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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 918 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 441)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 205)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 246)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 149)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Eat, Sleep, Work     Open Access  
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Acta Psychologica
  [SJR: 1.365]   [H-I: 73]   [25 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-6918
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Effects of non-symbolic arithmetic training on symbolic arithmetic and the
           approximate number system
    • Authors: Jacky Au; Susanne M. Jaeggi; Martin Buschkuehl
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Jacky Au, Susanne M. Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl
      The approximate number system (ANS) is an innate cognitive template that allows for the mental representation of approximate magnitude, and has been controversially linked to symbolic number knowledge and math ability. A series of recent studies found that an approximate arithmetic training (AAT) task that draws upon the ANS can improve math skills, which not only supports the existence of this link, but suggests it may be causal. However, no direct transfer effects to any measure of the ANS have yet been reported, calling into question the mechanisms by which math improvements may emerge. The present study investigated the effects of a 7-day AAT and successfully replicated previously reported transfer effects to math. Furthermore, our exploratory analyses provide preliminary evidence that certain ANS-related skills may also be susceptible to training. We conclude that AAT has reproducible effects on math performance, and provide avenues for future studies to further explore underlying mechanisms - specifically, the link between improvements in math and improvements in ANS skills.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Cross-race correlations in the abilities to match unfamiliar faces
    • Authors: Eesha Kokje; Markus Bindemann; Ahmed M. Megreya
      Pages: 13 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Eesha Kokje, Markus Bindemann, Ahmed M. Megreya
      The other-race effect in face identification has been documented widely in memory tasks, but it persists also in identity-matching tasks, in which memory contributions are minimized. Whereas this points to a perceptual locus for this effect, it remains unresolved whether matching performance with same- and other-race faces is driven by shared cognitive mechanisms. To examine this question, this study compared Arab and Caucasian observers' ability to match faces of their own race with their ability to match faces of another race using one-to-one (Experiment 1) and one-to-many (Experiment 2) identification tasks. Across both experiments, Arab and Caucasian observers demonstrated reliable other-race effects at a group level. At an individual level, substantial variation in accuracy was found, but performance with same-race and other-race faces correlated consistently and strongly. This indicates that the abilities to match same- and other-race faces share a common cognitive mechanism.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • The influence of vision, touch, and proprioception on body representation
           of the lower limbs
    • Authors: Kayla D. Stone; Anouk Keizer; H. Chris Dijkerman
      Pages: 22 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Kayla D. Stone, Anouk Keizer, H. Chris Dijkerman
      Numerous studies have shown that the representation of the hand is distorted. When participants are asked to localize unseen points on the hand (e.g. the knuckle), it is perceived to be wider and shorter than its physical dimensions. Similar distortions occur when people are asked to judge the distance between two tactile points on the hand; estimates made in the longitudinal direction are perceived as significantly shorter than those made in the transverse direction. Yet, when asked to visually compare the shape and size of one's own hand to a template hand, individuals are accurate at estimating the size of their own hands. Thus, it seems that body representations are, at least in part, a function of the most prominent underlying sensory modality used to perceive the body part. Yet, it remains unknown if the representations of other body parts are similarly distorted. The lower limbs, for example, are structurally and functionally very different from the hands, yet their representation(s) are seldom studied. What does the body representation for the leg look like' And is leg representation dependent on which sense is probed when making judgments about its shape and size' In the current study, we investigated what the representation of the leg looks like in visually-, tactually-, and proprioceptively-guided tasks. Results revealed that the leg, like the hand, is distorted in a highly systematic manner. Distortions seem to rely, at least partly, on sensory input. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to systematically investigate leg representation in healthy individuals.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Examining the effect of state anxiety on compensatory and strategic
           adjustments in the planning of goal-directed aiming
    • Authors: James W. Roberts; Mark R. Wilson; Jessica K. Skultety; James L. Lyons
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): James W. Roberts, Mark R. Wilson, Jessica K. Skultety, James L. Lyons
      The anxiety-perceptual-motor performance relationship may be enriched by investigations involving discrete manual responses due to the definitive demarcation of planning and control processes, which comprise the early and late portions of movement, respectively. To further examine the explanatory power of self-focus and distraction theories, we explored the potential of anxiety causing changes to movement planning that accommodate for anticipated negative effects in online control. As a result, we posed two hypotheses where anxiety causes performers to initially undershoot the target and enable more time to use visual feedback (“play-it-safe”), or fire a ballistic reach to cover a greater distance without later undertaking online control (“go-for-it”). Participants were tasked with an upper-limb movement to a single target under counter-balanced instructions to execute fast and accurate responses (low/normal anxiety) with non-contingent negative performance feedback (high anxiety). The results indicated that the previously identified negative impact of anxiety in online control was replicated. While anxiety caused a longer displacement to reach peak velocity and greater tendency to overshoot the target, there appeared to be no shift in the attempts to utilise online visual feedback. Thus, the tendency to initially overshoot may manifest from an inefficient auxiliary procedure that manages to uphold overall movement time and response accuracy.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Who is more flexible'—Awareness of changing context but not working
           memory capacity modulates inhibitory control
    • Authors: Shan-Chuan Teng; Hsuan-Fu Chao; Yunn-Wen Lien
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Shan-Chuan Teng, Hsuan-Fu Chao, Yunn-Wen Lien
      The present study examines how a person's working memory capacity (WMC) and awareness of change in context influences modulating inhibitory control. Context was manipulated by changing the predictive validity of a prime to a following target (i.e., the proportion of prime repetition) across three phases in a single-prime negative priming task. The prime was a distractor for the following target when the proportion was 25% (in the first and third phases) and a useful cue when the proportion rose to 75% (in the second phase). Participants' WMCs were measured and whether they were aware of the change of the prime-repetition proportion was determined in interviews at the end of the experiment. We found that when the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) was short (Experiment 1), participants aware of the change of prime-repetition proportion showed a null negative priming effect when the contingency increased from 25% to 75%, and then rebooted the effect when it decreased back to 25%, thus indicating an ability to modulate inhibitory control as context varied. In contrast, the unaware participants kept inhibiting primes all the time. When SOA was long (Experiment 2), participants with awareness even showed a positive priming effect when the prime-repetition proportion increased. Surprisingly, participants' WMCs did not matter except for the conscious strategy used in the long-SOA condition. This is the first study simultaneously investigating how WMC and awareness can affect people's ability to modulate inhibitory control and reveals that awareness plays a more direct role in such modulation than does WMC.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Working memory cannot regulate overt emotional capture
    • Authors: Kimberly M. Wingert; Chris Blais; B. Hunter Ball; Gene A. Brewer
      Pages: 52 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Kimberly M. Wingert, Chris Blais, B. Hunter Ball, Gene A. Brewer
      Individual differences in working memory capacity partly arise from variability in attention control, a process influenced by negative emotional content. Thus, individual differences in working memory capacity should predict differences in the ability to regulate attention in emotional contexts. To address this hypothesis, a complex-span working memory task was modified so that negative arousing images or neutral images subtended the background during the encoding phase. Across three experiments, negative arousing images impaired working memory encoding relative to neutral images, resulting in impoverished symmetry span scores. Contrary to the primary hypothesis, individual differences in working memory capacity derived from three complex span tasks failed to moderate the effect of negative arousing images on working memory encoding across two large scale studies. Additionally, in Experiment 3, both negative and arousing images captured attention and were processed despite their incongruence with task goals which led to increased memory for the images in a subsequent recognition task. Implications for theories of working memory and attention control in emotional contexts will be discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Using more different and more familiar targets improves the detection of
           concealed information
    • Authors: Kristina Suchotzki; Jan De Houwer; Bennett Kleinberg; Bruno Verschuere
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Kristina Suchotzki, Jan De Houwer, Bennett Kleinberg, Bruno Verschuere
      When embedded among a number of plausible irrelevant options, the presentation of critical (e.g., crime-related or autobiographical) information is associated with a marked increase in response time (RT). This RT effect crucially depends on the inclusion of a target/non-target discrimination task with targets being a dedicated set of items that require a unique response (press YES; for all other items press NO). Targets may be essential because they share a feature - familiarity - with the critical items. Whereas irrelevant items have not been encountered before, critical items are known from the event or the facts of the investigation. Target items are usually learned before the test, and thereby made familiar to the participants. Hence, familiarity-based responding needs to be inhibited on the critical items and may therefore explain the RT increase on the critical items. This leads to the hypothesis that the more participants rely on familiarity, the more pronounced the RT increase on critical items may be. We explored two ways to increase familiarity-based responding: (1) Increasing the number of different target items, and (2) using familiar targets. In two web-based studies (n = 357 and n = 499), both the number of different targets and the use of familiar targets facilitated concealed information detection. The effect of the number of different targets was small yet consistent across both studies, the effect of target familiarity was large in both studies. Our results support the role of familiarity-based responding in the Concealed Information Test and point to ways on how to improve validity of the Concealed Information Test.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Effects of modality and repetition in a continuous recognition memory
           task: Repetition has no effect on auditory recognition memory
    • Authors: Azlina Amir Kassim; Rehan Rehman; Jessica M. Price
      Pages: 72 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Azlina Amir Kassim, Rehan Rehman, Jessica M. Price
      Previous research has shown that auditory recognition memory is poorer compared to visual and cross-modal (visual and auditory) recognition memory. The effect of repetition on memory has been robust in showing improved performance. It is not clear, however, how auditory recognition memory compares to visual and cross-modal recognition memory following repetition. Participants performed a recognition memory task, making old/new discriminations to new stimuli, stimuli repeated for the first time after 4–7 intervening items (R1), or repeated for the second time after 36–39 intervening items (R2). Depending on the condition, participants were either exposed to visual stimuli (2D line drawings), auditory stimuli (spoken words), or cross-modal stimuli (pairs of images and associated spoken words). Results showed that unlike participants in the visual and cross-modal conditions, participants in the auditory recognition did not show improvements in performance on R2 trials compared to R1 trials. These findings have implications for pedagogical techniques in education, as well as for interventions and exercises aimed at boosting memory performance.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Time flies faster under time pressure
    • Authors: Anne-Claire Rattat; Pauline Matha; Julien Cegarra
      Pages: 81 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Anne-Claire Rattat, Pauline Matha, Julien Cegarra
      We examined the effects of time pressure on duration estimation in a verbal estimation task and a production task. In both temporal tasks, participants had to solve mazes in two conditions of time pressure (with or without), and with three different target durations (30 s, 60 s, and 90 s). In each trial of the verbal estimation task, participants had to estimate in conventional time units (minutes and seconds) the amount of time that had elapsed since they started to solve the maze. In the production task, they had to press a key while solving the maze when they thought that the trial's duration had reached a target value. Results showed that in both tasks, durations were judged longer with time pressure than without it. However, this temporal overestimation under time pressure did not increase with the length of the target duration. These results are discussed within the framework of scalar expectancy theory.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Short-term effects on temporal judgement: Sequential drivers of interval
           bisection and reproduction
    • Authors: Jordan J. Wehrman; John H. Wearden; Paul Sowman
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Jordan J. Wehrman, John H. Wearden, Paul Sowman
      Our prior experiences provide the background with which we judge subsequent events. In the time perception literature one common finding is that providing participants with a higher percentage of a particular interval can skew judgment; intervals will appear longer if the distribution of intervals contains more short experiences. However, changing the distribution of intervals that participants witness also changes the short-term, interval-to-interval, sequence that participants experience. In the experiment presented here, we kept the overall distribution of intervals constant while manipulating the immediately-prior experience of participants. In temporal bisection, this created a noted assimilation effect; participants judged intervals as shorter given an immediately preceding short interval. In interval reproduction, there was no effect of the immediately prior interval length unless the prior interval had a linked motor command. We thus proposed that the immediately prior interval provided a context by which a subsequent interval is judged. However, in the case of reproduction, where a subsequent interval is reproduced, rather than seen, the effects of contextualization are attenuated.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Assessing the influence of sound parameters on crossmodal cuing in
           different regions of space
    • Authors: Jae Lee; Charles Spence
      Pages: 96 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Jae Lee, Charles Spence
      To date, crossmodal spatial cuing research has primarily investigated spatial attention modulated by the positioning of auditory cues, without addressing the question of the role played by sound parameters such as intensity change, waveform structure, or duration. Therefore in the present study, we investigated exogenous spatial cuing following the presentation of auditory cues having different intensity profiles (looming or receding), waveforms (triangular structured waveform or white noise), and durations (250 ms or 500 ms). Auditory cues were presented from one of four locations (front-left, front-right, rear-left, or rear-right). The participants had to make speeded elevation discrimination responses to visual targets presented from the front (on the left or right). The magnitude of the cuing effect was larger following the presentation of a structured looming auditory cue than a structured receding cue. On the other hand, there was no statistical difference between the magnitude of the cuing effect in the looming and in the receding intensity profiles when white noise cues were used. Such findings are consistent with previous reports. Furthermore, the magnitude of the cuing effect was larger when the cues were presented from the front than from the rear. On the contrary, other recent findings showed that the presentation of a 100 ms constant-intensity auditory cue exogenously oriented visual attention to the cued hemifield, regardless of whether the cues were presented from the front or rear. Therefore, the findings reported here demonstrated that sound parameters can modulate the exogenous orienting of crossmodal spatial attention.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Off the top of my head: Malleability and stability in natural categories
    • Authors: Tomás A. Palma; Ana Sofia Santos; Leonel Garcia-Marques
      Pages: 104 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Tomás A. Palma, Ana Sofia Santos, Leonel Garcia-Marques
      Previous research has found that category representations are highly malleable knowledge structures, varying widely across different contexts and individuals. However, it has also been found that such malleability does not apply equally to all types of category information. The present research further investigates the representational malleability versus stability of natural taxonomic categories. Using perceptual fluency as means to induce malleability, we explored whether malleability is moderated by the degree of typicality of category information. In the first experiment, we found that fluency-based malleability only occurs for non-typical category information. In follow-up experiments, we investigated the boundary conditions under which such fluency-based malleability occurs. Namely, in Experiment 2, we showed that the effect of fluency on non-typical features disappeared when there is a sensory modality mismatch between study and test phases. Finally, in Experiment 3, we demonstrated that this effect reappears in the modality mismatch condition when participants are given a response deadline. The implications of these findings to current theories of category representation and the perceptual fluency literature are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
  • Tool use produces a size illusion revealing action-specific perceptual
    • Authors: Jihyun Suh; Richard A. Abrams
      Pages: 10 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Jihyun Suh, Richard A. Abrams
      In four experiments, participants estimated the sizes of target objects that were either out of reach, or that could be reached by a tool (a stylus or laser pointer). Objects reachable with the aid of a tool were perceived to be smaller than identical objects without a tool. Participants' responses to questioning rule out demand characteristics as an explanation. This new size illusion may reflect a direct impact of tool use on perceived size, or it may stem from the effects of tool use on perceived distance. Both possibilities support action specific accounts of perception.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Dyslexia as a multi-deficit disorder: Working memory and auditory temporal
    • Authors: Leah Fostick; Hadas Revah
      Pages: 19 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Leah Fostick, Hadas Revah
      Dyslexia is difficulty in acquiring reading skills despite adequate intelligence and sufficient reading opportunities. Its origin is still under debate. Studies usually focus on a singular cause for dyslexia; however, some researchers argue that dyslexia reflects multiple deficits. Two of the abilities under investigation in dyslexia are working memory (WM) and auditory temporal processing (ATP). In order to better evaluate the relative roles of WM and ATP in dyslexia, in the present study, we tested the contribution of WM and ATP to different types of reading performance and phonological awareness in dyslexia, using a multidimensional approach. Seventy-eight adults with dyslexia and 23 normal-reading adults performed WM and ATP tasks, as well as reading and phonological awareness tests. Readers with dyslexia showed poorer performance on all tests. Both WM and ATP were significant predictors of reading performance and phonological awareness among participants with dyslexia. Dividing participants with dyslexia according to their performance level on WM and ATP tasks revealed group differences in reading and phonological awareness tests. Both WM and ATP contribute to dyslexia, and varying levels of difficulties in both of these abilities are observed among this population. This is strong evidence in favor of the multi-deficit approach in dyslexia, and suggests that researchers should consider this approach in future studies of dyslexia.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.010
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Reinstatement of instrumental actions in humans: Possible mechanisms and
           their implications to prevent it
    • Authors: A. Matías Gámez; Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa
      Pages: 29 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): A. Matías Gámez, Rodolfo Bernal-Gamboa
      The study of post-extinction recovery effects in humans has received significant attention. For instance, research on reinstatement has increased in the last decade. However, most of the studies focus on the return of fear responses. In the present experiments, we used a videogame task to explore the reinstatement of operant behavior in human participants. In Experiment 1, after participants learned to shoot at enemies, they received an extinction procedure that eliminated the shooting behavior. However, the mere reintroduction of the outcome reinstated the original response. Experiment 2 showed that the reinstatement of instrumental behavior is contextually modulated. Finally, in Experiment 3 we found that presenting a reminder for extinction attenuated the response recovery effect. The overall pattern of results suggests that reinstatement of voluntary actions in humans could be explained by an interference memory framework. In addition, the present data suggest that therapies that use brief reminders of therapeutic intervention could help prevent the reinstatement of unhealthy instrumental behaviors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.012
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Stimulus orientation and the first-letter advantage
    • Authors: Michele Scaltritti; Stéphane Dufau; Jonathan Grainger
      Pages: 37 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Michele Scaltritti, Stéphane Dufau, Jonathan Grainger
      A post-cued partial report target-in-string identification experiment examined the influence of stimulus orientation on the serial position functions for strings of five consonants or five symbols, with an aim to test different accounts of the first-letter advantage observed in prior research. Under one account, this phenomenon is driven by processing that is specific to horizontally arranged letter (and digit) strings. An alternative account explains the first-letter advantage in terms of attentional biases towards the beginning of letter strings. We observed a significant three-way interaction between stimulus type (letters vs. symbols), serial position (1–5), and orientation (horizontal vs. vertical) that was driven by a greater first-position advantage for letters than symbols when stimuli were presented horizontally compared with vertical presentation. These results provide support for the letter-specific processing account of the first-letter advantage, and further suggest that differences in visual complexity between letters and symbols play a minor role. Nevertheless, a first-position advantage for letters was observed in the vertical presentation condition, thus pointing to some role for attentional biases that operate independently of string orientation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • A biphasic effect of cross-modal priming on visual shape recognition
    • Authors: Sze Chai Kwok; Carlo Fantoni; Laura Tamburini; Lei Wang; Walter Gerbino
      Pages: 43 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Sze Chai Kwok, Carlo Fantoni, Laura Tamburini, Lei Wang, Walter Gerbino
      We used a cross-modal priming paradigm to evoke a biphasic effect in visual short-term memory. Participants were required to match the memorandum (a visual shape, either spiky or curvy) to a delayed probe (a shape belonging to the same category). In two-thirds of trials the sequence of shapes was accompanied by a task-irrelevant sound (either tzk or upo, cross-modally correspondent to spiky and curvy shape categories, respectively). The biphasic effect occurred when a congruent vs. incongruent sound was presented 200ms after the memorandum, while it did not occur when the sound was presented 200ms before or simultaneously with it. The biphasic pattern of recognition sensitivities was revealed by an interaction between cross-modal congruency and probe delay, such that sensitivity was higher for visual shapes paired with a congruent rather than incongruent sound with a 300-ms delay, while the opposite was true with a 1300-ms delay. We suggest that this biphasic pattern of recognition sensitivities was dependent on the task-irrelevant sound activating different levels of shape processing as a function of the relative timing of sound, memorandum, and probe.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.013
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Time course of inhibition of return in a spatial cueing paradigm with
    • Authors: Vivian Eng; Alfred Lim; Steve M.J. Janssen; Jason Satel
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Vivian Eng, Alfred Lim, Steve M.J. Janssen, Jason Satel
      Studies of endogenous and exogenous attentional orienting in spatial cueing paradigms have been used to investigate inhibition of return, a behavioral phenomenon characterized by delayed reaction time in response to recently attended locations. When eye movements are suppressed, attention is covertly oriented to central or peripheral stimuli. Overt orienting, on the other hand, requires explicit eye movements to the stimuli. The present study examined the time course of slowed reaction times to previously attended locations when distractors are introduced into overt and covert orienting tasks. In a series of experiments, manual responses were required to targets following central and peripheral cues at three different cue-target intervals, with and without activated oculomotor systems. The results demonstrate that, when eye movements are suppressed, behavioral inhibition is reduced or delayed in magnitude by the presence of a distractor relative to conditions without distractors. However, the time course of behavioral inhibition when eye movements are required remains similar with or without distractors.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.011
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Is sequence awareness mandatory for perceptual sequence learning: An
           assessment using a pure perceptual sequence learning design
    • Authors: Natacha Deroost; Daphné Coomans
      Pages: 58 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Natacha Deroost, Daphné Coomans
      We examined the role of sequence awareness in a pure perceptual sequence learning design. Participants had to react to the target's colour that changed according to a perceptual sequence. By varying the mapping of the target's colour onto the response keys, motor responses changed randomly. The effect of sequence awareness on perceptual sequence learning was determined by manipulating the learning instructions (explicit versus implicit) and assessing the amount of sequence awareness after the experiment. In the explicit instruction condition (n = 15), participants were instructed to intentionally search for the colour sequence, whereas in the implicit instruction condition (n = 15), they were left uninformed about the sequenced nature of the task. Sequence awareness after the sequence learning task was tested by means of a questionnaire and the process-dissociation-procedure. The results showed that the instruction manipulation had no effect on the amount of perceptual sequence learning. Based on their report to have actively applied their sequence knowledge during the experiment, participants were subsequently regrouped in a sequence strategy group (n = 14, of which 4 participants from the implicit instruction condition and 10 participants from the explicit instruction condition) and a no-sequence strategy group (n = 16, of which 11 participants from the implicit instruction condition and 5 participants from the explicit instruction condition). Only participants of the sequence strategy group showed reliable perceptual sequence learning and sequence awareness. These results indicate that perceptual sequence learning depends upon the continuous employment of strategic cognitive control processes on sequence knowledge. Sequence awareness is suggested to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for perceptual learning to take place.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Size congruity influences visual search via the target template
    • Authors: Kenith V. Sobel; Amrita M. Puri
      Pages: 66 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Kenith V. Sobel, Amrita M. Puri
      In numerical comparison experiments, participants are presented with two digits that vary in numerical and physical size, and they select the numerically (or physically) larger (or smaller) of the two digits. Response times are typically faster when numerical and physical size are congruent than when they are incongruent, which is called the size congruity effect (SCE). Although numerical size is unlikely to be a guiding feature in visual search, recent studies have nevertheless observed the SCE in the visual search paradigm. To explain this puzzling fact, we hypothesized that the incongruity between a target's numerical and physical size affects visual search primarily when an attended item is compared to the target template in visual short-term memory. In three experiments, participants searched for a target whose numerical and physical size were distinct from non-target distractors. The SCE and shallow search slopes in Experiment 1 suggest that the target's physical size captured attention, and only then did incongruent numerical size interfere with the response. Instructing participants to attend to physical size in Experiment 2 abolished the SCE, suggesting that participants did not analyze the target's numerical size when they could be confident that physical size was a reliable target cue. Presenting each of two possible target digits in blocks as in Experiment 3 enabled participants to load the visual features of shape and physical size into their target template, and once again the SCE was abolished. The three experiments show that the SCE in visual search can be reduced or eliminated by restricting the target template based on specific physical features and thus discouraging participants from analyzing the target's numerical size.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Prolonging the response movement inhibits the feed-forward motor program
           in the sustained attention to response task
    • Authors: Kyle M. Wilson; Neil R. de Joux; Kristin M. Finkbeiner; Paul N. Russell; Jenny R. Retzler; William S. Helton
      Pages: 75 - 84
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Kyle M. Wilson, Neil R. de Joux, Kristin M. Finkbeiner, Paul N. Russell, Jenny R. Retzler, William S. Helton
      Despite widespread use in clinical and experimental contexts, debate continues over whether or not the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) successfully measures sustained attention. Altering physical aspects of the response movement required to SART stimuli may help identify whether performance is a better measure of perceptual decoupling, or response strategies and motor inhibition. Participants completed a SART where they had to manually move a mouse cursor to respond to stimuli, and another SART where this extra movement was not required, as in a typical SART. Additionally, stimuli were located at either a close or a far distance away. Commission errors were inversely related to distance in the manual movement condition, as the farther distance led to longer response times which gave participants more time to inhibit prepotent responses and thus prevent commission errors. Self-reported measures of mental demand and fatigue suggested there were no differences in mental demands between the manual and automatic condition; instead the differences were primarily in physical demands. No differences were found for task-unrelated thoughts between the manual and automatic condition. The movement effect combined with participants' subjective reports are evidence for time dependent action stopping, not greater cognitive engagement. These findings support a response strategy perspective as opposed to a perceptual decoupling perspective, and have implications for authors considering using the SART. Applied implications of this research are also discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Neuroticism, schizotypy, and scale anchors influence eye movement
    • Authors: Alison Simpson; Nicole A. Thomas
      Pages: 85 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Alison Simpson, Nicole A. Thomas
      The same piece of artwork can attract both admiration and rejection from different people. One potential explanation for this effect is individual differences in perceptual biases, which influence the way in which we see different aspects of the same image. We explored the relationship between individual differences (i.e., personality) and eye movements for examinations of abstract art. Images were presented for 5000ms, after which participants judged aesthetic appeal and perceived value using visual analogue scales. Scale anchor labels (Looks Good/Looks Bad; $0/$5000) were counterbalanced between participants such that positive labels were on the left half of the time and on the right half of the time. Overall, more fixations occurred to the right and upper visual fields. Neuroticism significantly predicted the proportion of fixations to the left, whereas cognitive disorganisation negatively predicted the proportion of fixations to upper space. Participants found images more aesthetically pleasing and more valuable when positive anchors were on the left. Findings demonstrate that personality traits influence fixation patterns. Further, the positioning of positive anchor labels on the left leads to higher ratings of visual stimuli.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.008
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2018)
  • Different patterns of modality dominance across development
    • Authors: Wesley R. Barnhart; Samuel Rivera; Christopher W. Robinson
      Pages: 154 - 165
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Wesley R. Barnhart, Samuel Rivera, Christopher W. Robinson
      The present study sought to better understand how children, young adults, and older adults attend and respond to multisensory information. In Experiment 1, young adults were presented with two spoken words, two pictures, or two word-picture pairings and they had to determine if the two stimuli/pairings were exactly the same or different. Pairing the words and pictures together slowed down visual but not auditory response times and delayed the latency of first fixations, both of which are consistent with a proposed mechanism underlying auditory dominance. Experiment 2 examined the development of modality dominance in children, young adults, and older adults. Cross-modal presentation attenuated visual accuracy and slowed down visual response times in children, whereas older adults showed the opposite pattern, with cross-modal presentation attenuating auditory accuracy and slowing down auditory response times. Cross-modal presentation also delayed first fixations in children and young adults. Mechanisms underlying modality dominance and multisensory processing are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.017
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2018)
  • Saliency modulates affective evaluations but not behavioral responses in
           the ultimatum game
    • Authors: Cuizhen Liu; Jingwen Chai; Rongjun Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Cuizhen Liu, Jingwen Chai, Rongjun Yu
      Although numerous studies have demonstrated that the saliency of perceptual information guides attention, the effect of perceptual saliency in high-level social situations remains unclear. Here, in a modified ultimatum game that included both gain and loss sharing, we highlighted either the fairness (fair or unfair) or the valence (gain or loss) aspect of a proposed offer using salient background colors with social meanings. The results showed that emotional responses to proposed offers were influenced by visual saliency. Specifically, individuals felt more dissatisfied about unfair (as opposed to fair) offers when fairness was emphasized than when valence was emphasized or no emphasis; and similarly, individuals felt more dissatisfied about loss situations compared to gain situations when valence was emphasized than when fairness was emphasized or no emphasis. However, this attentional modulation of social information led to changes only on affective responses but not on actual behavioral responses. Our findings indicate that attentional modulation of social information has a profound impact on affective evaluation by changing how information is weighed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.004
  • Further evidence for functional differences between guessing versus
           choosing an upcoming task
    • Authors: Thomas Kleinsorge; Juliane Scheil
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 183
      Author(s): Thomas Kleinsorge, Juliane Scheil
      We replicated and extended previous evidence regarding functional differences between guessing versus choosing an upcoming task. Participants switched among four tasks and were asked to predict the upcoming task on each trial. These predictions were instructed to participants as either ‘guessing’ or ‘choosing’. Furthermore, we varied the proportion of trials in which the presented task conformed to participants' predictions on three levels. Whereas with choosing instructions unexpectedness affected task switches and repetitions similarly, leaving switch costs unchanged, with guessing instructions switch costs were reduced, that is, task switches were affected less than repetitions. This interaction was unaffected by the proportion of expected tasks. We propose that with choosing, the impact of a mismatch between chosen and presented tasks is reduced by explicit knowledge regarding the proportion of denied choices. With guessing, task unexpectedness mainly increases task difficulty, which is compensated by an increase of cognitive control that reduces switch costs.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 183 (2017)
  • The influence of eye-movements on the development of a movement sequence
           representation during observational and physical practice
    • Authors: Matthias Massing; Yannick Blandin; Stefan Panzer
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Matthias Massing, Yannick Blandin, Stefan Panzer
      An experiment was conducted to examine the development of a movement sequence representation and the role of eye-movements during observational and physical practice. The task was to reproduce a 1300ms spatial-temporal pattern of a sequence of elbow flexions and extensions. An inter-manual transfer design with a retention and two effector transfer tests (contralateral limb) was used. The mirror transfer test required the same pattern of homologous muscle activation and a sequence of joint angles as experienced during the acquisition phase, and the non-mirror transfer test required the same visual-spatial pattern as performed or observed during acquisition. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups differing in eye-movements (free to use their eyes vs. instruction to fixate) and the practice type (observational practice vs. physical practice). The results indicated that permitting to use eye-movements facilitates sequence learning. This advantage was found on both practice types. The results of the transfer tests indicated that participants of the physical practice group who were permitted to use their eyes demonstrated superior transfer performance in the mirror transfer test, while participants in the observational practice group demonstrated better performance on the non-mirror transfer test. These findings indicated that eye-movements enhanced the development of a visual-spatial representation during observational practice as well as a motor representation during physical practice.

      PubDate: 2017-11-05T09:00:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Search strategies in practice: Influence of information and task
    • Authors: Matheus M. Pacheco; Karl M. Newell
      Pages: 9 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Matheus M. Pacheco, Karl M. Newell
      The practice of a motor task has been conceptualized as a process of search through a perceptual-motor workspace. The present study investigated the influence of information and task constraints on the search strategy as reflected in the sequential relations of the outcome in a discrete movement virtual projectile task. The results showed that the relation between the changes of trial-to-trial movement outcome to performance level was dependent on the landscape of the task dynamics and the influence of inherent variability. Furthermore, the search was in a constrained parameter region of the perceptual-motor workspace that depended on the task constraints. These findings show that there is not a single function of trial-to-trial change over practice but rather that local search strategies (proportional, discontinuous, constant) adapt to the level of performance and the confluence of constraints to action.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:00:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Working memory capacity and intra-individual variability of proactive
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Wiemers; Thomas S. Redick
      Pages: 21 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Elizabeth A. Wiemers, Thomas S. Redick
      Two datasets of 110 young adults were examined to investigate the relationship between individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) and dynamic cognitive control. The results delve into the specific differences between high- and low-WMC individuals' ability to enact and maintain cognitive control using the AX version of the continuous performance test (AX-CPT). Compared to high-WMC individuals, low-WMC individuals: (a) made more errors, specifically to AX targets; (b) exhibited a partial shift to proactive control with more time-on-task; (c) had more exaggerated slower AX target responses in the tail of the response time distribution; and (d) were equally likely to adjust control after conflict. These results fit with the dual mechanisms of cognitive control theory and goal-maintenance account, and further clarify how individual differences in WMC manifests as intra-individual variability in cognitive control.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:00:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Inducing circular vection with tactile stimulation encircling the waist
    • Authors: Angelica M. Tinga; Chris Jansen; Maarten J. van der Smagt; Tanja C.W. Nijboer; Jan B.F. van Erp
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Angelica M. Tinga, Chris Jansen, Maarten J. van der Smagt, Tanja C.W. Nijboer, Jan B.F. van Erp
      In general, moving sensory stimuli (visual and auditory) can induce illusory sensations of self-motion (i.e. vection) in the direction opposite of the sensory stimulation. The aim of the current study was to examine whether tactile stimulation encircling the waist could induce circular vection (around the body's yaw axis) and to examine whether this type of stimulation would influence participants' walking trajectory and balance. We assessed the strength and direction of perceived self-motion while vision was blocked and while either receiving tactile stimulation encircling the waist clockwise or counterclockwise or no tactile stimulation. Additionally, we assessed participants' walking trajectory and balance while receiving these different stimulations. Tactile stimulation encircling the waist was found to lead to self-reported circular vection in a subset of participants. In this subset of participants, circular vection was on average experienced in the same direction as the tactile stimulation. Additionally, perceived rotatory self-motion in participants that reported circular vection correlated with balance (i.e., sway velocity and the standard error of the mean in the medio-lateral dimension). The fact that, in this subset of participants, subjective reports of vection correlated with objective outcome measures indicates that tactile stimulation encircling the waist might indeed be able to induced circular vection.

      PubDate: 2017-11-11T10:00:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Limited generalization with varied, as compared to specific, practice in
           short-term motor learning
    • Authors: Chéla R. Willey; Zili Liu
      Pages: 39 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Chéla R. Willey, Zili Liu
      The schema theory of learning predicts that varied training in motor learning should give rise to better transfer than specific training. For example, throwing beanbags during practice to targets 5 and 9ft away should better generalize to targets 7 and 11ft away, as compared to only throwing to a target 7ft away. In this study, we tested this prediction in a throwing task, when the pretest, practice, and posttest were all completed within an hour. Participants in the varied group practiced throwing at 5 and 9ft targets, while participants in the specific group practiced throwing at 7ft only. All participants reliably reduced errors from pretest to posttest. The varied group never outperformed the specific group at the 7ft target (the trained target for the specific group). They did not reliably outperform the specific group at 11ft, either. The numerically better performance at 11ft by the varied group was due, as it turned out in a subsequent experiment, to the fact that 11ft was closer to 9ft (one of the two training targets for the varied group) than to 7ft (the training target for the specific group). We conclude that varied training played a very limited role in short-term motor learning.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • The order of information processing alters economic gain-loss framing
    • Authors: Youngbin Kwak; Scott Huettel
      Pages: 46 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Youngbin Kwak, Scott Huettel
      Adaptive decision making requires analysis of available information during the process of choice. In many decisions that information is presented visually – which means that variations in visual properties (e.g., salience, complexity) can potentially influence the process of choice. In the current study, we demonstrate that variation in the left-right positioning of risky and safe decision options can influence the canonical gain-loss framing effect. Two experiments were conducted using an economic framing task in which participants chose between gambles and certain outcomes. The first experiment demonstrated that the magnitude of the gain-loss framing effect was greater when the certain option signaling the current frame was presented on the left side of the visual display. Eye-tracking data during task performance showed a left-gaze bias for initial fixations, suggesting that the option presented on the left side was processed first. Combination of eye-tracking and choice data revealed that there was a significant effect of direction of first gaze (i.e. left vs. right) as well as an interaction between gaze direction and identity of the first fixated information (i.e. certain vs. gamble) regardless of frame. A second experiment presented the gamble and certain options in a random order, with a temporal delay between their presentations. We found that the magnitude of gain-loss framing was larger when the certain option was presented first, regardless of left and right positioning, only in individuals with lower risk-taking tendencies. The effect of presentation order on framing was not present in high risk-takers. These results suggest that the sequence of visual information processing as well as their left-right positioning can bias choices by changing the impact of the presented information during risky decision making.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Improving novel motor learning through prior high contextual interference
    • Authors: T. Kim; J. Chen; W.B. Verwey; D.L. Wright
      Pages: 55 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): T. Kim, J. Chen, W.B. Verwey, D.L. Wright
      The primary objective of the present experiment was to examine the influence of recent practice in a random and blocked format for future motor learning. First, individuals practiced three unique discrete sequence production tasks in either a blocked or random schedule. One day later, all individuals practiced a new motor sequence not previously practiced. On day three, mean total time for the test performance of the original three motor sequences was lower for individuals that practiced in a random format. This emerged as a significant reduction in mean total time from the completion of practice and the test trials implicating offline consolidation as a key contributor to the random practice performance advantage. A novel finding from the present work was that the acquisition of the novel discrete sequence production task practiced on Day 2 was better for individuals that had prior random rather than blocked practice experience. This benefit was robust appearing early during acquisition as significantly lower mean total time. This benefit from random practice experience remained during the delayed test trials administered on Day 3 for the novel motor sequence.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Effects of grasp compatibility on long-term memory for objects
    • Authors: Ivonne Canits; Diane Pecher; René Zeelenberg
      Pages: 65 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Ivonne Canits, Diane Pecher, René Zeelenberg
      Previous studies have shown action potentiation during conceptual processing of manipulable objects. In four experiments, we investigated whether these motor actions also play a role in long-term memory. Participants categorized objects that afforded either a power grasp or a precision grasp as natural or artifact by grasping cylinders with either a power grasp or a precision grasp. In all experiments, responses were faster when the affordance of the object was compatible with the type of grasp response. However, subsequent free recall and recognition memory tasks revealed no better memory for object pictures and object names for which the grasp affordance was compatible with the grasp response. The present results therefore do not support the hypothesis that motor actions play a role in long-term memory.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • The influence of intention and outcome on evaluations of social
    • Authors: Xiaoying Wu; Rui Hua; Zhangxiang Yang; Jun Yin
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Xiaoying Wu, Rui Hua, Zhangxiang Yang, Jun Yin
      Reading and making sense of social interactions between individuals is an important part of our daily social lives. Given that actions tend to be interpreted in terms of intent within the observed outcome, we investigated how intent and outcome interactively influence evaluations of social interactions. Through visual animations, intent was operationalized as an agent's (i.e., actor's) act intentionally or unintentionally having an influence on another agent (i.e., affectee). In Experiment 1, the act was helpful and the consequences brought small or great benefits to the affectee. In Experiment 2, the act was harmful and brought small or great losses to the affectee. We found that for both helpful and harmful contexts, social interaction evaluations were influenced by an interaction between the intent and outcome of the act. Specifically, great help/harm (i.e., the great-benefits or great-losses condition) was rated as a stronger social interaction than small help/harm, and the difference was larger in the intentional condition than in the unintentional condition. Furthermore, regardless of the interaction valence, the effect of the intent was larger than the effect of the outcome when evaluating social interaction. This result suggests that observers consider the intent and outcome jointly when evaluating a given social interaction, and the intent has a privileged role in this process. These findings are consistent with the idea that the intent is often deemed to be the cause driving the effect of outcome, and they help us to understand how social interactions are constructed within the action understanding system.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Acute stress affects prospective memory functions via associative memory
    • Authors: Ágnes Szőllősi; Péter Pajkossy; Gyula Demeter; Szabolcs Kéri; Mihály Racsmány
      Pages: 82 - 90
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Ágnes Szőllősi, Péter Pajkossy, Gyula Demeter, Szabolcs Kéri, Mihály Racsmány
      Recent findings suggest that acute stress can improve the execution of delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). However, it is unclear whether this improvement can be explained by altered executive control processes or by altered associative memory functioning. To investigate this issue, we used physical-psychosocial stressors to induce acute stress in laboratory settings. Then participants completed event- and time-based PM tasks requiring the different contribution of control processes and a control task (letter fluency) frequently used to measure executive functions. According to our results, acute stress had no impact on ongoing task performance, time-based PM, and verbal fluency, whereas it enhanced event-based PM as measured by response speed for the prospective cues. Our findings indicate that, here, acute stress did not affect executive control processes. We suggest that stress affected event-based PM via associative memory processes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Mapping language to visual referents: Does the degree of image realism
    • Authors: Raheleh Saryazdi; Craig G. Chambers
      Pages: 91 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Raheleh Saryazdi, Craig G. Chambers
      Studies of real-time spoken language comprehension have shown that listeners rapidly map unfolding speech to available referents in the immediate visual environment. This has been explored using various kinds of 2-dimensional (2D) stimuli, with convenience or availability typically motivating the choice of a particular image type. However, work in other areas has suggested that certain cognitive processes are sensitive to the level of realism in 2D representations. The present study examined the process of mapping language to depictions of objects that are more or less realistic, namely photographs versus clipart images. A custom stimulus set was first created by generating clipart images directly from photographs of real objects. Two visual world experiments were then conducted, varying whether referent identification was driven by noun or verb information. A modest benefit for clipart stimuli was observed during real-time processing, but only for noun-driving mappings. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for studies of visually situated language processing.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Action strategies for walking through multiple, misaligned apertures
    • Authors: Amy L. Hackney; Michael E. Cinelli; James S. Frank
      Pages: 100 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Amy L. Hackney, Michael E. Cinelli, James S. Frank
      When avoiding obstacles, path selection is thought to be determined by the attraction of the end-goal. However for aperture crossing, it is unclear whether the attraction point originates in the center of the aperture or at the end-goal, as previous experiments align the aperture with the end-goal. The purpose of the current study was to decipher the possible location of the attraction point, by evaluating crossing behaviour for multiple, misaligned apertures. Participants were instructed to walk through three separate apertures while en route to an end-goal. The first and last apertures were fixed such that they were both either 0.9× or 1.7× shoulder width (SW) while the second aperture was either 0.9, 1.3 or 1.7× SW and shifted 25, 50 or 75cm off the midline. Findings revealed that the attraction of the end-goal, and not the middle of the aperture, guided crossing behaviour. The spatial margin decreased as the size of the shift increased. Furthermore, the frequency of rotation increased as the aperture was shifted away from midline, regardless of the aperture size. Since rotations would not normally occur for all of these aperture sizes when aligned with the end-goal, these results suggest that rotations were produced in an attempt to keep one's trajectory as close to the midline as possible. Therefore, not only does the attraction of the goal guide path trajectory, but individuals will choose to reduce the spatial margin and rotate the shoulders when walking through misaligned apertures, likely in attempt to maintain the straightest possible path.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Involuntary autobiographical memories are relatively more often reported
           during high cognitive load tasks
    • Authors: Krystian Barzykowski; Agnieszka Niedźwieńska
      Pages: 119 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Krystian Barzykowski, Agnieszka Niedźwieńska
      Recent studies on involuntary autobiographical memories (IAMs) in daily life have shown that they are most frequently reported during daily routines (e.g. while ironing). Such studies have suggested that reporting IAMs may be influenced by the level of the ongoing task demands and availability of cognitive resources. In two studies, we investigated the effects of cognitive load on reporting IAMs. To examine the presumed cognitive load dependency of IAMs, we utilised an often-employed experimental paradigm (Schlagman & Kvavilashvili, 2008) to elicit IAMs under conditions that differed in cognitive load. When performing a vigilance task, participants had to interrupt the task each time they experienced any spontaneous mental contents and write them down. We manipulated the level of cognitive load by either instructing (cognitive load group) or not instructing (control group) participants to perform an additional demanding task. We compared the groups on the number of IAMs and other mental contents (non-IAM contents) recorded, as well as on the frequency of IAMs that was calculated as a proportion of IAMs in all mental contents reported by the participant. We expected that if reporting IAMs depends on the level of cognitive demands, then we should observe lower frequency of IAMs in the cognitive load group compared to the control group. Consistently across studies, we observed a lower number of IAMs and non-IAM contents in the cognitive load group. However, IAMs unexpectedly constituted a higher percentage of all mental contents when participants were cognitively loaded. Further implications of the cognitive load effects for IAMs research and experimental methodology are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Analytic processing of distance
    • Authors: Stephen Dopkins; Darin Galyer
      Pages: 129 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Stephen Dopkins, Darin Galyer
      How does a human observer extract from the distance between two frontal points the component corresponding to an axis of a rectangular reference frame' To find out we had participants classify pairs of small circles, varying on the horizontal and vertical axes of a computer screen, in terms of the horizontal distance between them. A response signal controlled response time. The error rate depended on the irrelevant vertical as well as the relevant horizontal distance between the test circles with the relevant distance effect being larger than the irrelevant distance effect. The results implied that the horizontal distance between the test circles was imperfectly extracted from the overall distance between them. The results supported an account, derived from the Exemplar Based Random Walk model (Nosofsky & Palmieri, 1997), under which distance classification is based on the overall distance between the test circles, with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that the relevant and irrelevant axes are differentially weighted so as to reduce the contribution of irrelevant distance to overall distance. The results did not support an account, derived from the General Recognition Theory (Ashby & Maddox, 1994), under which distance classification is based on the relevant distance between the test circles, with the irrelevant distance effect arising because a test circle's perceived location on the relevant axis depends on its location on the irrelevant axis, and with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that this dependency is absent.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T18:24:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.016
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Specific and non-specific match effects in negative priming
    • Authors: Danielle I. Labossière; Jason P. Leboe-McGowan
      Pages: 138 - 153
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Danielle I. Labossière, Jason P. Leboe-McGowan
      The negative priming effect occurs when withholding a response to a stimulus impairs generation of subsequent responding to a same or a related stimulus. Our goal was to use the negative priming procedure to obtain insights about the memory representations generated by ignoring vs. attending/responding to a prime stimulus. Across three experiments we observed that ignoring a prime stimulus tends to generate higher identity-independent, non-specific repetition effects, owing to an overlap in the coarse perceptual form of a prime distractor and a probe target. By contrast, attended repetition effects generate predominantly identity-specific sources of facilitation. We use these findings to advocate for using laboratory phenomena to illustrate general principles that can be of practical use to non-specialists. In the case of the negative priming procedure, we propose that the procedure provides a useful means for investigating attention/memory interactions, even if the specific cause (or causes) of negative priming effects remain unresolved.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • How social information affects information search and choice in
           probabilistic inferences
    • Authors: Marin Puskaric; Bettina von Helversen; Jörg Rieskamp
      Pages: 166 - 176
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Marin Puskaric, Bettina von Helversen, Jörg Rieskamp
      When making decisions, people are often exposed to relevant information stemming from qualitatively different sources. For instance, when making a choice between two alternatives people can rely on the advice of other people (i.e., social information) or search for factual information about the alternatives (i.e., non-social information). Prior research in categorization has shown that social information is given special attention when both social and non-social information is available, even when the social information has no additional informational value. The goal of the current work is to investigate whether framing information as social or non-social also influences information search and choice in probabilistic inferences. In a first study, we found that framing cues (i.e., the information used to make a decision) with medium validity as social increased the probability that they were searched for compared to a task where the same cues were framed as non-social information, but did not change the strategy people relied on. A second and a third study showed that framing a cue with high validity as social information led to a more focused search and facilitated learning to rely on a non-compensatory decision strategy. Overall, the results suggest that social in comparison to non-social information is given more attention and is learned faster than non-social information.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • When do arrows start to compete' A developmental mouse-tracking study
    • Authors: Frouke Hermens
      Pages: 177 - 188
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Frouke Hermens
      Recent work in adults has suggested that the strength of social and symbolic cues not presented at fixation (but allowing eye movements to the cue) may be determined less by their biological relevance and more by the distinctiveness of the shape of the cue. The present study examines whether these results extend to children, who may differ in their relative exposure to symbolic cues (arrows) compared to social cues. Children aged 3 to 11 were presented with congruent or incongruent pairs of cues (line drawings of gazing eyes, pointing hands, and arrows) and were asked to indicate the direction of the target cue (indicated at the start of the block) by moving the mouse towards the response box indicating its direction. Results show a similar advantage for arrows and pointing hands in young children as previously found in adults, suggesting that cue shape trumps biological relevance for cues away from fixation from an early age.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.015
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Determining the end of a musical turn: Effects of tonal cues
    • Authors: Lauren V. Hadley; Patrick Sturt; Nikki Moran; Martin J. Pickering
      Pages: 189 - 193
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Lauren V. Hadley, Patrick Sturt, Nikki Moran, Martin J. Pickering
      Successful duetting requires that musicians coordinate their performance with their partners. In the case of turn-taking in improvised performance they need to be able to predict their partner's turn-end in order to accurately time their own entries. Here we investigate the cues used for accurate turn-end prediction in musical improvisations, focusing on the role of tonal structure. In a response-time task, participants more accurately determined the endings of (tonal) jazz than (non-tonal) free improvisation turns. Moreover, for the jazz improvisations, removing low frequency information (<2100Hz) - and hence obscuring the pitch relationships conveying tonality - reduced response accuracy, but removing high frequency information (>2100Hz) had no effect. Neither form of filtering affected response accuracy in the free improvisation condition. We therefore argue that tonal cues aided prediction accuracy for the jazz improvisations compared to the free improvisations. We compare our results with those from related speech research (De Ruiter et al., 2006), to draw comparisons between the structural function of tonality and linguistic syntax.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • No evidence for common processes of cognitive control and self-control
    • Authors: Stefan Scherbaum; Simon Frisch; Anna-Maria Holfert; Denis O'Hora; Maja Dshemuchadse
      Pages: 194 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 182
      Author(s): Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Anna-Maria Holfert, Denis O'Hora, Maja Dshemuchadse
      Cognitive control and self-control are often used as interchangeable terms. Both terms refer to the ability to pursue long-term goals, but the types of controlled behavior that are typically associated with these terms differ, at least superficially. Cognitive control is observed in the control of attention and the overcoming of habitual responses, while self-control is observed in resistance to short-term impulses and temptations. Evidence from clinical studies and neuroimaging studies suggests that below these superficial differences, common control process (e.g., inhibition) might guide both types of controlled behavior. Here, we study this hypothesis in a behavioral experiment, which interlaced trials of a Simon task with trials of an intertemporal decision task. If cognitive control and self-control depend on a common control process, we expected conflict adaptation from Simon task trials to lead to increased self-control in the intertemporal decision trials. However, despite successful manipulations of conflict and conflict adaptation, we found no evidence for this hypothesis. We investigate a number of alternative explanations of this result and conclude that the differences between cognitive control and self-control are not superficial, but rather reflect differences at the process level.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.018
      Issue No: Vol. 182 (2017)
  • Item-method directed forgetting: Effects at retrieval'
    • Authors: Tracy L. Taylor; Laura Cutmore; Lotta Pries
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Tracy L. Taylor, Laura Cutmore, Lotta Pries
      In an item-method directed forgetting paradigm, words are presented one at a time, each followed by an instruction to Remember or Forget; a directed forgetting effect is measured as better subsequent memory for Remember words than Forget words. The dominant view is that the directed forgetting effect arises during encoding due to selective rehearsal of Remember over Forget items. In three experiments we attempted to falsify a strong view that directed forgetting effects in recognition are due only to encoding mechanisms when an item method is used. Across 3 experiments we tested for retrieval-based processes by colour-coding the recognition test items. Black colour provided no information; green colour cued a potential Remember item; and, red colour cued a potential Forget item. Recognition cues were mixed within-blocks in Experiment 1 and between-blocks in Experiments 2 and 3; Experiment 3 added explicit feedback on the accuracy of the recognition decision. Although overall recognition improved with cuing when explicit test performance feedback was added in Experiment 3, in no case was the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect influenced by recognition cueing. Our results argue against a role for retrieval-based strategies that limit recognition of Forget items at test and posit a role for encoding intentions only.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:45:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.004
  • Foraging through multiple target categories reveals the flexibility of
           visual working memory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Tómas Kristjánsson, Árni Kristjánsson
      A key assumption in the literature on visual attention is that templates, actively maintained in visual working memory (VWM), guide visual attention. An important question therefore involves the nature and capacity of VWM. According to load theories, more than one search template can be active at the same time and capacity is determined by the total load rather than a precise number of templates. By an alternative account only one search template can be active within visual working memory at any given time, while other templates are in an accessory state – but do not affect visual selection. We addressed this question by varying the number of targets and distractors in a visual foraging task for 40 targets among 40 distractors in two ways: 1) Fixed-distractor-number, involving two distractor types while target categories varied from one to four. 2) Fixed-color-number (7), so that if the target types were two, distractors types were five, while if target number increased to three, distractor types were four (etc.). The two accounts make differing predictions. Under the single-template account, we should expect large switch costs as target types increase to two, but switch-costs should not increase much as target types increase beyond two. Load accounts predict an approximately linear increase in switch costs with increased target type number. The results were that switch costs increased roughly linearly in both conditions, in line with load accounts. The results are discussed in light of recent proposals that working memory reflects lingering neural activity at various sites that operate on the stimuli in each case and findings showing neurally silent working memory representations.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T08:45:44Z
  • The elaboration of motor programs for the automation of letter production
    • Authors: Laurence Séraphin Thibon; Silvain Gerber; Sonia Kandel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Laurence Séraphin Thibon, Silvain Gerber, Sonia Kandel
      We investigated how children learn to write letters. Letter writing evolves from stroke-by-stroke to whole-letter programming. Children of ages 6 to 9 (N=98) wrote letters of varying complexity on a digitizer. At ages 6 and 7 movement duration, dysfluency and trajectory increased with stroke number. This indicates that the motor program they activated mainly coded information on stroke production. Stroke number affected the older children's production much less, suggesting that they programmed stroke chunks or the whole letter. The fact that movement duration and dysfluency decreased from ages 6 to 8, and remained stable at ages 8 and 9 suggests that automation of letter writing begins at age 8. Automation seems to require the elaboration of stroke chunks and/or letter-sized motor programs.

      PubDate: 2017-12-13T03:05:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.001
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