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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 918 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 77)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 64)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 443)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 204)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 249)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 166)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 138)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 151)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 47)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Eat, Sleep, Work     Open Access  
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
  [SJR: 2.531]   [H-I: 26]   [18 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1878-9293 - ISSN (Online) 1878-9307
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Consequence of intraventricular hemorrhage on neurovascular coupling
           evoked by speech syllables in preterm neonates

    • Authors: Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh; Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz; Guy Kongolo; Marc Fournier; Sabrina Goudjil; Fabrice Wallois
      Pages: 60 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Guy Kongolo, Marc Fournier, Sabrina Goudjil, Fabrice Wallois
      Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) is the leading cause of neurological and cognitive impairment in preterm neonates with an incidence that increases with increasing prematurity. In the present study, we tested how preterm neonates with IVH react to external stimulation (i.e. speech syllables). We compared their neural responses measured by electroencephalography (EEG), and hemodynamic responses measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), with those of healthy preterms. A neural response to syllables was observed in these infants, but did not induce a vascular response in contrast with healthy neonates. These results clearly demonstrate that the cerebral vascular network in IVH preterm neonates was unable to compensate for the increased metabolism resulting from neuronal activation in response to external stimulation. Optical imaging is thus a sensitive tool to identify altered cerebral hemodynamic in critically ill preterms before behavioral changes are manifested or when only minor abnormalities on other functional monitoring techniques such as EEG are visible. We propose that a multi-modal approach provides unique opportunities for early monitoring of cognitive functions and opens up new possibilities for clinical care and recommended practices by studying the difficulties of the premature brain to adapt to its environment.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T02:31:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Mindfulness-Related Differences in Neural Response to Own Infant Negative
           versus Positive Emotion Contexts

    • Authors: Heidemarie K. Laurent; Dorianne Wright; Megan Finnegan
      Pages: 70 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Heidemarie K. Laurent, Dorianne Wright, Megan Finnegan
      Mindfulness is thought to promote well-being by shaping the way people respond to challenging social-emotional situations. Current understanding of how this occurs at the neural level is based on studies of response to decontextualized emotion stimuli that may not adequately represent lived experiences. In this study, we tested relations between mothers' dispositional mindfulness and neural responses to their own infant in different emotion-eliciting contexts. Mothers (n = 25) engaged with their 3-month-old infants in videorecorded tasks designed to elicit negative (arm restraint) or positive (peekaboo) emotion. During a functional MRI session, mothers were presented with 15-second clips from these recordings, and dispositional mindfulness scores were used to predict their neural responses to arm restraint > peekaboo videos. Mothers higher in nonreactivity showed relatively lower activation to their infants’ arm restraint compared to peekaboo videos in hypothesized regions—insula and dorsal prefrontal cortex—as well as non-hypothesized regions. Other mindfulness dimensions were associated with more limited areas of lower (nonjudgment) and higher (describing) activation in this contrast. Mothers who were higher in mindfulness generally activated more to the positive emotion context and less to the negative emotion context in perceptual and emotion processing areas, a pattern that may help to explain mindfulness-related differences in well-being.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T02:31:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Anatomy of the dorsal default-mode network in conduct disorder:
           Association with callous-unemotional traits

    • Authors: Arjun Sethi; Sagari Sarkar; Flavio Dell’Acqua; Essi Viding; Marco Catani; Declan G.M. Murphy; Michael C. Craig
      Pages: 87 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Arjun Sethi, Sagari Sarkar, Flavio Dell’Acqua, Essi Viding, Marco Catani, Declan G.M. Murphy, Michael C. Craig
      We recently reported that emotional detachment in adult psychopathy was associated with structural abnormalities in the dorsal ‘default-mode’ network (DMN). However, it is unclear whether these differences are present in young people at risk of psychopathy. The most widely recognised group at risk for psychopathy are children/adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. We therefore examined the microstructure of the dorsal DMN in 27 CD youths (14-with/13-without CU traits) compared to 16 typically developing controls using DTI tractography. Both CD groups had significantly (p < 0.025) reduced dorsal DMN radial diffusivity compared to controls. In those with diagnostically significant CU traits, exploratory analyses (uncorrected for multiple comparisons) suggested that radial diffusivity was negatively correlated with CU severity (Left: rho = −0.68, p = 0.015). These results suggest that CD youths have microstructural abnormalities in the same network as adults with psychopathy. Further, the association with childhood/adolescent measures of emotional detachment (CU traits) resembles the relationship between emotional detachment and network microstructure in adult psychopaths. However, these changes appear to occur in opposite directions – with increased myelination in adolescent CD but reduced integrity in adult psychopathy. Collectively, these findings suggest that developmental abnormalities in dorsal DMN may play a role in the emergence of psychopathy.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T12:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Reading skill related to left ventral occipitotemporal cortex during a
           phonological awareness task in 5–6-year old children

    • Authors: Jin Wang; Marc F. Joanisse; James R. Booth
      Pages: 116 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Jin Wang, Marc F. Joanisse, James R. Booth
      The left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) is important in visual word recognition. Studies have shown that the left vOT is generally observed to be involved in spoken language processing in skilled readers, suggesting automatic access to corresponding orthographic information. However, little is known about where and how the left vOT is involved in the spoken language processing of young children with emerging reading ability. In order to answer this question, we examined the relation of reading ability in 5–6-year-old kindergarteners to the activation of vOT during an auditory phonological awareness task. Two experimental conditions: onset word pairs that shared the first phoneme and rhyme word pairs that shared the final biphone/triphone, were compared to allow a measurement of vOT’s activation to small (i.e., onsets) and large grain sizes (i.e., rhymes). We found that higher reading ability was associated with better accuracy of the onset, but not the rhyme, condition. In addition, higher reading ability was only associated with greater sensitivity in the posterior left vOT for the contrast of the onset versus rhyme condition. These results suggest that acquisition of reading results in greater specialization of the posterior vOT to smaller rather than larger grain sizes in young children.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T13:26:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Intact perceptual ability, but impaired familiarity judgment, after
           neonatal perirhinal lesions in rhesus macaques

    • Authors: Alison R. Weiss; Wendi Guo; Rebecca Richardson; Jocelyne Bachevalier
      Pages: 54 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 28
      Author(s): Alison R. Weiss, Wendi Guo, Rebecca Richardson, Jocelyne Bachevalier
      The perirhinal cortex is known to support high-level perceptual abilities as well as familiarity judgments that may affect recognition memory. We tested whether poor perceptual abilities or a loss of familiarity judgment contributed to the recognition memory impairments reported earlier in monkeys with PRh lesions received in infancy (Neo-PRh) (Weiss and Bachevalier, 2016; Zeamer et al., 2015). Perceptual abilities were assessed using a version of the Visual Paired Comparison task with black&white (B&W) stimuli, and familiarity judgments were assessed using the Constant Negative task requiring repeated familiarization exposures. Adult monkeys with Neo-PRh lesions were able to recognize B&W stimuli after short delays, suggesting that their perceptual abilities were within the range of control animals. However, the same Neo-PRh monkeys were slower to acquire the Constant Negative task, requiring more exposures to objects before judging them as familiar compared to control animals. Taken together, the data help to account for the differential patterns of functional compensation on previously reported recognition tasks following neonatal versus adult-onset PRh lesions, and provide further support to the view that the PRh is involved in familiarity processes.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T02:13:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.006
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2018)
  • Biospecimens and the ABCD Study: Rationale, Methods of Collection,
           Measurement and Early Data

    • Authors: Kristina A. Uban; Megan K. Horton; Joanna Jacobus; Charles Heyser; Wesley K. Thompson; Susan F. Tapert; Pamela A.F. Madden; Elizabeth R. Sowell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Kristina A. Uban, Megan K. Horton, Joanna Jacobus, Charles Heyser, Wesley K. Thompson, Susan F. Tapert, Pamela A.F. Madden, Elizabeth R. Sowell
      Biospecimen collection in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study – of hair samples, shed deciduous (baby) teeth, and body fluids – will serve dual functions of screening for study eligibility, and providing measures of biological processes thought to predict or correlate with key study outcomes on brain and cognitive development. Biosamples are being collected annually to screen for recency of drug use prior to the neuroimaging or cognitive testing visit, and to store for the following future studies: (1) on the effects of exposure to illicit and recreational drugs (including alcohol and nicotine); (2) of pubertal hormones on brain and cognitive developmental trajectories; (3) on the contribution of genomics and epigenomics to child and adolescent development and behavioral outcomes; and (4) with pre- and post-natal exposure to environmental neurotoxicants and drugs of abuse measured from novel tooth analyses. The present manuscript describes the rationales for inclusion and selection of the specific biospecimens, methodological considerations for each measure, future plans for assessment of biospecimens during follow-up visits, and preliminary ABCD data to illustrate methodological considerations.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T13:26:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.005
  • The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study: Imaging
           Acquisition across 21 Sites

    • Authors: B.J. Casey; Tariq Cannonier; May I. Conley; Alexandra O. Cohen; Deanna M. Barch; Mary M. Heitzeg; Mary E. Soules; Theresa Teslovich; Danielle V. Dellarco; Hugh Garavan; Catherine A. Orr; Tor D. Wager; Marie T. Banich; Nicole K. Speer; Matthew T. Sutherland; Michael C. Riedel; Anthony S. Dick; James M. Bjork; Kathleen M. Thomas; Bader Charaani; Margie H. Mejia; Donald J. Hagler; M. Daniela Cornejo; Chelsea S. Sicat; Michael P. Harms; Nico U.F. Dosenbach; Monica Rosenberg; Eric Earl; Hauke Bartsch; Richard Watts; Jonathan R. Polimeni; Joshua M. Kuperman; Damien A. Fair; Anders M. Dale
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): B.J. Casey, Tariq Cannonier, May I. Conley, Alexandra O. Cohen, Deanna M. Barch, Mary M. Heitzeg, Mary E. Soules, Theresa Teslovich, Danielle V. Dellarco, Hugh Garavan, Catherine A. Orr, Tor D. Wager, Marie T. Banich, Nicole K. Speer, Matthew T. Sutherland, Michael C. Riedel, Anthony S. Dick, James M. Bjork, Kathleen M. Thomas, Bader Charaani, Margie H. Mejia, Donald J. Hagler, M. Daniela Cornejo, Chelsea S. Sicat, Michael P. Harms, Nico U.F. Dosenbach, Monica Rosenberg, Eric Earl, Hauke Bartsch, Richard Watts, Jonathan R. Polimeni, Joshua M. Kuperman, Damien A. Fair, Anders M. Dale
      The ABCD study is recruiting and following the brain development and health of over 10,000 9–10 year olds through adolescence. The imaging component of the study was developed by the ABCD Data Analysis and Informatics Center (DAIC) and the ABCD Imaging Acquisition Workgroup. Imaging methods and assessments were selected, optimized and harmonized across all 21 sites to measure brain structure and function relevant to adolescent development and addiction. This article provides an overview of the imaging procedures of the ABCD study, the basis for their selection and preliminary quality assurance and results that provide evidence for the feasibility and age-appropriateness of procedures and generalizability of findings to the existent literature.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T13:26:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.001
  • Interaction between striatal volume and DAT1 polymorphism predicts working
           memory development during adolescence

    • Authors: F. Nemmi; C. Nymberg; F. Darki; T. Banaschewski; A.L.W. Bokde; C. Büchel; H. Flor; V. Frouin; H. Garavan; P. Gowland; A. Heinz; J.-L. Martinot; F. Nees; T. Paus; M.N. Smolka; T.W. Robbins; G. Schumann; T. Klingberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): F. Nemmi, C. Nymberg, F. Darki, T. Banaschewski, A.L.W. Bokde, C. Büchel, H. Flor, V. Frouin, H. Garavan, P. Gowland, A. Heinz, J.-L. Martinot, F. Nees, T. Paus, M.N. Smolka, T.W. Robbins, G. Schumann, T. Klingberg
      There is considerable inter-individual variability in the rate at which working memory (WM) develops during childhood and adolescence, but the neural and genetic basis for these differences are poorly understood. Dopamine-related genes, striatal activation and morphology have been associated with increased WM capacity after training. Here we tested the hypothesis that these factors would also explain some of the inter-individual differences in the rate of WM development. We measured WM performance in 487 healthy subjects twice: at age 14 and 19. At age 14 subjects underwent a structural MRI scan, and genotyping of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or close to the dopamine genes DRD2, DAT-1 and COMT, which have previously been associated with gains in WM after WM training. We then analyzed which biological factors predicted the rate of increase in WM between ages 14 and 19. We found a significant interaction between putamen size and DAT1/SLC6A3 rs40184 polymorphism, such that TC heterozygotes with a larger putamen at age 14 showed greater WM improvement at age 19. The effect of the DAT1 polymorphism on WM development was exerted in interaction with striatal morphology. These results suggest that development of WM partially share neuro-physiological mechanism with training-induced plasticity.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T13:26:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.006
  • The development of functional network organization in early childhood and
           early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study

    • Authors: Lin Cai; Qi Dong; Haijing Niu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Lin Cai, Qi Dong, Haijing Niu
      Early childhood (7–8 years old) and early adolescence (11–12 years old) constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS) imaging data to examine topological changes in network organization during development from early childhood and early adolescence to adulthood. Our results showed that the properties of small-worldness and modularity were not significantly different across development, demonstrating the developmental maturity of important functional brain organization in early childhood. Intriguingly, young children had a significantly lower global efficiency than early adolescents and adults, which revealed that the integration of the distributed networks strengthens across the developmental stages underlying cognitive development. Moreover, local efficiency of young children and adolescents was significantly lower than that of adults, while there was no difference between these two younger groups. This finding demonstrated that functional segregation remained relatively steady from early childhood to early adolescence, and the brain in these developmental periods possesses no optimal network configuration. Furthermore, we found heterogeneous developmental patterns in the regional nodal properties in various brain regions, such as linear increased nodal properties in the frontal cortex, indicating increasing cognitive capacity over development. Collectively, our results demonstrated that significant topological changes in functional network organization occurred during these two critical developmental stages, and provided a novel insight into elucidating subtle changes in brain functional networks across development.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T13:26:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.003
  • Development of inhibition and switching: a longitudinal study of the
           maturation of interference suppression and reversal processes during

    • Authors: Cassandra Richardson; Mike Anderson; Corinne L. Reid; Allison M. Fox
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Cassandra Richardson, Mike Anderson, Corinne L. Reid, Allison M. Fox
      Inhibition and switching are executive functions (EFs) that have different developmental trajectories across childhood. The development of specific processes unique to each EF may contribute to these trajectories. Interference suppression and reversal were examined in a large sample of children aged 7 and 9 years (n = 120) and followed-up after two-years to investigate developmental trajectories of inhibition and switching. The N2 and P3b components provided neural correlates of conflict monitoring and attentional processing of conflict involved in interference suppression and reversal. Interference suppression improved over time, however, switching performance did not significantly change between 7-11 years. Improvements in correct RT with age and time indicated increased efficiency of stimulus evaluation, response preparation and execution. N2 amplitude decreased with both age and time, indicating less reliance on conflict monitoring to signal cognitive control to manage stimulus and response conflict. P3b amplitude modulations indicated that different amounts of attention were allocated to updating mental representations of interference suppression and reversal task features. These data indicated different developmental trajectories of specific processes unique to inhibition and switching across the childhood period of 7-11 years, providing further empirical evidence that 7-11 years is a critical period for cognitive development.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T14:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.002

    • Authors: Annika Andersson; Lisa D. Sanders; Donna Coch; Christina M. Karns; Helen J. Neville
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Annika Andersson, Lisa D. Sanders, Donna Coch, Christina M. Karns, Helen J. Neville
      During early literacy skills development, rhyming is an important indicator of the phonological precursors required for reading. To determine if neural signatures of rhyming are apparent in early childhood, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3- to 5-year-old, preliterate children (N = 62) in an auditory prime-target nonword rhyming paradigm (e.g., bly-gry, blane-vox). Overall, nonrhyming targets elicited a larger negativity (N450) than rhyming targets over posterior regions. In contrast, rhyming targets elicited a larger negativity than nonrhyming targets over fronto-lateral sites. The amplitude of the two rhyming effects was correlated, such that a larger posterior effect occurred with a smaller anterior effect. To determine whether these neural signatures of rhyming related to phonological awareness, we divided the children into two groups based on phonological awareness scores while controlling for age and socioeconomic status. The posterior rhyming effect was stronger and more widely distributed in the group with better phonological awareness, whereas differences between groups for the anterior effect were small and not significant. This pattern of results suggests that the rhyme processes indexed by the anterior effect are developmental precursors to those indexed by the posterior effect. Overall, these findings demonstrate early establishment of distributed neurocognitive networks for rhyme processing.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T14:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.011
  • Social Network Size Relates to Developmental Neural Sensitivity to
           Biological Motion

    • Authors: L.A. Kirby; D. Moraczewski; K. Warnell; K. Velnoskey; E. Redcay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): L.A. Kirby, D. Moraczewski, K. Warnell, K. Velnoskey, E. Redcay
      The ability to perceive others’ actions and goals from human motion (i.e., biological motion perception) is a critical component of social perception and may be linked to the development of real-world social relationships. Adult research demonstrates two key nodes of the brain’s biological motion perception system—amygdala and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)—are linked to variability in social network properties. The relation between social perception and social network properties, however, has not yet been investigated in middle childhood—a time when individual differences in social experiences and social perception are growing. The aims of this study were to (1) replicate past work showing amygdala and pSTS sensitivity to biological motion in middle childhood; (2) examine age-related changes in the neural sensitivity for biological motion, and (3) determine whether neural sensitivity for biological motion relates to social network characteristics in children. Consistent with past work, we demonstrate a significant relation between social network size and neural sensitivity for biological motion in left pSTS, but do not find age-related change in biological motion perception. This finding offers evidence for the interplay between real-world social experiences and functional brain development and has important implications for understanding disorders of atypical social experience.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T14:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.012
  • The lifespan trajectory of neural oscillatory activity in the motor system

    • Authors: Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham; Timothy J. McDermott; Mackenzie S. Mills; Alex I. Wiesman; Yu-Ping Wang; Julia M. Stephen; Vince D. Calhoun; Tony W. Wilson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Timothy J. McDermott, Mackenzie S. Mills, Alex I. Wiesman, Yu-Ping Wang, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Tony W. Wilson
      Numerous studies connect beta oscillations in the motor cortices to volitional movement, and beta is known to be aberrant in multiple movement disorders. However, the dynamic interplay between these beta oscillations, motor performance, and spontaneous beta power (e.g., during rest) in the motor cortices remains unknown. This study utilized magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate these three parameters and their lifespan trajectory in 57 healthy participants aged 9 to 75 years old. Movement-related beta activity was imaged using a beamforming approach, and voxel time series data were extracted from the peak voxels in the primary motor cortices. Our results indicated that spontaneous beta power during rest followed a quadratic lifespan trajectory, while movement-related beta oscillations linearally increased with age. Follow-on analyses showed that spontaneous beta power and the beta minima during movement, together, significantly predicted task performance above and beyond the effects of age. These data are the first to show lifespan trajectories among measures of beta activity in the motor cortices, and suggest that the healthy brain compensates for age-related increases in spontaneous beta activity by increasing the strength of beta oscillations within the motor cortices which, when successful, enables normal motor performance into later life.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T14:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.013
  • EEG Beta desynchronization during hand goal-directed action observation in
           newborn monkeys and its relation to the emergence of hand motor skills

    • Authors: Fabrizia Festante; Ross E. Vanderwert; Valentina Sclafani; Annika Paukner; Elizabeth A. Simpson; Stephen J. Suomi; Nathan A. Fox; Pier Francesco Ferrari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Fabrizia Festante, Ross E. Vanderwert, Valentina Sclafani, Annika Paukner, Elizabeth A. Simpson, Stephen J. Suomi, Nathan A. Fox, Pier Francesco Ferrari
      Previous developmental research suggests that motor experience supports the development of action perception across the lifespan. However, it is still unknown when the neural mechanisms underlying action-perception coupling emerge in infancy. The goal of this study was to examine the neural correlates of action perception during the emergence of grasping abilities in newborn rhesus macaques. Neural activity, recorded via electroencephalogram (EEG), while monkeys observed grasping actions, mimed actions, and means-end movements during the first (W1) and second week (W2) of life was measured. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) during action observation was computed from the EEG in the alpha and beta bands, two components of the sensorimotor mu rhythm associated with activity of the mirror neuron system (MNS). Results revealed age-related changes in the beta band, but not the alpha band, over anterior electrodes, with greater desynchronization at W2 than W1 for the observation of goal-directed grasping actions. Additionally, desynchronization to observed grasping actions at W2 was associated with infants’ motor skills – measured by a separate behavioral task – such that more grasping attempts were associated to greater beta ERD. These findings suggest the emergence of an early action-perception system that relies on motor experience, shortly after birth.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T14:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.010
  • Not Just Social Sensitivity: Adolescent neural suppression of social
           feedback during risk taking

    • Authors: Ethan M. McCormick; Michael T. Perino; Eva H. Telzer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Ethan M. McCormick, Michael T. Perino, Eva H. Telzer
      Adolescence is a period of sensitivity to social stimuli. In particular, research has focused on the increased sensitivity to risks and social information seen during adolescence. However, recent evidence also suggests that adolescents can flexibly use information in service of their goals, raising an interesting question: are adolescents able to selectively discount social information if it conflicts with their goals' To test this question, fifty-five children and adolescents (ages 8–17 years) completed a social variant of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task during an fMRI session. Adolescents showed decreased tracking of negative social feedback in regions involved in salience-monitoring (e.g. insula) and social processing (e.g., TPJ, pSTS). Age-related changes in neural processing of risk and social feedback contributed to better performance for older participants. These results suggest that adolescents are able to suppress goal-irrelevant social feedback, rather than being uniformly hyper-sensitive to social information.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T14:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.012
  • Adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study: Overview of substance
           use assessment methods

    • Authors: Krista M. Lisdahl; Kenneth J. Sher; Kevin P. Conway; Raul Gonzalez; Sarah W. Feldstein Ewing; Sara Jo Nixon; Susan Tapert; Hauke Bartsch; Rita Z. Goldstein; Mary Heitzeg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Krista M. Lisdahl, Kenneth J. Sher, Kevin P. Conway, Raul Gonzalez, Sarah W. Feldstein Ewing, Sara Jo Nixon, Susan Tapert, Hauke Bartsch, Rita Z. Goldstein, Mary Heitzeg
      One of the objectives of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study ( is to establish a national longitudinal cohort of 9 and 10 year olds that will be followed for 10 years in order to prospectively study the risk and protective factors influencing substance use and its consequences, examine the impact of substance use on neurocognitive, health and psychosocial outcomes, and to understand the relationship between substance use and psychopathology. This article provides an overview of the ABCD Study Substance Use Workgroup, provides the goals for the workgroup, rationale for the substance use battery, and includes details on the substance use module methods and measurement tools used during baseline, 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessment time-points. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of these substance use domains over a period of ten years in a nationwide sample of youth presents an unprecedented opportunity to further understand the timing and interactive relationships between substance use and neurocognitive, health, and psychopathology outcomes in youth living in the United States.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.007
  • Reprint of “Ensemble perception of emotions in autistic and typical
           children and adolescents”

    • Authors: Themelis Karaminis; Louise Neil; Catherine Manning; Marco Turi; Chiara Fiorentini; David Burr; Elizabeth Pellicano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Themelis Karaminis, Louise Neil, Catherine Manning, Marco Turi, Chiara Fiorentini, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
      Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults. Participants received three tasks: a) an ‘ensemble’ emotion discrimination task; b) a baseline (single-face) emotion discrimination task; and c) a facial expression identification task. Children performed worse than adults on all three tasks. Unexpectedly, autistic and typical children were, on average, indistinguishable in their precision and accuracy on all three tasks. Computational modelling suggested that, on average, autistic and typical children used ensemble-encoding strategies to a similar extent; but ensemble perception was related to non-verbal reasoning abilities in autistic but not in typical children. Eye-movement data also showed no group differences in the way children attended to the stimuli. Our combined findings suggest that the abilities of autistic and typical children for ensemble perception of emotions are comparable on average.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.003
  • Adolescent Neurocognitive Development and Impacts of Substance Use:
           Overview of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Baseline
           Neurocognition Battery

    • Authors: M. Luciana; J.M. Bjork; B. Nagel; D.M. Barch; R. Gonzalez; S.J. Nixon; M.T. Banich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): M. Luciana, J.M. Bjork, B. Nagel, D.M. Barch, R. Gonzalez, S.J. Nixon, M.T. Banich
      Adolescence is characterized by numerous social, hormonal and physical changes, as well as a marked increase in risk-taking behaviors. Dual systems models attribute adolescent risk-taking to tensions between developing capacities for cognitive control and motivational strivings, which may peak at this time. A comprehensive understanding of neurocognitive development during the adolescent period is necessary to permit the distinction between premorbid vulnerabilities and consequences of behaviors such as substance use. Thus, the prospective assessment of cognitive development is fundamental to the aims of the newly launched Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Consortium. This paper details the rationale for ABC’lected measures of neurocognition, presents preliminary descriptive data on an initial sample of 2299 participants, and provides a context for how this large-scale project can inform our understanding of adolescent neurodevelopment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.006
  • Two-year cortical trajectories are abnormal in children and adolescents
           with prenatal alcohol exposure

    • Authors: Timothy J. Hendrickson; Bryon A. Mueller; Elizabeth R. Sowell; Sarah N. Mattson; Claire D. Coles; Julie A. Kable; Kenneth L. Jones; Christopher J. Boys; Susanne Lee; Kelvin O. Lim; Edward P. Riley; Jeffrey R. Wozniak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Timothy J. Hendrickson, Bryon A. Mueller, Elizabeth R. Sowell, Sarah N. Mattson, Claire D. Coles, Julie A. Kable, Kenneth L. Jones, Christopher J. Boys, Susanne Lee, Kelvin O. Lim, Edward P. Riley, Jeffrey R. Wozniak
      Objectives Cortical abnormalities in prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are known, including in gyrification (LGI), thickness (CT), volume (CV), and surface area (CS). This study provides longitudinal and developmental context to the PAE cortical development literature. Experimental Design Included: 58 children with PAE and 52 controls, ages 6-17 at enrollment, from four Collaborative Initiative on FASD (CIFASD) sites. Participants underwent a formal evaluation of physical anomalies and dysmorphic facial features associated with PAE. MRI data were collected on three platforms (Siemens, GE, and Philips) at four sites. Scans were spaced two years apart. Change in LGI, CT, CS, and CV were examined. Principal Observations Several significant regional age-by-diagnosis linear and quadratic interaction effects in LGI, CT, and CV were found, indicating atypical developmental trajectories in PAE. No significant correlations were observed between cortical measures and IQ. Conclusions Regional differences were seen longitudinally in CT, CV, and LGI in those with PAE. The findings represent important insights into developmental trajectories and may have implications for the timing of assessments and interventions in this population. It is noteworthy that cortical metrics did not correlate with IQ, suggesting that more specific aspects of cognitive development may need to be explored to provide further context.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.008
  • Introduction

    • Authors: Terry L. Jernigan; Sandra A. Brown
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Terry L. Jernigan, Sandra A. Brown
      The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a longitudinal, observational study of over 10,000 youth recruited at 21 sites throughout the United States. Comprehensive biennial assessments and more limited interim assessments measure health, mental health, neurocognition, family, cultural and environmental variables, substance use, genetic and other biomarkers, and structural and functional brain development. Within this Special Issue, readers will find much information about the rationale and objectives of the study, the broad ranging assessment protocols and new as well as traditional methodologies applied at baseline, the recruitment and retention strategies, and the anticipated final composition of the cohort. Information is also provided about how the study is coordinated and conducted, how decisions are made, how data quality is monitored, and how ethical standards are protected. In this introduction we will focus instead on the position of the ABCD Study in the changing landscape of biomedical research.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.002
  • Neural Cognitive Control Moderates the Association between Insular Risk
           Processing and Risk-taking Behaviors via Perceived Stress in Adolescents

    • Authors: Dominique Maciejewski; Nina Lauharatanahirun; Toria Herd; Jacob Lee; Kirby Deater-Deckard; Brooks King-Casas; Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Dominique Maciejewski, Nina Lauharatanahirun, Toria Herd, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
      Adolescence is a critical period for the initiation of risk-taking behaviors. We examined the longitudinal interplay between neural correlates of risk processing and cognitive control in predicting risk-taking behaviors via stress. The sample consisted of 167 adolescents (53% males) who were assessed twice (M AgeTime1 = 14.13, M AgeTime2 = 15.05). Neural risk processing was operationalized as blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the anterior insula during a lottery choice task and neural cognitive control as BOLD responses during an inhibitory control task. Adolescents reported on perceived stress and risk-taking behaviors. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that low insular risk processing predicted increases in perceived stress, while perceived stress did not predict changes in insular risk processing across one year. Moreover, significant moderation by neural cognitive control indicated that low insular risk processing predicted increases in risk-taking behaviors via increases in perceived stress among adolescents with poor neural cognitive control, but not among adolescents with good neural cognitive control. The results suggest that risk processing in the anterior insular cortex plays an important role in stress experience and risk-taking behaviors particularly for vulnerable adolescents with poor neural cognitive control.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.005
  • Methodological considerations for developmental longitudinal fMRI research

    • Authors: Eva H. Telzer; Ethan M. McCormick; Sabine Peters; Danielle Cosme; Jennifer H. Pfeifer; Anna C.K. van Duijvenvoorde
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Eva H. Telzer, Ethan M. McCormick, Sabine Peters, Danielle Cosme, Jennifer H. Pfeifer, Anna C.K. van Duijvenvoorde
      There has been a large spike in longitudinal fMRI studies in recent years, and so it is essential that researchers carefully assess the limitations and challenges afforded by longitudinal designs. In this article, we provide an overview of important considerations for longitudinal fMRI research in developmental samples, including task design, sampling strategies, and group-level analyses. We first discuss considerations for task designs, weighing the pros and cons of many commonly used tasks, as well as outlining how the tasks may be impacted by repeated exposure. Secondly, we review the types of group-level analyses that can be conducted on longitudinal fMRI data, analyses which must account for repeated measures. Finally, we review and critique recent longitudinal studies that have emerged in the past few years.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.004
  • Hubs in the Human Fetal Brain Network

    • Authors: Marion I. van den Heuvel; Elise Turk; Janessa H. Manning; Jasmine Hect; Edgar Hernandez-Andrade; Sonia S. Hassan; Roberto Romero; Martijn P. van den Heuvel; Moriah E. Thomason
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Marion I. van den Heuvel, Elise Turk, Janessa H. Manning, Jasmine Hect, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Sonia S. Hassan, Roberto Romero, Martijn P. van den Heuvel, Moriah E. Thomason
      Advances in neuroimaging and network analyses have lead to discovery of highly connected regions, or hubs, in the connectional architecture of the human brain. Whether these hubs emerge as networks begin to form in utero, has yet to be examined. The current study addresses this question and aims to determine the location of neural hubs in human fetuses. Fetal resting-state fMRI data (N = 105) was used to construct connectivity matrices for 197 discrete brain regions. We discovered that within the connectional functional organization of the human fetal brain key hubs are emerging. Consistent with prior reports in infants, visual and motor regions were identified as emerging hub areas, specifically in cerebellar areas. We also found evidence for network hubs in association cortex, including areas remarkably close to the adult fusiform facial and Wernicke areas. Functional significance of hub structure was confirmed by computationally deleting hub versus random nodes and observing that global efficiency decreased significantly more when hubs were removed (p < .001). Taken together, we conclude that both primary and association brain regions demonstrate centrality in network organization before birth. While fetal hubs may be important for facilitating network communication, they may also form potential points of vulnerability in fetal brain development.

      PubDate: 2018-02-13T19:09:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.001
  • Variability of the hemodynamic response in infants: Influence of
           experimental design and stimulus complexity

    • Authors: Cécile Issard; Judit Gervain
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Cécile Issard, Judit Gervain
      Measuring brain activity in developmental populations remains a major challenge despite great technological advances. Among the numerous available methods, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging modality that probes the hemodynamic response, is a powerful tool for recording brain activity in a great variety of situations and populations. Neurocognitive studies with infants have often reported inverted hemodynamic responses, i.e. a decrease instead of an increase in regional blood oxygenation, but the exact physiological explanation and cognitive interpretation of this response remain unclear. Here, we first provide an overview of the basic principles of NIRS and its use in cognitive developmental neuroscience. We then review the infant fNIRS literature to show that the hemodynamic response is modulated by experimental design and stimulus complexity, sometimes leading to hemodynamic responses with non-canonical shapes. We also argue that this effect is further modulated by the age of participants, the cortical regions involved, and the developmental stage of the tested cognitive process. We argue that this variability needs to be taken into account when designing and interpreting developmental studies measuring the hemodynamic response.

      PubDate: 2018-02-13T19:09:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.009
  • Depressed and non-depressed mothers’ touching during social
           interactions with their infants

    • Authors: Irene Mantis; Marisa Mercuri; Dale M. Stack; Tiffany M. Field
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Irene Mantis, Marisa Mercuri, Dale M. Stack, Tiffany M. Field
      Touch is a critical channel of communication used by mothers to communicate and interact with their infants and to contribute to their infants’ socio-emotional development. The present study examined maternal touching in 41 mothers with and without depressive symptomatology. Mothers and their 4-month-old infants participated in the Still-Face (maternal emotional unavailability) and Separation (maternal physical unavailability) procedures. Maternal touching behaviours were video-recorded and coded using the Caregiver Infant Touch Scale (CITS). Results indicated that mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms engaged in less touching following the perturbation in the procedure, whereas mothers with lower levels of depressive symptoms maintained stable levels of touching across both interaction periods. Mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms displayed less playful/stimulating types of touching. Taken together, these results underscore the importance of touch and suggest key differences in touching behaviour between dyads with maternal depressive symptomatology and those without.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T12:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.005
  • Income change alters default mode network connectivity for adolescents in

    • Authors: David G. Weissman; Rand D. Conger; Richard W. Robins; Paul D. Hastings; Amanda E. Guyer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): David G. Weissman, Rand D. Conger, Richard W. Robins, Paul D. Hastings, Amanda E. Guyer
      Experiencing poverty during childhood and adolescence may affect function. However, income is dynamic, and studies have not addressed whether income change relates to brain function. In the present study, we investigated whether intrinsic functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN) regions was influenced by mean family income and family income change. Parents of 68 Mexican-origin adolescents (35 females) reported family income annually when adolescents were 10-16 years old. Intercept and slope of income at each of these ages were calculated for each participant. At age 16 years, adolescents completed a resting state functional neuroimaging scan. Adolescents from high and low income families did not differ in their functional connectivity, but for adolescents in with lower incomes, their connectivity patterns depended on their income slope. Low-income adolescents whose income increased demonstrated greater connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), both DMN regions, and between the PCCand the right inferior frontal gyrus. Increases in income were associated with greater connectivity of the mPFC with the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule regardless of mean income. Increases in income, especially among adolescents in poverty, may alleviate stressors, influencing the development of brain networks.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T12:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.008
  • Adolescent pruning and stabilization of dendritic spines on cortical layer
           5 pyramidal neurons do not depend on gonadal hormones

    • Authors: Josiah R. Boivin; David J. Piekarski; A. Wren Thomas; Linda Wilbrecht
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Josiah R. Boivin, David J. Piekarski, A. Wren Thomas, Linda Wilbrecht
      Pyramidal neurons in the neocortex receive a majority of their synapses on dendritic spines, whose growth, gain, and loss regulate the strength and identity of neural connections. Juvenile brains typically show higher spine density and turnover compared to adult brains, potentially enabling greater capacity for experience-dependent circuit ‘rewiring’. Although spine pruning and stabilization in frontal cortex overlap with pubertal milestones, it is unclear if gonadal hormones drive these processes. To address this question, we used hormone manipulations and in vivo 2-photon microscopy to test for a causal relationship between pubertal hormones and spine pruning and stabilization in layer 5 neurons in the frontal cortex of female mice. We found that spine density, gains, and losses decreased from P27 to P60 and that these measures were not affected by pre-pubertal hormone injections or ovariectomy. Further analyses of spine morphology after manipulation of gonadal hormones suggest that gonadal hormones may play a role in morphological maturation and dynamics. Our data help to segregate hormone-sensitive and hormone-insensitive maturational processes that occur simultaneously in dorsomedial frontal cortex. These data provide more specific insight into adolescent development and may have implications for understanding the neurodevelopmental effects of changes in pubertal timing in humans.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T12:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.007
  • The mindedness of maternal touch: An investigation of maternal
           mind-mindedness and mother-infant touch interactions

    • Authors: Laura Crucianelli; Lisa Wheatley; Maria Laura Filippetti; Paul M. Jenkinson; Elizabeth Kirk; Aikaterini (Katerina) Fotopoulou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Laura Crucianelli, Lisa Wheatley, Maria Laura Filippetti, Paul M. Jenkinson, Elizabeth Kirk, Aikaterini (Katerina) Fotopoulou
      Increasing evidence shows that maternal touch may promote emotion regulation in infants, however less is known about how parental higher-order social cognition abilities are translated into tactile, affect-regulatory behaviours towards their infants. During 10 min book-reading, mother-infant sessions when infants were 12 months old (N = 45), we investigated maternal mind-mindedness (MM), the social cognitive ability to understand an infant’s mental state, by coding the contingency of maternal verbal statements towards the infants’ needs and desires. We also rated spontaneous tactile interactions in terms of their emotional contingency. We found that frequent non-attuned mind-related comments were associated with touch behaviours that were not contingent with the infant’s emotions; ultimately discouraging affective tactile responses from the infant. However, comments that were more appropriate to infant’s mental states did not necessarily predict more emotionally-contingent tactile behaviours. These findings suggest that when parental high-order social cognitive abilities are compromised, they are also likely to translate into inappropriate, tactile attempts to regulate infant’s emotions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T12:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.010
  • The error-related negativity (ERN) is an electrophysiological marker of
           motor impulsiveness on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) during

    • Authors: Jasmine B. Taylor; Troy A.W. Visser; Simone N. Fueggle; Mark A. Bellgrove; Allison M. Fox
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jasmine B. Taylor, Troy A.W. Visser, Simone N. Fueggle, Mark A. Bellgrove, Allison M. Fox
      Objectives Previous studies have postulated that the error-related negativity (ERN) may reflect individual differences in impulsivity; however, none have used a longitudinal framework or evaluated impulsivity as a multidimensional construct. The current study evaluated whether ERN amplitude, measured in childhood and adolescence, is predictive of impulsiveness during adolescence. Methods Seventy-five children participated in this study, initially at ages 7-9 years and again at 12-18 years. The interval between testing sessions ranged from 5 to 9 years. The ERN was extracted in response to behavioural errors produced during a modified visual flanker task at both time points (i.e. childhood and adolescence). Participants also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale − a measure that considers impulsiveness to comprise three core sub-traits − during adolescence. Results At adolescence, the ERN amplitude was significantly larger than during childhood. Additionally, ERN amplitude during adolescence significantly predicted motor impulsiveness at that time point, after controlling for age, gender, and the number of trials included in the ERN. In contrast, ERN amplitude during childhood did not uniquely predict impulsiveness during adolescence. Conclusions These findings provide preliminary evidence that ERN amplitude is an electrophysiological marker of self-reported motor impulsiveness (i.e. acting without thinking) during adolescence.

      PubDate: 2018-01-23T04:44:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.003
  • The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study External Advisory Board

    • Authors: Michael E. Charness
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Michael E. Charness

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T02:13:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.12.007
  • Development of face recognition: Dynamic causal modelling of MEG data

    • Authors: Wei He; Blake W. Johnson
      Pages: 13 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Wei He, Blake W. Johnson
      Electrophysiological studies of adults indicate that brain activity is enhanced during viewing of repeated faces, at a latency of about 250ms after the onset of the face (M250/N250). The present study aimed to determine if this effect was also present in preschool-aged children, whose brain activity was measured in a custom-sized pediatric MEG system. The results showed that, unlike adults, face repetition did not show any significant modulation of M250 amplitude in children; however children’s M250 latencies were significantly faster for repeated than non-repeated faces. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) of the M250 in both age groups tested the effects of face repetition within the core face network including the occipital face area (OFA), the fusiform face area (FFA), and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). DCM revealed that repetition of identical faces altered both forward and backward connections in children and adults; however the modulations involved inputs to both FFA and OFA in adults but only to OFA in children. These findings suggest that the amplitude-insensitivity of the immature M250 may be due to a weaker connection between the FFA and lower visual areas.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • Negative affect is related to reduced differential neural responses to
           social and non-social stimuli in 5-to-8-month-old infants: A functional
           near-infrared spectroscopy-study

    • Authors: Anne van der Kant; Szilvia Biro; Claartje Levelt; Stephan Huijbregts
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Anne van der Kant, Szilvia Biro, Claartje Levelt, Stephan Huijbregts
      Both social perception and temperament in young infants have been related to social functioning later in life. Previous functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) data (Lloyd-Fox et al., 2009) showed larger blood-oxygenation changes for social compared to non-social stimuli in the posterior temporal cortex of five-month-old infants. We sought to replicate and extend these findings by using fNIRS to study the neural basis of social perception in relation to infant temperament (Negative Affect) in 37 five-to-eight-month-old infants. Infants watched short videos displaying either hand and facial movements of female actors (social dynamic condition) or moving toys and machinery (non-social dynamic condition), while fNIRS data were collected over temporal brain regions. Negative Affect was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Results showed significantly larger blood-oxygenation changes in the right posterior-temporal region in the social compared to the non-social condition. Furthermore, this differential activation was smaller in infants showing higher Negative Affect. Our results replicate those of Lloyd-Fox et al. and confirmed that five-to-eight-month-old infants show cortical specialization for social perception. Furthermore, the decreased cortical sensitivity to social stimuli in infants showing high Negative Affect may be an early biomarker for later difficulties in social interaction.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • The integration of audio−tactile information is modulated by multimodal
           social interaction with physical contact in infancy

    • Authors: Yukari Tanaka; Yasuhiro Kanakogi; Masahiro Kawasaki; Masako Myowa
      Pages: 31 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Yukari Tanaka, Yasuhiro Kanakogi, Masahiro Kawasaki, Masako Myowa
      Interaction between caregivers and infants is multimodal in nature. To react interactively and smoothly to such multimodal signals, infants must integrate all these signals. However, few empirical infant studies have investigated how multimodal social interaction with physical contact facilitates multimodal integration, especially regarding audio − tactile (A-T) information. By using electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated how neural processing involved in A-T integration is modulated by tactile interaction. Seven- to 8-months-old infants heard one pseudoword both whilst being tickled (multimodal ‘A-T’ condition), and not being tickled (unimodal ‘A’ condition). Thereafter, their EEG was measured during the perception of the same words. Compared to the A condition, the A-T condition resulted in enhanced ERPs and higher beta-band activity within the left temporal regions, indicating neural processing of A-T integration. Additionally, theta-band activity within the middle frontal region was enhanced, which may reflect enhanced attention to social information. Furthermore, differential ERPs correlated with the degree of engagement in the tickling interaction. We provide neural evidence that the integration of A-T information in infants’ brains is facilitated through tactile interaction with others. Such plastic changes in neural processing may promote harmonious social interaction and effective learning in infancy.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • Time-varying effects of income on hippocampal volume trajectories in
           adolescent girls

    • Authors: Monica E. Ellwood-Lowe; Kathryn L. Humphreys; Sarah J. Ordaz; M.Catalina Camacho; Matthew D. Sacchet; Ian H. Gotlib
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Monica E. Ellwood-Lowe, Kathryn L. Humphreys, Sarah J. Ordaz, M.Catalina Camacho, Matthew D. Sacchet, Ian H. Gotlib
      Children from lower-SES families exhibit smaller hippocampal volume than do their higher-SES peers. Few studies, however, have compared hippocampal developmental trajectories as a function of SES. Thus, it is unclear whether initial rank-order stability is preserved, or whether volumes diverge/converge over the course of adolescence. In a sample of 101 girls ages 10–24 years, we examined the longitudinal association between family income and parental education, proxies for SES, and changes in hippocampal volume. Hippocampal volume was obtained using MRI; using mixed modeling, we examined the effects of income and education on hippocampal volume across age. As expected, changes in volume were non-linear across development. Further, trajectories diverged in mid-adolescence, with lower-income girls exhibiting reductions in hippocampal volume. Maximal income-related differences were observed at 18 years, and trajectories converged thereafter. This interaction remained significant when accounting for maternal hippocampal volume, suggesting a unique contribution of environment over potential heritable differences. In contrast, the association between parental education and offspring hippocampal volume appeared to be stable across adolescence, with higher levels of parental education predicting consistently larger hippocampal volume. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that girls from lower-income homes exhibit unique trajectories of hippocampal growth, with differences most evident in late adolescence.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T02:07:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • White matter structural connectivity and episodic memory in early

    • Authors: Chi T. Ngo; Kylie H. Alm; Athanasia Metoki; William Hampton; Tracy Riggins; Nora S. Newcombe; Ingrid R. Olson
      Pages: 41 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 28
      Author(s): Chi T. Ngo, Kylie H. Alm, Athanasia Metoki, William Hampton, Tracy Riggins, Nora S. Newcombe, Ingrid R. Olson
      Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different developmental profiles. Here we asked whether developmental differences in the axonal pathways connecting these regions may account for the robust gains in episodic memory in young children. Using diffusion weighted imaging, we examined whether white matter connectivity between brain regions implicated in episodic memory differed with age, and were associated with memory performance differences in 4- and 6-year-old children. Results revealed that white matter connecting the hippocampus to the inferior parietal lobule significantly predicted children’s performance on episodic memory tasks. In contrast, variation in the white matter connecting the hippocampus to the medial prefrontal cortex did not relate to memory performance. These findings suggest that structural connectivity between the hippocampus and lateral parietal regions is relevant to the development of episodic memory.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 28 (2017)
  • Processing of affective and emotionally neutral tactile stimuli in the
           insular cortex

    • Authors: Davidovic Monika; Starck Göran; Olausson Håkan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Davidovic Monika, Starck Göran, Olausson Håkan
      The insula is important for the processing of pleasant aspects of touch whereas its role in the processing of emotionally neutral touch has been less explored. Here, we used a network approach to investigate the insular processing of pleasant stroking touch and emotionally neutral vibratory touch, analysing functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 23 healthy adult participants. Vibration and skin stroking activated areas in the posterior, middle and anterior insula. Psychophysiological interaction analyses suggested that skin stroking increased functional connectivity between the posterior and ventral anterior insula. Vibration instead increased functional connectivity between the posterior and dorsal anterior insula, and induced a stronger decrease of the default mode network activity compared to stroking. These results confirmed findings from previous studies showing that the posterior insula processes affective touch information. We suggest that this is accomplished by relaying tactile information from the posterior insula to ventral anterior insula, an area tightly connected to the emotional parts of the brain. However, our results also suggested that the insula processes tactile information with less emotional valence. A central hub in this processing seemed to be the right dorsal anterior insula.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T02:07:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.12.006
  • Boys with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Neural Response
           to Reward and Punishment and Associations with Treatment Response

    • Authors: Amy L. Byrd; Samuel W. Hawes; Jeffrey D. Burke; Rolf Loeber; Dustin A. Pardini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Amy L. Byrd, Samuel W. Hawes, Jeffrey D. Burke, Rolf Loeber, Dustin A. Pardini
      Abnormalities in reward and punishment processing are implicated in the development of conduct problems (CP), particularly among youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, no studies have examined whether CP children with high versus low CU traits exhibit differences in the neural response to reward and punishment. A clinic-referred sample of CP boys with high versus low CU traits (ages 8-11; n = 37) and healthy controls (HC; n = 27) completed a fMRI task assessing reward and punishment processing. CP boys also completed a randomized control trial examining the effectiveness of an empirically-supported intervention (i.e., Stop-Now-And-Plan;SNAP). Primary analyses examined pre-treatment differences in neural activation to reward and punishment, and exploratory analyses assessed whether these differences predicted treatment outcome. Results demonstrated associations between CP and reduced amygdala activation to punishment independent of age, race, IQ and co-occurring ADHD and internalizing symptoms. CU traits were not associated with reward or punishment processing after accounting for covariates and no differences were found between CP boys with high versus low CU traits. While boys assigned to SNAP showed a greater reduction in CP, differences in neural activation were not associated with treatment response. Findings suggest that reduced sensitivity to punishment is associated with early-onset CP in boys regardless of the level of CU traits.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.12.004
  • Diffusion MRI of white matter microstructure development in childhood and
           adolescence: Methods, challenges and progress

    • Authors: Christian Tamnes; David Roalf Anne-Lise Goddings Catherine Lebel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Christian K. Tamnes, David R. Roalf, Anne-Lise Goddings, Catherine Lebel
      Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) continues to grow in popularity as a useful neuroimaging method to study brain development, and longitudinal studies that track the same individuals over time are emerging. Over the last decade, seminal work using dMRI has provided new insights into the development of brain white matter (WM) microstructure, connections and networks throughout childhood and adolescence. This review provides an introduction to dMRI, both diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and other dMRI models, as well as common acquisition and analysis approaches. We highlight the difficulties associated with ascribing these imaging measurements and their changes over time to specific underlying cellular and molecular events. We also discuss selected methodological challenges that are of particular relevance for studies of development, including critical choices related to image acquisition, image analysis, quality control assessment, and the within-subject and longitudinal reliability of dMRI measurements. Next, we review the exciting progress in the characterization and understanding of brain development that has resulted from dMRI studies in childhood and adolescence, including brief overviews and discussions of studies focusing on sex and individual differences. Finally, we outline future directions that will be beneficial to the field.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
  • Assessing age-dependent multi-task functional co-activation changes using
           measures of task-potency

    • Authors: Roselyne Chauvin; Maarten Mennes Jan Buitelaar Christian Beckmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Roselyne J. Chauvin, Maarten Mennes, Jan K. Buitelaar, Christian F. Beckmann
      It is being hypothesised that the developing adolescent brain is increasingly enlisting long-range connectivity, allowing improved communication between spatially distant brain regions. The developmental trajectories of such maturational changes remain elusive. Here, we aim to study how the brain engages in multiple tasks (working memory, reward processing, and inhibition) at the network-level and evaluate how effects of age across these tasks are related to each other. We characterise how the brain departs from its functional baseline architecture towards task-induced functional connectivity modulations using a novel measure called task potency, allowing direct comparison between tasks by defining sensitivity to one or multiple tasks. By applying this method in a sample of healthy participants (N=218) aged 8–30 years, we demonstrate maturational changes in task-dependent functional co-activation over and above baseline connectivity maturation. Our results provide evidence for task-specific maturational windows with different cognitive systems probed by different tasks displaying specific age-range dependencies of strongest developmental change. Our results highlight the use of task potency for modelling developmental trajectories and the impact of differential maturation across tasks. This enables better characterisation of cognitive processes disrupted in neurodevelopmental disorders and may explain the increased level of heterogeneity observed in adolescent population studies.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
  • Editorial Board/Aims and Scope

    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 28

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
  • Current methods and limitations for longitudinal fMRI analysis across

    • Authors: Tara Madhyastha; Matthew Peverill; Natalie Koh; Connor McCabe; John Flournoy; Kate Mills; Kevin King; Jennifer Pfeifer; Katie A. McLaughlin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Tara Madhyastha, Matthew Peverill, Natalie Koh, Connor McCabe, John Flournoy, Kate Mills, Kevin King, Jennifer Pfeifer, Katie A. McLaughlin
      The human brain is remarkably plastic. The brain changes dramatically across development, with ongoing functional development continuing well into the third decade of life and substantial changes occurring again in older age. Dynamic changes in brain function are thought to underlie the innumerable changes in cognition, emotion, and behavior that occur across development. The brain also changes in response to experience, which raises important questions about how the environment influences the developing brain. Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are an essential means of understanding these developmental changes and their cognitive, emotional, and behavioral correlates. This paper provides an overview of common statistical models of longitudinal change applicable to developmental cognitive neuroscience, and a review of the functionality provided by major software packages for longitudinal fMRI analysis. We demonstrate that there are important developmental questions that cannot be answered using available software. We propose alternative approaches for addressing problems that are commonly faced in modeling developmental change with fMRI data.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.006
  • The neural signature of self-concept development in adolescence: the role
           of domain and valence distinctions

    • Authors: R. Van der Cruijsen; S. Peters; L.P.E. Van der Aar; E.A. Crone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): R. Van der Cruijsen, S. Peters, L.P.E. Van der Aar, E.A. Crone
      Neuroimaging studies in adults showed that cortical midline regions including medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) are important in self-evaluations. The goals of this study were to investigate the contribution of these regions to self-evaluations in late childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, and to examine whether these differed per domain (academic, physical and prosocial) and valence (positive versus negative). Also, we tested whether this activation changes across adolescence. For this purpose, participants between ages 11-21-years (N=150) evaluated themselves on trait sentences in an fMRI session. Behaviorally, adolescents rated their academic traits less positively than children and young adults. The neural analyses showed that evaluating self-traits versus a control condition was associated with increased activity in mPFC (domain-general effect), and positive traits were associated with increased activity in ventral mPFC (valence effect). Self-related mPFC activation increased linearly with age, but only for evaluating physical traits. Furthermore, an adolescent-specific decrease in striatum activation for positive self traits was found. Finally, we found domain-specific neural activity for evaluating traits in physical (dorsolateral PFC, dorsal mPFC) and academic (PPC) domains. Together, these results highlight the importance of domain distinctions when studying self-concept development in late childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.005
  • Longitudinal modeling in developmental neuroimaging research: Common
           challenges, and solutions from developmental psychology

    • Authors: Kevin M. King; Andrew Littlefield; Connor McCabe; Kathryn L. Mills; John Flournoy; Laurie Chassin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Kevin M. King, Andrew Littlefield, Connor McCabe, Kathryn L. Mills, John Flournoy, Laurie Chassin
      Hypotheses about change over time are central to informing our understanding of development. Developmental neuroscience is at critical juncture: although the majority of longitudinal imaging studies have observations with two time points, researchers are increasingly obtaining three or more observations of the same individuals. The goals of the proposed manuscript are to draw upon the long history of methodological and applied literature on longitudinal statistical models to summarize common problems and issues that arise in their use. We also provide suggestions and solutions to improve the design, analysis and interpretation of longitudinal data, and discuss the importance of matching the theory of change with the appropriate statistical model used to test the theory. Researchers should articulate a clear theory of change and to design studies to capture that change and use appropriately sensitive measures to assess that change during development. Simulated data are used to demonstrate several common analytic approaches to longitudinal analyses. We provide the code for our simulations and figures in an online supplement to aid researchers in exploring and plotting their data. We provide brief examples of best practices for reporting such models. Finally, we clarify common misunderstandings in the application and interpretation of these analytic approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.009
  • Structural brain development: A review of methodological approaches and
           best practices

    • Authors: Nandita Vijayakumar; Kathryn L. Mills; Aaron Alexander-Bloch; Christian K. Tamnes; Sarah Whittle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Nandita Vijayakumar, Kathryn L. Mills, Aaron Alexander-Bloch, Christian K. Tamnes, Sarah Whittle
      Continued advances in neuroimaging technologies and statistical modelling capabilities have improved our knowledge of structural brain development in children and adolescents. While this has provided an increasingly nuanced understanding of brain development, the field is still plagued by inconsistent findings. This review highlights the methodological diversity in existing longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on structural brain development during childhood and adolescence, and addresses how such variation might contribute to inconsistencies in the literature. We discuss the impact of method choices at multiple decision points across the research process, from study design and sample selection, to image processing and statistical analysis. We also highlight the extent to which different methodological considerations have been empirically examined, drawing attention to specific areas that would benefit from future investigation. Where appropriate, we recommend certain best practices that would be beneficial for the field to adopt, including greater completeness and transparency in reporting methods, in order to ultimately develop an accurate and detailed understanding of normative child and adolescent brain development.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.008
  • Developmental cognitive neuroscience using Latent Change Score models: A
           tutorial and applications

    • Authors: Rogier A. Kievit; Andreas M. Brandmaier; Gabriel Ziegler; Anne-Laura van Harmelen; Susanne M.M. de Mooij; Michael Moutoussis; Ian Goodyer; Ed Bullmore; Peter B. Jones; Peter Fonagy; Ulman Lindenberger; Raymond J. Dolan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Rogier A. Kievit, Andreas M. Brandmaier, Gabriel Ziegler, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Susanne M.M. de Mooij, Michael Moutoussis, Ian Goodyer, Ed Bullmore, Peter B. Jones, Peter Fonagy, Ulman Lindenberger, Raymond J. Dolan
      Assessing and analysing individual differences in change over time is of central scientific importance to developmental neuroscience. However, the literature is based largely on cross-sectional comparisons, which reflect a variety of influences and cannot directly represent change. We advocate using latent change score (LCS) models in longitudinal samples as a statistical framework to tease apart the complex processes underlying lifespan development in brain and behaviour using longitudinal data. LCS models provide a flexible framework that naturally accommodates key developmental questions as model parameters and can even be used, with some limitations, in cases with only two measurement occasions. We illustrate the use of LCS models with two empirical examples. In a lifespan cognitive training study (COGITO, N=204 (N=32 imaging) on two waves) we observe correlated change in brain and behaviour in the context of a high-intensity training intervention. In an adolescent development cohort (NSPN, N=176, two waves) we find greater variability in cortical thinning in males than in females. To facilitate the adoption of LCS by the developmental community, we provide analysis code that can be adapted by other researchers and basic primers in two freely available SEM software packages (lavaan and Ωnyx).

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.007
  • Assessment of the acquisition of executive function during the transition
           from adolescence to adulthood in male and female mice

    • Authors: Ryan Shepard; Emily Beckett; Laurence Coutellier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Ryan Shepard, Emily Beckett, Laurence Coutellier
      Executive functions (EF) reached full maturity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Human studies provide important information about adolescent developmental trajectories; however, little remains known about the neural circuits underlying the acquisition of mature EF. Ethical and technical considerations with human subjects limit opportunities to design experimental studies that allows for an in-depth understanding of developmental changes in neural circuits that regulate cognitive maturation. Preclinical models can offer solutions to this problem. Unfortunately, current rodent models of adolescent development have inherent flaws that limit their translational value. For instance, females are often omitted from studies, preventing the assessment of potential sex-specific developmental trajectories. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether cognitive developmental changes in rodents are similar to those observed in humans. Here, we tested adolescent and adult male and female mice in a neurocognitive battery of assays. Based on this approach, we assessed mice performances within distinct subdomains of EF, and observed similarities with human developmental trajectories. Furthermore, the sex-specific cognitive changes we observed were paralleled by molecular and neural activity changes demonstrating that our approach can be used in future research to assess the contribution of precise neural circuits to adolescent cognitive maturation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T19:57:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.009
  • An event-related potential investigation of the acute effects of aerobic
           and coordinative exercise on inhibitory control in children with ADHD

    • Authors: Sebastian Ludyga; Serge Brand; Markus Gerber; Peter Weber; Mark Brotzmann; Fahimeh Habibifar; Uwe Pühse
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Sebastian Ludyga, Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Peter Weber, Mark Brotzmann, Fahimeh Habibifar, Uwe Pühse
      The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task. Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition. During the task, stimulus-locked event-related potentials were recorded with electroencephalography. Both groups showed an increase of P300 amplitude and decrease of reaction time after exercise compared to the control condition. Investigating the effect of exercise modality, aerobic exercise led to greater increases of P300 amplitude and reductions in reaction time than coordinative exercise in children with ADHD. The findings suggest that a single exercise bout improves inhibitory control and the allocation of attentional resources. There were some indications that an aerobic exercise session seems to be more efficient than coordinative exercise in reducing the inhibitory control deficits that persist in children with ADHD.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T19:57:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.007
  • Low-level neural auditory discrimination dysfunctions in specific language
           impairment—A review on mismatch negativity findings

    • Authors: Teija Kujala; Miika Leminen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Teija Kujala, Miika Leminen
      In specific language impairment (SLI), there is a delay in the child’s oral language skills when compared with nonverbal cognitive abilities. The problems typically relate to phonological and morphological processing and word learning. This article reviews studies which have used mismatch negativity (MMN) in investigating low-level neural auditory dysfunctions in this disorder. With MMN, it is possible to tap the accuracy of neural sound discrimination and sensory memory functions. These studies have found smaller response amplitudes and longer latencies for speech and non-speech sound changes in children with SLI than in typically developing children, suggesting impaired and slow auditory discrimination in SLI. Furthermore, they suggest shortened sensory memory duration and vulnerability of the sensory memory to masking effects. Importantly, some studies reported associations between MMN parameters and language test measures. In addition, it was found that language intervention can influence the abnormal MMN in children with SLI, enhancing its amplitude. These results suggest that the MMN can shed light on the neural basis of various auditory and memory impairments in SLI, which are likely to influence speech perception.

      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:48:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.005
  • An electrophysiological investigation of reinforcement effects in
           attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Dissociating cue sensitivity
           from down-stream effects on target engagement and performance

    • Authors: Georgia Chronaki; Fruzsina Soltesz; Nicholas Benikos; Edmund J.S. Sonuga-Barke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Georgia Chronaki, Fruzsina Soltesz, Nicholas Benikos, Edmund J.S. Sonuga-Barke
      Objective Neural hypo-sensitivity to cues predicting positive reinforcement has been observed in ADHD using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Here we report the first study using an electrophysiological analogue of this task to distinguish between (i) cue related anticipation of reinforcement and downstream effects on (ii) target engagement and (iii) performance in a clinical sample of adolescents with ADHD and controls. Methods Thirty-one controls and 32 adolescents with ADHD aged 10-16 years performed the electrophysiological (e)-MID task − in which preparatory cues signal whether a response to an upcoming target will be reinforced or not − under three conditions; positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement (response cost) and no consequence (neutral). We extracted values for both cue-related potentials known to be, both, associated with response preparation and modulated by reinforcement (Cue P3 and Cue CNV) and target-related potentials (target P3) and compared these between ADHD and controls. Results ADHD and controls did not differ on cue-related components on neutral trials. Against expectation, adolescents with ADHD displayed Cue P3 and Cue CNV reinforcement-related enhancement (versus neutral trials) compared to controls. ADHD individuals displayed smaller target P3 amplitudes and slower and more variable performance − but effects were not modulated by reinforcement contingencies. When age, IQ and conduct problems were controlled effects were marginally significant but the pattern of results did not change. Discussion ADHD was associated with hypersensitivity to positive (and marginally negative) reinforcement reflected on components often thought to be associated with response preparation − however these did not translate into improved attention to targets. In the case of ADHD, upregulated CNV may be a specific marker of hyper-arousal rather than an enhancement of anticipatory attention to upcoming targets. Future studies should examine the effects of age, IQ and conduct problems on reinforcement sensitivity in ADHD.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:48:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.003
  • “Loser” or “Popular”': Neural response to social status words
           in adolescents with major depressive disorder

    • Authors: Jennifer S. Silk; Kyung Hwa Lee; Rebecca Kerestes; Julianne M. Griffith; Ronald E. Dahl; Cecile D. Ladouceur
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jennifer S. Silk, Kyung Hwa Lee, Rebecca Kerestes, Julianne M. Griffith, Ronald E. Dahl, Cecile D. Ladouceur
      Concerns about social status are ubiquitous during adolescence, with information about social status often conveyed in text formats. Depressed adolescents may show alterations in the functioning of neural systems supporting processing of social status information. We examined whether depressed youth exhibited altered neural activation to social status words in temporal and prefrontal cortical regions thought to be involved in social cognitive processing, and whether this response was associated with development. Forty-nine adolescents (ages 10–18; 35 female), including 20 with major depressive disorder and 29 controls, were scanned while identifying the valence of words that connoted positive and negative social status. Results indicated that depressed youth showed reduced late activation to social status (vs neutral) words in the superior temporal cortex (STC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC); whereas healthy youth did not show any significant differences between word types. Depressed youth also showed reduced late activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus to negative (vs positive) social status words; whereas healthy youth showed the opposite pattern. Finally, age was positively associated with MPFC activation to social status words. Findings suggest that hypoactivation in the “social cognitive brain network” might be implicated in altered interpersonal functioning in adolescent depression.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T15:30:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.09.005
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