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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 882 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 413)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 184)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 69)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 226)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 128)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 143)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Consciousness and Cognition
  [SJR: 1.363]   [H-I: 76]   [30 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1053-8100 - ISSN (Online) 1090-2376
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3048 journals]
  • Daydreams incorporate recent waking life concerns but do not show delayed
           (‘dream-lag’) incorporations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Elaine van Rijn, Alexander M. Reid, Christopher L. Edwards, Josie E. Malinowski, Perrine M. Ruby, Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Mark T. Blagrove
      This study investigates the time course of incorporation of waking life experiences into daydreams. Thirty-one participants kept a diary for 10 days, reporting major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs). They were then cued for daydream, Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and N2 dream reports in the sleep laboratory. There was a higher incorporation into daydreams of MCs from the previous two days (day-residue effect), but no day-residue effect for MDAs or PSEs, supporting a function for daydreams of processing current concerns. A day-residue effect for PSEs and the delayed incorporation of PSEs from 5 to 7 days before the dream (the dream-lag effect) have previously been found for REM dreams. Delayed incorporation was not found in this study for daydreams. Daydreams might thus differ in function from REM sleep dreams. However, the REM dream-lag effect was not replicated here, possibly due to design differences from previous studies.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T02:07:06Z
  • Emotional prediction: An ALE meta-analysis and MACM analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Guangming Ran, Xiaojun Cao, Xu Chen
      The prediction of emotion has been explored in a variety of functional brain imaging and neurophysiological studies. However, an overall picture of the areas involved this process remains unexploited. Here, we quantitatively summarized the published literature on emotional prediction using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Furthermore, the current study employed a meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) to map the meta-analytic coactivation maps of regions of interest (ROIs). Our ALE analysis revealed significant convergent activations in some vital brain areas involved in emotional prediction, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). For the MACM analysis, we identified that the DLPFC, VLPFC and OFC were the core areas in the coactivation network of emotional prediction. Overall, the results of ALE and MACM indicated that prefrontal brain areas play critical roles in emotional prediction.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T02:07:06Z
  • Susceptibility to unconscious influences is unaffected by a challenging
           inhibitory task or mental exhaustion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Angela Gurney, Anna-Nepheli L. Lagos, Abigail Manning, Ryan B. Scott
      Unconscious influences have been demonstrated in a variety of behavioural contexts, however, a key question remains – to what extent do such influences vary with our changing mental states' We examine whether a prior inhibitory challenge increases susceptibility to subliminal priming in a stem completion task employing neutral (Experiment 1) and reward salient terms (Experiment 2). Results show stem completions to be significantly influenced by unconscious priming, and the challenging inhibitory task (the Stroop) to be significantly more mentally exhausting than the control task. However, neither the degree of inhibitory challenge, trait self-control, nor task-related mental exhaustion significantly influenced unconscious priming. Bayesian analysis provides strong evidence that prior inhibitory challenge does not affect susceptibility to unconscious priming. The study supports the conclusion that unconscious processing can be independent of consciously experienced mental states and provides reassurance that inhibitory impairment, common to mood disorders, should not increase susceptibility to unconscious influences.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T02:07:06Z
  • Subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to the rubber hand
           illusion do not vary with age in the adult phase
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Priscila Palomo, Adrián Borrego, Ausiàs Cebolla, Roberto Llorens, Marcelo Demarzo, Rosa M. Baños
      The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20–30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20–35 years old, N = 41; 36–60 years old, N = 28; and 61–80 years old, N = 24), and its effects were measured with subjective (Embodiment of Rubber Hand Questionnaire), behavioral (proprioceptive drift), and physiological (changes in skin temperature and conductance) measures. There were neither significant differences among groups in any response, nor significant covariability or correlation between age and other measures (but for skin temperature), which suggests that the RHI elicits similar responses across different age groups in the adult phase.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Highly relevant stimuli may passively elicit processes associated with
           consciousness during the sleep onset period
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Paniz Tavakoli, Sonia Varma, Kenneth Campbell
      Sleep onset marks the transition from waking to sleep, during which conscious awareness of the external environmental is gradually lost. The present study examines the extent of processing of acoustic change during sleep onset. An auditory optimal paradigm was used to record event-related potentials to six deviant stimuli during wakefulness, stage N1, and stage N2 sleep. During waking and early-stage N1, two of the deviants, environmental sounds and white noise, elicited a P3a reflecting processes that may lead to conscious awareness of acoustic change. Surprisingly, the P3a was also observed following both deviants during late-stage N1, a period thought to represent decreased awareness of the environment. Only the environmental sounds continued to elicit a P3a during stage N2 sleep, associated with the loss of consciousness of the external environment. Certain auditory stimuli may thus continue to activate processes that may lead to conscious awareness during the sleep onset period.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Unitary and dual models of phenomenal consciousness
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Tomáš Marvan, Michal Polák
      There is almost unanimous consensus among the theorists of consciousness that the phenomenal character of a mental state cannot exist without consciousness. We argue for a reappraisal of this consensus. We distinguish two models of phenomenal consciousness: unitary and dual. Unitary model takes the production of a phenomenal quality and it’s becoming conscious to be one and the same thing. The dual model, which we advocate in this paper, distinguishes the process in which the phenomenal quality is formed from the process that makes this quality conscious. We put forward a conceptual, methodological, neuropsychological and neural argument for the dual model. These arguments are independent but provide mutual support to each other. Together, they strongly support the dual model of phenomenal consciousness and the concomitant idea of unconscious mental qualities. The dual view is thus, we submit, a hypothesis worthy of further probing and development.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Learning to infer the time of our actions and decisions from their
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Helena Matute, Carmelo P. Cubillas, Pablo Garaizar
      Research shows that people infer the time of their actions and decisions from their consequences. We asked how people know how much time to subtract from consequences in order to infer their actions and decisions. They could either subtract a fixed, default, time from consequences, or learn from experience how much time to subtract in each situation. In two experiments, participants’ actions were followed by a tone, which was presented either immediately or after a delay. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the time of their actions; in Experiment 2, the time of their decisions to act. Both actions and decisions were judged to occur sooner or later as a function of whether consequences were immediate or delayed. Estimations tended to be shifted toward their consequences, but in some cases they were shifted away from them. Most importantly, in all cases participants learned progressively to adjust their estimations with experience.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Switching memory perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Shazia Akhtar, Lucy V. Justice, Catherine Loveday, Martin A. Conway
      The perspective in which memories were spontaneously recalled, field (original perspective) or observer (see oneself in the memory), was examined for both recent and remote memories. Recent memories were dominated by field perspective whilst remote memories were dominated by observer perspective. Further, field memories contained reliably more episodic detail than observer memories. After a 1-week interval, the same memories were recalled again but with a switched memory perspective. Switching from an observer to a field perspective did not reliably increase the amount of episodic details in a memory. Switching from field to observer perspective did, however, reliably reduce the number of episodic details. These findings suggest that memories may be represented in long-term memory with a fixed perspective, either field or observer, which can be temporarily altered sometimes changing the nature of a memory, i.e. how much detail remains accessible.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Testosterone facilitates the sense of agency
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Donné van der Westhuizen, James Moore, Mark Solms, Jack van Honk
      Sense of agency (SoA) refers to feelings of being in control of one’s actions. Evidence suggests that SoA might contribute towards higher-order feelings of personal control – a key attribute of powerful individuals. Whether testosterone, a steroid hormone linked to power in dominance hierarchies, also influences the SoA is not yet established. In a repeated-measures design, 26 females participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the effects of 0.5 mg testosterone on SoA, using an implicit measure based upon perceived shifts in time between a voluntary action and its outcome. Illusions of control, as operationalized by optimism in affective forecasting, were also assessed. Testosterone increased action binding but there was no significant effect on tone binding. Affective forecasting was found to be significantly more positive on testosterone. SoA and optimistic expectations are basic manifestations of power which may contribute to feelings of infallibility often associated with dominance and testosterone.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Inspired by Mary Jane' Mechanisms underlying enhanced creativity in
           cannabis users
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Emily M. LaFrance, Carrie Cuttler
      Previous research suggests cannabis may enhance some aspects of creativity, although the results remain somewhat equivocal. Moreover, it is unclear whether differences in cannabis users’ personalities may account for any potentially beneficial effects of cannabis on creativity. This study was designed to examine whether sober cannabis users demonstrate superior self-reported and objective creativity test performance relative to non-users, and to determine whether any of the Big 5 personality domains underlie these effects. A sample of sober cannabis users (n =412) and non-users (n =309) completed measures of cannabis consumption, personality, self-reported and objective creativity. Relative to non-users, sober cannabis users self-reported higher creativity, and performed significantly better on a measure of convergent thinking. Controlling for cannabis users’ higher levels of openness to experience abolished these effects. Therefore, while cannabis users appear to demonstrate enhanced creativity, these effects are an artifact of their heightened levels of openness to experience.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Rhythms of the body, rhythms of the brain: Respiration, neural
           oscillations, and embodied cognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Somogy Varga, Detlef H. Heck
      In spite of its importance as a life-defining rhythmic movement and its constant rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the body, respiration has not received attention in Embodied Cognition (EC) literature. Our paper aims to show that (1) respiration exerts significant and unexpected influence on cognitive processes, and (2) it does so by modulating neural synchronization that underlies specific cognitive processes. Then, (3) we suggest that the particular example of respiration may function as a model for a general mechanism through which the body influences cognitive functioning. Finally, (4) we work out the implications for EC, draw a parallel to the role of gesture, and argue that respiration sometimes plays a double, pragmatic and epistemic, role, which reduces the cognitive load. In such cases, consistent with EC, the overall cognitive activity includes a loop-like interaction between neural and non-neural elements.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Cooperative and competitive contexts do not modify the effect of social
           intention on motor action
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): François Quesque, Astrid Mignon, Yann Coello
      In social interactions, the movements performed by others can be used to anticipate their intention. The present paper investigates whether cooperative vs competitive contexts influence the kinematics of object-directed motor actions and whether they modulate the effect of social intention on motor actions. An “Actor” and a “Partner” participated in a task consisting in displacing a wooden dowel under time constraint. Before this Main action, the Actor performed a Preparatory action which consisted in placing the dowel at the center of the table. Information about who would make the forthcoming Main action was provided only to the Actor through headphones. Results demonstrate an exaggeration of spatial and temporal actions’ parameters when acting for the Partner, in cooperative, as well as in competitive context. This finding suggests that the motor manifestation of social intention is largely determined by non-conscious implicit processes that seem little influenced by the context of social interaction.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Intensity and memory characteristics of near-death experiences
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Charlotte Martial, Vanessa Charland-Verville, Héléna Cassol, Vincent Didone, Martial Van Der Linden, Steven Laureys
      Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) seem to be very detailed and stable over time. At present, there is still no satisfactory explanation for the NDEs’ rich phenomenology. Here we compared phenomenological characteristics of NDE memories with the reported experience’s intensity. We included 152 individuals with a self-reported “classical” NDE (i.e. occurring in life-threatening conditions). All participants completed a mailed questionnaire that included a measure of phenomenological characteristics of memories (the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire; MCQ) and a measure of NDE’s intensity (the Greyson NDE scale). Greyson NDE scale total score was positively correlated with MCQ total score, suggesting that participants who described more intense NDEs also reported more phenomenological memory characteristics of NDE. Using MCQ items, our study also showed that NDE’s intensity is associated in particular with sensory details, personal importance and reactivation frequency variables.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Creativity on tap' Effects of alcohol intoxication on creative
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Mathias Benedek, Lisa Panzierer, Emanuel Jauk, Aljoscha C. Neubauer
      Anecdotal reports link alcohol intoxication to creativity, while cognitive research highlights the crucial role of cognitive control for creative thought. This study examined the effects of mild alcohol intoxication on creative cognition in a placebo-controlled design. Participants completed executive and creative cognition tasks before and after consuming either alcoholic beer (BAC of 0.03) or non-alcoholic beer (placebo). Alcohol impaired executive control, but improved performance in the Remote Associates Test, and did not affect divergent thinking ability. The findings indicate that certain aspects of creative cognition benefit from mild attenuations of cognitive control, and contribute to the growing evidence that higher cognitive control is not always associated with better cognitive performance.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • The amount of recent action-outcome coupling modulates the mechanisms of
           the intentional binding effect: A behavioral and ERP study
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Michael Goldberg, Niko Busch, Elke van der Meer
      Our everyday interactions depend on the ability to maintain a feeling of control over our bodily actions, that is, the sense of agency. The intentional binding effect – a perceived temporal shortening between voluntary actions and sensory outcomes – has been shown to implicitly measure agency. We investigated the effect’s underlying mechanisms: prediction and retrospective inference. First, long-term and recent action-outcome coupling were compared. Second, brain activity was recorded to uncover the neural correlates of the two mechanisms. Our results show that the recent accumulation of action-outcome coupling, but not that of a long-term accumulation, is correlated with the binding effect of actions and accounts for both mechanisms. Temporal action binding was reflected in both the readiness potential and the auditory evoked potential. The results shed new light on our understanding of the influence that immediate context of an action has on its temporal binding and the neural substrate of human agency.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Multisensory integration induces body ownership of a handtool, but not any
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Veronica Weser, Gianluca Finotti, Marcello Costantini, Dennis R. Proffitt
      Bodily boundaries are computed by integrating multisensory bodily signals and can be experimentally manipulated using bodily illusions. Research on tool use demonstrates that tools alter body representations motorically to account for changes in a user’s action repertoire. The present experiment sought to unify perceptual and motoric accounts of tool embodiment using a modified Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) that also addressed the skill and practice aspects of the tool use literature. In Experiment 1, synchronous multisensory stimulation induced perceptual embodiment of a tool, chopsticks. The embodiment of chopsticks was stronger for more skilled participants, and if the illusion was preceded by tool use. In Experiment 2, the illusion was not elicited with a different type of tool, a teacup, showing that not all objects can be incorporated. This experiment helps to clarify the role of perceptual and motoric embodiment and suggests future avenues for research into tools embodiment using this method.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • A unity of the self or a multiplicity of locations' How the
           graphesthesia task sheds light on the role of spatial perspectives in
           bodily self-consciousness
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Gabriel Arnold, Charles Spence, Malika Auvray
      Integrating multisensory stimuli from a self-centred perspective is crucial for the unity of the self. On the other hand, understanding external space and communicating spatial knowledge with others necessitate the adoption of decentred perspectives. How do we juggle these two requirements' In this article, we review those studies that have used the graphesthesia task in order to investigate the perspectives that people adopt when interpreting ambiguous tactile symbols (e.g., b, d, p, and q). With such ambiguous symbols, self-centred and decentred perspectives conflict with one another. The results reviewed here reveal that the perspectives adopted vary significantly with spatial, personal, and interpersonal factors. Such findings suggest that the self can adopt a multiplicity of spatial locations. However, the unity of the self can partly be explained by the predominance of a head-centred perspective. On the other hand, perspective-taking abilities contribute to the distinction between self and others, reinforcing self-consciousness.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Predictions, precision, and agentive attention
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Andy Clark
      Ransom, Fazelpour, and Mole (this journal - 2017) raise an important puzzle for the ‘prediction error minimization’ account of cognitive processing. That account depicts all cognitive processing as fundamentally in the business of minimizing prediction errors concerning the evolving flow of sensory information. One of the cornerstones of these highly ambitious, would-be unifying accounts is their depiction of attention as nothing other than the process of optimizing the precision (inverse variance) of critical prediction error signals. But that story, Ransom et al. suggest, cannot accommodate voluntary shifts of attention. In this paper, I show why this challenge to the grand unifying project fails. It fails because it locates the origins of voluntary attention in complexes of unanalyzed desire rather than in changing complexes of beliefs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • The part-whole perception of emotion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Trip Glazer
      A clever argument purports to show that we can directly perceive the emotions of others: (1) some emotional expressions are parts of the emotions they express; (2) in perceiving a part of something, one can perceive the whole; (3) therefore, in perceiving some emotional expressions, one can perceive the emotions they express. My aim in this paper is to assess the extent to which contemporary theories of emotion support the first premise of this argument.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • The neuropsychophysiology of tingling
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Benedek T. Tihanyi, Eszter Ferentzi, Florian Beissner, Ferenc Köteles
      Tingling is a bodily sensation experienced under a variety of conditions from everyday experiences to experimental and therapeutic situations. It can be induced by both peripheral or afferent (external stimulation, peripheral pathology) and higher cognitive (expectation) processes. The paper summarizes the current scientific knowledge on the neurophysiological and psychological concomitants of the tingling sensation. Four possible models are identified and presented: the afferent, the attention-disclosed, the attention-evoked, and the efferent model. Of these, only the attention-disclosed model, i.e., attention discloses the sensation by opening the gate for suppressed sensory information, appears to be able to explain every aspect of the tingling phenomenon. Terminological issues and the possible role of the tingling phenomenon in medically unexplained symptoms, nocebo and placebo reactions, and body-oriented therapeutic interventions are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Is an off-task mind a freely-moving mind' Examining the relationship
           between different dimensions of thought
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Caitlin Mills, Quentin Raffaelli, Zachary C. Irving, Dylan Stan, Kalina Christoff
      Mind wandering is frequently defined as task-unrelated or perceptually decoupled thought. However, these definitions may not capture the dynamic features of a wandering mind, such as its tendency to ‘move freely’. Here we test the relationship between three theoretically dissociable dimensions of thought: freedom of movement in thought, task-relatedness, and perceptual decoupling (i.e., lack of awareness of surroundings). Using everyday life experience sampling, thought probes were randomly delivered to participants’ phones for ten days. Results revealed weak intra-individual correlations between freedom of movement in thought and task-unrelatedness, as well as perceptual decoupling. Within our dataset, over 40% of thoughts would have been misclassified under the assumption that off-task thought is inherently freely moving. Overall, freedom of movement appears to be an independent dimension of thought that is not captured by the two most common measures of mind wandering. Future work focusing on the dynamics of thought may be crucial for improving our understanding of the wandering mind.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Anosognosia, denial of illness and the right hemisphere dominance for
           emotions: Some historical and clinical notes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Guido Gainotti
      Poor disease awareness (‘anosognosia’) is often observed in patients with various disabilities caused by brain damage. The lack of disease awareness can be due to the disruption of specific cognitive mechanisms and the development of psychodynamic mechanisms of denial. The aim of this paper is to review how these phenomena were discovered and evolved over time and to consider the relationships between them and the right hemisphere dominance for emotions. It is not clear whether the term ‘anosognosia’ refers to a basic mechanism that can explain similar awareness defects in different behavioural domains or whether it must be viewed as a multifaceted phenomenon in which both the disruption of cognitive or sensorimotor mechanisms and the emergence of motivational factors can play different roles in various forms of disease unawareness and in different kinds of ‘anosognosic’ patients.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Registered reports for Consciousness and Cognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Gregory Francis, Talis Bachmann

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Attention, expectation and iconic memory: A reply to Aru and Bachmann
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Arien Mack, Jason Clarke, Muge Erol

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Paranormal belief and errors of probabilistic reasoning: The role of
           constituent conditional relatedness in believers' susceptibility to the
           conjunction fallacy
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Paul Rogers, John E. Fisk, Emma Lowrie
      The present study examines the extent to which stronger belief in either extrasensory perception, psychokinesis or life-after-death is associated with a proneness to making conjunction errors (CEs). One hundred and sixty members of the UK public read eight hypothetical scenarios and for each estimated the likelihood that two constituent events alone plus their conjunction would occur. The impact of paranormal belief plus constituents’ conditional relatedness type, estimates of the subjectively less likely and more likely constituents plus relevant interaction terms tested via three Generalized Linear Mixed Models. General qualification levels were controlled for. As expected, stronger PK beliefs and depiction of a positively conditionally related (verses conditionally unrelated) constituent pairs predicted higher CE generation. ESP and LAD beliefs had no impact with, surprisingly, higher estimates of the less likely constituent predicting fewer - not more - CEs. Theoretical implications, methodological issues and ideas for future research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:21:39Z
  • Attention and the sense of agency: A review and some thoughts on the
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Nicholas Hon
      Much is now known about the sense of agency and how it is produced. What is lacking, though, is an understanding of how it relates to other cognitive domains and operations. Here, the relationship between the sense of agency and attention is explored. A review of the literature suggests that attention is involved in the sense of agency in (at least) two key ways. First, agency processing is dependent on attentional resources. Second, attentional enhancement is necessary for extraneous information to have an influence over the sense of agency. These are discussed and some suggestions for future research are offered.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:21:39Z
  • Isolating automatic photism generation from strategic photism use in
           grapheme-colour synaesthesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Arielle M. Levy, Mike J. Dixon, Sherif Soliman
      Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a phenomenon in which ordinary black numbers and letters (graphemes) trigger the experience of highly specific colours (photisms). The Synaesthetic Stroop task has been used to demonstrate that graphemes trigger photisms automatically. In the standard Stroop task, congruent trial probability (CTP) has been manipulated to isolate effects of automaticity from higher-order strategic effects, with larger Stroop effects at high CTP attributed to participants strategically attending to the stimulus word to facilitate responding, and smaller Stroop effects at low CTP reflecting automatic word processing. Here we apply this logic for the first time to the Synaesthetic Stroop task. At high CTP we showed larger Stroop effects due to synaesthetes using their synaesthetic colours strategically. At low CTP Stroop effects were reduced but were still significant. We directly isolate automatic processing of graphemes from strategic effects and conclusively show that, in synaesthesia, viewing black graphemes automatically triggers colour experiences.

      PubDate: 2017-10-10T14:40:10Z
  • Depletion, moral identity, and unethical behavior: Why people behave
           unethically after self-control exertion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Yan Wang, Guosen Wang, Qiuju Chen, Lin Li
      Self-control enables people to resist short-term temptations in the service of long-term goals. Previous exertion of self-control leads to a state of ego depletion. Three studies demonstrated that ego depletion leads to a high level of unethical behavior. These studies also hypothesized and confirmed that depleted individuals behave unethically because of low moral identity. Study 1 found that depleted participants were more likely to over-report their performance than non-depleted participants. Study 2 revealed that depletion reduced people’s moral identity, which in turn increased their propensity to engage in unethical behavior. Study 3 proved that priming moral identity eliminated the effect of depletion on cheating. Findings suggest that reduced moral identity accounts for the effect of self-control depletion on unethical behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T19:53:53Z
  • The interpretation of dream meaning: Resolving ambiguity using Latent
           Semantic Analysis in a small corpus of text
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Edgar Altszyler, Sidarta Ribeiro, Mariano Sigman, Diego Fernández Slezak
      Computer-based dreams content analysis relies on word frequencies within predefined categories in order to identify different elements in text. As a complementary approach, we explored the capabilities and limitations of word-embedding techniques to identify word usage patterns among dream reports. These tools allow us to quantify words associations in text and to identify the meaning of target words. Word-embeddings have been extensively studied in large datasets, but only a few studies analyze semantic representations in small corpora. To fill this gap, we compared Skip-gram and Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) capabilities to extract semantic associations from dream reports. LSA showed better performance than Skip-gram in small size corpora in two tests. Furthermore, LSA captured relevant word associations in dream collection, even in cases with low-frequency words or small numbers of dreams. Word associations in dreams reports can thus be quantified by LSA, which opens new avenues for dream interpretation and decoding.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T09:30:41Z
  • Independent operation of implicit working memory under cognitive load
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Eunhee Ji, Kyung Min Lee, Min-Shik Kim
      Implicit working memory (WM) has been known to operate non-consciously and unintentionally. The current study investigated whether implicit WM is a discrete mechanism from explicit WM in terms of cognitive resource. To induce cognitive resource competition, we used a conjunction search task (Experiment 1) and imposed spatial WM load (Experiment 2a and 2b). Each trial was composed of a set of five consecutive search displays. The location of the first four displays appeared as per pre-determined patterns, but the fifth display could follow the same pattern or not. If implicit WM can extract the moving pattern of stimuli, response times for the fifth target would be faster when it followed the pattern compared to when it did not. Our results showed implicit WM can operate when participants are searching for the conjunction target and even while maintaining spatial WM information. These results suggest that implicit WM is independent from explicit spatial WM.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T04:44:21Z
  • Thoughts and sensations, twin galaxies of the inner space: The propensity
           to mind-wander relates to spontaneous sensations arising on the hands
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): George A. Michael, Isabelle Tapiero, Germán Gálvez-García, Laurence Jacquot
      Sensations and thoughts have been described as potentially related to self-awareness. We therefore asked whether sensations that arise in the absence of external triggers, i.e., spontaneous sensations (SPS), which were shown to relate to interoception and perception of the self, vary as a function of the individual propensity to generate spontaneous thoughts, i.e., mind-wandering. The Mind Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) was used as a specific tool to assess the frequency and propensity to mind-wander several weeks before completing an SPS task. Correlational analyses between the MWQ score and SPS showed that greater propensity to mind-wander coincided with widespread perception of SPS, while lesser propensity to mind-wander coincided with more spatially restricted perception of SPS. The results are interpreted in light of the role of spontaneous thoughts and sensations in self-awareness. The potential psychological processes and the way they might regulate the relation between mind-wandering and the perception of SPS are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T04:44:21Z
  • Beware of the gorilla: Effect of goal priming on inattentional blindness
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Jean-Baptiste Légal, Peggy Chekroun, Viviane Coiffard, Fabrice Gabarrot
      When people’s attention is engaged in a visual task, they often are blind to unexpected events occurring in their environment. This phenomenon is known as inattentional blindness. In this study, we examine inattentional blindness with regard to goal priming, a technique allowing to unconsciously influence goal pursuit. After being primed with a detection goal, the name of the target to detect, or no prime, participants watched a short sequence in which they had to count passes made by basketball players. An unexpected event occurred during the video. Results indicated that when attentional demands of the monitoring task were moderate, goal priming improved the detection of the unexpected event. Implications for the understanding of nonconscious management of attention will be discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T13:41:58Z
  • Do drives drive the train of thought'—Effects of hunger and sexual
           arousal on mind-wandering behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Jan Rummel, Laura Nied
      Physiological needs that are currently unfulfilled are known to affect human cognition and behavior. The present study investigates whether and how the temporary activation of two primary physiological needs, namely hunger and sexual arousal, influence both the frequency and the contents of mind-wandering episodes. To induce hunger, one group of participants fasted for a minimum of five hours whereas another group of participants was exposed to audio material with explicit sexual content to provoke sexual arousal. Both groups as well as an additional control group, which had not received hunger instructions and had not been exposed to arousing material of any kind beforehand, performed a reading task during which mind wandering was assessed using a standard experience-sampling method. Results showed that acute hunger but not elevated sexual arousal renders the occurrence of mind-wandering episodes more likely. Induction of both hunger and sexual arousal rendered the occurrence of need-related off-task thoughts more likely and changed time orientations of mind wandering. The present findings are well in line with the assumption that unfulfilled needs regularly achieve cognitive priority and extend the cognitive-priority idea to self-generated thoughts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T13:41:58Z
  • Phenomenological characteristics of autobiographical memory in
           Korsakoff’s syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino
      A body of research suggests compromise of autobiographical memory in Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS). The present paper extends this literature by investigating the subjective experience of autobiographical recall in the syndrome. Patients with KS and controls were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories. After memory retrieval, participants were asked to rate phenomenological characteristics of their memories (i.e., reliving, back in time, remembering, realness, visual imagery, auditory imagery, language, emotion, rehearsal, importance, spatial recall and temporal recall). Analysis showed lower “Mean Phenomenological Experience” in the Korsakoff patients than in controls. However, the Korsakoff patients attributed relatively high emotional value and importance to their memories. Although our findings suggest compromised phenomenological reliving of autobiographical memory in patients with KS, affective characteristics such as emotion and importance are likely to play a main role in the subjective experience of the past in these patients.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T13:41:58Z
  • Activating attachment representations during memory retrieval modulates
           intrusive traumatic memories
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Richard A. Bryant, Iris Chan
      Although priming mental representations of attachment security reduces arousal, research has not examined the effect of attachment on the retrieval of emotionally arousing memories. This study investigated the effect of priming attachment security on the retrieval of emotional memories. Seventy-five participants viewed negative and neutral images, and two days later received either an attachment prime or a control prime immediately prior to free recall of the images. Two days later, participants reported how frequently they experienced intrusions of the negative images. The attachment group had less distress, and reported fewer subsequent intrusions than the control group. Attachment style moderated these effects such that individuals with an avoidant attachment style were not impacted by the attachment prime. These findings suggest that priming attachment security decreases distress during memory reactivation, and this may reduce subsequent intrusive memories.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T13:41:58Z
  • Independent self-construal mediates the association between CYP19A1 gene
           variant and subjective well-being
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Xing Yang, Yafang Yang, Mengying Xue, Pengpeng Fang, Guomin Shen, Kejin Zhang, Xiaocai Gao, Rongjun Yu, Pingyuan Gong
      Testosterone and estrogen are involved in self-related behavioral dispositions and experiences of subjective well-being. In this study, we investigated to what extent the aromatase (CYP19A1) gene, which encodes an enzyme in converting testosterone into estrogen, contributes to subjective well-being and in another self-related disposition: independent and interdependent self-construal. In study 1, a meta-analysis showed that the GG genotype of CYP19A1 (a G/A substitution at Val80, rs700518) was associated with higher testosterone and lower estradiol. In study 2, an empirical study of individuals with the GG (n =115), AG (n =286) and AA (n =193) genotypes indicated that individuals with the GG genotype exhibited higher independent self-construal and higher subjective well-being. The association between the GG genotype of CYP19A1 Val80 and subjective well-being was mediated by the independent self-construal. Our findings reinforce the idea that personality traits such as independent self-construal explain the link between genetic variant and subjective well-being.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T13:41:58Z
  • The signatures of conscious access and its phenomenology are consistent
           with large-scale brain communication at criticality
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Enzo Tagliazucchi
      Conscious awareness refers to information processing in the brain that is accompanied by subjective, reportable experiences. Current models of conscious access propose that sufficiently strong sensory stimuli ignite a global network of regions allowing further processing. The immense number of possible experiences indicates that activity associated with conscious awareness must be highly differentiated. However, information must also be integrated to account for the unitary nature of consciousness. We present a computational model that identifies conscious access with self-sustained percolation in an anatomical network. We show that the amount of integrated information (Φ) is maximal at the critical threshold. To the extent that self-sustained percolation relates to conscious access, the model supports a link between information integration and conscious access. We also identify a posterior “hotspot” of regions presenting high levels of information sharing. Finally, competitive activity spreading qualitatively describes the results of paradigms such as backward masking and binocular rivalry.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T13:39:50Z
  • Assessing pain in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness: Are we
           heading in the right direction'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Antonino Naro, Placido Bramanti, Alessia Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
      The deterioration of sensory-motor integration within the pain matrix in patients with chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) is one of the principal mechanisms responsible for non-conscious pain perception. The present study aimed to assess whether the variability in the inter-peak interval (IPI) between the N2 and P2 components of laser evoked potentials (LEP) could represent an objective marker of the behavioral responsiveness to nociceptive stimulation, as measured by the Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R), and regardless of the sensory part of pain processing. We found that only IPI variability showed a significant correlation with NCS-R score, independently of the stimulation intensity (that influences the sensory part of pain processing). It was thus concluded that IPI variability might represent an objective measure of pain processing, which may help clinicians in the development of effective pain management strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T13:39:50Z
  • Blindness and social trust: The effect of early visual deprivation on
           judgments of trustworthiness
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): C. Ferrari, T. Vecchi, L.B. Merabet, Z. Cattaneo
      Investigating the impact of early visual deprivation on evaluations related to social trust has received little attention to date. This is despite consistent evidence suggesting that early onset blindness may interfere with the normal development of social skills. In this study, we investigated whether early blindness affects judgments of trustworthiness regarding the actions of an agent, with trustworthiness representing the fundamental dimension in the social evaluation. Specifically, we compared performance between a group of early blind individuals with that of sighted controls in their evaluation of trustworthiness of an agent after hearing a pair of two positive or two negative social behaviors (impression formation). Participants then repeated the same evaluation following the presentation of a third (consistent or inconsistent) behavior regarding the same agent (impression updating). Overall, blind individuals tended to give similar evaluations compared to their sighted counterparts. However, they also valued positive behaviors significantly more than sighted controls when forming their impression of an agent’s trustworthiness. Moreover, when inconsistent information was provided, blind individuals were more prone to revise their initial evaluation compared to controls. These results suggest that early visual deprivation may have a dramatic effect on the evaluation of social factors such as trustworthiness.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T13:39:50Z
  • By-passing strategic retrieval: Experimentally induced spontaneous
           episodic memories in 35- and 46-month-old children
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Peter Krøjgaard, Osman S. Kingo, Toril S. Jensen, Dorthe Berntsen
      Most parents have experienced their preschool child having spontaneous episodic memories, that is, verbally reported memories of past events that come to the child almost out of the blue. Until recently such memories had only been observed outside the lab. By means of a new paradigm we report experimentally induced spontaneous memories of a unique event experienced one week earlier in 35- and 46-month-old children (N=110). At the first visit, half of the children experienced a Teddy event and the other half experienced a Game event. At the second visit the children’s spontaneous utterances were recorded while waiting. The results revealed that the children talked spontaneously about the unique event experienced previously. Age showed no systematic effect on spontaneous episodic recollection, but there was a clear effect of age on subsequent control questions requiring strategic retrieval. The results support the idea of involuntary episodic remembering being a developmentally early achievement.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • The levels of perceptual processing and the neural correlates of
           increasing subjective visibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Marek Binder, Krzysztof Gociewicz, Bert Windey, Marcin Koculak, Karolina Finc, Jan Nikadon, Monika Derda, Axel Cleeremans
      According to the levels-of-processing hypothesis, transitions from unconscious to conscious perception may depend on stimulus processing level, with more gradual changes for low-level stimuli and more dichotomous changes for high-level stimuli. In an event-related fMRI study we explored this hypothesis using a visual backward masking procedure. Task requirements manipulated level of processing. Participants reported the magnitude of the target digit in the high-level task, its color in the low-level task, and rated subjective visibility of stimuli using the Perceptual Awareness Scale. Intermediate stimulus visibility was reported more frequently in the low-level task, confirming prior behavioral results. Visible targets recruited insulo-fronto-parietal regions in both tasks. Task effects were observed in visual areas, with higher activity in the low-level task across all visibility levels. Thus, the influence of level of processing on conscious perception may be mediated by attentional modulation of activity in regions representing features of consciously experienced stimuli.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Priming performance-related concerns induces task-related mind-wandering
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Megan L. Jordano, Dayna R. Touron
      Two experiments tested the hypothesis that priming of performance-related concerns would (1) increase the frequency of task-related mind-wandering (i.e., task-related interference; TRI) and (2) decrease task performance. In each experiment, sixty female participants completed an operation span task (OSPAN) containing thought content probes. The task was framed as a math task for those in a condition primed for math-related stereotype threat and as a memory task for those in a control condition. In both studies, women whose performance-related concerns were primed via stereotype threat reported more TRI than women in the control. The second experiment used a more challenging OSPAN task and stereotype primed women also had lower math accuracy than controls. These results support the “control failures×current concerns” framework of mind-wandering, which posits that the degree to which the environmental context triggers personal concerns influences both mind-wandering frequency and content.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Microsaccade-rate indicates absorption by music listening
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Elke B. Lange, Fabian Zweck, Petra Sinn
      The power of music is a literary topos, which can be attributed to intense and personally significant experiences, one of them being the state of absorption. Such phenomenal states are difficult to grasp objectively. We investigated the state of musical absorption by using eye tracking. We utilized a load related definition of state absorption: multimodal resources are committed to create a unified representation of music. Resource allocation was measured indirectly by microsaccade rate, known to indicate cognitive processing load. We showed in Exp. 1 that microsaccade rate also indicates state absorption. Hence, there is cross-modal coupling between an auditory aesthetic experience and fixational eye movements. When removing the fixational stimulus in Exp. 2, saccades are no longer generated upon visual input and the cross-modal coupling disappeared. Results are interpreted in favor of the load hypothesis of microsaccade rate and against the assumption of general slowing by state absorption.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T19:31:09Z
  • Consciousness operationalized, a debate realigned
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Peter Carruthers, Bénédicte Veillet
      This paper revisits the debate about cognitive phenomenology. It elaborates, defends, and improves on our earlier proposal for resolving that debate, according to which the test for irreducible phenomenology is the presence of explanatory gaps. After showing how proposals like ours have been misunderstood or misused by others, we deploy our operationalization to argue that the correct way to align the debate over cognitive phenomenology is not between sensory and (alleged) cognitive phenomenology, but rather between non-conceptual and (alleged) conceptual or propositional phenomenology. In doing so we defend three varieties of non-sensory (amodal) 1 Note that the term “amodal” admits of two quite different uses in cognitive science. One (the one we intend) refers to processes or representations that are neither sensory-specific nor multi-sensory (or “multi-modal”) in nature. We assume throughout that concepts are amodal in this sense. The other use is the one that figures in the phrase “amodal completion” in vision science. This refers to the construction by low-level visual processes of an imaginary boundary of a partially-occluded object. The contrasting sort of completion – “modal completion” – refers to the construction of an imaginary boundary of the presumed occluding object. Both are exemplified in the famous Kanizsa triangles. Moreover, both are modality-specific (specific to the visual system) in our intended sense of “modal”. 1 non-conceptual phenomenology: valence, a sense of approximate number, and a sense of elapsed time.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T19:31:09Z
  • Multivariate pattern analysis of event-related potentials predicts the
           subjective relevance of everyday objects
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): William Francis Turner, Phillip Johnston, Kathleen de Boer, Carmen Morawetz, Stefan Bode
      Potentially decision-relevant stimuli have been proposed to undergo immediate semantic processing. The current study investigated whether information regarding the general desirability (‘Wanting’) of visually presented ‘everyday’ objects was rapidly and automatically processed. Participants completed a foreground task while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, and task-irrelevant images were presented in the background. Following this, participants rated the images with regards to Wanting and the potentially related attributes of Relevance, Familiarity, Aesthetic Pleasantness and Time Reference. Multivariate pattern classification was used to predict the ratings from patterns of EEG data. Prediction of Wanting and Relevance was possible between 100 and 150ms following stimulus presentation. The other dimensions could not be predicted. Wanting and Relevance ratings were highly correlated and displayed similar feature weight maps. The current results suggest that the general desirability and subjective relevance of everyday objects is rapidly and automatically processed for a wide range of visual stimuli.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T17:24:20Z
  • Externally controlled involuntary cognitions and their relations with
           other representations in consciousness
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Donish Cushing, Adam Gazzaley, Ezequiel Morsella
      Percepts and action-related urges often enter consciousness insuppressibly. The Reflexive Imagery Task (RIT) was developed to investigate how high-level cognitions (e.g., subvocalizations), too, can enter consciousness in this manner. Limitations of the paradigm include (a) that no data have confirmed subjects’ introspections about the involuntary subvocalizations, and (b) that, in everyday life, adaptive responses to involuntary cognitions often depend on the nature of the other contents in consciousness. To address a and b, we developed an RIT in which subjects were presented with visual objects and instructed to not think of the object names. If a subvocalization did arise, however, subjects responded motorically only if the subvocalization rhymed with a word held in memory and if there was a visual “go” cue. Subjects successfully (on 0.83 of the trials) emitted this complex, “multi-determined” response, which provides evidence for the occurrence of the involuntary subvocalizations and illuminates the function of consciousness.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T01:22:42Z
  • The influence of focused-attention meditation states on the cognitive
           control of sequence learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Russell W. Chan, Maarten A. Immink, Kurt Lushington
      Cognitive control processes influence how motor sequence information is utilised and represented. Since cognitive control processes are shared amongst goal-oriented tasks, motor sequence learning and performance might be influenced by preceding cognitive tasks such as focused-attention meditation (FAM). Prior to a serial reaction time task (SRTT), participants completed either a single-session of FAM, a single-session of FAM followed by delay (FAM+) or no meditation (CONTROL). Relative to CONTROL, FAM benefitted performance in early, random-ordered blocks. However, across subsequent sequence learning blocks, FAM+ supported the highest levels of performance improvement resulting in superior performance at the end of the SRTT. Performance following FAM+ demonstrated greater reliance on embedded sequence structures than FAM. These findings illustrate that increased top-down control immediately after FAM biases the implementation of stimulus-based planning. Introduction of a delay following FAM relaxes top-down control allowing for implementation of response-based planning resulting in sequence learning benefits.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T01:22:42Z
  • Activity in part of the neural correlates of consciousness reflects
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Johan Eriksson
      Integration is commonly viewed as a key process for generating conscious experiences. Accordingly, there should be increased activity within the neural correlates of consciousness when demands on integration increase. We used fMRI and “informational masking” to isolate the neural correlates of consciousness and measured how the associated brain activity changed as a function of required integration. Integration was manipulated by comparing the experience of hearing simple reoccurring tones to hearing harmonic tone triplets. The neural correlates of auditory consciousness included superior temporal gyrus, lateral and medial frontal regions, cerebellum, and also parietal cortex. Critically, only activity in left parietal cortex increased significantly as a function of increasing demands on integration. We conclude that integration can explain part of the neural activity associated with the generation conscious experiences, but that much of associated brain activity apparently reflects other processes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T01:22:42Z
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Heriot-Watt University
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