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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 873 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 394)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 172)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 66)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 211)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 137)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 121)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 127)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access  
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Escritos de Psicología : Psychological Writings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
  [SJR: 2.531]   [H-I: 26]   [16 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1878-9293 - ISSN (Online) 1878-9307
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • The temporal and spatial brain dynamics of automatic emotion regulation in

    • Authors: Charline Urbain; Julie Sato; Elizabeth W. Pang; Margot J. Taylor
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 26
      Author(s): Charline Urbain, Julie Sato, Elizabeth W. Pang, Margot J. Taylor
      Mechanisms for automatic emotion regulation (AER) are essential during childhood as they offset the impact of unwanted or negative emotional responses without drawing on limited attentional resources. Despite the importance of AER in improving the efficiency and flexibility of self-regulation, few research studies have investigated the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. To fill this gap, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate AER-related brain processes in 25 children (∼10 years old) who performed a go/no–go task that included an incidental exposure to faces containing socio-emotional cues. Whole brain results revealed that the inhibition of angry faces (compared with happy faces) was associated with a stronger recruitment of several brain regions from 100 to 425ms. These activations involved the right angular and occipital gyri from 100 to175ms, the right orbito-frontal gyrus (OFG) from 250 to 325ms (p corr < 0.05), and finally, the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) from 325 to 425ms. Our results suggest a specific involvement of these regions in the automatic regulation of negative emotional stimuli in children. In the future, this knowledge may help understand developmental conditions where inhibition impairments are exacerbated by an emotional context.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Behavioral and neural concordance in parent-child dyadic sleep patterns

    • Authors: Tae-Ho Lee; Michelle E. Miernicki; Eva H. Telzer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Tae-Ho Lee, Michelle E. Miernicki, Eva H. Telzer
      Sleep habits developed in adolescence shape long-term trajectories of psychological, educational, and physiological well-being. Adolescents’ sleep behaviors are shaped by their parents’ sleep at both the behavioral and biological levels. In the current study, we sought to examine how neural concordance in resting-state functional connectivity between parent-child dyads is associated with dyadic concordance in sleep duration and adolescents’ sleep quality. To this end, we scanned both parents and their child (N=28 parent-child dyads; parent M age =42.8years; adolescent M age =14.9years; 14.3% father; 46.4% female adolescent) as they each underwent a resting-state scan. Using daily diaries, we also assessed dyadic concordance in sleep duration across two weeks. Our results show that greater daily concordance in sleep behavior is associated with greater neural concordance in default-mode network connectivity between parents and children. Moreover, greater neural and behavioral concordances in sleep associated with more optimal sleep quality in adolescents. The current findings expand our understanding of dyadic concordance by providing a neurobiological mechanism by which parents and children share daily sleep behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T19:45:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.06.003
  • Callous-unemotional traits moderate executive function in children with
           ASD and ADHD: a pilot event-related potential study

    • Authors: C. Tye; R. Bedford; P. Asherson; K.L. Ashwood; B. Azadi; P. Bolton; G. McLoughlin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): C. Tye, R. Bedford, P. Asherson, K.L. Ashwood, B. Azadi, P. Bolton, G. McLoughlin
      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with varied executive function (EF) difficulties. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, a proposed antecedent of adult psychopathy, are often associated with intact or enhanced EF. Here we test whether CU traits may therefore modulate EF in ASD and ADHD, in which EF is typically impaired. We collected CU traits and measured event-related potentials (ERPs) that index EF during a cued-continuous performance test (CPT-OX) in boys with ASD, ADHD, comorbid ASD+ADHD and typical controls. We examined attentional orienting at cues (Cue-P3), inhibitory processing at non-targets (NoGo-P3) and conflict monitoring between target and non-target trials (Go-N2 vs. NoGo-N2). In children with ASD, higher CU traits were associated with an enhanced increase in N2 amplitude in NoGo trials compared to Go trials, which suggests relatively superior conflict monitoring and a potential cognitive strength associated with CU traits. The results emphasise the importance of considering the effects of co-occurring traits in the assessment of heterogeneity of EF profiles in neurodevelopmental disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T07:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.06.002
  • Hippocampal spatial mechanisms relate to the development of arithmetic
           symbol processing in children

    • Authors: Romain Mathieu; Justine Epinat-Duclos; Jessica Léone; Michel Fayol; Catherine Thevenot; Jérôme Prado
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Romain Mathieu, Justine Epinat-Duclos, Jessica Léone, Michel Fayol, Catherine Thevenot, Jérôme Prado
      Understanding the meaning of abstract mathematical symbols is a cornerstone of arithmetic learning in children. Although studies have long focused on the role of spatial intuitions in the processing of numerals, it has been argued that such intuitions may also underlie symbols conveying fundamental arithmetic concepts, such as arithmetic operators. In the present cross-sectional study, we used fMRI to investigate how and when associations between arithmetic operators and spatial brain activity emerge in children from 3rd to 10th grade. We found that the mere perception of a ‘+’ sign elicited grade-related increases of spatial activity in the right hippocampus. That is, merely perceiving ‘+’ signs – without any operands – elicited enhanced hippocampal activity after around 7th grade. In these children, hippocampal activity in response to a ‘+’ sign was further correlated with the degree to which calculation performance was facilitated by the preview of that sign before an addition problem, an effect termed operator-priming. Grade-related increases of hippocampal spatial activity were operation-specific because they were not observed with ‘×’ signs, which might evoke rote retrieval rather than numerical manipulation. Our study raises the possibility that hippocampal spatial mechanisms help build associations between some arithmetic operators and space throughout age and/or education.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T07:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.06.001
  • Sensory reactivity, empathizing, and systemizing in autism spectrum
           conditions and sensory processing disorder

    • Authors: Teresa Tavassoli; Lucy Jane Miller; A. Sarah Schoen; Jennifer Jo Brout; Jillian Sullivan; Simon Baron-Cohen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Teresa Tavassoli, Lucy Jane Miller, A. Sarah Schoen, Jennifer Jo Brout, Jillian Sullivan, Simon Baron-Cohen
      Although the DSM-5 added sensory symptoms as a criterion for ASC, there is a group of children who display sensory symptoms but do not have ASC; children with sensory processing disorder (SPD). To be able to differentiate these two disorders, our aim was to evaluate whether children with ASC show more sensory symptomatology and/or different cognitive styles in empathy and systemizing compared to children with SPD and typically developing (TD) children. The study included 210 participants: 68 children with ASC, 79 with SPD and 63 TD children. The Sensory Processing Scale Inventory was used to measure sensory symptoms, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to measure autistic traits, and the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) to measure cognitive styles. Across groups, a greater sensory symptomatology was associated with lower empathy. Further, both the ASC and SPD groups showed more sensory symptoms than TD children. Children with ASC and SPD only differed on sensory under-reactivity. The ASD group did, however, show lower empathy and higher systemizing scores than the SPD group. Together, this suggest that sensory symptoms alone may not be adequate to differentiate children with ASC and SPD but that cognitive style measures could be used for differential diagnosis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.05.005
  • Adaptation of social and non-social cues to direction in adults with
           autism spectrum disorder and neurotypical adults with autistic traits

    • Authors: Rebecca P. Lawson; Jessica Aylward; Jonathan P. Roiser; Geraint Rees
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Rebecca P. Lawson, Jessica Aylward, Jonathan P. Roiser, Geraint Rees
      Perceptual constancy strongly relies on adaptive gain control mechanisms, which shift perception as a function of recent sensory history. Here we examined the extent to which individual differences in magnitude of adaptation aftereffects for social and non-social directional cues are related to autistic traits and sensory sensitivity in healthy participants (Experiment 1); and also whether adaptation for social and non-social directional cues is differentially impacted in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relative to neurotypical (NT) controls (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, individuals with lower susceptibility to adaptation aftereffects, i.e. more ‘veridical’ perception, showed higher levels of autistic traits across social and non-social stimuli. Furthermore, adaptation aftereffects were predictive of sensory sensitivity. In Experiment 2, only adaptation to eye-gaze was diminished in adults with ASD, and this was related to difficulties categorizing eye-gaze direction at baseline. Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) scores negatively predicted lower adaptation for social (head and eye-gaze direction) but not non-social (chair) stimuli. These results suggest that the relationship between adaptation and the broad socio-cognitive processing style captured by ‘autistic traits’ may be relatively domain-general, but in adults with ASD diminished adaptation is only apparent where processing is most severely impacted, such as the perception of social attention cues.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.05.001
  • Arithmetic in the developing brain: A review of brain imaging studies

    • Authors: Lien Peters; Bert De Smedt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Lien Peters, Bert De Smedt
      Brain imaging studies on academic achievement offer an exciting window on experience-dependent cortical plasticity, as they allow us to understand how developing brains change when children acquire culturally transmitted skills. This contribution focuses on the learning of arithmetic, which is quintessential to mathematical development. The nascent body of brain imaging studies reveals that arithmetic recruits a large set of interconnected areas, including prefrontal, posterior parietal, occipito-temporal and hippocampal areas. This network undergoes developmental changes in its function, connectivity and structure, which are not yet fully understood. This network only partially overlaps with what has been found in adults, and clear differences are observed in the recruitment of the hippocampus, which are related to the development of arithmetic fact retrieval. Despite these emerging trends, the literature remains scattered, particularly in the context of atypical development. Acknowledging the distributed nature of the arithmetic network, future studies should focus on connectivity and analytic approaches that investigate patterns of brain activity, coupled with a careful design of the arithmetic tasks and assessments of arithmetic strategies. Such studies will produce a more comprehensive understanding of how the arithmetical brain unfolds, how it changes over time, and how it is impaired in atypical development.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.05.002
  • The Impact of Atypical Sensory Processing on Social Impairments in Autism
           Spectrum Disorder

    • Authors: Melissa D. Thye; Haley M. Bednarz; Abbey J. Herringshaw; Emma B. Sartin; Rajesh K. Kana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Melissa D. Thye, Haley M. Bednarz, Abbey J. Herringshaw, Emma B. Sartin, Rajesh K. Kana
      Altered sensory processing has been an important feature of the clinical descriptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There is evidence that sensory dysregulation arises early in the progression of ASD and impacts social functioning. This paper reviews behavioral and neurobiological evidence that describes how sensory deficits across multiple modalities (vision, hearing, touch, olfaction, gustation, and multisensory integration) could impact social functions in ASD. Theoretical models of ASD and their implications for the relationship between sensory and social functioning are discussed. Furthermore, neural differences in anatomy, function, and connectivity of different regions underlying sensory and social processing are also discussed. We conclude that there are multiple mechanisms through which early sensory dysregulation in ASD could cascade into social deficits across development. Future research is needed to clarify these mechanisms, and specific focus should be given to distinguish between deficits in primary sensory processing and altered top-down attentional and cognitive processes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.04.010
  • Longitudinal Associations among Family Environment, Neural Cognitive
           Control, and Social Competence among Adolescents

    • Authors: Jungmeen Kim-Spoon; Dominique Maciejewski; Jacob Lee; Kirby Deater-Deckard; Brooks King-Casas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Dominique Maciejewski, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas
      During adolescence, prefrontal cortex regions, important in cognitive control, undergo maturation to adapt to changing environmental demands. Ways through which social-ecological factors contribute to adolescent neural cognitive control have not been thoroughly examined. We hypothesize that household chaos is a context that may modulate the associations among parental control, adolescent neural cognitive control, and developmental changes in social competence. The sample involved 167 adolescents (ages 13-14 at Time 1, 53% male). Parental control and household chaos were measured using adolescents’ questionnaire data, and cognitive control was assessed via behavioral performance and brain imaging at Time 1. Adolescent social competence was reported by adolescents at Time 1 and at Time 2 (one year later). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that higher parental control predicted better neural cognitive control only among adolescents living in low-chaos households. The association between poor neural cognitive control at Time 1 and social competence at Time 2 (after controlling for social competence at Time 1) was significant only among adolescents living in high-chaos households. Household chaos may undermine the positive association of parental control with adolescent neural cognitive control and exacerbate the detrimental association of poor neural cognitive control with disrupted social competence development.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.04.009
  • Where Arithmetic and Phonology Meet: The Meta-Analytic Convergence of
           Arithmetic and Phonological Processing in the Brain

    • Authors: Courtney Pollack; Nicole C. Ashby
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 May 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Courtney Pollack, Nicole C. Ashby
      Arithmetic facts can be solved using different strategies. Research suggests that some arithmetic problems, particularly those solved by fact retrieval, are related to phonological processing ability and elicit activity in left-lateralized brain regions that support phonological processing. However, it is unclear whether common brain regions support both retrieval-based arithmetic and phonological processing, and if these regions differ across children and adults. This study used activation likelihood estimation to investigate functional neural overlap between arithmetic and phonological processing, separately for children and adults. The meta-analyses in children showed six clusters of overlapping activation concentrated in bilateral frontal regions and in the left fusiform gyrus. The meta-analyses in adults yielded two clusters of concordant activity, one in the left inferior frontal gyrus and one in the left inferior parietal lobule. A qualitative comparison across the two age groups suggests that children show more bilateral and diffuse activation than adults, which may reflect attentional processes that support more effortful processing in children. The present meta-analyses contribute novel insights into the relationship between retrieval-based arithmetic and phonological processing in the brain across children and adults, and brain regions that may support processing of more complex symbolic representations, such as arithmetic facts and words.

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T04:12:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.05.003
  • Editorial Board/Aims and Scope

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 24

      PubDate: 2017-05-11T04:12:09Z
  • Cognitive performance of juvenile monkeys after chronic fluoxetine

    • Authors: Mari S. Golub; Edward P. Hackett; Casey E. Hogrefe; Csaba Leranth; John D. Elsworth; Robert H. Roth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Mari S. Golub, Edward P. Hackett, Casey E. Hogrefe, Csaba Leranth, John D. Elsworth, Robert H. Roth
      Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age) were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N=16/group) for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N=8/group) suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention. After dosing was discontinued, sustained attention, recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated. Sustained attention was affected by fluoxetine, both during and after dosing, as indexed by omission errors. Response accuracy was not affected by fluoxetine in post-dosing recognition memory and cognitive flexibility test, but formerly fluoxetine-treated monkeys compared to vehicle controls had more missed trial initiations and choices during testing. Drug treatment also interacted with genetic and environmental variables: MAOA genotype (high- and low transcription rate polymorphisms) and testing location (upper or lower tier of cages). Altered development of top-down cortical regulation of effortful attention may be relevant to this pattern of cognitive test performance after juvenile fluoxetine treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T13:09:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.04.008
  • Body representation difficulties in children and adolescents with Autism
           may be due to delayed development of visuo-tactile temporal binding

    • Authors: Katie Greenfield; Roger Newport; Alastair D. Smith; Mark Carey; Danielle Ropar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Katie Greenfield, Roger Newport, Alastair D. Smith, Mark Carey, Danielle Ropar
      Recent research suggests visuo-tactile binding is temporally extended in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), although it is not clear whether this specifically underlies altered body representation in this population. In the current study children and adolescents with ASD, and typically developing controls, placed their hand into mediated reality system (MIRAGE) and saw two identical live video images of their own right hand. One image was in the proprioceptively correct location (veridical hand) and the other was displaced to either side. While visuo-tactile feedback was applied via brushstroke to the participant’s (unseen) right finger, they viewed one hand image receiving synchronous brushstrokes and the other receiving brushstrokes with a temporal delay (60, 180 and 300ms). After brushing, both images disappeared from view and participants pointed to a target, with direction of movement indicating which hand was embodied. ASD participants, like younger mental aged-matched controls, showed reduced embodiment of the spatially incongruent, but temporally incongruent, hand compared to chronologically age-matched controls at shorter temporal delays. This suggests development of visuo-tactile integration may be delayed in ASD. Findings are discussed in relation to atypical body representation in ASD and how this may contribute to social and sensory difficulties within this population.

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T12:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.04.007
  • A novel form of perceptual attunement: context-dependent perception of a
           native contrast in 14-month-old infants

    • Authors: Mathilde Fort; Perrine Brusini; M.Julia Carbajal; Yue Sun; Sharon Peperkamp
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Mathilde Fort, Perrine Brusini, M.Julia Carbajal, Yue Sun, Sharon Peperkamp
      By the end of their first year of life, infants have become experts in discriminating the sounds of their native language, while they have lost the ability to discriminate non-native contrasts. This type of phonetic learning is referred to as perceptual attunement. In the present study, we investigated the emergence of a context-dependent form of perceptual attunement in infancy. Indeed, some native contrasts are not discriminated in certain phonological contexts by adults, due to the presence of a language-specific process that neutralizes the contrasts in those contexts. We used a mismatch design and recorded high-density Electroencephalography (EEG) in French-learning 14-month-olds. Our results show that similarly to French adults, infants fail to discriminate a native voicing contrast (e.g., [f] vs. [v]) when it occurs in a specific phonological context (e.g., [ofbe] vs. [ovbe], no mismatch response), while they successfully detected it in other phonological contexts (e.g., [ofne] vs. [ovne], mismatch response). The present results demonstrate for the first time that by the age of 14 months, infants’ phonetic learning does not only rely on the processing of individual sounds, but also takes into account in a language-specific manner the phonological contexts in which these sounds occur.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T12:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.04.006
  • Active auditory experience in infancy promotes brain plasticity in Theta
           and Gamma oscillations

    • Authors: Gabriella Musacchia; Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla Naseem Choudhury Teresa Realpe-Bonilla Cynthia Roesler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Gabriella Musacchia, Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Naseem Choudhury, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, Cynthia Roesler, April A. Benasich
      Language acquisition in infants is driven by on-going neural plasticity that is acutely sensitive to environmental acoustic cues. Recent studies showed that attention-based experience with non-linguistic, temporally-modulated auditory stimuli sharpens cortical responses. A previous ERP study from this laboratory showed that interactive auditory experience via behavior-based feedback (AEx), over a 6-week period from 4- to 7-months-of-age, confers a processing advantage, compared to passive auditory exposure (PEx) or maturation alone (Naïve Control, NC). Here, we provide a follow-up investigation of the underlying neural oscillatory patterns in these three groups. In AEx infants, Standard stimuli with invariant frequency (STD) elicited greater Theta-band (4–6Hz) activity in Right Auditory Cortex (RAC), as compared to NC infants, and Deviant stimuli with rapid frequency change (DEV) elicited larger responses in Left Auditory Cortex (LAC). PEx and NC counterparts showed less-mature bilateral patterns. AEx infants also displayed stronger Gamma (33–37Hz) activity in the LAC during DEV discrimination, compared to NCs, while NC and PEx groups demonstrated bilateral activity in this band, if at all. This suggests that interactive acoustic experience with non-linguistic stimuli can promote a distinct, robust and precise cortical pattern during rapid auditory processing, perhaps reflecting mechanisms that support fine-tuning of early acoustic mapping.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T15:30:01Z
  • Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in

    • Authors: Niki Kamkar; Daniel Lewis Wouter van den Bos J.Bruce Morton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Niki H. Kamkar, Daniel J. Lewis, Wouter van den Bos, J.Bruce Morton
      Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain’s sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T15:30:01Z
  • Neural correlates of infants’ sensitivity to vocal expressions of

    • Authors: Manuela Missana; Nicole Altvater-Mackensen Tobias Grossmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Manuela Missana, Nicole Altvater-Mackensen, Tobias Grossmann
      Responding to others’ emotional expressions is an essential and early developing social skill among humans. Much research has focused on how infants process facial expressions, while much less is known about infants’ processing of vocal expressions. We examined 8-month-old infants’ processing of other infants’ vocalizations by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive (infant laughter), negative (infant cries), and neutral (adult hummed speech) vocalizations. Our ERP results revealed that hearing another infant cry elicited an enhanced negativity (N200) at temporal electrodes around 200ms, whereas listening to another infant laugh resulted in an enhanced positivity (P300) at central electrodes around 300ms. This indexes that infants’ brains rapidly respond to a crying peer during early auditory processing stages, but also selectively respond to a laughing peer during later stages associated with familiarity detection processes. These findings provide evidence for infants’ sensitivity to vocal expressions of peers and shed new light on the neural processes underpinning emotion processing in infants.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T15:30:01Z
  • Proactive control in early and middle childhood: An ERP study

    • Authors: Sarah Elke; Sandra Wiebe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Sarah Elke, Sandra A. Wiebe
      Children experience important cognitive control improvements in the transition to school. This study examined 4-5-year-olds’ (n =17) and 7-8-year-olds’ (n =22) ability to proactively deploy cognitive control. Children performed a cued task-switching paradigm presenting them with a cue indicating which attribute, color or shape, they should use to sort the upcoming stimulus. Following both cue and stimulus, we analyzed two event-related potentials: the P2 and P3, positive peaks reflecting sensory and attentional components of cognitive control, respectively. Following the cue, we also analyzed a positive slow-wave, indexing working memory engagement. We predicted that on switch trials, which required switching tasks, proactive control would result in larger cue-P3 amplitudes, reflecting recognition of the need to switch, and larger slow-wave amplitudes, reflecting maintenance of the new task-sets over the post-cue delay. This pattern was observed in both age groups. At the stimulus, in switch trials, both age groups had shorter stimulus-P2 latencies, consistent with processing facilitation. These results suggest that both 4-5- and 7-8-year-olds engaged cognitive control proactively. Older children, however, demonstrated better performance and larger cue-P2 amplitudes, suggesting more effective proactive control engagement in middle childhood.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T15:30:01Z
  • Gamma Power in Rural Pakistani Children: Links to Executive Function and
           Verbal Ability

    • Authors: Amanda R. Tarullo; Jelena Obradović; Brandon Keehn; Muneera A. Rasheed; Saima Siyal; Charles A. Nelson; Aisha K. Yousafzai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Amanda R. Tarullo, Jelena Obradović, Brandon Keehn, Muneera A. Rasheed, Saima Siyal, Charles A. Nelson, Aisha K. Yousafzai
      Children in low- and middle-income countries are at high risk of cognitive deficits due to environmental deprivation that compromises brain development. Despite the high prevalence of unrealized cognitive potential, very little is known about neural correlates of cognition in this population. We assessed resting EEG power and cognitive ability in 105 highly disadvantaged 48-month-old children in rural Pakistan. An increase in EEG power in gamma frequency bands (21–30Hz and 31–45Hz) was associated with better executive function. For girls, EEG gamma power also related to higher verbal IQ. This study identifies EEG gamma power as a neural marker of cognitive function in disadvantaged children in low- and middle-income countries. Elevated gamma power may be a particularly important protective factor for girls, who may experience greater deprivation due to gender inequality.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T14:48:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.007
  • Functional hyperconnectivity vanishes in children with developmental
           dyscalculia after numerical intervention

    • Authors: Lars Michels; Ruth O’Gorman; Karin Kucian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Lars Michels, Ruth O’Gorman, Karin Kucian
      Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a developmental learning disability associated with deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information. Although behavioural training can reduce these deficits, it is unclear which neuronal resources show a functional reorganization due to training. We examined typically developing (TD) children (N=16, mean age: 9.5 years) and age-, gender-, and handedness-matched children with DD (N=15, mean age: 9.5 years) during the performance of a numerical order task with fMRI and functional connectivity before and after 5-weeks of number line training. Using the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) as seed region, DD showed hyperconnectivity in parietal, frontal, visual, and temporal regions before the training controlling for age and IQ. Hyperconnectivity disappeared after training, whereas math abilities improved. Multivariate classification analysis of task-related fMRI data corroborated the connectivity results as the same group of TD could be discriminated from DD before but not after number line training (86.4 vs. 38.9%, respectively). Our results indicate that abnormally high functional connectivity in DD can be normalized on the neuronal level by intensive number line training. As functional connectivity in DD was indistinguishable to TD’s connectivity after training, we conclude that training lead to a re-organization of inter-regional task engagement.

      PubDate: 2017-03-26T14:21:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.005
  • Diurnal cortisol after early institutional care—Age matters

    • Authors: Jessica Flannery; Laurel Gabard-Durnam; Mor Shapiro; Bonnie Goff; Christina Caldera; Jennifer Louie; Dylan G. Gee; Eva Telzer; Kathryn L. Humphreys; Daniel S. Lumian; Nim Tottenham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jessica Flannery, Laurel Gabard-Durnam, Mor Shapiro, Bonnie Goff, Christina Caldera, Jennifer Louie, Dylan G. Gee, Eva Telzer, Kathryn L. Humphreys, Daniel S. Lumian, Nim Tottenham
      Several studies have shown that young children who have experienced early caregiving adversity (e.g. previously institutionalization (PI)) exhibit flattened diurnal cortisol slopes; however, less is known about how these patterns might differ between children and adolescents, since the transition between childhood and adolescence is a time of purported plasticity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. PI youth experience a massive improvement in caregiving environment once adopted into families; therefore we anticipated that a developmental increase in HPA axis plasticity during adolescence might additionally allow for an enhanced enrichment effect by the adoptive family. In a cross-sectional sample of 197 youths (PI and Comparison; 4–15 years old) we observed age-related group differences in diurnal slope. First replicating previous findings, PI children exhibited flattened diurnal slope. This group difference, however, was not observed in adolescents. Moderation analyses showed that pubertal development, increased time with family, and early adoption contributed to the steeper diurnal cortisol slope in PI adolescents. These findings add support to existing theories positing that the transition between middle childhood and adolescence may mark an additional sensitive period for diurnal cortisol patterning, allowing PI youth to benefit from the enriched environment provided by adoptive parents during this period of development.

      PubDate: 2017-03-26T14:21:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.006
  • Attention allocation and social worries predict interpretations of
           peer-related social cues in adolescents

    • Authors: Simone P.W. Haller; Brianna R. Doherty; Mihaela Duta; Kathrin Cohen Kadosh; Jennifer Y.F. Lau; Gaia Scerif
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Simone P.W. Haller, Brianna R. Doherty, Mihaela Duta, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh, Jennifer Y.F. Lau, Gaia Scerif
      Adolescence is a sensitive period for increases in normative but also debilitating social fears and worries. As the interpretation of interpersonal cues is pertinent to social anxiety, investigating mechanisms that may underlie biases in social cue appraisal is important. Fifty-one adolescents from the community aged 14 to 19 were presented with self- and other-relevant naturalistic social scenes for 5seconds and then required to rate either a negative or a positive interpretation of the scene. Eye-tracking data were collected during the free viewing period to index attentional deployment. Individual differences in social worries were measured via self-report. Social anxiety levels significantly predicted biases in interpretation ratings across scenes. Additionally, cumulative attentional deployment to peer cues also predicted these interpretation biases: participants who spent more time on facial displays perceived more threat, i.e. endorsed more negative and less positive interpretations. Self-relevant scenes yielded greater tendencies to draw negative interpretations. Finally, older adolescents also selected more benign interpretations. Social anxiety is associated with a bias in interpreting social cues; a cognitive bias that is also influenced by attentional deployment. This study contributes to our understanding of the possible attention mechanisms that shape cognitions relevant to social anxiety in this at-risk age group.

      PubDate: 2017-03-19T14:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.004
  • Neural correlates of face processing in etiologically-distinct
           12-month-old infants at high-risk of autism spectrum disorder

    • Authors: Maggie W. Guy; John E. Richards; Bridgette L. Tonnsen; Jane E. Roberts
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Maggie W. Guy, John E. Richards, Bridgette L. Tonnsen, Jane E. Roberts
      Neural correlates of face processing were examined in 12-month-olds at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including 21 siblings of children with ASD (ASIBs) and 15 infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS), as well as 21 low-risk (LR) controls. Event-related potentials were recorded to familiar and novel face and toy stimuli. All infants demonstrated greater N290 amplitude to faces than toys. At the Nc component, LR infants showed greater amplitude to novel stimuli than to their mother’s face and own toy, whereas infants with FXS showed the opposite pattern of responses and ASIBs did not differentiate based on familiarity. These results reflect developing face specialization across high- and low-risk infants and reveal neural patterns that distinguish between groups at high-risk for ASD.

      PubDate: 2017-03-19T14:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.002
  • Learning word order at birth: A NIRS study

    • Authors: Silvia Benavides Varela; Judit Gervain
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Silvia Benavides Varela, Judit Gervain
      In language, the relative order of words in sentences carries important grammatical functions. However, the developmental origins and the neural correlates of the ability to track word order are to date poorly understood. The current study therefore investigates the origins of infants’ ability to learn about the sequential order of words, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with newborn infants. We have conducted two experiments: one in which a word order change was implemented in 4-word sequences recorded with a list intonation (as if each word was a separate item in a list; list prosody condition, Experiment 1) and one in which the same 4-word sequences were recorded with a well-formed utterance-level prosodic contour (utterance prosody condition, Experiment 2). We found that newborns could detect the violation of the word order in the list prosody condition, but not in the utterance prosody condition. These results suggest that while newborns are already sensitive to word order in linguistic sequences, prosody appears to be a stronger cue than word order for the identification of linguistic units at birth.

      PubDate: 2017-03-19T14:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.003
  • Anticipatory representations of reward and threat in perceptual areas from
           preadolescence to late adolescence

    • Authors: Philippa Howsley; Liat Levita
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Philippa Howsley, Liat Levita
      This study examined whether changes in perceptual processes can partially account for the increase in reward-orientated behaviour during adolescence. This was investigated by examining reinforcement-dependent potentiation to discriminative stimuli (SD) that predicted rewarding or threatening outcomes. To that end, perceptual event-related potentials that are modulated by motivationally salient stimuli, the N170 and Late Positive Potential (LPP), were recorded from 30 preadolescents (9-12 years), 30 adolescents (13-17 years), and 34 late adolescents (18-23 years) while they completed an instrumental task in which they emitted or omitted a motor response to obtain rewards and avoid losses. The LPP, but not the N170, showed age, but not gender, differences in reinforcement-dependent potentiation; preadolescents, adolescents and late adolescents showed potentiation to SD that predicted a threat, whereas only preadolescents showed potentiation to SD that predicted a reward. Notably, the magnitude of threat-related LPP reinforcement-dependent potentiation decreased during the course of adolescence. In addition, greater sensation seeking was associated with greater LPP amplitudes in preadolescent males, but smaller LPP amplitudes in late adolescent males. Critically, these findings provide initial evidence for developmental differences in value-related coding in perceptual areas, where adolescents show greater perceptual biases to avoidance-related cues than to reward-related cues.

      PubDate: 2017-03-13T13:54:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.001
  • A neural basis for the visual sense of number and its development: A
           steady-state visual evoked potential study in children and adults

    • Authors: Joonkoo Park
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Joonkoo Park
      While recent studies in adults have demonstrated the existence of a neural mechanism for a visual sense of number, little is known about its development and whether such a mechanism exists at young ages. In the current study, I introduce a novel steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) technique to objectively quantify early visual cortical sensitivity to numerical and non-numerical magnitudes of a dot array. I then examine this neural sensitivity to numerical magnitude in children between three and ten years of age and in college students. Children overall exhibit strong SSVEP sensitivity to numerical magnitude in the right occipital sites with negligible SSVEP sensitivity to non-numerical magnitudes, the pattern similar to what is observed in adults. However, a closer examination of age differences reveals that this selective neural sensitivity to numerical magnitude, which is close to absent in three-year-olds, increases steadily as a function of age, while there is virtually no neural sensitivity to other non-numerical magnitudes across these ages. These results demonstrate the emergence of a neural mechanism underlying direct perception of numerosity across early and middle childhood and provide a potential neural mechanistic explanation for the development of humans’ primitive, non-verbal ability to comprehend number.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T07:48:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.011
  • One hand, two hands, two people: Prospective sensorimotor control in
           children with autism

    • Authors: Caterina Ansuini; Jessica Podda; Francesca Maria Battaglia; Edvige Veneselli; Cristina Becchio
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Caterina Ansuini, Jessica Podda, Francesca Maria Battaglia, Edvige Veneselli, Cristina Becchio
      Where grasps are made reveals how grasps are planned. The grasp height effect predicts that, when people take hold of an object to move it to a new position, the grasp height on the object is inversely related to the height of the target position. In the present study, we used this effect as a window into the prospective sensorimotor control of children with autism spectrum disorders without accompanying intellectual impairment. Participants were instructed to grasp a vertical cylinder and move it from a table (home position) to a shelf of varying height (target position). Depending on the conditions, they performed the task using only one hand (unimanual), two hands (bimanual), or with the help of a co-actor (joint). Comparison between the performance of typically developing children and children with autism revealed no group difference across tasks. We found, however, a significant influence of IQ on grasp height modulation in both groups. These results provide clear evidence against a general prospective sensorimotor planning deficit and suggest that at least some form of higher order planning is present in autism without accompanying intellectual impairment.

      PubDate: 2017-03-08T07:48:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.009
  • How does the body representation system develop in the human brain'

    • Authors: Aurelie Fontan; Fabien Cignetti; Bruno Nazarian; Jean-Luc Anton; Marianne Vaugoyeau; Christine Assaiante
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Aurelie Fontan, Fabien Cignetti, Bruno Nazarian, Jean-Luc Anton, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christine Assaiante
      Exploration of the body representation system (BRS) from kinaesthetic illusions in fMRI has revealed a complex network composed of sensorimotor and frontoparietal components. Here, we evaluated the degree of maturity of this network in children aged 7–11 years, and the extent to which structural factors account for network differences with adults. Brain activation following tendon vibration at 100Hz (‘illusion’) and 30Hz (‘no illusion’) were analysed using the two-stage random effects model, with or without white and grey matter covariates. The BRS was already well established in children as revealed by the contrast ‘illusion’ vs ‘no illusion’, although still immature in some aspects. This included a lower level of activation in primary somatosensory and posterior parietal regions, and the exclusive activation of the frontopolar cortex (FPC) in children compared to adults. The former differences were related to structure, while the latter difference reflected a functional strategy where the FPC may serve as the ‘top’ in top-down modulation of the activity of the other BRS regions to facilitate the establishment of body representations. Hence, the development of the BRS not only relies on structural maturation, but also involves the disengagement of an executive region not classically involved in body processing.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T00:21:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.010
  • Amygdala reactivity predicts adolescent antisocial behavior but not
           callous-unemotional traits

    • Authors: Hailey L. Dotterer; Johnna R. Swartz; Ahmad R. Hariri; Douglas E. Williamson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Hailey L. Dotterer, Johnna R. Swartz, Ahmad R. Hariri, Douglas E. Williamson
      Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested divergent relationships between antisocial behavior (AB) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits and amygdala reactivity to fearful and angry facial expressions in adolescents. However, little work has examined if these findings extend to dimensional measures of behavior in ethnically diverse, non-clinical samples, or if participant sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, and age moderate associations. We examined links between amygdala reactivity and dimensions of AB and CU traits in 220 Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian adolescents (age 11–15; 49.5% female; 38.2% Hispanic), half of whom had a family history for depression and thus were at relatively elevated risk for late starting, emotionally dysregulated AB. We found that AB was significantly related to increased right amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions independent of sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, age, and familial risk status for depression. CU traits were not related to fear- or anger-related amygdala reactivity. The present study further demonstrates that AB is related to increased amygdala reactivity to interpersonal threat cues in adolescents, and that this relationship generalizes across sex, ethnicity, pubertal stage, age, and familial risk status for depression.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T00:21:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.008
  • The neural and behavioral correlates of social evaluation in childhood

    • Authors: Michelle Achterberg; Anna C.K. van Duijvenvoorde; Mara van der Meulen; Saskia Euser; Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg; Eveline A. Crone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Michelle Achterberg, Anna C.K. van Duijvenvoorde, Mara van der Meulen, Saskia Euser, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, Eveline A. Crone
      Being accepted or rejected by peers is highly salient for developing social relations in childhood. We investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of social feedback and subsequent aggression in 7-10-year-old children, using the Social Network Aggression Task (SNAT). Participants viewed pictures of peers that gave positive, neutral or negative feedback to the participant’s profile. Next, participants could blast a loud noise towards the peer, as an index of aggression. We included three groups (N =19, N =28 and N =27) and combined the results meta-analytically. Negative social feedback resulted in the most behavioral aggression, with large combined effect-sizes. Whole brain condition effects for each separate sample failed to show robust effects, possibly due to the small samples. Exploratory analyses over the combined test and replication samples confirmed heightened activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after negative social feedback. Moreover, meta-analyses of activity in predefined regions of interest showed that negative social feedback resulted in more neural activation in the amygdala, anterior insula and the mPFC/anterior cingulate cortex. Together, the results show that social motivation is already highly salient in middle childhood, and indicate that the SNAT is a valid paradigm for assessing the neural and behavioral correlates of social evaluation in children.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T00:21:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.007
  • Prospective Relations between Resting-State Connectivity of Parietal
           Subdivisions and Arithmetic Competence

    • Authors: Gavin R. Price; Darren J. Yeo; Eric D. Wilkey; Laurie E. Cutting
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Gavin R. Price, Darren J. Yeo, Eric D. Wilkey, Laurie E. Cutting
      The present study investigates the relation between resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions of the parietal cortex at the end of 1st grade and arithmetic performance at the end of 2nd grade. Results revealed a dissociable pattern of relations between rsFC and arithmetic competence among subdivisions of intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG). rsFC between right hemisphere IPS subdivisions and contralateral IPS subdivisions positively correlated with arithmetic competence. In contrast, rsFC between the left hIP1 and the right medial temporal lobe, and rsFC between the left AG and left superior frontal gyrus, were negatively correlated with arithmetic competence. These results suggest that strong inter-hemispheric IPS connectivity is important for math development, reflecting either neurocognitive mechanisms specific to arithmetic processing, domain-general mechanisms that are particularly relevant to arithmetic competence, or structural ‘cortical maturity’. Stronger connectivity between IPS, and AG, subdivisions and frontal and temporal cortices, however, appears to be negatively associated with math development, possibly reflecting the ability to disengage suboptimal problem-solving strategies during mathematical processing, or to flexibly reorient task-based networks. Importantly, the reported results pertain even when controlling for reading, spatial attention, and working memory, suggesting that the observed rsFC-behavior relations are specific to arithmetic competence.

      PubDate: 2017-03-01T00:21:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.006
  • Sensory over-responsivity and social cognition in ASD: Effects of aversive
           sensory stimuli and attentional modulation on neural responses to social

    • Authors: Shulamite A. Green; Leanna M. Hernandez; Hilary C. Bowman; Susan Y. Bookheimer; Mirella Dapretto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Shulamite A. Green, Leanna M. Hernandez, Hilary C. Bowman, Susan Y. Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
      Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) is a common condition in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that is associated with greater social impairment. However, the mechanisms through which sensory stimuli may affect social functioning are not well understood. This study used fMRI to examine brain activity while interpreting communicative intent in 15 high-functioning youth with ASD and 16 age- and IQ-matched typically-developing (TD) controls. Participants completed the task with and without a tactile sensory distracter, and with and without instructions directing their attention to relevant social cues. When completing the task in the presence of the sensory distracter, TD youth showed increased activity in auditory language and frontal regions whereas ASD youth showed decreased activation in these areas. Instructions mitigated this effect such that ASD youth did not decrease activation during tactile stimulation; instead, the ASD group showed increased medial prefrontal activity. SOR severity modulated the effect of the tactile stimulus on social processing. Results demonstrate for the first time a neural mechanism through which sensory stimuli cause disruption of social cognition, and that attentional modulation can restore neural processing of social cues through prefrontal regulation. Findings have implications for novel, integrative interventions that incorporate attentional directives to target both sensory and social symptoms.

      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:09:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.005
  • Early Life Adversity during the Infant Sensitive Period for Attachment:
           Programming of Behavioral Neurobiology of Threat Processing and Social

    • Authors: Maya Opendak; Elizabeth Gould; Regina Sullivan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Maya Opendak, Elizabeth Gould, Regina Sullivan
      Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental. This review focuses on the unique role of caregiver presence during early-life trauma in programming deficits in social behavior and threat processing. Using data primarily from rodent models, we describe the interaction between trauma and attachment during a sensitive period in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver’s presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. These data suggest that trauma experienced directly from an abusive caregiver and trauma experienced in the presence of caregiver cues produce similar neurobehavioral deficits, which are unique from those resulting from trauma alone. We go on to integrate this information into social experience throughout the lifespan, including consequences for complex scenarios, such as dominance hierarchy formation and maintenance.

      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:09:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.002
  • Boys vs. girls: Gender differences in the neural development of trust and
           reciprocity depend on social context

    • Authors: Imke L.J. Lemmers-Jansen; Lydia Krabbendam; Dick J. Veltman; Anne-Kathrin J. Fett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Imke L.J. Lemmers-Jansen, Lydia Krabbendam, Dick J. Veltman, Anne-Kathrin J. Fett
      Trust and cooperation increase from adolescence to adulthood, but studies on gender differences in this development are rare. We investigated gender and age-related differences in trust and reciprocity and associated neural mechanisms in 43 individuals (16 to 27 years, 22 male). Participants played two multi-round trust games with a cooperative and an unfair partner. Males showed more basic trust towards unknown others than females. Both genders increased trust during cooperative interactions, with no differences in average trust. Age was unrelated to trust during cooperation. During unfair interactions males decreased their trust more with age than females. ROI analysis showed age-related increases in activation in the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during cooperative investments, and increased age-related caudate activation during both cooperative and unfair repayments. Gender differences in brain activation were only observed during cooperative repayments, with males activating the TPJ more than females, and females activating the caudate more. The findings suggest relatively mature processes of trust and reciprocity in the investigated age range. Gender differences only occur in unfair contexts, becoming more pronounced with age. Largely similar neural activation in males and females and few age effects suggest that similar, mature cognitive strategies are employed.

      PubDate: 2017-02-15T23:43:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.001
  • Neurodevelopmental Changes Across Adolescence in Viewing and Labeling
           Dynamic Peer Emotions

    • Authors: Jessica E. Flannery; Nicole R. Giuliani; John C. Flournoy; Jennifer H. Pfeifer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jessica E. Flannery, Nicole R. Giuliani, John C. Flournoy, Jennifer H. Pfeifer
      Adolescence is a sensitive period of social-affective development, characterized by biological, neurological, and social changes. The field currently conceptualizes these changes in terms of an imbalance between systems supporting reactivity and regulation, specifically nonlinear changes in reactivity networks and linear changes in regulatory networks. Previous research suggests that the labeling or reappraisal of emotion increases activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), and decreases activity in amygdala relative to passive viewing of affective stimuli. However, past work in this area has relied heavily on paradigms using static, adult faces, as well as explicit regulation. In the current study, we assessed cross-sectional trends in neural responses to viewing and labeling dynamic peer emotional expressions in adolescent girls 10-23 years old. Our dynamic adolescent stimuli set reliably and robustly recruited key brain regions involved in emotion reactivity (MOFC/vMPFC, bilateral amygdala) and regulation (bilateral dorsal and ventral LPFC). However, contrary to the age-trends predicted by the dominant models in studies of risk/reward, the LPFC showed a nonlinear age trend across adolescence to labeling dynamic peer faces, whereas the MOFC/vMPFC showed a linear decrease with age to viewing dynamic peer faces. There were no significant age trends observed in the amygdala.

      PubDate: 2017-02-15T23:43:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.003
  • Autism as an adaptive common variant pathway for human brain development

    • Authors: Mark H. Johnson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Mark H. Johnson
      While research on focal perinatal lesions has provided evidence for recovery of function, much less is known about processes of brain adaptation resulting from mild but widespread disturbances to neural processing over the early years (such as alterations in synaptic efficiency). Rather than being viewed as a direct behavioral consequence of life-long neural dysfunction, I propose that autism is best viewed as the end result of engaging adaptive processes during a sensitive period. From this perspective, autism is not appropriately described as a disorder of neurodevelopment, but rather as an adaptive common variant pathway of human functional brain development.

      PubDate: 2017-02-09T23:16:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.004
  • At risk of being risky: the relationship between “brain age” under
           emotional states and risk preference

    • Authors: Marc D. Rudolph; Oscar Miranda-Dominguez; Alexandra O. Cohen; Kaitlyn Breiner; Laurence Steinberg; Richard J. Bonnie; Elizabeth S. Scott; Kim A. Taylor-Thompson; Jason Chein; Karla C. Fettich; Jennifer A. Richeson; Danielle V. Dellarco; Adriana Galván; B.J. Casey; Damien A. Fair
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Marc D. Rudolph, Oscar Miranda-Dominguez, Alexandra O. Cohen, Kaitlyn Breiner, Laurence Steinberg, Richard J. Bonnie, Elizabeth S. Scott, Kim A. Taylor-Thompson, Jason Chein, Karla C. Fettich, Jennifer A. Richeson, Danielle V. Dellarco, Adriana Galván, B.J. Casey, Damien A. Fair
      Developmental differences regarding decision making are often reported in the absence of emotional stimuli and without context, failing to explain why some individuals are more likely to have a greater inclination toward risk. The current study (N=212; 10-25y) examined the influence of emotional context on underlying functional brain connectivity over development and its impact on risk preference. Using functional imaging data in a neutral brain-state we first identify the “brain age” of a given individual then validate it with an independent measure of cortical thickness. We then show, on average, that “brain age” across the group during the teen years has the propensity to look younger in emotional contexts. Further, we show this phenotype (i.e. a younger brain age in emotional contexts) relates to a group mean difference in risk perception − a pattern exemplified greatest in young-adults (ages 18-21). The results are suggestive of a specified functional brain phenotype that relates to being at “risk to be risky.”

      PubDate: 2017-02-04T06:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.01.010
  • Effects of prior testing lasting a full year in NCANDA adolescents:
           Contributions from age, sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, site, family
           history of alcohol or drug abuse, and baseline performance

    • Authors: Edith V. Sullivan; Ty Brumback; Susan F. Tapert; Devin Prouty; Rosemary Fama; Wesley K. Thompson; Sandra A. Brown; Kevin Cummins; Ian M. Colrain; Fiona C. Baker; Duncan B. Clark; Tammy Chung; Michael D. De Bellis; Stephen R. Hooper; Bonnie J. Nagel; B. Nolan Nichols; Weiwei Chu; Dongjin Kwon; Kilian M. Pohl; Adolf Pfefferbaum
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Edith V. Sullivan, Ty Brumback, Susan F. Tapert, Devin Prouty, Rosemary Fama, Wesley K. Thompson, Sandra A. Brown, Kevin Cummins, Ian M. Colrain, Fiona C. Baker, Duncan B. Clark, Tammy Chung, Michael D. De Bellis, Stephen R. Hooper, Bonnie J. Nagel, B. Nolan Nichols, Weiwei Chu, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M. Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
      Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice) with little contribution from predicted developmental effects. Group mean practice slopes for 13 composites indicated that 60% to ∼100% variance was attributable to test experience; General Ability accuracy showed the least practice effect (29%). Lower baseline performance, especially in younger participants, was a strong predictor of greater gain. Contributions from age, sex, ethnicity, examination site, socioeconomic status, or family history of alcohol/substance abuse were nil to small, even where statistically significant. Recognizing that a substantial proportion of change in longitudinal testing, even over 1-year, is attributable to testing experience indicates caution against assuming that performance gain observed during periods of maturation necessarily reflects development. Estimates of testing experience, a form of learning, may be a relevant metric for detecting interim influences, such as alcohol use or traumatic episodes, on behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-01-29T06:10:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.01.003
  • Editorial Board/Aims and Scope

    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 23

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T05:40:14Z
  • Dyslexia risk gene relates to representation of sound in the auditory

    • Authors: Nicole E. Neef; Bent Müller; Johanna Liebig; Gesa Schaadt; Maren Grigutsch; Thomas C. Gunter; Arndt Wilcke; Holger Kirsten; Michael A. Skeide; Indra Kraft; Nina Kraus; Frank Emmrich; Jens Brauer; Johannes Boltze; Angela D. Friederici
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Nicole E. Neef, Bent Müller, Johanna Liebig, Gesa Schaadt, Maren Grigutsch, Thomas C. Gunter, Arndt Wilcke, Holger Kirsten, Michael A. Skeide, Indra Kraft, Nina Kraus, Frank Emmrich, Jens Brauer, Johannes Boltze, Angela D. Friederici
      Dyslexia is a reading disorder with strong associations with KIAA0319 and DCDC2. Both genes play a functional role in spike time precision of neurons. Strikingly, poor readers show an imprecise encoding of fast transients of speech in the auditory brainstem. Whether dyslexia risk genes are related to the quality of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem remains to be investigated. Here, we quantified the response consistency of speech-evoked brainstem responses to the acoustically presented syllable [da] in 159 genotyped, literate and preliterate children. When controlling for age, sex, familial risk and intelligence, partial correlation analyses associated a higher dyslexia risk loading with KIAA0319 with noisier responses. In contrast, a higher risk loading with DCDC2 was associated with a trend towards more stable responses. These results suggest that unstable representation of sound, and thus, reduced neural discrimination ability of stop consonants, occurred in genotypes carrying a higher amount of KIAA0319 risk alleles. Current data provide the first evidence that the dyslexia-associated gene KIAA0319 can alter brainstem responses and impair phoneme processing in the auditory brainstem. This brain-gene relationship provides insight into the complex relationships between phenotype and genotype thereby improving the understanding of the dyslexia-inherent complex multifactorial condition.

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T05:40:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.01.008
  • Neural evidence for enhanced attention to mistakes among school-aged
           children with a growth mindset

    • Authors: Hans S. Schroder; Megan E. Fisher; Yanli Lin; Sharon L. Lo; Judith H. Danovitch; Jason S. Moser
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Hans S. Schroder, Megan E. Fisher, Yanli Lin, Sharon L. Lo, Judith H. Danovitch, Jason S. Moser
      Individuals who believe intelligence is malleable (a growth mindset) are better able to bounce back from failures than those who believe intelligence is immutable. Event-related potential (ERPs) studies among adults suggest this resilience is related to increased attention allocation to errors. Whether this mechanism is present among young children remains unknown, however. We therefore evaluated error-monitoring ERPs among 123 school-aged children while they completed a child-friendly go/no-go task. As expected, higher attention allocation to errors (indexed by larger error positivity, Pe) predicted higher post-error accuracy. Moreover, replicating adult work, growth mindset was related to greater attention to mistakes (larger Pe) and higher post-error accuracy. Exploratory moderation analyses revealed that growth mindset increased post-error accuracy for children who did not attend to their errors. Together, these results demonstrate the combined role of growth mindset and neural mechanisms of attention allocation in bouncing back after failure among young children.

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T05:40:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.01.004
  • Investigating ensemble perception of emotions in autistic and typical
           children and adolescents

    • Authors: Themelis Karaminis; Louise Neil; Catherine Manning; Marco Turi; Chiara Fiorentini; David Burr; Elizabeth Pellicano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Themelis Karaminis, Louise Neil, Catherine Manning, Marco Turi, Chiara Fiorentini, David Burr, Elizabeth Pellicano
      Ensemble perception, the ability to assess automatically the summary of large amounts of information presented in visual scenes, is available early in typical development. This ability might be compromised in autistic children, who are thought to present limitations in maintaining summary statistics representations for the recent history of sensory input. Here we examined ensemble perception of facial emotional expressions in 35 autistic children, 30 age- and ability-matched typical children and 25 typical adults. Participants received three tasks: a) an ‘ensemble’ emotion discrimination task; b) a baseline (single-face) emotion discrimination task; and c) a facial expression identification task. Children performed worse than adults on all three tasks. Unexpectedly, autistic and typical children were, on average, indistinguishable in their precision and accuracy on all three tasks. Computational modelling suggested that, on average, autistic and typical children used ensemble-encoding strategies to a similar extent; but ensemble perception was related to non-verbal reasoning abilities in autistic but not in typical children. Eye-movement data also showed no group differences in the way children attended to the stimuli. Our combined findings suggest that the abilities of autistic and typical children for ensemble perception of emotions are comparable on average, but may rely on different cognitive mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-01-21T05:40:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.01.005
  • Word and object recognition during reading acquisition: MEG evidence

    • Authors: Sendy Caffarra; Clara D. Martin; Mikel Lizarazu; Marie Lallier; Asier Zarraga; Nicola Molinaro; Manuel Carreiras
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Sendy Caffarra, Clara D. Martin, Mikel Lizarazu, Marie Lallier, Asier Zarraga, Nicola Molinaro, Manuel Carreiras
      Studies on adults suggest that reading-induced brain changes might not be limited to linguistic processes. It is still unclear whether these results can be generalized to reading development. The present study shows to which extent neural responses to verbal and nonverbal stimuli are reorganized while children learn to read. MEG data of thirty Basque children (4-8y) were collected while they were presented with written words, spoken words and visual objects. The evoked fields elicited by the experimental stimuli were compared to their scrambled counterparts. Visual words elicited left posterior (200–300ms) and temporal activations (400–800ms). The size of these effects increased as reading performance improved, suggesting a reorganization of children’s visual word responses. Spoken words elicited greater left temporal responses relative to scrambles (300–700ms). No evidence for the influence of reading expertise was observed. Brain responses to objects were greater than to scrambles in bilateral posterior regions (200–500ms). There was a greater left hemisphere involvement as reading errors decreased, suggesting a strengthened verbal decoding of visual configurations with reading acquisition. The present results reveal that learning to read not only influences written word processing, but also affects visual object recognition, suggesting a non-language specific impact of reading on children’s neural mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-01-13T22:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.01.002
  • Neural Mirroring and Social Interaction: Motor System Involvement During
           Action Observation Relates to Early Peer Cooperation

    • Authors: H.M. Endedijk; M. Meyer; H. Bekkering; A.H.N. Cillessen; S. Hunnius
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): H.M. Endedijk, M. Meyer, H. Bekkering, A.H.N. Cillessen, S. Hunnius
      Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other’s actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children’s interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction.

      PubDate: 2017-01-13T22:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.01.001
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