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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 900 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 433)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 208)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 245)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 147)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Eat, Sleep, Work     Open Access  
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)

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Journal Cover Consciousness and Cognition
  [SJR: 1.363]   [H-I: 76]   [31 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1053-8100 - ISSN (Online) 1090-2376
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3120 journals]
  • Motivated forgetting reduces veridical memories but slightly increases
           false memories in both young and healthy older people
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 59
      Author(s): Alfonso Pitarque, Encarnación Satorres, Joaquín Escudero, Salvador Algarabel, Omar Bekkers, Juan C. Meléndez
      The aim of the current study is to examine the effects of motivated forgetting and aging on true and false memory. Sixty young and 54 healthy older adults were instructed to study two lists of 18 words each. Each list was composed of three sets of six words associated with three non-presented critical words. After studying list 1, half of the participants received the instruction to forget List 1, whereas the other half received the instruction to remember List 1. Next, all the subjects studied list 2; finally, they were asked to remember the words studied in both lists. The results showed that when participants intended to forget the studied List 1, they were less likely to recall the studied words, but more likely to intrude the critical words. That is, we can intentionally forget something but this can also entail the intrusion of some related false memories.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
  • Spatial attention and the malleability of bodily self in the elderly
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 59
      Author(s): Daniel Zeller, Marcus Hullin
      A right-hemispheric specificity has been suggested both for spatial attention and for the feeling of body-ownership. Here, we assessed lateralization of spatial attention (Milner landmark task), rubber hand illusion (RHI), and their relationship in a group of 59 healthy elderly subjects. The occurrence of the RHI was assessed by objective (proprioceptive drift) and subjective (questionnaire) measures. Spatial attention was asymmetrical, with a slight, neglect-like overestimation of the right segment of mid-bisected lines. As to the RHI, the proprioceptive drift towards the plastic hand was significantly larger following synchronous compared to asynchronous stroking, but comparable between both sides. Subjective responses indicated an experience of the RHI during synchronous stimulation, without lateralization. On the left hand, however, the proprioceptive drift correlated significantly with the rightward bias of spatial attention. Thus, reduced attention towards sensory signals from one’s own limb might facilitate the process of embodiment of an artificial hand into one’s body-representation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
  • Building mindfulness bottom-up: Meditation in natural settings supports
           open monitoring and attention restoration
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 59
      Author(s): Freddie Lymeus, Per Lindberg, Terry Hartig
      Mindfulness courses conventionally use effortful, focused meditation to train attention. In contrast, natural settings can effortlessly support state mindfulness and restore depleted attention resources, which could facilitate meditation. We performed two studies that compared conventional training with restoration skills training (ReST) that taught low-effort open monitoring meditation in a garden over five weeks. Assessments before and after meditation on multiple occasions showed that ReST meditation increasingly enhanced attention performance. Conventional meditation enhanced attention initially but increasingly incurred effort, reflected in performance decrements toward the course end. With both courses, attentional improvements generalized in the first weeks of training. Against established accounts, the generalized improvements thus occurred before any effort was incurred by the conventional exercises. We propose that restoration rather than attention training can account for early attentional improvements with meditation. ReST holds promise as an undemanding introduction to mindfulness and as a method to enhance restoration in nature contacts.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
  • Corrigendum to “Slow and steady, not fast and furious: Slow temporal
           modulation strengthens continuous flash suppression” [Conscious Cogn. 58
           (2018) 10–19]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Shui'er Han, Randolph Blake, David Alais

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
  • Is an off-task mind a freely-moving mind' Examining the relationship
           between different dimensions of thought
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 58
      Author(s): Caitlin Mills, Quentin Raffaelli, Zachary C. Irving, Dylan Stan, Kalina Christoff
      Mind wandering is frequently defined as task-unrelated or perceptually decoupled thought. However, these definitions may not capture the dynamic features of a wandering mind, such as its tendency to ‘move freely’. Here we test the relationship between three theoretically dissociable dimensions of thought: freedom of movement in thought, task-relatedness, and perceptual decoupling (i.e., lack of awareness of surroundings). Using everyday life experience sampling, thought probes were randomly delivered to participants’ phones for ten days. Results revealed weak intra-individual correlations between freedom of movement in thought and task-unrelatedness, as well as perceptual decoupling. Within our dataset, over 40% of thoughts would have been misclassified under the assumption that off-task thought is inherently freely moving. Overall, freedom of movement appears to be an independent dimension of thought that is not captured by the two most common measures of mind wandering. Future work focusing on the dynamics of thought may be crucial for improving our understanding of the wandering mind.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
  • The part-whole perception of emotion
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 58
      Author(s): Trip Glazer
      A clever argument purports to show that we can directly perceive the emotions of others: (1) some emotional expressions are parts of the emotions they express; (2) in perceiving a part of something, one can perceive the whole; (3) therefore, in perceiving some emotional expressions, one can perceive the emotions they express. My aim in this paper is to assess the extent to which contemporary theories of emotion support the first premise of this argument.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
  • Anosognosia, denial of illness and the right hemisphere dominance for
           emotions: Some historical and clinical notes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 58
      Author(s): Guido Gainotti
      Poor disease awareness (‘anosognosia’) is often observed in patients with various disabilities caused by brain damage. The lack of disease awareness can be due to the disruption of specific cognitive mechanisms and the development of psychodynamic mechanisms of denial. The aim of this paper is to review how these phenomena were discovered and evolved over time and to consider the relationships between them and the right hemisphere dominance for emotions. It is not clear whether the term ‘anosognosia’ refers to a basic mechanism that can explain similar awareness defects in different behavioural domains or whether it must be viewed as a multifaceted phenomenon in which both the disruption of cognitive or sensorimotor mechanisms and the emergence of motivational factors can play different roles in various forms of disease unawareness and in different kinds of ‘anosognosic’ patients.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
  • The neuropsychophysiology of tingling
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 58
      Author(s): Benedek T. Tihanyi, Eszter Ferentzi, Florian Beissner, Ferenc Köteles
      Tingling is a bodily sensation experienced under a variety of conditions from everyday experiences to experimental and therapeutic situations. It can be induced by both peripheral or afferent (external stimulation, peripheral pathology) and higher cognitive (expectation) processes. The paper summarizes the current scientific knowledge on the neurophysiological and psychological concomitants of the tingling sensation. Four possible models are identified and presented: the afferent, the attention-disclosed, the attention-evoked, and the efferent model. Of these, only the attention-disclosed model, i.e., attention discloses the sensation by opening the gate for suppressed sensory information, appears to be able to explain every aspect of the tingling phenomenon. Terminological issues and the possible role of the tingling phenomenon in medically unexplained symptoms, nocebo and placebo reactions, and body-oriented therapeutic interventions are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
  • Registered reports for Consciousness and Cognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): Gregory Francis, Talis Bachmann

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T14:09:17Z
  • What’s past is past: Neither perceptual preactivation nor prior
           motivational relevance decrease subsequent inattentional blindness
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 59
      Author(s): Carina Kreitz, Robert Schnuerch, Philip A. Furley, Daniel Memmert
      Inattentional blindness—the phenomenon that clearly visible, yet currently unexpected objects go unnoticed when our attention is focused elsewhere—is an ecologically valid failure of awareness. It is currently subject to debate whether previous events and experiences determine whether or not inattentional blindness occurs. Using a simple two-phase paradigm in the present study, we found that the likelihood of missing an unexpected object due to inattention did not change when its defining characteristic (its color) was perceptually preactivated (Experiment 1; N = 188). Likewise, noticing rates were not significantly reduced if the object’s color was previously motivationally relevant during an unrelated detection task (Experiment 2; N = 184). These results corroborate and extend recent findings questioning the influence of previous experience on subsequent inattentional blindness. This has implications for possible countermeasures intended to thwart the potentially harmful effects of inattention.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:41:42Z
  • Time drawings: Spatial representation of temporal concepts
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 59
      Author(s): María Juliana Leone, Alejo Salles, Alejandro Pulver, Diego Andrés Golombek, Mariano Sigman
      Time representation is a fundamental property of human cognition. Ample evidence shows that time (and numbers) are represented in space. However, how the conceptual mapping varies across individuals, scales, and temporal structures remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we conducted a large online study consisting in five experiments that addressed different time scales and topology: Zones of time, Seasons, Days of the week, Parts of the day and Timeline. Participants were asked to map different kinds of time events to a location in space and to determine their size and color. Results showed that time is organized in space in a hierarchical progression: some features appear to be universal (i.e. selection order), others are shaped by how time is organized in distinct cultures (i.e. location order) and, finally, some aspects vary depending on individual features such as age, gender, and chronotype (i.e. size and color).

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T13:41:42Z
  • The effects of neurochemical balance in the anterior cingulate cortex and
           dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on volitional control under irrelevant
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Ai Koizumi, Hakwan Lau, Yasuhiro Shimada, Hirohito M. Kondo
      Volitional control has been related to the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) ratio of glutamate-glutamine to γ-aminobutyric acid concentration in the different parts of the frontal cortex. Yet, how the neurochemical balance in each of the brain areas modulates volitional control remains unclear. Here, participants performed an auditory Go/No-Go task with and without task-irrelevant face distractors. Neurochemical balance was measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy at rest. Participants with higher E/I ratios in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed less control over No-Go cues under no distraction, whereas participants with higher E/I ratios in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were more prompted to make speeded Go responses under distraction. Therefore, the neurochemical balance in the DLPFC and ACC may be involved in the control over task-relevant and -irrelevant cues respectively.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T13:41:02Z
  • Conceptual distortions of hand structure are robust to changes in stimulus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Klaudia B. Ambroziak, Luigi Tamè, Matthew R. Longo
      Previous studies showed stereotyped distortions in hand representations. People judge their knuckles as farther forward in the hand than they actually are. The cause of this bias remains unclear. We tested whether both visual and tactile information contribute to the bias. In Experiment 1, participants judged the location of their knuckles by pointing to the location on their palm with: (1) a metal baton (using vision and touch), (2) a metal baton while blindfolded (using touch), or (3) a laser pointer (using vision). Distal mislocalisations were found in all conditions. In Experiment 2, we investigated whether judgments are influenced by visual landmarks such as creases. Participants localized their knuckles on either a photograph of their palm or a silhouette. Distal mislocalisations were apparent in both conditions. These results show that distal biases are resistant to changes in stimulus information, suggesting that such mislocalisations reflect a conceptual mis-representation of hand structure.

      PubDate: 2018-01-23T13:18:07Z
  • When is cognitive penetration a plausible explanation'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Valtteri Arstila
      Albert Newen and Petra Vetter argue that neurophysiological considerations and psychophysical studies provide striking evidence for cognitive penetration. This commentary focuses mainly on the neurophysiological considerations, which have thus far remained largely absent in the philosophical debate concerning cognitive penetration, and on the cognitive penetration of perceptual experiences, which is the form of cognitive penetration philosophers have debated about the most. It is argued that Newen and Vetter’s evidence for cognitive penetration is unpersuasive because they do not sufficiently scrutinize the details of the empirical studies they make use of—the details of the empirical studies are crucial also when the studies are used in philosophical debates. The previous does not mean that cognitive penetration could not occur. Quite the contrary, details of the feedback connections to the visual perceptual module and one of the candidates presented by Newen and Vetter suggest that cognitive penetration can occur in rare cases.

      PubDate: 2018-01-23T13:18:07Z
  • Slow and steady, not fast and furious: Slow temporal modulation
           strengthens continuous flash suppression
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 58
      Author(s): Shui'er Han, Randolph Blake, David Alais
      Continuous flash suppression (CFS) involves the presentation of a rapidly changing Mondrian sequence to one eye and a static target in the other eye. Targets presented in this manner remain suppressed for several seconds at a time, and this has seen the prevalent use of CFS in studies of unconscious visual processes. However, the mechanisms behind CFS remain unclear, complicating its use and the comprehension of results obtained with the paradigm. For example, some studies report observations indicative of faster, visual masking processes whereas others suggest slower, rivalry processes. To reconcile this discrepancy, this study investigates the effect of temporal frequency content and Mondrian pattern structure on CFS suppression. Our results show predominant influences of spatial edges and low temporal-frequency content, which are similar to binocular rivalry, affording a parsimonious alternative in unifying the two paradigms.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T21:41:17Z
  • Reexamining unconscious response priming: A liminal-prime paradigm
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Maayan Avneon, Dominique Lamy
      Research on the limits of unconscious processing typically relies on the subliminal-prime paradigm. However, this paradigm is limited in the issues it can address. Here, we examined the implications of using the liminal-prime paradigm, which allows comparing unconscious and conscious priming with constant stimulation. We adapted an iconic demonstration of unconscious response priming to the liminal-prime paradigm. On the one hand, temporal attention allocated to the prime and its relevance to the task increased the magnitude of response priming. On the other hand, the longer RTs associated with the dual task inherent to the paradigm resulted in response priming being underestimated, because unconscious priming effects were shorter-lived than conscious-priming effects. Nevertheless, when the impact of long RTs was alleviated by considering the fastest trials or by imposing a response deadline, conscious response priming remained considerably larger than unconscious response priming. These findings suggest that conscious perception strongly modulates response priming.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T21:41:17Z
  • Inattentional blindness on the full-attention trial: Are we throwing out
           the baby with the bathwater'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Rebekah C. White, Martin Davies, Anne M. Aimola Davies
      When attention is otherwise engaged, observers may experience inattentional blindness, failing to notice objects or events that are presented in plain sight. In an inattentional blindness experiment, an unexpectedstimulus ispresented alongside primary-task stimuli, and its detection is probed. We evaluate a criterion that is commonly used to exclude observers from the data analysis. On the final experimental trial, observers do not perform the primary task, but instead look for anything new. Observers who fail to report the unexpected stimulus on this full-attention trial are excluded. On the basis of 4 hypothetical experiments and a review of 128 actual experiments from the literature, we demonstrate some potentially problematic consequences of implementing the full-attention-trial exclusion criterion. Excluded observers may cluster in experimental conditions and the exclusion criterion may lead researchers to understate the pervasiveness of inattentional blindness. It may even render us blind to inattentional blindness on the full-attention trial.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T21:41:17Z
  • “As long as that is my hand, that willed action is mine”: Timing of
           agency triggered by body ownership
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Dalila Burin, Maria Pyasik, Irene Ronga, Marco Cavallo, Adriana Salatino, Lorenzo Pia
      We investigated whether agency triggered by body ownership shares similar temporal constraints with agency induced by actual movements. We compared agency over the movements of the own hand, a fake hand and an embodied fake hand when they pressed a button delivering a stimulus to the participant’s body after 500, 1000 or 2000 ms. In the first two delays, the movement of the embodied fake hand was misattributed to the participant’s own will and the stimulus intensity was attenuated, as it happened when the own hand delivered the stimulus. With the longest delay, the movement of the embodied fake hand was neither misattributed to the participant’s will nor the stimulus intensity was attenuated, as it happened when the fake non-embodied hand delivered the stimulus. By showing that illusory and veridical agency arise under similar temporal constraints, we further demonstrated that body ownership per se acts upon agency attribution.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T15:36:30Z
  • Replication and extension of long-term implicit memory: Perceptual priming
           but conceptual cessation
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 58
      Author(s): David B. Mitchell, Corwin L. Kelly, Alan S. Brown
      We endeavored to replicate Mitchell's (2006) finding of 17-year implicit memory priming. Subjects saw word and picture stimuli in 1999–2000 (M age = 18.9) and were retested after 11–14 years (M = 13.2; M age = 32.1). Via the internet, they completed four implicit memory tasks: picture fragment identification, word fragment completion, word stem completion, and category exemplar generation. Relative to control subjects (matched on stimuli, age, and education), longitudinal subjects revealed priming on picture and word fragment identification (perceptual tasks), but no priming on word stem completion or category exemplar generation (conceptual tasks). Four longitudinal subjects who failed to recall participating in the prior laboratory session had priming similar to the 10 subjects who did remember. Thus, we replicated the longevity of perceptual priming for pictures, and extended this to word fragment priming as well.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T01:27:11Z
  • Temporally extended self-awareness and affective engagement in
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): Silvia Zocchi, Francesca Borasio, Davide Rivolta, Luana Rositano, Ilaria Scotti, Davide Liccione
      The aim of the current study was to analyze the role of affective engagement during social interaction on the emergence of a temporally extended self (TES). A Delayed Self Recognition task was administered in two different social contexts: in presence of the mother (“Mother condition”) or in presence of an unfamiliar person (“Experimenter condition”). The same sample of 71 tree-year-olds was tested twice in these two treatment conditions. Results showed higher self-recognition scores in the “Mother condition”. These findings are consistent with developing-self theories that emphasize the impact of reciprocal social interaction on the emergence of self-awareness, and support a conception of the Self as a dialogic entity. We interpreted this link as a evidence that, when completing the procedure with their mother, children are aware of her attention, which corresponds to a familiar mode of self-perception, as well as to a peculiar affective consciousness of Self.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T01:27:11Z
  • The wandering self: Tracking distracting self-generated thought in a
           cognitively demanding context
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Stefan Huijser, Marieke K. van Vugt, Niels A. Taatgen
      We investigated how self-referential processing (SRP) affected self-generated thought in a complex working memory task (CWM) to test the predictions of a computational cognitive model. This model described self-generated thought as resulting from competition between task- and distracting processes, and predicted that self-generated thought interferes with rehearsal, reducing memory performance. SRP was hypothesized to influence this goal competition process by encouraging distracting self-generated thinking. We used a spatial CWM task to examine if SRP instigated such thoughts, and employed eye-tracking to examine rehearsal interference in eye-movement and self-generated thinking in pupil size. The results showed that SRP was associated with lower performance and higher rates of self-generated thought. Self-generated thought was associated with less rehearsal and we observed a smaller pupil size for mind wandering. We conclude that SRP can instigate self-generated thought and that goal competition provides a likely explanation for how self-generated thoughts arises in a demanding task.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T01:27:11Z
  • Investigating the spatial characteristics of the crossmodal interaction
           between nociception and vision using gaze direction
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): Lieve Filbrich, Monika Halicka, Andrea Alamia, Valéry Legrain
      The present study investigated the influence of nociceptive stimuli on visual stimuli processing according to the relative spatial congruence between the two stimuli of different sensory modalities. Participants performed temporal order judgments on pairs of visual stimuli, one presented near the hand on which nociceptive stimuli were occasionally applied, the other one either to its left or to its right. The visual hemifield in which the stimulated hand and the near visual stimulus appeared was manipulated by changing gaze direction. The stimulated hemibody and the stimulated visual hemifield were therefore either congruent or incongruent, in terms of anatomical locations. Despite the changes in anatomical congruence, judgments were always biased in favor of the visual stimuli presented near the stimulated hand. This indicates that nociceptive-visual interaction may rely on a realignment of the respective initial anatomical representations of the somatic and retinotopic spaces toward an integrated, multimodal representation of external space.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T01:12:26Z
  • The effect of subjective awareness measures on performance in artificial
           grammar learning task
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): Ivan I. Ivanchei, Nadezhda V. Moroshkina
      Systematic research into implicit learning requires well-developed awareness-measurement techniques. Recently, trial-by-trial measures have been widely used. However, they can increase complexity of a study because they are an additional experimental variable. We tested the effects of these measures on performance in artificial grammar learning study. Four groups of participants were assigned to different awareness measures conditions: confidence ratings, post-decision wagering, decision strategy attribution or none. Decision-strategy-attribution participants demonstrated better grammar learning and longer response times compared to controls. They also exhibited a conservative bias. Grammaticality by itself was a stronger predictor of strings endorsement in decision-strategy-attribution group compared to other groups. Confidence ratings and post-decision wagering only affected the response times. These results were supported by an additional experiment that used a balanced chunk strength design. We conclude that a decision-strategy-attribution procedure may force participants to adopt an analytical decision-making strategy and rely mostly on conscious knowledge of artificial grammar.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T01:12:26Z
  • Evidence for pain attenuation by the motor system-based judgment of agency
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): N. Karsh, O. Goldstein, B. Eitam
      Pain is an integral part of our lives. Although the effect of ‘control’ on sensed pain has been extensively studied and discussed, recent findings seem to be at odds with the substantial evidence for a robust motor-based sensory attenuation effect – an indirect marker for one’s sense of agency. The goal of the current study was to re-examine whether there is evidence for such an effect in the context of pain. In three experiments, human participants were aversively stimulated and the sensitivity of self-reported pain to factors previously shown to modulate the sensory attenuation effect was tested (control over parameters of the stimulation; temporal contiguity and predictability, and stimulation intensity). Two of three experiments found some evidence that objective control attenuates pain, but only when the painful stimulation immediately follows the motor response. We discuss the complex relations between having objective control, feeling helpless, predictability and sensed pain.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T01:12:26Z
  • Can false memory for critical lures occur without conscious awareness of
           list words'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Daniel D. Sadler, Sharon M. Sodmont, Lucas A. Keefer
      We examined whether the DRM false memory effect can occur when list words are presented below the perceptual identification threshold. In four experiments, subjects showed robust veridical memory for studied words and false memory for critical lures when masked list words were presented at exposure durations of 43 ms per word. Shortening the exposure duration to 29 ms virtually eliminated veridical recognition of studied words and completely eliminated false recognition of critical lures. Subjective visibility ratings in Experiments 3a and 3b support the assumption that words presented at 29 ms were subliminal for most participants, but were occasionally experienced with partial awareness by participants with higher perceptual awareness. Our results indicate that a false memory effect does not occur in the absence of conscious awareness of list words, but it does occur when word stimuli are presented at an intermediate level of visibility.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T01:12:26Z
  • Reduced recognition and priming in older relative to young adults for
           incidental and intentional information
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): Emma V. Ward
      Older adults often show greater implicit/unconscious memory than young adults for incidental information that was task-irrelevant during its acquisition. Shallow/perceptual encoding by older adults may boost performance on implicit tasks that reinstate this type of processing, whereas deeper/conceptual encoding by young adults may support greater explicit/conscious memory. To test this, young and older participants were exposed to incidental words in a text color identification task before the trial-by-trial capture of priming and recognition. In Experiments 1–3 priming and recognition were significantly greater in young than older adults, providing evidence against age differences in encoding style. In Experiments 2–3 older adults were more liberal than young adults in making positive recognition judgments to incidental relative to intentional items, even though source memory was poor in both groups. Findings pinpoint age differences in the utilization of previously incidental versus intentional information on different types of task.

      PubDate: 2017-12-05T02:00:24Z
  • Enhanced accessibility of ignored neutral and negative items in
           nonclinical dissociative individuals
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): Chui-De Chiu
      While clinical studies showed paradoxical memory phenomena, including the intrusion and amnesia of stressful experiences that are features of dissociation, the results of laboratory studies on dissociative individuals’ forgetting of experimental stimuli through cognitive control varied. Some studies demonstrated ineffective inhibition, and others found that dissociative individuals could remember fewer trauma words in a divided-attention context. Dissociative individuals may utilize superior cognitive disengagement to forget the representations. This hypothesis was tested in nonclinical individuals with high, medium, and low dissociation proneness. In the study phase, the participants learned several lists of experimental words and kept updating working memory by remembering the last four items on a list (target) and ignoring those non-target items. A recognition test was then conducted. The high dissociation group performed better on updating working memory. However, the accessibility of the representations of neutral and negative non-target items was elevated. Dissociative individuals disengaged attention effectively from items they intended to ignore, and the representations of the ignored items were more accessible when cues were available.

      PubDate: 2017-12-05T02:00:24Z
  • The role of awareness in the cognitive control of single-prime negative
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): Hsuan-Fu Chao
      Single-prime negative priming refers to a phenomenon whereby repeating a single prime as a probe target slows responses to that target. This phenomenon is modulated by cognitive control when the contingency between the prime and probe target is higher than chance. The present study investigated the role of prime awareness and awareness of the contingency within the control mechanism during single-prime negative priming. Results showed that while single-prime negative priming occurred regardless of participant awareness, the control mechanism was modulated by prime awareness and perceived contingency.

      PubDate: 2017-12-05T02:00:24Z
  • Critical role of top-down processes and the push-pull mechanism in
           semantic single negative priming
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): Yonghui Wang, Yongchun Wang, Peng Liu, Junni Wang, Yanyan Gong, Meilin Di, Ya Li
      The present study investigated the roles of bottom-up mask-triggered inhibition and top-down inhibition in semantic categorization using the single negative priming (NP) paradigm. The masking (bottom-up) and ignore instructions (top-down, i.e., instructing participants to ignore the primes) were manipulated in Experiments 1–3 and Experiment 4, respectively. No priming was observed when only the masking was manipulated (Experiments 2 and 3), but NP was observed when a possible top-down ignore strategy (Experiment 1) or an ignore instruction (Experiment 4) was added. The results indicate that bottom-up mask-triggered inhibition cannot elicit semantic single NP by itself. However, top-down inhibition from an ignore instruction or ignore strategy is critical for triggering reliable semantic single NP. The findings suggest that semantic single NP originates from a push-pull mechanism by facilitating responses to unrelated trials and inhibiting responses to related trials. The experimental evidence also suggests that unconscious processes can be modulated by top-down control.

      PubDate: 2017-12-05T02:00:24Z
  • Target meta-awareness is a necessary condition for physiological responses
           to masked emotional faces: Evidence from combined skin conductance and
           heart rate assessment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Myron Tsikandilakis, Peter Chapman, Jonathan Peirce
      Much heated debate surrounds the extent to which we can process emotional stimuli without awareness. In particular the extent to which masked emotional faces can elicit changes in physiology measurements, such as heart rate and skin conductance responses, has produced controversial findings. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether briefly presented faces can elicit physiological changes and, specifically, whether this is due to unconscious processing. We measured and adjusted for individual differences in the detection threshold using both receiver operating characteristics and hit rates. For this we also used a strict Bayesian assessment of participant thresholds. We then measured physiological responses to threshold adjusted emotional faces and for hits, misses and post-binary subdivisions of target meta-awareness. Our findings based on receiver operating characteristics revealed that, when faces were successfully masked there were no significant physiological differences in response to stimuli with different emotional connotations. In contrast, when targets were masked based on hit rates we did find physiological responses to masked emotional faces. With further analysis we found that this effect was specific to correct detection of angry and fearful faces and that increases in experienced arousal were associated with higher confidence ratings for correct detection of these stimuli. Collectively, our results do not support the notion of unconscious processing when using markers of physiological processes. Rather they suggest that target meta-awareness is a necessary condition for – and possibly determined by – physiological changes in response to masked emotional faces.

      PubDate: 2017-12-05T02:00:24Z
  • Gender identity better than sex explains individual differences in
           episodic and semantic components of autobiographical memory and future
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): Laurie Compère, Eirini Rari, Thierry Gallarda, Adèle Assens, Marion Nys, Sandrine Coussinoux, Sébastien Machefaux, Pascale Piolino
      A recently tested hypothesis suggests that inter-individual differences in episodic autobiographical memory (EAM) are better explained by individual identification of typical features of a gender identity than by sex. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating sex and gender related differences not only in EAM but also during retrieval of more abstract self-knowledge (i.e., semantic autobiographical memory, SAM, and conceptual self, CS), and considering past and future perspectives. No sex-related differences were identified, but regardless of the sex, feminine gender identity was associated with clear differences in emotional aspects that were expressed in both episodic and more abstract forms of AM, and in the past and future perspectives, while masculine gender identity was associated with limited effects. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that inter-individual differences in AM are better explained by gender identity than by sex, extending this assumption to both episodic and semantic forms of AM and future thinking.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T16:37:31Z
  • Covert retrieval in working memory impacts the phenomenological
           characteristics remembered during episodic memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): Vanessa M. Loaiza, Borislava M. Borovanska
      Much research has investigated the qualitative experience of retrieving events from episodic memory (EM). The present study investigated whether covert retrieval in WM increases the phenomenological characteristics that participants find memorable in EM using tasks that distract attention from the maintenance of memoranda (i.e., complex span; Experiment 1) relative to tasks that do not (i.e., short or long list lengths of simple span; Experiments 1 and 2). Participants rated the quality of the phonological, semantic, and temporal-contextual characteristics remembered during a delayed memory characteristics questionnaire (MCQ). Whereas an advantage of the complex over simple span items was observed for each characteristic (Experiment 1), no such difference was observed between short and long trials of simple span (Experiment 2). These results are consistent with the view that covert retrieval in WM promotes content-context bindings that are later accessible from EM for both objective performance and subjective details of the remembered information.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T16:37:31Z
  • Altering movement parameters disrupts metacognitive accuracy
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): E.R. Palser, A. Fotopoulou, J.M. Kilner
      Correctly estimating the confidence we should have in our decisions has traditionally been viewed as a perceptual judgement based solely on the strength or quality of sensory information. However, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the motor system contributes to judgements of perceptual confidence. Here, we manipulated the speed at which participants’ moved using a behavioural priming task and showed that increasing movement speed above participants’ baseline measures disrupts their ability to form accurate confidence judgements about their performance. Specifically, after being primed to move faster than they would naturally, participants reported higher confidence in their incorrect decisions than when they moved at their natural pace. We refer to this finding as the adamantly wrong effect. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that veridical feedback from the effector used to indicate a decision is employed to form accurate metacognitive judgements of performance.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T16:37:31Z
  • Mapping complex mind states: EEG neural substrates of meditative unified
           compassionate awareness
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): Poppy L.A. Schoenberg, Andrea Ruf, John Churchill, Daniel P. Brown, Judson A. Brewer
      Specific mental training cultivates diminished self-reference, encompassing non-duality, emptiness, awakened-awareness, and compassionate experiences. We aimed to elucidate the neural substrates of four distinct, interdependent Essence-of-Mind states: (1) timelessness, (2) non-preference, non-duality, non-conceptualization, (3) the view of luminosity and limitlessness, (4) unified compassionate experience of oneness (stable awakened-awareness). EEG data were collected from 30 advanced meditators concomitant to eyes-open/eyes-closed resting baseline, followed by 60-min of instructed practice. Alpha, beta, and gamma, frequency-spatial EEG-dimensions were analyzed. The results revealed that compared to baseline, current density across frequencies significantly decreased upon meditation onset in self-referential, and executive-control regions. During meditation, gamma-band current density significantly increased from state-1 compared to state-4, within the ACC, precuneus, and superior parietal lobule, whereas beta-band activity increased within the insula. These findings suggest a dissociation between brain regions regulating self-referential vs. executive-control processing, during non-dual, compassionate states, characterized by brilliantly awake awareness, free from conceptual thought and “doing”.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T16:37:31Z
  • Greater cortical thickness within the limbic visceromotor network predicts
           higher levels of trait emotional awareness
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 57
      Author(s): Ryan Smith, Sahil Bajaj, Natalie S. Dailey, Anna Alkozei, Courtney Smith, Anna Sanova, Richard D. Lane, William D.S. Killgore
      Previous studies of trait emotional awareness (EA) have not yet examined whether differences in cortical structure might account for differences in EA. Based on previous research on the relationship between EA and both emotion conceptualization and visceromotor control processes, we tested two hypotheses in a sample of 26 healthy participants: that higher EA would be predicted by greater cortical thickness within (1) regions of the default mode network (DMN; linked with conceptualization processes), and/or (2) regions of the limbic network (linked with affect generation and visceromotor control processes). A non-significant correlation was found between EA and cortical thickness in the DMN. In contrast, a significant positive correlation was observed between EA and cortical thickness within the limbic network. These findings suggest that the structural integrity of cortical regions involved in the generation of affective bodily reactions may play a more important role in explaining differences in EA than previously thought.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T16:37:31Z
  • Autobiographical memory sources of threats in dreams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Alexandre Lafrenière, Monique Lortie-Lussier, Allyson Dale, Raphaëlle Robidoux, Joseph De Koninck
      Temporal sources of dream threats were examined through the paradigm of the Threat Simulation Theory. Two groups of young adults (18–24 years old), who did not experience severe threatening events in the year preceding their dream and reported a dream either with or without threats, were included. Participants (N = 119) kept a log of daily activities and a dream diary, indicating whether dream components referred to past experiences. The occurrence of oneiric threats correlated with the reporting of threats in the daily logs, their average severity, and the stress level experienced the day preceding the dream. The group whose dreams contained threats had significantly more references to temporal categories beyond one year than the group with dreams without threats. Our findings suggest that in the absence of recent highly negative emotional experiences, the threat simulation system selects memory traces of threatening events experienced in the past.

      PubDate: 2017-11-23T16:37:31Z
  • Daydreams incorporate recent waking life concerns but do not show delayed
           (‘dream-lag’) incorporations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Elaine van Rijn, Alexander M. Reid, Christopher L. Edwards, Josie E. Malinowski, Perrine M. Ruby, Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Mark T. Blagrove
      This study investigates the time course of incorporation of waking life experiences into daydreams. Thirty-one participants kept a diary for 10 days, reporting major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs). They were then cued for daydream, Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and N2 dream reports in the sleep laboratory. There was a higher incorporation into daydreams of MCs from the previous two days (day-residue effect), but no day-residue effect for MDAs or PSEs, supporting a function for daydreams of processing current concerns. A day-residue effect for PSEs and the delayed incorporation of PSEs from 5 to 7 days before the dream (the dream-lag effect) have previously been found for REM dreams. Delayed incorporation was not found in this study for daydreams. Daydreams might thus differ in function from REM sleep dreams. However, the REM dream-lag effect was not replicated here, possibly due to design differences from previous studies.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T02:07:06Z
  • Emotional prediction: An ALE meta-analysis and MACM analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Guangming Ran, Xiaojun Cao, Xu Chen
      The prediction of emotion has been explored in a variety of functional brain imaging and neurophysiological studies. However, an overall picture of the areas involved this process remains unexploited. Here, we quantitatively summarized the published literature on emotional prediction using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Furthermore, the current study employed a meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) to map the meta-analytic coactivation maps of regions of interest (ROIs). Our ALE analysis revealed significant convergent activations in some vital brain areas involved in emotional prediction, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). For the MACM analysis, we identified that the DLPFC, VLPFC and OFC were the core areas in the coactivation network of emotional prediction. Overall, the results of ALE and MACM indicated that prefrontal brain areas play critical roles in emotional prediction.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T02:07:06Z
  • Susceptibility to unconscious influences is unaffected by a challenging
           inhibitory task or mental exhaustion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Angela Gurney, Anna-Nepheli L. Lagos, Abigail Manning, Ryan B. Scott
      Unconscious influences have been demonstrated in a variety of behavioural contexts, however, a key question remains – to what extent do such influences vary with our changing mental states' We examine whether a prior inhibitory challenge increases susceptibility to subliminal priming in a stem completion task employing neutral (Experiment 1) and reward salient terms (Experiment 2). Results show stem completions to be significantly influenced by unconscious priming, and the challenging inhibitory task (the Stroop) to be significantly more mentally exhausting than the control task. However, neither the degree of inhibitory challenge, trait self-control, nor task-related mental exhaustion significantly influenced unconscious priming. Bayesian analysis provides strong evidence that prior inhibitory challenge does not affect susceptibility to unconscious priming. The study supports the conclusion that unconscious processing can be independent of consciously experienced mental states and provides reassurance that inhibitory impairment, common to mood disorders, should not increase susceptibility to unconscious influences.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T02:07:06Z
  • Subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to the rubber hand
           illusion do not vary with age in the adult phase
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Priscila Palomo, Adrián Borrego, Ausiàs Cebolla, Roberto Llorens, Marcelo Demarzo, Rosa M. Baños
      The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20–30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20–35 years old, N = 41; 36–60 years old, N = 28; and 61–80 years old, N = 24), and its effects were measured with subjective (Embodiment of Rubber Hand Questionnaire), behavioral (proprioceptive drift), and physiological (changes in skin temperature and conductance) measures. There were neither significant differences among groups in any response, nor significant covariability or correlation between age and other measures (but for skin temperature), which suggests that the RHI elicits similar responses across different age groups in the adult phase.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Highly relevant stimuli may passively elicit processes associated with
           consciousness during the sleep onset period
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition
      Author(s): Paniz Tavakoli, Sonia Varma, Kenneth Campbell
      Sleep onset marks the transition from waking to sleep, during which conscious awareness of the external environmental is gradually lost. The present study examines the extent of processing of acoustic change during sleep onset. An auditory optimal paradigm was used to record event-related potentials to six deviant stimuli during wakefulness, stage N1, and stage N2 sleep. During waking and early-stage N1, two of the deviants, environmental sounds and white noise, elicited a P3a reflecting processes that may lead to conscious awareness of acoustic change. Surprisingly, the P3a was also observed following both deviants during late-stage N1, a period thought to represent decreased awareness of the environment. Only the environmental sounds continued to elicit a P3a during stage N2 sleep, associated with the loss of consciousness of the external environment. Certain auditory stimuli may thus continue to activate processes that may lead to conscious awareness during the sleep onset period.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Unitary and dual models of phenomenal consciousness
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Tomáš Marvan, Michal Polák
      There is almost unanimous consensus among the theorists of consciousness that the phenomenal character of a mental state cannot exist without consciousness. We argue for a reappraisal of this consensus. We distinguish two models of phenomenal consciousness: unitary and dual. Unitary model takes the production of a phenomenal quality and it’s becoming conscious to be one and the same thing. The dual model, which we advocate in this paper, distinguishes the process in which the phenomenal quality is formed from the process that makes this quality conscious. We put forward a conceptual, methodological, neuropsychological and neural argument for the dual model. These arguments are independent but provide mutual support to each other. Together, they strongly support the dual model of phenomenal consciousness and the concomitant idea of unconscious mental qualities. The dual view is thus, we submit, a hypothesis worthy of further probing and development.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Learning to infer the time of our actions and decisions from their
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Helena Matute, Carmelo P. Cubillas, Pablo Garaizar
      Research shows that people infer the time of their actions and decisions from their consequences. We asked how people know how much time to subtract from consequences in order to infer their actions and decisions. They could either subtract a fixed, default, time from consequences, or learn from experience how much time to subtract in each situation. In two experiments, participants’ actions were followed by a tone, which was presented either immediately or after a delay. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the time of their actions; in Experiment 2, the time of their decisions to act. Both actions and decisions were judged to occur sooner or later as a function of whether consequences were immediate or delayed. Estimations tended to be shifted toward their consequences, but in some cases they were shifted away from them. Most importantly, in all cases participants learned progressively to adjust their estimations with experience.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Switching memory perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Shazia Akhtar, Lucy V. Justice, Catherine Loveday, Martin A. Conway
      The perspective in which memories were spontaneously recalled, field (original perspective) or observer (see oneself in the memory), was examined for both recent and remote memories. Recent memories were dominated by field perspective whilst remote memories were dominated by observer perspective. Further, field memories contained reliably more episodic detail than observer memories. After a 1-week interval, the same memories were recalled again but with a switched memory perspective. Switching from an observer to a field perspective did not reliably increase the amount of episodic details in a memory. Switching from field to observer perspective did, however, reliably reduce the number of episodic details. These findings suggest that memories may be represented in long-term memory with a fixed perspective, either field or observer, which can be temporarily altered sometimes changing the nature of a memory, i.e. how much detail remains accessible.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Testosterone facilitates the sense of agency
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Donné van der Westhuizen, James Moore, Mark Solms, Jack van Honk
      Sense of agency (SoA) refers to feelings of being in control of one’s actions. Evidence suggests that SoA might contribute towards higher-order feelings of personal control – a key attribute of powerful individuals. Whether testosterone, a steroid hormone linked to power in dominance hierarchies, also influences the SoA is not yet established. In a repeated-measures design, 26 females participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the effects of 0.5 mg testosterone on SoA, using an implicit measure based upon perceived shifts in time between a voluntary action and its outcome. Illusions of control, as operationalized by optimism in affective forecasting, were also assessed. Testosterone increased action binding but there was no significant effect on tone binding. Affective forecasting was found to be significantly more positive on testosterone. SoA and optimistic expectations are basic manifestations of power which may contribute to feelings of infallibility often associated with dominance and testosterone.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Inspired by Mary Jane' Mechanisms underlying enhanced creativity in
           cannabis users
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Emily M. LaFrance, Carrie Cuttler
      Previous research suggests cannabis may enhance some aspects of creativity, although the results remain somewhat equivocal. Moreover, it is unclear whether differences in cannabis users’ personalities may account for any potentially beneficial effects of cannabis on creativity. This study was designed to examine whether sober cannabis users demonstrate superior self-reported and objective creativity test performance relative to non-users, and to determine whether any of the Big 5 personality domains underlie these effects. A sample of sober cannabis users (n =412) and non-users (n =309) completed measures of cannabis consumption, personality, self-reported and objective creativity. Relative to non-users, sober cannabis users self-reported higher creativity, and performed significantly better on a measure of convergent thinking. Controlling for cannabis users’ higher levels of openness to experience abolished these effects. Therefore, while cannabis users appear to demonstrate enhanced creativity, these effects are an artifact of their heightened levels of openness to experience.

      PubDate: 2017-11-06T21:30:55Z
  • Paranormal belief and errors of probabilistic reasoning: The role of
           constituent conditional relatedness in believers' susceptibility to the
           conjunction fallacy
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 56
      Author(s): Paul Rogers, John E. Fisk, Emma Lowrie
      The present study examines the extent to which stronger belief in either extrasensory perception, psychokinesis or life-after-death is associated with a proneness to making conjunction errors (CEs). One hundred and sixty members of the UK public read eight hypothetical scenarios and for each estimated the likelihood that two constituent events alone plus their conjunction would occur. The impact of paranormal belief plus constituents’ conditional relatedness type, estimates of the subjectively less likely and more likely constituents plus relevant interaction terms tested via three Generalized Linear Mixed Models. General qualification levels were controlled for. As expected, stronger PK beliefs and depiction of a positively conditionally related (verses conditionally unrelated) constituent pairs predicted higher CE generation. ESP and LAD beliefs had no impact with, surprisingly, higher estimates of the less likely constituent predicting fewer - not more - CEs. Theoretical implications, methodological issues and ideas for future research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T08:21:39Z
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