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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 927 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 430)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 194)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 73)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 238)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 145)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas : Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)

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Journal Cover Consciousness and Cognition
  [SJR: 1.363]   [H-I: 76]   [32 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1053-8100 - ISSN (Online) 1090-2376
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3175 journals]
  • Daytime microsleeps during 7 days of sleep restriction followed by
           13 days of sleep recovery in healthy young adults
    • Authors: Clément Bougard; Danielle Gomez-Merino; Arnaud Rabat; Pierrick Arnal; Pascal Van Beers; Mathias Guillard; Damien Léger; Fabien Sauvet; Mounir Chennaoui
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 61
      Author(s): Clément Bougard, Danielle Gomez-Merino, Arnaud Rabat, Pierrick Arnal, Pascal Van Beers, Mathias Guillard, Damien Léger, Fabien Sauvet, Mounir Chennaoui
      We investigated the consequences of sleep restriction (SR) on maintenance of wakefulness capacities and diurnal sleepiness through microsleeps monitoring. 12 healthy males (20–36 years old) were sleep restricted (4 h per night) during 7 nights followed by 13 nights of recovery sleep. Participants completed Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) at baseline (B), during SR (SR1, SR4 and SR7) and during recovery (R3 and R13), while continuously recorded for EEG analysis. During SR, MWT latencies decreased (SR7: −24.4%), whereas the number, the cumulative duration of microsleeps and KSS scores increased. Recovery nights allowed MWT latencies, KSS scores and all sleep values to return to baseline levels, while a rebound in N3, N3% and REM% sleep stages occurred. During SR, the maintenance of N3 sleep duration seems not sufficient to reduce daytime sleepiness and MWT results did not reflect the sleepiness levels characterized by persistent sleep attacks.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Role of implicit learning abilities in metaphor understanding
    • Authors: Luc Drouillet; Nicolas Stefaniak; Christelle Declercq; Alexandre Obert
      Pages: 13 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 61
      Author(s): Luc Drouillet, Nicolas Stefaniak, Christelle Declercq, Alexandre Obert
      Although the use of metaphors is a central component of language, the processes that sustain their comprehension have yet to be specified. Work in the fields of both metaphors and implicit learning suggests that implicit learning abilities facilitate the comprehension of metaphors. However, to date, no study has directly explored the relationships between the understanding of metaphors and so-called implicit learning tasks. We used a meaning decision task comparing literal, metaphorical and meaningless expressions to assess metaphor understanding and a probabilistic serial reaction time task for assessing implicit learning. Our results show that implicit learning positively predicts the time gap between responses to literal and metaphorical expressions and negatively predicts the difference between metaphorical and meaningless expressions. Thus, when confronted with novel metaphors, participants with higher implicit learning abilities are better able to identify that the expressions have some meaning. These results are interpreted in the context of metaphor understanding and psycholinguistic theories.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Boredom: Under-aroused and restless
    • Authors: James Danckert; Tina Hammerschmidt; Jeremy Marty-Dugas; Daniel Smilek
      Pages: 24 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 61
      Author(s): James Danckert, Tina Hammerschmidt, Jeremy Marty-Dugas, Daniel Smilek
      Boredom is a common experience associated with a range of negative outcomes. Debate remains as to whether boredom should be considered a high or low arousal state. We employed passages of text to induce either boredom or interest and probed self-reported levels of boredom, arousal, and restlessness. Results replicated known associations between mind-wandering and state boredom (i.e., mind-wandering was highest for the boredom mood induction). Reports of sleepiness (a proxy for arousal level) were highest for the boring induction. While restlessness was not different for the boring and interesting inductions when they were performed first, restlessness was significantly higher for the boredom induction when it was experienced last. We discuss these results within the context of the debate regarding boredom and arousal.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Differentiating aversive conditioning in bistable perception: Avoidance of
           a percept vs. salience of a stimulus
    • Authors: Gregor Wilbertz; Philipp Sterzer
      Pages: 38 - 48
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 61
      Author(s): Gregor Wilbertz, Philipp Sterzer
      Alternating conscious visual perception of bistable stimuli is influenced by several factors. In order to understand the effect of negative valence, we tested the effect of two types of aversive conditioning on dominance durations in binocular rivalry. Participants received either aversive classical conditioning of the stimuli shown alone between rivalry blocks, or aversive percept conditioning of one of the two possible perceptual choices during rivalry. Both groups showed successful aversive conditioning according to skin conductance responses and affective valence ratings. However, while classical conditioning led to an immediate but short-lived increase in dominance durations of the conditioned stimulus, percept conditioning yielded no significant immediate effect but tended to decrease durations of the conditioned percept during extinction. These results show dissociable effects of value learning on perceptual inference in situations of perceptual conflict, depending on whether learning relates to the decision between conflicting perceptual choices or the sensory stimuli per se.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Cue discriminability predicts instrumental conditioning
    • Authors: Thomas P. Reber; Bita Samimizad; Florian Mormann
      Pages: 49 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 61
      Author(s): Thomas P. Reber, Bita Samimizad, Florian Mormann
      Charting mental acts that succeed or fail under unconscious instances of cognition informs debates on the nature and potential functions of consciousness. A prominent method to exclude conscious contributions to cognition is to render visual stimuli unconscious by short and pattern-masked presentations. Here, we explore a combination of visual masking and pixel noise added to visual stimuli as a method to adapt discriminability in a fine-grained fashion to subject- and stimulus-specific estimates of perceptual thresholds. Estimates of the amount of pixel noise corresponding to perceptual thresholds are achieved by psychometric adaptive algorithms in an identification task. Afterwards, the feasibility of instrumental conditioning is tested at four levels of cue discriminability relative to previously acquired estimates of perceptual thresholds. In contrast to previous reports (Pessiglione et al., 2008), no evidence for the feasibility of instrumental condition was gathered when contributions of conscious cognition were excluded.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Audio-visual sensory deprivation degrades visuo-tactile peri-personal
    • Authors: Jean-Paul Noel; Hyeong-Dong Park; Isabella Pasqualini; Herve Lissek; Mark Wallace; Olaf Blanke; Andrea Serino
      Pages: 61 - 75
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 61
      Author(s): Jean-Paul Noel, Hyeong-Dong Park, Isabella Pasqualini, Herve Lissek, Mark Wallace, Olaf Blanke, Andrea Serino
      Self-perception is scaffolded upon the integration of multisensory cues on the body, the space surrounding the body (i.e., the peri-personal space; PPS), and from within the body. We asked whether reducing information available from external space would change: PPS, interoceptive accuracy, and self-experience. Twenty participants were exposed to 15 min of audio-visual deprivation and performed: (i) a visuo-tactile interaction task measuring their PPS; (ii) a heartbeat perception task measuring interoceptive accuracy; and (iii) a series of questionnaires related to self-perception and mental illness. These tasks were carried out in two conditions: while exposed to a standard sensory environment and under a condition of audio-visual deprivation. Results suggest that while PPS becomes ill defined after audio-visual deprivation, interoceptive accuracy is unaltered at a group-level, with some participants improving and some worsening in interoceptive accuracy. Interestingly, correlational individual differences analyses revealed that changes in PPS after audio-visual deprivation were related to interoceptive accuracy and self-reports of “unusual experiences” on an individual subject basis. Taken together, the findings argue for a relationship between the malleability of PPS, interoceptive accuracy, and an inclination toward aberrant ideation often associated with mental illness.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Possible origins of consciousness in simple control over “involuntary”
           neuroimmunological action
    • Authors: Kevin B. Clark
      Pages: 76 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 61
      Author(s): Kevin B. Clark
      The origin(s) and purpose(s) of consciousness continue to be fervently debated by neuroscientists. A recent unconventional hypothesis put forth by Morsella et al. suggests the primary function of consciousness is the integration, selection, and execution of advantageous lower-level voluntary skeletal muscle behavior on surrounding external environments. However, at main issue is whether more precise, adaptable voluntary skeletal motor action, and therefore the corresponding workings of consciousness, first emerged and evolved in animals to exert control over external environments or internal ones regulated by less flexible autonomic function. Using the example of voluntary immunomodulation, one can identify the strengths and weaknesses of either rationale. For instance, highly trained meditative techniques for immunomodulation more-or-less conform to Morsella et al.'s assumptions on higher-level indirect conscious control of autonomic function. Whereas, untrained skeletal motor resolution of infection-related approach-avoidance conflicts support conclusions contrary to those of Morsella et al. In such cases, primitive voluntary changes in host respiration rate and volume may selectively facilitate/inhibit acute autonomic psychophysiological stress responses to pathogen insult. This and other types of scenarios predictably give evolutionary and ecological rise to self-awareness of (visceral) internal states as well as to voluntary regulation of internal state action conflicts.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Hierarchical Bayesian models of delusion
    • Authors: Daniel Williams
      Pages: 129 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Daniel Williams

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 61 (2018)
  • Temporal binding effect in the action observation domain: Evidence from an
           action-based somatosensory paradigm
    • Authors: Roberta Vastano; Eliane Deschrijver; Thierry Pozzo; Marcel Brass
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 60
      Author(s): Roberta Vastano, Eliane Deschrijver, Thierry Pozzo, Marcel Brass
      Temporal binding is understood as an effect in which a temporal interval between a voluntary action and its consequent effect is perceived as compressed. It denotes an implicit measure of a sense of agency. When people observe someone else performing an action that generates an effect, temporal binding also takes place. We aimed to test whether the interaction between observed actions and tactile sensation influences temporal binding. Participants observed finger tapping movements (of a human or wooden hand), in parallel to receiving tactile stimulations on their fingertip. These stimulations were either congruent or incongruent with the tactile consequences of the observed movement. The finger tapping movement was followed by a tone. Participants estimated the intervals between the observed action and the tone. We found that temporal binding for observed actions depends on the congruency between the perceived touch and tactile consequences of observed actions restricted to intentional actors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Seeing life through rose-colored spectacles: Autobiographical memory as
           experienced in Korsakoff’s syndrome
    • Authors: Mohamad El Haj; Jean Louis Nandrino
      Pages: 9 - 16
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 60
      Author(s): Mohamad El Haj, Jean Louis Nandrino
      We investigated whether patients with Korsakjoff’s Sybdrome (KS) would demonstrate a discrepancy between (low) autobiographical specificity and (high) sense of reliving. We invited 20 KS patients and 24 controls to retrieve personal memories. After memory retrieval, they were invited to rate subjective characteristics of their recall (e.g., reliving, travel in time, remembering, realness). Besides this rating, we analyzed memories objectively with regard to specificity. Analysis demonstrated poorer sense of reliving and memory specificity in KS patients than in controls. Critically, a discrepancy (i.e., higher level of sense of reliving than of specificity) was observed in KS participants but not in controls. We propose a hypothesis of “genuine consciousness experience” in which the discrepancy between sense of reliving and specificity mirrors how KS patients can benefit from an authentic experience of the past despite compromise in their autobiographical recall.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T23:16:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Explaining the felt location of bodily sensations through body
    • Authors: Luis Alejandro Murillo Lara
      Pages: 17 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 60
      Author(s): Luis Alejandro Murillo Lara
      Why are bodily sensations felt on specific body parts' This paper discusses the view according to which we need body representations to account for the felt location of bodily sensations. My aim will be to consider whether or not some claims linked with that view are substantiated (namely, that all of our grasp of the spatiality of our bodies must come from bodily sensations, that the representation of the body can determine bodily sensations surmounting sensory input, that the content of body representations cannot be action-oriented). To do this, I first introduce and assess Brian O’Shaughnessy’s seminal version of the representationalist approach to bodily sensations. Next, I will inquire into a purported objection to any version of the approach, showing its inadequacy. Finally, I will concentrate on Frédérique de Vignemont’s variant of the representationalist view, trying to pin down a few of her assertions. My conclusion will be that the scope and strength of the representationalist position in regard to the aforementioned claims is different from what it is usually thought to be.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T23:16:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Effects of perceptual load and socially meaningful stimuli on crossmodal
           selective attention in Autism Spectrum Disorder and neurotypical samples
    • Authors: Ian Tyndall; Liam Ragless; Denis O'Hora
      Pages: 25 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 60
      Author(s): Ian Tyndall, Liam Ragless, Denis O'Hora
      The present study examined whether increasing visual perceptual load differentially affected both Socially Meaningful and Non-socially Meaningful auditory stimulus awareness in neurotypical (NT, n = 59) adults and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, n = 57) adults. On a target trial, an unexpected critical auditory stimulus (CAS), either a Non-socially Meaningful (‘beep’ sound) or Socially Meaningful (‘hi’) stimulus, was played concurrently with the presentation of the visual task. Under conditions of low visual perceptual load both NT and ASD samples reliably noticed the CAS at similar rates (77–81%), whether the CAS was Socially Meaningful or Non-socially Meaningful. However, during high visual perceptual load NT and ASD participants reliably noticed the meaningful CAS (NT = 71%, ASD = 67%), but NT participants were unlikely to notice the Non-meaningful CAS (20%), whereas ASD participants reliably noticed it (80%), suggesting an inability to engage selective attention to ignore non-salient irrelevant distractor stimuli in ASD.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T23:16:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Can perceptual grouping unfold in the absence of awareness' Comparing
           grouping during continuous flash suppression and sandwich masking
    • Authors: Ruth Kimchi; Dina Devyatko; Shahar Sabary
      Pages: 37 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 60
      Author(s): Ruth Kimchi, Dina Devyatko, Shahar Sabary
      In this study we examined whether grouping by luminance similarity and grouping by connectedness can occur in the absence of visual awareness, using a priming paradigm and two methods to render the prime invisible, CFS and sandwich masking under matched conditions. For both groupings, significant response priming effects were observed when the prime was reported invisible under sandwich masking, but none were obtained under CFS. These results provide evidence for unconscious grouping, converging with previous findings showing that visual awareness is not essential for certain perceptual organization processes to occur. They are also consistent with findings indicating that processing during CFS is limited, and suggest the involvement of higher visual areas in perceptual organization. Moreover, these results demonstrate that whether a process can occur without awareness is dependent on the level at which the suppression induced by the method used for rendering the stimulus inaccessible to awareness takes place.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T23:56:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • I see neither your Fear, nor your Sadness – Interoception in
    • Authors: Eleana Georgiou; Sandra Mai; Katya C. Fernandez; Olga Pollatos
      Pages: 52 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 60
      Author(s): Eleana Georgiou, Sandra Mai, Katya C. Fernandez, Olga Pollatos
      Interoception describes the mapping of the body’s internal landscape and has been connected to greater intensity of emotional experience. The goal of the current study was to explore the relationship between interoception and emotion face recognition in healthy adolescents. The heartbeat perception task was used to assess interoceptive accuracy(IAC) and participants were asked to recognize different facial expressions. EEG activity was recorded, providing data for the P100, the N170 and the P300 ERP components. Results indicated high sensitivity to negative affect, as well as low accuracy in the recognition of fear and sadness among adolescents high in IAC, reflected by amplitude modulations in the N170 and the P300. The interpretation of these results focus on the intensity experienced in negative facial emotions, modified by IAC, as well as on emotional valence and arousal. These findings emphasize the dynamic integration of body and mind for shaping emotion recognition in adolescence.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.02.011
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Atypical susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion linked to
           sensory-localised vicarious pain perception
    • Authors: V. Botan; S. Fan; H. Critchley; J. Ward
      Pages: 62 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 60
      Author(s): V. Botan, S. Fan, H. Critchley, J. Ward
      The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) paradigm has been widely used to investigate the sense of body ownership. People who report experiencing the pain of others are hypothesised to have differences in computing body ownership and, hence, we predicted that they would perform atypically on the RHI. The Vicarious Pain Questionnaire (VPQ), was used to divide participants into three groups: (1) non-responders (people who report no pain when seeing someone else experiencing physical pain), (2) sensory-localised responders (report sensory qualities and a localised feeling of pain) and (3) affective-general responders (report a generalised and emotional feeling of pain). The sensory-localised group, showed susceptibility to the RHI (increased proprioceptive drift) irrespective of whether stimulation was synchronous or asynchronous, whereas the other groups only showed the RHI in the synchronous condition. This is not a general bias to always incorporate the dummy hand as we did not find increased susceptibility in other conditions (seeing touch without feeling touch, or feeling touch without seeing touch), but there was a trend for this group to incorporate the dummy hand when it was stroked with a laser light. Although individual differences in the RHI have been noted previously, this particular pattern is rare. It suggests a greater malleability (i.e. insensitivity to asynchrony) in the conditions in which other bodies influence own-body judgments.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T23:56:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.02.010
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • EEG functional connectivity and brain-to-brain coupling in failing
           cognitive strategies
    • Authors: Michela Balconi; Laura Gatti; Maria Elide Vanutelli
      Pages: 86 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 60
      Author(s): Michela Balconi, Laura Gatti, Maria Elide Vanutelli
      Cooperation behavior is a core question of study on social neuroscience. In the present study, inter-brain functional connectivity and cognitive performance were considered during joint which was failing. The cognitive performance and the EEG (brain oscillations from delta to beta) underlying the execution of joint-actions were recorded when dyads of participants executed synchronicity game and received reinforcing negative feedbacks A pre-feedback condition (cooperation) and a control condition (individual task, T0) were provided as well as a check for possible learning effect (time series analysis). Finally, correlation analysis was considered to assess the relation between behavioral and physiological levels. Results showed that the external feedback was able to modulate participants’ responses in both behavioral and neural components with increased RTs and ERs after the negative reinforcement. Similarly, a reduced inter-brain connectivity was found, mainly localized within the superior frontal regions, and for low-frequency bands (delta and theta). In contrast pre-feedback condition showed the best performance in terms of both behavioral and brain-to-brain coupling activity. Moreover, the presence of significant correlations between RTs and inter-brain connectivity revealed that the failing cooperation induces significant negative effects on the cognitive and brain strategy in comparison with cooperative (pre-feedback) and individual (control) condition. The present study provides significant contribution to the identification of patterns of cognitive behavior and functional connectivity when social reinforcement is provided within dyads of participants by using a hyperscanning approach.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T23:56:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Is conscious perception a series of discrete temporal frames'
    • Authors: Peter A. White
      Pages: 98 - 126
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 60
      Author(s): Peter A. White
      This paper reviews proposals that conscious perception consists, in whole or part, of successive discrete temporal frames on the sub-second time scale, each frame containing information registered as simultaneous or static. Although the idea of discrete frames in conscious perception cannot be regarded as falsified, there are many problems. Evidence does not consistently support any proposed duration or range of durations for frames. EEG waveforms provide evidence of periodicity in brain activity, but not necessarily in conscious perception. Temporal properties of perceptual processes are flexible in response to competing processing demands, which is hard to reconcile with the relative inflexibility of regular frames. There are also problems concerning the definition of frames, the need for informational connections between frames, the means by which boundaries between frames are established, and the apparent requirement for a storage buffer for information awaiting entry to the next frame.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T23:56:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.02.012
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Synesthetic hallucinations induced by psychedelic drugs in a congenitally
           blind man
    • Authors: Sara Dell'Erba; David J. Brown; Michael J. Proulx
      Pages: 127 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 60
      Author(s): Sara Dell'Erba, David J. Brown, Michael J. Proulx
      This case report offers rare insights into crossmodal responses to psychedelic drug use in a congenitally blind (CB) individual as a form of synthetic synesthesia. BP's personal experience provides us with a unique report on the psychological and sensory alterations induced by hallucinogenic drugs, including an account of the absence of visual hallucinations, and a compelling look at the relationship between LSD induced synesthesia and crossmodal correspondences. The hallucinatory experiences reported by BP are of particular interest in light of the observation that rates of psychosis within the CB population are extremely low. The phenomenology of the induced hallucinations suggests that experiences acquired through other means, might not give rise to “visual” experiences in the phenomenological sense, but instead gives rise to novel experiences in the other functioning senses.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T23:56:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • Ordinary people think free will is a lack of constraint, not the presence
           of a soul
    • Authors: Andrew J. Vonasch; Roy F. Baumeister; Alfred R. Mele
      Pages: 133 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 60
      Author(s): Andrew J. Vonasch, Roy F. Baumeister, Alfred R. Mele
      Four experiments supported the hypothesis that ordinary people understand free will as meaning unconstrained choice, not having a soul. People consistently rated free will as being high unless reduced by internal constraints (i.e., things that impaired people’s mental abilities to make choices) or external constraints (i.e., situations that hampered people’s abilities to choose and act as they desired). Scientific paradigms that have been argued to disprove free will were seen as reducing, but usually not eliminating free will, and the reductions were because of constrained conscious choice. We replicated findings that a minority of people think lacking a soul reduces free will. These reductions in perceived free will were fully explained by reductions in people’s perceived abilities to make conscious decisions. Thus, some people do think you need a soul to have free will—but it is because they think you need a soul to make conscious decisions.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T23:56:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 60 (2018)
  • What’s past is past: Neither perceptual preactivation nor prior
           motivational relevance decrease subsequent inattentional blindness
    • Authors: Carina Kreitz; Robert Schnuerch; Philip A. Furley; Daniel Memmert
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 59
      Author(s): Carina Kreitz, Robert Schnuerch, Philip A. Furley, Daniel Memmert
      Inattentional blindness—the phenomenon that clearly visible, yet currently unexpected objects go unnoticed when our attention is focused elsewhere—is an ecologically valid failure of awareness. It is currently subject to debate whether previous events and experiences determine whether or not inattentional blindness occurs. Using a simple two-phase paradigm in the present study, we found that the likelihood of missing an unexpected object due to inattention did not change when its defining characteristic (its color) was perceptually preactivated (Experiment 1; N = 188). Likewise, noticing rates were not significantly reduced if the object’s color was previously motivationally relevant during an unrelated detection task (Experiment 2; N = 184). These results corroborate and extend recent findings questioning the influence of previous experience on subsequent inattentional blindness. This has implications for possible countermeasures intended to thwart the potentially harmful effects of inattention.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:41:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2018)
  • Time drawings: Spatial representation of temporal concepts
    • Authors: María Juliana Leone; Alejo Salles; Alejandro Pulver; Diego Andrés Golombek; Mariano Sigman
      Pages: 10 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 59
      Author(s): María Juliana Leone, Alejo Salles, Alejandro Pulver, Diego Andrés Golombek, Mariano Sigman
      Time representation is a fundamental property of human cognition. Ample evidence shows that time (and numbers) are represented in space. However, how the conceptual mapping varies across individuals, scales, and temporal structures remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we conducted a large online study consisting in five experiments that addressed different time scales and topology: Zones of time, Seasons, Days of the week, Parts of the day and Timeline. Participants were asked to map different kinds of time events to a location in space and to determine their size and color. Results showed that time is organized in space in a hierarchical progression: some features appear to be universal (i.e. selection order), others are shaped by how time is organized in distinct cultures (i.e. location order) and, finally, some aspects vary depending on individual features such as age, gender, and chronotype (i.e. size and color).

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:41:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2018)
  • Motivated forgetting reduces veridical memories but slightly increases
           false memories in both young and healthy older people
    • Authors: Alfonso Pitarque; Encarnación Satorres; Joaquín Escudero; Salvador Algarabel; Omar Bekkers; Juan C. Meléndez
      Pages: 26 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 59
      Author(s): Alfonso Pitarque, Encarnación Satorres, Joaquín Escudero, Salvador Algarabel, Omar Bekkers, Juan C. Meléndez
      The aim of the current study is to examine the effects of motivated forgetting and aging on true and false memory. Sixty young and 54 healthy older adults were instructed to study two lists of 18 words each. Each list was composed of three sets of six words associated with three non-presented critical words. After studying list 1, half of the participants received the instruction to forget List 1, whereas the other half received the instruction to remember List 1. Next, all the subjects studied list 2; finally, they were asked to remember the words studied in both lists. The results showed that when participants intended to forget the studied List 1, they were less likely to recall the studied words, but more likely to intrude the critical words. That is, we can intentionally forget something but this can also entail the intrusion of some related false memories.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2018)
  • Spatial attention and the malleability of bodily self in the elderly
    • Authors: Daniel Zeller; Marcus Hullin
      Pages: 32 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 59
      Author(s): Daniel Zeller, Marcus Hullin
      A right-hemispheric specificity has been suggested both for spatial attention and for the feeling of body-ownership. Here, we assessed lateralization of spatial attention (Milner landmark task), rubber hand illusion (RHI), and their relationship in a group of 59 healthy elderly subjects. The occurrence of the RHI was assessed by objective (proprioceptive drift) and subjective (questionnaire) measures. Spatial attention was asymmetrical, with a slight, neglect-like overestimation of the right segment of mid-bisected lines. As to the RHI, the proprioceptive drift towards the plastic hand was significantly larger following synchronous compared to asynchronous stroking, but comparable between both sides. Subjective responses indicated an experience of the RHI during synchronous stimulation, without lateralization. On the left hand, however, the proprioceptive drift correlated significantly with the rightward bias of spatial attention. Thus, reduced attention towards sensory signals from one’s own limb might facilitate the process of embodiment of an artificial hand into one’s body-representation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2018)
  • Building mindfulness bottom-up: Meditation in natural settings supports
           open monitoring and attention restoration
    • Authors: Freddie Lymeus; Per Lindberg; Terry Hartig
      Pages: 40 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 59
      Author(s): Freddie Lymeus, Per Lindberg, Terry Hartig
      Mindfulness courses conventionally use effortful, focused meditation to train attention. In contrast, natural settings can effortlessly support state mindfulness and restore depleted attention resources, which could facilitate meditation. We performed two studies that compared conventional training with restoration skills training (ReST) that taught low-effort open monitoring meditation in a garden over five weeks. Assessments before and after meditation on multiple occasions showed that ReST meditation increasingly enhanced attention performance. Conventional meditation enhanced attention initially but increasingly incurred effort, reflected in performance decrements toward the course end. With both courses, attentional improvements generalized in the first weeks of training. Against established accounts, the generalized improvements thus occurred before any effort was incurred by the conventional exercises. We propose that restoration rather than attention training can account for early attentional improvements with meditation. ReST holds promise as an undemanding introduction to mindfulness and as a method to enhance restoration in nature contacts.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2018)
  • Locked to a wrong body: Eating disorders as the outcome of a primary
           disturbance in multisensory body integration
    • Authors: Giuseppe Riva; Santino Gaudio
      Pages: 57 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 59
      Author(s): Giuseppe Riva, Santino Gaudio
      In his recent paper “Distorted body representations in anorexia nervosa” Gadsby (2017) discussed empirical evidence regarding anorexic patients’ distorted body representations. In particular, he interpreted them using the O’Shaughnessy’s long-term body image (LTB) hypothesis (O’Shaughnessy, 1998): individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a distorted LTB that tracks changes in the spatial content of the body and supplies this distorted content to other body representations. Even if we agree on the involvement of body memory in the distorted body representation, an open issue not fully addressed in the paper is: why AN patients do not update their LTBs to reflect their true dimensions' Our correspondence tries to answer to this question using a new neuropsychological and neurobiological theory: the Allocentric Lock Theory – ALT.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2018)
  • Attention, expectation and iconic memory: A reply to Aru and Bachmann
    • Authors: Arien Mack; Jason Clarke; Muge Erol
      Pages: 60 - 63
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 59
      Author(s): Arien Mack, Jason Clarke, Muge Erol

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2018)
  • Inattentional blindness on the full-attention trial: Are we throwing out
           the baby with the bathwater'
    • Authors: Rebekah C. White; Martin Davies; Anne M. Aimola Davies
      Pages: 64 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Rebekah C. White, Martin Davies, Anne M. Aimola Davies
      When attention is otherwise engaged, observers may experience inattentional blindness, failing to notice objects or events that are presented in plain sight. In an inattentional blindness experiment, an unexpectedstimulus ispresented alongside primary-task stimuli, and its detection is probed. We evaluate a criterion that is commonly used to exclude observers from the data analysis. On the final experimental trial, observers do not perform the primary task, but instead look for anything new. Observers who fail to report the unexpected stimulus on this full-attention trial are excluded. On the basis of 4 hypothetical experiments and a review of 128 actual experiments from the literature, we demonstrate some potentially problematic consequences of implementing the full-attention-trial exclusion criterion. Excluded observers may cluster in experimental conditions and the exclusion criterion may lead researchers to understate the pervasiveness of inattentional blindness. It may even render us blind to inattentional blindness on the full-attention trial.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T21:41:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2018)
  • When is cognitive penetration a plausible explanation'
    • Authors: Valtteri Arstila
      Pages: 78 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Valtteri Arstila
      Albert Newen and Petra Vetter argue that neurophysiological considerations and psychophysical studies provide striking evidence for cognitive penetration. This commentary focuses mainly on the neurophysiological considerations, which have thus far remained largely absent in the philosophical debate concerning cognitive penetration, and on the cognitive penetration of perceptual experiences, which is the form of cognitive penetration philosophers have debated about the most. It is argued that Newen and Vetter’s evidence for cognitive penetration is unpersuasive because they do not sufficiently scrutinize the details of the empirical studies they make use of—the details of the empirical studies are crucial also when the studies are used in philosophical debates. The previous does not mean that cognitive penetration could not occur. Quite the contrary, details of the feedback connections to the visual perceptual module and one of the candidates presented by Newen and Vetter suggest that cognitive penetration can occur in rare cases.

      PubDate: 2018-01-23T13:18:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2018)
  • Reexamining unconscious response priming: A liminal-prime paradigm
    • Authors: Maayan Avneon; Dominique Lamy
      Pages: 87 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Maayan Avneon, Dominique Lamy
      Research on the limits of unconscious processing typically relies on the subliminal-prime paradigm. However, this paradigm is limited in the issues it can address. Here, we examined the implications of using the liminal-prime paradigm, which allows comparing unconscious and conscious priming with constant stimulation. We adapted an iconic demonstration of unconscious response priming to the liminal-prime paradigm. On the one hand, temporal attention allocated to the prime and its relevance to the task increased the magnitude of response priming. On the other hand, the longer RTs associated with the dual task inherent to the paradigm resulted in response priming being underestimated, because unconscious priming effects were shorter-lived than conscious-priming effects. Nevertheless, when the impact of long RTs was alleviated by considering the fastest trials or by imposing a response deadline, conscious response priming remained considerably larger than unconscious response priming. These findings suggest that conscious perception strongly modulates response priming.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T21:41:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2018)
  • The effects of neurochemical balance in the anterior cingulate cortex and
           dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on volitional control under irrelevant
    • Authors: Ai Koizumi; Hakwan Lau; Yasuhiro Shimada; Hirohito M. Kondo
      Pages: 104 - 111
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Ai Koizumi, Hakwan Lau, Yasuhiro Shimada, Hirohito M. Kondo
      Volitional control has been related to the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) ratio of glutamate-glutamine to γ-aminobutyric acid concentration in the different parts of the frontal cortex. Yet, how the neurochemical balance in each of the brain areas modulates volitional control remains unclear. Here, participants performed an auditory Go/No-Go task with and without task-irrelevant face distractors. Neurochemical balance was measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy at rest. Participants with higher E/I ratios in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed less control over No-Go cues under no distraction, whereas participants with higher E/I ratios in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were more prompted to make speeded Go responses under distraction. Therefore, the neurochemical balance in the DLPFC and ACC may be involved in the control over task-relevant and -irrelevant cues respectively.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T13:41:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 59 (2018)
  • Corrigendum to “Slow and steady, not fast and furious: Slow temporal
           modulation strengthens continuous flash suppression” [Conscious Cogn. 58
           (2018) 10–19]
    • Authors: Shui'er Han; Randolph Blake; David Alais
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Shui'er Han, Randolph Blake, David Alais

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
  • Slow and steady, not fast and furious: Slow temporal modulation
           strengthens continuous flash suppression
    • Authors: Shui'er Han; Randolph Blake; David Alais
      Pages: 10 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 58
      Author(s): Shui'er Han, Randolph Blake, David Alais
      Continuous flash suppression (CFS) involves the presentation of a rapidly changing Mondrian sequence to one eye and a static target in the other eye. Targets presented in this manner remain suppressed for several seconds at a time, and this has seen the prevalent use of CFS in studies of unconscious visual processes. However, the mechanisms behind CFS remain unclear, complicating its use and the comprehension of results obtained with the paradigm. For example, some studies report observations indicative of faster, visual masking processes whereas others suggest slower, rivalry processes. To reconcile this discrepancy, this study investigates the effect of temporal frequency content and Mondrian pattern structure on CFS suppression. Our results show predominant influences of spatial edges and low temporal-frequency content, which are similar to binocular rivalry, affording a parsimonious alternative in unifying the two paradigms.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T21:41:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
  • Is an off-task mind a freely-moving mind' Examining the relationship
           between different dimensions of thought
    • Authors: Caitlin Mills; Quentin Raffaelli; Zachary C. Irving; Dylan Stan; Kalina Christoff
      Pages: 20 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 58
      Author(s): Caitlin Mills, Quentin Raffaelli, Zachary C. Irving, Dylan Stan, Kalina Christoff
      Mind wandering is frequently defined as task-unrelated or perceptually decoupled thought. However, these definitions may not capture the dynamic features of a wandering mind, such as its tendency to ‘move freely’. Here we test the relationship between three theoretically dissociable dimensions of thought: freedom of movement in thought, task-relatedness, and perceptual decoupling (i.e., lack of awareness of surroundings). Using everyday life experience sampling, thought probes were randomly delivered to participants’ phones for ten days. Results revealed weak intra-individual correlations between freedom of movement in thought and task-unrelatedness, as well as perceptual decoupling. Within our dataset, over 40% of thoughts would have been misclassified under the assumption that off-task thought is inherently freely moving. Overall, freedom of movement appears to be an independent dimension of thought that is not captured by the two most common measures of mind wandering. Future work focusing on the dynamics of thought may be crucial for improving our understanding of the wandering mind.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
  • The part-whole perception of emotion
    • Authors: Trip Glazer
      Pages: 34 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 58
      Author(s): Trip Glazer
      A clever argument purports to show that we can directly perceive the emotions of others: (1) some emotional expressions are parts of the emotions they express; (2) in perceiving a part of something, one can perceive the whole; (3) therefore, in perceiving some emotional expressions, one can perceive the emotions they express. My aim in this paper is to assess the extent to which contemporary theories of emotion support the first premise of this argument.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2018)
  • Can I reach that' Blind reaching as an accurate measure of estimated
           reachable distance
    • Authors: Rebecca A.T. Weast; Dennis R. Proffitt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Rebecca A.T. Weast, Dennis R. Proffitt
      Judgments of one’s reach extent have been repeatedly found to be overestimated by about 10%. In 3 studies, a new dependent measure was employed in which participants viewed targets, closed their eyes, and then touched the location of the remembered target or pointed to its location if out of reach. This experimental paradigm yielded a much smaller but still present bias to over-estimate by about 2%. In addition, participants often reached for and touched target locations that were actually out of reach in a manner indicative of the typical 10% over-estimation bias. Surprisingly, participant response accuracy improved significantly and consistently across experimental trials even without visual or tactile feedback. This suggests that the proprioceptive information about the arm in space coupled with the remembered visual information about target location were sufficient to facilitate learning.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.02.013
  • Unconscious retinotopic motion processing affects non-retinotopic motion
    • Authors: Marc M. Lauffs; Oh-Hyeon Choung; Haluk Öğmen; Michael H. Herzog
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Marc M. Lauffs, Oh-Hyeon Choung, Haluk Öğmen, Michael H. Herzog
      Unconscious visual stimuli can affect conscious perception: For example, an invisible prime can affect responses to a subsequent target. The invisible interpretation of an ambiguous figure can have similar effects. Invisibility in these situations is typically explained by stimulus-suppression in early, retinotopic brain areas. We have previously argued that invisibility is closely linked to Gestalt (“object”) organization principles. For example, motion is typically perceived in non-retinotopic, object-centered, and not in retinotopic coordinates. Such is the case for a bicycle-reflector that is perceived as circling, although its retinotopic trajectory is cycloidal. Here, we used a modified Ternus-Pikler display in which, just as in everyday vision, the retinotopic motion is invisible and the non-retinotopic motion is perceived. Nevertheless, the invisible retinotopic motion, can strongly degrade the conscious non-retinotopic motion percept. This effect cannot be explained by inhibition at a retinotopic processing stage.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.007
  • Amphioxus neurocircuits, enhanced arousal, and the origin of vertebrate
    • Authors: Thurston Lacalli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Thurston Lacalli
      Gene expression studies have recently identified the amphioxus homolog of a domain comprising the combined caudal diencephalon plus midbrain, regions implicated in locomotory control and some forms of primary consciousness in vertebrates. The results of EM-level reconstructions of the larval brain of amphioxus, reviewed here, highlight the importance of inputs to this region for light and physical contact, both of which impinge on the same synaptic zone. The neural circuitry provides a starting point for understanding the organization and evolution of locomotory control and arousal in vertebrates, and implies that one of the tasks of midbrain-based consciousness, as it first emerged in vertebrates, would have been to distinguish between light and physical contact, probably sharp pain in the latter case, by assigning different qualia to each. If so, investigating midbrain circuitry more fully could lead to a better understanding of the neural basis of some forms of sensory experience.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.006
  • Perceptual averaging of facial expressions requires visual awareness and
    • Authors: Elric Elias; Lauren Padama; Timothy D. Sweeny
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Elric Elias, Lauren Padama, Timothy D. Sweeny
      Humans, as highly social animals, are regularly exposed to the faces of conspecifics—often more than one at a time. This feature of social living is important for understanding face perception, not just because it means that information from faces is available in bulk, but also because it changes the way individuals are perceived. For instance, when two faces are seen nearby one another, they tend to look like each other. This phenomenon of perceptual averaging is robust when both faces are seen and attended. But in everyday life, some faces may not receive the full benefit of attention, or they may not be visible at all. We evaluated whether perceptual averaging of relatively complex and simple information on faces, including facial expression and head orientation, can still occur even in these circumstances. In particular, we used object-substitution masking (OSM) and a dual-task designed to disrupt visual awareness and attention, respectively, during evaluations of briefly presented face pairs. Disruptions of awareness or attention eliminated averaging of facial expression, whereas orientation averaging persisted in spite of these challenges. These results demonstrate boundary conditions for the process of perceptual averaging. More generally, they provide insight into how the visual system processes multitudes of objects, both simple and complex, both with and without attention and awareness.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.005
  • Break the “wall” and become creative: Enacting embodied
           metaphors in virtual reality
    • Authors: Xinyue Wang; Kelong Lu; Mark A. Runco; Ning Hao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Xinyue Wang, Kelong Lu, Mark A. Runco, Ning Hao
      This study investigated whether the experience of “breaking the walls”, the embodiment of the metaphor “breaking the rules”, could enhance creative performance. The virtual reality technology was used to simulate the scenario where participants could “break the walls” while walking in a corridor. Participants were asked to solve the creativity-demanding problems (ie., alternative uses tasks, AUT) in either the “break” condition in which they had to break the walls to move forward in VR, or the “no-break” condition where no barrier walls would appear. Results showed higher AUT originality and AUT fluency in the “break” condition than in the “no-break” condition. Moreover, the effects of “breaking the walls” on AUT originality were fully mediated by cognitive flexibility and persistence. These findings may indicate that enacting metaphors such as “breaking the rules” contribute to creative performance. The enhanced cognitive flexibility and persistence may account for the benefits.

      PubDate: 2018-04-12T06:51:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.03.004
  • The effect of encoding duration on implicit and explicit eyewitness memory
    • Authors: Rolando N. Carol; Nadja Schreiber Compo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Rolando N. Carol, Nadja Schreiber Compo
      The present study investigated the effect of encoding duration on implicit and explicit eyewitness memory. Participants (N = 227) viewed a mock crime (brief, 15-s vs. long, 30-s vs. irrelevant/control) and were then tested with both implicit and explicit memory prompts or with explicit memory prompts only. Brief-encoding participants revealed more critical details implicitly than long-encoding or control participants. Further, the number and percentage of accurate details recalled explicitly were higher for long-encoding than for brief-encoding participants. Implicit testing prior to explicit recall—as compared to completing a filler task—was detrimental to free recall performance. Interestingly, brief-encoding participants were significantly more likely to remember critical details implicitly but not explicitly than long-encoding participants. This is the first study to investigate implicit eyewitness memory for a multimodal mock crime. Findings are theoretically consistent with prior research on cognition while expanding upon the extant eyewitness memory and investigative interviewing literature.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.02.004
  • Attention is a sterile concept; iterative reentry is a fertile substitute
    • Authors: Vincent Di Lollo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Vincent Di Lollo
      Attention has been defined as a filter, a limited resource, a spotlight, a zoom lens, and even as a glue that binds disconnected visual features into a coherent object. Here, I claim that all of these metaphor-based explanations are circular. As such, they fail to provide adequate accounts of the phenomena they are purported to explain. In contrast, those very phenomena can be explained on the idea that perceptions emerge from iterative exchanges between cortical regions linked by two-way pathways. Processing can occur in one of two modes: feed-forward and reentrant. In feed-forward mode, the system is configured optimally for the expected input, and perception occurs on the feed-forward sweep. This form of processing corresponds to what is commonly referred to as “preattentive”. If the system cannot be configured appropriately, perceptions emerge from iterative reentrant processing, which is slower, and corresponds to what is commonly referred to as “attentive”.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T14:33:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2018.02.005
  • Replication and extension of long-term implicit memory: Perceptual priming
           but conceptual cessation
    • Authors: David B. Mitchell; Corwin L. Kelly; Alan S. Brown
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 58
      Author(s): David B. Mitchell, Corwin L. Kelly, Alan S. Brown
      We endeavored to replicate Mitchell's (2006) finding of 17-year implicit memory priming. Subjects saw word and picture stimuli in 1999–2000 (M age = 18.9) and were retested after 11–14 years (M = 13.2; M age = 32.1). Via the internet, they completed four implicit memory tasks: picture fragment identification, word fragment completion, word stem completion, and category exemplar generation. Relative to control subjects (matched on stimuli, age, and education), longitudinal subjects revealed priming on picture and word fragment identification (perceptual tasks), but no priming on word stem completion or category exemplar generation (conceptual tasks). Four longitudinal subjects who failed to recall participating in the prior laboratory session had priming similar to the 10 subjects who did remember. Thus, we replicated the longevity of perceptual priming for pictures, and extended this to word fragment priming as well.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T01:27:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 58 (2017)
  • Target meta-awareness is a necessary condition for physiological responses
           to masked emotional faces: Evidence from combined skin conductance and
           heart rate assessment
    • Authors: Myron Tsikandilakis; Peter Chapman Jonathan Peirce
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Myron Tsikandilakis, Peter Chapman, Jonathan Peirce
      Much heated debate surrounds the extent to which we can process emotional stimuli without awareness. In particular the extent to which masked emotional faces can elicit changes in physiology measurements, such as heart rate and skin conductance responses, has produced controversial findings. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether briefly presented faces can elicit physiological changes and, specifically, whether this is due to unconscious processing. We measured and adjusted for individual differences in the detection threshold using both receiver operating characteristics and hit rates. For this we also used a strict Bayesian assessment of participant thresholds. We then measured physiological responses to threshold adjusted emotional faces and for hits, misses and post-binary subdivisions of target meta-awareness. Our findings based on receiver operating characteristics revealed that, when faces were successfully masked there were no significant physiological differences in response to stimuli with different emotional connotations. In contrast, when targets were masked based on hit rates we did find physiological responses to masked emotional faces. With further analysis we found that this effect was specific to correct detection of angry and fearful faces and that increases in experienced arousal were associated with higher confidence ratings for correct detection of these stimuli. Collectively, our results do not support the notion of unconscious processing when using markers of physiological processes. Rather they suggest that target meta-awareness is a necessary condition for – and possibly determined by – physiological changes in response to masked emotional faces.

      PubDate: 2017-12-05T02:00:24Z
  • Daydreams incorporate recent waking life concerns but do not show delayed
           (‘dream-lag’) incorporations
    • Authors: Elaine van; Rijn Alexander Reid Christopher Edwards Josie Malinowski Perrine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Elaine van Rijn, Alexander M. Reid, Christopher L. Edwards, Josie E. Malinowski, Perrine M. Ruby, Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Mark T. Blagrove
      This study investigates the time course of incorporation of waking life experiences into daydreams. Thirty-one participants kept a diary for 10 days, reporting major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs). They were then cued for daydream, Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and N2 dream reports in the sleep laboratory. There was a higher incorporation into daydreams of MCs from the previous two days (day-residue effect), but no day-residue effect for MDAs or PSEs, supporting a function for daydreams of processing current concerns. A day-residue effect for PSEs and the delayed incorporation of PSEs from 5 to 7 days before the dream (the dream-lag effect) have previously been found for REM dreams. Delayed incorporation was not found in this study for daydreams. Daydreams might thus differ in function from REM sleep dreams. However, the REM dream-lag effect was not replicated here, possibly due to design differences from previous studies.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T02:07:06Z
  • Subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to the rubber hand
           illusion do not vary with age in the adult phase
    • Authors: Priscila Palomo; Borrego Cebolla Roberto Llorens Marcelo Demarzo Rosa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Priscila Palomo, Adrián Borrego, Ausiàs Cebolla, Roberto Llorens, Marcelo Demarzo, Rosa M. Baños
      The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20–30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20–35 years old, N = 41; 36–60 years old, N = 28; and 61–80 years old, N = 24), and its effects were measured with subjective (Embodiment of Rubber Hand Questionnaire), behavioral (proprioceptive drift), and physiological (changes in skin temperature and conductance) measures. There were neither significant differences among groups in any response, nor significant covariability or correlation between age and other measures (but for skin temperature), which suggests that the RHI elicits similar responses across different age groups in the adult phase.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Highly relevant stimuli may passively elicit processes associated with
           consciousness during the sleep onset period
    • Authors: Paniz Tavakoli; Sonia Varma Kenneth Campbell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Paniz Tavakoli, Sonia Varma, Kenneth Campbell
      Sleep onset marks the transition from waking to sleep, during which conscious awareness of the external environmental is gradually lost. The present study examines the extent of processing of acoustic change during sleep onset. An auditory optimal paradigm was used to record event-related potentials to six deviant stimuli during wakefulness, stage N1, and stage N2 sleep. During waking and early-stage N1, two of the deviants, environmental sounds and white noise, elicited a P3a reflecting processes that may lead to conscious awareness of acoustic change. Surprisingly, the P3a was also observed following both deviants during late-stage N1, a period thought to represent decreased awareness of the environment. Only the environmental sounds continued to elicit a P3a during stage N2 sleep, associated with the loss of consciousness of the external environment. Certain auditory stimuli may thus continue to activate processes that may lead to conscious awareness during the sleep onset period.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
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