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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 972 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 80)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 65)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 465)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 216)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 78)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 263)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Psicología     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario Pilquen : Sección Divulgación Científica     Open Access  
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 181)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 56)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 157)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 165)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Community Psychology in Global Perspective     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Creativity. Theories ? Research ? Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cuadernos de Marte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Desde el Jardín de Freud Revista de Psicoanálisis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)

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Journal Cover
Acta Psychologica
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.331
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 27  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0001-6918
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Social anxiety enhances recognition of task-irrelevant threat words
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 194Author(s): Ryan C. Yeung, Myra A. Fernandes Past research is mixed regarding the conditions under which memory biases emerge in individuals with high levels of social anxiety. The current study examined whether high social anxiety would be associated with a memory bias for threatening, but task-irrelevant information, or whether it creates a memory bias for both threatening as well as neutral distractors.60 undergraduate students were recruited, half classified as having high social anxiety and half as having low social anxiety according to the Social Phobia Inventory. Participants memorized a series of sequentially and visually presented target words that were either all neutral (e.g., patient) or all socially threatening (e.g., embarrassed). Simultaneously during encoding, participants also saw a distractor word on each trial that was either neutral or socially threatening. Memory for targets was then assessed using a recall and recognition test. Incidental recall and recognition tests for the distractors were also administered.There were no group differences in memory for threat versus neutral targets. However, recognition of socially threatening distractors was significantly enhanced in those with high relative to low levels of social anxiety, but only when targets were also socially threatening.Memory biases in high social anxiety were shown to be specific for threat-related distractors rather than general, for all distractors. This specific bias for threat emerged only when the to-be-remembered target information was also threatening. Findings suggest that when social anxiety is primed, attention to irrelevant, but socially threatening, information is heightened.
  • The role of implicit gender spatial stereotyping in mental rotation
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 194Author(s): Francesca Guizzo, Angelica Moè, Mara Cadinu, Chiara Bertolli Men outscore women in mental rotation. Among the possible explanations for this result are gender stereotypes. Research has shown that instructions confirming or disconfirming the gender stereotype that men are more talented than women may affect performance in some spatial tasks, such as mental rotation, but research so far has shown inconsistent or null results. However, no research to date has assessed whether participants' implicit associations linking men to spatial abilities may modulate these effects. Thus, the goal of this study was to assess the moderating role of the implicit gender spatial stereotyping, that is the automatic associations between men vs. women and space, in male and female participants receiving either stereotypical (stating that men outscore women) or stereotype-nullifying (stating that there is no gender difference) explicit instructions. Results confirmed that men performed better than women in mental rotation, but also showed that in the stereotype-nullifying condition, the higher the automatic associations between space and men the lower men's performance. The discussion focuses on the importance of considering implicit gender spatial stereotyping as a factor that can modulate mental rotation performance.
  • Intuitive physics of gravitational motion as shown by perceptual judgment
           and prediction-motion tasks
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 194Author(s): Michele Vicovaro, Stefano Noventa, Luca Battaglini In Experiment 1, we explored participants' perceptual knowledge of vertical fall by presenting them with virtually simulated polystyrene or wooden spheres falling to the ground from about two meters high. Participants rated the perceived naturalness of the motion. Besides the implied mass of the sphere, we manipulated the motion pattern (i.e., uniform acceleration vs. uniform velocity), and the magnitude of acceleration or velocity. Results show that relatively low values of acceleration or velocity were judged as natural for the polystyrene sphere, whereas relatively high values of acceleration or velocity were judged as natural for the wooden sphere. In Experiment 2, the same stimuli of Experiment 1 were used, but the sphere disappeared behind an invisible occluder at some point of its trajectory. Participants were asked to predict the time-to-contact (TTC) of the sphere with the ground by pressing a key at the exact time of impact of the lower edge of the sphere with the floor of the room. Results show that the estimated TTC for the simulated wooden sphere was slightly but consistently smaller than the estimated TTC for the simulated polystyrene sphere. The influence of the implied mass on participants' responses might be the manifestation of two processes, namely an explicit ‘heavy-fast, light-slow’ heuristic, and/or an implicit, automatic association between mass and falling speed.
  • Mnemonic effects of action simulation from pictures and phrases
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 194Author(s): Francesco Ianì, Andrea Foiadelli, Monica Bucciarelli Several theoretical approaches suggest that language comprehension and action observation rely on similar mental simulations. Granted that these two simulations partially overlap, we assumed that simulations stemming from action observations are more direct than those stemming from action phrases. The implied prediction was that simulation from action observation should prevail on simulation from action phrases when their effects are contrasted. The results of three experiments confirmed that, when at encoding the phrases were paired with pictures of actions whose kinematics was incongruent with the implied kinematics of the actions described in the phrases, memory for action phrases was impaired (Experiment 1). However, the reverse was not true: when the pictures were paired with phrases representing actions whose kinematics were incongruent with the kinematics of the actions portrayed in the pictures, memory for pictures portraying actions was not impaired (Experiment 2). Also, in line with evidence that simulations from action phrases and those from action observation partially overlap, when their effects were not contrasted their products were misrecognized. In our experiments, when action phrases only presented at recognition described actions depicted in pictures seen at encoding, they were misrecognized as had already been read at encoding (Experiment 1); further, when pictures only presented at recognition portrayed actions described in phrases presented at encoding, they were misrecognized as seen at encoding (Experiment 2). A third experiment excluded the possibility that the pattern of findings was simply a consequence of better memory for pictures of actions as opposed to memory for action phrases (Experiment 3). The implications of our results in relation to the literature on simulation in language comprehension and action observation are discussed.
  • The influence of misinformation manipulations on evaluative conditioning
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 194Author(s): Taylor Benedict, Jasmin Richter, Anne Gast We tested the influence of misinformation on evaluative conditioning (EC) by giving false information about the contingencies between CS and US stimuli after a conditioning procedure. This was done by asking participants questions about the USs while inaccurately suggesting that some CSs had been paired with a US that had the opposite valence than the US it had actually been paired with. For CS-US pairs from other conditions, accurate suggestions or no suggestions at all were given to participants. This manipulation significantly moderated EC effects. For pairs that were combined with inaccurate information we found a reversed EC effect, while we found a standard EC effect for both pairs combined with no suggestions and pairs combined with accurate suggestions. Additional analyses showed that the misinformation manipulation also moderated memory for the pairs. These results show that misinformation manipulations cannot only influence explicit memory but also attitudes. Furthermore, and in line with some theories of EC, they support the relevance of explicit memory for EC effects.
  • Long-term memory for contemporary dance is distributed and collaborative
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 194Author(s): Catherine J. Stevens, Kim Vincs, Scott deLahunta, Elizabeth Old Professional dancers appear to be the embodied records of works of choreography that have been created, rehearsed and performed. Their precision in recalling extended sequences of movement developed for these works defies the conventional methods used to investigate memory. A distributed cognition view holds that memory will not only be individualistic, but also extended across a dance ensemble. Working closely with the highly skilled dancers of Australian Dance Theatre (ADT), we set out to develop an ecologically valid method that elicited memory recall and lapsing. Dancers were divided into two “teams” with each team asked to choose excerpts for memory recall from the company's extensive repertoire that would challenge individual dancers in the other team. There were 14 trials; 12 involved the dancers recalling dance excerpts on their own (solo condition) and 2 with a partner (duet condition). In the ADT studio, seven dancers recalled (reproduced) as much of the excerpt as possible in the absence of an accompanying soundscape. Recall was extensive, but contained lapses, and these recall failures form the core of the analysis in this study. Four novel types of memory recall were identified: static shapes, isolated movements, partial and full movement sequences; and two strategies for recall: looking for movement by moving and collaborative sketching. Four types of errors were observed: errors of detail, order, omission, and additions. Analysis was conducted through a new method of counting ‘choreographic items’. The most detailed recall (73–96%) was for the two duet excerpts with significantly poorer recall of excerpts from complex group sections of a dance. Movement gist was generally retained. The types of recall and types of errors observed pointed to the use of not only procedural memory and chaining but also contextual cues as aids to movement recall. Collaborative elements of recall were observed that suggest the importance of distributed cognition and collective memory within a contemporary dance ensemble.
  • Attention to the face is characterised by a difficult to inhibit first
           fixation to the eyes
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Sarah J. Thompson, Tom Foulsham, Susan R. Leekam, Catherine R.G. Jones The eyes are preferentially attended over other facial features and recent evidence suggests this bias is difficult to suppress. To further examine the automatic and volitional nature of this bias for eye information, we used a novel prompting face recognition paradigm in 41 adults and measured the location of their first fixations, overall dwell time and behavioural responses. First, patterns of eye gaze were measured during a free-viewing forced choice face recognition paradigm. Second, the task was repeated but with prompts to look to either the eyes or the mouth. Participants showed significantly more first fixations to the eyes than mouth, both when prompted to look at the eyes and when prompted to look at the mouth. The pattern of looking to the eyes when prompted was indistinguishable from the unprompted condition in which participants were free to look where they chose. Notably, the dwell time data demonstrated that the eye bias did not persist over the entire presentation period. Our results suggest a difficult-to-inhibit bias to initially orient to the eyes, which is superseded by volitional, top-down control of eye gaze. Further, the amount of looking to the eyes is at a maximum level spontaneously and cannot be enhanced by explicit instructions.
  • Second-guess: Testing the specificity of error detection in the
           bat-and-ball problem
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Bence Bago, Matthieu Raoelison, Wim De Neys In the last decade conflict detection studies in the reasoning and decision-making field have suggested that biased reasoners who give an intuitive response that conflicts with logico-mathematical principles can often detect that their answer is questionable. In the present studies we introduced a second guess paradigm to test the nature and specificity of this error or conflict signal. Participants solved the bat-and-ball problem and were allowed to make a second guess after they had entered their answer. Three studies in which we used a range of second guess elicitation methods show that biased reasoners predominantly give second guesses that are smaller than the intuitively cued heuristic response (“10 cents”). Findings indicate that although biased reasoners do not know the exact correct answer (“5 cents”) they do correctly grasp that the right answer must be smaller than the intuitively cued “10 cents” answer. This suggests that reasoners might be savvier about their errors than traditionally assumed. Implications for the conflict detection and dual process literature are discussed.
  • Visual foraging and executive functions: A developmental perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Inga María Ólafsdóttir, Steinunn Gestsdóttir, Árni Kristjánsson Visual foraging tasks, where participants search for multiple targets at a time, may provide a richer picture of visual attention than traditional single-target visual search tasks. To contribute to the mapping of foraging abilities throughout childhood and to assess whether foraging ability is dependent upon EF abilities, we compared the foraging of 66 children aged 4–7 years (mean age = 5.68 years, SD = 0.97 years, 33 girls), 67 children aged 11–12 years (mean age = 11.80 years, SD = 0.30 years; 36 girls), and 31 adults aged 20–37 (mean age 30.32 years, SD 4.37 years, 18 females) in Iceland, with a task involving multiple targets of different types. We also measured three subdomains of executive functions; inhibition, attentional flexibility, and working memory. Our results show that foraging improves dramatically between the preschool and middle school years, with the older children showing similar foraging abilities as adults due to greater ease of switching between target types. The older children and adults randomly switch between target templates during feature foraging, but exhaustively forage for a single target type before switching during conjunction foraging. Younger children, conversely, tended to also stick to the same target type for long runs during feature foraging, showing that they have difficulties with feature-based tasks. Switch costs were much lower for the older children than the youngest age group, and on par with those of adults, resulting in fast and efficient foraging. Lastly, we found a connection between foraging ability and both working memory and attentional flexibility, but not inhibition. Our study shows that foraging is a promising way of studying visual attention, how it changes throughout the lifespan, and how it is connected to other cognitive functions.
  • Time passes too fast' Then recall the past! – Evidence for a
           reminiscence heuristic in passage of time judgments
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Ferdinand Kosak, Christof Kuhbandner, Sven Hilbert Memory-based approaches suggest that retrospective judgments concerning the passage of lifetime are based on available meaningful experiences. However, an open question is whether passage of time judgments reflect the objective amount of important experiences or rather the amount of memories that are currently activated in the moment of judging. To examine this issue, we asked 473 participants to judge the passage of the last five years either before or after recalling as many important autobiographical events as possible from the last five years. Activating memories before the judgment slowed the experienced passage of time, but only if participants recalled at least four memories. For participants recalling less than four memories, the opposite effect was found: few activated memories had even an accelerating effect. Interestingly, the experienced speed of time did not continuously decrease with a rising number of memories activated: Below and above the threshold of four memories, passage of time judgments were unrelated to the number of activated memories. These results indicate that passage of time judgments are based on currently activated memories, suggesting that the common phenomenon of time flying reflects the effect of a reminiscence heuristic.
  • Eye vergence responses to novel and familiar stimuli in young children
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Flavia L. Esposito, Hans Supèr Eye vergence is the slow movement of both eyes in opposite directions enabling binocular vision. Recently, it was suggested that vergence could be involved in orienting visual attention and memory having a role in cognitive processing of sensory information. In the present study, we assessed whether such vergence responses are observed in early childhood. We measured eye vergence responses in 43 children (12–37 months of age) while looking at novel and repeated object images. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that visual attention and Visual Short-Term Memory (VSMT) would be evidenced by differential vergence responses for both experimental conditions, i.e. repeated (familiar) vs. novel items. The results show that attention related vergence is present in early childhood and that responses to repeated images differ from the ones to novel items. Our current findings suggest that vergence mechanisms could be linking visual attention with short-term memory recognition.
  • Explicit and implicit timing in aging
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Sylvie Droit-Volet, Fanny Lorandi, Jennifer T. Coull Explicit and implicit measures of timing were compared between young and older participants. In both tasks, participants were initially familiarized with a reference interval by responding to the second of two beeps separated by a fixed interval. During the subsequent testing phase, this inter-stimulus interval was variable. In the explicit task, participants were instructed to judge interval duration, whereas in the implicit task they were told to respond as quickly as possible to the second beep. Cognitive abilities were assessed with neuropsychological tests. Results showed that in both explicit and implicit timing tasks, temporal performance peaked around the reference interval and did not differ between young and older participants. This indicates an accurate representation of duration that did not decline with normal aging. However, some age-related differences were observed in performance depending on the task used. In the explicit timing task, the variability of duration judgments was greater in older than young participants, though this was directly related to older participants' lower attentional capacity. In the implicit timing task, young participants' reaction times (RTs) were slower to targets appearing either earlier or later than the trained interval. Conversely, while older participants RTs were also slowed by early targets, their RTs to late targets were as fast as those to targets appearing at the trained interval. We hypothesize that with age, and irrespective of cognitive ability, there is increasing reliance on temporal information conveyed by the probability of target appearance as a function of elapsing time (“hazard function”) than that conveyed by the statistical likelihood of previously experienced temporal associations.
  • Group analyses can hide heterogeneity effects when searching for a general
           model: Evidence based on a conflict monitoring task
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Juan Botella, Jesús Privado, Manuel Suero, Roberto Colom, James F. Juola In experimental psychology, a unique model of general processing is often sought to represent the behaviors of all individuals. We address the question of whether seeking this objective - a unique model - is the most fruitful scientific strategy by studying a specific case example. In order to approach an answer to such a question, we compared the conventional approach in experimental psychology with analyses at the individual level by applying a specific mathematical modeling approach. A sample of 1159 individuals completed an experimental task based on managing conflict (a type of Simon task). Key findings revealed that at least four models are required to properly account for individuals' performance. Interestingly, four out of ten participants failed to show stimulus-response congruency effects in the experimental task, whereas the remaining 60% followed distinguishable theoretical models (consistent with conflict-monitoring theory and/or priming and episodic memory effects). The reported findings suggest that individuals' psychological characteristics might help to explain some of the reproducibility issues that are currently of great concern in psychology. These findings, along with further recent research, support the view that general and differential psychological approaches work better together for addressing relevant theoretical issues in psychological research.
  • Language experience modulates bilingual language control: The effect of
           proficiency, age of acquisition, and exposure on language switching
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Michela Bonfieni, Holly P. Branigan, Martin J. Pickering, Antonella Sorace The ability to selectively access two languages characterises the bilingual everyday experience. Previous studies showed the role of second language (L2) proficiency, as a proxy for dominance, on language control. However, the role of other aspects of the bilingual experience – such as age of acquisition and daily exposure – are relatively unexplored. In this study, we used a cued language switching task to examine language switching and mixing in two groups of highly proficient bilinguals with different linguistic backgrounds, to understand how the ability to control languages is shaped by linguistic experience. Our analysis shows that the ability to switch between languages is not only modulated by L2 proficiency, but also by daily L2 exposure. Daily L2 exposure also affects language mixing. Finally, L2 age of acquisition predicts naming latencies in the L2. Together, these findings show that language dominance is characterised by multiple aspects of the bilingual experience, which modulate language control.
  • The effects of concurrent cognitive task load on recognising faces
           displaying emotion
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Phil Reed, Ian Steed Two independent experiments (N = 30 and N = 24) investigated the effects of concurrent task loads on the recognition of faces displaying emotions. The study aimed to explore a possible resolution for an apparently discrepant finding in the literature regarding the impact of such loads on recognition of facial emotions. Faces displaying different emotions were presented, with or without a concurrent load, until the facial stimuli were correctly labelled to criterion in terms of the displayed emotion. Participants were then presented with elements from the faces (i.e. eyebrows, eyes, and mouth). When participants had to complete the concurrent task as well as the facial recognition task, they did not respond equally to the separate facial elements, and over-selected to the mouth when recognising facial expressions of emotion. The findings relating to the impact of the concurrent load tasks on correct labelling of the facial elements with respect to the emotional faces are discussed in terms of the impact of cognitive load on the production of over-selectivity and the recognition of faces displaying emotions in complex situations, and the implications for those with a developmental disability.
  • Two types of backward crosstalk: Sequential modulations and evidence from
           the diffusion model
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Moritz Durst, Markus Janczyk In multitasking, the backward crosstalk effect (BCE) means that Task 1 performance is influenced by characteristics of Task 2. For example, (1) RT1 is shorter when the two responses are given on the same (compatible trial) compared with opposite sides (incompatible conflict-trial; compatibility-based BCE), and (2) RT1 is longer when Task 2 is a no-go relative to a go task (no-go BCE). We investigated the impact of recently experienced trial and conflict history on the size of such BCEs. Similar to the Gratton effect in standard conflict tasks, clear sequential modulations were observed for the two kinds of BCEs, which were present following (1) compatible trials and (2) go-trials and inverted following (1) incompatible and (2) no-go trials. Furthermore, recent evidence from mental chronometry studies suggests that the compatibility-based BCE is located inside the response selection stage, while the no-go-based BCE arises in motor execution. Against this background, a diffusion model analysis was carried out to reveal the reason(s) for the sequential modulations. As expected, for the compatibility-based BCE, changes in drift rate explain the sequential modulations, but for the no-go BCE changes in non-decision time are important. The present results indicate that both BCEs not only differ fundamentally in their underlying processes, but also in the way cognitive control is adjusted.
  • The combined influence of the own-age, -gender, and -ethnicity biases on
           face recognition
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 194Author(s): Priscilla B.L. Mukudi, Peter J. Hills Whether the own-group (own-ethnicity, own-gender, and own-age) biases in face recognition are based on the same mechanism and whether their effects are additive or not are as yet unanswered questions. Employing a standard old/new recognition paradigm, we investigated the combined crossover effects of the own-ethnicity, own-gender, and own-age biases in a group of 160 participants. Result showed that while face recognition accuracy decreased as the number of out-group features increased, the own-ethnicity bias appeared to have more of a unique influence on face recognition than the other biases. Furthermore, we established that in a single group of participants, these biases appear to be based on different mechanisms: the own-ethnicity bias is based on individuation whereas the own-age and own-gender biases are based on motivation.
  • Holistic representation of negative numbers: Evidence from duration
           comparison tasks
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Jie Zhang, Wenfeng Feng, Zhijie Zhang Whether negative numbers are represented componentially as two separate components (a digit and a sign) or represented holistically as a whole is still under debate. The present study investigated the representation of negative numbers via duration comparison tasks that might eliminate the possible influences of the strategies participants usually use when processing numbers. In the duration comparison task, participants are required to compare the durations of two numbers that were presented sequentially, thus the numerical value is irrelevant to the task. Our results showed that negative numbers were processed holistically when positive numbers and negative numbers were presented in separate blocks (Exp. 1). But negative numbers showed a componential representation when positive numbers were intermixed with negative numbers within the same block (Exp. 2). This inconsistency might be due to the spatial separation of the polarity sign and digit components in negative numbers which may remind participants that negative numbers are formed by two components when there are positive numbers as a comparison in the same block. Therefore, when the spatial separation of the polarity sign and digit components in negative numbers was eliminated by using colors to mark the polarity (Exp. 3), the negative numbers were processed holistically even when positive numbers and negative numbers were intermixed. These results suggest that negative numbers are represented holistically and may be prone to be represented componentially when intermixed with positive numbers within the same block.
  • The shape of personal space
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Heiko Hecht, Robin Welsch, Jana Viehoff, Matthew R. Longo The notion of a personal space surrounding one's ego-center is time-honored. However, few attempts have been made to measure the shape of this space. With increasing use of virtual environments, the question has arisen if real-world aspects, such as gender-effects or the shape of personal space, translate to virtual setups. We conducted two experiments, one with real people matched according to body height and level of acquaintance in a large laboratory setting, and one where subjects faced a virtual character, likewise matched to their body height. The first experiment also used a mannequin in place of the second human observer. The second experiment additionally manipulated the perspective of the subject to compare estimates of interpersonal distance between an egocentric and an allocentric perspective (in third-person view). Subjects approached (or were approached) from different angles until a comfortable distance for conversation with a stranger was reached (stop-distance task). Personal space turned out to be rather circular with a radius of about 1 m. Male pairs kept larger distances from one another than female or mixed-gender pairs. All subjects assumed larger distances to the mannequin compared to the real observer. Very comparable distances were preferred to the avatar in the virtual environment. Also, it did not matter whether the subject was engaged in active approach, was approached, or merely adjusted the distance between two avatars. Implications for theories of personal space are discussed.
  • Auditory capture of visual apparent motion, both laterally and looming
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Michael K. McBeath, Jason D. Addie, R. Chandler Krynen Traditional tests of multisensory stimuli typically support that vision dominates spatial judgments and audition dominates temporal ones. Here, we examine if unambiguous auditory spatial cues can capture ambiguous visual ones in judgments of direction of apparent motion. The visual motion judgments include both lateral movement and movement in depth, each when coupled with auditory stimuli moving at one of four rates. Experiment 1 tested lateral visual movement judgments (leftward vs rightward) coupled with auditory stimuli that moved laterally. Experiment 2 tested depth visual movement judgments (approaching vs receding) coupled with auditory stimuli that got louder or quieter. Results of Experiment 1 revealed and replicated an overall leftward motion bias, but with additional acoustic capture to experience visual movement away from the side on which sound initially occurred, and no effect of auditory motion speed. Results of Experiment 2 revealed and replicated an approaching motion bias, but with no effect of initial sound intensity, and an additional systematic capture effect of auditory motion speed. Faster changes in acoustic intensity produced larger visual motion capture consistent with the direction of acoustic intensity change. Findings of both experiments generalized over conditions of listening device (head phones vs speakers) and test-setting (Laboratory vs Web-based data-collection). The leftward and approaching motion bias results replicate previous research. Our principal new findings, the auditory motion capture effects, confirm the multisensory nature of dynamic spatial perception and support that extent of inter-sensory capture is a function of the relative reliability of spatial information acquired by each sensory modality.
  • Parallel effects of retrieval ease on attributions about the past and the
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Julie Gregg, Sri Siddhi N. Upadhyay, Karl Kuntzelman, Elizabeth Sacchi, Deanne L. Westerman The present study explored the role of task difficulty in judgments about the past and the future. Participants recalled events from childhood and imagined future events. The difficulty of the task was manipulated by asking participants to generate either four or twelve events. Participants then rated how well they could generally remember events from their childhood or how well planned their futures were. Consistent with past research (e.g., Winkielman, Schwarz, & Belli, 1998), participants in the difficult recall group rated their childhood memories as less complete than participants in the easy recall group. A parallel effect was found in participants' judgments of their futures. Participants who were asked to imagine twelve future events rated their future plans as less complete than those who imagined four events. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between the rated difficulty of the task and the degree to which participants found their memories and plans to be complete. We also examined the valence of the generated events. These results showed a strong positivity bias for both types of judgments, and the bias was particularly strong when thinking of future events. The results suggest that similar attributional processes mediate beliefs about the past and the future.
  • Exploring individual differences in task switching
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Bingxin Li, Xiangqian Li, Gijsbert Stoet, Martin Lages Previous research has shown that there are significant task-switching costs even when participants have time to prepare for task switching after cueing. We investigated individual differences in task switching by monitoring errors and response times of individual participants. In Experiment 1A, 58 participants were encouraged to finish the session early by completing 200 consecutive trials without making an error. In case of a mistake, they had to repeat their effort until the experimental session expired. Using this demanding procedure, 16 participants managed to complete early. Among these 16 we identified 9 best performers who showed no significant switch costs. We conducted follow-up Experiment 1B on these best performers by systematically varying cue-stimulus intervals and inter-trial intervals. The results confirmed that these participants had no significant RT and ER switch costs when they had time to prepare the task between cue and target onset. However, significant switch costs emerged when cue and target stimulus were presented simultaneously. In Experiment 1C, using three classical task-switching paradigms, we compared the best performers with 9 controls who had made frequent errors in Experiment 1A. Although the best performers responded faster and made fewer errors, they only showed reduced switch costs in a pre-cued paradigm that had been extensively practiced. In two other paradigms with simultaneous presentation of cue and target stimulus, best performers had switch costs and showed considerable individual differences similar to the controls. We conclude that there are considerable individual differences in task switching and that smaller individual switch costs are mainly related to efficient task preparation. We speculate that efficient task preparation may be linked to better executive control and general intelligence.
  • Cue frequency modulates cuing effect either in the presence or in the
           absence of distractors
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Yosun Yoon, Shinyoung Jung, Kyengsun Jeoung, Se-Jin Ha, Dahye Kim, Suk Won Han A novel, salient stimulus, even though it is not related to a concurrent goal-directed behavior, powerfully captures people's attention. While this stimulus-driven attentional capture has long been presumed to take place in a purely bottom-up or automatic manner, growing evidence shows that a number of top-down factors modulate the stimulus-driven capture of attention. Recent studies pointed out the cue presentation frequency is such a factor; the capture of attention by a salient, task-irrelevant cue increased as its presentation frequency decreased. Expanding these studies, we investigated how the modulatory effect of the cue frequency differs depending on the level of competition between multiple stimuli. As results, we found that an infrequently presented cue exerted stronger capture effect than a frequently presented cue, either in the presence or in the absence of distractors. Importantly, in the absence of distractors, performance difference elicited by the frequently present cue was due to non-attentional sensory artifacts or decisional noise. However, the same frequent cue evoked genuine attentional effect when multiple distractors accompanied the target, evoking stimulus-driven competition. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the effect of attentional cue is modulated by cue frequency, and this modulation is also affected by stimulus-driven competition.
  • Influence of route decision-making and experience on human path
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Jichengsi Guo, Jianping Huang, Xiaoang Wan Path integration refers to a process of integrating information regarding self-motion to estimate one's current position and orientation. Here we reported two experiments designed to investigate whether, and if so, how human path integration could be influenced by route decision-making and previous experience. Using head-mounted display virtual reality and hallway mazes, we asked participants to travel along several hallways and then to directly return to the starting point, namely a path completion task. We created an active condition in which the participants had the opportunity to voluntarily select the structure of outbound paths, and a passive condition in which they followed the outbound paths chosen by others. Each participant was required to take part in the study on two consecutive days, and they performed the task under different (in Experiment 1) or the same conditions (in Experiment 2) on these two days. The results of both experiments revealed a facilitation effect of route decision-making on the participants' performance on the first day. The results also revealed that both their performance and path selection strategies on the second day were subject to their experience obtained from the first day. Collectively, these findings suggest that human path integration may be improved by having the opportunity to make decisions on the structure of outbound paths and/or more experience with the task.
  • Examining associations between action game play and motor control
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Michael A. Rupp, Daniel S. McConnell, Janan A. Smither The effects of playing action video games have been investigated across a wide range of attentional and cognitive abilities. However, few studies have examined the association between motor control and action gaming experience. We report data from two discrete pointing tasks, manipulating the index of difficulty (ID) by movement distance and target size, respectively. Participants' gaming experience ranged from non-players to individuals who played several hours a night. Our results indicated greater experience playing action games, but not video games in general, was associated with shorter movement times (MT), higher velocities, and shallower ID-MT slopes when difficulty was manipulated across increasingly further distances and smaller target sizes. Additionally casual players, those who only play action games a couple times a week, were able to achieve a similar level of performance as more experienced players.
  • Individual differences in anxiety and fear learning: The role of working
           memory capacity
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Patrick A.F. Laing, Nicholas Burns, Irina Baetu Anxiety disorders are characterised by the perception of fear and threat in the presence of stimuli that are neutral or ambiguous. Attempts in previous research to explain the relationship between anxiety and fear learning have been inconsistent, possibly due to the influence of an unmeasured mechanism that mediates the relationship between them. Working memory capacity has been suggested as one such mechanism. The current study investigated the influence of anxiety-based individual differences upon associative fear learning, while accounting for individual differences in working memory. We hypothesised that individuals high in both anxiety and working memory would show unimpaired fear learning whereas individuals high in anxiety and low in working memory would exhibit dysfunctional fear learning. Sixty participants completed a battery of anxiety and working memory tests, as well as a fear conditioning experiment that tested for blocking, conditioned inhibition and fear discrimination. We found that anxious individuals were more likely to show impaired fear discrimination only if they also had a low working memory capacity. Furthermore, anxiety was particularly associated with poorer learning about safety cues. Such relationships were not observed for blocking and conditioned inhibition. These results suggest that the relationship between anxiety and fear learning is complex and warrants further investigation of the potential mediating role of higher-order cognitive faculties.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
  • Automatic and intentional processing of numerical order and its
           relationship to arithmetic performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Stephan E. Vogel, Nikolaus Koren, Stefan Falb, Martina Haselwander, Anna Spradley, Philip Schadenbauer, Sandra Tanzmeister, Roland H. Grabner Recent findings have demonstrated that numerical order processing (i.e., the application of knowledge that numbers are organized in a sequence) constitutes a unique and reliable predictor of arithmetic performance. The present work investigated two central questions to further our understanding of numerical order processing and its relationship to arithmetic. First, are numerical order sequences processed without conscious monitoring (i.e., automatically)? Second, are automatic and intentional ordinal processing differentially related to arithmetic performance?In the first experiment, adults completed a novel ordinal congruity task. Participants had to evaluate whether number triplets were arranged in a correct (e.g., Graphical abstract for this article) physical order or not (e.g., Graphical abstract for this article). Results of this experiment showed that participants were faster to decide that the physical size of ascending numbers was in-order when the physical and numerical values were congruent compared to when they were incongruent (i.e., congruency effect). In the second experiment, a new group of participants was asked to complete an ordinal congruity task, an ordinal verification task (i.e., are the number triplets in a correct order or not) and an arithmetic fluency test. Results of this experiment revealed that the automatic processing of ascending numerical order is influenced by the numerical distance of the numbers. Correlation analysis further showed that only reaction time measures of the intentional ordinal verification task were associated with arithmetic performance.While the findings of the present work suggest that ascending numerical order is processed automatically, the relationship between numerical order processing and arithmetic appears to be limited to the intentional manipulation of numbers. The present findings show that the mental engagement of verifying the order of numbers is a crucial factor for explaining the link between numerical order processing and arithmetic performance.
  • Age-related differences in Voice-Onset-Time in Polish language users: An
           ERP study
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Anna Oron, Elzbieta Szelag, Kamila Nowak, Anna Dacewicz, Aneta Szymaszek Using the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) paradigm we investigated for the first time cortical responses to consonant - vowel (CV) syllables differing in Voice-Onset-Time (VOT) for Polish, a member of the Slavic group of languages. The study aimed at testing age-related effects on different ERP responses in young (20–30 years of age) and elderly (60–68 years) native Polish speakers. Participants were presented with a sequence of voiced and voiceless stop CV syllables /to/ and /do/ with different VOT values (−100 ms, −70 ms, −30 ms, −20 ms, +20 ms, +50 ms). We analyzed MMN and P1, N1, N1′, P2, N2 components. Our results showed an age-related decline in voicing perception in all tested ERP components. This decline could be explained in relation to a general slowing in neural processing with advancing age and may be associated with difficulties in temporal- and spectral-information processing in elderly people. Our findings revealed also that specific features of Slavic languages influence ERP morphology in a different way than reported in the literature for aspirating languages.
  • Lost in the forest' Global to local interference depends on children's
           reading skills
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Andreas Schmitt, Thomas Lachmann, Cees van Leeuwen We studied the global precedence effect in primary school children with and without developmental dyslexia, using a compound figures task with familiar (Latin) or unfamiliar (Hebrew) letters. The two components of the global precedence effect were considered separately: global advantage (faster processing of global than local letters) and asymmetric interference (global distracters interfere with local targets but not vice versa). Both groups of children showed a global advantage with familiar as well as with unfamiliar letters. Children without developmental dyslexia showed asymmetric interference on familiar letters, but not on unfamiliar ones. Children with developmental dyslexia showed no asymmetric interference, neither for familiar letters nor for unfamiliar ones. The results distinguish between alternative hypothesis regarding the roles of familiarity and visual processing strategies in the compound figures task. Consequences for understanding literacy acquisition and developmental dyslexia are discussed.
  • Lifting, tasting, and carrying: The interaction of magnitude and valence
           effects in time perception
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2019Source: Acta Psychologica, Volume 193Author(s): Meichao Zhang, Aitao Lu, Bert H. Hodges Magnitude effects (e.g., heavier or faster is longer) and valence effects (e.g., negative > positive) are widely observed in time perception studies, but not well understood. In four experiments, we explored how different action contexts (e.g., tasting, lifting) affected magnitude and valence effects. In two experiments a valence effect occurred: Tasting a sweet food (watermelon) led to temporal underestimations relative to a neutral stimulus, while sour and bitter foods led to overestimations. However, when the same foods were presented in a lifting context a magnitude effect occurred: Reproduced times for the heavier food (watermelon) were overestimated relative to the lighter foods. In a fourth experiment magnitude and valence interacted: Imagining tasting increasing amounts of lemon or carrying increasing loads of lemon, both negative, yielded magnitude effects; however, imagining carrying lemons to feed malnourished people, which was positive, did not. Results present challenges for several common theoretical approaches (e.g., arousal, attention, common magnitude theory) but provide support for affordance theory and perceptual salience theory. Timing depends on action relevance and is jointly shaped by valence and magnitude.
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