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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 901 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 433)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 196)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 71)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 244)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 179)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 135)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 146)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Eat, Sleep, Work     Open Access  
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)

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Journal Cover Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
  [SJR: 1.171]   [H-I: 51]   [72 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1063-3995 - ISSN (Online) 1099-0879
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • Attachment and therapeutic alliance in psychological therapy for people
           with recent onset psychosis who use cannabis
    • Authors: Katherine Berry; Tom Palmer, Lynsey Gregg, Christine Barrowclough, Fiona Lobban
      Abstract: We examine associations between client attachment style and therapeutic alliance in a 3-arm randomized controlled trial of brief motivational interviewing and cognitive–behavioural therapy compared with longer term motivational interviewing and cognitive–behavioural therapy or standard care alone. Client self-report measures of attachment style were completed at baseline, and both clients and therapists in the treatment arms of the trial completed alliance measures 1 month into therapy. We found that insecure–anxious attachment was positively associated with therapist-rated alliance, whereas clients with insecure–avoidant attachment were more likely to report poorer bond with therapist. There was no evidence that client attachment significantly predicted clinical or substance misuse outcomes either directly or indirectly via alliance. Nor evidence that the length of therapy offered interacted with attachment to predict alliance.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15T00:45:23.111551-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2178
       
  • Issue Information
    • Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12T05:35:00.659186-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2136
       
  • Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS): Optimal cut points for remission
           and response in a German sample
    • Authors: M. Glischinski; U. Willutzki, U. Stangier, W. Hiller, J. Hoyer, E. Leibing, F. Leichsenring, G. Hirschfeld
      Abstract: The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is the most frequently used instrument to assess social anxiety disorder (SAD) in clinical research and practice. Both a self-reported (LSAS-SR) and a clinician-administered (LSAS-CA) version are available. The aim of the present study was to define optimal cut-off (OC) scores for remission and response to treatment for the LSAS in a German sample.Data of N = 311 patients with SAD were used who had completed psychotherapeutic treatment within a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Diagnosis of SAD and reduction in symptom severity according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, served as gold standard. OCs yielding the best balance between sensitivity and specificity were determined using receiver operating characteristics. The variability of the resulting OCs was estimated by nonparametric bootstrapping.Using diagnosis of SAD (present vs. absent) as a criterion, results for remission indicated cut-off values of 35 for the LSAS-SR and 30 for the LSAS-CA, with acceptable sensitivity (LSAS-SR: .83, LSAS-CA: .88) and specificity (LSAS-SR: .82, LSAS-CA: .87). For detection of response to treatment, assessed by a 1-point reduction in the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, rating, a reduction of 28% for the LSAS-SR and 29% for the LSAS-CA yielded the best balance between sensitivity (LSAS-SR: .75, LSAS-CA: .83) and specificity (LSAS-SR: .76, LSAS-CA: .80).To our knowledge, we are the first to define cut points for the LSAS in a German sample. Overall, the cut points for remission and response corroborate previously reported cut points, now building on a broader data basis.
      PubDate: 2018-02-11T21:45:28.079212-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2179
       
  • Mentalizing countertransference' A model for research on the
           elaboration of countertransference experience in psychotherapy
    • Authors: João F. Barreto; Paula Mena Matos
      Abstract: As a construct, the elaboration of countertransference experience (ECE) is intended to depict the implicit and explicit psychological work to which therapists submit their experiences with clients. Through ECE, defined as a mentalizing process of a particular kind, therapists' experiences are presumed to acquire and increase in mental quality and become available for meaning-making and judicious clinical use. In this paper, we claim that such an ongoing process facilitates engagement with common therapeutic factors, such as the therapeutic alliance and countertransference management, enhancing therapist responsiveness in psychotherapy. We synthesize relevant literature on countertransference, mentalization, and, in particular, therapists' mentalization, informed by a systematic literature review. As a result, we propose a model for assessing ECE in psychotherapy, comprising 6 diversely mentalized countertransference positions (factual-concrete, abstract-rational, projective-impulsive, argumentative, contemplative-mindful, and mentalizing), 2 underlying primary dimensions (experiencing, reflective elaboration), and 5 complementary dimensions of elaboration. Strengths and limitations of the model are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-04T22:20:33.255472-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2177
       
  • Irish clinical and counselling psychologists' experiences and views of
           mandatory personal therapy during training: A polarisation of ethical
           concerns
    • Authors: Aisling McMahon
      Abstract: Although there have been some recent changes in Ireland, the practice of mandating personal therapy during training has traditionally differed between counselling and clinical psychologists. Irish psychologists (n = 258: 170 clinical, 88 counselling) took part in a survey study of experiences and views regarding this practice. Counselling psychologists reported higher rates of lifetime and current attendance at personal therapy compared to clinical psychologists, and nearly all had experienced mandated personal therapy compared to a minority of the clinical group. However, the clinical psychologists had a high rate of attendance at personal therapy compared to that reported for their British peers, indicating a high regard for personal therapy amongst Irish clinicians despite the absence of a training mandate. Five factors were found to be independent predictors of agreement with mandating personal therapy during training—lifetime experience of personal therapy, being a counselling psychologist, experience of mandated therapy, being more recently qualified, and longer attendance at personal therapy. Thematic analysis of the psychologists' open responses regarding mandated therapy indicated that the majority believed that personal therapy was an important part of ethical, effective practice, and valuable in enhancing self-awareness and learning from the client experience. Ethical concerns about a mandate were polarised between the two psychology specialisms, more counselling psychologists emphasising the dangers and questionable efficacy of psychologists practising psychotherapy without personal therapy experience, and more clinical psychologists questioning the efficacy and ethics of imposing a mandate on trainees. Recommendations are made regarding this issue for trainers of both specialisms.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30T23:40:22.794075-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2176
       
  • The impact of illness-related shame on psychological health and social
           relationships: Testing a mediational model in students with chronic
           illness
    • Authors: Inês A. Trindade; Joana Duarte, Cláudia Ferreira, Mariana Coutinho, José Pinto-Gouveia
      Abstract: This study explores the impact of illness-related shame on the quality of social relationships and psychological health in chronic patients. We aimed to examine the roles of fear of receiving compassion from others and experiential avoidance as potential mediators of this relationship. Although some studies have demonstrated the negative impact of chronic illness-related shame on psychological functioning, the mechanisms that may underlie this link remain understudied.The sample was comprised by 115 college students, which had been diagnosed with at least 1 chronic illness. Participants completed self-report measures on an online platform. This study's design was cross-sectional. A path analysis was conducted using structural equation modelling.Results showed that the impact of illness-related shame on both psychological health (R2 = .45) and the quality of social relationships (R2 = .33) was fully accounted by fear of compassion from others and experiential avoidance. This model revealed an excellent fit. Fear of receiving compassion from others was the main mediator of the illness-related shame link with the quality of social relationships (β = −.22). The main mediator of the association between shame-related chronic illness and psychological health was experiential avoidance (β = −.21).This study shed light on possible psychological mechanisms linking feelings of shame associated with having a chronic condition and impaired social relationships and mental health. On one hand, resisting feelings of compassion and care from others and, on the other hand, avoiding difficult internal experiences and situations that might trigger them seem to underlie the impact of shame on psychological and social functioning in chronic patients.
      PubDate: 2018-01-26T05:35:24.687538-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2175
       
  • A case series of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for reducing
           symptom interference in functional neurological disorders
    • Authors: Christopher D. Graham; Daniel J. O'Hara, Steven Kemp
      Abstract: There is limited high-quality evidence supporting psychological treatments for functional neurological disorders (FNDs), and what evidence exists suggests that the impact of such treatments could be improved. One way to increase effectiveness is to utilize approaches that can have impact across heterogeneous FND presentations. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) targets a transdiagnostic process called psychological flexibility and is used effectively to integrate multidisciplinary treatments in other clinical contexts. Here, we present a consecutive case series (N = 8) of a relatively brief (6 to 10 sessions) ACT intervention, delivered face to face by a clinical psychologist in an outpatient neuropsychology service. Treatment aimed to reduce symptom interference and improve mood via improvements in psychological flexibility. Service users presented with a range of FND symptoms (e.g., syncope, limb paralysis, and paraesthesia). Following treatment, 5 participants showed reliable improvements in symptom interference (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), 2 to the extent of clinical significance; 4 had reliable improvements in mood (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation—10), and 2 within the range of clinical significance. There were no reliable deteriorations in symptom interference or mood. Marked variation was apparent on the measure of psychological flexibility (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II), with 4 reliable improvements, 3 within the range of clinical significance, and also 2 reliable deteriorations. These promising results suggest that further investigation of an ACT approach to FND is warranted. Future studies should include measures of psychological flexibility with greater comprehensibility.
      PubDate: 2018-01-24T05:10:49.820258-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2174
       
  • Do health-related factors predict major depression' A longitudinal
           epidemiologic study
    • Authors: Xiao Chi Zhang; Marcella L. Woud, Eni S. Becker, Jürgen Margraf
      Abstract: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of global disease burden. Hence, examining the role of risk and protective factors for MDD is an important target in psychological research. Various studies showed that obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption are related to depressive symptoms. In contrast, physical activity has been found to be a protective factor. The present population-based study tested whether these health-related factors are prospectively associated with incidence of MDD. Data were taken from the Dresden Predictor Study, which was designed to investigate risk and protective factors of mental health in young women. It included two assessments approximately 17 months apart. Results of single logistic regression analyses showed that being overweight, being a smoker, and being in a high-risk drinking group at baseline were predictive of developing MDD at follow-up. Engaging in regular physical activity and having good physical health were found to be protective factors of MDD. However, being in a medium-risk drinking group was not predictive of incidence of MDD, and irregular physical activity was not a protective factor. This is the first prospective, longitudinal study to show that obesity, smoking, and high-risk drinking are predictive of new onsets of MDD and that physical health is a protective factor. These data provide promising avenues for future research.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T22:20:50.914834-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2171
       
  • Ambivalence resolution in brief psychotherapy for depression
    • Authors: Cátia Braga; António P. Ribeiro, Miguel M. Gonçalves, João Tiago Oliveira, Alexandra Botelho, Helena Ferreira, Inês Sousa
      Abstract: Ambivalence in the process of psychotherapeutic change should be addressed and resolved if we are to avoid psychotherapeutic failure and promote sustained change. In this context, ambivalence can be defined as the cyclical conflictual relation between two opposed positions of the self: one expressed as an innovation, and a subsequent one expressed in a trivialization or rejection of the innovation (problematic position). This conflict may be resolved in two different ways: (a) the dominance of the innovative position and the consequent inhibition of the problematic one and (b) the negotiation between the innovative and the problematic positions. In this study, we sought to study the evolution of the dominance and the negotiation processes in recovered and unchanged cases; to analyse if different therapeutic models produce different results on the evolution of the dominance and negotiation processes, and finally, to study if these processes are predictive of ambivalence resolution. The complete sessions of 22 clinical cases of depression (6 cognitive-behavioural therapy, 10 narrative therapy, and 6 emotion-focused therapy cases) were independently coded for innovative moments, ambivalence, and ambivalence resolution. Results revealed that recovered cases had a progressively higher proportion of negotiation along treatment, whereas in unchanged cases, negotiation was virtually absent throughout treatment. Both dominance and negotiation were significant predictors of ambivalence reduction, however, negotiation had a higher impact than dominance. Overall, these results did not significantly differ for the 3 therapeutic models. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed, and theoretical derived suggestions for clinicians are presented.
      PubDate: 2018-01-07T23:51:06.475479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2169
       
  • Coping, thought suppression, and perceived stress in currently depressed,
           previously depressed, and never depressed individuals
    • Authors: Jens C. Thimm; Catharina E.A. Wang, Knut Waterloo, Martin Eisemann, Marianne Halvorsen
      Abstract: BackgroundPrevious research shows that depression is associated with an increase in stressful life events and perceived stress as well as dysfunctional ways of coping with stress. However, knowledge about coping in previously depressed individuals is scant.MethodsThis study compared perceived stress, coping, and thought suppression in a sample of 30 currently depressed, 63 previously depressed, and 42 never depressed individuals.ResultsAnalysis of variance revealed that previously depressed individuals showed less wishful thinking and thought suppression than the currently depressed individuals, but scored significantly higher on these strategies than the never depressed individuals. However, the group differences became nonsignificant when controlling for perceived stress and intrusions.ConclusionsThis study shows that both current depression and previous depression is related to avoidant coping (wishful thinking and thought suppression). However, these associations might be explained by the higher level of perceived stress among individuals with current or previous depression.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04T03:25:24.053597-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2173
       
  • An evaluation of a specialist firesetting treatment programme for male and
           female mentally disordered offenders (the FIP-MO)
    • Authors: Nichola Tyler; Theresa A. Gannon, Lona Lockerbie, Caoilte Ó Ciardha
      Abstract: Individuals who set deliberate fires are frequently encountered by clinicians working in forensic mental health services. However, little attention has been paid to developing standardised treatment for this behaviour, and few evaluations of treatment have been conducted in forensic mental health services. This study evaluates a new standardised group cognitive behavioural treatment programme for individuals residing in forensic psychiatric hospitals who have engaged in deliberate firesetting (The Firesetting Intervention Programme for Mentally Disordered Offenders; FIP-MO). Sixty-three male and female patients with a history of deliberate firesetting commenced FIP-MO treatment. Patients who met the referral criteria for treatment but who resided at hospitals where FIP-MO treatment was not available were recruited as a treatment as usual comparison group. The treatment group completed a battery of psychometric assessments pre- and post-treatment, with the comparison group completing these at similar time points. Results showed that patients who completed the FIP-MO made significant improvements post-treatment, relative to the comparison group on fire-related measures (e.g., problematic interest and associations with fire) and anger expression. Further, effect size calculations showed that the treatment group made larger pre-post treatment shifts on the majority of outcome measures compared to the comparison group. These findings suggest that FIP-MO treatment is effective for reducing some of the key factors associated with deliberate firesetting.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T02:40:26.725898-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2172
       
  • Cognitive factors and post-partum depression: What is the influence of
           general personality traits, rumination, maternal self-esteem, and
           alexithymia'
    • Authors: Anne Denis; Olivier Luminet
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe objective was to assess the impact of cognitive factors on post-partum depression (PPD) symptoms. Because most of the literature data concern the immediate post-partum period or the first year post-partum, we notably sought to assess the longer term impact of cognitive factors on the symptoms of PPD.MethodsTwo studies were performed. In a pilot study, 1-month post-partum, 63 women filled out a sociodemographic information sheet and completed the abbreviated, revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Ruminative Responses Scale, the Maternal Self-Report Inventory, and the Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale. In the main study, 124 women additionally completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The main study population was divided into 2 subgroups: women in the first year post-partum (n = 74) and those in the second year post-partum (n = 50).ResultsIn the pilot study performed 1-month post-partum, brooding rumination and low self-esteem were significant predictors of the PPD symptom intensity. Neuroticism, brooding rumination, and low maternal self-esteem were also significant predictors of the PPD symptoms reported in the first year post-partum. Lastly, ruminative thoughts and alexithymia were significant predictors of the PPD symptoms reported in the second year post-partum.ConclusionsOur results suggest that alexithymia may be an important predictor of the incidence of this condition. The observation of differences in the PPD models as a function of the post-partum period may open up opportunities for developing novel PPD prevention/treatment programs.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T01:55:32.780646-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2168
       
  • Development and evaluation of the Expressions of Moral Injury
           Scale—Military Version
    • Authors: Joseph M. Currier; Jacob K. Farnsworth, Kent D. Drescher, Ryon C. McDermott, Brook M. Sims, David L. Albright
      Abstract: There is consensus that military personnel can encounter a far more diverse set of challenges than researchers and clinicians have historically appreciated. Moral injury (MI) represents an emerging construct to capture behavioural, social, and spiritual suffering that may transcend and overlap with mental health diagnoses (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder). The Expressions of Moral Injury Scale—Military Version (EMIS-M) was developed to provide a reliable and valid means for assessing the warning signs of a MI in military populations. Drawing on independent samples of veterans who had served in a war-zone environment, factor analytic results revealed 2 distinct factors related to MI expressions directed at both self (9 items) and others (8 items). These subscales generated excellent internal consistency and temporal stability over a 6-month period. When compared to measures of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, and other theoretically relevant constructs (e.g., forgiveness, social support, moral emotions, and combat exposure), EMIS-M scores demonstrated strong convergent, divergent, and incremental validity. In addition, although structural equation modelling findings supported a possible general MI factor in Study 2, the patterns of associations for self- and other-directed expressions yielded evidence for differential validity with varying forms of forgiveness and combat exposure. As such, the EMIS-M provides a face valid, psychometrically validated tool for assessing expressions of apparent MI subtypes in research and clinical settings. Looking ahead, the EMIS-M will hopefully advance the scientific understanding of MI while supporting innovation for clinicians to tailor evidence-based treatments and/or develop novel approaches for addressing MI in their work.
      PubDate: 2017-12-28T00:55:31.156146-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2170
       
  • Trainees' self-evaluation of their development as psychotherapists: An
           Italian contribution to an international collaborative study on
           psychotherapy training
    • Authors: Irene Messina; Omar C. G. Gelo, Marco Sambin, Francesca Bianco, Andrea Mosconi, Antonio Fenelli, Marcello Curto, Salvo Gullo, David Orlinsky
      Abstract: This study presents a pilot contribution to the new collaborative, multinational study of psychotherapy trainee development that was undertaken by the Society for Psychotherapy Research Interest Section on Therapist Training and Development (see Orlinsky, Strauss, Rønnestad, et al., ). Although the main project is longitudinal in design, this preliminary study investigated cross-sectional differences between trainees in different years of training and explored the influence of core training experiences—including supervision and personal therapy—on their perceived development as therapists. Using the trainee current-progress report that was designed for the Society for Psychotherapy Research Interest Section on Therapist Training and Development project, 90 trainees at 4 different 4-year training programs in Italy provided self-evaluations of their development and of their therapeutic work experiences. Perceived development included overall change, progress, deterioration, overcoming past limitations, and realization of potential as a therapist. Therapeutic work experiences were assessed using scales of healing and stressful involvement (Orlinsky & Rønnestad, ). Year in training and support in supervision predicted perceived development and healing involvement, whereas experiencing criticism in supervision was associated with stressful involvement. Having had personal therapy, and especially ratings of benefit from personal therapy, was also associated with perceived development and healing involvement. Results are discussed with regard of their implications for psychotherapy training.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25T22:05:39.839107-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2165
       
  • Psychodynamic technique early in treatment related to outcome for
           depressed patients
    • Authors: Michael Katz; Mark J. Hilsenroth
      Abstract: We examined the relationship between psychodynamic techniques early in treatment with reliable change in depressive symptomatology. Forty-six patients admitted for individual psychodynamic psychotherapy who received a diagnosis representative of a depressive spectrum disorder were assessed pretreatment and posttreatment through self-report of depressive symptoms. Videotapes from two early treatment sessions (3rd and 9th) were independently rated on the Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale for use of psychodynamic-interpersonal and cognitive–behavioural techniques, with excellent interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient > .75). We found a significant relationship between overall use of psychodynamic technique across early treatment (r = .31, p = .036), as well as specific psychodynamic techniques delivered across early treatment, with change in patient-reported depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that focusing on affective experiencing and expression, as well as providing interpretations are particularly helpful early in psychodynamic treatment for depression. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25T21:45:44.890397-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2167
       
  • Pathways towards different long-term outcomes after naturalistic
           psychotherapy
    • Authors: Vidar Blokhus Ekroll; Michael Helge Rønnestad
      Abstract: This study suggests some potential pathways leading towards maintained gains or further growth versus deterioration after naturalistic psychotherapy with experienced clinicians. This is explored in a way that transcends specific theoretical orientations. Sixteen therapies, all showing reliable improvement on Outcome Questionnaire 45.2 (OQ-45) at treatment termination but varying in later post-therapy development, were included in this study. Building on previous content and correlational analyses, individual cases were explored qualitatively in search for developmental patterns of potential relevance for long-term outcome. Patterns re-emerging across several cases were described in light of the OQ-45 trajectories of clients providing them. Six pathways, associated with different long-term outcomes, emerged. Four of these, “Reflective route towards regulation of affects,” “Gaining autonomy through a secure holding relationship,” “Opening up as a new relational/emotional experience,” and “Lasting acceptance of «reality»,” re-emerged in clients showing maintained/growing treatment effects. Two pathways, entitled “Residual problems grow and overshadow progress” and “Core problems remain beneath superficial change,” seemed linked to deterioration after termination of therapy. We suggest the former pathways as some possible routes towards enduring good outcome, and the latter as some patterns to avoid when trying to secure therapy gains will not be only temporary.
      PubDate: 2017-12-22T00:38:22.322782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2162
       
  • The cognitive–behavioural model of hoarding disorder: Evidence from
           clinical and non-clinical cohorts
    • Authors: Michael Kyrios; Christopher Mogan, Richard Moulding, Randy O. Frost, Keong Yap, Daniel B. Fassnacht
      Abstract: The cognitive–behavioural model of hoarding disorder incorporates information processing difficulties, maladaptive attachment to possessions, erroneous beliefs about the nature of possessions, and mood problems as etiologically significant factors, although developmental experiences such as a compromised early family environment have also been proposed in an augmented model. This study examined the specificity and relevance of variables highlighted in the augmented cognitive–behavioural model. Various clinical participants (n = 89) and community controls (n = 20) were assessed with structured clinical interviews to verify diagnosis. Participants completed self-report measures of hoarding severity, cognitions, meta-memory, and early developmental experiences (e.g., memories of warmth and security in one's family). Hoarding cohorts (with and without obsessive–compulsive disorder) reported poor confidence in memory, but relative to other groups (obsessive–compulsive disorder without hoarding disorder, anxiety disorders, and healthy controls), hoarding-relevant cognitions, need to keep possessions in view, and concerns about the consequences of forgetting were significantly higher. Hoarding groups reported the lowest recollections of warmth in their family, although no differences were found between hoarding and non hoarding clinical cohorts for uncertainty about self and others. Nonetheless, clinical cohorts reported generally higher scores of uncertainty than healthy controls. When predicting hoarding severity, after controlling for age and mood, recollections of lack of warmth in one's family was a significant predictor of hoarding severity, with hoarding-related cognitions and fears about decision-making being additional unique predictors. The study supports the augmented cognitive–behavioural model of hoarding, inclusive of the importance of early developmental influences in hoarding.
      PubDate: 2017-12-20T01:45:35.91269-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2164
       
  • The role of shame and self-compassion in psychotherapy for narcissistic
           personality disorder: An exploratory study
    • Authors: Ueli Kramer; Antonio Pascual-Leone, Kristina B. Rohde, Rainer Sachse
      Abstract: This process-outcome study aims at exploring the role of shame, self-compassion, and specific therapeutic interventions in psychotherapy for patients with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). This exploratory study included a total of N = 17 patients with NPD undergoing long-term clarification-oriented psychotherapy. Their mean age was 39 years, and 10 were male. On average, treatments were 64 sessions long (range between 45 and 99). Sessions 25 and 36 were rated using the Classification of Affective Meaning States and the Process-Content-Relationship Scale. Outcome was assessed using the Symptom Check List-90 and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Between Sessions 25 and 36, a small decrease in the frequency of shame was found (d = .30). In Session 36, the presence of self-compassion was linked with a set of specific therapist interventions (process-guidance and treatment of behaviour-underlying assumptions; 51% of variance explained and adjusted). This study points to the possible central role of shame in the therapeutic process of patients with NPD. Hypothetically, one way of resolving shame is, for the patient, to access underlying self-compassion.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19T04:45:30.238894-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2160
       
  • Inhibitors and facilitators of compassion-focused imagery in personality
           disorder
    • Authors: Iona Naismith; Amanda Mwale, Janet Feigenbaum
      Abstract: BackgroundCompassion-focused therapy (CFT) has potential to benefit clients with a personality disorder (PD), given the inflated levels of shame and self-criticism in this population. However, clinical observation indicates that clients with PD may find techniques from this approach challenging.AimsThe aim of this study is to trial one aspect of CFT, compassion-focused imagery (CFI), with this population, and identify factors that predict clients' ability to generate CFI and experience self-compassion during the task, including type of CFI exercise and, second, to establish whether CFI outcomes increase with practice.MethodIn Study 1, 53 participants with a diagnosis of PD completed measures of self-compassion, self-reassurance, shame, self-criticism, fear of self-compassion, affect, anxious and avoidant attachment, and mental imagery abilities. Participants were assigned to trial CFI from memory (n = 25) or from imagination (n = 28), then rated their image's vividness, its compassionate traits, and ease of experiencing compassion. A negative mood manipulation was carried out, and CFI tasks and outcome measures were repeated. For Study 2, self-compassion and self-criticism were measured before and after 1 week of daily CFI practice.ResultsStudy 1 found that negative mood and low mental imagery ability are significant inhibitors to generating compassionate images and affect. The 2 CFI exercises were equally effective. Study 2 suffered from high attrition, but regular practice was associated with significant improvement in self-compassion (though not self-criticism).ConclusionsCFI appears to be effective in improving self-compassion for some clients. However, it is less effective in the presence of negative affect. Clients with low mental imagery ability may benefit more from alternative CFT techniques.
      PubDate: 2017-12-18T06:08:52.212619-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2161
       
  • How does routinely delivered cognitive–behavioural therapy for gambling
           disorder compare to “gold standard” clinical trial'
    • Authors: David P. Smith; A. Kate Fairweather-Schmidt, Peter W. Harvey, Malcolm W. Battersby
      Abstract: Currently, it is unknown whether treatment outcomes derived from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) for problem gamblers still hold when applied to patients seen in routine practice. Thus, data from an RCT of cognitive therapy versus exposure therapy for problem gambling versus patients of a gambling help service were compared. Assessments of problem gambling severity, psychosocial impairment, and alcohol use were undertaken at baseline and post-treatment and evaluated within a counterfactual framework. Findings showed that the contrast between routine CBT for pokies and horse betting had a significant effect, indicative of a 62% lower gambling urge score if routine CBT recipients had all been horse/track betters opposed to gambling with “pokies.” However, the majority of contrasts indicated therapeutic outcomes achieved in routine CBT treatments were of equivalent robustness relative to RCT conditions. The present findings infer routine practice treatment outcomes are as efficacious as those generated in RCT contexts.
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T04:54:07.556334-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2163
       
  • Metacognitive beliefs as a predictor of health anxiety in a self-reporting
           Italian clinical sample
    • Authors: Gabriele Melli; Robin Bailey, Claudia Carraresi, Andrea Poli
      Abstract: Research has supported the specific role that anxiety sensitivity, health-related dysfunctional beliefs, and metacognitive beliefs may play in the development and maintenance of health anxiety symptoms. However, the role of metacognitive beliefs in health anxiety has only been explored in analogue samples. The aim of this study was to explore for the first time the association between metacognitive beliefs and health anxiety symptoms in a sample of participants who reported having received a diagnosis of severe health anxiety (hypochondriasis) or illness anxiety disorder and test whether these beliefs are significant predictors of health anxiety after controlling for anxiety, depression, anxiety sensitivity, and dysfunctional beliefs. A series of dimensional self-report measures were administered to a large Italian sample (N = 458). At a bivariate level, Beliefs that Thoughts are Uncontrollable had a stronger association with health anxiety than any of the dysfunctional beliefs and anxiety sensitivity subscales. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that Beliefs that Thoughts are Uncontrollable predicted health anxiety symptoms over-and-above depression, general anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and health-related dysfunctional beliefs. Despite many important limitations, this study supported the hypothesis that metacognition may have an important role in health anxiety in clinical samples.KEY PRACTITIONER MESSAGEThe role of metacognitive beliefs in health anxiety is underexploredWe investigated their role over-and-above anxiety sensitivity and cognitive beliefsBeliefs that Thoughts are Uncontrollable seems to play the most important roleTargeting such a metacognitive belief may result in a reduction of health anxiety
      PubDate: 2017-12-11T01:43:09.11771-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2159
       
  • Late-adoptions in adolescence: Can attachment and emotion regulation
           influence behaviour problems' A controlled study using a moderation
           approach
    • Authors: Cecilia Serena Pace; Simona Di Folco, Viviana Guerriero
      Abstract: A growing body of research suggests that, compared to normative adolescence, adoptive adolescence could be considered a specific risk condition characterized by more psychiatric problems, attachment insecurity, and emotional regulation difficulties as consequences of negative experiences in preadoption relationships. The current study explores (a) a moderation model of adoption status on the association between attachment representations (secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and disorganized) and behavioural problems and (b) a moderation model of adoption status on the association between emotion regulation processes (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) and behavioural problems. Both the moderation models were controlled for verbal skills. Forty-six adopted adolescents and a control group of 34 nonadopted peers (12–16 years old) living with both their biological parents were assessed using the Friends and Family Interview, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents, the Child Behaviour Check List 6–18, and the verbal subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the latter as control measure. Results showed that adoption status (but not attachment) positively predicted externalizing and total behaviour problems, whereas attachment disorganization (but not adoption status) positively predicted internalizing problems in both group. Moreover, low cognitive reappraisal had a negative impact on externalizing problems only for adopted adolescents, but not for nonadopted youths. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed in order to enhance effective intervention with adopted adolescents and their parents.Key Practitioner MessageThe adoption status (but not attachment representations) was found to be predictive of externalizing and total behaviour problems, suggesting that attachment itself is not the only variable to take into account in explaining possible maladaptive outcomes in late-adopted adolescents. Nevertheless, disorganized attachment positively predicted internalizing problems, being a risk factor for both adopted and nonadopted adolescents.Only for late-adopted adolescents, higher cognitive reappraisal was negatively related with externalizing problems, suggesting that the functional and positive ability to cognitively restructure negative situations may help them to reduce impulsive negative reactions towards others. Both increasing cognitive reappraisal and decreasing expressive suppression may be considered as valuable goals of therapy with adopted adolescents and their parents.Late-adopted adolescents, compared to nonadopted peers, reported lower somatic complaints, suggesting that they may not allow themselves to show physical vulnerability as consequence of their early affective experiences of severe deprivation.Late-adopted adolescents, compared to nonadopted ones, reported higher level of expressive suppression strategies, which may be considered as an attempt to be compliant with the environment's requests in order to be loved, accepted, and nurtured
      PubDate: 2017-11-28T23:45:31.1199-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2158
       
  • What psychologists need to know about psychotropic medications
    • Authors: Elena Tomba; Jenny Guidi, Giovanni A. Fava
      Abstract: Despite the fact that today most of the patients with psychological disturbances assume some form of psychotropic drug treatment, clinical psychologists may have little familiarity with psychopharmacology and are substantially unaware of subtle and yet pervasive potential effects of medications in clinical presentations. In their training, psychologists are generally exposed, at best, to some general principles of drug action. Standard psychopharmacology textbooks tend to omit the subtle psychological changes that may occur during psychotropic drug treatment.Clinical pharmacopsychology consists of the application of clinical psychology to the full understanding of pharmacological effects. The domains of clinical pharmacopsychology encompass the clinical benefits of psychotropic drugs, the characteristics that predict responsiveness to treatment, the vulnerabilities induced by treatment (side effects, behavioural toxicity, iatrogenic comorbidity), and the interactions between drug treatment and psychological variables.The DSM-5 refers to a patient population that no longer exists: subjects who display various manifestations of psychological distress who do not receive any form of drug treatment for it.Any type of psychotropic drug treatment, particularly after long-term use, may increase the risk of experiencing additional psychopathological problems that do not necessarily subside with discontinuation of the drug. The changes may be persistent and not limited to a short phase, such as in the case of withdrawal reactions, and cannot be subsumed under the generic rubrics of adverse events or side effects.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T05:50:21.07005-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2154
       
  • The relationship between perceived organisational threat and compassion
           for others: Implications for the NHS
    • Authors: Lauren Elizabeth Henshall; Tim Alexander, Philip Molyneux, Eric Gardiner, Ashleigh McLellan
      Abstract: The National Health Service (NHS) is known to be a challenging place to work, with financial and performance targets placing increasing pressure on the organisation. This study aimed to investigate whether these pressures and threats might be detrimental to the quality of care and the compassion that the NHS strives to deliver. Quantitative data were collected via self-report questionnaires from healthcare professionals across 3 NHS trusts in England in order to measure Self-compassion; Compassion for Others; Perceived Organisational Threat; and Perceived Organisational Compassion. Qualitative data were also collected to explore the threats considered most pertinent to healthcare professionals at present. The key findings suggest that an increase in Perceived Organisational Threat may reduce an individual's ability to give compassion to others; however, Self-compassion and Perceived Organisational Compassion were better predictors of Compassion for Others. This highlights the need to consider compassion at a systemic level, providing interventions and training not only to cultivate self-compassion in healthcare professionals, but also to encourage compassion across the NHS more generally. In promoting self-compassion and increasing the level of compassion that employees feel they receive at work, healthcare professionals may be better able to maintain or improve their level of compassion for service users and colleagues.Key Practitioner MessageIncreases in Perceived Organisational Threat were found to be related to a decrease in healthcare professionals' level of Compassion for Others.However, Self-compassion and Perceived Organisational Compassion were significantly better predictors of level of Compassion for Others than was Perceived Organisational Threat; an increase in Self-compassion and Perceived Organisational Compassion related to an increase in Compassion for Others.Healthcare service development and staff interventions may benefit from greater focus on cultivating and promoting self-compassion and on systemic interventions promoting compassion across all levels of an organisation.Future research should examine the feasibility and effectiveness of compassion-focussed interventions amongst professionals in healthcare organisations and would benefit from further investigation into the impact this may have for service users.
      PubDate: 2017-11-23T05:15:46.779961-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2157
       
  • If it is absurd, then why do you do it' The richer the obsessional
           experience, the more compelling the compulsion
    • Authors: Steffen Moritz; Christine Purdon, Lena Jelinek, Brenda Chiang, Marit Hauschildt
      Abstract: Mounting evidence suggests that obsessive intrusions are often accompanied and amplified by perceptual experiences of different modalities (e.g., feeling dirt on one's skin while experiencing intrusive thoughts about contamination). Pilot studies conducted online with individuals endorsing mild obsessive–compulsive symptoms have linked the co-occurrence of perceptual experiences and obsessions to the severity of subsequent compulsive behaviour as well as low insight. However, it is presently unclear whether sensory experiences accompany all types of obsessional thoughts or are restricted to certain preoccupations (e.g., contamination and aggression). The present study examined a clinical inpatient and outpatient sample with a formally diagnosed obsessive–compulsive disorder (N = 34). Perceptual properties of intrusive thoughts were assessed with the Sensory Properties of Obsessions Questionnaire. The prevalence of perception-laden obsessive thoughts was comparable with prior studies (73.5%), but the intensity was significantly greater. No association was observed between perceptual experiences and expert-rated insight. However, the severity of perception-laden obsessions predicted the frequency of and impairment associated with compulsive behaviour. This was particularly strong for obsessions about contamination. The present study confirms the high prevalence and clinical relevance of perceptual experiences that accompany obsessions and further challenges the traditional trichotomy splitting mental phenomena into thoughts, intrusions, and hallucinations.Key Practitioner MessageObsessive thoughts are often accompanied by perceptual experiences such as feeling dirt on one's skin or seeing blood before one's inner eye.Sensory experiences have been associated with decreased insight in obsessive–compulsive disorder.We found that 75% of obsessive–compulsive disorder patients have such sensory experiences.The severity of perceptual obsessions predicted low control over compulsions.Clinicians should not confuse sensory experiences with hallucinations and psychosis, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20T05:10:21.351111-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2155
       
  • Convergent, incremental, and criterion-related validity of multi-informant
           assessments of adolescents' fears of negative and positive evaluation
    • Authors: Jeremy N. Karp; Bridget A. Makol, Lauren M. Keeley, Noor Qasmieh, Danielle E. Deros, Justin W. Weeks, Sarah J. Racz, Melanie F. Lipton, Tara M. Augenstein, Andres De Los Reyes
      Abstract: Adolescents who experience social anxiety tend to hold fears about negative evaluations (e.g., taunting) and may also hold fears about positive evaluations (e.g., praise from a teacher). The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale and Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES) are 2 widely used measures of adults' evaluative concerns. Yet we know little about their psychometric properties when assessing adolescents. In a mixed clinical/community sample of 96 adolescents (66.7% female; M = 14.50 years, SD = 0.50; 63.3% African American), we examined both self-report and parent report versions of the BFNE and FPES. Adolescents and parents also provided reports about adolescents on survey measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms. Adolescents participated in multiple social interactions in which they self-reported their state arousal before and during the tasks. Adolescent and parent BFNE and FPES reports distinguished adolescents who displayed elevated social anxiety from those who did not. Both informants' reports related to survey measures of adolescent social anxiety, when accounting for domains that commonly co-occur with social anxiety (i.e., depressive symptoms). Further, both the BFNE and FPES displayed incremental validity in relation to survey measures of adolescent social anxiety, relative to each other. However, only adolescents' BFNE and FPES reports predicted adolescents' self-reported arousal within social interactions, and only adolescents' FPES displayed incremental validity in predicting self-reported arousal, relative to their BFNE. Adolescent and parent BFNE and FPES reports display convergent validity and in some cases incremental and criterion-related validity. These findings have important implications for evidence-based assessments of adolescents' evaluative concerns.
      PubDate: 2017-11-17T07:35:37.583197-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2156
       
  • The Pregnancy Related Beliefs Questionnaire (PRBQ): An examination of the
           psychometric properties in perinatal samples
    • Authors: Dawn M. Leach; Philip Terry, Ana V. Nikčević
      Abstract: BackgroundIdentifying vulnerability to perinatal depression is an important public health issue. Risk factors include general and maternal-specific dysfunctional attitudes. Scales of maternal attitudes have a number of shortcomings. Further, it is not known whether antenatal maternal attitudes predict post-natal depression, independently of general dysfunctional attitudes (GDA). The aim of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Pregnancy Related Beliefs Questionnaire (PRBQ) and to establish, prospectively, the utility of the revised PRBQ in predicting the symptoms of post-natal depression.MethodIn Study 1, a cross-sectional sample of 344 participants, who were either pregnant or in the post-natal period, completed a battery of questionnaires assessing background factors, GDA, attitudes specific to motherhood (PRBQ), and depression. In Study 2, a sample of 210 women completed a battery of questionnaires, including a measure of GDA, the PRBQ-8, and depression, on two occasions: early in the second trimester of pregnancy and post-natally.ResultsExploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a one-factor, eight-item measure of maladaptive attitudes specific to motherhood (PRBQ-8). The PRBQ-8 was found to have good convergent, concurrent, and predictive validity and high internal and test–retest reliability. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that antenatal PRBQ-8 scores predict the severity of post-natal depression symptoms, after controlling for background factors, antenatal depression, and GDA.ConclusionsThe PRBQ-8 is a psychometrically sound measure of maternal attitudes that can be used antenatally to identify women at risk of post-natal depression.Key Practitioner MessageThe PRBQ-8 is a valid and reliable measure of maladaptive maternal attitudes.The PRBQ-8 can help perinatal practitioners identify women who hold unhelpful beliefs regarding the maternal role.Assessing maladaptive maternal attitudes during pregnancy can help identify women who may be at risk of developing postnatal depression.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02T05:15:23.904195-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2149
       
  • The Anaclitic–Introjective Depression Assessment: Development and
           preliminary validity of an observer-rated measure
    • Authors: Felicitas Rost; Patrick Luyten, Peter Fonagy
      Abstract: BackgroundThe two-configurations model developed by Blatt and colleagues offers a comprehensive conceptual and empirical framework for understanding depression. This model suggests that depressed patients struggle, at different developmental levels, with issues related to dependency (anaclitic issues) or self-definition (introjective issues), or a combination of both.AimsThis paper reports three studies on the development and preliminary validation of the Anaclitic–Introjective Depression Assessment, an observer-rated assessment tool of impairments in relatedness and self-definition in clinical depression based on the item pool of the Shedler–Westen Assessment Procedure.MethodStudy 1 describes the development of the measure using expert consensus rating and Q-methodology. Studies 2 and 3 report the assessment of its psychometric properties, preliminary reliability, and validity in a sample of 128 patients diagnosed with treatment-resistant depression.ResultsFour naturally occurring clusters of depressed patients were identified using Q-factor analysis, which, overall, showed meaningful and theoretically expected relationships with anaclitic/introjective prototypes as formulated by experts, as well as with clinical, social, occupational, global, and relational functioning.ConclusionTaken together, findings reported in this paper provide preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the Anaclitic–Introjective Depression Assessment, an observer-rated measure that allows the detection of important nuanced differentiations between and within anaclitic and introjective depression.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23T02:30:24.592352-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2153
       
  • Impaired emotion processing and a reduction in trust in patients with
           somatic symptom disorder
    • Authors: Maja Erkic; Josef Bailer, Sabrina C. Fenske, Stephanie N. L. Schmidt, Jörg Trojan, Annette Schröder, Peter Kirsch, Daniela Mier
      Abstract: There is accumulating evidence for deficits in the perception and regulation of one's own emotions, as well as the recognition of others' emotions in somatic symptom disorder (SSD). However, investigations of SSD focusing on specific aspects of emotion processing and how these might interact are missing. We included 35 patients with SSD and 35 healthy controls who completed questionnaires on the perception and regulation of their own emotions, as well as experimental investigations of emotion recognition and trust. In line with previous studies, our results show that SSD patients in comparison to healthy controls have difficulties in the identification and description of own feelings (ηp2 = .381 and ηp2 = .315). Furthermore, we found that patients apply less cognitive reappraisal (ηp2 = .185) but tend to use more expressive suppression (ηp2 = .047). In contrast to previous studies, we found SSD patients to perform superior in emotion recognition, in particular for anger (d = 0.40). In addition, patients with SSD invested less in a trust game (d = 0.73). These results point to a higher sensitivity for negative emotions and less trust in others. Further, these findings suggest a dissociation between the ability to recognize one's own emotions versus others' emotions in SSD. Future interventions targeting emotion processing in SSD might focus on the identification of one's own emotions, prior to the training of emotion regulation.
      PubDate: 2017-10-18T03:25:34.236356-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2151
       
  • Corrective emotional experience in an integrative affect-focused therapy:
           Building a preliminary model using task analysis
    • Authors: Kaori Nakamura; Shigeru Iwakabe
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe present study constructed a preliminary process model of corrective emotional experience (CEE) in an integrative affect-focused therapy.MethodTask analysis was used to analyse 6 in-session events taken from 6 Japanese clients who worked with an integrative affect-focused therapist. The 6 events included 3 successful CEEs and 3 partially successful CEEs for comparison.ResultsA rational–empirical model of CEE was generated, which consisted of two parallel client change processes, intrapersonal change and interpersonal change, and the therapist interventions corresponding to each process. Therapist experiential interventions and therapist affirmation facilitated both intrapersonal and interpersonal change processes, whereas his relational interventions were associated with the interpersonal change process. The partially successful CEEs were differentiated by the absence of the component of core painful emotions or negative beliefs in intrapersonal change process, which seemed crucial for the interpersonal change process to develop.ConclusionsCEE is best represented by a preliminary model that depicts two parallel yet interacting change processes. Intrapersonal change process is similar to the sequence of change described by the emotional processing model (Pascual-Leone & Greenberg, ), whereas interpersonal change process is a unique contribution of this study. Interpersonal change process was facilitated when the therapist's active stance and use of immediacy responses to make their relational process explicit allowed a shared exploration. Therapist affirmation bridged intrapersonal change to interpersonal change by promoting an adaptive sense of self in clients and forging a deeper emotional connection between the two.Key Practitioner MessageIn-session corrective emotional experience consists of intrapersonal and interpersonal change processes.The intrapersonal change process involved experiencing adaptive emotions such as grief.The interpersonal change process involved the processing of the relational experience in which the therapist and the client explicitly discussed the immediate feelings towards each other and the meaning of a new relational experience in the here and now.Therapist active stance as well as therapist affirmation responses that validate and support client resilience and strength facilitated both intrapersonal and interpersonal change.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16T00:01:03.663716-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2150
       
  • Continuity between DSM-5 Section II and Section III personality traits for
           obsessive–compulsive personality disorder
    • Authors: Jacqueline Liggett; Martin Sellbom, Bo Bach
      Abstract: ObjectiveObsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is formally operationalized in Section II of the DSM-5 by a heterogeneous collection of 8 categorical criteria. Section III contains an alternative model operationalizing personality disorders via dimensional personality traits and associated impairment. The extent to which the personality traits used to define OCPD in Section III correspond with the Section II operationalization of the disorder is contested. The current study aims to contribute to the evidence base necessary to solidify the optimal trait profile for this disorder via a more fine-tuned examination of OCPD.MethodThe research questions were examined using a clinical sample of 142 Danish adults who completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 to index both the Sections II and III (personality traits) operationalizations of OCPD, respectively.ResultsBivariate correlations supported Rigid Perfectionism and Perseveration as traits relevant to OCPD; however, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that of the 4 traits used in the Section III operationalization of OCPD, only Rigid Perfectionism uniquely predicted OCPD (p 
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T06:35:48.868566-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2147
       
  • Anger and depressive ruminations as predictors of dysregulated behaviours
           in borderline personality disorder
    • Authors: Francesca Martino; Gabriele Caselli, Jessica Di Tommaso, Sandra Sassaroli, Marcantonio M. Spada, Barbara Valenti, Domenico Berardi, Anna Sasdelli, Marco Menchetti
      Abstract: BackgroundAnger and depressive ruminations have recently received empirical attention as processes related to borderline personality disorder (BPD). The Emotional Cascade Model (Selby, Anestis, & Joiner, 2008) suggests that negative affect (such as anger and sadness) may trigger rumination, which in turn may increase the duration and extent of negative affect, leading to dysregulated behaviours aimed at reducing such intense and unpleasant emotions.AimThe aim of this study is to explore the relationships between emotional dysregulation, anger and depressive ruminations, and their role in predicting dysregulated behaviours (such as aggression and self-harm) in a clinical sample of patients with BPD.MethodsNinety-one patients with a diagnosis of BPD were recruited from three outpatient community mental health centres and asked to complete a comprehensive assessment for personality disorder symptoms, emotion dysregulation, anger and depressive ruminations, aggression, and self-harm.ResultsAnger and depressive ruminations were found to be significantly associated to, respectively, self-harm and aggression, beyond the variance accounted by emotional dysregulation.ConclusionsRumination may act as a mediator between emotional dysregulation and dysregulated behaviours in BPD. Future research should examine whether clinical techniques aimed at reducing rumination may be helpful in reducing dysregulated behaviours in patients with BPD.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T06:25:25.937098-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2152
       
  • Therapeutic alliance in psychological therapy for people with
           schizophrenia and related psychoses: A systematic review
    • Authors: Lucy Shattock; Katherine Berry, Amy Degnan, Dawn Edge
      Abstract: Therapeutic alliance is a key predictor of therapy outcomes. Alliance may be particularly pertinent for people with schizophrenia as this group often have a history of interpersonal trauma and relationship difficulties including difficult relationships with mental health staff. This review aimed to determine (a) the quality of therapeutic alliance between people with schizophrenia and their therapists; (b) whether alliance predicts therapeutic outcomes; and (c) variables associated with alliance. Databases were searched from inception up to April 2015. The search yielded 4,586 articles, resulting in 26 eligible studies, involving 18 independent samples. Weighted average client and therapist Working Alliance Inventory-Short Form total scores were 64.51 and 61.26, respectively. There was evidence that alliance predicts overall psychotic symptomatic outcomes and preliminary evidence for alliance predicting rehospitalization, medication use, and self-esteem outcomes. There was evidence for specific client-related factors being linked to different perspectives of alliance. For example, poorer insight and previous sexual abuse were associated with worse client-rated alliance, whereas baseline negative symptoms were associated with worse therapist-rated alliance. Therapist and therapy-related factors, including therapists' genuineness, trustworthiness, and empathy were associated with better client-rated alliance, whereas suitability for therapy, homework compliance, and attendance were associated with better therapist-rated alliance. Key clinical implications include the need to consider alliance from both client and therapist perspectives during therapy and training and supervision to enhance therapist qualities that foster good alliance. Future research requires longitudinal studies with larger samples that include pan-theoretical, well-validated alliance measures to determine causal predictor variables.
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T11:32:43.034935-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2135
       
  • Fluctuations in alliance and use of techniques over time: A bidirectional
           relation between use of “common factors” techniques and the
           development of the working alliance
    • Authors: Nili Solomonov; Kevin S. McCarthy, Jack R. Keefe, Bernard S. Gorman, Mark Blanchard, Jacques P. Barber
      Abstract: ObjectiveThe aim of this study was twofold: (a) Investigate whether therapists are consistent in their use of therapeutic techniques throughout supportive–expressive therapy (SET) and (b) Examine the bi-directional relation between therapists' use of therapeutic techniques and the working alliance over the course of SET.MethodThirty-seven depressed patients were assigned to 16 weeks of SET as part of a larger randomized clinical trial (Barber, Barrett, Gallop, Rynn, & Rickels, ). Working Alliance Inventory-Short Form (WAI-SF) was collected at Weeks 2, 4, and 8. Use of therapeutic interventions was rated by independent observers using the Multitheoretical List of Therapeutic Interventions (MULTI). Intraclass correlation coefficients assessed therapists' consistency in use of techniques. A cross-lagged path analysis estimated the working alliance inventory- Multitheoretical List of Therapeutic Interventions bidirectional relation across time.ResultsTherapists were moderately consistent in their use of prescribed techniques (psychodynamic, process-experiential, and person-centred). However, they were inconsistent, or more flexible, in their use of “common factors” techniques (e.g., empathy, active listening, hope, and encouragements). A positive bidirectional relation was found between use of common factors techniques and the working alliance, such that initial high levels of common factors (but not prescribed) techniques predicted higher alliance later on and vice versa.ConclusionTherapists tend to modulate their use of common factors techniques across treatment. Additionally, when a strong working alliance is developed early in treatment, therapists tend to use more common factors later on. Moreover, high use of common factors techniques is predictive of later improvement in the alliance.
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T10:49:54.134812-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2143
       
  • Children's psychosocial functioning and parents' quality of life in
           paediatric short stature: The mediating role of caregiving stress
    • Authors: Neuza Silva; Monika Bullinger, Rachel Sommer, Anja Rohenkohl, Stefanie Witt, Julia Quitmann
      Abstract: ObjectivesOn the basis of the multidimensional model of the caregiving process, this study aimed (a) to compare the levels of quality of life (QoL) and psychological problems of children with short stature and the levels of caregiving stress and QoL of their parents, between diagnostic, treatment, and current height deviation groups, and (b) to examine the direct and indirect links, via caregiving stress, between children's psychosocial functioning and their parents' QoL.MethodThe sample was collected in 5 European countries and comprised 238 dyads of 8- to 18-year-old children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency or idiopathic short stature and one of their parents. The children completed self-report measures of height-related QoL (Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth Core Module) and psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire); the parents reported on their own QoL (EUROHIS-QOL-8 Index) and caregiving stress (Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth Effects on Parents subscale).ResultsChildren who were treated and who achieved normal height reported better QoL compared to those untreated and with current short stature. Parents of children with idiopathic short stature and current short stature presented greater caregiving stress than parents of children with growth hormone deficiency and achieved normal height. Children's better psychosocial functioning was indirectly associated with parents' better QoL, via less caregiving stress, and these links were invariant across diagnoses, treatment status, and current height deviation.ConclusionsThese results suggest that, along with growth hormone treatments, multidisciplinary interventions in paediatric endocrinology should be family-centred, by targeting both the children's psychosocial functioning and the parents' stress, in order to improve individual and family adaptation.Key Practitioner MessageHeight-related quality of life impairments and more internalizing problems in children and adolescents with short stature increase caregiving stress, which in turn has a negative impact on parents' quality of life, independently of patients' diagnosis, treatment status, and current height deviation.In addition to growth hormone treatment, multidisciplinary interventions in the context of paediatric short stature should target the children's and adolescents' psychosocial functioning, as well as provide the parents with cognitive and behavioural strategies to manage their child's physical, emotional, social, and behavioural problems.Caregiving stress should be routinely assessed and selected as a strategic intervention target for family-centred psychosocial interventions aimed at promoting parents' adaptation outcomes (e.g., quality of life).Psychosocial interventions should prioritize the children and adolescents who had never been treated with growth hormone and who have current short stature, as well as the parents of children with idiopathic short stature and current short stature.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T03:22:01.129245-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2146
       
  • Exploring the paths between dysfunctional attitudes towards motherhood and
           postpartum depressive symptoms: The moderating role of self-compassion
    • Authors: Ana Fonseca; Maria Cristina Canavarro
      Abstract: Better understanding how cognitive processes operate to influence women's depressive symptoms during the postpartum period is crucial for informing preventive and treatment approaches. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between women's dysfunctional attitudes towards motherhood and depressive symptoms, considering the mediating role of negative automatic thoughts and the moderating role of self-compassion. A sample of 387 women in the postpartum period cross-sectionally answered a set of questionnaires to assess dysfunctional attitudes towards motherhood, negative automatic thoughts (general and postpartum-specific), depressive symptoms, and self-compassion. Women with clinically significant depressive symptoms presented more dysfunctional attitudes towards motherhood, more frequent negative thoughts, and lower self-compassion. More dysfunctional beliefs about others' judgments and about maternal responsibility were associated with higher depressive symptoms, and this effect occurred through both general and postpartum-specific thoughts related to the metacognitive appraisal of the thought content. Moreover, these relationships occurred only when women presented low or moderate levels of self-compassion. These results highlight the need to comprehensively assess women's cognitive variables during the postpartum period with appropriate measures, for the early identification of women with more dysfunctional beliefs about motherhood, who may be at higher risk of depression. Moreover, preventive/treatment approaches should aim not only to challenge women's preexisting dysfunctional beliefs but also to promote a more self-compassionate attitude towards themselves.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T02:00:23.169327-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2145
       
  • Does an emotion-focused two-chair dialogue add to the therapeutic effect
           of the empathic attunement to affect'
    • Authors: Jan Reidar Stiegler; Helge Molde, Elisabeth Schanche
      Abstract: An increasing amount of research suggests that it is beneficial to work explicitly with emotions in psychotherapy. Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) utilizes interventions that are thought to enhance the evocativeness of emotional processing and facilitate explorations of new meaning. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of such an intervention on therapeutic outcome. The intervention, a two-chair dialogue drawn from emotion-focused therapy, was added to the treatment conditions that consisted of empathically following the clients' emotional processes. The treatment comprised 2 phases. Using a multiple baseline design, 21 self-critical clients (15 women and 6 men) with clinically significant symptoms of depression and/or anxiety first received 5, 7, or 9 sessions of a baseline treatment focused on alliance building, empathic attunement to affect, and therapeutic presence and genuineness. A two-chair dialogue intervention was then added for 5 sessions. The symptoms were measured before each session using Beck's Depression Inventory, Beck's Anxiety Index, and Forms of Self-Criticizing/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale. An analysis using Hierarchical Linear Modelling revealed that the phase with the two-chair dialogue had a larger impact on symptoms of anxiety and depression when compared to the baseline phase. On BDI-II, there was a greater impact on somatic-affective components than cognitive components. Self-criticism was reduced when we used time as a predictor for both phases but not significantly more after introducing the intervention. The results corroborate that the two-chair dialogue intervention is associated with change beyond what is shown when relationship conditions alone are being provided. Implications and limitations are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T01:55:24.474286-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2144
       
  • Developments on committed action: Validity of the CAQ-8 and analysis of
           committed action's role in depressive symptomatology in breast cancer
           patients and healthy individuals
    • Authors: Inês A. Trindade; Joana Marta-Simões, Cláudia Ferreira, José Pinto-Gouveia
      Abstract: Committed action, a process of acceptance and commitment therapy's psychological flexibility model, is considered an understudied construct that currently can only be measured by one instrument, the Committed Action Questionnaire (CAQ-8). This study aims at analysing the psychometric properties of the CAQ-8 in healthy individuals and breast cancer patients. This study also aims to explore the specific meditational role of committed action in the well-established relationship between experiential avoidance and depression symptoms.The healthy sample comprised 294 adults from the general population, and the breast cancer samples comprised 82 participants. Both groups completed the validated self-report measures. CAQ-8's robustness was examined through validity analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, and multigroup analysis. The meditational model was conducted using structural equation modelling.The CAQ-8 presented good internal consistency and construct, convergent, concurrent, and divergent validity in both samples. Further, the CAQ-8 showed incremental validity over a measure of engaged living. Findings also demonstrated measurement invariance between healthy individuals and breast cancer patients. Regarding the conducted meditational model that was also invariant between the two analysed groups, it was demonstrated that part of the effect that experiential avoidance holds on depressive symptomatology is explained by committed action.This study suggests that the CAQ-8 is adequate for use in healthy and cancer populations. Moreover, it provides novel, empirical support regarding the links between committed action, experiential avoidance, and depressed mood, being also the first investigation to particularly study committed action in a cancer population. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27T01:45:46.392333-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2125
       
  • Body image and nonsuicidal self-injury: Validation of the Body Investment
           Scale in participants with eating disorders
    • Authors: J. H. Marco; M. Cañabate, J. García-Alandete, G. Llorca, M. Real-López, M. Beltrán, S. Pérez
      Abstract: The Body Investment Scale (BIS) assesses body image feelings, body care, protection of the body, and comfort in touch, in order to identify and distinguish participants with self-harming and self-destructive tendencies. However, the psychometric properties of the BIS were not analysed in participants diagnosed with eating disorders. The main objective of the present study is to confirm the factor structure of the Spanish version of the BIS and analyse its psychometric properties in a sample composed of women diagnosed with eating disorders. Participants were 250 Spanish women between 12 and 60 years old (M = 26.05, SD = 11.97) diagnosed with eating disorders. A confirmatory factor analysis showed a poor fit of the original BIS. The final model showed an acceptable 4-factor structure (Body Feelings, α = .88; Body Touch, α = .82; Body Protection, α = .77; Body Care, α = .68), with a good fit to the data (SBχ2(246) = 393.21, CFI = .906, IFI = .908, RMSEA = .049). The relationships between the BIS and both the Purpose-In-Life Test—10 Items and Beck Hopelessness Scale were analysed, as well as differences in the BIS score according to nonsuicidal self-injuries and suicidal ideation in the past year. The BIS is an appropriate instrument to assess the body investment dimension of body image in women with eating disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-09-18T20:45:47.381934-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2142
       
  • Does assimilation of problematic experiences predict a decrease in symptom
           intensity'
    • Authors: Isabel Morais Basto; William B. Stiles, Daniel Rijo, João Salgado
      Abstract: The assimilation model describes therapeutic change as an integration of experiences that had previously been problematic, distressing, avoided, or warded off. This study assessed whether assimilation was associated with treatment outcome in a sample of psychotherapeutic treatments for depression. Further, it assessed the direction of the association—whether increasing assimilation predicted decreases in symptom intensity or decreasing symptom intensity predicted increases in assimilation.MethodParticipants were 22 clients with mild to moderate depression drawn from a clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy with emotion-focused therapy. The direction of prediction between assimilation progress and changes in self-reported symptom intensity was assessed.ResultsThe assimilation progress was shown to be a better predictor of decreases in symptom intensity than the reverse.ConclusionThe results supported the assimilation model's suggestion that assimilation progress promotes decreases in symptom intensity in the treatment of clients with major depressive disorder.
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T23:15:31.180668-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2130
       
  • Do therapists' subjective variables impact on psychodynamic psychotherapy
           outcomes' A systematic literature review
    • Authors: Vittorio Lingiardi; Laura Muzi, Annalisa Tanzilli, Nicola Carone
      Abstract: BackgroundDespite growing attention to the general therapist effects in a wide range of clinical settings, little is known about the individual, cross-situational, and therapy–nonspecific variables that impact on the differential effectiveness of clinicians. The current study is a systematic review of the evidence relating to the influence of therapist's subjective characteristics on outcomes of psychodynamic psychotherapies.MethodA multistage and systematic search of articles published between 1987 and 2017 identified 30 relevant studies, which were organized into 6 areas according to the specific therapist's variable considered.ResultsTherapists' interpersonal functioning and skills showed the strongest evidence of a direct effect on treatment outcomes. Furthermore, there were preliminary evidence that therapists' attachment styles, their interpersonal history with caregivers, and their self-concept might affect outcomes through interaction effects with other constructs, such as technical interventions, patient's pathology, and therapeutic alliance. The high variability between studies on therapists' overall reflective or introspective abilities and personality characteristics suggested the need for more systematic research in these areas, whereas therapists' values and attitudes showed small effects on therapeutic outcome.ConclusionsThe present review clarifies how a deep examination of the contribution of therapists' subjective characteristics can help elucidate the complex association between relational and technical factors related to the outcome of psychodynamic treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T08:46:28.890889-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2131
       
  • Preschool children's response to behavioural parent training and parental
           predictors of outcome in routine clinical care
    • Authors: Lianne Veen-Mulders; Pieter J. Hoekstra, Maaike H. Nauta, Barbara J. Hoofdakker
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo investigate the effectiveness of behavioral parent training (BPT) for preschool children with disruptive behaviours and to explore parental predictors of response.MethodsParents of 68 preschool children, aged between 2.7 and 5.9 years, participated in BPT. We evaluated the changes in children's behaviour after BPT with a one group pretest–posttest design, using a waiting period for a double pretest. Outcome was based on parents' reports of the intensity and number of behaviour problems on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Predictor variables included parents' attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, antisocial behaviours, and alcohol use, and maternal parenting self-efficacy and disciplining.ResultsMother-reported child behaviour problems did not change in the waiting period but improved significantly after BPT (d = 0.63). High levels of alcohol use by fathers and low levels of maternal ineffective disciplining were each associated with somewhat worse outcome.ConclusionsBPT under routine care conditions clearly improves disruptive behaviours in preschool children. Mothers who consider themselves as inadequate in disciplining and mothers whose partners do not consume high levels of alcohol report the largest improvements.Key practitionerDisruptive behaviours in referred preschool children improve when parents follow behavioural parent training under routine care conditions.Behavioural parent training is useful to help parents experience fewer behaviours as troublesome.About one third of the parents for whom behavioural parent training was indicated never started the treatment.Clinicians are recommended to put additional effort in motivating and facilitating parents to actually participate in behavioural parent training.It may be useful to assess and treat problematic alcohol use in fathers before behavioural parent training.Behavioural parent training may be particularly effective when mothers perceive themselves as inadequate in disciplining.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T22:00:23.295421-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2117
       
  • Different aspects of emotional intelligence of borderline personality
           disorder
    • Authors: Mathell Peter; Arnoud R. Arntz, Theo Klimstra, Ad J.J.M. Vingerhoets
      Abstract: ObjectivesThe present study investigated deficiencies in different components of emotional intelligence in borderline personality disorder (BPD).MethodThe Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) were used to assess EI dimensions. BPD patients (N = 85; 69 women; M = 33.6 years) were compared with Cluster C personality disorder (PD) patients (N = 39; 23 women; M = 36.6 years) and nonpatients (N = 69; 44 women; M = 35.6 years).ResultsCompared to the Cluster C PD patients and the nonpatient group, BPD patients displayed only deficits in their ability to understand emotions as measured with the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. The Emotional Quotient Inventory only revealed deficits in stress management in BPD patients compared to Cluster C PD patients.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that BPD patients have the ability to regulate emotions effectively, but they subjectively experience deficits in emotion regulation and therefore may not use this ability when they need it.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T21:40:23.934087-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2126
       
  • How do women's partners view perinatal mental health services' A
           qualitative meta-synthesis
    • Authors: Billie Lever Taylor; Jo Billings, Nicola Morant, Sonia Johnson
      Abstract: ObjectivesPerinatal mental health difficulties are prevalent among women and can adversely affect their partners too. There is also increasing recognition that a woman's partner can play a vital role in relation to her perinatal mental health and should be supported and involved in decisions about her care. Yet it is unclear how services are experienced by the partners of women with perinatal mental health difficulties. This study aimed to synthesize qualitative evidence of partners' views of perinatal mental health care.MethodsA systematic search of 5 electronic databases identified 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The findings of these studies were synthesized using an approach based on meta-ethnography.ResultsSix themes were identified, namely, the marginalization and neglect of women's partners, an unmet need for information, partners' ambivalence about involvement and support, practical barriers to involvement, views about support for women's partners, and the impact on partners of the care women received.ConclusionsGiven the importance of women's partners in relation to perinatal mental health as well as to women's engagement with support and treatment outcomes, greater consideration should be given to their needs to ensure they feel well informed and involved in perinatal mental health care, rather than marginalized. However, professionals also need to challenge the barriers to involvement and support that women's partners face and consider the ways in which services may reinforce these barriers.KEY PRACTITIONER MESSAGEPartners of women with perinatal mental health difficulties play a vital role.However, they often feel uninformed and marginalized by services and professionals.They also face significant barriers to accessing support themselves or being more involved.Services and professionals may reinforce these barriers and need to challenge them.Further consideration must be given to the needs of women's partners.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T21:30:29.648295-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2133
       
  • Improving functional outcome in bipolar disorder: A pilot study on
           metacognitive training
    • Authors: Paula Haffner; Esther Quinlivan, Jana Fiebig, Lene-Marie Sondergeld, Elisa Sophie Strasser, Mazda Adli, Steffen Moritz, Thomas Josef Stamm
      Abstract: BackgroundEffective group psychological interventions in bipolar disorder are rare. In this study, we present “metacognitive training (MCT) for bipolar disorder”—an adaption of a group intervention that has proven effective in other severe psychiatric disorders. MCT is a structured, interactive approach that addresses cognitive biases, social cognition, and self-esteem. In this pilot study, we investigated psychosocial functioning as primary outcome measure, as well as the feasibility of MCT and its acceptance among bipolar patients.MethodsThirty-four outpatients with bipolar disorder were recruited. Inclusion criteria were euthymia and psychosocial functioning with a score >11 assessed by the Functional Assessment Short Test. The subjects received eight weekly MCT sessions. Before and after the intervention, psychosocial functioning, quality of life (QoL), and patient views were assessed.ResultsPatients improved significantly in global psychosocial functioning, with a large effect size from baseline to post-treatment. Over the intervention period, patient QoL improved significantly in terms of their physical health, however not for other QoL subdomains. Treatment adherence was 80%, and patients' appraisal of the training was positive.LimitationsAs this study lacks a control group, it is not possible to ascertain whether the positive treatment effects are attributable to MCT. Additionally, it is unclear whether gains in psychosocial functioning would have been maintained long term.ConclusionsThis pilot trial conclusively shows that MCT is feasible and provides preliminary evidence for both the acceptance and efficacy of MCT. Further studies with larger samples and control condition will be necessary to build on these findings.
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T21:25:36.03683-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2124
       
  • Resilience to suicide ideation: A cross-cultural test of the buffering
           hypothesis
    • Authors: Paula Siegmann; Tobias Teismann, Nathalie Fritsch, Thomas Forkmann, Heide Glaesmer, Xiao Chi Zhang, Julia Brailovskaia, Jürgen Margraf
      Abstract: Depression and suicide ideation are common in student populations across the world. The present study investigated factors buffering the association between depression and suicide ideation. A total of 2,687 Chinese students and 601 German students took part in the investigation. Social support, satisfaction with life, self-efficacy, psychosocial stress resistance, and positive mental health were considered as resilience factors moderating the association between depressive symptoms and suicide ideation within both samples. Positive mental health moderated the impact of depressive symptoms on suicide ideation in German and Chinese students. Life satisfaction moderated the impact of depressive symptoms on suicide ideation in German students. Social support moderated the impact of depressive symptoms on suicide ideation in Chinese students. No interaction effects were found for self-efficacy and psychosocial stress resistance. Positive mental health, satisfaction with life, and perceived social support seem to confer resilience and should be taken into account, when assessing individuals for suicide risk.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T20:15:28.160669-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2118
       
  • The predictive value of early maladaptive schemas in paranoid responses to
           social stress
    • Authors: Johanna Sundag; Leonie Ascone, Tania M. Lincoln
      Abstract: BackgroundSocial stress and negatively valenced cognitive representations of the self (self-schemas) play an important role in the formation of delusions. However, it has not been investigated whether and which self-schemas explain paranoid responses to social stress. Building on the framework of schema theory, the aim of this study was thus to investigate whether more pronounced early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) were associated with increased paranoid ideation after a social stress induction in patients with persecutory delusions (PD).MethodPatients with PD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 40) were assessed for EMSs with the Young Schema Questionnaire. They were then exposed to a social stress situation in which they were socially excluded in a Cyberball paradigm. Prior to and after the social stress induction, paranoid symptoms were assessed.ResultsPatients with PD responded with a stronger increase in paranoia and revealed a significantly higher EMS total score compared to the healthy controls. As expected, higher increases in paranoia following the social stress were accounted for by higher EMS total scores. Exploratory analyses showed that particularly the specific EMSs Defectiveness/Shame and Enmeshment/Undeveloped Self were associated with the increase in paranoia.ConclusionsEMSs are associated with stress-related symptom increases in patients with PD. It thus seems worthwhile to further investigate the relevance of specific schemas for paranoia. The findings also suggest that addressing EMSs in psychological treatment of patients with PD holds potential.
      PubDate: 2017-08-25T02:30:23.079623-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2128
       
  • Social cognition and metacognition in social anxiety: A systematic review
    • Authors: Styliani Gkika; Anja Wittkowski, Adrian Wells
      Abstract: Cognitive–behavioural and metacognitive approaches to emotional disorder implicate beliefs in social anxiety, but the types of beliefs differ across these perspectives. Cognitive models suggest that social beliefs about the self (i.e., high standards and conditional and unconditional beliefs) are central. In contrast, the metacognitive model gives centre stage to metacognitive beliefs (i.e., positive and negative beliefs about thinking) as main contributors to the maintenance of the disorder. Despite an expanding research interest in this area, the evidence for such contributions has not yet been reviewed. This study set out to systematically review relevant cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental investigations of the direct and indirect (through cognitive processes, such as anticipatory processing, self-focused attention, the post-mortem, and avoidance) relationships of social and metacognitive beliefs with social anxiety. Clinical and nonclinical samples were included, and correlation and regression coefficients as well as results from group comparisons (e.g., t tests and analyses of variance) were extracted. Overall, 23 papers were located, through PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and reviewed using narrative synthesis. The results showed a robust positive relationship between social beliefs and social anxiety that appeared to be mediated by cognitive processes. Specific metacognitive beliefs were found to positively contribute to social anxiety both directly and indirectly, through cognitive processes. The study's findings are limited to 2 models of social anxiety and other minor limitations (e.g., grey literature was excluded). With these accounted for, the results are discussed in terms of the conceptualization and treatment of social anxiety and suggestions for future research are made.KEY PRACTITIONERS MESSAGESHigh standards and conditional and unconditional beliefs positively and significantly correlated with social anxiety.These relationships appeared to be affected by cognitive processes, such as anticipatory processing, self-focused attention, and post-mortem processing.Positive and negative metacognitive beliefs and beliefs about the need to control thoughts positively and significantly correlated with social anxiety.Metacognitive beliefs showed both direct and indirect (via cognitive processes) effects on social anxiety.The general methodological quality of the papers was moderate to very good.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24T03:25:28.243326-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2127
       
  • Reducing the time until psychotherapy initiation reduces sick leave
           duration in participants diagnosed with anxiety and mood disorders
    • Authors: Sandra Alonso; José H. Marco, Joaquín Andani
      Abstract: BackgroundSick leave in patients with a mental disorder is characterized by having a long duration. Studies suggest that the time until a patient on sick leave for a common mental health disorder initiates evaluation and treatment by a healthcare professional is an important factor in the duration of the sick leave. However, in these studies, the intervention was not performed by a mental health specialist. The aim of this study was to find out whether the length of sick leave was associated with the time before initiating psychotherapy, age, time until returning to work after psychotherapy ends, and duration of psychotherapy. In a further analysis, we examined whether the model composed of age, duration of psychotherapy, and time before initiating psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave.MethodThe sample consisted of 2,423 participants, 64.1% (n = 1,554) women and 35.9% (n = 869) men, who were on sick leave for anxiety disorders or depressive disorder.ResultsThe total duration of the sick leave of participants diagnosed with depression and anxiety was positively associated with the time before beginning psychotherapy. Time before beginning psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave when the variables age and duration of psychotherapy were controlled.ConclusionIt is necessary to reduce the time until beginning psychotherapy in people on sick leave for common mental disorders.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T02:40:23.193359-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2134
       
  • Are experiences of psychosis associated with unhelpful metacognitive
           coping strategies' A systematic review of the evidence
    • Authors: Rachel Sellers; Adrian Wells, Anthony P. Morrison
      Abstract: This review investigated whether unhelpful metacognitive coping strategies, such as attentional biases, worry, rumination, and thought control, are associated with experiences of psychosis. These processes, known collectively as the Cognitive Attentional Syndrome (CAS), form a central tenet of the Self-Regulatory Executive Function model. Three research questions based on assumptions underlying the CAS were addressed. It was predicted that processes of (a) self-focused processing, (b) negative perseverative thinking (worry and rumination), and (c) counterproductive thought control would be associated with experiences of psychosis. A comprehensive search of the literature identified 51 eligible studies: 17 investigated self-focused attention, 25 investigated perseverative processing (worry: n = 18; rumination: n = 10), and 9 investigated thought control strategies. Findings indicated that unhelpful metacognitive coping strategies associated with the CAS are related to experiences of psychosis and appear to share important relationships with distress. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.Key Practitioner MessageThe unhelpful coping strategies postulated by the Self-Regulatory Executive Function model, may have an important role in distressing experiences of psychosis.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23T02:35:40.894678-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2132
       
  • Early maladaptive schemas associated with dimensional and categorical
           psychopathology in patients with borderline personality disorder
    • Authors: Álvaro Frías; Sara Navarro, Carol Palma, Núria Farriols, Ferrán Aliaga, Ana Salvador, Elena Aluco, Bárbara Martínez, Laia Solves
      Abstract: ObjectiveTo ascertain the foundations for a schema-focused therapy model for the treatment of borderline personality disorder.MethodsThe sample consisted of 102 borderline personality disorder outpatients. Dimensional psychopathology was assessed using the Scale for Suicidal Ideation, the Aggression Questionnaire, and the Symptom CheckList Revised. Categorical psychopathology was measured using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders, Patient Edition. Stepwise linear/logistic multiple regression analyses were used to determine the predictive role of the schema domains tested by the Young Schema Questionnaire on both types of psychopathology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for those binary outcomes.ResultsRegarding dimensional psychopathology, disconnection/rejection predicted greater suicidal ideation (β = .39, p = .002), physical/overt aggressiveness (β = .27, p = .05), and psychotic-like symptoms, such as paranoid ideation (β = .35, p = .003). Other-directedness predicted greater anger/inner aggressiveness (β = .22, p = .05) and internalizing symptoms, such as phobic anxiety (β = .39, p = .001). Regarding categorical psychopathology, disconnection/rejection significantly predicted the presence of lifetime comorbidities with eating disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.99–1.24) and posttraumatic stress disorder (AOR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.04–1.3), resulting in a good balance of sensitivity/specificity, respectively (.97/.96 and .88/.89). Other-directedness significantly predicted the absence of lifetime comorbidity with substance-use disorders (AOR = .74, 95% CI = 0.57–0.95). These relationships remained significant after controlling for confounders (e.g., comorbidity with other personality disorders, clinical global severity).ConclusionsTwo schema domains, disconnection/rejection and other-directedness, were directly associated with dimensional and categorical psychopathology among borderline personality disorder patients. These findings provide further information about the foundations and target interventions when implementing schema-focused therapy on this population.
      PubDate: 2017-08-17T20:25:38.790612-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2123
       
  • Ambivalence and guilt feelings: Two relevant variables for understanding
           caregivers' depressive symptomatology
    • Authors: Andrés Losada; María Márquez-González, Carlos Vara-García, Laura Gallego-Alberto, Rosa Romero-Moreno, Karl Pillemer
      Abstract: Providing care for a relative with dementia is considered to be a chronic stressor that has been linked to negative mental health consequences for caregivers. A theoretical model was developed and tested to assess the degree to which ambivalence and guilt feelings contribute to caregivers' depressive symptomatology. Participants included 212 dementia family caregivers. In addition to ambivalence and guilt feelings, sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, and depressive symptomatology were assessed. Hypotheses derived from the stress and coping model were tested using path analysis. The analysed model showed an excellent fit to the data. In total, 35% of the variance in depressive symptomatology was explained by the assessed variables. Although significant correlations were obtained between frequency and appraisal of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia and depression, the obtained model suggests that this effect was mediated through ambivalence. In addition, ambivalence had an indirect effect on depression. The association of ambivalence with depression was explained through feelings of guilt; that is, respondents who reported ambivalent feelings were more likely to experience guilt, leading in turn to greater depressive symptomatology. The findings suggest that dementia caregivers' ambivalence and guilt feelings are relevant for understanding their depressive symptomatology. These factors should be addressed in psychological interventions with caregivers.
      PubDate: 2017-08-14T23:55:26.361213-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2116
       
  • The role of feared possible selves in obsessive–compulsive and related
           disorders: A comparative analysis of a core cognitive self-construct in
           clinical samples
    • Authors: Frederick Aardema; Richard Moulding, Gabriele Melli, Adam S. Radomsky, Guy Doron, Jean-Sebastien Audet, Magali Purcell-Lalonde
      Abstract: Increasingly, cognitive-behavioural models have been considering the role of beliefs about the self in the development and maintenance of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), including sensitive domains of self-concept and feared self-perceptions. This has led to the development of the Fear of Self Questionnaire (FSQ; Aardema et al., ), which has shown strong internal consistency, divergent and convergent validity, and found to be a major predictor of unwanted thoughts and impulses (i.e., repugnant obsessions). The current study aimed to investigate fear of self-perceptions using the FSQ in an OCD sample (n = 144) and related psychological disorders (eating disorders, n = 57; body dysmorphic disorder, n = 33) in comparison to a non-clinical (n = 141) and clinical comparison group (anxiety/depressive disorders, n = 27). Following an exploratory factor analysis of the scale in the OCD sample, the results showed that participants with OCD in general did not score significantly higher on fear of self-perceptions than did the clinical comparison participants. However, consistent with previous findings, fear of self was highly characteristic among OCD patients with unwanted repugnant thoughts and impulses. In addition, fear of self-perceptions were significantly more elevated in those with eating or body dysmorphic disorders relative to the other non-clinical and clinical groups. The construct of a “feared possible self” may be particularly relevant in disorders where negative self-perception is a dominant theme, either involving concerns about one's inner self or concerns related to perceived bodily faults.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T01:47:24.380563-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2121
       
  • A collaborative care skills workshop for carers: Can it be delivered in
           1 day'
    • Authors: Paul E. Jenkins; Sonia Bues, Julie Cottrell, Joel Hawkins, Laura Pinder, Susan Price, Anne Stewart
      Abstract: Carers of individuals with eating disorders (EDs) report high levels of burden and distress and describe a number of unmet needs. As a result, a number of interventions have been designed to support carers, including the “Maudsley eating disorder collaborative care skills workshops,” which comprise six 2-hr workshops delivered over 3 months for parents and carers of people with EDs. The current study aimed to test a proof-of-concept that this workshop could be effectively delivered in 1 day. An additional aim was to assess whether the workshop had direct effects on carer skills. A nonexperimental repeated measures research design was employed, giving measures before and after a 1-day workshop. Results suggested significant increases in carer self-efficacy and carer skills, with moderate to large effect sizes. Qualitative analyses supported these results whilst also generating ideas to improve the 1-day workshop.
      PubDate: 2017-08-07T04:35:22.090659-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2119
       
  • A randomized controlled trial comparing EMDR and CBT for
           obsessive–compulsive disorder
    • Authors: Zoe Marsden; Karina Lovell, David Blore, Shehzad Ali, Jaime Delgadillo
      Abstract: BackgroundThis study aimed to evaluate eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), by comparison to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) based on exposure and response prevention.MethodThis was a pragmatic, feasibility randomized controlled trial in which 55 participants with OCD were randomized to EMDR (n = 29) or CBT (n = 26). The Yale-Brown obsessive–compulsive scale was completed at baseline, after treatment and at 6 months follow-up. Treatment completion and response rates were compared using chi-square tests. Effect size was examined using Cohen's d and multilevel modelling.ResultsOverall, 61.8% completed treatment and 30.2% attained reliable and clinically significant improvement in OCD symptoms, with no significant differences between groups (p > .05). There were no significant differences between groups in Yale-Brown obsessive–compulsive scale severity post-treatment (d = −0.24, p = .38) or at 6 months follow-up (d = −0.03, p = .90).ConclusionsEMDR and CBT had comparable completion rates and clinical outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28T03:25:46.399028-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cpp.2120
       
 
 
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