Abstract: Healthcare institutions, governments and other stakeholders have over the years used employee education, in-service training and tenure prolongation to enhance the job performance of health professionals, which is termed healthcare performance in this study. The lack of adequate financial resources may however leave employers with the sole option of applying only one of these methods. This study attempts to identify the best predictor of healthcare performance that can be prioritized in cost-optimizing situations. Self-reported and supervisor- or superior-reported questionnaires were used to collect data from 1,163 health professionals in Accra North, who were selected using random sampling methods. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to test the study's hypotheses. The resulting model is of good fit at 5% significance level [Chi-square (χ2) = 1.492; p = 0.222], with training found to be the ultimate method applicable if the need to use a single method arises. Nonetheless, the role of training as the ultimate applicable method is driven by tenure prolongation. The study concludes that in-service training is the ultimate method applicable for enhancing healthcare performance. Nevertheless, simultaneous application of training and tenure prolongation in non-financial or cost-optimizing terms is recommended.
Abstract: The idea of progress as it currently stands is not well understood. This is because it is taken to be both context-dependent and stands independently, without a formal structure. It is an idea which is applied in cases that can be as diverse as simply finishing an essay to the complex progress of humanity. If the idea appears in such diverse scenarios, is there an underlying mechanism through which we can easily understand it? Here we structure the idea and propose a simple postulate which allows us to have a more adequate knowledge of it. The expected result is the capability of realizing it’s intellectual appearance and understanding it in any given practical scenario; even if it is not totally clear based on what we define as progress. This short and simple model implies that the action of a goal definition should be handled with care, as the concept of progress is engulfed by the goal system.
Abstract: Thought Field Therapy (TFT) is a promising treatment for posttraumatic stress in a resource poor environment. This study further explores the benefits of this treatment in a rural population in Uganda, which had suffered from the psychological consequences of previous violent conflict. Thirty-six local community workers received a two-day training in TFT trauma intervention and treated 256 volunteers with symptoms suggestive of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) who had been randomly allocated to a treatment or waitlist (control) group. Assessment was by the Posttraumatic Checklist for Civilians (PCL-C). One week after treatment, the treated group scores had improved significantly from 58 to 26.1. The waitlist group scores did improve without treatment, from 61.2 to 47, although significantly less than the treatment group, but improved markedly to 26.4 following treatment. There was some evidence of persisting benefit 19 months later. This study supports the value of TFT as a rapid, efficient and effective therapy, empowering traumatized communities to treat themselves, although repeated treatment may still be needed.
Abstract: Gratitude is often considered a sub-sector of positive psychology. The aim of this study was to examine whether health status and self-esteem could predict gratitude scores in a sample of women. A non-clinical female sample (N = 200) completed self-reported measures online. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether health status and self-esteem could significantly predict gratitude scores. Findings revealed that health status did not significantly predict gratitude scores in the sample of women in the current study. However, self-esteem was found to statistically predict gratitude scores, suggesting that women with low self-esteem levels were more likely to have lower gratitude scores, which is supported by previous research. The implications of this finding may benefit treatment programs, to increase self-esteem levels in individuals to achieve higher gratitude levels, resulting in various benefits for overall health and well-being.
Abstract: Impairment in the ability to detect certain emotions, such as fear, is linked to multiple disorders and follows a pattern of inter-individual variability and intra-individual stability over time. Deficits in fear recognition are often related to social and interpersonal difficulties but the mechanisms by which this processing deficit might occur are not well understood. One potential mechanism through which impaired fear detection may influence social competency is through diminished perspective-taking, the ability to perceive and consider the point of view of another individual. In the current study, we hypothesized that intra-individual variability in the accuracy of facial emotion recognition is linked to perspective-taking abilities in a well-characterized, non-clinical adult sample. Results indicated that the ability to accurately detect fear in the faces of others was positively correlated with perspective-taking, consistent with initial hypotheses. This relationship appeared to be unique to recognition of fear, as perspective-taking was not significantly associated with recognition of the other basic emotions. Results from this study represent an initial step towards establishing a potential mechanism between some processes of FER and perspective-taking difficulties. It is important to establish the relationship between these processes in a non-clinical adult sample so that we can consider the possibility of a developmental or pathological influence of impoverished perspective-taking on fear perception.
Abstract: This paper reports the results of a study which investigatedthe social psychological correlates of people’s preferences for sustainable andunsustainable tourism activities. Two-hundred-eighty-two participants from twoItalian cities responded to a questionnaire which recorded their tourismpreferences, their general pro-environmental attitudes and values and theirspecific attitudes towards sustainabletourism. Results showed positive correlations among the constructs considered. Groupsof participants differing in their tourism preferences were also identified andthe paper discusses the way in which the social psychological variablesconsidered here may be used to plan adequate strategies and managementinstruments able to address crucial issues of sustainability in tourism,including, for example, tourists’ ecological behaviours “on site” and theireducational needs.
Abstract: The occurrence of natural disasters results in lossof lives and properties. However, the short and long term focus of assistanceis usually on the physical wellbeing of the victims with no attention to theiraccompanying mental health issues. This study examined the mental healthproblems and coping strategies among flood victims and non-victims in theEastern Region of Ghana. A total of 400 respondents (200 flood victims and 200non-victims) were sampled from two Districts, one with a history of flood andthe other with no flood history. A Retrospective Cohort Design was used todetermine the effects of natural disaster (flood) on the victims. Therespondents were administered with the Brief SymptomInventory and the Coping Strategies Inventory. Descriptive statistics andindependent t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results from the analysisrevealed significant differences in mental health problems between floodvictims and non-victims. Further analysis revealed that flood victims andnon-victims differed significantly in their use of adaptive and maladaptivecoping strategies. It is therefore concluded from the outcomes of this studythat flood victims experience significant mental health problems and therefore,psychological care of the victims must be taken into consideration in assistingin the aftermath of flood disaster.
Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate the psychological determinants of emotional eating in a national and international sample of healthy weight, overweight and obese adults (N = 226). Specifically, attachment styles, psychopathological symptom distress and love attitudes were explored for their ability to predict emotional eating. Findings supported the suggestion symptom distress may particularly predispose individuals to engaging in emotionally motivated overeating, with a large effect size observed. Preoccupied attachment was also a significant predictor of emotion eating, even after controlling for state-based inferences. However, there were no significant contributions of secure, fearful-avoidant, or dismissive-avoidant attachment style in the prediction of emotional eating. Similarly, none of the five primary love languages (e.g., words of affirmation, physical touch, receiving gifts and physical touch) accounted for a significant amount of variance in emotional eating. A mediating role of perceived hunger in the prediction of emotional eating from attachment-anxiety was also observed. Contributions and limitations of the present study, as well as recommendations for future research are also discussed.
Abstract: “Textisms” are semi-standardized abbreviations and conventions uses in SMS text messaging. Students in the fourth and fifth grades (N = 136) were exposed to words on a spelling list as correctly-spelled words, incorrectly-spelled words, or “textisms” to determine whether short term exposure to “textisms” decreased spelling performance for elementary aged children. Multivariate ANOVA found exposure type significantly impacted post-exposure spelling, F(3,132) = 5.483, p
Abstract: Body image dissatisfaction, which is increasing as an issue for women, can diminish quality of life with negative psychological consequences. The relationship between internalizing the thin body ideal and the development of body image dissatisfaction has been studied in psychology. The thin body ideal is aspiring to a perfect female body that is very thin, presented as the ideal in the media. Research has focused on investigating strategies that women use to resist internalizing a thin-ideal body and prevent developing body dissatisfaction. The present study investigated the protective benefits of dispositional mindfulness against developing body image dissatisfaction in a sample of 186 women aged between 18 to 64 years (M = 29). The results suggest that compared to women with low levels of dispositional mindfulness, women with high levels of dispositional mindfulness report significantly less body image dissatisfaction and preoccupation with weight, lower levels of shame, psychological distress and higher levels of self-esteem.
Abstract: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a significant public health concern and can have long-term emotional, social and financial consequences for individuals and society. Lifetime prevalence in the general population is estimated at 8% and rates of exposure to Post-Traumatic Events (PTE) indicate approximately 50 to 65% have been exposed to at least one PTE in their lives. This indicates that approximately 15 to 25% of people exposed may also have a diagnosis of PTSD at some time in their life. It is therefore paramount that sufferers receive effective treatment. A case of successful treatment using Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) combined with more conventional psychological treatment for a woman, DS, suffering from acute PTSD with travel anxiety post a motor vehicle accident is presented. The clientâs progress was evaluated at baseline and post treatment. After six sessions, over an eight week period, improvements were noted on all identified goals and on all assessment tools such that at post treatment DS no longer met the criteria for PTSD. The case highlights the utility of single case designs to evaluate the clinical decisions made in selection of treatment of PTSD. Theoretical implications of this study are discussed and an evaluation of using EFT in this case is provided.
Abstract: A pilot study was carried out to establish the feasibility and effectiveness of Matrix Reimprinting (MR) in treating post traumatic stress symptoms in civilian survivors of the war in Bosnia. Two Healing Hands Network Centres in Bosnia in Sarajevo and Hadzici. Clients accessing the Healing Hands Network in Bosnia were invited to participate in the pilot study of MR. At the start and end of their treatment, clients were asked to complete a modified version of the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Checklist (PCL-C; Blanchard et al., 1996) at baseline, immediately after the two week MR intervention and then at 4 weeks follow-up. Eighteen clients were included MR pilot study. There was a significant reduction in the mean scores from baseline to immediately post intervention (p = 0.009) and again at the 4 week follow-up (p = 0.005). The size of the immediate effect was sustained at follow-up (p = 0.65). The qualitative analysis (via. an evaluation form at four weeks follow-up) identified the following four themes: Theme 1: Physical and psychological changes Theme 2: The strength to move on and to self-care Theme 3: Rapport with the MR Practitioners Theme 4: Recommending it for others. Despite the limited sample size, significant improvements were shown. The qualitative and quantitative results support the potential of MR as an effective treatment for post traumatic stress symptoms. Further controlled studies are required.
Abstract: Energy Psychology (EP) includes a spectrum of practices in which people tap on their bodies while focusing their minds on problems they want to change. EP therapies often are very rapidly effective. This article examines varieties of explanations for how EP works, including: Cognitive changes, psychological conditioning, expectation effects, distraction techniques, tapping on acupuncture points, shifts in other biological energies, wholistic healing, alternating stimulation of right and left sides of the body (presumably producing alternating stimulation of left and right brain hemispheres) and nerve conduction speeds.
Abstract: Thought Field Therapy Efficacy Following Large Scale Traumatic Events: Description of Four Studies Thought Field Therapy (TFT) has been shown to reduce symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) with trauma survivors in four studies in Africa. In a 2006 preliminary study, orphaned Rwandan adolescents, who reported ongoing trauma symptoms since the 1994 genocide, were treated with TFT. A 2008 Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) examined the efficacy of TFT treatments facilitated by Rwandan Community leaders in reducing PTS symptoms in adult survivors of the 1994 genocide. Results of the 2008 study were replicated in a second RCT in Rwanda in 2009. A fourth RCT in Uganda (in preparation for submission) demonstrated significant differences in a third community leader-administered TFT treatment. The studies described here suggest that one-time, community leader-facilitated TFT interventions may be beneficial with protracted PTS in genocide survivors.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using Clinical Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to treat Major Depressive Disorder in an adult population by way of a therapeutic group setting. Adults were assigned to EFT group treatment for a period of eight weeks. Diagnostic assessment was completed immediately pre and post treatment using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. In addition to this, self-report assessments measuring symptomatic evidence of depression were completed by the participants before the treatment, after the treatment and at three month follow-up. Comparisons with a community group were made at pre and post intervention and three month follow-up. The results indicated a change in diagnosis in each of the participants, with data indicating an overall improvement for the treatment group for depressive symptoms. Study implications and limitations are discussed.
Abstract: The purposes of the present study were: (1) To adapt an Arabic version of self-compassion scale and (2) to examine the relationship between self compassion and emotional intelligence for university students and (3) to explore the differences in self-compassion according to demographic variables. To check the first purpose, study one was run, data was collected from two samples; the first sample consisted of 272 undergraduate students (47% males and 53% females) from Assiut University in Egypt, their ages (M = 19.79 years and SD = 0.73), the second sample consisted of 373 undergraduate students (52% males and 48% females) from King Khalid University (KKU) in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, their ages (M = 19.96 years and SD = 0.70). To check the second purpose, study two was run, data was collected from 185 undergraduate students (52% males and 48% females) from KKU, their ages (M = 21.82 years and SD = 1.05). The present study used the Arabic version of self compassion scale and Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire to check the purposes. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and item-total correlations, used to check the psychometric properties of the Arabic version self-compassion scale, Person correlations used to examine the relationship between self compassion and emotional intelligence and ANOVA was run to explore the differences in self-compassion according to demographic variables. Results indicated that: (1) Arabic version self compassion scale has good psychometric properties, (2) significant positive correlation was found between self compassion and Emotional Intelligence, (3) Women reported significantly lower than men in mindfulness, over-identification, higher than men in overall self-compassion scores, self-judgment and isolation and no significant differences were found between males and females in Self-Kindness and Common Humanity. Also results showed that accommodation place or studying specialization had no significant affect in self compassion.
Abstract: Studies have shown that distracters that are relevant to a target can negatively affect visual search performance. Recent studies have looked at performance when targets are embedded within a distracter. Various factors have been explored such as automaticity, spatial location and timing. This study asked, âIf distracters affected a different dimension would that produce a detriment to visual search performanceâ? Would competition for attention occur if distracters were on an irrelevant dimension such as lexicality? The results of this study suggest that lexicality, as demonstrated by word frequency, is a disruptive distracter dimension. This study also showed that two distracters of different word frequencies can serve to disrupt attentional capture.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine food diaries from 89 female overweight and obese adults participating in a treatment trial for food cravings. For two weeks prior to beginning treatment and for the duration of the four-week treatment, all participants were required to complete a daily food monitoring sheet or diary in real-time, indicating all quantities of food/drink eaten throughout a day and whether the item was a craving item for them. The diaries were examined for narrative statements and categorized with regard to common content, resulting in seven themes (Physiological; Enjoyment/Celebration; Missing Out; Reward; Wastage; Emotive and External Environment). Participants also completed a battery of self-report questionnaires relating to food cravings, eating behaviour and psychological symptoms. Results indicated that the most common themes recorded included Wastage, Emotive and Reward and the most frequent number of cravings recorded per day ranged from one to three.
Abstract: Freezing behavior is a fearful reaction to specific stimuli, most commonly observed by animals. One of the neurotransmission system most consistently linked with fear response is the GABAergic system, in which GABA through GABAA receptor can influence fear response. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the effect of IP injection of muscimol (GABAA agonist) and bicuculline (GABAA antagonist) with and without EMF exposure on the frequency of fear response. Fifty adult male rats weighing 180-200 g were used. Animals were divided in ten groups, of which five groups were exposed to ELF-EMF for 30 days at 8 h day-1 in a solenoid, creating an electromagnetic field of 500 ÂµT by a 50Hz electrical current created. Animals were then treated with various doses of muscimol and bicuculline before being exposed to electrical shock. Each animal were received 100 electrical shocks every session. After shock induction, the fear response was determined by monitoring the reaction of shocked animals to a normal rat which was placed in the electroshock chamber. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test and p
Abstract: The present studies examined the roles of identity and spatial working memory in change detection. Observers completed a spatial or identity working memory task concurrently with a change detection task. In the change detection task, participants were presented naturalistic scenes that contained either a color or location change to one object. Concurrently, participants remembered either the colors or locations of four squares. There was specific disruption of performance when the working memory task and the change detection task loaded the same subsystem of working memory. There was also evidence that spatial information is processed more readily than identity information. This suggests that although there are separate systems for identity and spatial working memory, these subsystems are not necessarily created equal in that processing in the spatial processing may have priority over identity processing. However, this priority can be overridden during change detection if spatial memory is already occupied.
Abstract: Positive correlations have been detected consistently between adverse relationship experiences (i.e., traumatic interpersonal events such as intimate partner violence) and a broad range of mental health disorders (e.g., depression). However, associations between adverse relationship experiences and personality have been under examined. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adverse relationship experiences and one facet of personality, neuroticism. Analyses consisted of Repeat Measures, Mixed Linear Modeling conducted on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 3,726). Adverse relationship experiences explained 11% of the variability in neuroticism, whereas changes in self-reported neurotic symptomology over time explained 53% of the total variability in neuroticism. Adverse relationship experiences appeared to account for only a modest portion of self-reported neurotic symptomology and neurotic symptomology itself was relatively unstable.
Abstract: Recent research in word recognition has found a benefit for right parafoveal presentation. This asymmetrical finding has lead to a need to reexamine previous research in foveal-parafoveal word processing. This study reexamined previous research on homographs and the parafovea, previously no parafoveal effect/benefit was found. The authors in the current study attempted to replicate Inhoff¯™s original work by compensating for possible methodological limitations in Inhoff¯™s study. The results showed that Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA) was a factor in the original Inhoff study. The results of the current study show that when controlling for SOA a parafoveal benefit did exist.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine whether gender differences in Visual Selective Attention, Working Memory, Anticipation Time, Auditory Reaction Time and Visual-Motor Coordination performance existed. Forty eight students at Assiut university (21 males and 27 females; between 19.0 and 23.58 years old) participated in this study. Results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between males and females in Visual Selective.
Abstract: Dangerous driving behavior is particularly difficult to study for many reasons. Researchers must be creative to capture meaningful data, but innovative techniques often meet with problems that might be solved through the broader use by others. The researchers generally lack a central location from which to review and choose from past methods. This article reviews the techniques used to study driver behavior, particularly in the areas of aggressive and other types of dangerous driving. Problems in the literature are noted, including a lack of definitional consistency and the need for theoretical frameworks. While this presentation focuses primarily on problems in studying aggressive driving, the methods covered are more or less applicable to all manner of driver behavior issues, including risk-taking, drowsy driving, attention problems, training efficacy and age-related issues at both ends of the spectrum. This study disseminates information on a wide array of driver behavior study methods, including self-report, observation, simulation and instrumented vehicles and researchers a means to quickly review and choose from current approaches. Advancement in the field can depend upon the development of innovative methods of investigation and this study is meant to begin many conversations that can hopefully further such developments.