Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Lucia Mason, Roberta Baldi, Sara di Ronco, Sara Scrimin, Robert W. Danielson, Gale M. Sinatra Refutation text is potentially more effective than standard text for conceptual change. Learning from text and graphic is also potentially superior to learning from text alone. In two studies, we investigated the effectiveness of both a refutation text and a refutation graphic for promoting high school students’ conceptual change learning about season change, as well as their metacognitive awareness of conceptual conflict and knowledge revision. In both studies, participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1) standard text with standard graphic, (2) standard text with refutation graphic, (3) refutation text with standard graphic, or (4) refutation text with refutation graphic. Both studies had a pretest, immediate post-test, and delayed post-test design and involved students with an initial common misconception about the causes of season change. In Study 2, explicit relevance instructions to observe the important illustration were given to the participants. In both studies, refutation text with refutation graphic was not more beneficial than other instructional materials, either at immediate or delayed post-test. In Study 1,more stable conceptual change learning emerged in readers of the refutation text with standard graphic compared to readers in the control condition. In Study 2, readers of the standard text with refutation graphic performed as well as readers of the refutation text with standard graphic. In addition, more readers of the refutation text with either graphic showed metacognitive awareness of their knowledge change compared to readers in the control condition. Educational implications underline the importance of relevance instructions for guiding readers towards the graphic and of the design of text-graphic pairing to sustain knowledge revision.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Frank Niklas, Wolfgang Schneider Literacy and mathematical competencies are essential for a successful school career and precursors of these abilities develop in kindergarten. In addition to children’s early cognitive abilities, family characteristics such as the socio-economic status and the home learning environment (HLE) are predictors of early child competencies. However, few studies outside the US and the UK have analyzed long-term effects of the early HLE on child development, simultaneously considering various explanatory factors. In this longitudinal study, data of 920 German children were obtained in kindergarten some 18 months before school entry (child mean age: 4;10). At this point, precursors of reading, spelling and mathematics were assessed. In addition, parents were asked to complete surveys on family characteristics. Child assessments were repeated with standardized measures of mathematical and literacy abilities at the end of Grade 1 and in the middle of Grade 4 (child mean age: 9;9), the final grade in German elementary schools. In Grade 4, teachers were also asked to provide their recommendation for children’s secondary school track (“Hauptschule” for lowest secondary school track, “Realschule”, or “Gymnasium” as highest secondary school track). HLE was not only a good predictor of early abilities, but also directly predicted competencies at the end of elementary school when precursors, former academic achievement and child and family characteristics were controlled for. In addition, children living in more favorable HLEs were more likely to be recommended for higher secondary school tracks by their teachers.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Marloes M.H.G. Hendrickx, Tim Mainhard, Henrike J. Boor-Klip, Mieke Brekelmans This study investigated how peer perceptions of teacher liking and disliking for a student shape students’ social cognitions by moderating associations between the student’s peer-perceived social behavior and peer liking and disliking status. We studied individual teacher liking and disliking as well as classroom norms as moderators of individual and classroom-level behavior-status associations. Peer nominations of (dis)liking, being (dis)liked by the teacher, and prosocial and aggressive behavior were gathered from 1454 students (M age = 10.60) in 58 fifth-grade classes in the Netherlands. Results from multilevel analyses showed the teacher made a difference in particular for those students who were at-risk of low peer status, that is, those students who were perceived by many of their peers to show aggressive behavior and by few to show prosocial behavior. These students were disliked less and liked more when they were perceived by peers to be less disliked and more liked by the teacher. Furthermore, the amount of disliking associated with overt and relational aggression differed across classrooms, depending on norms of teacher liking. These findings may help teachers to understand and improve an individual student’s peer status, and alter the behavior–status dynamics in their class.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): David Tzuriel, Rinat Caspi The effects of intervention for peer mediation and mother-child mediated learning experience (MLE) strategies on children’s MLE strategies and cognitive modifiability (CM) was investigated on a sample of 100 mother–child dyads. CM was examined in domains of executive functions and analogical reasoning. The MLE interactions were analyzed by Observation for Mediated Interaction (OMI) scale. Children of high- and low-mediating mothers were assigned to experimental (n = 49) and control (n=51) conditions. The experimental group received a peer-mediation program and the control groups received an alternative creativity program. The children (in Grade 3) were assigned as mediators of learners (in Grade 1) and taught them analogical reasoning problems. The peer interaction was videotaped and analyzed by the OMI. All children were given dynamic assessment after the interaction. Children in the experimental group showed higher MLE strategies and CM than did children in the control condition. Mediators of low-MLE mothers in the experimental group showed greater CM than did mediators in the control group. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that mediators’ cognitive modifiability was explained by proximal factors of treatment, mothers’ quality of mediation (QM) and mediators’ QM; learners’ cognitive modifiability was explained by mediators’ QM. The findings were discussed in relation to the MLE theory and earlier findings.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Ronnel B. King, Jesus A. Datu The aim of this study was to examine how materialism, or the focus on acquiring money and material possessions, is associated with students’ academic engagement and achievement via their motivational regulation (amotivation, controlled motivation, autonomous motivation). Study 1 (n = 606 secondary students) was a cross-sectional study which found that materialism was negatively associated with engagement. This association was partially mediated by amotivation. Study 2 (n = 404 secondary students) was a longitudinal study which found that Time 1 materialism was negatively associated with Time 2 engagement and Time 3 academic achievement via amotivation. Results of the two studies provide converging lines of evidence that materialism is negatively associated with key indicators of learning. Students high in materialism have lower levels of engagement and achievement, and these associations are partially mediated by amotivation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Nina Minkley, Tobias Ringeisen, Lukas B. Josek, Tobias Kärner Experiments are a complex teaching method carrying a high cognitive load and the risk of failure, which both may induce stress among students. However, it remains unclear if the work setting modulates physiological, subjective, and/or emotional stress responses during experiments. In a randomized experimental field study school students (N = 104) either watched a biology experiment on video (passive condition), conducted the experiment on their own (active condition) or in small groups (interactive condition). Meanwhile, their subjective stress perception, heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol concentration, and achievement emotions were assessed. In the active condition we observed the strongest subjective and HRV stress responses, followed by the interactive condition. Students of the passive condition displayed the weakest stress reactions. Students of the other two conditions showed a weakened diurnal cortisol decrease, indicating more stress. Across conditions, enjoyment dropped and boredom increased, most pronounced in the passive condition. Moreover, there were some associations between subjective, emotional and physiological stress responses. The findings suggest that conducting experiments alone carries the risk of self-attributed failure signified by elevated stress. In contrast, conducting an experiment in a group is less stressful, as others may constitute a source of support. Watching others conduct an experiment carries a low risk of failure and, thus, the lowest stress responses, but comes with the cost of minimized enjoyment and maximized boredom.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Teomara Rutherford Self-regulated learning (SRL), the ability to set goals and monitor and control progress toward these goals, is an important part of a positive mathematical disposition. Within SRL, accurate metacognitive monitoring is necessary to drive control processes. Students who display this accuracy are said to be calibrated, and although calibration is a growing area of research within Educational Psychology, unanswered questions remain about calibration's role as an aspect of metacognition, including the unique association between calibration and academic performance. In this study, calibration is characterized as part of a dynamic system that varies across tasks within the same person; variance in calibration is associated with variance in performance gain for the same student across tasks (quizzes within a year-long mathematics curriculum, ST Math). Both accurate determinations of certainty (Sensitivity) and uncertainty (Specificity) have unique small, yet statistically significant, associations with performance gains from pre to posttest in ST Math. For Specificity, there also remains a contextual association with performance at the Person level. Results are discussed in light of prior research on calibration and of theories of SRL; the data and analyses present a novel approach to studying calibration within a dynamic system and offer insights for future work.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 February 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Meghan Bathgate, Christian Schunn Utility value is associated with positive learning outcomes in science and is often used to motivate engagement in the sciences, but less is known about what influences its development and maintenance, particularly during the critical middle school years. Using multinomial regression applied to longitudinal data from approximately 2,600 middle-school students, we test the relationship of science classroom experiences (affective engagement, behavioral-cognitive engagement, & perceived success) and optional formal and optional informal experiences to changes in science utility value. Furthermore, we address whether the same factors that predict growth in utility value also predict absence of decline. Overall, we find all five factors are associated with changes in utility value, but some have different relationships with growth vs. decline outcomes. These findings provide a more nuanced view of factors associated with utility value towards science (both in and out of the science classroom), as well as practical implications for educational practice.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Li-Chih Wang, Duo Liu, Kevin Kien-Hoa Chung, Hsien-Ming Yang This paper describes two studies that examined the lexical tone awareness of Chinese children both with and without dyslexia at different primary school ages. Study 1 examined the contributions of lexical tone awareness to distinguish children with and without dyslexia with respect to their Chinese character reading skills. Two hundred and seventy Chinese children participated in Study 1. Ninety of these were children with dyslexia (equally recruited from second, fourth, and sixth grades). Moreover, ninety children functioned as a chronological-age control group, and an additional ninety children functioned as a reading-level control group. The participants were tested for nonverbal intelligence, Chinese character reading, and cognitive-linguistic skills and lexical tone awareness. Our results revealed a later developmental ceiling in Chinese children with dyslexia than in those without dyslexia. Furthermore, children’s lexical tone awareness could serve to distinguish children with dyslexia from typically developing children in all primary school years. Study 2 compared the lexical tone awareness and Chinese character reading skills of Chinese children with dyslexia both before and after introducing the Perceptual Training Method. The participants in this study consisted of all the participants with dyslexia from Study 1, and the measurements were the Chinese character reading test and the lexical tone awareness task from Study 1. Our results revealed that only second-grade children with dyslexia gained substantially from the training on both lexical tone awareness and character naming, whereas those in the fourth grade obtained a significant improvement only on lexical tone awareness.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Jerome I. Rotgans, Henk G. Schmidt Interest has become a central topic in the educational-psychology literature and Hidi and Renninger’s (2006) four-phase model of interest development is its most recent manifestation. However, this model presently enjoys only limited empirical support. To contribute to our understanding of how individual interest in a subject develops in learners, two studies were conducted with primary school science students. The first study (N = 187) tested the assumption that repeated arousal of situational interest affects the growth of individual interest. Latent growth curve modeling was applied and the results suggest that the arousal of situational interest has a positive effect on the development of individual interest and significantly influences its growth trajectory. The second study tested the assumption that engaging students with interest-provoking didactic stimuli, such as problems, is critical to triggering situational interest and increasing individual interest. To test this assumption, four classes of primary school students (N = 129) were randomly assigned to two conditions in a quasi-experimental setup. The treatment condition received four situational-interest-inducing science problems as part of a course whereas the control condition did not, all other things being equal. The results of latent growth curve modeling revealed that only the group receiving problems experienced repeated arousal of situational interest and its related growth in individual interest. Implications for, and amendments to, the four-phase model of interest development are proposed.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Yingyi Liu, Susanna Siu-sze Yeung, Dan Lin, Richard Kwok Shing Wong This longitudinal study examined the developmental trajectory of English expressive vocabulary and its relationship to English word reading in a sample of 141 Hong Kong children learning English as a second language (ESL). The children were observed six times at 3-month intervals over 15 months, from the spring of their second year of kindergarten (K2) to the end of their third year (K3). The development of English expressive vocabulary was nonlinear during the assessment period. With age, nonverbal IQ, English phonological awareness, letter knowledge and Chinese character reading controlled, the initial level of expressive vocabulary predicted English word reading 15 months later. More importantly, the expressive vocabulary growth rate during the 15 months also predicted English word reading. Our findings underscore the predictive power of the growth trajectory of expressive vocabulary in Hong Kong ESL children. Practical implications of the study are discussed.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Jonna Malmberg, Sanna Järvelä, Hanna Järvenoja This study examined how temporal sequences of regulated learning events, such as types and processes of regulated learning, emerge during different stages of collaborative learning. Earlier research has focused on individual learning and not on the captured temporal sequences of regulation in collaborative learning. The data were collected during a two-month math didactics course taken by teacher education students who collaborated in three member groups. Twenty-two hours of video data were collected to follow how sequences of regulated learning events, along with task execution, emerged within the six groups as their collaboration advanced. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and lag sequential analysis. The results showed that the groups engaged mostly in co-regulated planning and monitoring. Temporal analysis showed that collaborative interactions focusing on task execution promoted socially shared planning, indicating that task execution provided grounding for socially shared planning and regulation to occur. The sequential analysis illustrated that metacognitive monitoring played a facilitative role in the progress of task execution.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Rebecca Lazarides, Jaana Viljaranta, Mette Ranta, Katariina Salmela-Aro This longitudinal study aims to test the concept of transition preparedness in the context of educational transitions. The study investigates how adolescents’ transition preparedness, conceptualized as their self-efficacy beliefs and their inoculation against setbacks, before an educational transition affect the adolescents’ school value and effort related to educational goals after the transition through the effects on achievement goal orientations. Student data from three waves of a longitudinal study are used, first collected in 2004 (before the students’ transition from comprehensive school to upper secondary education) and then collected twice after the transition. The students included in the analyses are those who participated at all three measurement points (N = 588; 49.5% girls; age M T1 = 15.01, SD = 0.13). Longitudinal structural equation modeling revealed that adolescents’ self-efficacy beliefs (Time 1) positively predicted school value and effort (Time 3) through their effect on mastery goal orientation (Time 2). Furthermore, self-efficacy moderated the relation between performance-approach goal orientation (Time 1) on school value (Time 2). Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for enhancing adolescents’ adaptive motivational development across educational transitions.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): W.L. Quint Oga-Baldwin, Yoshiyuki Nakata, Philip Parker, Richard M. Ryan Promoting intrinsic motivation is often a central concern in teaching foreign languages to elementary school children. Self-determination theory posits that intrinsic motivation develops through the interaction of the person and the environment. The present study investigated how elementary school students’ motivation develops over the course of a school year in Japanese public schools. Five-hundred and fifteen Japanese elementary school children were surveyed over the course of one school year. Self-reported motivation, perceptions of teacher support, need satisfaction, and engagement were measured at different times. External raters observed students’ engagement, while classroom teachers assessed the quality of students’ motivation and learning. Structural equation modeling results indicated a positive, dynamic relationship between motivation, perceptions of the learning environment, and engagement. External raters’ assessments showed significant positive correlations with students’ self-reported engagement. Findings indicate how the instruction offered in these Japanese elementary schools supported students’ foreign language learning motivation. Graphical abstract
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Jing Zhao, R. Malatesha Joshi, L. Quentin Dixon, Si Chen The purpose of the present study was to examine the contribution of metalinguistic skills—as measured through orthographic awareness, phonological awareness, and morphological awareness—to the English spelling ability of Grade 8 Chinese students who study English as a foreign language (EFL group) and of third graders in the U.S. whose first language is English (EL1 group). The two groups were initially matched through calculating the Flesch-Kincaid reading level of Chinese EFL students' textbooks and then through propensity score matching, taking into consideration various predictors. Using multiple regression and dominance analysis, we compared the models of metalinguistic awareness that predict English word spelling between the two groups. We found that orthographic awareness and morphological awareness were uniquely related to spelling for the EL1 group, whereas morphological awareness, orthographic awareness and phonological awareness were uniquely related to spelling for the EFL group, after accounting for the effect of vocabulary. Further analysis of relative importance of the predictors showed that orthographic choice was the dominant predictor for the EL1 group and inflectional morpheme production was the dominant predictor for the EFL group. The importance of metalinguistic awareness in acquiring English spelling in both EL1 and EFL groups is discussed.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Björn B. de Koning, Anton J.H. Boonen, Menno van der Schoot In mathematical word problem solving, a relatively well-established finding is that more errors are made on word problems in which the relational keyword is inconsistent instead of consistent with the required arithmetic operation. This study aimed at reducing this consistency effect. Children solved a set of compare word problems before and after receiving a verbal instruction focusing on the consistency effect (or a control verbal instruction). Additionally, we explored potential transfer of the verbal instruction to word problems containing other relational keywords (e.g., larger/smaller than) than those in the verbal instruction (e.g., more/less than). Results showed a significant pretest-to posttest reduction of the consistency effect (but also an unexpected decrement on marked consistent problems) after the experimental verbal instruction but not after the control verbal instruction. No significant effects were found regarding transfer. It is concluded that our verbal instruction was useful for reducing the consistency effect, but future research should address how this benefit can be maintained without hampering performance on marked consistent problems.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Gregory J. Trevors, Panayiota Kendeou, Ivar Bråten, Jason L. G. Braasch Refutation texts have been previously shown to be effective at promoting knowledge revision. The current study builds on recent trends to gain deeper insights into how this learning advantage can be enhanced and extended to more learners. In particular, we examined whether distinct epistemic profiles can be discerned on the basis of individuals’ beliefs about justification for knowing (i.e., justification by authority, personal opinion, or multiple sources) in the natural sciences. Further, we designed refutation texts according to this trichotomous framework of epistemic justification. We tested whether profiles stronger in certain dimensions would attain higher learning scores over others and whether consistency between profiles and texts would confer a learning advantage compared to when these factors were inconsistent. Results showed that distinct epistemic profiles are discernable and a profile with stronger preference for justification by multiple sources, authority, and lower preference for justification by personal opinion in natural science attained higher learning scores. Further, higher learning scores were observed when refutation texts justified by authoritative explanations were consistent with one cluster dominant in preference for justification by authority. Theoretical and instructional design implications are discussed.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Jeff J. Kosovich, Jessica K. Flake, Chris S. Hulleman Motivation plays a critical role in human behavior and is particularly important during college, where a single class can make or break an academic career. The longitudinal research on expectancies for success and utility value primarily focuses on prediction or change over many years, rather than change over a short period of time. However, a single class in college can often be the difference between getting a degree or not. To better understand how motivation progresses in the short-term, we examined changes in expectancy and utility value simultaneously during a single college class. Both constructs declined during the class and showed significant variability across individuals. In addition, change in expectancy was strongly correlated with change in utility value, and the expectancy slope estimates were significant predictors of continuing interest. We discuss the need for a better understanding of short-term dynamic relationships between expectancies, utility value, and outcomes.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Eunro Lee, Katherine J. Reynolds, Emina Subasic, Dave Bromhead, Hanzhang Lin, Vladmir Marinov, Michael Smithson Extensive but separate bodies of research in education concern the constructs of school climate and school connectedness/belonging. In the interests of advancing a more integrated approach, a new measurement tool is developed– the School Climate and School Identification Measure–Student (SCASIM-St). This scale builds onthe Moos (1973) framework which assesses relationships, personal growth, and system management in schools. The social identity approach to group processes (Tajfel & Turner, 1979; J. C. Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987) is used to extend work on school connectedness and belonging through the inclusion of a measure of social identification. A range of methods across three studies are designed to assess the reliability and validity of SCASIM-St (N=7209, Australian grades 7-10 students). These include confirmatory factor analysis, test-retest analysis, and convergent validity (Study 1 and 2). Additionally measurement invariance tests regarding gender, grade level, and non-English language, were employed for Study 3, as well as, criterion validity analysis using multilevel models for the key outcome measures of students’ academic achievement, well-being and aggressive behaviors. All of these analyses indicate that SCASIM-St is an effective measure. Theoretical and practical implications as well as future directions are outlined.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Logan Fiorella, Richard E. Mayer Two studies explored the role of the spontaneous use of spatial note-taking strategies (i.e., creating maps and drawings) and spatial ability in learning from a scientific passage. In Study 1, college students read and took notes by hand on a 10-paragraph scientific passage about the human respiratory system. Students tended to use verbal strategies such as lists (on 48% of the paragraphs), outlines (29%) and running text (15%), but also used spatial strategies such as maps (28%) and drawings (11%). Regression analyses indicated that spatial ability and the use of spatial strategies (maps or drawings) significantly predicted learning outcomes, with spatial strategy use explaining additional variance beyond spatial ability. In Study 2, students read the same scientific passage and took notes either by hand on paper (paper group), by hand on a large whiteboard (whiteboard group), or on a laptop computer (computer group). A similar general pattern as Study 1 was found for the paper group, but this pattern was not found for the computer or whiteboard groups, suggesting that the relationships found in Study 1 might depend on the note-taking medium. Results also indicated that students in the paper and whiteboard groups spontaneously used more spatial strategies, whereas the computer group tended to use verbal strategies (i.e., words only), suggesting that different note-taking contexts encourage different strategies.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Steve Graham This special issue of Contemporary Educational Psychology brings together multiple studies examining issues important to Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Learning Disabilities, and executive functioning difficulties. Drawing on these studies, I present five recommendations for future research in these areas: (1) develop specific criteria for identifying research participants; (2) provide more details about study participants and context; (3) expand the number of educational studies directly involving these students; (4) study more than just reading and mathematics; and (5) systematically investigate how to put research findings in these areas into practice.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Marissa K. Hartwig, John Dunlosky A category learning judgment (CLJ) involves judging one’s learning or performance for a given topic or category. The present study was the first to investigate CLJs in a classroom, where students’ judgments of how well they have learned topics may be particularly relevant for guiding their study decisions. In an undergraduate statistics class, students predicted their performance on six different exam topics, as well as predicting their global exam performance, for each exam during the semester. Regarding the absolute accuracy of CLJs, we observed slight overestimation (bias), substantial deviation from accuracy (absolute bias), and little improvement across exams. Students’ CLJs varied among topics, but they were less variable than actual topic performance and were poor at discriminating well-learned from poorly-learned topics (i.e., low relative accuracy). We examined two factors predictive of CLJ accuracy: topic difficulty and student mastery of the topics. Regarding topic difficulty, a hard-easy effect was observed, such that more difficult topics produced greater overestimation and easier topics produced more underestimation. A hard-easy effect also extended to absolute bias: difficult topics produced larger deviations from accuracy than easy topics did. Regarding student mastery of topics, we found that lower mastery predicted CLJ overestimation and higher mastery predicted CLJ underestimation. Lower mastery was also associated with larger absolute bias. Compared to global judgments, CLJs were less accurate, although students were more confident in their CLJs. In sum, developing methods to improve the accuracy of CLJs in classrooms is an important direction for future research.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Andrew J. Martin, Emma C. Burns, Rebecca J. Collie Harnessing social cognitive theory (SCT), we investigated the roles of personal agency (self-efficacy and perceived control) and interpersonal agency (relational support) in the academic achievement (via literacy and numeracy testing) of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their non-ADHD peers. A sample of N=164 students diagnosed with ADHD were investigated alongside N=4658 non-ADHD peers in the same schools and year levels. Using structural equation modeling, findings showed that self-efficacy and relational support were consistently associated with better academic achievement for both groups, but with positive effects significantly stronger for students with ADHD than for students without ADHD. Although perceived control was significantly associated with achievement for students without ADHD and not significantly so for students with ADHD, there was not much difference in absolute size of perceived control effects for the two groups. Findings are relevant to theory, research, and practice identifying motivational factors and processes that may assist in closing well-known achievement gaps for students with ADHD whilst also maintaining positive outcomes for students without ADHD.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Katarzyna Gogol, Martin Brunner, Romain Martin, Franzis Preckel, Thomas Goetz A comprehensive model of affect and motivation is necessary for disentangling the variance of subject-specific measures into components that are (a) construct-specific and generalize across different subjects, (b) subject-specific and common to different constructs, and (c) specific to a particular construct in a particular subject. In the present study, we developed and investigated an integrative model that yields new insights concerning the generality and school-subject-specificity of affective-motivational constructs. To this end, we first examined structural models that could account for the hierarchical and subject-specific nature of academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest, respectively. In a second step, we combined these construct-specific models to investigate an integrative model that was able to simultaneously address between- and within-subject relations. We used data from four large-scale samples of ninth-graders (N = 866 to 6,146) on academic self-concept, interest, and anxiety in three subjects (Mathematics, French, and German). Our results underscored the importance of the components at the more global level: The major part of reliable individual differences in subject-specific measures of affective-motivational constructs and their relations to achievement indicators (grades and standardized test scores) was explained by the general components of the affective-motivational constructs and the global affective-motivational appraisals of specific subjects rather than by the construct-and-subject-specific components. Overall, the structural architecture of the integrative model provides a way to simultaneously analyze complex within- and between-subject relations of affective-motivational constructs.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Kathryn R. Wentzel, Katherine Muenks, Daniel McNeish, Shannon Russell This study examined adolescents’ perceptions of peer and teacher supports in relation to internalized values, academic self-efficacy, efforts to learn, and goal orientations at the individual and classroom level in a sample of middle school (n = 169) and high school (n = 71) students from 6 schools (15 classrooms). Novel approaches to assessing classroom-level effects included use of coefficient of variation scores to capture consensus among student reports and use of cluster-robust standard errors to account for clustering. At the individual level, significance tests for indirect pathways and formal mediation indicated that relations between perceived peer expectations for prosocial behavior and effort and mastery orientation were mediated by internalized value; and, the relation between perceived emotional support from peers and effort was mediated by self-efficacy. At the classroom level, teachers who were perceived similarly by students with respect to provisions of emotional support also tended to have students who reported high levels of internalized value, and a high degree of student consensus concerning their teacher’s value for subject matter was related positively to their internalized value and effort. Consensus of student reports concerning internalized value was a negative predictor of performance orientation.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Han Suk Bae, R. Malatesha Joshi The study investigated the within- and cross-language contribution of morphological awareness (MA) to vocabulary and reading comprehension among students learning to read two typologically different orthographies at the same time: Korean and English. Fifty Korean ESL learners in grades five and six were administered Korean and English measures of MA (derivational and compound morphemes), vocabulary, and reading comprehension (narrative and expository texts), in addition to measures of phonological awareness (PA) and orthographic awareness (OA). Information about home language environment was also obtained from a parental questionnaire. Path analysis showed that MA was the most significant contributor to vocabulary (β = 0.33, p < .05) and reading comprehension (β = 0.46, p < .01) in English; and in Korean (β = 0.62 and β = 0.54, respectively, all ps < .01), controlling for effects of PA and OA. Unidirectional cross-language transfer was found from Korean MA to English vocabulary (β = 0.27, p < .05) and reading comprehension (β = 0.22, p < .05) and multiple determining factors are discussed. Educational implications and research recommendations are also presented.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 November 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Monica Koster, Renske Bouwer, Huub van den Bergh In this study we examined the effectiveness of Tekster [Texter], a comprehensive program for writing for the upper elementary grades, combining strategy instruction, text structure instruction, and the teaching of self-regulation skills with observational learning, explicit instruction, and (guided) practice to address both the focus of instruction (what is taught) and the mode of instruction (how it is taught). Further, we investigated the added value of a professional development program for teachers on the effectiveness and implementation of the intervention in the classroom, by adopting a teachers-training-teachers approach. One group of teachers (N=31) was trained by experts, and subsequently trained their colleagues (N=37). Quasi-experimental results showed that students’ writing performance improved after the intervention (ES = 0.55), while generalizing over tasks, students, and teachers. Further, teachers became more positive and felt more efficacious about teaching writing after the intervention. There were no differences between trainers and trainees, which provides evidence for the spillover effect of professional development. To get more insight in how teachers implemented the intervention in their classroom and in the social validity of the intervention and the teachers-training-teachers approach, we triangulated post-intervention questionnaires with classroom observations and interviews. This mixed methods approach revealed that both trainers and trainees were highly satisfied with the program and easily adapted their focus of instruction. However, for adjusting the mode of instruction more teacher support seems to be needed.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Abraham E. Flanigan, Markeya S. Peteranetz, Duane A. Shell, Leen-Kiat Soh This study investigated introductory computer science (CS1) students’ implicit beliefs of intelligence. Referencing Dweck and Leggett’s (1988) framework for implicit beliefs of intelligence, we examined how (1) students’ implicit beliefs changed over the course of a semester, (2) these changes differed as a function of course enrollment and students’ motivated self-regulated engagement profile, and (3) implicit beliefs predicted student learning based on standardized course grades and performance on a computational thinking knowledge test. For all students, there were significant increases in entity beliefs and significant decreases in incremental beliefs across the semester. However, examination of effect sizes suggests that significant findings for change across time were driven by changes in specific subpopulations of students. Moreover, results showed that students endorsed incremental belief more strongly than entity belief at both the beginning and end of the semester. Furthermore, the magnitude of changes differed based on students’ motivated self-regulated engagement profiles. Additionally, students’ achievement outcomes were weakly predicted by their implicit beliefs of intelligence. Finally, results showed that the relationship between changes in implicit intelligence beliefs and student achievement varied across different CS1 courses. Theoretical implications for implicit intelligence beliefs and recommendations for STEM educators are discussed.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 October 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Greg J. Trevors, Krista R. Muis, Reinhard Pekrun, Gale M. Sinatra, Marloes M.L. Muijselaar Conflicting claims about important socio-scientific debates are proliferating in contemporary society. It is therefore important to understand the individual characteristics that predict learning from conflicting claims. We explored individuals’ beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing (i.e., epistemic beliefs) and their emotions as potentially interrelated sets of learner characteristics that predict learning in such contexts. Undergraduate university students (N = 282) self-reported their topic-specific epistemic beliefs and were given three conflicting texts about climate change to read. Immediately after each of the three texts, participants self-reported the emotions they experienced. Following reading and self-report, participants wrote summaries of the conflicting texts. Text-mining and human coding were applied to summaries to construct two indices of learning from conflicting texts that reflected which source’s information is privileged in memory. Results from structural equation modeling revealed that epistemic beliefs were consistent in their predictions of emotions, which in turn variously predicted different learning outcomes. In particular, a belief that knowledge is justified by inquiry predicted surprise and curiosity, which at times facilitated learning. In contrast, confusion, predicted by passive reliance on external sources, related to impaired memory of conflicting content. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed for research on the relations between epistemic beliefs, emotions, and learning about controversial topics.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): N. Crane, A. Zusho, Y. Ding, A. Cancelli Research has shown that a student’s self-efficacy levels can predict his or her academic performance. Although moderate overconfidence in one’s abilities is beneficial, research has demonstrated that students who can calibrate (i.e., accurately assess their abilities) are more likely to achieve higher levels of academic performance. Individuals with learning disabilities have been found in previous studies to have poor levels of calibration when compared to typically developing students, particularly on academic tasks. Building on this line of research, this study examined the self-efficacy and metacognitive calibration of students with learning disabilities across both academic and non-academic contexts. Twenty-nine students with learning disabilities were given both an academic and a non-academic task and asked to predict their performance on both tasks. Multiple calibration scores were calculated by comparing participants’ expected performance to their actual performance. Overall, students reported reduced metacognitive calibration on both academic and non-academic tasks; however, their patterns were more extreme for the non-academic task. Specifically, students reported much higher levels of self-efficacy for the non-academic task despite much lower metacognitive calibration scores. These findings point to the possibility that the history of failure experienced by students with learning disabilities on academic tasks may actually improve their calibration with those tasks and that they may have an overall deficit in their ability to predict their own abilities.
Authors:Heike Itzek-Greulich; Barbara Flunger Christian Vollmer Benjamin Nagengast Markus Rehm Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Heike Itzek-Greulich, Barbara Flunger, Christian Vollmer, Benjamin Nagengast, Markus Rehm, Ulrich Trautwein The issue of how to increase student motivation and achievement in science subjects is considered to be a major challenge in modern school systems. Lab-work learning environments in which students get direct (“hands-on”) experience with science content that is related to their everyday lives are posited to have positive effects on state/trait motivation and achievement, but there is a lack of sound empirical evidence to support this claim. In the present study, the effectiveness of a lab-work learning unit on the topic of “the chemistry of starch” was examined by applying a cluster randomized field study with three treatment conditions with lab-work elements and a control group. The first group was taught with lab-work elements in School only, the second group (SCOL & school) was taught in a combined condition encompassing both a SCOL (Science Center Outreach Lab) visit and classroom learning, the third group was taught entirely outside the school environment (SCOL only), and the fourth group was a wait-list control group, which was not exposed to a “starch” curriculum at the time of this study. Data from 1,854 students were gathered in 67 ninth-grade classes on state motivation during the intervention and on trait motivation and achievement at pretest, posttest, and follow-up. Multilevel regression analyses revealed several differences between the lab-work conditions and the control group: Whereas the hands-on practical approach effectively enhanced state motivation with positive effects on joy, situational interest, situational competence, and reduced boredom in all three treatment conditions (School only, SCOL & school, and SCOL only), there were differences in trait effects: learning at school (School only and SCOL &school) increased achievement (posttest and follow-up), whereas the SCOL visit resulted in a small and spurious increase in trait motivation (reduced cost and increased competence beliefs only on the posttest).
Authors:Hanna Gaspard; Isabelle Häfner; Cora Parrisius; Ulrich Trautwein; Benjamin Nagengast Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Hanna Gaspard, Isabelle Häfner, Cora Parrisius, Ulrich Trautwein, Benjamin Nagengast Students’ value beliefs tend to decrease across secondary school (Wigfield et al., 2015). However, previous studies did not differentiate between all the dimensions of task values defined by expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983). Therefore, this study evaluated an instrument for assessing multiple value dimensions across grade level and academic subjects and tested for differences between grade levels in these subjects. A total of 830 students from Grades 5 to 12 completed a questionnaire assessing their value beliefs in German, English, math, biology, and physics with 37 items each. The factor structure was shown to be invariant across academic subjects, grade levels, and gender. Generally, students in higher grades showed lower means on positive value facets and higher means on cost facets. However, the results varied substantially by facet and subject. Furthermore, stereotypical gender differences in value beliefs were found, and some of these differences increased with students’ grade level. The findings indicate that examining multiple dimensions and subjects is crucial for developing a complete understanding of the development of students’ value beliefs.
Authors:Juliane Schmidt; Uta Klusmann Oliver Jens Mareike Kunter Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Juliane Schmidt, Uta Klusmann, Oliver Lüdtke, Jens Möller, Mareike Kunter Beginning teachers’ first years in school have been described as demanding and stressful. In explaining beginning teachers’ stress, previous research mainly focused on either trait-like personality characteristics or general work-related stressors. In contrast, the present study focused on the day-to-day experience. The aim of the current study was (a) to identify the task-related daily uplifts and hassles of beginning teachers, (b) to examine the association of daily uplifts and hassles with teachers’ socio-demographic and personality characteristics, and (c) to investigate the effect of daily uplifts and hassles on teachers’ emotional exhaustion. The sample consisted of 141 beginning teachers up to four years in the profession who completed an online diary for 14 consecutive days. Results showed that most daily uplifts and hassles were related to teaching in class and interacting with colleagues. Both hassles and uplifts showed only a few unsystematic correlations with teachers’ characteristics. However, daily uplifts and hassles significantly explained beginning teachers’ daily emotional exhaustion.
Authors:Emily Q. Rosenzweig; Allan Wigfield Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Emily Q. Rosenzweig, Allan Wigfield Many affirming and undermining motivations affect students as they read information texts, but few researchers have explored how these motivations are patterned within students. In this study we used cluster analysis to classify middle school students (n = 1,134) based on their patterns of self-efficacy, perceived difficulty, value, and devalue for reading school information texts. We then compared how the patterns predicted students’ language arts grades, science information text comprehension, and dedication to reading school information texts. We found and validated a four-cluster solution. One cluster included a pattern of high affirming and low undermining motivations, and another included low affirming and high undermining motivations. Students with these patterns earned the highest and lowest scores, respectively, on all outcomes. A third pattern showed high self-efficacy/low difficulty with low value/high devalue, and a fourth showed moderate levels of all four motivational constructs. Students with the high efficacy and devalue pattern showed high information text comprehension but relatively low dedication. Students with the moderate pattern showed high dedication but low initial information text comprehension. Students with these two patterns earned similar grades. We discuss the implications of our findings for motivation theories and for school instruction that involves information text reading.
Authors:Athanasios Mouratidis; Aikaterini Michou; Aikaterini Vassiou Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Athanasios Mouratidis, Aikaterini Michou, Aikaterini Vassiou Research on students’ motivation has mainly focused on interpersonal differences rather than on the ongoing, intrapersonal dynamics that forge students’ everyday life. In this five-month longitudinal (diary) study, we recruited a sample of 179 high school students from Greece (35.8% males; M age = 16.27; SD = 1.02) to investigate through multilevel analyses the ongoing dynamics of students’ motivation. We did so by examining the relation between autonomous functioning and aspects of study regulation (namely, study efforts and procrastination) and well-being (namely, subjective vitality and depressive feelings). After controlling for perceived competence, we found week-to-week autonomous functioning to relate positively to study efforts and subjective vitality and negatively to procrastination and depressive feelings. Interestingly, implicit theories of ability - the degree to which one believes that ability is fixed or amenable - were found to moderate the week-to-week relations of autonomous functioning to study efforts and homework procrastination. In particular, autonomous functioning co-varied positively to study efforts and negatively to homework procrastination only among students who believed that ability is malleable. Also, beliefs that ability is fixed predicted poorer grades, lower mean levels of study efforts, and higher homework procrastination. The results underscore the necessity of taking a more dynamic view when studying motivational phenomena and the importance of jointly considering the implicit theory framework and self-determination theory.
Authors:Cristina Aelenei; Neil A. Lewis; Daphna Oyserman Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Cristina Aelenei, Neil A. Lewis, Daphna Oyserman Community college students are less likely to graduate than university students, perhaps because their difficult life circumstances increase their vulnerability to misinterpreting the identity implications of experienced difficulty with schoolwork. Without guidance, they may fail to take a “no pain, no gain” perspective in which experienced difficulty with schoolwork implies the importance of succeeding in school. Two studies support this prediction: Study 1 (N=1035) finds that education is associated with higher likelihood of interpreting experienced difficulty as signaling task importance among adults. This effect is pronounced for racial minorities. Study 2 (n=293) finds that students who disagreed that experienced difficulty implies impossibility were more certain about attaining their academic possible identities and more willing to sacrifice to attain these identities. Moreover, community college students benefited more than university students from being guided to consider what experienced difficulty might imply or from considering that experienced difficulty implies importance, rather than impossibility.
Authors:Arielle Bonneville-Roussy; Paul Evans; Jérémie Verner-Filion; Robert J. Vallerand; Thérèse Bouffard Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Arielle Bonneville-Roussy, Paul Evans, Jérémie Verner-Filion, Robert J. Vallerand, Thérèse Bouffard The main objectives of the present research were to test a conceptual model linking motivational processes involved in coping with the stress of university assessment, and to examine gender differences in these processes. Self-determined motivation was hypothesized to predict coping strategies and the response to assessment-related stress, and coping was hypothesized to play a considerable role in short- and long-term outcomes of assessment. We examined this model using multiple group path analysis in Mplus. In Study 1 (N = 265), music students’ use of engagement-coping strategies led to stronger musical career intentions, while disengagement-coping strategies led to weaker intentions. In Study 2 (N = 340), students’ increased use of engagement coping, and decreased use of disengagement coping strategies led to higher grades, higher positive affect and lower negative affect. In both studies, engagement and disengagement-coping were predicted by autonomous and controlled motivation, respectively. Motivation also indirectly predicted academic outcomes through stress appraisal and coping. While women experienced higher levels of stress, men were more negatively affected by the use of disengagement-oriented coping. Gender differences were also found on the links between engagement-oriented coping and outcomes. These results fill an important gap in the literature regarding gender differences in the outcomes coping in education, as well as contributing to a better understanding of the processes linking motivation, coping and academic outcomes.
Authors:Hyun Seon Ahn; Mimi Bong; Sung-il Kim Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Hyun Seon Ahn, Mimi Bong, Sung-il Kim The purpose of this investigation was to test (a) whether students distinguished between self-efficacy sources according to social model and (b) how predictive the self-efficacy information students received from each social model was for their self-efficacy beliefs. For this purpose, new vicarious experience and social persuasion scales were developed that independently assess the respective source of self-efficacy information conveyed by three social models, family members, teachers, and peers. As revealed by exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and multitrait-multimethod analysis, the Korean high school students in Studies 1 (N = 395) and 3 (N = 393) and the Korean college students in Study 2 (N = 220) clearly distinguished between the self-efficacy sources and the social models who delivered this information (family members, teachers, or peers). Student responses to vicarious experience fluctuated more by social model than did their responses to social persuasion. The correlations further suggest the possibility that the existing scale largely taps vicarious experience from teachers and peers rather than vicarious experience from family members. The predictive utility of vicarious experience and social persuasion for self-efficacy also varied according to the social model involved and by the academic domain. Social persuasion by teachers predicted student self-efficacy in mathematics, while vicarious experience from teachers predicted student self-efficacy in English as a foreign language, in addition to mastery experience and physiological state.
Authors:Daeun Park; Eli Tsukayama; Geoffrey P. Goodwin; Sarah Patrick; Angela L. Duckworth Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Daeun Park, Eli Tsukayama, Geoffrey P. Goodwin, Sarah Patrick, Angela L. Duckworth Other than cognitive ability, what competencies should schools promote in children? How are they organized, and to what extent do they predict consequential outcomes? Separate theoretical traditions have suggested interpersonal, intrapersonal, and intellectual dimensions, reflecting how children relate to other people, manage their own goals and impulses, and engage with ideas, respectively. However, very little work has examined character empirically. In the current investigation, we partnered with middle schools that had previously identified character strengths relevant in their communities. Across three longitudinal, prospective studies, we examined the factor structure of character, associations with intelligence and Big Five personality traits, and predictive validity for consequential outcomes like peer relations, class participation, and report card grades. In Study 1, teachers rated their students on behaviors exemplifying character strengths as they played out in students’ daily lives. Exploratory factor analyses yielded a three-factor structure consisting of interpersonal (interpersonal self-control, gratitude, social intelligence), intellectual (zest, curiosity), and intrapersonal (academic self-control, grit) factors of character. In Study 2, children rated their own behavior and completed a test of cognitive ability. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the same three-factor structure, and these factors were only weakly associated with cognitive ability. In Study 3, teachers provided character ratings; in parallel, students completed measures of character as well as Big Five personality factors. As expected, intellectual, interpersonal, and intrapersonal character factors related to Big Five openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, respectively. Across studies, positive peer relations were most consistently predicted by interpersonal character, class participation by intellectual character, and report card grades by intrapersonal character. Collectively, our findings support a tripartite taxonomy of character in the school context.
Authors:Xiuhong Tong; Xiuli Tong; Catherine McBride Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Xiuhong Tong, Xiuli Tong, Catherine McBride The nature of the relations among morphological awareness, vocabulary and word reading in Chinese children remains relatively unclear. The present study aimed to distinguish between sublexical morphological awareness, referring to the ability to use the meaning cues of semantic radicals embedded in a compound character, and lexical level morphological awareness, defined as the ability to understand and manipulate single characters (i.e., morphemes) comprising Chinese compound words, on word reading. We also examined the role of vocabulary knowledge on the relation between morphological awareness and word reading at both the sublexical and lexical levels. A group of 172 Chinese second graders were administered measures of sublexical and lexical level morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, nonverbal ability, and word reading. Both sublexical and lexical levels of morphological awareness were moderately correlated with word reading. Vocabulary knowledge appeared to partially mediate the effect of sublexical morphological awareness on word reading, but it fully mediated the effect of lexical level morphological awareness on word reading. These results suggest that sublexical and lexical level morphological awareness play distinct roles in Chinese word reading; vocabulary knowledge is an important factor influencing the relation between morphological awareness and word reading in Chinese.
Authors:Barbara Flunger; Ulrich Trautwein; Benjamin Nagengast; Oliver Lüdtke; Alois Niggli; Inge Schnyder Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Barbara Flunger, Ulrich Trautwein, Benjamin Nagengast, Oliver Lüdtke, Alois Niggli, Inge Schnyder Homework time (i.e., the total amount of time spent on homework) and homework effort (i.e., the extent to which students work seriously on their homework) are defined as two central aspects that characterize students’ homework behavior. Recent research has identified homework learning types by considering differences in students in both homework effort and homework time with a person-centered approach (Flunger et al., 2015). The present study investigated how students’ characteristics (i.e., motivation, conscientiousness, gender, and verbal abilities) are associated with these homework behavior profiles. To this end, data on homework behavior in the subject of French as a second language of 1,649 Swiss eighth-grade students were reanalyzed by applying latent profile analyses (LPAs) with covariates in a modified three-step method (Vermunt, 2010). The findings suggest that large amounts of homework time can be a characteristic of favorable homework behavior: When students simultaneously invested a great deal of effort in their homework, spending a lot of time on homework was associated with high motivation and high conscientiousness. By contrast, when students exerted low effort, large amounts of homework time were found to be associated with low motivation and low conscientiousness.
Authors:Robin S. Minthorn; Tyson E.J. Marsh Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 April 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Robin S. Minthorn, Tyson E.J. Marsh Using arts-based inquiry and drawing on photovoice, photo-elicitation and visual narrative, in this study we explore how Native American college students experience space and place at the University of New Mexico 1 1 The University of New Mexico will be referred to henceforward as UNM. , a large, research-extensive university in the Southwestern United States. The objective of this study is to more clearly understand how Native American students view their educational environment. Student perspectives will be framed through an artistic inquiry coming directly from the students and their interpretations of space, place, and community. This study is designed to ultimately inform the institution, local tribal communities, and the existing body of research on how participants viewed their college-going experience in relation to space and place, and how we might more adequately serve Native American college students. Initial findings indicate the critical importance of cultural centers, houses, and designated cultural spaces for Native American students, as indicated in the literature. Though Native students may experience struggles and successes similar to other student groups within the context of higher education, it is critical that student affairs professionals, administrators, faculty, and other educational leaders acknowledge how discourses of colonialism and genocide inform higher educational spaces, as well as the experience of Native American college students.
Authors:Janet Mooney; Marjorie Seaton; Gurvinder Kaur; Herbert W. Marsh; Alexander Seeshing Yeung Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Janet Mooney, Marjorie Seaton, Gurvinder Kaur, Herbert W. Marsh, Alexander Seeshing Yeung The purpose of the paper was to investigate: (a) similarities and differences in cultural perspectives, self-concept, and school motivation between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australian students; and (b) the relative influences of self-concept, motivation, and cultural perspectives on academic engagement. Data were collected from Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students in Years 3 to 6 from 52 primary schools in metropolitan Sydney (N=1745). Students completed a questionnaire asking about three cultural perspective factors (Aboriginal perspective, cultural diversity, and cultural identity), school self-concept, and two motivation factors (a mastery approach goal and a performance approach goal), and a behavioral outcome (academic engagement). Results indicated that Aboriginal students were higher in all three cultural perspectives, but did not differ much from non-Aboriginal students in school self-concept, motivation, and academic engagement. For both groups cultural diversity, cultural identity, school self-concept, and a mastery approach goal orientation were positive predictors of academic engagement. A performance approach goal orientation was not a significant predictor of engagement but higher SES and being female were positive predictors. The findings suggest that teachers should understand the importance of promoting a positive sense of culture in the classroom to better engage students.
Authors:Rockey Robbins; Ji Hong; Caroline Engler; Callie King Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Rockey Robbins, Ji Hong, Caroline Engler, Callie King The Gifts of the Seven Directions education program is a culturally responsive framework designed to empower Native American youth and their parents and to cultivate life skills. The intervention focuses on emotional awareness and expression in the context of family and community relationships. Native American conceptualizations involve a holistic integration of mental, spiritual, physical and emotional dimensions. Participants reported pride in being Native American, appreciated the validation and support from family and communities, and felt like they learned about drug and alcohol problems and healing.
Authors:Rhonda G. Craven; Richard M. Ryan; Janet Mooney; Robert J. Vallerand; Anthony Dillon; Fabri Blacklock; Natasha Magson Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Rhonda G. Craven, Richard Ryan, Janet Mooney, Robert J. Vallerand, Anthony Dillon, Fabri Blacklock, Natasha Magson There are many examples of Indigenous success in the current Australian context. However, little is known about how to identify, measure, and emulate these successes more broadly. Partly this can be attributed to an array of theoretical and methodological limitations that have plagued Indigenous Australian research. The latter include a lack of concerted research being founded upon the voices and agency of Indigenous children, youth, and communities and a lack of large-scale quantitative research. Hence Indigenous Australian research has often failed to yield a translational evidence-base resulting in meaningful policy and impacts of salience to Indigenous Australians. Simultaneously, positive psychology, with its emphasis on explicating how individuals can thrive and get the most out of life, has become an increasingly important part of contemporary scientific psychology. Rather than replacing conventional psychology, positive psychology adds to it, broadening the study of human experience. Many tenants of positive psychology are aligned with Indigenous conceptualizations of human experience, especially those emphasizing the wholeness and interrelatedness of human experiences. In addition positive psychology focuses on strengths, and Indigenous leaders, organizations, and community members' prefer approaches whereby Indigenous strengths are identified so that they can be emulated more broadly. In this paper we describe our implementation of a reciprocal research partnership model of Indigenous thriving utilizing a research framework founded upon both positive psychology principles and holistic Indigenous Australian worldviews. This model prioritizes the voices and agency of Indigenous people and proposes that research be conducted in partnership as opposed to research being imposed on Indigenous communities, and it focuses on Indigenous Australian strengths as opposed to deficit approaches. After acknowledging the disadvantages that Indigenous Australians face, we describe this strengths-based approach and how its utilization of Indigenous research methodologies in combination with Western approaches can contribute to a new approach to translational research of salience to Indigenous Australians.. We then review extant theory and research that supports elements of the proposed model. We further suggest its potential for practical innovation in Australia and how, if successful, this new approach, may also find application in other Indigenous populations and, more broadly, for disenfranchised groups around the globe.
Authors:Sharon Nelson-Barber; Zanette Johnson Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2016 Source:Contemporary Educational Psychology Author(s): Sharon Nelson-Barber, Zanette Johnson This article seeks to raise readers' awareness of how research findings from large-scale scientific studies are often misapplied, with negative results, when generalized and applied in communities with unique features, contours and needs. Conducted in collaboration with Diné educators, this qualitative study brought forth three cases, each pointing toward specific levels at which the misapplication of educational research findings in a Navajo community led to detrimental outcomes for learners. One of the three cases is discussed in detail. Adaptation to local and cultural contexts should be a primary consideration when applying research-based innovations and “best practices.”