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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 875 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 391)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Psychotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 164)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 204)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 116)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 125)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 66)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
E-Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Clinical Psychology Review
  [SJR: 4.59]   [H-I: 140]   [33 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0272-7358
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • Measures of visual hallucinations: Review and recommendations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 May 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Charlotte Aynsworth, Daniel Collerton, Robert Dudley
      Background Studies designed to investigate visual hallucinations (VH) require reliable and valid measures that can appropriately capture peoples' experiences. This review aimed to assess the psychometric rigour and usefulness of VH measures. Method A systematic literature search was carried out against inclusion criteria (e.g. more than one specific question on VH, measures for adults in clinical and non-clinical populations). Eighteen measures were identified and rated against an adapted evaluation grid, which included essential criteria such as clear purpose and definition, psychometric properties including reliability and validity, and appropriate exploration of visual hallucinations. Results Measures could be categorised into 3 groups; those for general psychotic symptoms, those for all hallucinations, or those specifically for visual hallucinations. With one exception (the North East Visual Hallucinations Inventory), the measures were considered to be limited as they often targeted one population and hence lacked generalisability, or were limited in the characteristics of the visions that were described, or that psychometric properties were not adequately evaluated. Conclusions Measures of VH require further development. The need to establish a clearer definition of VH is essential to provide clarity and consistency within research and practice. Measures need to demonstrate good psychometric properties to indicate robustness whilst being sensitive to change to help in the evaluation of treatments. Other recommendations include developing cross-cultural measures and incorporating service users in item development.

      PubDate: 2017-05-16T03:07:26Z
       
  • Cognitive insight: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 55
      Author(s): L.S.C. Van Camp, B.G.C. Sabbe, J.F.E. Oldenburg
      Cognitive insight is the ability to re-evaluate thoughts and beliefs in order to make thoughtful conclusions. It differs from clinical insight, as it focuses on more general metacognitive processes. Therefore, it could be relevant to diverse disorders and non-clinical subjects. There is a growing body of research on cognitive insight in individuals with and without psychosis. This review has summarised the current state of the art regarding this topic. We conclude that while cognitive insight in its current form seems valid for use in individuals with psychosis, it is less so for individuals without psychosis. Additionally, higher cognitive insight not always leads to better psychological functioning. For instance, higher levels of self-reflection are often associated with depressive mood. We therefore recommend the sub-components of cognitive insight to be studied separately. Also, it is unclear what position cognitive insight takes within the spectrum of metacognitive processes and how it relates to other self-related concepts that have been defined previously in literature. Combining future and past research on cognitive insight and its analogue concepts will help in the formation of a uniform definition that fits all subjects discussed here.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T03:02:51Z
       
  • Upward counterfactual thinking and depression: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Anne Gene Broomhall, Wendy J. Phillips, Donald W. Hine, Natasha M. Loi
      This meta-analysis examined the strength of association between upward counterfactual thinking and depressive symptoms. Forty-two effect sizes from a pooled sample of 13,168 respondents produced a weighted average effect size of r =0.26, p <0.001. Moderator analyses using an expanded set of 96 effect sizes indicated that upward counterfactuals and regret produced significant positive effects that were similar in strength. Effects also did not vary as a function of the theme of the counterfactual-inducing situation or study design (cross-sectional versus longitudinal). Significant effect size heterogeneity was observed across sample types, methods of assessing upward counterfactual thinking, and types of depression scale. Significant positive effects were found in studies that employed samples of bereaved individuals, older adults, terminally ill patients, or university students, but not adolescent mothers or mixed samples. Both number-based and Likert-based upward counterfactual thinking assessments produced significant positive effects, with the latter generating a larger effect. All depression scales produced significant positive effects, except for the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview. Research and theoretical implications are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of depression and the functional theory of upward counterfactual thinking, and important gaps in the extant research literature are identified.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T20:24:05Z
       
  • Cardiac-disease-induced PTSD (CDI-PTSD): A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Noa Vilchinsky, Karni Ginzburg, Keren Fait, Edna B. Foa
      The goal of the current systematic review was to provide an overview of the findings in the field of Cardiac-Disease-Induced Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CDI-PTSD) in order to establish CDI-PTSD as a valid diagnostic entity for a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases and related medical procedures. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic electronic literature search. Of the 3202 citations identified, 150 studies meeting the selection criteria were reviewed. Our main findings were that the prevalence of CDI-PTSD ranged between 0% and 38% (averaging at 12%) and was highly dependent on the assessment tool used. The most consistent risk factors are of a psychological nature (e.g., pre-morbid distress). The consequences of CDI-PTSD range from psychosocial difficulties to lack of adherence and heightened mortality rates. Much inconsistency in the field was found with regard to patients who present with diagnoses other than acute coronary syndrome (e.g., cardiac arrest) and who undergo potentially traumatic medical procedures (e.g., defibrillator implantation). Yet the current review seems to strengthen the conceptualization of CDI-PTSD as a valid diagnostic entity, at least with regard to acute cardiac events.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T20:24:05Z
       
  • Mechanisms of action in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and
           mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in people with physical and/or
           psychological conditions: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Modi Alsubaie, Rebecca Abbott, Barnaby Dunn, Chris Dickens, Tina Keil, William Henley, Willem Kuyken
      Background Recently, there has been an increased interest in studying the effects of mindfulness-based interventions for people with psychological and physical problems. However, the mechanisms of action in these interventions that lead to beneficial physical and psychological outcomes have yet to be clearly identified. Purpose The aim of this paper is to review, systematically, the evidence to date on the mechanisms of action in mindfulness interventions in populations with physical and/or psychological conditions. Method Searches of seven databases (PsycINFO, Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, ClinicalTrials.gov) were undertaken in June 2014 and July 2015. We evaluated to what extent the studies we identified met the criteria suggested by Kazdin for establishing mechanisms of action within a psychological treatment (2007, 2009). Results We identified four trials examining mechanisms of mindfulness interventions in those with comorbid psychological and physical health problems and 14 in those with psychological conditions. These studies examined a diverse range of potential mechanisms, including mindfulness and rumination. Of these candidate mechanisms, the most consistent finding was that greater self-reported change in mindfulness mediated superior clinical outcomes. However, very few studies fully met the Kazdin criteria for examining treatment mechanisms. Conclusion There was evidence that global changes in mindfulness are linked to better outcomes. This evidence pertained more to interventions targeting psychological rather than physical health conditions. While there is promising evidence that MBCT/MBSR intervention effects are mediated by hypothesised mechanisms, there is a lack of methodological rigour in the field of testing mechanisms of action for both MBCT and MBSR, which precludes definitive conclusions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-29T20:24:05Z
       
  • The application of a feedback-informed approach in psychological service
           with youth: Systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Tam Huiyi Eve, Kevin Ronan
      Research with adults has consistently demonstrated that the use of regular client feedback in psychological services can improve outcomes. However, there appear to be fewer studies with youth. The purpose of the current review was to explore/assess (1) current developments in research on the use of feedback-informed approaches in mental health interventions or services for youth 10–19years of age; (2) the efficacy of client feedback in youth treatment settings; and (3) consider future directions for research. A total of 12 studies were included in this review, comprising a meta-analysis (n =9) and a qualitative review (n =3). Most studies assessed the benefits of a feedback framework in terms of symptom severity, functioning levels and/or goal attainments in therapy (i.e., ratings on the feedback-informed tools). The Hedges's g indexes of 0.20 (for independent-groups trials), 0.32 (single-group trials) and 0.28 (for all trials) suggest that the collection and application of continuous feedback from youth clients throughout the course of the interventions/services can boost and produce beneficial outcomes for the youth, while noting the feedback effect to be in the small range. Based on these initial findings, implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed, including considering fruitful research directions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:12:12Z
       
  • Relative reinforcing value of food and delayed reward discounting in
           obesity and disordered eating: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Monika M.K. Stojek, James MacKillop
      Understanding the food choice decision-making may help identify those at higher risk for excess weight gain and dysregulated eating patterns. This paper systematically reviews the literature related to eating behavior and behavioral economic constructs of relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) and delayed reward discounting (DRD). RRVfood characterizes how valuable energy-dense food is to the individual, and DRD characterizes preferences for smaller immediate rewards over larger future rewards, an index of impulsivity. Literature search on PubMed was conducted using combination of terms that involve behavioral economics and dysregulated eating in youth and adults. Forty-seven articles were reviewed. There is consistent evidence that obese youth and adults exhibit higher RRVfood. There is a need for more research on the role of RRVfood in eating disorders, as an insufficient number of studies exist to draw meaningful conclusions. There is accumulating evidence that obese individuals have higher DRD but the study of moderators of this relationship is crucial. Only a small number of studies have been conducted on DRD and binge eating, and no clear conclusions can be made currently. Approximately half of existing studies suggest lower DRD in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Research implications and treatment application are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:12:12Z
       
  • Dental anxiety: An understudied problem in youth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Laura D. Seligman, Joseph D. Hovey, Karina Chacon, Thomas H. Ollendick
      Dental anxiety and dental phobia typically emerge during childhood; the associated avoidance of dental care can result in oral health problems and is associated with lower quality of life. In this review, we discuss the definition of dental phobia and dental anxiety and issues related to their differentiation. We then review the literature on dental anxiety and dental phobia, including its prevalence, assessment, and sequalae. Moreover, we provide a synthesis of findings on the etiology and maintenance of dental phobia and propose a comprehensive cognitive behavioral model to guide further study. We also present a systematic qualitative and a quantitative review of the treatment literature, concluding that although we have made strides in learning how to prevent dental anxiety in youth, the methods effective in preventing anxiety may not be equally effective in treating youth with dental phobia. We propose a multidisciplinary approach, including those with expertise in pediatric anxiety and well as pediatric dentistry, is likely required to move forward.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:12:12Z
       
  • Dopamine, cognitive biases and assessment of certainty: A neurocognitive
           model of delusions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Annabel Broyd, Ryan P. Balzan, Todd S. Woodward, Paul Allen
      This paper examines the evidence that delusions can be explained within the framework of a neurocognitive model of how the brain assesses certainty. Here, ‘certainty’ refers to both low-level interpretations of one's environment and high-level (conscious) appraisals of one's beliefs and experiences. A model is proposed explaining how the brain systems responsible for assigning certainty might dysfunction, contributing to the cause and maintenance of delusional beliefs. It is suggested that delusions arise through a combination of perturbed striatal dopamine and aberrant salience as well as cognitive biases such as the tendency to jump to conclusions (JTC) and hypersalience of evidence-hypothesis matches. The role of emotion, stress, trauma and sociocultural factors in forming and modifying delusions is also considered. Understanding the mechanisms involved in forming and maintaining delusions has important clinical implications, as interventions that improve cognitive flexibility (e.g. cognitive remediation therapy and mindfulness training) could potentially attenuate neurocognitive processes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:12:12Z
       
  • Modification of cognitive biases related to posttraumatic stress: A
           systematic review and research agenda
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Marcella L. Woud, Johan Verwoerd, Julie Krans
      Cognitive models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) postulate that cognitive biases in attention, interpretation, and memory represent key factors involved in the onset and maintenance of PTSD. Developments in experimental research demonstrate that it may be possible to manipulate such biases by means of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM). In the present paper, we summarize studies assessing cognitive biases in posttraumatic stress to serve as a theoretical and methodological background. However, our main aim was to provide an overview of the scientific literature on CBM in (analogue) posttraumatic stress. Results of our systematic literature review showed that most CBM studies targeted attentional and interpretation biases (attention: five studies; interpretation: three studies), and one study modified memory biases. Overall, results showed that CBM can indeed modify cognitive biases and affect (analog) trauma symptoms in a training congruent manner. Interpretation bias procedures seemed effective in analog samples, and memory bias training proved preliminary success in a clinical PTSD sample. Studies of attention bias modification provided more mixed results. This heterogeneous picture may be explained by differences in the type of population or variations in the CBM procedure. Therefore, we sketched a detailed research agenda targeting the challenges for CBM in posttraumatic stress.

      PubDate: 2017-04-22T20:12:12Z
       
  • Treatment of Internet gaming disorder: An international systematic review
           and CONSORT evaluation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Daniel L. King, Paul H. Delfabbro, Anise M.S. Wu, Young Yim Doh, Daria J. Kuss, Ståle Pallesen, Rune Mentzoni, Natacha Carragher, Hiroshi Sakuma
      Treatment services for Internet gaming disorder are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, particularly in East Asia. This international systematic review was designed to appraise the quality standards of the gaming disorder treatment literature, a task previously undertaken by King et al. (2011) prior to the inclusion of Internet gaming disorder in Section III of the DSM-5 and ‘Gaming disorder’ in the draft ICD-11. The reporting quality of 30 treatment studies conducted from 2007 to 2016 was assessed. Reporting quality was defined according to the 2010 Consolidating Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. The results reaffirmed previous criticisms of these trials, namely: (a) inconsistencies in the definition, diagnosis, and measurement of disordered use; (b) lack of randomization and blinding; (c) lack of controls; and (d) insufficient information on recruitment dates, sample characteristics, and effect sizes. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy has a larger evidence base than other therapies, it remains difficult to make definitive statements on its benefits. Study design quality has not improved over the last decade, indicating a need for greater consistency and standardization in this area. Continuing international efforts to understand the core psychopathology of gaming disorder are vital to developing a model of best practice in treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T18:13:35Z
       
  • Emotion socialization and child conduct problems: A comprehensive review
           and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Ameika M. Johnson, David J. Hawes, Nancy Eisenberg, Jane Kohlhoff, Joanne Dudeney
      Decades of research have emphasized the role that coercive and ineffective discipline plays in shaping child and adolescent conduct problems, yet an emerging body of evidence has suggested that parents' emotion socialization behaviors (ESBs) (e.g., reactions to emotions, discussion of emotions, and emotion coaching) may also be implicated. This meta-analysis examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between parental ESBs and conduct problems, and tested for moderators of these associations. A systematic search identified 49 studies for which data on concurrent associations between ESBs and conduct problems were available (n =6270), and 14 studies reporting on prospective associations (n =1899). Parental ESBs were found to be significantly associated with concurrent (r =−0.08) and prospective (r =−0.11) conduct problems, in the order of small effect sizes. Key findings of moderator analyses were that ESBs were more strongly associated with conduct problems at younger ages and when ESBs were focused on the socialization of negative rather than positive emotions. Findings support the integration of ESBs into family-based models of antisocial behavior, and have the potential to inform the design of parent training interventions for the prevention and treatment of child conduct problems.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T15:46:59Z
       
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder, worry and attention to threat: A systematic
           review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Huw Goodwin, Jenny Yiend, Colette Hirsch
      Among anxious populations, attention has been demonstrated to be preferentially biased to threatening material compared to neutral or other valenced material. Individuals who have high levels of trait worry, such as those with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), may be biased to threat but research has produced equivocal findings. This review aimed to systematically review the extant experimental literature to establish the current evidence of attentional bias to threat among trait worriers compared to healthy controls and other clinical populations. Twenty-nine published articles were included in the final review. There was strong evidence of a bias to threat among GAD patients compared to other groups and this was found across most experimental paradigms. Few studies had investigated this bias in non-clinical trait worriers. Among GAD patients this bias to threat was most strongly evidenced when visual threat material was in a verbal-linguistic format (i.e., words) rather than when in pictorial form (i.e., images or faces). The bias was also found across several domains of negative material, supporting the general nature of worry. Further research should look to examine the specific components of the threat bias in GAD, as well as investigating the bias to threat in trait worriers.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T15:39:12Z
       
  • Meta-analysis of time perception and temporal processing in schizophrenia:
           Differential effects on precision and accuracy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Sven Thoenes, Daniel Oberfeld
      Numerous studies have reported that time perception and temporal processing are impaired in schizophrenia. In a meta-analytical review, we differentiate between time perception (judgments of time intervals) and basic temporal processing (e.g., judgments of temporal order) as well as between effects on accuracy (deviation of estimates from the veridical value) and precision (variability of judgments). In a meta-regression approach, we also included the specific tasks and the different time interval ranges as covariates. We considered 68 publications of the past 65years, and meta-analyzed data from 957 patients with schizophrenia and 1060 healthy control participants. Independent of tasks and interval durations, our results demonstrate that time perception and basic temporal processing are less precise (more variable) in patients (Hedges' g >1.00), whereas effects of schizophrenia on accuracy of time perception are rather small and task-dependent. Our review also shows that several aspects, e.g., potential influences of medication, have not yet been investigated in sufficient detail. In conclusion, the results are in accordance with theoretical assumptions and the notion of a more variable internal clock in patients with schizophrenia, but not with a strong effect of schizophrenia on clock speed. The impairment of temporal precision, however, may also be clock-unspecific as part of a general cognitive deficiency in schizophrenia.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T15:39:12Z
       
  • Psychological treatments for mental disorders in adults: A review of the
           evidence of leading international organizations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Juan Antonio Moriana, Mario Gálvez-Lara, Jorge Corpas
      Most mental health services throughout the world currently regard evidence-based psychological treatments as best practice for the treatment of mental disorders. The aim of this study was to analyze evidence-based treatments drawn from RCTs, reviews, meta-analyses, guides, and lists provided by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), Division 12 (Clinical Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA), Cochrane and the Australian Psychological Society (APS) in relation to mental disorders in adults. A total of 135 treatments were analyzed for 23 mental disorders and compared to determine the level of agreement among the organizations. The results indicate that, in most cases, there is little agreement among organizations and that there are several discrepancies within certain disorders. These results require reflection on the meaning attributed to evidence-based practice with regard to psychological treatments. The possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Based on these findings, proposals to unify the criteria that reconcile the realities of clinical practice with a scientific perspective were analyzed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T15:39:12Z
       
  • Examining the role of psychological factors in the relationship between
           sleep problems and suicide
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): D. Littlewood, S.D. Kyle, D. Pratt, S. Peters, P. Gooding
      We sought to conduct the first systematic review of empirical evidence investigating the role of psychological factors in the relationship between sleep problems and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Twelve studies were identified which examined psychological factors grouped into four categories of cognitive appraisals, psychosocial factors, emotion regulation strategies, and risk behaviours. Although there was substantial heterogeneity across studies with respect to measurement, sampling, and analysis, preliminary evidence indicated that negative cognitive appraisals, perceived social isolation, and unhelpful emotion regulation strategies may contribute to the association between sleep problems and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Given that findings in this area are currently restricted to studies with cross-sectional designs, the directionality of the interrelationships between these psychological factors, sleep problems and suicidality, remains unclear. We integrate the findings of our review with contemporary psychological models of suicidal behaviour to develop a clear research agenda. Identified pathways should now be tested with longitudinal and experimental designs. In addition, a more thorough investigation of the complexities of sleep, psychological factors, and suicidal thoughts and behaviours is crucial for the development of targeted psychological interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T15:39:12Z
       
  • Transdiagnostic models of anxiety disorder: Theoretical and empirical
           underpinnings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Peter J. Norton, Daniel J. Paulus
      Despite the increasing development, evaluation, and adoption of transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapies, relatively little has been written to detail the conceptual and empirical psychopathology framework underlying transdiagnostic models of anxiety and related disorders. In this review, the diagnostic, genetic, neurobiological, developmental, behavioral, cognitive, and interventional data underlying the model are described, with an emphasis on highlighting elements that both support and contradict transdiagnostic conceptualizations. Finally, a transdiagnostic model of anxiety disorder is presented and key areas of future evaluation and refinement are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T15:39:12Z
       
  • Trauma and homelessness in youth: Psychopathology and intervention
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Benjamin R. Davies, Nicholas B. Allen
      Youth runaway behavior and homelessness (RHY) in the U.S. is increasingly common, with prevalence estimated at 1–1.7 million youth. RHY have multiple, overlapping problems often including poor physical and mental health, frequent street victimization, and histories of physical and sexual abuse. Further, current street victimization interacts with childhood abuse to produce complex, unique presentations of traumatic symptoms and related disorders in runaway and homeless youth. This review paper explores (1) the role of childhood trauma in the genesis of runaway and homeless behavior, and (2) how childhood trauma interacts with street victimization to create vulnerability to psychopathology. In response to the trauma needs of RHY, we conducted a systematic review of the state of the current literature on trauma-informed interventions for RHY. We conclude that the field currently lacks empirically validated trauma interventions in RHY. However, theoretically plausible frameworks do exist and could be the basis for future research and intervention development.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T15:27:51Z
       
  • Can mindfulness influence weight management related eating behaviors?
           If so, how?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Katy Tapper
      Mindfulness is increasingly being used for weight management. However, the strength of the evidence for such an approach is unclear; although mindfulness-based weight management programs have had some success, it is difficult to conclude that the mindfulness components were responsible. Research in this area is further complicated by the fact that the term ‘mindfulness’ is used to refer to a range of different practices. Additionally, we have little understanding of the mechanisms by which mindfulness might exert its effects. This review addresses these issues by examining research that has looked at the independent effects of mindfulness and mindfulness-related strategies on weight loss and weight management related eating behaviors. As well as looking at evidence for effects, the review also considers whether effects may vary with different types of strategy, and the kinds of mechanisms that may be responsible for any change. It is concluded that there is some evidence to support the effects of (a) present moment awareness, when applied to the sensory properties of food, and (b) decentering. However, research in these areas has yet to be examined in a controlled manner in relation to weight management.

      PubDate: 2017-03-12T16:02:46Z
       
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disordered eating
           behaviour: A systematic review and a framework for future research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Panagiota Kaisari, Colin T Dourish, Suzanne Higgs
      Preliminary findings suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be associated with disordered eating behaviour, but whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and specific types of disordered eating behaviour is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether specific features associated with ADHD are differentially associated with disordered eating behaviour. A systematic review of seventy-five studies was conducted to evaluate the potential association between ADHD symptomatology and disordered eating behaviour and to provide an estimate of the strength of evidence for any association. Overall, a moderate strength of evidence exists for a positive association between ADHD and disordered eating and with specific types of disordered-eating behaviour, in particular, overeating behaviour. There is consistent evidence that impulsivity symptoms of ADHD are positively associated with overeating and bulimia nervosa and more limited evidence for an association between hyperactivity symptoms and restrictive eating in males but not females. Further research is required to assess the potential direction of the relationship between ADHD and disordered eating, the underlying mechanisms and the role of specific ADHD symptoms in the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating behaviour. We propose a framework that could be used to guide the design of future studies.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T16:01:16Z
       
  • Cognitive control interventions for depression: A systematic review of
           findings from training studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Ernst H.W. Koster, Kristof Hoorelbeke, Thomas Onraedt, Max Owens, Nazanin Derakshan
      There is a strong interest in cognitive control training as a new intervention for depression. Given the recent promising meta-analytical findings regarding the effects of cognitive training on cognitive functioning and depressive symptomatology, the current review provides an in-depth discussion of the role of cognitive control in depression. We consider the state-of-the-art research on how manipulation of cognitive control may influence cognitive and depression-related outcomes. Evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive control training procedures are discussed in relation to three stages of depression (at-risk, clinically depressed, remission) as well as the training approach that was deployed, after which the putative theoretical mechanisms are discussed. Finally, we provide ways in which cognitive control training can be utilized in future research.

      PubDate: 2017-03-04T20:13:47Z
       
  • Prevention of eating disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 53
      Author(s): Long Khanh-Dao Le, Jan J Barendregt, Phillipa Hay, Cathrine Mihalopoulos
      Objective To systematically review and quantify the effectiveness of Eating Disorder (ED) prevention interventions. Methods Electronic databases (including the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, MEDLINE, PsychInfo, EMBASE, and Scopus) were searched for published randomized controlled trials of ED prevention interventions from 2009 to 2015. Trials prior to 2009 were retrieved from prior reviews. Results One hundred and twelve articles were included. Fifty-eight percent of trials had high risk of bias. Findings indicated small to moderate effect sizes on reduction of ED risk factors or symptoms which occurred up to three-year post-intervention. For universal prevention, media literacy (ML) interventions significantly reduced shape and weight concerns for both females (−0.69, confidence interval (CI): −1.17 to −0.22) and males (−0.32, 95% CI −0.57 to −0.07). For selective prevention, cognitive dissonance (CD) interventions were superior to control interventions in reducing ED symptoms (−0.32, 95% CI −0.52 to −0.13). Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions had the largest effect size (−0.40, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.26) on dieting outcome at 9-month follow-up while the healthy weight intervention reduced ED risk factors and body mass index. No indicated prevention interventions were found to be effective in reducing ED risk factors. Conclusions There are a number of promising preventive interventions for ED risk factors including CD, CBT and ML. Whether these actually lower ED incidence is, however, uncertain. Combined ED and obesity prevention interventions require further research.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T12:35:26Z
       
  • A systematic review of help-seeking and mental health service utilization
           among military service members
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Melanie A. Hom, Ian H. Stanley, Matthew E. Schneider, Thomas E. Joiner
      Research has demonstrated that military service members are at elevated risk for a range of psychiatric problems, and mental health services use is a conduit to symptom reduction and remission. Nonetheless, there is a notable underutilization of mental health services in this population. This systematic review aimed to identify and critically examine: (1) rates of service use; (2) barriers and facilitators to care; and (3) programs and interventions to enhance willingness to seek care and help-seeking behaviors among current military personnel (e.g., active duty, National Guard, Reserve). Overall, 111 peer-reviewed articles were identified for inclusion. Across studies, the rate of past-year service use among service members with mental health problems during the same time frame was 29.3% based on weighted averages. Studies identified common barriers to care (e.g., concerns regarding stigma, career impact) and facilitators to care (e.g., positive treatment attitudes, family/friend support, military leadership support) among this population. Although programs (e.g., screening, gatekeeper training) have been developed to reduce these barriers, leverage facilitators, and encourage service use, further research is needed to empirically test the effectiveness of these interventions in increasing rates of service utilization. Critical areas for further research on treatment engagement among this high-risk population are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-06T08:15:36Z
       
  • Defining and measuring irritability: Clarification and differentiation of
           the construct
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Michael J. Toohey, Raymond DiGiuseppe
      Irritability is a symptom of 15 disorders in the DSM-5 and is included in Mood Disorders, Addictive Disorders, Personality Disorders, and more (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, the term irritability is defined and measured inconsistently in the scholarly literature. In this article, we reviewed the scholarly definitions of irritability and the item content of irritability measures. Components of definitions and items measuring irritability were divided into three categories: a) causes, b) experience, and c) consequences. We also reviewed potential causes and biomarkers of irritability. We found much overlap between definitions and measures of irritability and related constructs such as anger and aggression. Consequently, the validity of research on irritability needs to be questioned including the role of irritability in psychopathology and the presence of irritability as a symptom in any disorder. Research on irritability's role in behavioral disorders needs to be repeated after more well defined measures are developed. We proposed a more precise definition of irritability that clearly differentiates it from related constructs. Suggested items for measuring irritability are also provided.

      PubDate: 2017-02-06T08:15:36Z
       
  • Assessing maladaptive repetitive thought in clinical disorders: A critical
           review of existing measures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Suraj Samtani
      Rumination and worry have recently been grouped under the broader transdiagnostic construct of repetitive thought (Watkins, 2008). The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of scales used to assess repetitive thinking across a broad range of contexts: depression, anxiety, trauma, stress, illness, interpersonal difficulties, positive affect, and so forth. We also include scales developed or adapted for children and adolescents. In the extant literature, measures of repetitive thinking generally show small-to-moderate correlations with measures of psychopathology. This review highlights problems with the content validity of existing instruments; for example, confounds between repetitive thought and symptomatology, metacognitive beliefs, and affect. This review also builds on previous reviews by including newer transdiagnostic measures of repetitive thinking. We hope that this review will help to expand our understanding of repetitive thinking beyond the mood and anxiety disorders, and suggest ways forward in the measurement of repetitive thinking in individuals with comorbid conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T06:52:07Z
       
  • Cognitive behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: Is CBT
           equally efficacious in adults of working age and older adults?
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 52
      Author(s): Naoko Kishita, Ken Laidlaw
      The current meta-analysis compared the efficacy of CBT for GAD between adults of working age and older people. In addition, we conducted a qualitative content analysis of treatment protocols used in studies with older clients to explore potential factors that may enhance treatment outcomes with this particular client group. Applying the inclusion criteria resulted in the identification of 15 studies with 22 comparisons between CBT and control groups (770 patients). When examining overall effect sizes for CBT for GAD between older people and adults of working age there were no statistically significant differences in outcome. However, overall effect size of CBT for GAD was moderate for older people (g =0.55, 95% CI 0.22–0.88) and large for adults of working age (g =0.94, 95% CI 0.52–1.36), suggesting that there is still room for improvement in CBT with older people. The main difference in outcome between CBT for GAD between the two age groups was related to methodological quality in that no older people studies used an intention-to-treat design. The content analysis demonstrated that studies with older clients were conducted according to robust CBT protocols but did not take account of gerontological evidence to make them more age-appropriate.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T19:47:03Z
       
  • Obsessions and compulsions in the lab: A meta-analysis of procedures to
           induce symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 52
      Author(s): Laura M.S. De Putter, Lotte Van Yper, Ernst H.W. Koster
      Efficacious induction procedures of symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are necessary in order to test central tenets of theories on OCD. However, the efficacy of the current range of induction procedures remains unclear. Therefore, this meta-analysis set out to examine the efficacy of induction procedures in participants with and without OCD symptoms. Moreover, we explored whether the efficacy varied across different moderators (i.e., induction categories, symptom dimensions of OCD, modalities of presentation, and level of individual tailoring). In total we included 4900 participants across 90 studies. The analyses showed that there was no difference in studies using subclinical and clinical participants, confirming the utility of analogue samples. Induction procedures evoked more symptoms in (sub)clinical OCD than in healthy participants, which was most evident in the contamination symptom dimension of OCD. Analysis within (sub)clinical OCD showed a large effect size of induction procedures, especially for the threat and responsibility category and when stimuli were tailored to individuals. Analysis within healthy participants showed a medium effect size of induction procedures. The magnitude of the effect in healthy individuals was stronger for mental contamination, thought-action fusion and threat inductions.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T19:47:03Z
       
  • The role of parenting behaviors in childhood post-traumatic stress
           disorder: A meta-analytic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Victoria Williamson, Cathy Creswell, Pasco Fearon, Rachel M Hiller, Jennifer Walker, Sarah L Halligan
      Studies that have examined the association between parenting behaviors and childhood post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded mixed findings. To clarify the role of parenting in childhood PTSD we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 studies that investigated the association between parenting and youth PTSD symptoms (total n=4010). Negative parenting behaviors (e.g. overprotection, hostility) accounted for 5.3% of the variance in childhood PTSD symptoms. Positive parenting behaviors (e.g. warmth, support) account for 2.0% of variance. The negative and positive parenting and child PTSD symptom associations did not statistically differ in magnitude. Moderator analyses indicated that methodological factors and trauma variables may affect the association between parenting and child PTSD. Most studies relied upon questionnaire measures of general parenting style, and studies were predominantly cross-sectional with weaker evidence found in longitudinal studies. Given the small number of high quality studies available, only provisional recommendations about the role of parenting in childhood PTSD are made.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T19:47:03Z
       
  • Efficacy of group social skills interventions for youth with autism
           spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Jacquelyn A. Gates, Erin Kang, Matthew D. Lerner
      Group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs) are widely used for treating social competence among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their efficacy is unclear. Previous meta-analysis of the literature on well-designed trials of GSSIs is limited in size and scope, collapsing across highly heterogeneous sources (parents; youths; teachers; observers; behavioral tasks). The current meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) was conducted to ascertain overall effectiveness of GSSIs and differences by reporting sources. Nineteen RCTs met inclusion criteria. Results show that overall positive aggregate effects were medium (g =0.51, p <0.001). Effects were large for self-report (g =0.92, p <0.001), medium for task-based measures (g =0.58, p <0.001), small for parent- and observer-report (g =0.47 and 0.40, respectively, p <0.001), and nonsignificant for teacher-report (p =0.11). Moderation analyses of self-report revealed the effect was wholly attributable to youth reporting that they learned about skilled social behaviors (social knowledge; g =1.15, p <0.01), but not that they enacted them (social performance; g =0.28, p =0.31). Social skills interventions presently appear modestly effective for youth with ASD, but may not generalize to school settings or self-reported social behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T19:47:03Z
       
  • Towards recovery-oriented psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder:
           Quality of life outcomes, stage-sensitive treatments, and mindfulness
           mechanisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Greg Murray, Nuwan D Leitan, Neil Thomas, Erin E Michalak, Sheri L Johnson, Steven Jones, Tania Perich, Lesley Berk, Michael Berk
      Current adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder (BD) aim to impact illness course via information sharing/skill development. This focus on clinical outcomes contrasts with the emergent recovery paradigm, which prioritises adaptation to serious mental illness and movement towards personally meaningful goals. The aim of this review is to encourage innovation in the psychological management of BD by considering three recovery-oriented trends in the literature. First, the importance of quality of life as a target of recovery-oriented clinical work is considered. Second, the recent staging approach to BD is described, and we outline implications for psychosocial interventions tailored to stage. Finally, we review evidence suggesting that mindfulness-based psychosocial interventions have potential across early, middle and late stages of BD. It is concluded that the humanistic emphasis of the recovery paradigm provides a timely stimulus for development of a next generation of psychosocial treatments for people with BD.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T19:47:03Z
       
  • Irritability in child and adolescent psychopathology: An integrative
           review for ICD-11
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Spencer C. Evans, Jeffrey D. Burke, Michael C. Roberts, Paula J. Fite, John E. Lochman, Francisco R. de la Peña, Geoffrey M. Reed
      In preparation for the World Health Organization's development of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) chapter on Mental and Behavioral Disorders, this article reviews the literature pertaining to severe irritability in child and adolescent psychopathology. First, research on severe mood dysregulation suggests that youth with irritability and temper outbursts, among other features of hyperactivity and arousal, demonstrate cross-sectional correlates and developmental outcomes that distinguish them from youth with bipolar disorder. Second, other evidence points to an irritable dimension of Oppositional Defiant Disorder symptomatology, which is uniquely associated with concurrent and subsequent internalizing problems. In contrast to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' (5th ed.) Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, our review of the literature supports a different solution: a subtype, Oppositional Defiant Disorder with chronic irritability/anger (proposal included in Appendix). This solution is more consistent with the available evidence and is a better fit with global public health considerations such as harm/benefit potential, clinical utility, and cross-cultural applicability. Implications for assessment, treatment, and research are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-22T19:47:03Z
       
  • Meta-analysis of organizational skills interventions for children and
           adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 December 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Aida Bikic, Brian Reichow, Spencer A. McCauley, Karim Ibrahim, Denis G. Sukhodolsky
      Background In addition to problems with attention and hyperactivity, children with ADHD present with poor organizational skills required for managing time and materials in academic projects. Organizational skills training (OST) has been increasingly used to address these deficits. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of OST in children with ADHD. Objectives The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence of the effects of OST for children with ADHD for organizational skills, attention, and academic performance. Methods We searched 3 electronic databases to locate randomized controlled trials published in English in peer-reviewed journals comparing OST with parent education, treatment-as-usual, or waitlist control conditions. Standardized mean difference effect sizes from the studies were statistically combined using a random-effects meta-analyses across six outcomes: teacher- and parent-rated organizational skills, teacher- and parent-rated inattention, teacher-rated academic performance, and Grade Point Average (GPA). Risk of bias was assessed for randomization, allocation concealment, blinding of participants and treatment personnel, blinding of outcome assessors, incomplete outcome data, and selective outcome reporting. Results Twelve studies involving 1054 children (576 treatment, 478 control) were included in the meta-analyses. Weighted mean effect sizes for teacher- and parent-rated outcome measures of organizational skills were g =0.54 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.91) and g =0.83 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.34), respectively. Weighted mean effect sizes of teacher- and parent-rated symptoms of inattention were g =0.26 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.52) and g =0.56 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.74), respectively. Weighted standardized mean effect size for teacher-rated academic performance and GPA were g =0.33 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.51) and g =0.29 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.51), respectively. Conclusions OST leads to moderate improvements in organizational skills of children with ADHD as rated by teachers and large improvements as rated by parents. More modest improvements were observed on the ratings of symptoms of inattention and academic performance. Protocol registration PROSPERO (CRD42015019261).

      PubDate: 2017-01-07T00:30:34Z
       
  • Autobiographical episodic memory-based training for the treatment of mood,
           anxiety and stress-related disorders: A systematic review and
           meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Caitlin Hitchcock, Aliza Werner-Seidler, Simon E. Blackwell, Tim Dalgleish
      We review evidence for training programmes that manipulate autobiographical processing in order to treat mood, anxiety, and stress-related disorders, using the GRADE criteria to judge evidence quality. We also position the current status of this research within the UK Medical Research Council's (2000, 2008) framework for the development of novel interventions. A literature search according to PRISMA guidelines identified 15 studies that compared an autobiographical episodic memory-based training (AET) programme to a control condition, in samples with a clinician-derived diagnosis. Identified AET programmes included Memory Specificity Training (Raes, Williams, & Hermans, 2009), concreteness training (Watkins, Baeyens, & Read, 2009), Competitive Memory Training (Korrelboom, van der Weele, Gjaltema, & Hoogstraten, 2009), imagery-based training of future autobiographical episodes (Blackwell & Holmes, 2010), and life review/reminiscence therapy (Arean et al., 1993). Cohen's d was calculated for between-group differences in symptom change from pre- to post-intervention and to follow-up. We also completed meta-analyses for programmes evaluated across multiple studies, and for the overall effect of AET as a treatment approach. Results demonstrated promising evidence for AET in the treatment of depression (d =0.32), however effect sizes varied substantially (from −0.18 to 1.91) across the different training protocols. Currently, research on AET for the treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders is not yet at a stage to draw firm conclusions regarding efficacy as there were only a very small number of studies which met inclusion criteria. AET offers a potential avenue through which low-intensity treatment for affective disturbance might be offered.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T11:20:19Z
       
  • Complete recovery from anxiety disorders following Cognitive Behavior
           Therapy in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Helen Warwick, Tessa Reardon, Peter Cooper, Kou Murayama, Shirley Reynolds, Charlotte Wilson, Cathy Creswell
      Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for childhood anxiety disorders. Meta-analyses have concluded that approximately 60% of children recover following treatment, however these include studies using a broad range of diagnostic indices to assess outcomes including whether children are free of the one anxiety disorder that causes most interference (i.e. the primary anxiety disorder) or whether children are free of all anxiety disorders. We conducted a meta-analysis to establish the efficacy of CBT in terms of absence of all anxiety disorders. Where available we compared this rate to outcomes based on absence of primary disorder. Of 56 published randomized controlled trials, 19 provided data on recovery from all anxiety disorders (n=635 CBT, n=450 control participants). There was significant heterogeneity across those studies with available data and full recovery rates varied from 47.6 to 66.4% among children without autistic spectrum conditions (ASC) and 12.2 to 36.7% for children with ASC following treatment, compared to up to 20.6% and 21.3% recovery in waitlist and active treatment comparisons. The lack of consistency in diagnostic outcomes highlights the urgent need for consensus on reporting in future RCTs of childhood anxiety disorders for the meaningful synthesis of data going forwards.

      PubDate: 2016-12-27T11:20:19Z
       
  • Perceived barriers and facilitators of mental health service utilization
           in adult trauma survivors: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Viktoria Kantor, Matthias Knefel, Brigitte Lueger-Schuster
      Many trauma survivors seem to be reluctant to seek professional help. The aim of the current review was to synthesize relevant literature, and to systematically classify trauma survivors' perceived barriers and facilitators regarding mental health service utilization. The systematic search identified 19 studies addressing military personnel and 17 studies with trauma survivors of the general population. The data analysis revealed that the most prominent barriers included concerns related to stigma, shame and rejection, low mental health literacy, lack of knowledge and treatment-related doubts, fear of negative social consequences, limited resources, time, and expenses. Perceived facilitators lack attention in research, but can be influential in understanding mental health service use. Another prominent finding was that trauma survivors face specific trauma-related barriers to mental health service use, especially concerns about re-experiencing the traumatic events. Many trauma survivors avoid traumatic reminders and are therefore concerned about dealing with certain memories in treatment. These perceived barriers and facilitators were discussed regarding future research and practical implications in order to facilitate mental health service use among trauma survivors.

      PubDate: 2016-12-12T03:04:25Z
       
  • The need for a behavioural analysis of behavioural addictions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Richard J.E. James, Richard J. Tunney
      This manuscript overviews the behavioural (i.e. associative learning, conditioning) research in behavioural addictions, with reference to contemporary models of substance addiction and ongoing controversies in the behavioural addictions literature. The role of behaviour has been well explored in substance addictions and gambling but this focus is often absent in other candidate behavioural addictions. In contrast, the standard approach to behavioural addictions has been to look at individual differences, psychopathologies and biases, often translating from pathological gambling indicators. An associative model presently captures the core elements of behavioural addiction included in the DSM (gambling) and identified for further consideration (internet gaming). Importantly, gambling has a schedule of reinforcement that shows similarities and differences from other addictions. While this is more likely than not applicable to internet gaming, it is less clear whether it is so for a number of candidate behavioural addictions. Adopting an associative perspective, this paper translates from gambling to video gaming, in light of the existing debates on this matter and the nature of the distinction between these behaviours. Finally, a framework for applying an associative model to behavioural addictions is outlined, and it's application toward treatment.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T08:58:57Z
       
  • Cognitive remediation for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: A network
           meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Matteo Cella, Antonio Preti, Clementine Edwards, Tabitha Dow, Til Wykes
      Cognitive remediation (CR) is a treatment targeting cognitive difficulties in people with schizophrenia. Recent research suggested that CR may also have a positive effect on negative symptoms. This meta-analysis investigates the effect of CR on negative symptoms. Systematic search was used to identify all randomized-controlled trials of CR in people with schizophrenia reporting negative symptoms outcomes. Levels of negative symptoms at baseline, post-therapy and follow-up, sample demographic and treatment length were extracted. Study methodological quality and heterogeneity were addressed. Negative symptoms standardized mean change was calculated using Hedges's g and used as the main outcome. The search identified 45 studies reporting results for 2511 participants; 15 studies reported follow-up outcomes. CR was associated with a reduction of negative symptoms (most conservative model g =−0.30; 95% CI: −0.36, −0.22) at post-therapy compared with treatment as usual and this effect was larger at follow-up (g =−0.36; 95% CI: −0.51, −0.21). Drop-out rate was comparable between conditions. Network meta-analysis confirmed CR was superior to TAU and TAU plus active control or adjunctive treatment. No evidence of publication bias was found. Studies with more rigorous methodology were associated with larger negative symptom reduction (g =−0.40; 95% CI: −0.51 to −0.30). Although negative symptoms have not been considered a primary target for CR, this intervention can have small to moderate beneficial effects on this symptom cluster. Future research should explore in detail the active mechanisms responsible for negative symptom reduction and the relationship between cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

      PubDate: 2016-12-05T08:58:57Z
       
  • Changes in the self during cognitive behavioural therapy for social
           anxiety disorder: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Bree Gregory, Lorna Peters
      A consistent feature across cognitive-behavioural models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is the central role of the self in the emergence and maintenance of the disorder. The strong emphasis placed on the self in these models and related empirical research has also been reflected in evidence-based treatments for the disorder. This systematic review provides an overview of the empirical literature investigating the role of self-related constructs (e.g., self-beliefs, self-images, self-focused attention) proposed in cognitive models of SAD, before examining how these constructs are modified during and following CBT for SAD. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Guided by Stopa's (2009a, b) model of self, most studies examined change in self-related content, followed by change in self-related processing. No study examined change in self-structure. Pre- to post-treatment reductions were observed in self-related thoughts and beliefs, self-esteem, self-schema, self-focused attention, and self-evaluation. Change in self-related constructs predicted and/or mediated social anxiety reduction, however relatively few studies examined this. Papers were limited by small sample sizes, failure to control for depression symptoms, lack of waitlist, and some measurement concerns. Future research directions are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-11-27T16:18:59Z
       
  • Resilience to emotional distress in response to failure, error or
           mistakes: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Judith Johnson, Maria Panagioti, Jennifer Bass, Lauren Ramsey, Reema Harrison
      Perceptions of failure have been implicated in a range of psychological disorders, and even a single experience of failure can heighten anxiety and depression. However, not all individuals experience significant emotional distress following failure, indicating the presence of resilience. The current systematic review synthesised studies investigating resilience factors to emotional distress resulting from the experience of failure. For the definition of resilience we used the Bi-Dimensional Framework for resilience research (BDF) which suggests that resilience factors are those which buffer the impact of risk factors, and outlines criteria a variable should meet in order to be considered as conferring resilience. Studies were identified through electronic searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge. Forty-six relevant studies reported in 38 papers met the inclusion criteria. These provided evidence of the presence of factors which confer resilience to emotional distress in response to failure. The strongest support was found for the factors of higher self-esteem, more positive attributional style, and lower socially-prescribed perfectionism. Weaker evidence was found for the factors of lower trait reappraisal, lower self-oriented perfectionism and higher emotional intelligence. The majority of studies used experimental or longitudinal designs. These results identify specific factors which should be targeted by resilience-building interventions. Resilience; failure; stress; self-esteem; attributional style; perfectionism

      PubDate: 2016-11-21T08:35:16Z
       
  • Mapping autobiographical memory in schizophrenia: Clinical implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 51
      Author(s): J.J. Ricarte, L. Ros, J.M. Latorre, E. Watkins
      Increasing evidence suggests that impaired autobiographical memory (AM) mechanisms may be associated with the onset and maintenance of psychopathology. However, there is not yet a comprehensive review of the components of autobiographical memory in schizophrenic patients. The first aim of this review is a synthesis of evidence about the functioning of AM in schizophrenic patients. The main autobiographical elements reviewed in schizophrenic patients include the study of overgeneral memory (form); self-defining memories (contents); consciousness during the process of retrieval (awareness), and the abnormal early reminiscence bump (distribution). AM impairments have been involved in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of other psychopathologies, especially depression. The second aim is to examine potential parallels between the mechanisms responsible for the onset and maintenance of disturbed AM in other clinical diagnosis and the mechanisms of disturbed autobiographical memory functioning in schizophrenic patients. Cognitive therapies for schizophrenic patients are increasingly demanded. The third aim is the suggestion of key elements for the adaptation of components of autobiographical recall in cognitive therapies for the treatment of symptoms and consequences of schizophrenia.

      PubDate: 2016-11-14T05:27:52Z
       
  • Mechanisms of mindfulness training: Monitor and Acceptance Theory (MAT)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Emily K. Lindsay, J. David Creswell
      Despite evidence linking trait mindfulness and mindfulness training with a broad range of effects, still little is known about its underlying active mechanisms. Mindfulness is commonly defined as (1) the ongoing monitoring of present-moment experience (2) with an orientation of acceptance. Building on conceptual, clinical, and empirical work, we describe a testable theoretical account to help explain mindfulness effects on cognition, affect, stress, and health outcomes. Specifically, Monitor and Acceptance Theory (MAT) posits that (1), by enhancing awareness of one's experiences, the skill of attention monitoring explains how mindfulness improves cognitive functioning outcomes, yet this same skill can increase affective reactivity. Second (2), by modifying one's relation to monitored experience, acceptance is necessary for reducing affective reactivity, such that attention monitoring and acceptance skills together explain how mindfulness improves negative affectivity, stress, and stress-related health outcomes. We discuss how MAT contributes to mindfulness science, suggest plausible alternatives to the account, and offer specific predictions for future research.

      PubDate: 2016-11-07T05:22:36Z
       
  • Interventions that target improvements in mental health for parents of
           children with autism spectrum disorders: A narrative review
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review, Volume 51
      Author(s): Nikko S. Da Paz, Jan L. Wallander
      Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest that one in 68 children is affected. With convincing evidence that parenting a child with ASD is associated with elevated distress and mental health problems, researchers have begun to investigate treatments that directly target parents' psychological well-being. We conducted a narrative review of studies that empirically tested the effects of interventions targeting improvements in the mental health of parents of children with ASD. Following a range of search strategies, a total of 13 studies, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and six pre-post test designs, met inclusion criteria. We calculated and reported effect sizes for all RCTs. On average, treatment produced medium to large effect sizes with improvements in parenting stress and general health, and reductions in depression and anxiety. Interventions that appeared promising included: Stress Management and Relaxation Techniques, Expressive Writing, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. However, only one study conducted a follow-up assessment >3months post intervention. Study populations primarily consisted of English-speaking mothers, ages 39 to 42years. Conclusions were limited by small sample sizes, homogeneity of sample population, and reliance on self-report. Therefore, this body of research contains significant limitations in need of improvement for this field to move forward and benefit a sizable number of parents.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T00:54:24Z
       
  • A systematic review of service-user reasons for adherence and nonadherence
           to neuroleptic medication in psychosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Miriam Wade, Sara Tai, Yvonne Awenat, Gillian Haddock
      People diagnosed with psychosis, such as those with schizophrenia-related disorders, are routinely prescribed neuroleptic medication as a primary treatment. Despite reported benefits of neuroleptic treatment for symptom remission and relapse prevention, discontinuation rates are high. Research examining factors associated with neuroleptic non-adherence report inconsistent findings. Reasons for adherence to neuroleptic medication are under-researched. The current review aimed to synthesise evidence exploring service-user self-reported reasons for adherence and non-adherence to neuroleptic medication. A systematic literature search of databases and reference list searching identified 21 studies investigating service-user accounts of reasons for adherence and/or non-adherence to neuroleptic medication. Qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method studies were included in the review. Several themes of reasons were identified. Reasons for both adherence and non-adherence were largely similar; medication efficacy, compatibility with personal medication or religious beliefs, side-effects and the influence of relationships with other people. Experiences of stigma and economic difficulties were generally identified as reasons for non-adherence only while experiences of fear and coercion were identified as reasons for adherence only. The review identified crucial factors which may aid service providers in bettering treatment for people with psychosis and will provide evidence which could contribute to future prescribing guidelines.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T00:54:24Z
       
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder in parents following infant death: A
           systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Dorte M. Christiansen
      Parents who have lost an infant prior to, during, or following birth often interpret the event as highly traumatic. The present systematic review included 46 articles based on 31 different studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents bereaved by infant death. The PTSD prevalence in mothers differed widely across studies with estimated rates at 0.6–39%. PTSD in fathers following infant loss has been less extensively studied but PTSD levels were generally much lower than in mothers with reported prevalence rates at 0–15.6% across studies. PTSD symptoms were not found to differ much depending on whether the death occurred prior to, during, or following birth and nor was gestational age consistently associated with PTSD severity. A number of risk and protective factors have been found to be associated with PTSD severity. Relevant focus areas for future research are presented along with considerations for future pregnancies and children. The suffering associated with PTSD following infant loss is overwhelming because of the rates at which such losses occur around the world. For this reason, it is problematic that not all types of infant loss resulting in sufficient symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance, and arousal can elicit a DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T00:54:24Z
       
  • School-based depression and anxiety prevention programs for young people:
           A systematic review and meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Aliza Werner-Seidler, Yael Perry, Alison L. Calear, Jill M. Newby, Helen Christensen
      Depression and anxiety often emerge for the first time during youth. The school environment provides an ideal context to deliver prevention programs, with potential to offset the trajectory towards disorder. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of randomised-controlled trials of psychological programs, designed to prevent depression and/or anxiety in children and adolescents delivered in school settings. Medline, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for articles published until February 2015. Eighty-one unique studies comprising 31,794 school students met inclusion criteria. Small effect sizes for both depression (g =0.23) and anxiety (g =0.20) prevention programs immediately post-intervention were detected. Small effects were evident after 12-month follow-up for both depression (g =0.11) and anxiety (g =0.13). Overall, the quality of the included studies was poor, and heterogeneity was moderate. Subgroup analyses suggested that universal depression prevention programs had smaller effect sizes at post-test relative to targeted programs. For anxiety, effect sizes were comparable for universal and targeted programs. There was some evidence that externally-delivered interventions were superior to those delivered by school staff for depression, but not anxiety. Meta-regression confirmed that targeted programs predicted larger effect sizes for the prevention of depression. These results suggest that the refinement of school-based prevention programs have the potential to reduce mental health burden and advance public health outcomes.

      PubDate: 2016-10-31T00:54:24Z
       
  • Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2016
      Source:Clinical Psychology Review
      Author(s): Zach Walsh, Raul Gonzalez, Kim Crosby, Michelle Thiessen, Chris Carroll, Marcel O. Bonn-Miller
      This review considers the potential influences of the use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP) on areas of interest to mental health professionals, with foci on psychological intervention and assessment. We identified 31 articles relating to CTP use and mental health, and 29 review articles on cannabis use and mental health that did not focus on use for therapeutic purposes. Results reflect the prominence of mental health conditions among the reasons for CTP use, and the relative dearth of high-quality evidence related to CTP in this context, thereby highlighting the need for further research into the harms and benefits of medical cannabis relative to other therapeutic options. Preliminary evidence suggests that CTP may have potential for the treatment of PTSD, and as a substitute for problematic use of other substances. Extrapolation from reviews of non-therapeutic cannabis use suggests that the use of CTP may be problematic among individuals with psychotic disorders. The clinical implications of CTP use among individuals with mood disorders are unclear. With regard to assessment, evidence suggests that CTP use does not increase risk of harm to self or others. Acute cannabis intoxication and recent CTP use may result in reversible deficits with the potential to influence cognitive assessment, particularly on tests of short-term memory.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T22:39:56Z
       
 
 
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