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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 881 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 408)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 229)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 220)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 151)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 134)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Consciousness and Cognition
  [SJR: 1.363]   [H-I: 76]   [28 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1053-8100 - ISSN (Online) 1090-2376
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3044 journals]
  • Independent operation of implicit working memory under cognitive load
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Eunhee Ji, Kyung Min Lee, Min-Shik Kim
      Implicit working memory (WM) has been known to operate non-consciously and unintentionally. The current study investigated whether implicit WM is a discrete mechanism from explicit WM in terms of cognitive resource. To induce cognitive resource competition, we used a conjunction search task (Experiment 1) and imposed spatial WM load (Experiment 2a and 2b). Each trial was composed of a set of five consecutive search displays. The location of the first four displays appeared as per pre-determined patterns, but the fifth display could follow the same pattern or not. If implicit WM can extract the moving pattern of stimuli, response times for the fifth target would be faster when it followed the pattern compared to when it did not. Our results showed implicit WM can operate when participants are searching for the conjunction target and even while maintaining spatial WM information. These results suggest that implicit WM is independent from explicit spatial WM.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T04:44:21Z
  • Thoughts and sensations, twin galaxies of the inner space: The propensity
           to mind-wander relates to spontaneous sensations arising on the hands
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): George A. Michael, Isabelle Tapiero, Germán Gálvez-García, Laurence Jacquot
      Sensations and thoughts have been described as potentially related to self-awareness. We therefore asked whether sensations that arise in the absence of external triggers, i.e., spontaneous sensations (SPS), which were shown to relate to interoception and perception of the self, vary as a function of the individual propensity to generate spontaneous thoughts, i.e., mind-wandering. The Mind Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) was used as a specific tool to assess the frequency and propensity to mind-wander several weeks before completing an SPS task. Correlational analyses between the MWQ score and SPS showed that greater propensity to mind-wander coincided with widespread perception of SPS, while lesser propensity to mind-wander coincided with more spatially restricted perception of SPS. The results are interpreted in light of the role of spontaneous thoughts and sensations in self-awareness. The potential psychological processes and the way they might regulate the relation between mind-wandering and the perception of SPS are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-14T04:44:21Z
  • Beware of the gorilla: Effect of goal priming on inattentional blindness
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Jean-Baptiste Légal, Peggy Chekroun, Viviane Coiffard, Fabrice Gabarrot
      When people’s attention is engaged in a visual task, they often are blind to unexpected events occurring in their environment. This phenomenon is known as inattentional blindness. In this study, we examine inattentional blindness with regard to goal priming, a technique allowing to unconsciously influence goal pursuit. After being primed with a detection goal, the name of the target to detect, or no prime, participants watched a short sequence in which they had to count passes made by basketball players. An unexpected event occurred during the video. Results indicated that when attentional demands of the monitoring task were moderate, goal priming improved the detection of the unexpected event. Implications for the understanding of nonconscious management of attention will be discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T13:41:58Z
  • Do drives drive the train of thought'—Effects of hunger and sexual
           arousal on mind-wandering behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Jan Rummel, Laura Nied
      Physiological needs that are currently unfulfilled are known to affect human cognition and behavior. The present study investigates whether and how the temporary activation of two primary physiological needs, namely hunger and sexual arousal, influence both the frequency and the contents of mind-wandering episodes. To induce hunger, one group of participants fasted for a minimum of five hours whereas another group of participants was exposed to audio material with explicit sexual content to provoke sexual arousal. Both groups as well as an additional control group, which had not received hunger instructions and had not been exposed to arousing material of any kind beforehand, performed a reading task during which mind wandering was assessed using a standard experience-sampling method. Results showed that acute hunger but not elevated sexual arousal renders the occurrence of mind-wandering episodes more likely. Induction of both hunger and sexual arousal rendered the occurrence of need-related off-task thoughts more likely and changed time orientations of mind wandering. The present findings are well in line with the assumption that unfulfilled needs regularly achieve cognitive priority and extend the cognitive-priority idea to self-generated thoughts.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T13:41:58Z
  • Phenomenological characteristics of autobiographical memory in
           Korsakoff’s syndrome
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino
      A body of research suggests compromise of autobiographical memory in Korsakoff’s syndrome (KS). The present paper extends this literature by investigating the subjective experience of autobiographical recall in the syndrome. Patients with KS and controls were asked to retrieve autobiographical memories. After memory retrieval, participants were asked to rate phenomenological characteristics of their memories (i.e., reliving, back in time, remembering, realness, visual imagery, auditory imagery, language, emotion, rehearsal, importance, spatial recall and temporal recall). Analysis showed lower “Mean Phenomenological Experience” in the Korsakoff patients than in controls. However, the Korsakoff patients attributed relatively high emotional value and importance to their memories. Although our findings suggest compromised phenomenological reliving of autobiographical memory in patients with KS, affective characteristics such as emotion and importance are likely to play a main role in the subjective experience of the past in these patients.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T13:41:58Z
  • Activating attachment representations during memory retrieval modulates
           intrusive traumatic memories
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Richard A. Bryant, Iris Chan
      Although priming mental representations of attachment security reduces arousal, research has not examined the effect of attachment on the retrieval of emotionally arousing memories. This study investigated the effect of priming attachment security on the retrieval of emotional memories. Seventy-five participants viewed negative and neutral images, and two days later received either an attachment prime or a control prime immediately prior to free recall of the images. Two days later, participants reported how frequently they experienced intrusions of the negative images. The attachment group had less distress, and reported fewer subsequent intrusions than the control group. Attachment style moderated these effects such that individuals with an avoidant attachment style were not impacted by the attachment prime. These findings suggest that priming attachment security decreases distress during memory reactivation, and this may reduce subsequent intrusive memories.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T13:41:58Z
  • The relationship between fluid intelligence and sustained inattentional
           blindness in 7-to-14-year-old children
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Hui Zhang, Congcong Yan, Xingli Zhang, Jiannong Shi, Beiling Zhu
      Previous researches have shown that people with higher fluid intelligence are more likely to detect the unexpected stimuli. The current study systematically explored the relationship between fluid intelligence and sustained inattentional blindness in children. In Experiment 1, we measured one hundred and seventy-nine 7-to-14-year-old children’s fluid intelligence and sustained inattentional blindness. The results showed that fluid intelligence was negatively related to sustained inattentional blindness only in 7-to-8-year-old children. In Experiment 2, we explored sustained inattentional blindness in sixty children with high Raven’s scores. We found that compared with children who have average Raven’s scores aged 11-to-12 years old, children with high Raven’s scores were unable to better avoid sustained inattentional blindness. In general, this research implies that the relation between fluid intelligence and sustained inattentional blindness is weak. Fluid intelligence could predict sustained inattentional blindness only when children do not have enough perceptual capacities to complete the primary task.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T13:41:58Z
  • Independent self-construal mediates the association between CYP19A1 gene
           variant and subjective well-being
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Xing Yang, Yafang Yang, Mengying Xue, Pengpeng Fang, Guomin Shen, Kejin Zhang, Xiaocai Gao, Rongjun Yu, Pingyuan Gong
      Testosterone and estrogen are involved in self-related behavioral dispositions and experiences of subjective well-being. In this study, we investigated to what extent the aromatase (CYP19A1) gene, which encodes an enzyme in converting testosterone into estrogen, contributes to subjective well-being and in another self-related disposition: independent and interdependent self-construal. In study 1, a meta-analysis showed that the GG genotype of CYP19A1 (a G/A substitution at Val80, rs700518) was associated with higher testosterone and lower estradiol. In study 2, an empirical study of individuals with the GG (n =115), AG (n =286) and AA (n =193) genotypes indicated that individuals with the GG genotype exhibited higher independent self-construal and higher subjective well-being. The association between the GG genotype of CYP19A1 Val80 and subjective well-being was mediated by the independent self-construal. Our findings reinforce the idea that personality traits such as independent self-construal explain the link between genetic variant and subjective well-being.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T13:41:58Z
  • The signatures of conscious access and its phenomenology are consistent
           with large-scale brain communication at criticality
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Enzo Tagliazucchi
      Conscious awareness refers to information processing in the brain that is accompanied by subjective, reportable experiences. Current models of conscious access propose that sufficiently strong sensory stimuli ignite a global network of regions allowing further processing. The immense number of possible experiences indicates that activity associated with conscious awareness must be highly differentiated. However, information must also be integrated to account for the unitary nature of consciousness. We present a computational model that identifies conscious access with self-sustained percolation in an anatomical network. We show that the amount of integrated information (Φ) is maximal at the critical threshold. To the extent that self-sustained percolation relates to conscious access, the model supports a link between information integration and conscious access. We also identify a posterior “hotspot” of regions presenting high levels of information sharing. Finally, competitive activity spreading qualitatively describes the results of paradigms such as backward masking and binocular rivalry.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T13:39:50Z
  • Assessing pain in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness: Are we
           heading in the right direction'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Antonino Naro, Placido Bramanti, Alessia Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
      The deterioration of sensory-motor integration within the pain matrix in patients with chronic Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) is one of the principal mechanisms responsible for non-conscious pain perception. The present study aimed to assess whether the variability in the inter-peak interval (IPI) between the N2 and P2 components of laser evoked potentials (LEP) could represent an objective marker of the behavioral responsiveness to nociceptive stimulation, as measured by the Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R), and regardless of the sensory part of pain processing. We found that only IPI variability showed a significant correlation with NCS-R score, independently of the stimulation intensity (that influences the sensory part of pain processing). It was thus concluded that IPI variability might represent an objective measure of pain processing, which may help clinicians in the development of effective pain management strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T13:39:50Z
  • Blindness and social trust: The effect of early visual deprivation on
           judgments of trustworthiness
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): C. Ferrari, T. Vecchi, L.B. Merabet, Z. Cattaneo
      Investigating the impact of early visual deprivation on evaluations related to social trust has received little attention to date. This is despite consistent evidence suggesting that early onset blindness may interfere with the normal development of social skills. In this study, we investigated whether early blindness affects judgments of trustworthiness regarding the actions of an agent, with trustworthiness representing the fundamental dimension in the social evaluation. Specifically, we compared performance between a group of early blind individuals with that of sighted controls in their evaluation of trustworthiness of an agent after hearing a pair of two positive or two negative social behaviors (impression formation). Participants then repeated the same evaluation following the presentation of a third (consistent or inconsistent) behavior regarding the same agent (impression updating). Overall, blind individuals tended to give similar evaluations compared to their sighted counterparts. However, they also valued positive behaviors significantly more than sighted controls when forming their impression of an agent’s trustworthiness. Moreover, when inconsistent information was provided, blind individuals were more prone to revise their initial evaluation compared to controls. These results suggest that early visual deprivation may have a dramatic effect on the evaluation of social factors such as trustworthiness.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T13:39:50Z
  • Locked to a wrong body: Eating disorders as the outcome of a primary
           disturbance in multisensory body integration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Giuseppe Riva, Santino Gaudio
      In his recent paper “Distorted body representations in anorexia nervosa” Gadsby (2017) discussed empirical evidence regarding anorexic patients’ distorted body representations. In particular, he interpreted them using the O’Shaughnessy’s long-term body image (LTB) hypothesis (O’Shaughnessy, 1998): individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a distorted LTB that tracks changes in the spatial content of the body and supplies this distorted content to other body representations. Even if we agree on the involvement of body memory in the distorted body representation, an open issue not fully addressed in the paper is: why AN patients do not update their LTBs to reflect their true dimensions' Our correspondence tries to answer to this question using a new neuropsychological and neurobiological theory: the Allocentric Lock Theory – ALT.

      PubDate: 2017-09-03T13:39:50Z
  • By-passing strategic retrieval: Experimentally induced spontaneous
           episodic memories in 35- and 46-month-old children
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Peter Krøjgaard, Osman S. Kingo, Toril S. Jensen, Dorthe Berntsen
      Most parents have experienced their preschool child having spontaneous episodic memories, that is, verbally reported memories of past events that come to the child almost out of the blue. Until recently such memories had only been observed outside the lab. By means of a new paradigm we report experimentally induced spontaneous memories of a unique event experienced one week earlier in 35- and 46-month-old children (N=110). At the first visit, half of the children experienced a Teddy event and the other half experienced a Game event. At the second visit the children’s spontaneous utterances were recorded while waiting. The results revealed that the children talked spontaneously about the unique event experienced previously. Age showed no systematic effect on spontaneous episodic recollection, but there was a clear effect of age on subsequent control questions requiring strategic retrieval. The results support the idea of involuntary episodic remembering being a developmentally early achievement.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • The levels of perceptual processing and the neural correlates of
           increasing subjective visibility
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Marek Binder, Krzysztof Gociewicz, Bert Windey, Marcin Koculak, Karolina Finc, Jan Nikadon, Monika Derda, Axel Cleeremans
      According to the levels-of-processing hypothesis, transitions from unconscious to conscious perception may depend on stimulus processing level, with more gradual changes for low-level stimuli and more dichotomous changes for high-level stimuli. In an event-related fMRI study we explored this hypothesis using a visual backward masking procedure. Task requirements manipulated level of processing. Participants reported the magnitude of the target digit in the high-level task, its color in the low-level task, and rated subjective visibility of stimuli using the Perceptual Awareness Scale. Intermediate stimulus visibility was reported more frequently in the low-level task, confirming prior behavioral results. Visible targets recruited insulo-fronto-parietal regions in both tasks. Task effects were observed in visual areas, with higher activity in the low-level task across all visibility levels. Thus, the influence of level of processing on conscious perception may be mediated by attentional modulation of activity in regions representing features of consciously experienced stimuli.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Priming performance-related concerns induces task-related mind-wandering
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Megan L. Jordano, Dayna R. Touron
      Two experiments tested the hypothesis that priming of performance-related concerns would (1) increase the frequency of task-related mind-wandering (i.e., task-related interference; TRI) and (2) decrease task performance. In each experiment, sixty female participants completed an operation span task (OSPAN) containing thought content probes. The task was framed as a math task for those in a condition primed for math-related stereotype threat and as a memory task for those in a control condition. In both studies, women whose performance-related concerns were primed via stereotype threat reported more TRI than women in the control. The second experiment used a more challenging OSPAN task and stereotype primed women also had lower math accuracy than controls. These results support the “control failures×current concerns” framework of mind-wandering, which posits that the degree to which the environmental context triggers personal concerns influences both mind-wandering frequency and content.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Juxtaposing the real-time unfolding of subjective experience and ERP
           neuromarker dynamics
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 54
      Author(s): Renate Rutiku, Talis Bachmann
      Electroencephalographic (EEG) potentials have remained a valuable source of data and theories concerning neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). The EEG based methods are far from being exhausted and are continually valuable in the quest for the markers of NCC. To set the background for the research presented in this issue, we review the published work on EEG-based markers of NCC. The article is organized according to the principle of the time-course aspect of brain potentials with regard to the stimuli for which subject’s awareness is experimentally measured and/or manipulated. We treat brain potentials as the principal dependent measure as well as independent variable. More specifically, we also draw attention to the fact that in the overwhelming share of studies relative negativization of the ERPs tends to mark NCC.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Awareness in the crowd: Beta power and alpha phase of prestimulus
           oscillations predict object discrimination in visual crowding
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 54
      Author(s): Luca Ronconi, Rosilari Bellacosa Marotti
      Visual crowding is among the factors that most hamper conscious object perception. However, we currently ignore the neural states that predispose to an accurate perception within different crowding regimes. Here, we performed single-trial analyses of the electroencephalographical (EEG) oscillations, evaluating the prestimulus power and phase differences between correct and incorrect discrimination during a letter-crowding task, where irrelevant letters were placed nearby (strong crowding) or far (mid crowding) relative to the target. Results show that prestimulus alpha (8–12Hz) power was related to target discrimination in the mid, but not in the strong, crowding condition. Importantly, accurate discrimination in the strong crowding condition was predicted by the phase of alpha and by the power of beta (13–20Hz) oscillations. These evidence suggest that both periodic visual sampling mechanisms, reflected in the alpha phase, and network predisposition to extract local information, reflected in the beta power, predispose to object discrimination in a crowded scene.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Prestimulus alpha-band power biases visual discrimination confidence, but
           not accuracy
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 54
      Author(s): Jason Samaha, Luca Iemi, Bradley R. Postle
      The magnitude of power in the alpha-band (8–13Hz) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) prior to the onset of a near threshold visual stimulus predicts performance. Together with other findings, this has been interpreted as evidence that alpha-band dynamics reflect cortical excitability. We reasoned, however, that non-specific changes in excitability would be expected to influence signal and noise in the same way, leaving actual discriminability unchanged. Indeed, using a two-choice orientation discrimination task, we found that discrimination accuracy was unaffected by fluctuations in prestimulus alpha power. Decision confidence, on the other hand, was strongly negatively correlated with prestimulus alpha power. This finding constitutes a clear dissociation between objective and subjective measures of visual perception as a function of prestimulus cortical excitability. This dissociation is predicted by a model where the balance of evidence supporting each choice drives objective performance but only the magnitude of evidence supporting the selected choice drives subjective reports, suggesting that human perceptual confidence can be suboptimal with respect to tracking objective accuracy.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • ERP signatures of conscious and unconscious word and letter perception in
           an inattentional blindness paradigm
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 54
      Author(s): Kathryn Schelonka, Christian Graulty, Enriqueta Canseco-Gonzalez, Michael A. Pitts
      A three-phase inattentional blindness paradigm was combined with ERPs. While participants performed a distracter task, line segments in the background formed words or consonant-strings. Nearly half of the participants failed to notice these word-forms and were deemed inattentionally blind. All participants noticed the word-forms in phase 2 of the experiment while they performed the same distracter task. In the final phase, participants performed a task on the word-forms. In all phases, including during inattentional blindness, word-forms elicited distinct ERPs during early latencies (∼200–280ms) suggesting unconscious orthographic processing. A subsequent ERP (∼320–380ms) similar to the visual awareness negativity appeared only when subjects were aware of the word-forms, regardless of the task. Finally, word-forms elicited a P3b (∼400–550ms) only when these stimuli were task-relevant. These results are consistent with previous inattentional blindness studies and help distinguish brain activity associated with pre- and post-perceptual processing from correlates of conscious perception.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Interplay between supramodal attentional control and capacity limits in
           the low-level visual processors modulate the tendency to inattention
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 54
      Author(s): Massimiliano Papera, Anne Richards
      When engaged in a demanding task, individuals may neglect unexpected visual stimuli presented concomitantly. Here we use a change detection task to show that propensity to inattention is associated with a flexible allocation of attentional resources to filter and represent visual information. This was reflected by N2 posterior contralateral (N2pc) and contralateral delay activity (CDA) respectively, but also during high-order reorienting of attentional resources (known as anterior directing attention negativity, ADAN). Results show that differences in noticing and failing to notice unexpected stimuli/changes are associated with different patterns of brain activity. When processing (N2) and working memory (CDA) capacities are low, resources are mostly allocated to small set-sizes and associated with a tendency to filter information during early low-level processing (N2). When resources are high, saturation is obtained with larger set-sizes. This is also associated to a tendency to select (N2) and reorient resources (ADAN) to maintain extra information (CDA).

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Early visual processing allows for selective behavior, shifts of
           attention, and conscious visual experience in spite of masking
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 54
      Author(s): Sébastien M. Crouzet, Lyudmyla Y. Kovalenko, Simon Hviid del Pin, Morten Overgaard, Niko A. Busch
      Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly displayed target in a search array is surrounded by a mask, which remains onscreen after the target has disappeared. It has been suggested that OSM results from a specific interference with reentrant visual processing, while the initial feedforward processing is left intact. Here, we tested the prediction that the fastest saccadic responses towards a masked target, supposedly triggered before the onset of reentrant processing, are not impaired by OSM. Indeed, saccades faster than 350ms “escaped” the influence of the mask. Notably, participants’ judgements of subjective awareness indicated that stimulus processing during this early stage is not entirely devoid of conscious awareness. Furthermore, the N2pc event-related potential component indicated shifts of spatial attention towards the masked targets on trials with correct fast saccades, suggesting that both target detection and spatial attention can be based on the computations accomplished during the initial feedforward sweep.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Backward masking interrupts spatial attention, slows downstream
           processing, and limits conscious perception
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 54
      Author(s): Talia Losier, Christine Lefebvre, Mattia Doro, Roberto Dell'Acqua, Pierre Jolicœur
      The attentional blink (AB) is a difficulty in correctly processing a target when it follows one or more other targets after a short delay. When no backward mask is presented after the last critical target, there is no or little behavioral AB deficit. The mask plays an important role in limiting conscious access to target information. In this electrophysiological study, we tested the impact of masking on the deployment and engagement of attention by measuring the N2pc and P3 components in an RSVP paradigm. We found that the presence of a mask in an AB paradigm reduced the amplitude of the N2pc, P3a, and P3b components. In addition to reducing encoding in memory, masking also reduced the effectiveness of the deployment and engagement of attention on the last target. We discuss the role of these findings in the context of current masking, consciousness, and AB models.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Opposite ERP effects for conscious and unconscious semantic processing
           under continuous flash suppression
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 54
      Author(s): Yung-Hao Yang, Jifan Zhou, Kuei-An Li, Tifan Hung, Alan J. Pegna, Su-Ling Yeh
      We examined whether semantic processing occurs without awareness using continuous flash suppression (CFS). In two priming tasks, participants were required to judge whether a target was a word or a non-word, and to report whether the masked prime was visible. Experiment 1 manipulated the lexical congruency between the prime-target pairs and Experiment 2 manipulated their semantic relatedness. Despite the absence of behavioral priming effects (Experiment 1), the ERP results revealed that an N4 component was sensitive to the prime-target lexical congruency (Experiment 1) and semantic relatedness (Experiment 2) when the prime was rendered invisible under CFS. However, these results were reversed with respect to those that emerged when the stimuli were perceived consciously. Our findings suggest that some form of lexical and semantic processing can occur during CFS-induced unawareness, but are associated with different electrophysiological outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Distortions of temporal integration and perceived order caused by the
           interplay between stimulus contrast and duration
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 54
      Author(s): Elkan G. Akyürek, Ritske de Jong
      Stimulus contrast and duration effects on visual temporal integration and order judgment were examined in a unified paradigm. Stimulus onset asynchrony was governed by the duration of the first stimulus in Experiment 1, and by the interstimulus interval in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, integration and order uncertainty increased when a low contrast stimulus followed a high contrast stimulus, but only when the second stimulus was 20 or 30ms. At 10ms duration of the second stimulus, integration and uncertainty decreased. Temporal order judgments at all durations of the second stimulus were better for a low contrast stimulus following a high contrast one. By contrast, in Experiment 2, a low contrast stimulus following a high contrast stimulus consistently produced higher integration rates, order uncertainty, and lower order accuracy. Contrast and duration thus interacted, breaking correspondence between integration and order perception. The results are interpreted in a tentative conceptual framework.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Markers of TMS-evoked visual conscious experience in a patient with
           altitudinal hemianopia
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 54
      Author(s): Chiara Mazzi, Gaetano Mazzeo, Silvia Savazzi
      Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the occipital and parietal cortices can induce phosphenes, i.e. visual sensations of light without light entering the eyes. In this paper, we adopted a TMS-EEG interactive co-registration approach with a patient (AM) showing altitudinal hemianopia. Occipital and parietal cortices in both hemispheres were stimulated while concurrently recording EEG signal. Results showed that, for all sites, neural activity differentially encoding for the presence vs. absence of a conscious experience could be found in a cluster of electrodes close to the stimulation site at an early (70ms) time-period after TMS. The present data indicate that both occipital and parietal sites are independent early gatekeepers of perceptual awareness, thus, in line with evidence in favor of early correlates of perceptual awareness. Moreover, these data support the valuable contribution of the TMS-EEG approach in patients with visual field defects to investigate the neural processes responsible for perceptual awareness.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Evoked and event-related potentials in disorders of consciousness: A
           quantitative review
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 54
      Author(s): Boris Kotchoubey
      Sixty-one publications about evoked and event-related potentials (EP and ERP, respectively) in patients with severe Disorders of Consciousness (DoC) were found and analyzed from a quantitative point of view. Most studies are strongly underpowered, resulting in very broad confidence intervals (CI). Results of such studies cannot be correctly interpreted, because, for example, CI>1 (in terms of Cohen’s d) indicate that the real effect may be very strong, very weak, or even opposite to the reported effect. Furthermore, strong negative correlations were obtained between sample size and effect size, indicating a possible publication bias. These correlations characterized not only the total data set, but also each thematically selected subset. The minimal criteria of a strong study to EP/ERP in DoC are proposed: at least 25 patients in each patient group; as reliable diagnosis as possible; the complete report of all methodological details and all details of results (including negative results); and the use of appropriate methods of data analysis. Only three of the detected 60 studies (5%) satisfy these criteria. The limitations of the current approach are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-24T19:35:12Z
  • Microsaccade-rate indicates absorption by music listening
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Elke B. Lange, Fabian Zweck, Petra Sinn
      The power of music is a literary topos, which can be attributed to intense and personally significant experiences, one of them being the state of absorption. Such phenomenal states are difficult to grasp objectively. We investigated the state of musical absorption by using eye tracking. We utilized a load related definition of state absorption: multimodal resources are committed to create a unified representation of music. Resource allocation was measured indirectly by microsaccade rate, known to indicate cognitive processing load. We showed in Exp. 1 that microsaccade rate also indicates state absorption. Hence, there is cross-modal coupling between an auditory aesthetic experience and fixational eye movements. When removing the fixational stimulus in Exp. 2, saccades are no longer generated upon visual input and the cross-modal coupling disappeared. Results are interpreted in favor of the load hypothesis of microsaccade rate and against the assumption of general slowing by state absorption.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T19:31:09Z
  • Consciousness operationalized, a debate realigned
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Peter Carruthers, Bénédicte Veillet
      This paper revisits the debate about cognitive phenomenology. It elaborates, defends, and improves on our earlier proposal for resolving that debate, according to which the test for irreducible phenomenology is the presence of explanatory gaps. After showing how proposals like ours have been misunderstood or misused by others, we deploy our operationalization to argue that the correct way to align the debate over cognitive phenomenology is not between sensory and (alleged) cognitive phenomenology, but rather between non-conceptual and (alleged) conceptual or propositional phenomenology. In doing so we defend three varieties of non-sensory (amodal) 1 Note that the term “amodal” admits of two quite different uses in cognitive science. One (the one we intend) refers to processes or representations that are neither sensory-specific nor multi-sensory (or “multi-modal”) in nature. We assume throughout that concepts are amodal in this sense. The other use is the one that figures in the phrase “amodal completion” in vision science. This refers to the construction by low-level visual processes of an imaginary boundary of a partially-occluded object. The contrasting sort of completion – “modal completion” – refers to the construction of an imaginary boundary of the presumed occluding object. Both are exemplified in the famous Kanizsa triangles. Moreover, both are modality-specific (specific to the visual system) in our intended sense of “modal”. 1 non-conceptual phenomenology: valence, a sense of approximate number, and a sense of elapsed time.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T19:31:09Z
  • Consciousness and working memory: Current trends and research perspectives
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Boris B. Velichkovsky
      Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory. Evidence for unconscious elements in working memory is shown to come from visual masking and attentional blink paradigms, and from the studies of implicit working memory. It is concluded that more research is needed to explicate the relationship between consciousness and working memory. Future research directions regarding the relationship between consciousness and working memory are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T17:24:20Z
  • Multivariate pattern analysis of event-related potentials predicts the
           subjective relevance of everyday objects
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): William Francis Turner, Phillip Johnston, Kathleen de Boer, Carmen Morawetz, Stefan Bode
      Potentially decision-relevant stimuli have been proposed to undergo immediate semantic processing. The current study investigated whether information regarding the general desirability (‘Wanting’) of visually presented ‘everyday’ objects was rapidly and automatically processed. Participants completed a foreground task while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, and task-irrelevant images were presented in the background. Following this, participants rated the images with regards to Wanting and the potentially related attributes of Relevance, Familiarity, Aesthetic Pleasantness and Time Reference. Multivariate pattern classification was used to predict the ratings from patterns of EEG data. Prediction of Wanting and Relevance was possible between 100 and 150ms following stimulus presentation. The other dimensions could not be predicted. Wanting and Relevance ratings were highly correlated and displayed similar feature weight maps. The current results suggest that the general desirability and subjective relevance of everyday objects is rapidly and automatically processed for a wide range of visual stimuli.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T17:24:20Z
  • Externally controlled involuntary cognitions and their relations with
           other representations in consciousness
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Donish Cushing, Adam Gazzaley, Ezequiel Morsella
      Percepts and action-related urges often enter consciousness insuppressibly. The Reflexive Imagery Task (RIT) was developed to investigate how high-level cognitions (e.g., subvocalizations), too, can enter consciousness in this manner. Limitations of the paradigm include (a) that no data have confirmed subjects’ introspections about the involuntary subvocalizations, and (b) that, in everyday life, adaptive responses to involuntary cognitions often depend on the nature of the other contents in consciousness. To address a and b, we developed an RIT in which subjects were presented with visual objects and instructed to not think of the object names. If a subvocalization did arise, however, subjects responded motorically only if the subvocalization rhymed with a word held in memory and if there was a visual “go” cue. Subjects successfully (on 0.83 of the trials) emitted this complex, “multi-determined” response, which provides evidence for the occurrence of the involuntary subvocalizations and illuminates the function of consciousness.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T01:22:42Z
  • The influence of focused-attention meditation states on the cognitive
           control of sequence learning
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Russell W. Chan, Maarten A. Immink, Kurt Lushington
      Cognitive control processes influence how motor sequence information is utilised and represented. Since cognitive control processes are shared amongst goal-oriented tasks, motor sequence learning and performance might be influenced by preceding cognitive tasks such as focused-attention meditation (FAM). Prior to a serial reaction time task (SRTT), participants completed either a single-session of FAM, a single-session of FAM followed by delay (FAM+) or no meditation (CONTROL). Relative to CONTROL, FAM benefitted performance in early, random-ordered blocks. However, across subsequent sequence learning blocks, FAM+ supported the highest levels of performance improvement resulting in superior performance at the end of the SRTT. Performance following FAM+ demonstrated greater reliance on embedded sequence structures than FAM. These findings illustrate that increased top-down control immediately after FAM biases the implementation of stimulus-based planning. Introduction of a delay following FAM relaxes top-down control allowing for implementation of response-based planning resulting in sequence learning benefits.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T01:22:42Z
  • Activity in part of the neural correlates of consciousness reflects
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 55
      Author(s): Johan Eriksson
      Integration is commonly viewed as a key process for generating conscious experiences. Accordingly, there should be increased activity within the neural correlates of consciousness when demands on integration increase. We used fMRI and “informational masking” to isolate the neural correlates of consciousness and measured how the associated brain activity changed as a function of required integration. Integration was manipulated by comparing the experience of hearing simple reoccurring tones to hearing harmonic tone triplets. The neural correlates of auditory consciousness included superior temporal gyrus, lateral and medial frontal regions, cerebellum, and also parietal cortex. Critically, only activity in left parietal cortex increased significantly as a function of increasing demands on integration. We conclude that integration can explain part of the neural activity associated with the generation conscious experiences, but that much of associated brain activity apparently reflects other processes.

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T01:22:42Z
  • Electroencephalographic markers of conscious and unconscious perception
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 July 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition

      PubDate: 2017-07-26T01:22:42Z
  • The influence of performance on action-effect integration in sense of
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 53
      Author(s): Wen Wen, Atsushi Yamashita, Hajime Asama
      Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of being able to control an outcome through one’s own actions or will. Prior studies have shown that both sensory processing (e.g., comparisons between sensory feedbacks and predictions basing on one’s motor intentions) and high-level cognitive/constructive processes (e.g., inferences based on one’s performance or the consequences of one’s actions) contribute to judgments of sense of agency. However, it remains unclear how these two types of processes interact, which is important for clarifying the mechanisms underlying sense of agency. Thus, we examined whether performance-based inferences influence action-effect integration in sense of agency using a delay detection paradigm in two experiments. In both experiments, participants pressed left and right arrow keys to control the direction in which a moving dot was travelling. The dot’s response delay was manipulated randomly on 7 levels (0–480ms) between the trials; for each trial, participants were asked to judge whether the dot response was delayed and to rate their level of agency over the dot. In Experiment 1, participants tried to direct the dot to reach a destination on the screen as quickly as possible. Furthermore, the computer assisted participants by ignoring erroneous commands for half of the trials (assisted condition), while in the other half, all of the participants’ commands were executed (self-control condition). In Experiment 2, participants directed the dot as they pleased (without a specific goal), but, in half of the trials, the computer randomly ignored 32% of their commands (disturbed condition) rather than assisted them. The results from the two experiments showed that performance enhanced action-effect integration. Specifically, when task performance was improved through the computer’s assistance in Experiment 1, delay detection was reduced in the 480-ms delay condition, despite the fact that 32% of participants’ commands were ignored. Conversely, when no feedback on task performance was given (as in Experiment 2), the participants reported greater delay when some of their commands were randomly ignored. Furthermore, the results of a logistic regression analysis showed that the threshold of delay detection was greater in the assisted condition than in the self-control condition in Experiment 1, which suggests a wider time window for action-effect integration. A multivariate analysis also revealed that assistance was related to reduced delay detection via task performance, while reduced delay detection was directly correlated with a better sense of agency. These results indicate an association between the implicit and explicit aspects of sense of agency.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T09:08:53Z
  • An emotional Stroop task with faces and words. A comparison of young and
           older adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 53
      Author(s): Ana I. Agustí, Encarnación Satorres, Alfonso Pitarque, Juan C. Meléndez
      Antecedents Given the contradictions of previous studies on the changes in attentional responses produced in aging a Stroop emotional task was proposed to compare young and older adults to words or faces with an emotional valence. Method The words happy or sad were superimposed on faces that express the emotion of happiness or sadness. The emotion expressed by the word and the face could agree or not (cued and uncued trials, respectively). 85 young and 66 healthy older adults had to identify both faces and words separately, and the interference between the two types of stimuli was examined. Results An interference effect was observed for both types of stimuli in both groups. There was more interference on positive faces and words than on negative stimuli. Conclusions Older adults had more difficulty than younger in focusing on positive uncued trials, whereas there was no difference across samples on negative uncued trials.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T09:08:53Z
  • Dissociating contributions of head and torso to spatial reference frames:
           The misalignment paradigm
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 53
      Author(s): Adrian J.T. Alsmith, Elisa R. Ferrè, Matthew R. Longo
      When we represent someone's view of a scene as egocentrically structured, where do we represent the origin of the reference frame' By analysing responses in a spatial perspective-taking task as a function of spatial location with respect to both head and torso, we isolated the respective contribution of each part to spatial judgments. Both the head and the torso contributed to judgements, though with greater contributions from the torso. A second experiment manipulating visual contrast of the torso showed that this does not reflect low-level differences in visual salience between body parts. Our results demonstrate that spatial perspective-taking relies on a weighted combination of reference frames centred on different parts of the body.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T09:08:53Z
  • Multilevel analysis of individual differences in regularities of
           grapheme–color associations in synesthesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 53
      Author(s): Daisuke Hamada, Hiroki Yamamoto, Jun Saiki
      Grapheme–color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon where visual perception of letters and numbers stimulates perception of a specific color. Grapheme–color correspondences have been shown to be systematically associated with grapheme properties, including visual shape difference, ordinality, and frequency. However, the contributions of grapheme factors differ across individuals. In this study, we applied multilevel analysis to test whether individual differences in regularities of grapheme–color associations could be explained by individual styles of processing grapheme properties. These processing styles are reflected by the type of synesthetic experience. Specifically, we hypothesized that processing focusing on shape differences would be associated with projector synesthetes, while processing focusing on ordinality or familiarity would be associated with associator synesthetes. The analysis revealed that ordinality and familiarity factors were expressed more strongly among associators than among projectors. This finding suggests that grapheme–color associations are partly determined by the type of synesthetic experience.

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T09:08:53Z
  • EEG correlates of cognitive time scales in the Necker-Zeno model for
           bistable perception
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 53
      Author(s): J. Kornmeier, E. Friedel, M. Wittmann, H. Atmanspacher
      The Necker-Zeno model of bistable perception provides a formal relation between the average duration of meta-stable percepts (dwell times T) of ambiguous figures and two other basic time scales (t 0, ΔT) underlying cognitive processing. The model predicts that dwell times T covary with t 0, ΔT or both. We tested this prediction by exploiting that observers, in particular experienced meditators, can volitionally control dwell times T. Meditators and non-meditators observed bistable Necker cubes either passively or tried to hold their current percept. The latencies of a centro-parietal event-related potential (CPP) were recorded as a physiological correlate of t 0. Dwell times T and the CPP latencies, correlated with t 0, differed between conditions and observer groups, while ΔT remained constant in the range predicted by the model. The covariation of CPP latencies and dwell times, as well as their quadratic functional dependence extends previous psychophysical confirmation of the Necker-Zeno model to psychophysiological measures.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-01T09:08:53Z
  • Manipulating cues in mind wandering: Verbal cues affect the frequency and
           the temporal focus of mind wandering
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 53
      Author(s): Manila Vannucci, Claudia Pelagatti, Igor Marchetti
      Our understanding of mind wandering (MW) has dramatically increased over the past decade. A key challenge still facing research is the identification of the processes and events that directly cause and control its occurrence. In the present study we sought to shed light on this question, by investigating the effects of verbal cues on the frequency and temporal focus of MW. To this aim, we experimentally manipulated the presence of irrelevant verbal cues during a vigilance task, in two independent groups (Verbal-cues group vs. No-cues group). We found that compared to the No-cues group, the Verbal-cues group reported a higher amount of MW, mostly triggered by the irrelevant cue-words, and a higher proportion of past-oriented MW compared to the other temporal orientations. These results demonstrate that task-irrelevant verbal stimulation increases the frequency of MW and steers its temporal orientation toward the past. Implications for the research on MW are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:06:49Z
  • A role for visceral feedback and interoception in feelings-of-knowing
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 53
      Author(s): Chris M. Fiacconi, Jane E. Kouptsova, Stefan Köhler
      Guided by the framework that autonomic feedback shapes emotional experience and other feeling states, we asked whether feeling-of-knowing (FOK) judgments may be influenced by visceral information through interoception. Participants performed a FOK task for previously studied face-name pairs while changes in cardiovascular and facial muscle activity were recorded. Previously studied face cues for which the corresponding name could not be recalled elicited an increased cardiac rate relative to novel face cues. Critically, the relationship between this pattern of cardiovascular activity and FOK ratings was moderated by interoception, such that for individuals with high interoceptive sensitivity, relative increases in cardiac rate for old items were associated with larger corresponding differences in FOK. Consistent with a link between familiarity and positive affect, we also found that old items elicited less frowning, as reflected in muscle activity recorded from the corrugator muscle. These results provide psychophysiological evidence that visceral signals contribute to experiential metamemory processes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:06:49Z
  • Congruent bodily arousal promotes the constructive recognition of
           emotional words
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 53
      Author(s): Anne Kever, Delphine Grynberg, Nicolas Vermeulen
      Considerable research has shown that bodily states shape affect and cognition. Here, we examined whether transient states of bodily arousal influence the categorization speed of high arousal, low arousal, and neutral words. Participants realized two blocks of a constructive recognition task, once after a cycling session (increased arousal), and once after a relaxation session (reduced arousal). Results revealed overall faster response times for high arousal compared to low arousal words, and for positive compared to negative words. Importantly, low arousal words were categorized significantly faster after the relaxation than after the cycling, suggesting that a decrease in bodily arousal promotes the recognition of stimuli matching one’s current arousal state. These findings highlight the importance of the arousal dimension in emotional processing, and suggest the presence of arousal-congruency effects.

      PubDate: 2017-06-22T09:06:49Z
  • Global shape integration and illusory form perception in the absence of
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 53
      Author(s): Mikel Jimenez, Pedro R. Montoro, Dolores Luna
      Previous research on perceptual organization operations still provides contradictory evidence on whether the integration of sparse local elements into coherently unified shapes and the construction of the illusory form are accomplished without the need of awareness. In the present study, three experiments were conducted in which participants were presented with masked (Experiment 1, SOA=27ms; Experiment 2; SOA=53ms) and unmasked (Experiment 3) primes consisting of geometric shapes (a square or a diamond) that could be congruent or incongruent with a subsequent probe stimuli (square vs. diamond). Furthermore, the primes were divided into: a grouping condition (where local elements may group together into global shapes), an illusory condition (where the arrangement of local elements produced illusory shapes) and a hybrid condition (where both operations were presented simultaneously). While no priming effects were found for the shortest SOA (27ms), both grouping and illusory primes produced significant priming effects in the longer SOA (53ms). On the other hand, results in Experiment 3 (unmasked) showed strong priming effects for the grouping of the inducers in both the grouping and the hybrid conditions, and also a significant but weaker priming effect for the illusory condition. Overall, our results support the possibility of the integration of local visual features into a global shape in the absence of awareness and, likewise, they suggest an early –subliminal– construction of the illusory shape, implying that feedback projections from higher to lower visual areas are not crucial in the construction of the illusory form.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T09:02:31Z
  • The tendency of unconscious thought toward global processing style
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 53
      Author(s): Jiansheng Li, Fan Wang, Mowei Shen, Gang Fan
      This study explored whether unconscious thought has a tendency to process information globally. In three experiments, a Navon task was used to activate global or local processing styles. Findings showed that in the unconscious-thought groups, those performing the local Navon task presented a poorer decision-making performance when compared to those performing the global Navon task (Experiment 1); participants reported that their judgments were made based on partial attributes (Experiment 2), and evaluated a target individual mainly based on information consistent with stereotypes (Experiment 3). These results showed that when presented with distracter tasks, conscious thought activates local processing, which impairs its ability to process information globally. However, this impairment would not happen if global processing were activated instead. This study provides support to the idea that unconscious thought has a tendency to process information globally.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T08:58:38Z
  • The effect of facial feedback on the evaluation of statements describing
           everyday situations and the role of awareness
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 53
      Author(s): Jakob Kaiser, Graham C.L. Davey
      According to theories of embodiment enacting a smile or a frown can positively or negatively influence one’s evaluations, even without awareness of one’s facial activity. While some previous studies found evidence for facial feedback effects, recent replication attempts could not confirm these findings. Are our decisions throughout the day amenable to the state of our facial muscles? We tested the effect of smiling and frowning on the evaluation of emotional sentences describing everyday situations. While most previous studies based their assessment of awareness on verbal debriefing interviews without explicitly defined criteria, we employed a written debriefing questionnaire in order to avoid potential bias when identifying participants’ awareness. Our results indicate that smiling/frowning increased/decreased sentence ratings only for participants aware of their expressions. This emphasizes the importance of more rigorous awareness tests in facial feedback studies. Our results support the view that facial feedback cannot necessarily influence us without conscious mediation.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T08:58:38Z
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