Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Daniel L. King, Paul H. Delfabbro, Anise M.S. Wu, Young Yim Doh, Daria J. Kuss, Ståle Pallesen, Rune Mentzoni, Natacha Carragher, Hiroshi Sakuma Treatment services for Internet gaming disorder are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, particularly in East Asia. This international systematic review was designed to appraise the quality standards of the gaming disorder treatment literature, a task previously undertaken by King et al. (2011) prior to the inclusion of Internet gaming disorder in Section III of the DSM-5 and ‘Gaming disorder’ in the draft ICD-11. The reporting quality of 30 treatment studies conducted from 2007 to 2016 was assessed. Reporting quality was defined according to the 2010 Consolidating Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. The results reaffirmed previous criticisms of these trials, namely: (a) inconsistencies in the definition, diagnosis, and measurement of disordered use; (b) lack of randomization and blinding; (c) lack of controls; and (d) insufficient information on recruitment dates, sample characteristics, and effect sizes. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy has a larger evidence base than other therapies, it remains difficult to make definitive statements on its benefits. Study design quality has not improved over the last decade, indicating a need for greater consistency and standardization in this area. Continuing international efforts to understand the core psychopathology of gaming disorder are vital to developing a model of best practice in treatment.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Ameika M. Johnson, David J. Hawes, Nancy Eisenberg, Jane Kohlhoff, Joanne Dudeney Decades of research have emphasized the role that coercive and ineffective discipline plays in shaping child and adolescent conduct problems, yet an emerging body of evidence has suggested that parents' emotion socialization behaviors (ESBs) (e.g., reactions to emotions, discussion of emotions, and emotion coaching) may also be implicated. This meta-analysis examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between parental ESBs and conduct problems, and tested for moderators of these associations. A systematic search identified 49 studies for which data on concurrent associations between ESBs and conduct problems were available (n =6270), and 14 studies reporting on prospective associations (n =1899). Parental ESBs were found to be significantly associated with concurrent (r =−0.08) and prospective (r =−0.11) conduct problems, in the order of small effect sizes. Key findings of moderator analyses were that ESBs were more strongly associated with conduct problems at younger ages and when ESBs were focused on the socialization of negative rather than positive emotions. Findings support the integration of ESBs into family-based models of antisocial behavior, and have the potential to inform the design of parent training interventions for the prevention and treatment of child conduct problems.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Huw Goodwin, Jenny Yiend, Colette Hirsch Among anxious populations, attention has been demonstrated to be preferentially biased to threatening material compared to neutral or other valenced material. Individuals who have high levels of trait worry, such as those with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), may be biased to threat but research has produced equivocal findings. This review aimed to systematically review the extant experimental literature to establish the current evidence of attentional bias to threat among trait worriers compared to healthy controls and other clinical populations. Twenty-nine published articles were included in the final review. There was strong evidence of a bias to threat among GAD patients compared to other groups and this was found across most experimental paradigms. Few studies had investigated this bias in non-clinical trait worriers. Among GAD patients this bias to threat was most strongly evidenced when visual threat material was in a verbal-linguistic format (i.e., words) rather than when in pictorial form (i.e., images or faces). The bias was also found across several domains of negative material, supporting the general nature of worry. Further research should look to examine the specific components of the threat bias in GAD, as well as investigating the bias to threat in trait worriers.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Sven Thoenes, Daniel Oberfeld Numerous studies have reported that time perception and temporal processing are impaired in schizophrenia. In a meta-analytical review, we differentiate between time perception (judgments of time intervals) and basic temporal processing (e.g., judgments of temporal order) as well as between effects on accuracy (deviation of estimates from the veridical value) and precision (variability of judgments). In a meta-regression approach, we also included the specific tasks and the different time interval ranges as covariates. We considered 68 publications of the past 65years, and meta-analyzed data from 957 patients with schizophrenia and 1060 healthy control participants. Independent of tasks and interval durations, our results demonstrate that time perception and basic temporal processing are less precise (more variable) in patients (Hedges' g >1.00), whereas effects of schizophrenia on accuracy of time perception are rather small and task-dependent. Our review also shows that several aspects, e.g., potential influences of medication, have not yet been investigated in sufficient detail. In conclusion, the results are in accordance with theoretical assumptions and the notion of a more variable internal clock in patients with schizophrenia, but not with a strong effect of schizophrenia on clock speed. The impairment of temporal precision, however, may also be clock-unspecific as part of a general cognitive deficiency in schizophrenia.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Juan Antonio Moriana, Mario Gálvez-Lara, Jorge Corpas Most mental health services throughout the world currently regard evidence-based psychological treatments as best practice for the treatment of mental disorders. The aim of this study was to analyze evidence-based treatments drawn from RCTs, reviews, meta-analyses, guides, and lists provided by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA), Cochrane and the Australian Psychological Society (APS) in relation to mental disorders in adults. A total of 135 treatments were analyzed for 23 mental disorders and compared to determine the level of agreement among the organizations. The results indicate that, in most cases, there is little agreement among organizations and that there are several discrepancies within certain disorders. These results require reflection on the meaning attributed to evidence-based practice with regard to psychological treatments. The possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Based on these findings, proposals to unify the criteria that reconcile the realities of clinical practice with a scientific perspective were analyzed.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): D. Littlewood, S.D. Kyle, D. Pratt, S. Peters, P. Gooding We sought to conduct the first systematic review of empirical evidence investigating the role of psychological factors in the relationship between sleep problems and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Twelve studies were identified which examined psychological factors grouped into four categories of cognitive appraisals, psychosocial factors, emotion regulation strategies, and risk behaviours. Although there was substantial heterogeneity across studies with respect to measurement, sampling, and analysis, preliminary evidence indicated that negative cognitive appraisals, perceived social isolation, and unhelpful emotion regulation strategies may contribute to the association between sleep problems and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Given that findings in this area are currently restricted to studies with cross-sectional designs, the directionality of the interrelationships between these psychological factors, sleep problems and suicidality, remains unclear. We integrate the findings of our review with contemporary psychological models of suicidal behaviour to develop a clear research agenda. Identified pathways should now be tested with longitudinal and experimental designs. In addition, a more thorough investigation of the complexities of sleep, psychological factors, and suicidal thoughts and behaviours is crucial for the development of targeted psychological interventions.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Peter J. Norton, Daniel J. Paulus Despite the increasing development, evaluation, and adoption of transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapies, relatively little has been written to detail the conceptual and empirical psychopathology framework underlying transdiagnostic models of anxiety and related disorders. In this review, the diagnostic, genetic, neurobiological, developmental, behavioral, cognitive, and interventional data underlying the model are described, with an emphasis on highlighting elements that both support and contradict transdiagnostic conceptualizations. Finally, a transdiagnostic model of anxiety disorder is presented and key areas of future evaluation and refinement are discussed.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Benjamin R. Davies, Nicholas B. Allen Youth runaway behavior and homelessness (RHY) in the U.S. is increasingly common, with prevalence estimated at 1–1.7 million youth. RHY have multiple, overlapping problems often including poor physical and mental health, frequent street victimization, and histories of physical and sexual abuse. Further, current street victimization interacts with childhood abuse to produce complex, unique presentations of traumatic symptoms and related disorders in runaway and homeless youth. This review paper explores (1) the role of childhood trauma in the genesis of runaway and homeless behavior, and (2) how childhood trauma interacts with street victimization to create vulnerability to psychopathology. In response to the trauma needs of RHY, we conducted a systematic review of the state of the current literature on trauma-informed interventions for RHY. We conclude that the field currently lacks empirically validated trauma interventions in RHY. However, theoretically plausible frameworks do exist and could be the basis for future research and intervention development.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Katy Tapper Mindfulness is increasingly being used for weight management. However, the strength of the evidence for such an approach is unclear; although mindfulness-based weight management programs have had some success, it is difficult to conclude that the mindfulness components were responsible. Research in this area is further complicated by the fact that the term ‘mindfulness’ is used to refer to a range of different practices. Additionally, we have little understanding of the mechanisms by which mindfulness might exert its effects. This review addresses these issues by examining research that has looked at the independent effects of mindfulness and mindfulness-related strategies on weight loss and weight management related eating behaviors. As well as looking at evidence for effects, the review also considers whether effects may vary with different types of strategy, and the kinds of mechanisms that may be responsible for any change. It is concluded that there is some evidence to support the effects of (a) present moment awareness, when applied to the sensory properties of food, and (b) decentering. However, research in these areas has yet to be examined in a controlled manner in relation to weight management.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Panagiota Kaisari, Colin T Dourish, Suzanne Higgs Preliminary findings suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be associated with disordered eating behaviour, but whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and specific types of disordered eating behaviour is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether specific features associated with ADHD are differentially associated with disordered eating behaviour. A systematic review of seventy-five studies was conducted to evaluate the potential association between ADHD symptomatology and disordered eating behaviour and to provide an estimate of the strength of evidence for any association. Overall, a moderate strength of evidence exists for a positive association between ADHD and disordered eating and with specific types of disordered-eating behaviour, in particular, overeating behaviour. There is consistent evidence that impulsivity symptoms of ADHD are positively associated with overeating and bulimia nervosa and more limited evidence for an association between hyperactivity symptoms and restrictive eating in males but not females. Further research is required to assess the potential direction of the relationship between ADHD and disordered eating, the underlying mechanisms and the role of specific ADHD symptoms in the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating behaviour. We propose a framework that could be used to guide the design of future studies.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Ernst H.W. Koster, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Thomas Onraedt, Max Owens, Nazanin Derakshan There is a strong interest in cognitive control training as a new intervention for depression. Given the recent promising meta-analytical findings regarding the effects of cognitive training on cognitive functioning and depressive symptomatology, the current review provides an in-depth discussion of the role of cognitive control in depression. We consider the state-of-the-art research on how manipulation of cognitive control may influence cognitive and depression-related outcomes. Evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive control training procedures are discussed in relation to three stages of depression (at-risk, clinically depressed, remission) as well as the training approach that was deployed, after which the putative theoretical mechanisms are discussed. Finally, we provide ways in which cognitive control training can be utilized in future research.
Abstract: Publication date: April 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 53 Author(s): Long Khanh-Dao Le, Jan J Barendregt, Phillipa Hay, Cathrine Mihalopoulos Objective To systematically review and quantify the effectiveness of Eating Disorder (ED) prevention interventions. Methods Electronic databases (including the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, EMBASE, and Scopus) were searched for published randomized controlled trials of ED prevention interventions from 2009 to 2015. Trials prior to 2009 were retrieved from prior reviews. Results One hundred and twelve articles were included. Fifty-eight percent of trials had high risk of bias. Findings indicated small to moderate effect sizes on reduction of ED risk factors or symptoms which occurred up to three-year post-intervention. For universal prevention, media literacy (ML) interventions significantly reduced shape and weight concerns for both females (−0.69, confidence interval (CI): −1.17 to −0.22) and males (−0.32, 95% CI −0.57 to −0.07). For selective prevention, cognitive dissonance (CD) interventions were superior to control interventions in reducing ED symptoms (−0.32, 95% CI −0.52 to −0.13). Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions had the largest effect size (−0.40, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.26) on dieting outcome at 9-month follow-up while the healthy weight intervention reduced ED risk factors and body mass index. No indicated prevention interventions were found to be effective in reducing ED risk factors. Conclusions There are a number of promising preventive interventions for ED risk factors including CD, CBT and ML. Whether these actually lower ED incidence is, however, uncertain. Combined ED and obesity prevention interventions require further research.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Melanie A. Hom, Ian H. Stanley, Matthew E. Schneider, Thomas E. Joiner Research has demonstrated that military service members are at elevated risk for a range of psychiatric problems, and mental health services use is a conduit to symptom reduction and remission. Nonetheless, there is a notable underutilization of mental health services in this population. This systematic review aimed to identify and critically examine: (1) rates of service use; (2) barriers and facilitators to care; and (3) programs and interventions to enhance willingness to seek care and help-seeking behaviors among current military personnel (e.g., active duty, National Guard, Reserve). Overall, 111 peer-reviewed articles were identified for inclusion. Across studies, the rate of past-year service use among service members with mental health problems during the same time frame was 29.3% based on weighted averages. Studies identified common barriers to care (e.g., concerns regarding stigma, career impact) and facilitators to care (e.g., positive treatment attitudes, family/friend support, military leadership support) among this population. Although programs (e.g., screening, gatekeeper training) have been developed to reduce these barriers, leverage facilitators, and encourage service use, further research is needed to empirically test the effectiveness of these interventions in increasing rates of service utilization. Critical areas for further research on treatment engagement among this high-risk population are discussed.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Michael J. Toohey, Raymond DiGiuseppe Irritability is a symptom of 15 disorders in the DSM-5 and is included in Mood Disorders, Addictive Disorders, Personality Disorders, and more (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, the term irritability is defined and measured inconsistently in the scholarly literature. In this article, we reviewed the scholarly definitions of irritability and the item content of irritability measures. Components of definitions and items measuring irritability were divided into three categories: a) causes, b) experience, and c) consequences. We also reviewed potential causes and biomarkers of irritability. We found much overlap between definitions and measures of irritability and related constructs such as anger and aggression. Consequently, the validity of research on irritability needs to be questioned including the role of irritability in psychopathology and the presence of irritability as a symptom in any disorder. Research on irritability's role in behavioral disorders needs to be repeated after more well defined measures are developed. We proposed a more precise definition of irritability that clearly differentiates it from related constructs. Suggested items for measuring irritability are also provided.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Suraj Samtani Rumination and worry have recently been grouped under the broader transdiagnostic construct of repetitive thought (Watkins, 2008). The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of scales used to assess repetitive thinking across a broad range of contexts: depression, anxiety, trauma, stress, illness, interpersonal difficulties, positive affect, and so forth. We also include scales developed or adapted for children and adolescents. In the extant literature, measures of repetitive thinking generally show small-to-moderate correlations with measures of psychopathology. This review highlights problems with the content validity of existing instruments; for example, confounds between repetitive thought and symptomatology, metacognitive beliefs, and affect. This review also builds on previous reviews by including newer transdiagnostic measures of repetitive thinking. We hope that this review will help to expand our understanding of repetitive thinking beyond the mood and anxiety disorders, and suggest ways forward in the measurement of repetitive thinking in individuals with comorbid conditions.
Abstract: Publication date: March 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 52 Author(s): Naoko Kishita, Ken Laidlaw The current meta-analysis compared the efficacy of CBT for GAD between adults of working age and older people. In addition, we conducted a qualitative content analysis of treatment protocols used in studies with older clients to explore potential factors that may enhance treatment outcomes with this particular client group. Applying the inclusion criteria resulted in the identification of 15 studies with 22 comparisons between CBT and control groups (770 patients). When examining overall effect sizes for CBT for GAD between older people and adults of working age there were no statistically significant differences in outcome. However, overall effect size of CBT for GAD was moderate for older people (g =0.55, 95% CI 0.22–0.88) and large for adults of working age (g =0.94, 95% CI 0.52–1.36), suggesting that there is still room for improvement in CBT with older people. The main difference in outcome between CBT for GAD between the two age groups was related to methodological quality in that no older people studies used an intention-to-treat design. The content analysis demonstrated that studies with older clients were conducted according to robust CBT protocols but did not take account of gerontological evidence to make them more age-appropriate.
Abstract: Publication date: March 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 52 Author(s): Laura M.S. De Putter, Lotte Van Yper, Ernst H.W. Koster Efficacious induction procedures of symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are necessary in order to test central tenets of theories on OCD. However, the efficacy of the current range of induction procedures remains unclear. Therefore, this meta-analysis set out to examine the efficacy of induction procedures in participants with and without OCD symptoms. Moreover, we explored whether the efficacy varied across different moderators (i.e., induction categories, symptom dimensions of OCD, modalities of presentation, and level of individual tailoring). In total we included 4900 participants across 90 studies. The analyses showed that there was no difference in studies using subclinical and clinical participants, confirming the utility of analogue samples. Induction procedures evoked more symptoms in (sub)clinical OCD than in healthy participants, which was most evident in the contamination symptom dimension of OCD. Analysis within (sub)clinical OCD showed a large effect size of induction procedures, especially for the threat and responsibility category and when stimuli were tailored to individuals. Analysis within healthy participants showed a medium effect size of induction procedures. The magnitude of the effect in healthy individuals was stronger for mental contamination, thought-action fusion and threat inductions.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Victoria Williamson, Cathy Creswell, Pasco Fearon, Rachel M Hiller, Jennifer Walker, Sarah L Halligan Studies that have examined the association between parenting behaviors and childhood post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded mixed findings. To clarify the role of parenting in childhood PTSD we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 studies that investigated the association between parenting and youth PTSD symptoms (total n=4010). Negative parenting behaviors (e.g. overprotection, hostility) accounted for 5.3% of the variance in childhood PTSD symptoms. Positive parenting behaviors (e.g. warmth, support) account for 2.0% of variance. The negative and positive parenting and child PTSD symptom associations did not statistically differ in magnitude. Moderator analyses indicated that methodological factors and trauma variables may affect the association between parenting and child PTSD. Most studies relied upon questionnaire measures of general parenting style, and studies were predominantly cross-sectional with weaker evidence found in longitudinal studies. Given the small number of high quality studies available, only provisional recommendations about the role of parenting in childhood PTSD are made.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Jacquelyn A. Gates, Erin Kang, Matthew D. Lerner Group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs) are widely used for treating social competence among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their efficacy is unclear. Previous meta-analysis of the literature on well-designed trials of GSSIs is limited in size and scope, collapsing across highly heterogeneous sources (parents; youths; teachers; observers; behavioral tasks). The current meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) was conducted to ascertain overall effectiveness of GSSIs and differences by reporting sources. Nineteen RCTs met inclusion criteria. Results show that overall positive aggregate effects were medium (g =0.51, p <0.001). Effects were large for self-report (g =0.92, p <0.001), medium for task-based measures (g =0.58, p <0.001), small for parent- and observer-report (g =0.47 and 0.40, respectively, p <0.001), and nonsignificant for teacher-report (p =0.11). Moderation analyses of self-report revealed the effect was wholly attributable to youth reporting that they learned about skilled social behaviors (social knowledge; g =1.15, p <0.01), but not that they enacted them (social performance; g =0.28, p =0.31). Social skills interventions presently appear modestly effective for youth with ASD, but may not generalize to school settings or self-reported social behavior.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Greg Murray, Nuwan D Leitan, Neil Thomas, Erin E Michalak, Sheri L Johnson, Steven Jones, Tania Perich, Lesley Berk, Michael Berk Current adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder (BD) aim to impact illness course via information sharing/skill development. This focus on clinical outcomes contrasts with the emergent recovery paradigm, which prioritises adaptation to serious mental illness and movement towards personally meaningful goals. The aim of this review is to encourage innovation in the psychological management of BD by considering three recovery-oriented trends in the literature. First, the importance of quality of life as a target of recovery-oriented clinical work is considered. Second, the recent staging approach to BD is described, and we outline implications for psychosocial interventions tailored to stage. Finally, we review evidence suggesting that mindfulness-based psychosocial interventions have potential across early, middle and late stages of BD. It is concluded that the humanistic emphasis of the recovery paradigm provides a timely stimulus for development of a next generation of psychosocial treatments for people with BD.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Spencer C. Evans, Jeffrey D. Burke, Michael C. Roberts, Paula J. Fite, John E. Lochman, Francisco R. de la Peña, Geoffrey M. Reed In preparation for the World Health Organization's development of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) chapter on Mental and Behavioral Disorders, this article reviews the literature pertaining to severe irritability in child and adolescent psychopathology. First, research on severe mood dysregulation suggests that youth with irritability and temper outbursts, among other features of hyperactivity and arousal, demonstrate cross-sectional correlates and developmental outcomes that distinguish them from youth with bipolar disorder. Second, other evidence points to an irritable dimension of Oppositional Defiant Disorder symptomatology, which is uniquely associated with concurrent and subsequent internalizing problems. In contrast to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' (5th ed.) Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, our review of the literature supports a different solution: a subtype, Oppositional Defiant Disorder with chronic irritability/anger (proposal included in Appendix). This solution is more consistent with the available evidence and is a better fit with global public health considerations such as harm/benefit potential, clinical utility, and cross-cultural applicability. Implications for assessment, treatment, and research are discussed.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Aida Bikic, Brian Reichow, Spencer A. McCauley, Karim Ibrahim, Denis G. Sukhodolsky Background In addition to problems with attention and hyperactivity, children with ADHD present with poor organizational skills required for managing time and materials in academic projects. Organizational skills training (OST) has been increasingly used to address these deficits. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of OST in children with ADHD. Objectives The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence of the effects of OST for children with ADHD for organizational skills, attention, and academic performance. Methods We searched 3 electronic databases to locate randomized controlled trials published in English in peer-reviewed journals comparing OST with parent education, treatment-as-usual, or waitlist control conditions. Standardized mean difference effect sizes from the studies were statistically combined using a random-effects meta-analyses across six outcomes: teacher- and parent-rated organizational skills, teacher- and parent-rated inattention, teacher-rated academic performance, and Grade Point Average (GPA). Risk of bias was assessed for randomization, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and treatment personnel, blinding of outcome assessors, incomplete outcome data, and selective outcome reporting. Results Twelve studies involving 1054 children (576 treatment, 478 control) were included in the meta-analyses. Weighted mean effect sizes for teacher- and parent-rated outcome measures of organizational skills were g =0.54 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.91) and g =0.83 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.34), respectively. Weighted mean effect sizes of teacher- and parent-rated symptoms of inattention were g =0.26 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.52) and g =0.56 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.74), respectively. Weighted standardized mean effect size for teacher-rated academic performance and GPA were g =0.33 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.51) and g =0.29 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.51), respectively. Conclusions OST leads to moderate improvements in organizational skills of children with ADHD as rated by teachers and large improvements as rated by parents. More modest improvements were observed on the ratings of symptoms of inattention and academic performance. Protocol registration PROSPERO (CRD42015019261).
Authors:Sarah Vigerland; Fabian Lenhard; Marianne Bonnert; Maria Lalouni; Erik Hedman; Johan Ahlen; Ola Olén; Eva Serlachius; Brjánn Ljótsson Pages: 1 - 10 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Sarah Vigerland, Fabian Lenhard, Marianne Bonnert, Maria Lalouni, Erik Hedman, Johan Ahlen, Ola Olén, Eva Serlachius, Brjánn Ljótsson Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is a relatively novel treatment format with the potential to increase accessibility of evidence-based care. However, little is known about the feasibility and efficacy of ICBT in children and adolescents. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of ICBT for children and adolescents to provide an overview of the field and assess the efficacy of these interventions. A systematic literature search of six electronic databases was performed to identify ICBT intervention studies for children with a psychiatric condition, such as social anxiety disorder, or a somatic condition, such as chronic pain. Two reviewers independently rated study quality. Twenty-five studies, targeting 11 different disorders, were included in the review. Study quality and presentation of treatment variables, such as therapist time and treatment adherence, varied largely. Twenty-four studies (N=1882) were included in the meta-analysis and ICBT yielded moderate between-group effect sizes when compared with waitlist, g =0.62, 95% CI [0.41, 0.84]. The results suggest that CBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions in children and adolescents can be successfully adapted to an internet-delivered format.
Authors:Michelle A. Gonzalez; Deborah J. Jones Pages: 11 - 21 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Michelle A. Gonzalez, Deborah J. Jones Behavioral Parent Training (BPT) is the standard of care for early onset (3 to 8years old) disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). Preliminary evidence suggests that BPT may also produce cascading treatment effects for comorbid and interrelated symptomatology in children, primarily internalizing problems, as well as symptomatology in multiple systems of the family, including caregiver depressive symptomatology. What is less well understood, however, is why and how BPT functions to impact these multiple symptom clusters within and between family members. Accordingly, this manuscript aims to serve as a conceptual and theoretical consideration of the mechanisms through which BPT may produce generalized treatment effects among children with early onset DBDs and internalizing problems, as well as the psychosocial difficulties among their caregivers. It is our intention that the hypothesized mechanisms highlighted in this review may guide advances in clinical research, as well as assessment and practice.
Authors:Rivka L. Levin; Jennine S. Rawana Pages: 22 - 36 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Rivka L. Levin, Jennine S. Rawana Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders are common and concerning mental health disorders. There is both empirical and theoretical support for an association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. This systematic review aims to summarize the extant literature on the comorbidity of ADHD and eating disorders across the lifespan, including the influences of gender, age, eating disorder diagnosis, and potential mediators. A total of 37 peer-reviewed studies on diagnosed ADHD and eating disturbances were identified through key research databases, of which 26 support a strong empirical association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. The systematic review findings suggest that children with ADHD are at risk for disordered eating, while adolescents, emerging adults, and adults are at risk for both eating disorders and disordered eating. Methodological considerations, future research, and clinical implications are discussed.
Authors:Rebecca B. Price; Meredith Wallace; Jennie M. Kuckertz; Nader Amir; Simona Graur; Logan Cummings; Paul Popa; Per Carlbring; Yair Bar-Haim Pages: 37 - 49 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Rebecca B. Price, Meredith Wallace, Jennie M. Kuckertz, Nader Amir, Simona Graur, Logan Cummings, Paul Popa, Per Carlbring, Yair Bar-Haim Computer-based approaches, such as Attention Bias Modification (ABM), could help improve access to care for anxiety. Study-level meta-analyses of ABM have produced conflicting findings and leave critical questions unresolved regarding ABM's mechanisms of action and clinical potential. We pooled patient-level datasets from randomized controlled trials of children and adults with high-anxiety. Attentional bias (AB) towards threat, the target mechanism of ABM, was tested as an outcome and a mechanistic mediator and moderator of anxiety reduction. Diagnostic remission and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) were clinical outcomes available in enough studies to enable pooling. Per-patient data were obtained on at least one outcome from 13/16 eligible studies [86% of eligible participants; n=778]. Significant main effects of ABM on diagnostic remission (ABM—22.6%, control—10.8%; OR=2.57; p =0.006) and AB (β* (95%CI)=−0.63 (−0.83, −0.42); p <0.00005) were observed. There was no main effect of ABM on LSAS. However, moderator analyses suggested ABM was effective for patients who were younger (≤37y), trained in the lab, and/or assessed by clinicians. Under the same conditions where ABM was effective, mechanistic links between AB and anxiety reduction were supported. Under these specific circumstances, ABM reduces anxiety and acts through its target mechanism, supporting ABM's theoretical basis while simultaneously suggesting clinical indications and refinements to improve its currently limited clinical potential.
Authors:Allison M. Waters; Michelle G. Craske Pages: 50 - 66 Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Allison M. Waters, Michelle G. Craske The tendency to disproportionately allocate attention to threat stimuli, to evaluate ambiguous or benign situations as overly threatening, and to exhibit overgeneralised and indiscriminate conditioned fear responses to threat and safe stimuli are hallmark clinical correlates of pathological anxiety. Investigation of these processes in children and adolescents suggests that anxiety-related differences increase with age, and that the specific conditions under which anxious children differ from non-anxious peers are poorly understood. Furthermore, research on cognitive biases and fear conditioning in anxious children and adolescents has progressed as quite distinct lines of investigation. Greater integration of key tenets from each perspective could advance knowledge and provide new directions for improving treatments. The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, we provide a qualitative review of the key principles from cognitive and conditioning theories of anxiety and the associated empirical research, including the underlying neurophysiological basis of these processes in anxious children and adolescents, in order to delineate the conditions under which anxiety-specific differences in threat-related cognitive biases and overgeneralised conditioned fear manifest in children and adolescents. Second, we synthesize these theoretical and empirical insights to propose a cognitive-learning formulation of anxiety in children and adolescents. We propose that conditioning and cognitive factors linked to differences in engagement of underlying neural circuits across development contribute to an internal representation of a wide range of stimuli as threatening, to which anxious children and adolescents adopt maladaptive attention regulation patterns of predominantly threat monitoring or threat avoidance. These maladaptive attention regulation patterns differentiate anxious children and adolescents in terms of predominantly high cognitive distress (e.g., worry and rumination) and high behavioural avoidance respectively. Third, we consider the clinical implications of the cognitive-learning formulation for understanding outcomes from current treatments and provide suggestions for improving treatment outcomes.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Caitlin Hitchcock, Aliza Werner-Seidler, Simon E. Blackwell, Tim Dalgleish We review evidence for training programmes that manipulate autobiographical processing in order to treat mood, anxiety, and stress-related disorders, using the GRADE criteria to judge evidence quality. We also position the current status of this research within the UK Medical Research Council's (2000, 2008) framework for the development of novel interventions. A literature search according to PRISMA guidelines identified 15 studies that compared an autobiographical episodic memory-based training (AET) programme to a control condition, in samples with a clinician-derived diagnosis. Identified AET programmes included Memory Specificity Training (Raes, Williams, & Hermans, 2009), concreteness training (Watkins, Baeyens, & Read, 2009), Competitive Memory Training (Korrelboom, van der Weele, Gjaltema, & Hoogstraten, 2009), imagery-based training of future autobiographical episodes (Blackwell & Holmes, 2010), and life review/reminiscence therapy (Arean et al., 1993). Cohen's d was calculated for between-group differences in symptom change from pre- to post-intervention and to follow-up. We also completed meta-analyses for programmes evaluated across multiple studies, and for the overall effect of AET as a treatment approach. Results demonstrated promising evidence for AET in the treatment of depression (d =0.32), however effect sizes varied substantially (from −0.18 to 1.91) across the different training protocols. Currently, research on AET for the treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders is not yet at a stage to draw firm conclusions regarding efficacy as there were only a very small number of studies which met inclusion criteria. AET offers a potential avenue through which low-intensity treatment for affective disturbance might be offered.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Helen Warwick, Tessa Reardon, Peter Cooper, Kou Murayama, Shirley Reynolds, Charlotte Wilson, Cathy Creswell Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for childhood anxiety disorders. Meta-analyses have concluded that approximately 60% of children recover following treatment, however these include studies using a broad range of diagnostic indices to assess outcomes including whether children are free of the one anxiety disorder that causes most interference (i.e. the primary anxiety disorder) or whether children are free of all anxiety disorders. We conducted a meta-analysis to establish the efficacy of CBT in terms of absence of all anxiety disorders. Where available we compared this rate to outcomes based on absence of primary disorder. Of 56 published randomized controlled trials, 19 provided data on recovery from all anxiety disorders (n=635 CBT, n=450 control participants). There was significant heterogeneity across those studies with available data and full recovery rates varied from 47.6 to 66.4% among children without autistic spectrum conditions (ASC) and 12.2 to 36.7% for children with ASC following treatment, compared to up to 20.6% and 21.3% recovery in waitlist and active treatment comparisons. The lack of consistency in diagnostic outcomes highlights the urgent need for consensus on reporting in future RCTs of childhood anxiety disorders for the meaningful synthesis of data going forwards.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Viktoria Kantor, Matthias Knefel, Brigitte Lueger-Schuster Many trauma survivors seem to be reluctant to seek professional help. The aim of the current review was to synthesize relevant literature, and to systematically classify trauma survivors' perceived barriers and facilitators regarding mental health service utilization. The systematic search identified 19 studies addressing military personnel and 17 studies with trauma survivors of the general population. The data analysis revealed that the most prominent barriers included concerns related to stigma, shame and rejection, low mental health literacy, lack of knowledge and treatment-related doubts, fear of negative social consequences, limited resources, time, and expenses. Perceived facilitators lack attention in research, but can be influential in understanding mental health service use. Another prominent finding was that trauma survivors face specific trauma-related barriers to mental health service use, especially concerns about re-experiencing the traumatic events. Many trauma survivors avoid traumatic reminders and are therefore concerned about dealing with certain memories in treatment. These perceived barriers and facilitators were discussed regarding future research and practical implications in order to facilitate mental health service use among trauma survivors.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Richard J.E. James, Richard J. Tunney This manuscript overviews the behavioural (i.e. associative learning, conditioning) research in behavioural addictions, with reference to contemporary models of substance addiction and ongoing controversies in the behavioural addictions literature. The role of behaviour has been well explored in substance addictions and gambling but this focus is often absent in other candidate behavioural addictions. In contrast, the standard approach to behavioural addictions has been to look at individual differences, psychopathologies and biases, often translating from pathological gambling indicators. An associative model presently captures the core elements of behavioural addiction included in the DSM (gambling) and identified for further consideration (internet gaming). Importantly, gambling has a schedule of reinforcement that shows similarities and differences from other addictions. While this is more likely than not applicable to internet gaming, it is less clear whether it is so for a number of candidate behavioural addictions. Adopting an associative perspective, this paper translates from gambling to video gaming, in light of the existing debates on this matter and the nature of the distinction between these behaviours. Finally, a framework for applying an associative model to behavioural addictions is outlined, and it's application toward treatment.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Matteo Cella, Antonio Preti, Clementine Edwards, Tabitha Dow, Til Wykes Cognitive remediation (CR) is a treatment targeting cognitive difficulties in people with schizophrenia. Recent research suggested that CR may also have a positive effect on negative symptoms. This meta-analysis investigates the effect of CR on negative symptoms. Systematic search was used to identify all randomized-controlled trials of CR in people with schizophrenia reporting negative symptoms outcomes. Levels of negative symptoms at baseline, post-therapy and follow-up, sample demographic and treatment length were extracted. Study methodological quality and heterogeneity were addressed. Negative symptoms standardized mean change was calculated using Hedges's g and used as the main outcome. The search identified 45 studies reporting results for 2511 participants; 15 studies reported follow-up outcomes. CR was associated with a reduction of negative symptoms (most conservative model g =−0.30; 95% CI: −0.36, −0.22) at post-therapy compared with treatment as usual and this effect was larger at follow-up (g =−0.36; 95% CI: −0.51, −0.21). Drop-out rate was comparable between conditions. Network meta-analysis confirmed CR was superior to TAU and TAU plus active control or adjunctive treatment. No evidence of publication bias was found. Studies with more rigorous methodology were associated with larger negative symptom reduction (g =−0.40; 95% CI: −0.51 to −0.30). Although negative symptoms have not been considered a primary target for CR, this intervention can have small to moderate beneficial effects on this symptom cluster. Future research should explore in detail the active mechanisms responsible for negative symptom reduction and the relationship between cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Bree Gregory, Lorna Peters A consistent feature across cognitive-behavioural models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the central role of the self in the emergence and maintenance of the disorder. The strong emphasis placed on the self in these models and related empirical research has also been reflected in evidence-based treatments for the disorder. This systematic review provides an overview of the empirical literature investigating the role of self-related constructs (e.g., self-beliefs, self-images, self-focused attention) proposed in cognitive models of SAD, before examining how these constructs are modified during and following CBT for SAD. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Guided by Stopa's (2009a, b) model of self, most studies examined change in self-related content, followed by change in self-related processing. No study examined change in self-structure. Pre- to post-treatment reductions were observed in self-related thoughts and beliefs, self-esteem, self-schema, self-focused attention, and self-evaluation. Change in self-related constructs predicted and/or mediated social anxiety reduction, however relatively few studies examined this. Papers were limited by small sample sizes, failure to control for depression symptoms, lack of waitlist, and some measurement concerns. Future research directions are discussed.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Judith Johnson, Maria Panagioti, Jennifer Bass, Lauren Ramsey, Reema Harrison Perceptions of failure have been implicated in a range of psychological disorders, and even a single experience of failure can heighten anxiety and depression. However, not all individuals experience significant emotional distress following failure, indicating the presence of resilience. The current systematic review synthesised studies investigating resilience factors to emotional distress resulting from the experience of failure. For the definition of resilience we used the Bi-Dimensional Framework for resilience research (BDF) which suggests that resilience factors are those which buffer the impact of risk factors, and outlines criteria a variable should meet in order to be considered as conferring resilience. Studies were identified through electronic searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge. Forty-six relevant studies reported in 38 papers met the inclusion criteria. These provided evidence of the presence of factors which confer resilience to emotional distress in response to failure. The strongest support was found for the factors of higher self-esteem, more positive attributional style, and lower socially-prescribed perfectionism. Weaker evidence was found for the factors of lower trait reappraisal, lower self-oriented perfectionism and higher emotional intelligence. The majority of studies used experimental or longitudinal designs. These results identify specific factors which should be targeted by resilience-building interventions. Resilience; failure; stress; self-esteem; attributional style; perfectionism
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Charles Brandt • A review of the rates and impact of clinically-significant anxiety among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is presented. • Anxiety disorders and clinically-relevant symptoms have negative physical and emotional effects on PLWHA • Certain transdiagnostic variables may impact the rates and impact of anxiety among PLWHA • A heuristic model is proposed outlining the interrelations of anxiety and poor physical and psychological symptoms
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Jolien van Aar, Patty Leijten, Bram Orobio de Castro, Geertjan Overbeek Parenting interventions are known to reduce disruptive child behavior immediately post intervention. But it is largely unknown how reduced disruptive behavior develops in the months and years after the intervention. The present systematic review and multilevel meta-analysis examines whether improvements in disruptive child behavior after parenting intervention are maintained (i.e., sustained effects), fall back (i.e., fade-out effects), or increase further (i.e., sleeper effects). We identified 40 randomized controlled trials with follow-up assessments (up to three years) that generated 91 effect sizes. Mean effect size of post-intervention change was d =0.01, 95% CI [−0.05, 0.07], p =0.78. This lack of change suggests that parenting interventions lead to sustained effects on disruptive behavior. However, there was heterogeneity within and between trials, indicating that some interventions, or interventions under certain circumstances do show fade-out or sleeper effects. None of the moderators tested (i.e., length of follow-up and initial intervention success) explained this heterogeneity. We conclude that parenting interventions generally lead to sustained reductions in disruptive child behavior, at least until three year after intervention. Better understanding is needed of when and why sustainability is stronger in some cases than in others.
Abstract: Publication date: February 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 51 Author(s): J.J. Ricarte, L. Ros, J.M. Latorre, E. Watkins Increasing evidence suggests that impaired autobiographical memory (AM) mechanisms may be associated with the onset and maintenance of psychopathology. However, there is not yet a comprehensive review of the components of autobiographical memory in schizophrenic patients. The first aim of this review is a synthesis of evidence about the functioning of AM in schizophrenic patients. The main autobiographical elements reviewed in schizophrenic patients include the study of overgeneral memory (form); self-defining memories (contents); consciousness during the process of retrieval (awareness), and the abnormal early reminiscence bump (distribution). AM impairments have been involved in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of other psychopathologies, especially depression. The second aim is to examine potential parallels between the mechanisms responsible for the onset and maintenance of disturbed AM in other clinical diagnosis and the mechanisms of disturbed autobiographical memory functioning in schizophrenic patients. Cognitive therapies for schizophrenic patients are increasingly demanded. The third aim is the suggestion of key elements for the adaptation of components of autobiographical recall in cognitive therapies for the treatment of symptoms and consequences of schizophrenia.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Kelsey T. Laird, Emily E. Tanner-Smith, Alexandra C. Russell, Steven D. Hollon, Lynn S. Walker Previous meta-analyses have shown that psychotherapy improves gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, the impact on functioning in daily activities is unknown. Meta-analysis was used to estimate the effect of psychotherapy on mental health and daily functioning in adults with IBS. An extensive literature search located 28 eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) providing outcome data for mental health and 18 RCTs providing data for daily functioning. Compared to a mixed group of control conditions, psychotherapy produced significantly greater improvements to mental health ( d − =0.41) and daily functioning ( d − =0.43). Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was evaluated in the largest number of trials (21 trials), followed by hypnosis (4 trials), psychodynamic (3 trials), and relaxation (2 trials). The psychotherapeutic modalities were comparable with respect to their effect on mental health. CBT produced the greatest improvements to daily functioning, and this effect was significantly larger than that produced by relaxation therapy. These results have important clinical implications for treatment of adults with IBS.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Emily K. Lindsay, J. David Creswell Despite evidence linking trait mindfulness and mindfulness training with a broad range of effects, still little is known about its underlying active mechanisms. Mindfulness is commonly defined as (1) the ongoing monitoring of present-moment experience (2) with an orientation of acceptance. Building on conceptual, clinical, and empirical work, we describe a testable theoretical account to help explain mindfulness effects on cognition, affect, stress, and health outcomes. Specifically, Monitor and Acceptance Theory (MAT) posits that (1), by enhancing awareness of one's experiences, the skill of attention monitoring explains how mindfulness improves cognitive functioning outcomes, yet this same skill can increase affective reactivity. Second (2), by modifying one's relation to monitored experience, acceptance is necessary for reducing affective reactivity, such that attention monitoring and acceptance skills together explain how mindfulness improves negative affectivity, stress, and stress-related health outcomes. We discuss how MAT contributes to mindfulness science, suggest plausible alternatives to the account, and offer specific predictions for future research.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): N.A. Dowling, S.S. Merkouris, C.J. Greenwood, E. Oldenhof, J.W. Toumbourou, G.J. Youssef This systematic review aimed to identify early risk and protective factors (in childhood, adolescence or young adulthood) longitudinally associated with the subsequent development of gambling problems. A systematic search of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 1990 to 2015 identified 15 studies published in 23 articles. Meta-analyses quantified the effect size of 13 individual risk factors (alcohol use frequency, antisocial behaviours, depression, male gender, cannabis use, illicit drug use, impulsivity, number of gambling activities, problem gambling severity, sensation seeking, tobacco use, violence, undercontrolled temperament), one relationship risk factor (peer antisocial behaviours), one community risk factor (poor academic performance), one individual protective factor (socio-economic status) and two relationship protective factors (parent supervision, social problems). Effect sizes were on average small to medium and sensitivity analyses revealed that the results were generally robust to the quality of methodological approaches of the included articles. These findings highlight the need for global prevention efforts that reduce risk factors and screen young people with high-risk profiles. There is insufficient investigation of protective factors to adequately guide prevention initiatives. Future longitudinal research is required to identify additional risk and protective factors associated with problem gambling, particularly within the relationship, community, and societal levels of the socio-ecological model.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): David Baumeister, Ottilie Sedgwick, Oliver Howes, Emmanuelle Peters Recent decades have seen a surge of research interest in the phenomenon of healthy individuals who experience auditory verbal hallucinations, yet do not exhibit distress or need for care. The aims of the present systematic review are to provide a comprehensive overview of this research and examine how healthy voice-hearers may best be conceptualised in relation to the diagnostic versus ‘quasi-‘ and ‘fully-dimensional’ continuum models of psychosis. A systematic literature search was conducted, resulting in a total of 398 article titles and abstracts that were scrutinised for appropriateness to the present objective. Seventy articles were identified for full-text analysis, of which 36 met criteria for inclusion. Subjective perceptual experience of voices, such as loudness or location (i.e., inside/outside head), is similar in clinical and non-clinical groups, although clinical voice-hearers have more frequent voices, more negative voice content, and an older age of onset. Groups differ significantly in beliefs about voices, control over voices, voice-related distress, and affective difficulties. Cognitive biases, reduced global functioning, and psychiatric symptoms such as delusions, appear more prevalent in healthy voice-hearers than in healthy controls, yet less than in clinical samples. Transition to mental health difficulties is increased in HVHs, yet only occurs in a minority and is predicted by previous mood problems and voice distress. Whilst healthy voice-hearers show similar brain activity during hallucinatory experiences to clinical voice-hearers, other neuroimaging measures, such as mismatch negativity, have been inconclusive. Risk factors such as familial and childhood trauma appear similar between clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers. Overall the results of the present systematic review support a continuum view rather than a diagnostic model, but cannot distinguish between ‘quasi’ and ‘fully’ dimensional models. Healthy voice-hearers may be a key resource in informing transdiagnostic approaches to research of auditory hallucinations.
Abstract: Publication date: February 2017 Source:Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 51 Author(s): Nikko S. Da Paz, Jan L. Wallander Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest that one in 68 children is affected. With convincing evidence that parenting a child with ASD is associated with elevated distress and mental health problems, researchers have begun to investigate treatments that directly target parents' psychological well-being. We conducted a narrative review of studies that empirically tested the effects of interventions targeting improvements in the mental health of parents of children with ASD. Following a range of search strategies, a total of 13 studies, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and six pre-post test designs, met inclusion criteria. We calculated and reported effect sizes for all RCTs. On average, treatment produced medium to large effect sizes with improvements in parenting stress and general health, and reductions in depression and anxiety. Interventions that appeared promising included: Stress Management and Relaxation Techniques, Expressive Writing, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. However, only one study conducted a follow-up assessment >3months post intervention. Study populations primarily consisted of English-speaking mothers, ages 39 to 42years. Conclusions were limited by small sample sizes, homogeneity of sample population, and reliance on self-report. Therefore, this body of research contains significant limitations in need of improvement for this field to move forward and benefit a sizable number of parents.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Miriam Wade, Sara Tai, Yvonne Awenat, Gillian Haddock People diagnosed with psychosis, such as those with schizophrenia-related disorders, are routinely prescribed neuroleptic medication as a primary treatment. Despite reported benefits of neuroleptic treatment for symptom remission and relapse prevention, discontinuation rates are high. Research examining factors associated with neuroleptic non-adherence report inconsistent findings. Reasons for adherence to neuroleptic medication are under-researched. The current review aimed to synthesise evidence exploring service-user self-reported reasons for adherence and non-adherence to neuroleptic medication. A systematic literature search of databases and reference list searching identified 21 studies investigating service-user accounts of reasons for adherence and/or non-adherence to neuroleptic medication. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method studies were included in the review. Several themes of reasons were identified. Reasons for both adherence and non-adherence were largely similar; medication efficacy, compatibility with personal medication or religious beliefs, side-effects and the influence of relationships with other people. Experiences of stigma and economic difficulties were generally identified as reasons for non-adherence only while experiences of fear and coercion were identified as reasons for adherence only. The review identified crucial factors which may aid service providers in bettering treatment for people with psychosis and will provide evidence which could contribute to future prescribing guidelines.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Dorte M. Christiansen Parents who have lost an infant prior to, during, or following birth often interpret the event as highly traumatic. The present systematic review included 46 articles based on 31 different studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents bereaved by infant death. The PTSD prevalence in mothers differed widely across studies with estimated rates at 0.6–39%. PTSD in fathers following infant loss has been less extensively studied but PTSD levels were generally much lower than in mothers with reported prevalence rates at 0–15.6% across studies. PTSD symptoms were not found to differ much depending on whether the death occurred prior to, during, or following birth and nor was gestational age consistently associated with PTSD severity. A number of risk and protective factors have been found to be associated with PTSD severity. Relevant focus areas for future research are presented along with considerations for future pregnancies and children. The suffering associated with PTSD following infant loss is overwhelming because of the rates at which such losses occur around the world. For this reason, it is problematic that not all types of infant loss resulting in sufficient symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal can elicit a DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Aliza Werner-Seidler, Yael Perry, Alison L. Calear, Jill M. Newby, Helen Christensen Depression and anxiety often emerge for the first time during youth. The school environment provides an ideal context to deliver prevention programs, with potential to offset the trajectory towards disorder. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of randomised-controlled trials of psychological programs, designed to prevent depression and/or anxiety in children and adolescents delivered in school settings. Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for articles published until February 2015. Eighty-one unique studies comprising 31,794 school students met inclusion criteria. Small effect sizes for both depression (g =0.23) and anxiety (g =0.20) prevention programs immediately post-intervention were detected. Small effects were evident after 12-month follow-up for both depression (g =0.11) and anxiety (g =0.13). Overall, the quality of the included studies was poor, and heterogeneity was moderate. Subgroup analyses suggested that universal depression prevention programs had smaller effect sizes at post-test relative to targeted programs. For anxiety, effect sizes were comparable for universal and targeted programs. There was some evidence that externally-delivered interventions were superior to those delivered by school staff for depression, but not anxiety. Meta-regression confirmed that targeted programs predicted larger effect sizes for the prevention of depression. These results suggest that the refinement of school-based prevention programs have the potential to reduce mental health burden and advance public health outcomes.
Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Zach Walsh, Raul Gonzalez, Kim Crosby, Michelle Thiessen, Chris Carroll, Marcel O. Bonn-Miller This review considers the potential influences of the use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP) on areas of interest to mental health professionals, with foci on psychological intervention and assessment. We identified 31 articles relating to CTP use and mental health, and 29 review articles on cannabis use and mental health that did not focus on use for therapeutic purposes. Results reflect the prominence of mental health conditions among the reasons for CTP use, and the relative dearth of high-quality evidence related to CTP in this context, thereby highlighting the need for further research into the harms and benefits of medical cannabis relative to other therapeutic options. Preliminary evidence suggests that CTP may have potential for the treatment of PTSD, and as a substitute for problematic use of other substances. Extrapolation from reviews of non-therapeutic cannabis use suggests that the use of CTP may be problematic among individuals with psychotic disorders. The clinical implications of CTP use among individuals with mood disorders are unclear. With regard to assessment, evidence suggests that CTP use does not increase risk of harm to self or others. Acute cannabis intoxication and recent CTP use may result in reversible deficits with the potential to influence cognitive assessment, particularly on tests of short-term memory.
Authors:Jessica L. Hamilton; Lauren B. Alloy Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2016 Source:Clinical Psychology Review Author(s): Jessica L. Hamilton, Lauren B. Alloy Heart rate variability has received growing attention in the depression literature, with several recent meta-analyses indicating that lower resting heart rate variability is associated with depression. However, the role of fluctuations in heart rate variability (or reactivity) in response to stress in depression remains less clear. The present review provides a systematic examination of the literature on heart rate variability reactivity to a laboratory-induced stressor task and depression, including 26 studies of reactivity in heart rate variability and clinical depression, remitted (or history of) depression, and subthreshold depression (or symptom-level depression) among adults, adolescents, and children. In addition to reviewing the findings of these studies, methodological considerations and conceptual gaps in the literature are addressed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of investigating the potential transactional relationship between heart rate variability reactivity and depression and possible mechanisms underlying this relationship.