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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 873 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 394)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 171)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 210)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 127)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Acta Psychologica
  [SJR: 1.365]   [H-I: 73]   [22 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-6918
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • To neglect or integrate contingency information from outside the task
           frame, that is the question! Effects of depressed mood
    • Authors: R.M. Msetfi; N. Byrom; R.A. Murphy
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): R.M. Msetfi, N. Byrom, R.A. Murphy
      Evidence shows that there are individual differences in the extent to which people attend to and integrate information into their decisions about the predictive contingencies between events and outcomes. In particular, information about the absence of events or outcomes, presented outside the current task frame, is often neglected. This trend is particularly evident in depression, as well as other psychopathologies, though reasons for information neglect remain unclear. We investigated this phenomenon across two experiments (Experiment 1: N =157; Experiment 2: N =150) in which participants, scoring low and high in the Beck Depression Inventory, were asked to learn a simple predictive relationship between a visual cue and an auditory outcome. We manipulated whether or not participants had prior experience of the visual cue outside of the task frame, whether such experience took place in the same or different context to the learning task, and the nature of the action required to signal occurrence of the auditory outcome. We found that all participants were capable of including extra-task experience into their assessment of the predictive cue-outcome relationship in whatever context it occurred. However, for mildly depressed participants, adjacent behaviours and similarity between the extra-task experience and the main task, influenced information integration, with patterns of ‘over-integration’ evident, rather than neglect as we had expected. Findings are suggestive of over-generalised experience on the part of mildly depressed participants.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T14:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.003
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • On national flags and language tags: Effects of flag-language congruency
           in bilingual word recognition
    • Authors: Jonathan Grainger; Mathieu Declerck; Yousri Marzouki
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Jonathan Grainger, Mathieu Declerck, Yousri Marzouki
      French-English bilinguals performed a generalized lexical decision experiment with mixed lists of French and English words and pseudo-words. In Experiment 1, each word/pseudo-word was superimposed on the picture of the French or UK flag, and flag-word congruency was manipulated. The flag was not informative with respect to either the lexical decision response or the language of the word. Nevertheless, lexical decisions to word stimuli were faster following the congruent flag compared with the incongruent flag, but only for French (L1) words. Experiment 2 replicated this flag-language congruency effect in a priming paradigm, where the word and pseudo-word targets followed the brief presentation of the flag prime, and this time effects were seen in both languages. We take these findings as evidence for a mechanism that automatically processes linguistic and non-linguistic information concerning the presence or not of a given language. Language membership information can then modulate lexical processing, in line with the architecture of the BIA model, but not the BIA+ model.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T14:11:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Salivary secretion and disgust: A pilot study
    • Authors: Carmelo M. Vicario; Werner Sommer; Karolina A. Kuran; Robert D. Rafal
      Pages: 18 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Carmelo M. Vicario, Werner Sommer, Karolina A. Kuran, Robert D. Rafal
      Although a direct link has been established between self-experienced disgust and salivary secretion, it is unclear whether this physiological index is modulated by the social experience of disgust (i.e., exposure to the facial expression of disgust). We tested this issue in a pilot study by collecting salivary samples in a group of 20 healthy humans watching pictures of faces expressing disgust. Moreover, we tried to replicate previous evidence by testing saliva secretion in response to pictures of unpalatable (i.e., rotten) food and non-gustatory disgusting stimuli (i.e., disgusting insects). Overall, our analysis shows a general reduction of saliva secretion in response to disgust stimuli, compared to their positive counterparts, although further analyses for specific stimulus categories indicated that this difference was statistically significant only for food pictures. The non-significance of the face and insect categories might be due to insufficient power of our small sample. Overall, a general reduction of saliva secretion for different disgust-related stimuli suggests a shared mechanism of encoding, in line with theories of neural reuse.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T10:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Face inversion increases attractiveness
    • Authors: Helmut Leder; Juergen Goller; Michael Forster; Lena Schlageter; Matthew A. Paul
      Pages: 25 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Helmut Leder, Juergen Goller, Michael Forster, Lena Schlageter, Matthew A. Paul
      Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T10:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.005
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • The contribution of task-choice response selection to the switch cost in
           voluntary task switching
    • Authors: Baptist Liefooghe
      Pages: 32 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Baptist Liefooghe
      Mental flexibility not only enables us to switch between tasks but also to select the tasks we want to perform. The latter scenario is central to voluntary task switching, in which participants are free to select on each trial which task to perform. The present study argues that voluntary task switching also includes and additional component, namely task-choice response selection. Task-choice response selection refers to the whole chain of processes involved in the overt report or indication of the task that was selected by emitting an arbitrary response. Task-choice response selection is not required to voluntarily switch between tasks, but serves the measurement of participants' covert task selection. The results of two experiments indicate that the contribution of task-choice response selection to switch performance in voluntary task switching is substantial. It is proposed that task-choice response selection delays the top-down retrieval of task rules in voluntary task switching.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T10:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Crossmodal attentional control sets between vision and audition
    • Authors: Frank Mast; Christian Frings; Charles Spence
      Pages: 41 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Frank Mast, Christian Frings, Charles Spence
      The interplay between top-down and bottom-up factors in attentional selection has been a topic of extensive research and controversy amongst scientists over the past two decades. According to the influential contingent capture hypothesis, a visual stimulus needs to match the feature(s) implemented into the current attentional control sets in order to be automatically selected. Recently, however, evidence has been presented that attentional control sets affect not only visual but also crossmodal selection. The aim of the present study was therefore to establish contingent capture as a general principle of multisensory selection. A non-spatial interference task with bimodal (visual and auditory) distractors and bimodal targets was used. The target and the distractors were presented in close temporal succession. In order to perform the task correctly, the participants only had to process a predefined target feature in either of the two modalities (e.g., colour when vision was the primary modality). Note that the additional crossmodal stimulation (e.g., a specific sound when hearing was the secondary modality) was not relevant for the selection of the correct response. Nevertheless, larger interference effects were observed when the distractor matched both the stimulus of the primary as well as the secondary modality and this pattern was even stronger if vision was the primary modality than if audition was the primary modality. These results are therefore in line with the crossmodal contingent capture hypothesis. Both visual and auditory early processing seem to be affected by top-down control sets even beyond the spatial dimension.

      PubDate: 2017-05-31T10:30:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.011
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Motor imagery-based implicit sequence learning depends on the formation of
           stimulus-response associations
    • Authors: Sarah N. Kraeutner; Theresa C. Gaughan; Sarah N. Eppler; Shaun G. Boe
      Pages: 48 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Sarah N. Kraeutner, Theresa C. Gaughan, Sarah N. Eppler, Shaun G. Boe
      Implicit sequence learning (ISL) occurs without conscious awareness and is critical for skill acquisition. The extent to which ISL occurs is a function of exposure (i.e., total training time and/or sequence to noise ratio) to a repeated sequence, and thus the cognitive mechanism underlying ISL is the formation of stimulus-response associations. As the majority of ISL studies employ paradigms whereby individuals unknowingly physically practice a repeated sequence, the cognitive mechanism underlying ISL through motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of movement, remains unknown. This study examined the cognitive mechanisms of MI-based ISL by probing the link between exposure and the resultant ISL. Seventy-two participants underwent MI-based practice of an ISL task following randomization to one of four conditions: 4 training blocks with a high (4-High) or low (4-Low) sequence to noise ratio, or 2 training blocks with a high (2-High) or low (2-Low) sequence to noise ratio. Reaction time differences (dRT) and effect sizes between repeated and random sequences assessed the extent of learning. All groups showed a degree of ISL, yet effect sizes indicated a greater degree of learning in groups with higher exposure (4-Low and 4-High). Findings indicate that the extent to which ISL occurs through MI is impacted by manipulations to total training time and the sequence to noise ratio. Overall, we show that the extent of ISL occurring through MI is a function of exposure, indicating that like physical practice, the cognitive mechanisms of MI-based ISL rely on the formation of stimulus response associations.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T10:32:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Attentional interference is modulated by salience not sentience
    • Authors: Christopher J. Wilson; Alessandro Soranzo; Marco Bertamini
      Pages: 56 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Christopher J. Wilson, Alessandro Soranzo, Marco Bertamini
      Spatial cueing of attention occurs when attention is oriented by the onset of a stimulus or by other information that creates a bias towards a particular location. The presence of a cue that orients attention can also interfere with participants' reporting of what they see. It has been suggested that this type of interference is stronger in the presence of socially-relevant cues, such as human faces or avatars, and is therefore indicative of a specialised role for perspective calculation within the social domain. However, there is also evidence that the effect is a domain-general form of processing that is elicited equally with non-social directional cues. The current paper comprises four experiments that systematically manipulated the social factors believed necessary to elicit the effect. The results show that interference persists when all social components are removed, and that visual processes are sufficient to explain this type of interference, thus supporting a domain-general perceptual interpretation of interference.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T10:32:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Neural mechanisms underlying sound-induced visual motion perception: An
           fMRI study
    • Authors: Souta Hidaka; Satomi Higuchi; Wataru Teramoto; Yoichi Sugita
      Pages: 66 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Souta Hidaka, Satomi Higuchi, Wataru Teramoto, Yoichi Sugita
      Studies of crossmodal interactions in motion perception have reported activation in several brain areas, including those related to motion processing and/or sensory association, in response to multimodal (e.g., visual and auditory) stimuli that were both in motion. Recent studies have demonstrated that sounds can trigger illusory visual apparent motion to static visual stimuli (sound-induced visual motion: SIVM): A visual stimulus blinking at a fixed location is perceived to be moving laterally when an alternating left-right sound is also present. Here, we investigated brain activity related to the perception of SIVM using a 7T functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. Specifically, we focused on the patterns of neural activities in SIVM and visually induced visual apparent motion (VIVM). We observed shared activations in the middle occipital area (V5/hMT), which is thought to be involved in visual motion processing, for SIVM and VIVM. Moreover, as compared to VIVM, SIVM resulted in greater activation in the superior temporal area and dominant functional connectivity between the V5/hMT area and the areas related to auditory and crossmodal motion processing. These findings indicate that similar but partially different neural mechanisms could be involved in auditory-induced and visually-induced motion perception, and neural signals in auditory, visual, and, crossmodal motion processing areas closely and directly interact in the perception of SIVM.

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T08:54:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Effects of context and individual differences on the processing of taboo
    • Authors: Kiel Christianson; Peiyun Zhou; Cassie Palmer; Adina Raizen
      Pages: 73 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Kiel Christianson, Peiyun Zhou, Cassie Palmer, Adina Raizen
      Previous studies suggest that taboo words are special in regards to language processing. Findings from the studies have led to the formation of two theories, global resource theory and binding theory, of taboo word processing. The current study investigates how readers process taboo words embedded in sentences during silent reading. In two experiments, measures collected include eye movement data, accuracy and reaction time measures for recalling probe words within the sentences, and individual differences in likelihood of being offended by taboo words. Although certain aspects of the results support both theories, as the likelihood of a person being offended by a taboo word influenced some measures, neither theory sufficiently predicts or describes the effects observed. The results are interpreted as evidence that processing effects ascribed to taboo words are largely, but not completely, attributable to the context in which they are used and the individual attitudes of the people who hear/read them. The results also demonstrate the importance of investigating taboo words in naturalistic language processing paradigms. A revised theory of taboo word processing is proposed that incorporates both global resource theory and binding theory along with the sociolinguistic factors and individual differences that largely drive the effects observed here.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T09:00:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Looking at a contrast object before speaking boosts referential
           informativeness, but is not essential
    • Authors: Catherine Davies; Helene Kreysa
      Pages: 87 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 178
      Author(s): Catherine Davies, Helene Kreysa
      Variation in referential form has traditionally been accounted for by theoretical frameworks focusing on linguistic and discourse features. Despite the explosion of interest in eye tracking methods in psycholinguistics, the role of visual scanning behaviour in informative reference production is yet to be comprehensively investigated. Here we examine the relationship between speakers' fixations to relevant referents and the form of the referring expressions they produce. Overall, speakers were fully informative across simple and (to a lesser extent) more complex displays, providing appropriately modified referring expressions to enable their addressee to locate the target object. Analysis of contrast fixations revealed that looking at a contrast object boosts but is not essential for full informativeness. Contrast fixations which take place immediately before speaking provide the greatest boost. Informative referring expressions were also associated with later speech onsets than underinformative ones. Based on the finding that fixations during speech planning facilitate but do not fully predict informative referring, direct visual scanning is ruled out as a prerequisite for informativeness. Instead, pragmatic expectations of informativeness may play a more important role. Results are consistent with a goal-based link between eye movements and language processing, here applied for the first time to production processes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-20T09:18:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 178 (2017)
  • Post-error response inhibition in high math-anxious individuals: Evidence
           from a multi-digit addition task
    • Authors: M. Isabel Núñez-Peña; Elisabet Tubau; Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): M. Isabel Núñez-Peña, Elisabet Tubau, Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni
      The aim of the study was to investigate how high math-anxious (HMA) individuals react to errors in an arithmetic task. Twenty HMA and 19 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a multi-digit addition verification task and were given response feedback. Post-error adjustment measures (response time and accuracy) were analyzed in order to study differences between groups when faced with errors in an arithmetical task. Results showed that both HMA and LMA individuals were slower to respond following an error than following a correct answer. However, post-error accuracy effects emerged only for the HMA group, showing that they were also less accurate after having committed an error than after giving the right answer. Importantly, these differences were observed only when individuals needed to repeat the same response given in the previous trial. These results suggest that, for HMA individuals, errors caused reactive inhibition of the erroneous response, facilitating performance if the next problem required the alternative response but hampering it if the response was the same. This stronger reaction to errors could be a factor contributing to the difficulties that HMA individuals experience in learning math and doing math tasks.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T14:55:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Stimulus-response links and the backward crosstalk effect — A comparison
           of forced- and free-choice tasks
    • Authors: Christoph Naefgen; André F. Caissie; Markus Janczyk
      Pages: 23 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Christoph Naefgen, André F. Caissie, Markus Janczyk
      In dual-tasks, characteristics of Task 2 responses can already affect performance in the preceding Task 1. This is called the backward crosstalk effect (BCE). To account for the BCE, it has been suggested that the appearance of the Task 2 stimulus automatically projects activation onto the corresponding response through (transient or direct) stimulus-response (S-R) links. One way to investigate this claim is to compare the size of the BCE for tasks where S-R links are differently strong. To this end, we here compared BCEs for forced- vs. free-choice tasks, with the S-R links assumed to be stronger in the former than in the latter task. In Experiments 1 and 2, Task 1 was either forced-choice or free-choice and Task 2 always forced-choice, and in Experiment 3 this order was reversed. A BCE was observed in all experiments with the forced-choice tasks, but in response times it was smaller in Experiments 1 and 2 and absent in Experiment 3 with the free-choice task. However, in free-choice Task 1 responses, a bias towards selecting the response required in Task 2 was observed. These results suggest that the strength of S-R links plays a role in determining the size of the BCE. Relations to other studies and alternative explanations are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T15:25:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Where is the locus of the lowercase advantage during sentence reading?
    • Authors: Manuel Perea; Eva Rosa; Ana Marcet
      Pages: 30 - 35
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Manuel Perea, Eva Rosa, Ana Marcet
      While most models of visual word identification and reading posit that a word's visual codes are rapidly transformed onto case-invariant representations (i.e., table and TABLE would equally activate the word unit corresponding to “table”), a number of experiments have shown a lowercase advantage in various word identification and reading tasks. In the present experiment, we examined the locus of this lowercase advantage by comparing the pattern of eye movements when reading sentences in lowercase vs. uppercase. Each sentence contained a target word that was high or low in word-frequency. Overall, results showed faster reading times for lowercase than for uppercase sentences. More important, while the word-frequency effect was sizeable in the first-fixation durations on the target word, the lowercase advantage only arose in the gaze durations (i.e., the sum of durations of first-pass fixations on the target word, including refixations). Furthermore, we found an effect of word-frequency, but not of letter case, in the first-fixation duration on target words with multiple first-pass fixations. Taken together, these findings suggest that the lowercase advantage reflects operations that do not occur in the initial contact with the lexical entries.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T15:25:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Intentional switching in auditory selective attention: Exploring
           age-related effects in a spatial setup requiring speech perception
    • Authors: Josefa Oberem; Iring Koch; Janina Fels
      Pages: 36 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Josefa Oberem, Iring Koch, Janina Fels
      Using a binaural-listening paradigm, age-related differences in the ability to intentionally switch auditory selective attention between two speakers, defined by their spatial location, were examined. Therefore 40 normal-hearing participants (20 young, Ø 24.8years; 20 older Ø 67.8years) were tested. The spatial reproduction of stimuli was provided by headphones using head-related-transfer-functions of an artificial head. Spoken number words of two speakers were presented simultaneously to participants from two out of eight locations on the horizontal plane. Guided by a visual cue indicating the spatial location of the target speaker, the participants were asked to categorize the target's number word into smaller vs. greater than five while ignoring the distractor's speech. Results showed significantly higher reaction times and error rates for older participants. The relative influence of the spatial switch of the target-speaker (switch or repetition of speaker's direction in space) was identical across age groups. Congruency effects (stimuli spoken by target and distractor may evoke the same answer or different answers) were increased for older participants and depend on the target's position. Results suggest that the ability to intentionally switch auditory attention to a new cued location was unimpaired whereas it was generally harder for older participants to suppress processing the distractor's speech.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T15:25:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Using the model statement to elicit information and cues to deceit in
           interpreter-based interviews
    • Authors: Aldert Vrij; Sharon Leal; Samantha Mann; Gary Dalton; Eunkyung Jo; Alla Shaboltas; Maria Khaleeva; Juliana Granskaya; Kate Houston
      Pages: 44 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, Samantha Mann, Gary Dalton, Eunkyung Jo, Alla Shaboltas, Maria Khaleeva, Juliana Granskaya, Kate Houston
      We examined how the presence of an interpreter during an interview affects eliciting information and cues to deceit, while using a method that encourages interviewees to provide more detail (model statement, MS). A total of 199 Hispanic, Korean and Russian participants were interviewed either in their own native language without an interpreter, or through an interpreter. Interviewees either lied or told the truth about a trip they made during the last twelve months. Half of the participants listened to a MS at the beginning of the interview. The dependent variables were ‘detail’, ‘complications’, ‘common knowledge details’, ‘self-handicapping strategies’ and ‘ratio of complications’. In the MS-absent condition, the interviews resulted in less detail when an interpreter was present than when an interpreter was absent. In the MS-present condition, the interviews resulted in a similar amount of detail in the interpreter present and absent conditions. Truthful statements included more complications and fewer common knowledge details and self-handicapping strategies than deceptive statements, and the ratio of complications was higher for truth tellers than liars. The MS strengthened these results, whereas an interpreter had no effect on these results.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Facial biases on vocal perception and memory
    • Authors: Marilyn G. Boltz
      Pages: 54 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Marilyn G. Boltz
      Does a speaker's face influence the way their voice is heard and later remembered? This question was addressed through two experiments where in each, participants listened to middle-aged voices accompanied by faces that were either age-appropriate, younger or older than the voice or, as a control, no face at all. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated each voice on various acoustical dimensions and speaker characteristics. The results showed that facial displays influenced perception such that the same voice was heard differently depending on the age of the accompanying face. Experiment 2 further revealed that facial displays led to memory distortions that were age-congruent in nature. These findings illustrate that faces can activate certain social categories and preconceived stereotypes that then influence vocal and person perception in a corresponding fashion. Processes of face/voice integration are very similar to those of music/film, indicating that the two areas can mutually inform one another and perhaps, more generally, reflect a centralized mechanism of cross-sensory integration.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.013
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • The relation between working memory and language comprehension in signers
           and speakers
    • Authors: Karen Emmorey; Marcel R. Giezen; Jennifer A.F. Petrich; Erin Spurgeon; Lucinda O'Grady Farnady
      Pages: 69 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Karen Emmorey, Marcel R. Giezen, Jennifer A.F. Petrich, Erin Spurgeon, Lucinda O'Grady Farnady
      This study investigated the relation between linguistic and spatial working memory (WM) resources and language comprehension for signed compared to spoken language. Sign languages are both linguistic and visual-spatial, and therefore provide a unique window on modality-specific versus modality-independent contributions of WM resources to language processing. Deaf users of American Sign Language (ASL), hearing monolingual English speakers, and hearing ASL-English bilinguals completed several spatial and linguistic serial recall tasks. Additionally, their comprehension of spatial and non-spatial information in ASL and spoken English narratives was assessed. Results from the linguistic serial recall tasks revealed that the often reported advantage for speakers on linguistic short-term memory tasks does not extend to complex WM tasks with a serial recall component. For English, linguistic WM predicted retention of non-spatial information, and both linguistic and spatial WM predicted retention of spatial information. For ASL, spatial WM predicted retention of spatial (but not non-spatial) information, and linguistic WM did not predict retention of either spatial or non-spatial information. Overall, our findings argue against strong assumptions of independent domain-specific subsystems for the storage and processing of linguistic and spatial information and furthermore suggest a less important role for serial encoding in signed than spoken language comprehension.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • On the spatial specificity of audiovisual crossmodal exogenous cuing
    • Authors: Jae Lee; Charles Spence
      Pages: 78 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Jae Lee, Charles Spence
      It is generally-accepted that the presentation of an auditory cue will direct an observer's spatial attention to the region of space from where it originates and therefore facilitate responses to visual targets presented there rather than from a different position within the cued hemifield. However, to date, there has been surprisingly limited evidence published in support of such within-hemifield crossmodal exogenous spatial cuing effects. Here, we report two experiments designed to investigate within- and between-hemifield spatial cuing effects in the case of audiovisual exogenous covert orienting. Auditory cues were presented from one of four frontal loudspeakers (two on either side of central fixation). There were eight possible visual target locations (one above and another below each of the loudspeakers). The auditory cues were evenly separated laterally by 30° in Experiment 1, and by 10° in Experiment 2. The potential cue and target locations were separated vertically by approximately 19° in Experiment 1, and by 4° in Experiment 2. On each trial, the participants made a speeded elevation (i.e., up vs. down) discrimination response to the visual target following the presentation of a spatially-nonpredictive auditory cue. Within-hemifield spatial cuing effects were observed only when the auditory cues were presented from the inner locations. Between-hemifield spatial cuing effects were observed in both experiments. Taken together, these results demonstrate that crossmodal exogenous shifts of spatial attention depend on the eccentricity of both the cue and target in a way that has not been made explicit by previous research.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 177 (2017)
  • Goal neglect, fluid intelligence and processing speed: Manipulating
           instruction load and inter-stimulus interval
    • Authors: Matthew H. Iveson; Sergio Della Sala; Mike Anderson; Sarah E. MacPherson
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Matthew H. Iveson, Sergio Della Sala, Mike Anderson, Sarah E. MacPherson
      Goal maintenance is the process where task rules and instructions are kept active to exert their control on behavior. When this process fails, an individual may ignore a rule while performing the task, despite being able to describe it after task completion. Previous research has suggested that the goal maintenance system is limited by the number of concurrent rules which can be maintained during a task, and that this limit is dependent on an individual's level of fluid intelligence. However, the speed at which an individual can process information may also limit their ability to use task rules when the task demands them. In the present study, four experiments manipulated the number of instructions to be maintained by younger and older adults and examined whether performance on a rapid letter-monitoring task was predicted by individual differences in fluid intelligence or processing speed. Fluid intelligence played little role in determining how frequently rules were ignored during the task, regardless of the number of rules to be maintained. In contrast, processing speed predicted the rate of goal neglect in older adults, where increasing the presentation rate of the letter-monitoring task increased goal neglect. These findings suggest that goal maintenance may be limited by the speed at which it can operate.

      PubDate: 2017-03-18T11:40:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Conflict adaptation in positive and negative mood: Applying a
           success-failure manipulation
    • Authors: Stefanie Schuch; Jana Zweerings; Patricia Hirsch; Iring Koch
      Pages: 11 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Stefanie Schuch, Jana Zweerings, Patricia Hirsch, Iring Koch
      Conflict adaptation is a cognitive mechanism denoting increased cognitive control upon detection of conflict. This mechanism can be measured by the congruency sequence effect, indicating the reduction of congruency effects after incongruent trials (where response conflict occurs) relative to congruent trials (without response conflict). Several studies have reported increased conflict adaptation under negative, as compared to positive, mood. In these studies, sustained mood states were induced by film clips or music combined with imagination techniques; these kinds of mood manipulations are highly obvious, possibly distorting the actual mood states experienced by the participants. Here, we report two experiments where mood states were induced in a less obvious way, and with higher ecological validity. Participants received success or failure feedback on their performance in a bogus intelligence test, and this mood manipulation proved highly effective. We largely replicated previous findings of larger conflict adaptation under negative mood than under positive mood, both with a Flanker interference paradigm (Experiment 1) and a Stroop-like interference paradigm (Experiment 2). Results are discussed with respect to current theories on affective influences on cognitive control.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T08:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Location versus task relevance: The impact of differing internal focus of
           attention instructions on motor performance
    • Authors: Valerie Pelleck; Steven R. Passmore
      Pages: 23 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Valerie Pelleck, Steven R. Passmore
      Impaired performance while executing a motor task is attributed to a disruption of normal automatic processes when an internal focus of attention is used. What remains unclear is whether the specificity of internally focused task instructions may impact task performance. The present study assessed the implications of changing the attentional focus of novice and skilled golfers by measuring behavioural, neurophysiological and kinematic changes during a golf putting task. Over six blocks of ten putting trials each, attention was directed either externally (towards the target) or internally in one of two ways: 1) proximal (keeping the elbows extended and the hands gripping the putter); or 2) distal (keeping the weight evenly distributed between both legs) to the critical elements of the task. Results provided evidence that when novice participants use an internal focus of attention more closely associated with task performance that their: 1) execution; 2) accuracy; 3) variability of surface electromyography (sEMG) activity; and 4) kinematics of the putter movement are all adversely affected. Skilled golfers are much more resilient to changes in attentional focus, while all participants interpret a distal internal focus of attention similar to an external focus. All participants produced decreased activity in the muscle (tibialis anterior) associated with the distal (less task relevant) focus of attention even when the “internal” focus was on the lower extremity. Our results provide evidence that the skill level of the participant and the distance of the internal focus of attention from the key elements of a motor skill directly impact the execution, muscle activity, and movement kinematics associated with skilled motor task performance.

      PubDate: 2017-03-25T08:18:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Reaching reveals that best-versus-rest processing contributes to biased
           decision making
    • Authors: Nathan J. Wispinski; Grace Truong; Todd C. Handy; Craig S. Chapman
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Nathan J. Wispinski, Grace Truong, Todd C. Handy, Craig S. Chapman
      The study of human decision making has revealed many contexts in which decisions are systematically biased. These biases are particularly evident in risky decisions, characterized by choice outcomes that are probabilistic. One recently explored bias is the extreme-outcome rule: the tendency for participants to overvalue both the best and worst outcome when they learn about choice probabilities through trial and error (aka experience). Here we aimed to test whether the extreme-outcome rule arises in part from a disproportionate subjective weight on extreme values. Participants reached to choose between two options in a riskless task where each choice option always produced the same result. In contrast to the idea that the overvaluing of extreme outcomes results from participants overestimating the underlying choice probabilities (e.g. treating a 50% “worst” outcome as though it occurred 60% of the time), we find overvaluation of extreme outcomes even when they are not probabilistic. Particularly, we find strong evidence for overvaluation of the best outcome relative to all other outcomes in how participants enact their decision (reaction times and reaching movements), but no evidence for such overvaluation in participants' choice accuracy. Compared to the extreme-outcome rule, these results are more simply characterized in a framework where the “best” option is given a boost in processing relative to the “rest” of other available options.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T12:40:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Sample size bias in retrospective estimates of average duration
    • Authors: Andrew R. Smith; Shanon Rule; Paul C. Price
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Andrew R. Smith, Shanon Rule, Paul C. Price
      People often estimate the average duration of several events (e.g., on average, how long does it take to drive from one's home to his or her office). While there is a great deal of research investigating estimates of duration for a single event, few studies have examined estimates when people must average across numerous stimuli or events. The current studies were designed to fill this gap by examining how people's estimates of average duration were influenced by the number of stimuli being averaged (i.e., the sample size). Based on research investigating the sample size bias, we predicted that participants' judgments of average duration would increase as the sample size increased. Across four studies, we demonstrated a sample size bias for estimates of average duration with different judgment types (numeric estimates and comparisons), study designs (between and within-subjects), and paradigms (observing images and performing tasks). The results are consistent with the more general notion that psychological representations of magnitudes in one dimension (e.g., quantity) can influence representations of magnitudes in another dimension (e.g., duration).

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T09:47:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.008
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Eye-movement patterns during nonsymbolic and symbolic numerical magnitude
           comparison and their relation to math calculation skills
    • Authors: Gavin R. Price; Eric D. Wilkey; Darren J. Yeo
      Pages: 47 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Gavin R. Price, Eric D. Wilkey, Darren J. Yeo
      A growing body of research suggests that the processing of nonsymbolic (e.g. sets of dots) and symbolic (e.g. Arabic digits) numerical magnitudes serves as a foundation for the development of math competence. Performance on magnitude comparison tasks is thought to reflect the precision of a shared cognitive representation, as evidence by the presence of a numerical ratio effect for both formats. However, little is known regarding how visuo-perceptual processes are related to the numerical ratio effect, whether they are shared across numerical formats, and whether they relate to math competence independently of performance outcomes. The present study investigates these questions in a sample of typically developing adults. Our results reveal a pattern of associations between eye-movement measures, but not their ratio effects, across formats. This suggests that ratio-specific visuo-perceptual processing during magnitude processing is different across nonsymbolic and symbolic formats. Furthermore, eye movements are related to math performance only during symbolic comparison, supporting a growing body of literature suggesting symbolic number processing is more strongly related to math outcomes than nonsymbolic magnitude processing. Finally, eye-movement patterns, specifically fixation dwell time, continue to be negatively related to math performance after controlling for task performance (i.e. error rate and reaction time) and domain general cognitive abilities (IQ), suggesting that fluent visual processing of Arabic digits plays a unique and important role in linking symbolic number processing to formal math abilities.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T12:40:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Differential effects of phasic and tonic alerting on the efficiency of
           executive attention
    • Authors: Dariusz Asanowicz; Anna Marzecová
      Pages: 58 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Dariusz Asanowicz, Anna Marzecová
      The study examined how alerting and executive attention interact in a task involving conflict resolution. We proposed a tentative scenario in which an initial exogenous phasic alerting phase is followed by an endogenous tonic alerting phase, and hypothesized that these two processes may have distinct effects on conflict resolution. Phasic alerting was expected to increase the conflict, whereas tonic alerting was expected to decrease the conflict. Three experiments were conducted using different variants of the flanker task with visual alerting cues and varied cue-target intervals (SOA), to differentiate between effects of phasic alerting (short SOA) and tonic alerting (long SOA). The results showed that phasic alerting consistently decreased the efficiency of conflict resolution indexed by response time and accuracy, whereas tonic alerting increased the accuracy of conflict resolution, but at a cost in the speed of processing the conflict. The third experiment additionally showed that the effects of phasic alerting may be modulated by the psychophysical strength of alerting cues. Discussed are possible mechanisms that could account for the observed interactions between alerting and conflict resolution, as well as some discrepancies between the current and previous studies.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T12:40:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • The effect of modeled absolute timing variability and relative timing
           variability on observational learning
    • Authors: Lawrence E.M. Grierson; James W. Roberts; Arthur M. Welsher
      Pages: 71 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Lawrence E.M. Grierson, James W. Roberts, Arthur M. Welsher
      There is much evidence to suggest that skill learning is enhanced by skill observation. Recent research on this phenomenon indicates a benefit of observing variable/erred demonstrations. In this study, we explore whether it is variability within the relative organization or absolute parameterization of a movement that facilitates skill learning through observation. To do so, participants were randomly allocated into groups that observed a model with no variability, absolute timing variability, relative timing variability, or variability in both absolute and relative timing. All participants performed a four-segment movement pattern with specific absolute and relative timing goals prior to and following the observational intervention, as well as in a 24h retention test and transfers tests that featured new relative and absolute timing goals. Absolute timing error indicated that all groups initially acquired the absolute timing, maintained their performance at 24h retention, and exhibited performance deterioration in both transfer tests. Relative timing error revealed that the observation of no variability and relative timing variability produced greater performance at the post-test, 24h retention and relative timing transfer tests, but for the no variability group, deteriorated at absolute timing transfer test. The results suggest that the learning of absolute timing following observation unfolds irrespective of model variability. However, the learning of relative timing benefits from holding the absolute features constant, while the observation of no variability partially fails in transfer. We suggest learning by observing no variability and variable/erred models unfolds via similar neural mechanisms, although the latter benefits from the additional coding of information pertaining to movements that require a correction.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T12:40:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.013
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Approximate number sense correlates with math performance in gifted
    • Authors: Jinjing (Jenny) Wang; Justin Halberda; Lisa Feigenson
      Pages: 78 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Jinjing (Jenny) Wang, Justin Halberda, Lisa Feigenson
      Nonhuman animals, human infants, and human adults all share an Approximate Number System (ANS) that allows them to imprecisely represent number without counting. Among humans, people differ in the precision of their ANS representations, and these individual differences have been shown to correlate with symbolic mathematics performance in both children and adults. For example, children with specific math impairment (dyscalculia) have notably poor ANS precision. However, it remains unknown whether ANS precision contributes to individual differences only in populations of people with lower or average mathematical abilities, or whether this link also is present in people who excel in math. Here we tested non-symbolic numerical approximation in 13- to 16-year old gifted children enrolled in a program for talented adolescents (the Center for Talented Youth). We found that in this high achieving population, ANS precision significantly correlated with performance on the symbolic math portion of two common standardized tests (SAT and ACT) that typically are administered to much older students. This relationship was robust even when controlling for age, verbal performance, and reaction times in the approximate number task. These results suggest that the Approximate Number System is linked to symbolic math performance even at the top levels of math performance.

      PubDate: 2017-04-09T12:40:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.014
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • Connections are not enough for membership: Letter/non-letter distinction
           persists through phonological association learning
    • Authors: Andreas Schmitt; Cees van Leeuwen; Thomas Lachmann
      Pages: 85 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 176
      Author(s): Andreas Schmitt, Cees van Leeuwen, Thomas Lachmann
      In compound, hierarchical stimuli (also known as Navon figures), a Global Precedence Effect (GPE) can reliably be observed for both letters and non-letters. However, when presentation conditions sufficiently resemble those of reading, the GPE for letters has occasionally been found to disappear. We corroborate this effect in a study with a large group of participants. In addition, in-between two sessions, participants were trained in associating the non-letters with either phonological or non-phonological sounds. We reasoned that learning distinctive phonological associations might be akin to the acquisition of letter knowledge. This might eliminate the GPE also for the non-letters. However, the GPE persisted for the trained non-letters in both conditions. The large number of participants in this study revealed additional effects in the letter condition, which enabled further insights in the processing dissociation between letters and non-letter shapes.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T14:44:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.015
      Issue No: Vol. 176 (2017)
  • A dual systems account of visual perception: Predicting candy consumption
           from distance estimates
    • Authors: Dario Krpan; Simone Schnall
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Dario Krpan, Simone Schnall
      A substantial amount of evidence shows that visual perception is influenced by forces that control human actions, ranging from motivation to physiological potential. However, studies have not yet provided convincing evidence that perception itself is directly involved in everyday behaviors such as eating. We suggest that this issue can be resolved by employing the dual systems account of human behavior. We tested the link between perceived distance to candies and their consumption for participants who were tired or depleted (impulsive system), versus those who were not (reflective system). Perception predicted eating only when participants were tired (Experiment 1) or depleted (Experiments 2 and 3). In contrast, a rational determinant of behavior—eating restraint towards candies—predicted eating for non-depleted individuals (Experiment 2). Finally, Experiment 3 established that perceived distance was correlated with participants' self-reported motivation to consume candies. Overall, these findings suggest that the dynamics between perception and behavior depend on the interplay of the two behavioral systems.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T11:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • The spatial alignment of time: Differences in alignment of deictic and
           sequence time along the sagittal and lateral axes
    • Authors: Esther J. Walker; Benjamin K. Bergen; Rafael Núñez
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Esther J. Walker, Benjamin K. Bergen, Rafael Núñez
      People use space in a variety of ways to structure their thoughts about time. The present report focuses on the different ways that space is employed when reasoning about deictic (past/future relationships) and sequence (earlier/later relationships) time. In the first study, we show that deictic and sequence time are aligned along the lateral axis in a manner consistent with previous work, with past and earlier events associated with left space and future and later events associated with right space. However, the alignment of time with space is different along the sagittal axis. Participants associated future events and earlier events—not later events—with the space in front of their body and past and later events with the space behind, consistent with the sagittal spatial terms (e.g., ahead, in front of) that we use to talk about deictic and sequence time. In the second study, we show that these associations between sequence time and sagittal space are sensitive to person-perspective. This suggests that the particular space-time associations observed in English speakers are influenced by a variety of different spatial properties, including spatial location and perspective.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T11:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Vision of the body improves inter-hemispheric integration of tactile-motor
    • Authors: Luigi Tamè; Alex Carr; Matthew R Longo
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Luigi Tamè, Alex Carr, Matthew R Longo
      Sensory input from and motor output to the two sides of the body needs to be continuously integrated between the two cerebral hemispheres. This integration can be measured through its cost in terms of processing speed. In simple detection tasks, reaction times (RTs) are faster when stimuli are presented to the side of the body ipsilateral to the body part used to respond. This advantage – the contralateral-ipsilateral difference (also known as the crossed-uncrossed difference: CUD) – is thought to reflect inter-hemispheric interactions needed for sensorimotor information to be integrated between the two hemispheres. Several studies have shown that non-informative vision of the body enhances performance in tactile tasks. However, it is unknown whether the CUD can be similarly affected by vision. Here, we investigated whether the CUD is modulated by vision of the body (i.e., the stimulated hand) by presenting tactile stimuli unpredictably on the middle fingers when one hand was visible (i.e., either the right or left hand). Participants detected the stimulus and responded as fast as possible using either their left or right foot. Consistent with previous results, a clear CUD (5.8ms) was apparent on the unseen hand. Critically, however, no such effect was found on the hand that was visible (−2.2ms). Thus, when touch is delivered to a seen hand, the usual cost in processing speed of responding with a contralateral effector is eliminated. This result suggests that vision of the body improves the interhemispheric integration of tactile-motor responses.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T11:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Averted body postures facilitate orienting of the eyes
    • Authors: Bobby Azarian; George A. Buzzell; Elizabeth G. Esser; Alexander Dornstauder; Matthew S. Peterson
      Pages: 28 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Bobby Azarian, George A. Buzzell, Elizabeth G. Esser, Alexander Dornstauder, Matthew S. Peterson
      It is well established that certain social cues, such as averted eye gaze, can automatically initiate the orienting of another's spatial attention. However, whether human posture can also reflexively cue spatial attention remains unclear. The present study directly investigated whether averted neutral postures reflexively cue the attention of observers in a normal population of college students. Similar to classic gaze-cuing paradigms, non-predictive averted posture stimuli were presented prior to the onset of a peripheral target stimulus at one of five SOAs (100ms–500ms). Participants were instructed to move their eyes to the target as fast as possible. Eye-tracking data revealed that participants were significantly faster in initiating saccades when the posture direction was congruent with the target stimulus. Since covert attention shifts precede overt shifts in an obligatory fashion, this suggests that directional postures reflexively orient the attention of others. In line with previous work on gaze-cueing, the congruency effect of posture cue was maximal at the 300ms SOA. These results support the notion that a variety of social cues are used by the human visual system in determining the “direction of attention” of others, and also suggest that human body postures are salient stimuli capable of automatically shifting an observer's attention.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T11:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Beyond comparison: The influence of physical size on number estimation is
           modulated by notation, range and spatial arrangement
    • Authors: Tali Leibovich; Saja Al-Rubaiey Kadhim; Daniel Ansari
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Tali Leibovich, Saja Al-Rubaiey Kadhim, Daniel Ansari
      Can physical size affect number estimation? Previous studies have shown that physical size influences non-symbolic numerosity in comparison tasks (e.g. which of two dots is larger). The current study investigated the conditions under which physical size can affect numerosity estimation. We employed a line mapping task in order to avoid the context of comparison and the need to provide a verbal label to estimate a quantity. Adult participants were briefly presented with the digits 2–8 or groups of 2–8 dots in 3 different physical sizes and were asked to estimate the position of a presented numerosity on a vertical line from 0 to 10. Physical size affected number estimation only above the subitizing range (i.e., >4) and only for non-symbolic numbers (e.g. dot arrays). Presenting non-symbolic numbers as canonical arrangements (like on a game die) reduced the effect of the physical size in the counting range (5–9). Accordingly, we suggest that the effect of task-irrelevant physical size on performance is modulated by the ability of participants to provide an accurate estimate of number: when the estimated number is easier to perceive (i.e., subitizing range or canonical arrangements), the influence of the physical size is smaller compared to when it is more difficult to give an accurate estimate of number (i.e., counting range, random arrangement). By doing so, we describe the factors that modulate the effect of physical size on number processing and provide another example of the important role continuous properties, such as physical size, play in non-symbolic number processing.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T11:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • Have I grooved to this before? Discriminating practised and observed
           actions in a novel context
    • Authors: Dilini K. Sumanapala; Laurel A. Fish; Alex L. Jones; Emily S. Cross
      Pages: 42 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 175
      Author(s): Dilini K. Sumanapala, Laurel A. Fish, Alex L. Jones, Emily S. Cross
      Learning a new motor skill typically requires converting actions observed from a third-person perspective into fluid motor commands executed from a first-person perspective. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that during motor learning, the ability to discriminate between actions that have been observed and actions that have been executed is associated with learning aptitude, as assessed by a general measure of physical performance. Using a multi-day dance-training paradigm with a group of dance-naïve participants, we investigated whether actions that had been regularly observed could be discriminated from similar actions that had been physically practised over the course of three days, or a further set of similar actions that remained untrained. Training gains and performance scores at test were correlated with participants' ability to discriminate between observed and practised actions, suggesting that an individual's ability to differentiate between visual versus visuomotor action encoding is associated with general motor learning.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T11:24:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.02.008
      Issue No: Vol. 175 (2017)
  • An experimental investigation of breaking learnt habits with verbal
           implementation intentions
    • Authors: Aukje A.C.; Verhoeven Merel Kindt Colene Zomer Sanne Wit
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Aukje A.C. Verhoeven, Merel Kindt, Colene L. Zomer, Sanne de Wit
      The interplay between inflexible habits and flexible goal-directed control can be modelled in lab-settings using the slips-of-action task. In this task, participants are required to selectively respond to still-valuable outcomes while suppressing responding towards no-longer valuable outcomes, thereby overriding learned stimulus-response associations. Here we examined in the slips-of-action task whether learnt habits can be changed using a planning technique – so-called implementation intentions - whereby people instruct themselves to enact a certain behaviour (or not) in the presence of a specific critical stimulus. Such simple ‘if-then’ instructions have previously been shown to support behavioural change in real-life settings, possibly because people verbally create new stimulus-response associations. Across four experiments we manipulated the intrinsic value of the stimuli and outcomes in the slips-of-action task: abstract stimuli and outcomes (Experiment 1), snack food stimuli and outcomes (Experiment 2), or a combination of both types (Experiment 3–4). Implementation intentions improved the ability to suppress previously learnt responses towards no-longer-valuable abstract outcomes (Experiment 1 and 3). However, when snacks were used as outcomes (Experiment 2 and 4) no beneficial effect of implementation intentions versus goal intentions was observed. The slips-of-action task is thus sensitive to planning techniques under certain circumstances. Yet, the absence of effects when using snacks as outcomes implies the possible importance of its hedonic outcome value for implementation intentions' effectiveness, which warrants further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T10:21:57Z
  • Feature taxonomy: What type of features do children associate with
           categories and how do they fare in predicting category judgments?
    • Authors: Farah Mutiasari Djalal; Gert Storms; Eef Ameel; Tom Heyman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Farah Mutiasari Djalal, Gert Storms, Eef Ameel, Tom Heyman
      The present study investigates category intension in school-aged children and adults at two different levels of abstraction (i.e., superordinate and basic level) for two category types (i.e., artefacts and natural kinds). We addressed two critical questions: what kind of features do children and adults generate to define semantic categories and which features predict category membership judgment best at each abstraction level? Overall, participants generated relatively more entity features for natural kinds categories, compared to artefact categories, as well as for basic level categories, compared to superordinate categories. Furthermore, the results showed that older children and adults generated relatively more entity features than younger children. Finally, situation features play the most important role in the prediction of category judgments at both levels of abstraction. Theoretical implications and comparable results from previous studies are described in detail.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T10:21:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.009
  • The role of motor imagery in learning via instructions
    • Authors: Marijke Theeuwes; Baptist Liefooghe; Maarten De Schryver; Jan De Houwer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Marijke Theeuwes, Baptist Liefooghe, Maarten De Schryver, Jan De Houwer
      Learning via instructions and learning through physical practice are complementary pathways to obtain skilled performance. Whereas an initial task representation can be formed on the basis of instructions, physically practicing novel instructions leads to a shift in processing mode from controlled processing toward more automatic processing. This shift in processing mode is supposedly caused by the formation of a pragmatic task representation, which includes task parameters needed to attain skilled task execution. In between learning via instructions and physical practice, a third type of learning can be situated, motor imagery. Two experiments are reported that studied the extent to which motor imagery can enhance the application of novel instructions. A procedure was developed in which performance improvement after motor imagery could be measured for behavioral markers of processes underlying response selection (i.e., initiation time of a response sequence) and for behavioral markers of processes underlying movement execution (i.e., completion time of the response sequence). Our results suggest that whereas physical practice improves response selection and movement execution, motor imagery only improves response selection. We propose that motor imagery also leads to a shift in processing mode and to the formation of a pragmatic task representation, albeit a less detailed one as compared to the representation that is formed on the basis of physical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T10:21:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.002
  • Multiple priming instances increase the impact of practice-based but not
           verbal code-based stimulus-response associations
    • Authors: Christina U. Pfeuffer; Karolina Moutsopoulou; Florian Waszak; Andrea Kiesel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Christina U. Pfeuffer, Karolina Moutsopoulou, Florian Waszak, Andrea Kiesel
      Stimulus-response (S-R) associations, the basis of learning and behavioral automaticity, are formed by the (repeated) co-occurrence of stimuli and responses and render stimuli able to automatically trigger associated responses. The strength and behavioral impact of these S-R associations increases with the number of priming instances (i.e., practice). Here we investigated whether multiple priming instances of a special form of instruction, verbal coding, also lead to the formation of stronger S-R associations in comparison to a single instance of priming. Participants either actively classified stimuli or passively attended to verbal codes denoting responses once or four times before S-R associations were probed. We found that whereas S-R associations formed on the basis of active task execution (i.e., practice) were strengthened by multiple priming instances, S-R associations formed on the basis of verbal codes (i.e., instruction) did not benefit from additional priming instances. These findings indicate difference in the mechanisms underlying the encoding and/or retrieval of previously executed and verbally coded S-R associations.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T14:03:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.05.001
  • After-effects without monitoring costs: The impact of prospective memory
           instructions on task switching performance
    • Authors: Beat Meier; Alodie Rey-Mermet
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Beat Meier, Alodie Rey-Mermet
      In a prospective memory task, verbal instructions are used to define an appropriate target event as retrieval cue. This target event is typically part of an ongoing activity and is thus bivalent as it involves features relevant for both the prospective memory task and the ongoing task. Task switching research has demonstrated that responding to bivalent stimuli is costly and can slow down even subsequent performance. Thus, responding to prospective memory targets may also result in after-effects, expressed as slowed subsequent ongoing task performance. So far, ongoing task slowing has been mainly considered as a measure of strategic monitoring for the prospective memory cues. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether after-effects of responding to prospective memory targets contribute to this slowing. In four experiments, a prospective memory task was embedded in a task-switching paradigm and we manipulated the degree of task-set overlap between the prospective memory task and the ongoing task. The results showed consistent after-effects of responding to prospective memory targets in each experiment. Increasing task-set overlap increased the amount and longevity of the after-effects. Surprisingly, prospective memory retrieval was not accompanied by strategic monitoring. Thus, this study demonstrates that ongoing task slowing can occur in the absence of monitoring costs.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.010
  • Communicated beliefs about action-outcomes: The role of initial
           confirmation in the adoption and maintenance of unsupported beliefs
    • Authors: Toby D. Pilditch; Ruud Custers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Toby D. Pilditch, Ruud Custers
      As agents seeking to learn how to successfully navigate their environments, humans can both obtain knowledge through direct experience, and second-hand through communicated beliefs. Questions remain concerning how communicated belief (or instruction) interacts with first-hand evidence integration, and how the former can bias the latter. Previous research has revealed that people are more inclined to seek out confirming evidence when they are motivated to uphold the belief, resulting in confirmation bias. The current research explores whether merely communicated beliefs affect evidence integration over time when it is not of interest to uphold the belief, and all evidence is readily available. In a novel series of on-line experiments, participants chose on each trial which of two options to play for money, being exposed to outcomes of both. Prior to this, they were exposed to favourable communicated beliefs regarding one of two options. Beliefs were either initially supported or undermined by subsequent probabilistic evidence (probabilities reversed halfway through the task, rendering the options equally profitable overall). Results showed that while communicated beliefs predicted initial choices, they only biased subsequent choices when supported by initial evidence in the first phase of the experiment. Findings were replicated across contexts, evidence sequence lengths, and probabilistic distributions. This suggests that merely communicated beliefs can prevail even when not supported by long run evidence, and in the absence of a motivation to uphold them. The implications of the interaction between communicated beliefs and initial evidence for areas including instruction effects, impression formation, and placebo effects are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T02:17:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.006
  • Relational information moderates approach-avoidance instruction effects on
           implicit evaluation
    • Authors: Pieter Van Dessel; Jan De Houwer; Colin Tucker Smith
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Pieter Van Dessel, Jan De Houwer, Colin Tucker Smith
      Previous research demonstrated that instructions to approach one stimulus and avoid another stimulus can result in a spontaneous or implicit preference for the former stimulus. In the current study, we tested whether the effect of approach-avoidance instructions on implicit evaluation depends on the relational information embedded in these instructions. Participants received instructions that they would move towards a certain non-existing word and move away from another non-existing word (self-agent instructions) or that one non-existing word would move towards them and the other non-existing word would move away from them (stimulus-agent instructions). Results showed that self-agent instructions produced stronger effects than stimulus-agent instructions on implicit evaluations of the non-existing words. These findings support the idea that propositional processes play an important role in effects of approach-avoidance instructions on implicit evaluation and in implicit evaluation in general.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T15:25:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.016
  • Transfer of learned category-response associations is modulated by
    • Authors: Cai S. Longman; Fraser Milton; Andy J. Wills; Frederick Verbruggen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Cai S. Longman, Fraser Milton, Andy J. Wills, Frederick Verbruggen
      Although instructions often emphasize categories (e.g., odd number→left hand response) rather than specific stimuli (e.g., 3→left hand response), learning is often interpreted in terms of stimulus-response (S-R) bindings or, less frequently, stimulus-classification (S-C) bindings with little attention being paid to the importance of category-response (C-R) bindings. In a training-transfer paradigm designed to investigate the early stages of category learning, participants were required to classify stimuli according to the category templates presented prior to each block (Experiments 1–4). In some transfer blocks the stimuli, categories and/or responses could be novel or repeated from the preceding training phase. Learning was assessed by comparing the transfer-training performance difference across conditions. Participants were able to rapidly transfer C-R associations to novel stimuli but evidence of S-C transfer was much weaker and S-R transfer was largely limited to conditions where the stimulus was classified under the same category. Thus, even though there was some evidence that learned S-R and S-C associations contributed to performance, learned C-R associations seemed to play a much more important role. In a final experiment (Experiment 5) the stimuli themselves were presented prior to each block, and the instructions did not mention the category structure. In this experiment, the evidence for S-R learning outweighed the evidence for C-R learning, indicating the importance of instructions in learning. The implications for these findings to the learning, cognitive control, and automaticity literatures are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T15:25:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.004
  • Not that neglected! Base rates influence related and unrelated judgments
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Michał Białek
      It is claimed that people are unable (or unwilling) to incorporate prior probabilities into posterior assessments, such as their estimation of the likelihood of a person with characteristics typical of an engineer actually being an engineer given that they are drawn from a sample including a very small number of engineers. This paper shows that base rates are incorporated in classifications (Experiment 1) and, moreover, that base rates also affect unrelated judgments, such as how well a provided description of a person fits a stereotypical engineer (Experiment 2). Finally, Experiment 3 shows that individuals who make both types of assessments – though using base rates to the same extent in the former judgments – are able to decrease the extent to which they incorporate base rates in the latter judgments.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T14:55:26Z
  • On the efficiency of instruction-based rule encoding
    • Authors: Hannes Ruge; Tatjana Karcz; Tony Mark; Victoria Martin; Katharina Zwosta; Uta Wolfensteller
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Hannes Ruge, Tatjana Karcz, Tony Mark, Victoria Martin, Katharina Zwosta, Uta Wolfensteller
      Instructions have long been considered a highly efficient route to knowledge acquisition especially compared to trial-and-error learning. We aimed at substantiating this claim by identifying boundary conditions for such an efficiency gain, including the influence of active learning intention, repeated instructions, and working memory load and span. Our experimental design allowed us to not only assess how well the instructed stimulus-response (S-R) rules were implemented later on, but also to directly measure prior instruction encoding processes. This revealed that instruction encoding was boosted by an active learning intention which in turn entailed better subsequent rule implementation. As should be expected, instruction-based learning took fewer trials than trial-and-error learning to reach a similar performance level. But more importantly, even when performance was measured relative to the identical number of preceding correct implementation trials, this efficiency gain persisted both in accuracy and in speed. This suggests that the naturally greater number of failed attempts in the initial phase of trial-and-error learning also negatively impacted learning in subsequent trials due to the persistence of erroneous memory traces established beforehand. A single instruction trial was sufficient to establish the advantage over trial-and-error learning but repeated instructions were better. Strategic factors and inter-individual differences in WM span – the latter exclusively affecting trial-and-error learning presumably due to the considerably more demanding working memory operations – could reduce or even abolish this advantage, but only in error rates. The same was not true for response time gains suggesting generally more efficient task automatization in instruction-based learning.

      PubDate: 2017-04-23T14:55:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.04.005
  • Quantifying a threat: Evidence of a numeric processing bias
    • Authors: Karina Hamamouche; Laura Niemi Sara Cordes
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 177
      Author(s): Karina A. Hamamouche, Laura Niemi, Sara Cordes
      Humans prioritize the processing of threats over neutral stimuli; thus, not surprisingly, the presence of threats has been shown to alter performance on both perceptual and cognitive tasks. Yet whether the quantification process is disrupted in the presence of threat is unknown. In three experiments, we examined numerical estimation and discrimination abilities in adults in the context of threatening (spiders) and non-threatening (e.g., flowers) stimuli. Results of the numerical estimation task (Experiment 1) showed that participants underestimated the number of threatening relative to neutral stimuli. Additionally, numerical discrimination data reveal that participants' abilities to discriminate between the number of entities in two arrays were worsened when the arrays consisted of threatening entities versus neutral entities (Experiment 2). However, discrimination abilities were enhanced when threatening content was presented immediately before neutral dot arrays (Experiment 3). Together, these studies suggest that threats impact our processing of visual numerosity via changes in attention to numerical stimuli, and that the nature of the threat (intrinsic or extrinsic to the stimulus) is vital in determining the direction of this impact. Intrinsic threat content in stimuli impedes its own quantification; yet threat that is extrinsic to the sets to be enumerated enhances numerical processing for subsequently presented neutral stimuli.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T14:44:03Z
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