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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 942 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 437)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 193)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 241)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Art Therapy Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Insights     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 150)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Diversitas : Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Acta Psychologica
  Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.365
  Citation Impact (citeScore): 73
  Number of Followers: 27  
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0001-6918
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • A grand memory for forgetting: Directed forgetting across contextual
           changes
    • Authors: Tracy L. Taylor; Jeff P. Hamm
      Pages: 39 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 188
      Author(s): Tracy L. Taylor, Jeff P. Hamm
      Using an item-method directed forgetting task, we presented homographic homophonic nouns embedded in sentences. At study, each sentence was followed by an instruction to remember or forget the embedded word. On a subsequent yes-no recognition test, each word was again embedded within a sentence. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4 we varied the embedding sentence at test so that it was identical to that at study, changed but retained the meaning of the studied word, or changed to alter the meaning of the studied word. Repeated context – whether the sentence and/or the word meaning – proved to be as useful a retrieval cue for TBF items as for TBR items. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that physical repetition was insufficient to produce context effects for either TBR or TBF items. And, in Experiment 4, we determined that participants were equally accurate in reporting context repetition/change following the correct recognition of TBR and TBF items. When considered in light of the existing literature, our results suggest that when context can be dissociated from the study item, it is encoded in “one shot” and not vulnerable to subsequent efforts to limit unwanted encoding.

      PubDate: 2018-06-08T10:34:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.05.009
      Issue No: Vol. 188 (2018)
       
  • ADHD and math - The differential effect on calculation and estimation
    • Authors: Dana Ganor-Stern; Ofir Steinhorn
      Pages: 55 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 188
      Author(s): Dana Ganor-Stern, Ofir Steinhorn
      Adults with ADHD were compared to controls when solving multiplication problems exactly and when estimating the results of multidigit multiplication problems relative to reference numbers. The ADHD participants were slower than controls in the exact calculation and in the estimation tasks, but not less accurate. The ADHD participants were similar to controls in showing enhanced accuracy and speed for smaller problem sizes, for trials in which the reference numbers were smaller (vs. larger) than the exact answers and for reference numbers that were far (vs. close) from the exact answer. The two groups similarly used the approximated calculation and the sense of magnitude strategies. They differed however in strategy execution, mainly of the approximated calculation strategy, which requires working memory resources. The increase in reaction time associated with using the approximated calculation strategy was larger for the ADHD compared to the control participants. Thus, ADHD seems to selectively impair calculation processes in estimation tasks that rely on working memory, but it does not hamper estimation skills that are based on sense of magnitude. The educational implications of these findings are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-06-08T10:34:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.05.013
      Issue No: Vol. 188 (2018)
       
  • Can gender priming eliminate the effects of stereotype threat' The
           case of simple dynamic systems
    • Authors: Vivien Lungwitz; Peter Sedlmeier; Marcus Schwarz
      Pages: 65 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 188
      Author(s): Vivien Lungwitz, Peter Sedlmeier, Marcus Schwarz
      Mathematics and mental rotation are classic fields where it has been shown that priming women with their gender identity impedes performance. Whereas past research focused mainly on stereotype threat effects in women in a narrowly defined context, this study broadened the research focus: We primed 264 women and men equally with a male, a neutral, or a female prime before they had to solve a simple dynamic system task. As expected, female-primed women subsequently performed worst of all six groups. Solution rates were almost 14% higher for the women in the male-primed condition. Men performed better than women in all three priming conditions. However, this difference was reduced in the male-primed condition as women's performance had increased as anticipated. Unexpected was a decline in the male performance in the same condition. The study showed that gender priming had a significant effect on women in tasks involving simple dynamic systems. However, mathematical knowledge and area of occupation clearly were stronger predictors for both men and women. Priming alone cannot eliminate the effects of stereotype threat.

      PubDate: 2018-06-08T10:34:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.05.010
      Issue No: Vol. 188 (2018)
       
  • Low-level image properties in facial expressions
    • Authors: Claudia Menzel; Christoph Redies; Gregor U. Hayn-Leichsenring
      Pages: 74 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 188
      Author(s): Claudia Menzel, Christoph Redies, Gregor U. Hayn-Leichsenring
      We studied low-level image properties of face photographs and analyzed whether they change with different emotional expressions displayed by an individual. Differences in image properties were measured in three databases that depicted a total of 167 individuals. Face images were used either in their original form, cut to a standard format or superimposed with a mask. Image properties analyzed were: brightness, redness, yellowness, contrast, spectral slope, overall power and relative power in low, medium and high spatial frequencies. Results showed that image properties differed significantly between expressions within each individual image set. Further, specific facial expressions corresponded to patterns of image properties that were consistent across all three databases. In order to experimentally validate our findings, we equalized the luminance histograms and spectral slopes of three images from a given individual who showed two expressions. Participants were significantly slower in matching the expression in an equalized compared to an original image triad. Thus, existing differences in these image properties (i.e., spectral slope, brightness or contrast) facilitate emotion detection in particular sets of face images.

      PubDate: 2018-06-08T10:34:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.05.012
      Issue No: Vol. 188 (2018)
       
  • Change perception and change interference within and across feature
           dimensions
    • Authors: Michael Pilling; Doug J.K. Barrett
      Pages: 84 - 96
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 188
      Author(s): Michael Pilling, Doug J.K. Barrett
      The ability to perceive a change in a visual object is reduced when that change is presented in competition with other changes which are task-irrelevant. We performed two experiments which investigate the basis of this change interference effect. We tested whether change interference occurs as a consequence of some form of attentional capture, or whether the interference occurs at a stage prior to attentional selection of the task-relevant change. A modified probe-detection task was used to explore this issue. Observers were required to report the presence/absence of a specified change-type (colour, shape) in the probe, in a context in which - on certain trials - irrelevant changes occur in non-probe items. There were two key variables in these experiments: the attentional state of the observer, and the dimensional congruence of changes in the probe and non-probe items. Change interference was strongest when the irrelevant changes were the same as those on the report dimension. However the interference pattern persisted even when observers did not know the report dimension at the time the changes occurred. These results seem to rule out attention as a factor. Our results fit best with an interpretation in which change interference produces feature-specific sensory noise which degrades the signal quality of the target change.

      PubDate: 2018-06-08T10:34:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.05.008
      Issue No: Vol. 188 (2018)
       
  • Persistent cooperation and gender differences in repeated Prisoner's
           Dilemma games: Some things never change
    • Authors: Andrew M. Colman; Briony D. Pulford; Eva M. Krockow
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 187
      Author(s): Andrew M. Colman, Briony D. Pulford, Eva M. Krockow
      In the finite-horizon repeated Prisoner's Dilemma, a compelling backward induction argument shows that rational players will defect in every round, following the uniquely optimal Nash equilibrium path. It is frequently asserted that cooperation gradually declines when a Prisoner's Dilemma is repeated multiple times by the same players, but the evidence for this is unconvincing, and a classic experiment by Rapoport and Chammah in the 1960s reported that cooperation eventually recovers if the game is repeated hundreds of times. They also reported that men paired with men cooperate almost twice as frequently as women paired with women. Our conceptual replication with Prisoner's Dilemmas repeated over 300 rounds with no breaks, using more advanced, computerized methodology, revealed no decline in cooperation, apart from endgame effects in the last few rounds, and replicated the substantial gender difference, confirming, in the UK, a puzzling finding first reported in the US in the 1960s.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.014
      Issue No: Vol. 187 (2018)
       
  • Can threat detection be enhanced using processing strategies by police
           trainees and officers'
    • Authors: Alexandre Williot; Isabelle Blanchette
      Pages: 9 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 187
      Author(s): Alexandre Williot, Isabelle Blanchette
      The ability to detect threatening stimuli is an important skill for police officers. No research has yet examined whether implementing different information processing strategies can improve threat detection in police officers and police trainees. The first aim of our study was to compare the effect of strategies accentuating the processing of the emotional or the semantic dimension of stimuli on attention towards threatening and neutral information. The second aim was to consider the impact of PTSD symptoms on threat detection, as a function of processing strategies, in police officers and trainees. In a cueing paradigm, participants had to respond to a target that was presented following a threatening or neutral cue. Participants then answered a question, known beforehand, concerning the cue. The question was used to induce a more emotional or semantic processing strategy. Results showed that when the processing strategy was emotional, police trainees and officers were faster to detect the target when it followed a threatening cue, compared to a neutral cue, independently of its spatial location. This was not the case when the processing strategy was semantic. This study shows that induced processing strategies can influence attentional mechanisms related to threat detection in police trainees and police officers.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 187 (2018)
       
  • Discrimination between smiling faces: Human observers vs. automated face
           analysis
    • Authors: Mario Del Líbano; Manuel G. Calvo; Andrés Fernández-Martín; Guillermo Recio
      Pages: 19 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 187
      Author(s): Mario Del Líbano, Manuel G. Calvo, Andrés Fernández-Martín, Guillermo Recio
      This study investigated (a) how prototypical happy faces (with happy eyes and a smile) can be discriminated from blended expressions with a smile but non-happy eyes, depending on type and intensity of the eye expression; and (b) how smile discrimination differs for human perceivers versus automated face analysis, depending on affective valence and morphological facial features. Human observers categorized faces as happy or non-happy, or rated their valence. Automated analysis (FACET software) computed seven expressions (including joy/happiness) and 20 facial action units (AUs). Physical properties (low-level image statistics and visual saliency) of the face stimuli were controlled. Results revealed, first, that some blended expressions (especially, with angry eyes) had lower discrimination thresholds (i.e., they were identified as “non-happy” at lower non-happy eye intensities) than others (especially, with neutral eyes). Second, discrimination sensitivity was better for human perceivers than for automated FACET analysis. As an additional finding, affective valence predicted human discrimination performance, whereas morphological AUs predicted FACET discrimination. FACET can be a valid tool for categorizing prototypical expressions, but is currently more limited than human observers for discrimination of blended expressions. Configural processing facilitates detection of in/congruence(s) across regions, and thus detection of non-genuine smiling faces (due to non-happy eyes).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.019
      Issue No: Vol. 187 (2018)
       
  • The global precedence effect in English and Korean native speakers with
           Roman, Korean Hangul and Thai compound letters
    • Authors: Heather Winskel; Tae-Hoon Kim; Jeung-Ryeul Cho
      Pages: 30 - 36
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 187
      Author(s): Heather Winskel, Tae-Hoon Kim, Jeung-Ryeul Cho
      The aim was to investigate whether native English speakers (Experiment 1) and native Korean speakers (Experiment 2) processed familiar letters in an analytic manner in comparison to unfamiliar letters or symbols. Participants performed a two-alternative-forced-choice identification task with Roman, Korean Hangul and Thai Navon compound letters (large letters made up of small letters). The English speakers were familiar with Roman script but not Korean or Thai, whereas the Korean speakers were familiar with Korean and Roman script but not Thai. The global precedence effect (GPE), an indication of holistic processing, is characterised by a global advantage (global processing is faster than local processing) and asymmetric congruence (global processing interferes with the processing of local features). Based on previous research, it was predicted that there would be a global precedence effect for unfamiliar but not familiar letters. Results from the English speakers did not support this prediction as we found a GPE for familiar Roman as well as unfamiliar Thai letters but not for unfamiliar Korean letters. In contrast, for the Korean speakers, we found support for the prediction as we found a GPE for Thai letters but not for familiar Korean and Roman letters. Based on this evidence, we propose that the Koreans are processing Korean and Roman letters in a more analytic manner than the English native speakers for Roman script. Due to the characteristics of Korean Hangul, Korean readers may be processing letters in a more analytic manner than the English readers.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 187 (2018)
       
  • Effects of task repetition but no transfer of inhibitory control training
           in healthy adults
    • Authors: Tobias Talanow; Ulrich Ettinger
      Pages: 37 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 187
      Author(s): Tobias Talanow, Ulrich Ettinger
      Executive functions (EFs) comprise the updating, shifting and inhibition dimensions. According to the Unity and Diversity Model, the inhibition dimension is fully accounted for by a general EFs factor. This suggests that training of inhibition should transfer, in part, to updating and shifting. Therefore, we tested the effectiveness of a three-week inhibition training (high-conflict Stroop task) and explored near transfer effects to an untrained inhibition task (antisaccade task) and far transfer effects to untrained tasks demanding task-set shifting (number-letter-task), working memory updating (n-back task) and planning abilities (Stockings of Cambridge task). We employed a randomized pretest/treatment/posttest study design in n = 102 healthy young adults, assigned to an intensive Stroop training (n = 38), an active control condition (n = 34) or no training intervention (n = 30). In the Stroop training group, Stroop performance improved with practice, while performance in the active control group remained unchanged. The Stroop training group showed improvements in overall Stroop task performance from pretest to posttest, but we observed neither near nor far transfer effects. Additionally, specifically stronger gains on incongruent Stroop trials compared to congruent trials were observed in the Stroop training group when color bar trials were excluded from the pretest-posttest-analysis. Generally, there were substantial improvements from pretest to posttest independent of training condition in all transfer tasks. In sum, our data do not support the existence of transfer effects from inhibition training in healthy young adults.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.016
      Issue No: Vol. 187 (2018)
       
  • Exploring the representational basis of response-effect compatibility:
           Evidence from bilingual verbal response-effect mappings
    • Authors: Noémi Földes; Andrea M. Philipp; Arnaud Badets; Iring Koch
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): Noémi Földes, Andrea M. Philipp, Arnaud Badets, Iring Koch
      The ideomotor principle states that actions are represented by their anticipated sensory effects. This notion is often tested using the response-effect compatibility (REC) paradigm, where participants' responses are followed either by a compatible or incompatible response effect (e.g., an effect on the right side after a right-hand response is considered R-E compatible due to the spatial overlap, whereas an effect on the left side after the right-hand response is considered incompatible). Shorter reaction times are typically observed in the compatible condition compared to the incompatible condition (i.e., REC effect), suggesting that effect anticipation plays a role in action control. Previous evidence from verbal REC suggested that effect anticipation can be due to conceptual R-E overlap, but there was also phonological overlap (i.e., anticipated reading of a word preceded by the vocal response of saying that very word). To examine the representational basis of REC, in three experiments, we introduced a bilingual R-E mapping to exclude phonological R-E overlap (i.e., in the R-E compatible condition, the translation equivalent of the response word is presented as an effect word in a different language). Our findings show that the REC effect is obtained when presenting the effect word in the same language as the response (i.e., monolingual condition), but the compatibility effect was not found when the semantically same word is presented in a different language, suggesting no conceptually generalized REC in a bilingual setting. (232 words).

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • Response time distribution parameters show posterror behavioral adjustment
           in mental arithmetic
    • Authors: Dmitri Lavro; Danny Levin; Christoph Klein; Andrea Berger
      Pages: 8 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): Dmitri Lavro, Danny Levin, Christoph Klein, Andrea Berger
      After making an error, we usually slow down before our next response. This phenomenon is known as the posterror slowing (PES) effect. It has been interpreted to be an indicator of posterror behavioral adjustments and, therefore, has been linked to cognitive control. However, contradictory findings regarding PES and posterror accuracy cast doubt on such a relation. To determine whether behavior is adjusted after making an error, we investigated other features of behavior, such as the distribution of response times (RT) in a mental arithmetic task. Participants performed an arithmetic task with (Experiments 1 and 2) and without (Experiment 1) an accuracy-tracking procedure. On both tasks, participants responded more slowly and less accurately after errors. However, the RT distribution was more symmetrical on posterror trials compared to postcorrect trials, suggesting that a change in processing mode occurred after making an error, thus linking cognitive control to error monitoring, even in cases when accuracy decreased after errors. These findings expand our understanding on how posterror behavior is adjusted in mental arithmetic, and we propose that the measures of the RT distribution can be further used in other domains of error-monitoring research.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • Eye movements provide insight into individual differences in children's
           analogical reasoning strategies
    • Authors: Ariel Starr; Michael S. Vendetti; Silvia A. Bunge
      Pages: 18 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): Ariel Starr, Michael S. Vendetti, Silvia A. Bunge
      Analogical reasoning is considered a key driver of cognitive development and is a strong predictor of academic achievement. However, it is difficult for young children, who are prone to focusing on perceptual and semantic similarities among items rather than relational commonalities. For example, in a classic A:B::C:' propositional analogy task, children must inhibit attention towards items that are visually or semantically similar to C, and instead focus on finding a relational match to the A:B pair. Competing theories of reasoning development attribute improvements in children's performance to gains in either executive functioning or semantic knowledge. Here, we sought to identify key drivers of the development of analogical reasoning ability by using eye gaze patterns to infer problem-solving strategies used by six-year-old children and adults. Children had a greater tendency than adults to focus on the immediate task goal and constrain their search based on the C item. However, large individual differences existed within children, and more successful reasoners were able to maintain the broader goal in mind and constrain their search by initially focusing on the A:B pair before turning to C and the response choices. When children adopted this strategy, their attention was drawn more readily to the correct response option. Individual differences in children's reasoning ability were also related to rule-guided behavior but not to semantic knowledge. These findings suggest that both developmental improvements and individual differences in performance are driven by the use of more efficient reasoning strategies regarding which information is prioritized from the start, rather than the ability to disengage from attractive lure items.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • Expert monitoring and verbal feedback as sources of performance pressure
    • Authors: John J. Buchanan; Inchon Park; Jing Chen; Ranjana K. Mehta; Austin McCulloch; Joohyun Rhee; David L. Wright
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): John J. Buchanan, Inchon Park, Jing Chen, Ranjana K. Mehta, Austin McCulloch, Joohyun Rhee, David L. Wright
      The influence of monitoring-pressure and verbal feedback on the performance of the intrinsically stable bimanual coordination patterns of in-phase and anti-phase was examined. The two bimanual patterns were produced under three conditions: 1) no-monitoring, 2) monitoring-pressure (viewed by experts), and 3) monitoring-pressure (viewed by experts) combined with verbal feedback emphasizing poor performance. The bimanual patterns were produced at self-paced movement frequencies. Anti-phase coordination was always less stable than in-phase coordination across all three conditions. When performed under conditions 2 and 3, both bimanual patterns were performed with less variability in relative phase across a wide range of self-paced movement frequencies compared to the no-monitoring condition. Thus, monitoring-pressure resulted in performance stabilization rather than degradation and the presence of verbal feedback had no impact on the influence of monitoring pressure. The current findings are inconsistent with the predictions of explicit monitoring theory; however, the findings are consistent with studies that have revealed increased stability for the system's intrinsic dynamics as a result of attentional focus and intentional control. The results are discussed within the contexts of the dynamic pattern theory of coordination, explicit monitoring theory, and action-focused theories as explanations for choking under pressure.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • The universal and automatic association between brightness and positivity
    • Authors: Eva Specker; Helmut Leder; Raphael Rosenberg; Lisa Mira Hegelmaier; Hanna Brinkmann; Jan Mikuni; Hideaki Kawabata
      Pages: 47 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): Eva Specker, Helmut Leder, Raphael Rosenberg, Lisa Mira Hegelmaier, Hanna Brinkmann, Jan Mikuni, Hideaki Kawabata
      The present study investigates the hypothesis that brightness of colors is associated with positivity, postulating that this is an automatic and universal effect. The Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was used in all studies. Study 1 used color patches varying on brightness, Study 2 used achromatic stimuli to eliminate the potential confounding effects of hue and saturation. Study 3 replicated Study 2 in a different cultural context (Japan vs. Austria), both studies also included a measure of explicit association. All studies confirmed the hypothesis that brightness is associated with positivity, at a significance level of p < .001 and Cohen's D varying from 0.90 to 3.99. Study 1–3 provided support for the notion that this is an automatic effect. Additionally, Study 2 and Study 3 showed that people also have an explicit association of brightness with positivity. However, as expected, our results also show that the implicit association was stronger than the explicit association. Study 3 shows clear support for the universality of our effects. In sum, our results support the idea that brightness is associated with positivity and that these associations are automatic and universal.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • On the effects of regional accents on memory and credibility
    • Authors: Candice Frances; Albert Costa; Cristina Baus
      Pages: 63 - 70
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): Candice Frances, Albert Costa, Cristina Baus
      The information we obtain from how speakers sound—for example their accent—affects how we interpret the messages they convey. A clear example is foreign accented speech, where reduced intelligibility and speaker's social categorization (out-group member) affect memory and the credibility of the message (e.g., less trustworthiness). In the present study, we go one step further and ask whether evaluations of messages are also affected by regional accents—accents from a different region than the listener. In the current study, we report results from three experiments on immediate memory recognition and immediate credibility assessments as well as the illusory truth effect. These revealed no differences between messages conveyed in local—from the same region as the participant—and regional accents—from native speakers of a different country than the participants. Our results suggest that when the accent of a speaker has high intelligibility, social categorization by accent does not seem to negatively affect how we treat the speakers' messages.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • The role of psychological distancing in appreciation of art: Can native
           versus foreign language context affect responses to abstract and
           representational paintings'
    • Authors: Elena Stephan; Miriam Faust; Katy Borodkin
      Pages: 71 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): Elena Stephan, Miriam Faust, Katy Borodkin
      Our work examines the role of psychological distancing in responses to art. We argued that the context of a foreign (vs native) language may distance the individual away from the pragmatic everyday perception style and enhance appreciation of paintings. We established the distinction between the sets of abstract and representational paintings in terms of perceptual-cognitive features and affective responses (Study 1). Then, we examined the influence of language context on appreciation of paintings. When examined separately, abstract paintings were better appreciated within a foreign (than native) language context (Study 2a), whereas appreciation of representational paintings was not significantly enhanced by a foreign language (Study 2b). The combined analysis of Studies 2a and 2b suggests, however, that distance induced by the foreign language similarly enhances appreciation of abstract and representational art.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • The linguistic transparency of first language calendar terms affects
           calendar calculations in a second language
    • Authors: Bene Bassetti; Annie Clarke; Danijela Trenkic
      Pages: 81 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): Bene Bassetti, Annie Clarke, Danijela Trenkic
      Calendar calculations – e.g., calculating the nth month after a certain month – are an important component of temporal cognition, and can vary cross-linguistically. English speakers rely on a verbal list representation-processing system. Chinese speakers – whose calendar terms are numerically transparent – rely on a more efficient numerical system. Does knowing a numerically transparent calendar lexicon facilitate calendar calculations in an opaque second language' Late Chinese-English bilinguals and English native speakers performed a Month and a Weekday Calculation Task in English. Directionality (forward/backward) and boundary-crossing (within/across the year/week boundary) were manipulated. English speakers relied on verbal list processing, and were slower in backward than forward calculations. In spite of the English calendar system's opaqueness, bilinguals relied on numerical processing, were slower in across- than within-boundary trials, and under some conditions had faster RTs than the native speakers. Results have implications for research on temporal cognition, linguistic relativity and bilingual cognition.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • Action memory and knowledge-based cuing in school-aged children: The
           effect of object presentation and semantic integration
    • Authors: Farzaneh Badinlou; Reza Kormi-Nouri; Monika Knopf
      Pages: 118 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): Farzaneh Badinlou, Reza Kormi-Nouri, Monika Knopf
      Research into memory has found that declarative knowledge provides rich information about the world and improved memory performance. The present research investigates the effects of knowledge-based cues on memory for action events and on the enactment effect. Cued recall of action phrases was examined in four groups of 8-14-year-olds (410 children in total). The object cues (i.e., real vs. imaginary objects) and semantic relational cues (i.e., well-integrated vs. poorly integrated items) were manipulated in three encoding conditions: verbal tasks, experimenter-performed tasks, and subject-performed tasks. Results indicate that enacted encoding has a recall advantage over verbal encoding regardless of the cue manipulations, though presenting objects and semantic-integrated items can moderate the enactment effect. In addition, providing further information about prior knowledge can directly influence memory performance across age groups. These results are discussed in relation to the effect of knowledge-based information in facilitating memory strategies and cognitive processing in school-aged children.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • Emotional see-saw affects rationality of decision-making: Evidence for
           metacognitive impairments
    • Authors: Michał Folwarczny; Magdalena C. Kaczmarek; Dariusz Doliński; Remigiusz Szczepanowski
      Pages: 126 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): Michał Folwarczny, Magdalena C. Kaczmarek, Dariusz Doliński, Remigiusz Szczepanowski
      This research investigated the cognitive mechanisms that underlie impairments in human reasoning triggered by the emotional see-saw technique. It has previously been stated that such manipulation is effective as it presumably induces a mindless state and cognitive deficits in compliant individuals. Based on the dual-system architecture of reasoning (system 2) and affective decision-making (system 1), we challenged the previous theoretical account by indicating that the main source of compliance is impairment of the meta-reasoning system when rapid affective changes occur. To examine this hypothesis, we manipulated affective feelings (system 1 processing) by violating participants' expectations regarding reward and performance in a go/no-go task in which individuals were to inhibit their responses to earn money. Aside from the go/no-go performance, we measured rationality (meta-reasoning system 2) in decision-making by asking participants to comply with a nonsensical request. We found that participants who were exposed to meta-reasoning impairments due to the emotional see-saw phenomenon exhibited mindless behavior.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.012
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • Causal reports: Context-dependent contributions of intuitive physics and
           visual impressions of launching
    • Authors: Michele Vicovaro
      Pages: 133 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 186
      Author(s): Michele Vicovaro
      Everyday causal reports appear to be based on a blend of perceptual and cognitive processes. Causality can sometimes be perceived automatically through low-level visual processing of stimuli, but it can also be inferred on the basis of an intuitive understanding of the physical mechanism that underlies an observable event. We investigated how visual impressions of launching and the intuitive physics of collisions contribute to the formation of explicit causal responses. In Experiment 1, participants observed collisions between realistic objects differing in apparent material and hence implied mass, whereas in Experiment 2, participants observed collisions between abstract, non-material objects. The results of Experiment 1 showed that ratings of causality were mainly driven by the intuitive physics of collisions, whereas the results of Experiment 2 provide some support to the hypothesis that ratings of causality were mainly driven by visual impressions of launching. These results suggest that stimulus factors and experimental design factors − such as the realism of the stimuli and the variation in the implied mass of the colliding objects − may determine the relative contributions of perceptual and post-perceptual cognitive processes to explicit causal responses. A revised version of the impetus transmission heuristic provides a satisfactory explanation for these results, whereas the hypothesis that causal responses and intuitive physics are based on the internalization of physical laws does not.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.015
      Issue No: Vol. 186 (2018)
       
  • Effects of non-symbolic arithmetic training on symbolic arithmetic and the
           approximate number system
    • Authors: Jacky Au; Susanne M. Jaeggi; Martin Buschkuehl
      Pages: 1 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Jacky Au, Susanne M. Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl
      The approximate number system (ANS) is an innate cognitive template that allows for the mental representation of approximate magnitude, and has been controversially linked to symbolic number knowledge and math ability. A series of recent studies found that an approximate arithmetic training (AAT) task that draws upon the ANS can improve math skills, which not only supports the existence of this link, but suggests it may be causal. However, no direct transfer effects to any measure of the ANS have yet been reported, calling into question the mechanisms by which math improvements may emerge. The present study investigated the effects of a 7-day AAT and successfully replicated previously reported transfer effects to math. Furthermore, our exploratory analyses provide preliminary evidence that certain ANS-related skills may also be susceptible to training. We conclude that AAT has reproducible effects on math performance, and provide avenues for future studies to further explore underlying mechanisms - specifically, the link between improvements in math and improvements in ANS skills.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Cross-race correlations in the abilities to match unfamiliar faces
    • Authors: Eesha Kokje; Markus Bindemann; Ahmed M. Megreya
      Pages: 13 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Eesha Kokje, Markus Bindemann, Ahmed M. Megreya
      The other-race effect in face identification has been documented widely in memory tasks, but it persists also in identity-matching tasks, in which memory contributions are minimized. Whereas this points to a perceptual locus for this effect, it remains unresolved whether matching performance with same- and other-race faces is driven by shared cognitive mechanisms. To examine this question, this study compared Arab and Caucasian observers' ability to match faces of their own race with their ability to match faces of another race using one-to-one (Experiment 1) and one-to-many (Experiment 2) identification tasks. Across both experiments, Arab and Caucasian observers demonstrated reliable other-race effects at a group level. At an individual level, substantial variation in accuracy was found, but performance with same-race and other-race faces correlated consistently and strongly. This indicates that the abilities to match same- and other-race faces share a common cognitive mechanism.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • The influence of vision, touch, and proprioception on body representation
           of the lower limbs
    • Authors: Kayla D. Stone; Anouk Keizer; H. Chris Dijkerman
      Pages: 22 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Kayla D. Stone, Anouk Keizer, H. Chris Dijkerman
      Numerous studies have shown that the representation of the hand is distorted. When participants are asked to localize unseen points on the hand (e.g. the knuckle), it is perceived to be wider and shorter than its physical dimensions. Similar distortions occur when people are asked to judge the distance between two tactile points on the hand; estimates made in the longitudinal direction are perceived as significantly shorter than those made in the transverse direction. Yet, when asked to visually compare the shape and size of one's own hand to a template hand, individuals are accurate at estimating the size of their own hands. Thus, it seems that body representations are, at least in part, a function of the most prominent underlying sensory modality used to perceive the body part. Yet, it remains unknown if the representations of other body parts are similarly distorted. The lower limbs, for example, are structurally and functionally very different from the hands, yet their representation(s) are seldom studied. What does the body representation for the leg look like' And is leg representation dependent on which sense is probed when making judgments about its shape and size' In the current study, we investigated what the representation of the leg looks like in visually-, tactually-, and proprioceptively-guided tasks. Results revealed that the leg, like the hand, is distorted in a highly systematic manner. Distortions seem to rely, at least partly, on sensory input. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to systematically investigate leg representation in healthy individuals.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Examining the effect of state anxiety on compensatory and strategic
           adjustments in the planning of goal-directed aiming
    • Authors: James W. Roberts; Mark R. Wilson; Jessica K. Skultety; James L. Lyons
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): James W. Roberts, Mark R. Wilson, Jessica K. Skultety, James L. Lyons
      The anxiety-perceptual-motor performance relationship may be enriched by investigations involving discrete manual responses due to the definitive demarcation of planning and control processes, which comprise the early and late portions of movement, respectively. To further examine the explanatory power of self-focus and distraction theories, we explored the potential of anxiety causing changes to movement planning that accommodate for anticipated negative effects in online control. As a result, we posed two hypotheses where anxiety causes performers to initially undershoot the target and enable more time to use visual feedback (“play-it-safe”), or fire a ballistic reach to cover a greater distance without later undertaking online control (“go-for-it”). Participants were tasked with an upper-limb movement to a single target under counter-balanced instructions to execute fast and accurate responses (low/normal anxiety) with non-contingent negative performance feedback (high anxiety). The results indicated that the previously identified negative impact of anxiety in online control was replicated. While anxiety caused a longer displacement to reach peak velocity and greater tendency to overshoot the target, there appeared to be no shift in the attempts to utilise online visual feedback. Thus, the tendency to initially overshoot may manifest from an inefficient auxiliary procedure that manages to uphold overall movement time and response accuracy.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.008
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Who is more flexible'—Awareness of changing context but not working
           memory capacity modulates inhibitory control
    • Authors: Shan-Chuan Teng; Hsuan-Fu Chao; Yunn-Wen Lien
      Pages: 41 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Shan-Chuan Teng, Hsuan-Fu Chao, Yunn-Wen Lien
      The present study examines how a person's working memory capacity (WMC) and awareness of change in context influences modulating inhibitory control. Context was manipulated by changing the predictive validity of a prime to a following target (i.e., the proportion of prime repetition) across three phases in a single-prime negative priming task. The prime was a distractor for the following target when the proportion was 25% (in the first and third phases) and a useful cue when the proportion rose to 75% (in the second phase). Participants' WMCs were measured and whether they were aware of the change of the prime-repetition proportion was determined in interviews at the end of the experiment. We found that when the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) was short (Experiment 1), participants aware of the change of prime-repetition proportion showed a null negative priming effect when the contingency increased from 25% to 75%, and then rebooted the effect when it decreased back to 25%, thus indicating an ability to modulate inhibitory control as context varied. In contrast, the unaware participants kept inhibiting primes all the time. When SOA was long (Experiment 2), participants with awareness even showed a positive priming effect when the prime-repetition proportion increased. Surprisingly, participants' WMCs did not matter except for the conscious strategy used in the long-SOA condition. This is the first study simultaneously investigating how WMC and awareness can affect people's ability to modulate inhibitory control and reveals that awareness plays a more direct role in such modulation than does WMC.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:47:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Working memory cannot regulate overt emotional capture
    • Authors: Kimberly M. Wingert; Chris Blais; B. Hunter Ball; Gene A. Brewer
      Pages: 52 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Kimberly M. Wingert, Chris Blais, B. Hunter Ball, Gene A. Brewer
      Individual differences in working memory capacity partly arise from variability in attention control, a process influenced by negative emotional content. Thus, individual differences in working memory capacity should predict differences in the ability to regulate attention in emotional contexts. To address this hypothesis, a complex-span working memory task was modified so that negative arousing images or neutral images subtended the background during the encoding phase. Across three experiments, negative arousing images impaired working memory encoding relative to neutral images, resulting in impoverished symmetry span scores. Contrary to the primary hypothesis, individual differences in working memory capacity derived from three complex span tasks failed to moderate the effect of negative arousing images on working memory encoding across two large scale studies. Additionally, in Experiment 3, both negative and arousing images captured attention and were processed despite their incongruence with task goals which led to increased memory for the images in a subsequent recognition task. Implications for theories of working memory and attention control in emotional contexts will be discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.12.007
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Using more different and more familiar targets improves the detection of
           concealed information
    • Authors: Kristina Suchotzki; Jan De Houwer; Bennett Kleinberg; Bruno Verschuere
      Pages: 65 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Kristina Suchotzki, Jan De Houwer, Bennett Kleinberg, Bruno Verschuere
      When embedded among a number of plausible irrelevant options, the presentation of critical (e.g., crime-related or autobiographical) information is associated with a marked increase in response time (RT). This RT effect crucially depends on the inclusion of a target/non-target discrimination task with targets being a dedicated set of items that require a unique response (press YES; for all other items press NO). Targets may be essential because they share a feature - familiarity - with the critical items. Whereas irrelevant items have not been encountered before, critical items are known from the event or the facts of the investigation. Target items are usually learned before the test, and thereby made familiar to the participants. Hence, familiarity-based responding needs to be inhibited on the critical items and may therefore explain the RT increase on the critical items. This leads to the hypothesis that the more participants rely on familiarity, the more pronounced the RT increase on critical items may be. We explored two ways to increase familiarity-based responding: (1) Increasing the number of different target items, and (2) using familiar targets. In two web-based studies (n = 357 and n = 499), both the number of different targets and the use of familiar targets facilitated concealed information detection. The effect of the number of different targets was small yet consistent across both studies, the effect of target familiarity was large in both studies. Our results support the role of familiarity-based responding in the Concealed Information Test and point to ways on how to improve validity of the Concealed Information Test.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Effects of modality and repetition in a continuous recognition memory
           task: Repetition has no effect on auditory recognition memory
    • Authors: Azlina Amir Kassim; Rehan Rehman; Jessica M. Price
      Pages: 72 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Azlina Amir Kassim, Rehan Rehman, Jessica M. Price
      Previous research has shown that auditory recognition memory is poorer compared to visual and cross-modal (visual and auditory) recognition memory. The effect of repetition on memory has been robust in showing improved performance. It is not clear, however, how auditory recognition memory compares to visual and cross-modal recognition memory following repetition. Participants performed a recognition memory task, making old/new discriminations to new stimuli, stimuli repeated for the first time after 4–7 intervening items (R1), or repeated for the second time after 36–39 intervening items (R2). Depending on the condition, participants were either exposed to visual stimuli (2D line drawings), auditory stimuli (spoken words), or cross-modal stimuli (pairs of images and associated spoken words). Results showed that unlike participants in the visual and cross-modal conditions, participants in the auditory recognition did not show improvements in performance on R2 trials compared to R1 trials. These findings have implications for pedagogical techniques in education, as well as for interventions and exercises aimed at boosting memory performance.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Time flies faster under time pressure
    • Authors: Anne-Claire Rattat; Pauline Matha; Julien Cegarra
      Pages: 81 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Anne-Claire Rattat, Pauline Matha, Julien Cegarra
      We examined the effects of time pressure on duration estimation in a verbal estimation task and a production task. In both temporal tasks, participants had to solve mazes in two conditions of time pressure (with or without), and with three different target durations (30 s, 60 s, and 90 s). In each trial of the verbal estimation task, participants had to estimate in conventional time units (minutes and seconds) the amount of time that had elapsed since they started to solve the maze. In the production task, they had to press a key while solving the maze when they thought that the trial's duration had reached a target value. Results showed that in both tasks, durations were judged longer with time pressure than without it. However, this temporal overestimation under time pressure did not increase with the length of the target duration. These results are discussed within the framework of scalar expectancy theory.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.014
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Short-term effects on temporal judgement: Sequential drivers of interval
           bisection and reproduction
    • Authors: Jordan J. Wehrman; John H. Wearden; Paul Sowman
      Pages: 87 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Jordan J. Wehrman, John H. Wearden, Paul Sowman
      Our prior experiences provide the background with which we judge subsequent events. In the time perception literature one common finding is that providing participants with a higher percentage of a particular interval can skew judgment; intervals will appear longer if the distribution of intervals contains more short experiences. However, changing the distribution of intervals that participants witness also changes the short-term, interval-to-interval, sequence that participants experience. In the experiment presented here, we kept the overall distribution of intervals constant while manipulating the immediately-prior experience of participants. In temporal bisection, this created a noted assimilation effect; participants judged intervals as shorter given an immediately preceding short interval. In interval reproduction, there was no effect of the immediately prior interval length unless the prior interval had a linked motor command. We thus proposed that the immediately prior interval provided a context by which a subsequent interval is judged. However, in the case of reproduction, where a subsequent interval is reproduced, rather than seen, the effects of contextualization are attenuated.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Assessing the influence of sound parameters on crossmodal cuing in
           different regions of space
    • Authors: Jae Lee; Charles Spence
      Pages: 96 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Jae Lee, Charles Spence
      To date, crossmodal spatial cuing research has primarily investigated spatial attention modulated by the positioning of auditory cues, without addressing the question of the role played by sound parameters such as intensity change, waveform structure, or duration. Therefore in the present study, we investigated exogenous spatial cuing following the presentation of auditory cues having different intensity profiles (looming or receding), waveforms (triangular structured waveform or white noise), and durations (250 ms or 500 ms). Auditory cues were presented from one of four locations (front-left, front-right, rear-left, or rear-right). The participants had to make speeded elevation discrimination responses to visual targets presented from the front (on the left or right). The magnitude of the cuing effect was larger following the presentation of a structured looming auditory cue than a structured receding cue. On the other hand, there was no statistical difference between the magnitude of the cuing effect in the looming and in the receding intensity profiles when white noise cues were used. Such findings are consistent with previous reports. Furthermore, the magnitude of the cuing effect was larger when the cues were presented from the front than from the rear. On the contrary, other recent findings showed that the presentation of a 100 ms constant-intensity auditory cue exogenously oriented visual attention to the cued hemifield, regardless of whether the cues were presented from the front or rear. Therefore, the findings reported here demonstrated that sound parameters can modulate the exogenous orienting of crossmodal spatial attention.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Off the top of my head: Malleability and stability in natural categories
    • Authors: Tomás A. Palma; Ana Sofia Santos; Leonel Garcia-Marques
      Pages: 104 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Tomás A. Palma, Ana Sofia Santos, Leonel Garcia-Marques
      Previous research has found that category representations are highly malleable knowledge structures, varying widely across different contexts and individuals. However, it has also been found that such malleability does not apply equally to all types of category information. The present research further investigates the representational malleability versus stability of natural taxonomic categories. Using perceptual fluency as means to induce malleability, we explored whether malleability is moderated by the degree of typicality of category information. In the first experiment, we found that fluency-based malleability only occurs for non-typical category information. In follow-up experiments, we investigated the boundary conditions under which such fluency-based malleability occurs. Namely, in Experiment 2, we showed that the effect of fluency on non-typical features disappeared when there is a sensory modality mismatch between study and test phases. Finally, in Experiment 3, we demonstrated that this effect reappears in the modality mismatch condition when participants are given a response deadline. The implications of these findings to current theories of category representation and the perceptual fluency literature are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T08:04:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Illuminating ATOM: Taking time across the colour category border
    • Authors: Steven Samuel; Emanuel Bylund; Rachel Cooper; Panos Athanasopoulos
      Pages: 116 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Steven Samuel, Emanuel Bylund, Rachel Cooper, Panos Athanasopoulos
      Walsh's A Theory Of Magnitude (ATOM) contends that we represent magnitudes such as number, space, time and luminance on a shared metric, such that “more” of one leads to the perception of “more” of the other (e.g. Walsh, 2003). In support of ATOM, participants have been shown to judge intervals between stimuli that are more discrepant in luminance as having a longer duration than intervals between stimuli whose luminance differs by a smaller degree (Xuan, Zhang, He, & Chen, 2007). We tested the potential limits to the ability of luminance to influence duration perception by investigating the possibility that the luminance-duration relationship might be interrupted by a concurrent change in the colour of that luminance. We showed native Greek and native English speakers sequences of stimuli that could be either light or dark versions of green or blue. Whereas for both groups a shift in green luminance does not comprise a categorical shift in colour, for Greek speakers shifts between light and dark blue cross a colour category boundary (ghalazio and ble respectively). We found that duration judgements were neither interrupted nor inflated by a shift in colour category. These results represent the first evidence that the influence of luminance change on duration perception is resistant to interference from discrete changes within the same perceptual input.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Perceptual load is not always a crucial determinant of early versus late
           selection
    • Authors: Daniel H. Weissman; Brittany Drake; Katharine Colella; Daphne Samuel
      Pages: 125 - 135
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 185
      Author(s): Daniel H. Weissman, Brittany Drake, Katharine Colella, Daphne Samuel
      The perceptual load hypothesis posits that early and late selection occurs under conditions of high and low perceptual load, respectively. Recent work, however, suggests that the absence of a congruency effect in high-load trials – the behavioral signature of early selection in studies of perceptual load – may not provide an exhaustive index of failing to identify task-irrelevant distractors. Prior research also suggests that the congruency sequence effect (CSE) – a modulation of the congruency effect after incongruent relative to congruent trials – provides complementary information about whether participants identify distractors. We therefore conducted a novel test of the perceptual load hypothesis that employed both the congruency effect and the CSE as measures of distractor identification. Experiment 1 revealed that distractors were identified not only in low-load trials but also in high-load trials wherein there was no overall congruency effect. Experiment 2 further revealed which task parameters allowed us to observe such “hidden" distractor identification. These findings suggest that perceptual load is not always a crucial determinant of early versus late selection.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 185 (2018)
       
  • Distinct effects of different visual cues on sentence comprehension and
           later recall: The case of speaker gaze versus depicted actions
    • Authors: Helene Kreysa; Eva M. Nunnemann; Pia Knoeferle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Helene Kreysa, Eva M. Nunnemann, Pia Knoeferle
      Language-processing accounts are beginning to accommodate different visual context effects, but they remain underspecified regarding differences between cues, both during sentence comprehension and subsequent recall. We monitored participants' eye movements to mentioned characters while they listened to transitive sentences. We varied whether speaker gaze, a depicted action, neither, or both of these visual cues were available, as well as whether both cues were deictic (Experiment 1) or only speaker gaze (Experiment 2). Speaker gaze affected eye movements during comprehension similarly early to a single deictic action depiction, but significantly earlier than non-deictic action depictions; conversely, depicted actions but not speaker gaze positively affected later recall of sentence content. Thus, cue type and cue-language relations must be accommodated in characterising real-time situated language comprehension and subsequent recall of sentence content.

      PubDate: 2018-05-29T14:41:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.05.001
       
  • Emotional arousal and memory after deep encoding
    • Authors: Jacqueline Leventon; Gabriela Camacho Maria Ramos Rojas Angelica Ruedas
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 188
      Author(s): Jacqueline S. Leventon, Gabriela L. Camacho, Maria D. Ramos Rojas, Angelica Ruedas
      Emotion often enhances long-term memory. One mechanism for this enhancement is heightened arousal during encoding. However, reducing arousal, via emotion regulation (ER) instructions, has not been associated with reduced memory. In fact, the opposite pattern has been observed: stronger memory for emotional stimuli encoded with an ER instruction to reduce arousal. This pattern may be due to deeper encoding required by ER instructions. In the current research, we examine the effects of emotional arousal and deep-encoding on memory across three studies. In Study 1, adult participants completed a writing task (deep-encoding) for encoding negative, neutral, and positive picture stimuli, whereby half the emotion stimuli had the ER instruction to reduce the emotion. Memory was strong across conditions, and no memory enhancement was observed for any condition. In Study 2, adult participants completed the same writing task as Study 1, as well as a shallow-encoding task for one-third of negative, neutral, and positive trials. Memory was strongest for deep vs. shallow encoding trials, with no effects of emotion or ER instruction. In Study 3, adult participants completed a shallow-encoding task for negative, neutral, and positive stimuli, with findings indicating enhanced memory for negative emotional stimuli. Findings suggest that deep encoding must be acknowledged as a source of memory enhancement when examining manipulations of emotion-related arousal.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
       
  • Negative social emotions and cognition: Shame, guilt and working memory
           impairments
    • Authors: Cesare Cavalera; Alessandro Pepe Valentino Zurloni Barbara Diana Olivia Realdon
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 188
      Author(s): Cesare Cavalera, Alessandro Pepe, Valentino Zurloni, Barbara Diana, Olivia Realdon, Patrizia Todisco, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Enrico Molinari, Francesco Pagnini
      Negative emotions can have an impact on a variety of cognitive domains, including Working Memory (WM). The present work investigated whether shame and guilt modulate WM performance in a dual-task test both in a non-clinical and a clinical population. In Experiment 1, 76 non-clinical participants performed a dual-task before and after being randomly assigned to shame, guilt or neutral inductions elicited by the writing of autobiographical past experiences. Shame and guilt elicitations were related to impaired WM performances. In Experiment 2, 65 clinical inpatients with eating disorders were assigned to the same procedure. The negative relationship of self-conscious emotions and WM was confirmed. Taken together these results suggest that shame and guilt are related to impairments of WM in both clinical and non-clinical participants.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
       
  • Dissociating action-effect activation and effect-based response selection
    • Authors: Katharina Schwarz; Roland Pfister Robert Wirth Wilfried Kunde
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica, Volume 188
      Author(s): Katharina A. Schwarz, Roland Pfister, Robert Wirth, Wilfried Kunde
      Anticipated action effects have been shown to govern action selection and initiation, as described in ideomotor theory, and they have also been demonstrated to determine crosstalk between different tasks in multitasking studies. Such effect-based crosstalk was observed not only in a forward manner (with a first task influencing performance in a following second task) but also in a backward manner (the second task influencing the preceding first task), suggesting that action effect codes can become activated prior to a capacity-limited processing stage often denoted as response selection. The process of effect-based response production, by contrast, has been proposed to be capacity-limited. These observations jointly suggest that effect code activation can occur independently of effect-based response production, though this theoretical implication has not been tested directly at present. We tested this hypothesis by employing a dual-task set-up in which we manipulated the ease of effect-based response production (via response-effect compatibility) in an experimental design that allows for observing forward and backward crosstalk. We observed robust crosstalk effects and response-effect compatibility effects alike, but no interaction between both effects. These results indicate that effect activation can occur in parallel for several tasks, independently of effect-based response production, which is confined to one task at a time.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
       
  • Continuous aesthetic judgment of image sequences
    • Authors: Mel W. Khaw; David Freedberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Mel W. Khaw, David Freedberg
      Perceptual judgments are said to be reference-dependent as they change on the basis of recent experiences. Here we quantify sequence effects within two types of aesthetic judgments: (i) individual ratings of single images (during self-paced trials) and (ii) continuous ratings of image sequences. As in the case of known contrast effects, trial-by-trial aesthetic responses are negatively correlated with judgments made toward the preceding image. During continuous judgment, a different type of bias is observed. The onset of change within a sequence introduces a persistent increase in ratings (relative to when the same images are judged in isolation). Furthermore, subjects indicate adjustment patterns and choices that selectively favor sequences that are rich in change. Sequence effects in aesthetic judgments thus differ greatly depending on the continuity and arrangement of presented stimuli. The effects highlighted here are important in understanding sustained aesthetic responses over time, such as those elicited during choreographic and musical arrangements. In contrast, standard measurements of aesthetic responses (over trials) may represent a series of distinct aesthetic experiences (e.g., viewing artworks in a museum).

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.018
       
  • Effects of affective and emotional congruency on facial expression
           processing under different task demands
    • Authors: Luis Aguado; Natalia Martínez-García; Andrea Solís-Olce; Teresa Dieguez-Risco; José Antonio Hinojosa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Luis Aguado, Natalia Martínez-García, Andrea Solís-Olce, Teresa Dieguez-Risco, José Antonio Hinojosa
      Contextual influences on responses to facial expressions of emotion were studied using a context-target paradigm that allowed distinguishing the effects of affective congruency (context and target of same/different valence: positive or negative) and emotional congruency (context and target representing the same/different emotion: anger, fear, happiness). Sentences describing anger, fear or happiness-inducing events and faces expressing each of these emotions were used as contexts and targets, respectively. While between-valence comparisons (context and target of similar/different valence) revealed affective congruency effects, within-valence comparisons (context and target of similar valence and same/different emotion) revealed emotional congruency effects. In Experiment 1 no evidence of emotional congruency and limited evidence of affective congruency were found with an evaluative task. In Experiment 2 effects of both affective and emotional congruency were observed with an emotion recognition task. In this case, angry and fearful faces were recognized faster in emotionally congruent contexts. In Experiment 3 the participants were asked explicitly to judge the emotional congruency of the target faces. Emotional congruency effects were again found, with faster judgments of angry and fearful faces in the corresponding emotional contexts. Moreover, judgments of angry expressions were faster and more accurate in happy than in anger contexts. Thus, participants found easier to decide that angry faces did not match a happy context than to judge that they did match an anger context. These results suggest that there are differences in the way that facial expressions of positive and negative emotions are discriminated and integrated with their contexts. Specifically, compared to positive expressions, contextual integration of negative expressions seems to require a double check of the valence and the specific emotion category of the expression and the context.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T14:40:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.04.013
       
  • Causal evidence in risk and policy perceptions: Applying the
           covariation/mechanism framework
    • Authors: Matt Baucum; Richard John
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Matt Baucum, Richard John
      Today's information-rich society demands constant evaluation of cause-effect relationships; behaviors and attitudes ranging from medical choices to voting decisions to policy preferences typically entail some form of causal inference (“Will this policy reduce crime'”, “Will this activity improve my health'”). Cause-effect relationships such as these can be thought of as depending on two qualitatively distinct forms of evidence: covariation-based evidence (e.g., “states with this policy have fewer homicides”) or mechanism-based (e.g., “this policy will reduce crime by discouraging repeat offenses”). Some psychological work has examined how people process these two forms of causal evidence in instances of “everyday” causality (e.g., assessing why a car will not start), but it is not known how these two forms of evidence contribute to causal judgments in matters of public risk or policy. Three studies (n = 715) investigated whether judgments of risk and policy scenarios would be affected by covariation and mechanism evidence and whether the evidence types interacted with one another (as suggested by past studies). Results showed that causal judgments varied linearly with mechanism strength and logarithmically with covariation strength, and that the evidence types produced only additive effects (but no interaction). We discuss the results' implications for risk communication and policy information dissemination.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.03.003
       
  • What's your number' The effects of trial order on the one-target
           advantage
    • Authors: Stephen R. Bested; Michael A. Khan; Gavin P. Lawrence; Luc Tremblay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Stephen R. Bested, Michael A. Khan, Gavin P. Lawrence, Luc Tremblay
      When moving our upper-limb towards a single target, movement times are typically shorter than when movement to a second target is required. This is known as the one-target advantage. Most studies that have demonstrated the one-target advantage have employed separate trial blocks for the one- and two-segment movements. To test if the presence of the one-target advantage depends on advance knowledge of the number of segments, the present study investigated whether the one-target advantage would emerge under different trial orders/sequences. One- and two-segment responses were organized in blocked (i.e., 1-1-1, 2-2-2), alternating (i.e., 1-2-1-2-1-2), and random (i.e., 1-1-2-1-2-2) trial sequences. Similar to previous studies, where only blocked schedules have typically been utilized, the one-target advantage emerged during the blocked and alternate conditions, but not in the random condition. This finding indicates that the one-target advantage is contingent on participants knowing the number of movement segments prior to stimulus onset.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.03.005
       
  • Outside influence: The sense of agency takes into account what is in our
           surroundings
    • Authors: Nicholas Hon; Yin-Yi Seow; Don Pereira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018
      Source:Acta Psychologica
      Author(s): Nicholas Hon, Yin-Yi Seow, Don Pereira
      We are quite capable of distinguishing those outcomes we cause from those we do not. This ability to sense self-agency is thought to be produced by a comparison between a predictive representation of an outcome and the actual outcome that occurs. It is unclear, though, specifically what types of information can be entered into agency computations. Here, we demonstrate that information from non-target stimuli (stimuli that are not directly acted upon) incidentally present in our surroundings can influence predictions of outcomes, consequently modulating the sense of agency over clearly-defined target outcomes (those that occur to acted-upon stimuli). This provides the first evidence that our sense of agency is contextualized with respect to what is in our immediate visual environment. Furthermore, our data suggest that agency computations, instead of just a single comparison, may involve comparisons performed in stages, with different stages involving different types/classes of information. A model of such multi-stage comparisons is described.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T15:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.03.004
       
 
 
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