizophrenia in clinical practice has not followed suit. Herein, we review the advances that have been made in understanding the genetic variation in traditional drug targets like dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate receptors, as well as genetic markers associated with response in treatment-resistant schizophrenia and neurocognition. Summary Practitioners are still longing for a test that would inform the choice of antipsychotic treatment and guide medication dosing, such that patients avoid spending time on failed treatment trials. Treatment-resistant schizophrenia may be one of the first areas to benefit of prediction of patients’ response to antipsychotic medication.
      PubDate: 2017-07-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0119-4
       
  • Reducing Pediatric Anxiety through Training: an Integrative Neurocognitive
           Approach
    • Authors: Jennifer C. Britton; Danielle V. Dellarco; Travis C. Evans
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Neurocognitive interventions that target specific cognitive mechanisms underlying anxiety symptoms (e.g., attention bias to threat, negatively biased interpretations) have been applied to youth samples. Here, we review the current attention bias modification (ABM) and cognitive bias modification (CBM) literature together and discuss approaches to develop additional neurocognitive interventions for anxious youth. Recent Findings In youth, ABM which trains attention away from threat typically does not change threat bias, but yields anxiety symptom reductions. However, few ABM studies show enhanced anxiety-related gains for active ABM compared to placebo training (i.e., attention directed equally to threat and neutral). Attention training towards positive information also reduces anxiety symptoms, but effects on behavior are mixed. In contrast to ABM, CBM in youth samples usually changes interpretations, but has little impact on anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, neurocognitive approaches for pediatric anxiety can be extended from adult anxiety treatments, adapted from other forms of psychopathology, or created to target other cognitive processing deficits in anxiety using novel methodology. Summary More work, especially in clinical samples, is needed. To apply neurocognitive interventions in youth and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying changes in targeted behavior and anxiety, the development of cognitive function and the underlying neural circuitry must be a key factor when designing training programs. Future research is needed to refine, investigate, and create neurocognitive interventions for anxiety, especially in developmental samples.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0118-5
       
  • Mechanisms of Cognitive Aging in the HIV-Positive Adult
    • Authors: Asante Kamkwalala; Paul Newhouse
      Abstract: Purpose of Review As of the year 2016, an estimated 50% of the US HIV-positive population is aged 50 years or older. Due to a combination of increased rates of infection in older adults, and successful anti-retroviral (ART) regimens allowing HIV-positive adults to survive for decades with the disease, we are now faced with a steadily graying HIV-positive population, with only limited knowledge of how the cognitive and physiological effects of aging intersect with those of chronic HIV infection. Recent Findings Age-related changes to mood, cognition, and neurological health may be experienced differently in those living with HIV, and research concerning quality of life, mental health, and cognitive aging needs to account for and explore these factors more carefully in the coming years. Summary This review will explore the topic of cognitive aging with HIV: (1) central nervous system (CNS) infection of HIV and how the virus affects brain integrity and function; (2) cognitive and behavioral symptoms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND); (3) neurobiological theories of cognitive aging and how these processes may be exacerbated by HIV infection; and (4) clinical implications and complications of aging with HIV and factors that may result in poorer cognitive outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0122-9
       
  • Neural Correlates of Aggressive Behavior in Real Time: a Review of fMRI
           Studies of Laboratory Reactive Aggression
    • Authors: Jennifer R. Fanning; Sarah Keedy; Mitchell E. Berman; Royce Lee; Emil F. Coccaro
      Abstract: Purpose of review: Aggressive behavior has adaptive value in many natural environments; however, it places substantial burden and costs on human society. For this reason, there has long been interest in understanding the neurobiological basis of aggression. This interest, and the flourishing of neuroimaging research in general, has spurred the development of a large and growing scientific literature on the topic. As a result, a neural circuit model of aggressive behavior has emerged that implicates interconnected brain regions that are involved in emotional reactivity, emotion regulation, and cognitive control. Recent findings: Recently, behavioral paradigms that simulate provocative interactions have been adapted to neuroimaging protocols, providing an opportunity to directly probe the involvement of neural circuits in an aggressive interaction. Here we review neuroimaging studies of simulated aggressive interactions in research volunteers. We focus on studies that use a well-validated laboratory paradigm for reactive physical aggression and examine the neural correlates of provocation, retaliation, and evaluating punishment of an opponent. Summary: Overall, the studies reviewed support the involvement of neural circuits that support emotional reactivity, emotion regulation, and cognitive control in aggressive behavior. Based on a synthesis of this literature, future research directions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-05-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0115-8
       
  • Enduring Neural and Behavioral Effects of Early Life Adversity in Infancy:
           Consequences of Maternal Abuse and Neglect, Trauma and Fear
    • Authors: Julie Boulanger-Bertolus; Amanda M. White; Jacek Debiec
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Early life experiences have long-lasting influence on a child. For an infant, the quality of caregiving is one of the most critical factors supporting growth and development. Adverse social events in infancy have the potency to alter the child’s developmental trajectory and elevate the lifetime risk for a range of psychiatric disorders. Although clinical studies associate early childhood adversities with lifetime risk for mental disorders, the knowledge of underlying neural and molecular alterations leading to these disorders comes mostly from animal studies. In this article, we overview selected animal models of early life social adversity, including maternal abuse and neglect, and maternal trauma and fear. Recent Findings We first characterize the major behavioral and neural changes normally occurring in early life. We then present several animal models of maternally mediated early life adversity that contribute to reorient the developmental changes toward pathological outcomes. These models yielded to recently identified neurobiological mechanisms, including epigenetic alterations, through which these adversities lead to a lasting dysregulation of the stress response system, aberrant fear learning and memory, and increased anxiety or depression-like behaviors. Summary We conclude by emphasizing the unique role of the caregiver’s influences on the developing brain in infancy. Understanding of the infant’s mechanisms of vulnerability and resilience to maltreatment is essential for the advancement of novel therapeutic and preventive approaches.
      PubDate: 2017-05-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0112-y
       
  • Mistrustful and Misunderstood: a Review of Paranoid Personality Disorder
    • Authors: Royce J. Lee
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) has historically been neglected by science out of proportion to its prevalence or its association with negative clinical outcomes. This review provides an update on what is known about PPD regarding its prevalence, demographics, comorbidity, biological mechanism, risk factors, and relationship to psychotic disorders. Recent Findings PPD has long been the subject of a rich and prescient theoretical literature which has provided a surprisingly coherent account of the psychological mechanism of non-delusional paranoia. Available data indicate that PPD has a close relationship with childhood trauma and social stress. Descriptive data on a sample of 115 individuals with paranoid personality disorder is examined in comparison with a group of individuals with borderline personality disorder. The descriptive data largely confirm previously identified relationships between paranoid personality disorder and childhood trauma, violence, and race. We identify important similarities to and differences from borderline personality disorder. Summary PPD continues to be an important construct in the clinic and the laboratory. Available data lead to a reconsideration of the disorder as more closely related to trauma than to schizophrenia.
      PubDate: 2017-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0116-7
       
  • Caregiver-Child Relationships in Early Childhood: Interventions to Promote
           Well-Being and Reduce Risk for Psychopathology
    • Authors: M.M. Julian; J.M. Lawler; K.L. Rosenblum
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Early caregiver-child relationships are foundational to early development and central to efforts to promote well-being and prevent psychopathology. We discuss the role of caregiver-child relationships in early development and risk for psychopathology, and psychotherapeutic interventions targeting early caregiver-child relationships. Recent Findings Early risk for psychopathology is conferred through the dynamic interaction of biological and environmental factors, with sensitive caregiving playing a critical role. Recent research suggests that quality of caregiving moderates the effect of a child’s genetic risk for psychopathology. The protective role of sensitive caregiving is especially vital in the context of stress and trauma. Caregiver-child psychotherapeutic interventions are effective in increasing the rates of secure attachment and sensitive caregiving, and reducing early psychopathology. Emerging evidence suggests some interventions may be associated with changes to parents’ neural circuitry that underlies sensitive caregiving. Summary Relationship-based psychotherapeutic interventions are promising in the promotion of well-being and prevention of psychopathology in at-risk families.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0110-0
       
  • What Can Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation Tell Us About Brain
           Oscillations?
    • Authors: Christoph S. Herrmann; Daniel Strüber
      Abstract: Purpose of the Review Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) allows to interfere with oscillatory brain activity. Here, we provide an overview of novel approaches for removing the tACS artefact to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for on-line tACS effects. Furthermore, we review recent findings on tACS after-effects and clinical applications. Recent Findings tACS-induced entrainment of alpha oscillations was demonstrated in on-line electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings. On-line effects have also been revealed by innovative tACS protocols utilizing amplitude modulation, cross-frequency coupling, non-sinusoidal waveforms, and non-electrical physiological measures. tACS after-effects on alpha power exceeding 1-h duration have been reported, and a behavioral relevance of these physiological changes was shown for the first time. Summary Our understanding of tACS on-line effects greatly benefited from new artefact removal approaches. After-effects of varying duration have been consistently reported but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. tACS as a neurotherapeutic is only emerging, but first evidence for successful tACS interventions in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders is encouraging.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0114-9
       
  • Attention Processes Underlying Risk and Resilience in Behaviorally
           Inhibited Children
    • Authors: Heather A. Henderson; McLennon J.G. Wilson
      Abstract: Purpose of Review We briefly review the literature on behavioral inhibition (BI) in childhood and its associated social and emotional outcomes. We review the interplay of automatic and controlled attention processes in BI children and outline the relations between childhood BI and two components of effortful control (EC): response inhibition and attention switching. Recent Findings Contemporary research in cognitive and behavioral neuroscience indicates that components of EC differentially impact developmental risk for BI children. Response inhibition may inflate the risk of anxiety issues by promoting the inefficient deployment of attentional resources in social contexts, while attention shifting may serve as a protective factor by supporting dynamic social information processing. Summary The attentional processes subsumed under EC have diverse implications for the developmental trajectory of BI. Further research is necessary to identify the exact mechanisms by which the components of EC affect the manifestation of BI across development, and how this knowledge can guide early intervention efforts.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0111-z
       
  • Prosocial Behavior and Depression: a Case for Developmental Gender
           Differences
    • Authors: Gabriela Alarcón; Erika E. Forbes
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Prosocial behavior and depression are related constructs that both increase during adolescence and display gender-specific effects. The current review surveys literature examining the association between depressive symptoms and prosociality, measured with behavioral economic paradigms, across development and proposes a theoretical model explaining a mechanism through which adolescent girls have higher risk for depression than boys. Recent Findings Relative to healthy controls, prosocial behavior is reduced in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) but may be increased in adolescents with MDD. The relationship between non-clinical levels of depressive symptoms and prosocial behavior remains to be studied experimentally; however, self-reported prosocial behavior is negatively associated with depressive symptoms in non-clinical adolescents, which may suggest a shift in the relation of prosocial behavior and depressive symptoms across the non-clinical (i.e., negative) to clinical range (i.e., positive). Summary The effect of gender on these developmental and clinical status shifts has not been studied but could have important implications for understanding the emergence of higher rates of depression in girls than boys during adolescence. We propose that girls are at heightened risk for depression due to higher social-evaluative concern and other-oriented prosocial motivation that emphasize the needs of others over the self, leading to more altruistic prosocial behavior (despite personal cost) and a higher burden that enables depressive symptoms.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40473-017-0113-x
       
 
 
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