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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 934 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 432)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 193)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analitika : Jurnal Magister Psikologi Uma     Open Access  
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 239)
Anuario de investigaciones (Facultad de Psicología. Universidad de Buenos Aires)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Applied Psycholinguistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 163)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Australasian Journal of Organisational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Australian Journal of Rehabilitation Counseling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 54)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Change     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 150)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 61)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Buletin Psikologi     Open Access  
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Castalia : Revista de Psicología de la Academia     Open Access  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 72)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling et spiritualité / Counselling and Spirituality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Development and Psychopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 44)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Diversitas : Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
  [SJR: 2.531]   [H-I: 26]   [18 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1878-9293 - ISSN (Online) 1878-9307
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Consequence of intraventricular hemorrhage on neurovascular coupling
           evoked by speech syllables in preterm neonates

    • Authors: Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh; Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz; Guy Kongolo; Marc Fournier; Sabrina Goudjil; Fabrice Wallois
      Pages: 60 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Guy Kongolo, Marc Fournier, Sabrina Goudjil, Fabrice Wallois
      Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) is the leading cause of neurological and cognitive impairment in preterm neonates with an incidence that increases with increasing prematurity. In the present study, we tested how preterm neonates with IVH react to external stimulation (i.e. speech syllables). We compared their neural responses measured by electroencephalography (EEG), and hemodynamic responses measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), with those of healthy preterms. A neural response to syllables was observed in these infants, but did not induce a vascular response in contrast with healthy neonates. These results clearly demonstrate that the cerebral vascular network in IVH preterm neonates was unable to compensate for the increased metabolism resulting from neuronal activation in response to external stimulation. Optical imaging is thus a sensitive tool to identify altered cerebral hemodynamic in critically ill preterms before behavioral changes are manifested or when only minor abnormalities on other functional monitoring techniques such as EEG are visible. We propose that a multi-modal approach provides unique opportunities for early monitoring of cognitive functions and opens up new possibilities for clinical care and recommended practices by studying the difficulties of the premature brain to adapt to its environment.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T02:31:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Mindfulness-Related Differences in Neural Response to Own Infant Negative
           versus Positive Emotion Contexts

    • Authors: Heidemarie K. Laurent; Dorianne Wright; Megan Finnegan
      Pages: 70 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Heidemarie K. Laurent, Dorianne Wright, Megan Finnegan
      Mindfulness is thought to promote well-being by shaping the way people respond to challenging social-emotional situations. Current understanding of how this occurs at the neural level is based on studies of response to decontextualized emotion stimuli that may not adequately represent lived experiences. In this study, we tested relations between mothers' dispositional mindfulness and neural responses to their own infant in different emotion-eliciting contexts. Mothers (n = 25) engaged with their 3-month-old infants in videorecorded tasks designed to elicit negative (arm restraint) or positive (peekaboo) emotion. During a functional MRI session, mothers were presented with 15-second clips from these recordings, and dispositional mindfulness scores were used to predict their neural responses to arm restraint > peekaboo videos. Mothers higher in nonreactivity showed relatively lower activation to their infants’ arm restraint compared to peekaboo videos in hypothesized regions—insula and dorsal prefrontal cortex—as well as non-hypothesized regions. Other mindfulness dimensions were associated with more limited areas of lower (nonjudgment) and higher (describing) activation in this contrast. Mothers who were higher in mindfulness generally activated more to the positive emotion context and less to the negative emotion context in perceptual and emotion processing areas, a pattern that may help to explain mindfulness-related differences in well-being.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T02:31:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.002
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Anatomy of the dorsal default-mode network in conduct disorder:
           Association with callous-unemotional traits

    • Authors: Arjun Sethi; Sagari Sarkar; Flavio Dell’Acqua; Essi Viding; Marco Catani; Declan G.M. Murphy; Michael C. Craig
      Pages: 87 - 92
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Arjun Sethi, Sagari Sarkar, Flavio Dell’Acqua, Essi Viding, Marco Catani, Declan G.M. Murphy, Michael C. Craig
      We recently reported that emotional detachment in adult psychopathy was associated with structural abnormalities in the dorsal ‘default-mode’ network (DMN). However, it is unclear whether these differences are present in young people at risk of psychopathy. The most widely recognised group at risk for psychopathy are children/adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. We therefore examined the microstructure of the dorsal DMN in 27 CD youths (14-with/13-without CU traits) compared to 16 typically developing controls using DTI tractography. Both CD groups had significantly (p < 0.025) reduced dorsal DMN radial diffusivity compared to controls. In those with diagnostically significant CU traits, exploratory analyses (uncorrected for multiple comparisons) suggested that radial diffusivity was negatively correlated with CU severity (Left: rho = −0.68, p = 0.015). These results suggest that CD youths have microstructural abnormalities in the same network as adults with psychopathy. Further, the association with childhood/adolescent measures of emotional detachment (CU traits) resembles the relationship between emotional detachment and network microstructure in adult psychopaths. However, these changes appear to occur in opposite directions – with increased myelination in adolescent CD but reduced integrity in adult psychopathy. Collectively, these findings suggest that developmental abnormalities in dorsal DMN may play a role in the emergence of psychopathy.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T12:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Reading skill related to left ventral occipitotemporal cortex during a
           phonological awareness task in 5–6-year old children

    • Authors: Jin Wang; Marc F. Joanisse; James R. Booth
      Pages: 116 - 122
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Jin Wang, Marc F. Joanisse, James R. Booth
      The left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) is important in visual word recognition. Studies have shown that the left vOT is generally observed to be involved in spoken language processing in skilled readers, suggesting automatic access to corresponding orthographic information. However, little is known about where and how the left vOT is involved in the spoken language processing of young children with emerging reading ability. In order to answer this question, we examined the relation of reading ability in 5–6-year-old kindergarteners to the activation of vOT during an auditory phonological awareness task. Two experimental conditions: onset word pairs that shared the first phoneme and rhyme word pairs that shared the final biphone/triphone, were compared to allow a measurement of vOT’s activation to small (i.e., onsets) and large grain sizes (i.e., rhymes). We found that higher reading ability was associated with better accuracy of the onset, but not the rhyme, condition. In addition, higher reading ability was only associated with greater sensitivity in the posterior left vOT for the contrast of the onset versus rhyme condition. These results suggest that acquisition of reading results in greater specialization of the posterior vOT to smaller rather than larger grain sizes in young children.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T13:26:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Functional network integration and attention skills in young children

    • Authors: Christiane S. Rohr; Anish Arora; Ivy Y.K. Cho; Prayash Katlariwala; Dennis Dimond; Deborah Dewey; Signe Bray
      Pages: 200 - 211
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Christiane S. Rohr, Anish Arora, Ivy Y.K. Cho, Prayash Katlariwala, Dennis Dimond, Deborah Dewey, Signe Bray
      Children acquire attention skills rapidly during early childhood as their brains undergo vast neural development. Attention is well studied in the adult brain, yet due to the challenges associated with scanning young children, investigations in early childhood are sparse. Here, we examined the relationship between age, attention and functional connectivity (FC) during passive viewing in multiple intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) in 60 typically developing girls between 4 and 7 years whose sustained, selective and executive attention skills were assessed. Visual, auditory, sensorimotor, default mode (DMN), dorsal attention (DAN), ventral attention (VAN), salience, and frontoparietal ICNs were identified via Independent Component Analysis and subjected to a dual regression. Individual spatial maps were regressed against age and attention skills, controlling for age. All ICNs except the VAN showed regions of increasing FC with age. Attention skills were associated with FC in distinct networks after controlling for age: selective attention positively related to FC in the DAN; sustained attention positively related to FC in visual and auditory ICNs; and executive attention positively related to FC in the DMN and visual ICN. These findings suggest distributed network integration across this age range and highlight how multiple ICNs contribute to attention skills in early childhood.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Longitudinal development of hippocampal subregions from childhood to

    • Authors: Christian K. Tamnes; Marieke G.N. Bos; Ferdi C. van de Kamp; Sabine Peters; Eveline A. Crone
      Pages: 212 - 222
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Christian K. Tamnes, Marieke G.N. Bos, Ferdi C. van de Kamp, Sabine Peters, Eveline A. Crone
      Detailed descriptions of the development of the hippocampus promise to shed light on the neural foundation of development of memory and other cognitive functions, as well as the emergence of major mental disorders. Hippocampus is a heterogeneous structure with a well characterized internal complexity, but development of its distinct subregions in humans has remained poorly described. We analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from a large longitudinal sample (270 participants, 678 scans) using an automated segmentation tool and mixed models to delineate the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from childhood to adulthood. We also examined sex differences in subregion volumes and their development, and associations between hippocampal subregions and general cognitive ability. Nonlinear developmental trajectories with early volume increases were observed for subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1, molecular layer (ML) and fimbria. In contrast, parasubiculum, presubiculum, CA2/3, CA4 and the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (GC-DG) showed linear volume decreases. No sex differences were found in hippocampal subregion development. Finally, general cognitive ability was positively associated with CA2/3 and CA4 volumes, as well as with ML development. In conclusion, hippocampal subregions appear to develop in diversified ways across adolescence, and specific subregions may link to general cognitive level.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2018)
  • Sensory and social features of autism – can they be integrated'

    • Authors: Antonia Hamilton; Kevin Pelphrey
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 29
      Author(s): Antonia Hamilton, Kevin Pelphrey

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2018)
  • Visual search performance in infants associates with later ASD diagnosis

    • Authors: C.H.M. Cheung; R. Bedford; M.H. Johnson; T. Charman; T. Gliga
      Pages: 4 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 29
      Author(s): C.H.M. Cheung, R. Bedford, M.H. Johnson, T. Charman, T. Gliga
      An enhanced ability to detect visual targets amongst distractors, known as visual search (VS), has often been documented in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Yet, it is unclear when this behaviour emerges in development and if it is specific to ASD. We followed up infants at high and low familial risk for ASD to investigate how early VS abilities links to later ASD diagnosis, the potential underlying mechanisms of this association and the specificity of superior VS to ASD. Clinical diagnosis of ASD as well as dimensional measures of ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms were ascertained at 3 years. At 9 and 15 months, but not at age 2 years, high-risk children who later met clinical criteria for ASD (HR-ASD) had better VS performance than those without later diagnosis and low-risk controls. Although HR-ASD children were also more attentive to the task at 9 months, this did not explain search performance. Superior VS specifically predicted 3 year-old ASD but not ADHD or anxiety symptoms. Our results demonstrate that atypical perception and core ASD symptoms of social interaction and communication are closely and selectively associated during early development, and suggest causal links between perceptual and social features of ASD.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2016.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2018)
  • Simulating interaction: Using gaze-contingent eye-tracking to measure the
           reward value of social signals in toddlers with and without autism

    • Authors: Angelina Vernetti; Atsushi Senju; Tony Charman; Mark H. Johnson; Teodora Gliga
      Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 29
      Author(s): Angelina Vernetti, Atsushi Senju, Tony Charman, Mark H. Johnson, Teodora Gliga
      Several accounts have been proposed to explain difficulties with social interaction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), amongst which atypical social orienting, decreased social motivation or difficulties with understanding the regularities driving social interaction. This study uses gaze-contingent eye-tracking to tease apart these accounts by measuring reward related behaviours in response to different social videos. Toddlers at high or low familial risk for ASD took part in this study at age 2 and were categorised at age 3 as low risk controls (LR), high-risk with no ASD diagnosis (HR-no ASD), or with a diagnosis of ASD (HR-ASD). When the on-demand social interaction was predictable, all groups, including the HR-ASD group, looked longer and smiled more towards a person greeting them compared to a mechanical Toy (Condition 1) and also smiled more towards a communicative over a non-communicative person (Condition 2). However, all groups, except the HR-ASD group, selectively oriented towards a person addressing the child in different ways over an invariant social interaction (Condition 3). These findings suggest that social interaction is intrinsically rewarding for individuals with ASD, but the extent to which it is sought may be modulated by the specific variability of naturalistic social interaction.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.004
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2018)
  • Cascading effects of attention disengagement and sensory seeking on social
           symptoms in a community sample of infants at-risk for a future diagnosis
           of autism spectrum disorder

    • Authors: Grace T. Baranek; Tiffany G. Woynaroski; Sallie Nowell; Lauren Turner-Brown; Michaela DuBay; Elizabeth R. Crais; Linda R. Watson
      Pages: 30 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 29
      Author(s): Grace T. Baranek, Tiffany G. Woynaroski, Sallie Nowell, Lauren Turner-Brown, Michaela DuBay, Elizabeth R. Crais, Linda R. Watson
      Recent work suggests sensory seeking predicts later social symptomatology through reduced social orienting in infants who are at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD. We drew on extant longitudinal data from a community sample of at-risk infants who were identified at 12 months using the First Year Inventory, and followed to 3–5 years. We replicate findings of Damiano et al. (in this issue) that a) high-risk infants who go on to be diagnosed with ASD show heightened sensory seeking in the second year of life relative to those who do not receive a diagnosis, and b) increased sensory seeking indirectly relates to later social symptomatology via reduced social orienting. We extend previous findings to show that sensory seeking has more clinical utility later in the second year of life (20–24 months) than earlier (13–15 months). Further, this study suggests that diminished attention disengagement at 12–15 months may precede and predict increased sensory seeking at 20–24 months. Findings add support for the notion that sensory features produce cascading effects on social development in infants at risk for ASD, and suggest that reduced attention disengagement early in life may set off this cascade.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.006
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2018)
  • Developmental sequelae and neurophysiologic substrates of sensory seeking
           in infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder

    • Authors: Cara R. Damiano-Goodwin; Tiffany G. Woynaroski; David M. Simon; Lisa V. Ibañez; Michael Murias; Anne Kirby; Cassandra R. Newsom; Mark T. Wallace; Wendy L. Stone; Carissa J. Cascio
      Pages: 41 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 29
      Author(s): Cara R. Damiano-Goodwin, Tiffany G. Woynaroski, David M. Simon, Lisa V. Ibañez, Michael Murias, Anne Kirby, Cassandra R. Newsom, Mark T. Wallace, Wendy L. Stone, Carissa J. Cascio
      It has been proposed that early differences in sensory responsiveness arise from atypical neural function and produce cascading effects on development across domains. This longitudinal study prospectively followed infants at heightened risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and infants at relatively lower risk for ASD (siblings of typically developing children; Sibs-TD) to examine the developmental sequelae and possible neurophysiological substrates of a specific sensory response pattern: unusually intense interest in nonsocial sensory stimuli or “sensory seeking.” At 18 months, sensory seeking and social orienting were measured with the Sensory Processing Assessment, and a potential neural signature for sensory seeking (i.e., frontal alpha asymmetry) was measured via resting state electroencephalography. At 36 months, infants’ social symptomatology was assessed in a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. Sibs-ASD showed elevated sensory seeking relative to Sibs-TD, and increased sensory seeking was concurrently associated with reduced social orienting across groups and resting frontal asymmetry in Sibs-ASD. Sensory seeking also predicted later social symptomatology. Findings suggest that sensory seeking may produce cascading effects on social development in infants at risk for ASD and that atypical frontal asymmetry may underlie this atypical pattern of sensory responsiveness.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.005
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2018)
  • Attention to novelty versus repetition: Contrasting habituation profiles
           in Autism and Williams syndrome

    • Authors: Giacomo Vivanti; Darren R. Hocking; Peter A.J. Fanning; Mirko Uljarevic; Valentina Postorino; Luigi Mazzone; Cheryl Dissanayake
      Pages: 54 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 29
      Author(s): Giacomo Vivanti, Darren R. Hocking, Peter A.J. Fanning, Mirko Uljarevic, Valentina Postorino, Luigi Mazzone, Cheryl Dissanayake
      Background Abnormalities in habituation have been documented in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS). Such abnormalities have been proposed to underlie the distinctive social and non-social difficulties that define ASD, including sensory features and repetitive behaviours, and the distinctive social phenotype characterizing WS. Methods We measured habituation in 39 preschoolers with ASD, 20 peers with WS and 19 typically developing (TD) children using an eye-tracking protocol that measured participants’ duration of attention in response to a repeating stimulus and a novel stimulus presented side by side across multiple trials. Results Participants in the TD group and the WS group decreased their attention toward the repeating stimulus and increased their attention to the novel stimulus over time. Conversely, the ASD group showed a similar attentional response to the novel and repeating stimuli. Habituation was correlated with social functioning in the WS but not in the ASD group. Contrary to predictions, slower habituation in ASD was associated with lower severity of repetitive behaviours. Conclusions Habituation appears to be intact in WS and impaired in ASD. More research is needed to clarify the nature of the syndrome-specific patterns of correlations between habituation and social and non-social functioning in these neurodevelopmental disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.01.006
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2018)
  • Neural correlates of face processing in etiologically-distinct
           12-month-old infants at high-risk of autism spectrum disorder

    • Authors: Maggie W. Guy; John E. Richards; Bridgette L. Tonnsen; Jane E. Roberts
      Pages: 61 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 29
      Author(s): Maggie W. Guy, John E. Richards, Bridgette L. Tonnsen, Jane E. Roberts
      Neural correlates of face processing were examined in 12-month-olds at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including 21 siblings of children with ASD (ASIBs) and 15 infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS), as well as 21 low-risk (LR) controls. Event-related potentials were recorded to familiar and novel face and toy stimuli. All infants demonstrated greater N290 amplitude to faces than toys. At the Nc component, LR infants showed greater amplitude to novel stimuli than to their mother’s face and own toy, whereas infants with FXS showed the opposite pattern of responses and ASIBs did not differentiate based on familiarity. These results reflect developing face specialization across high- and low-risk infants and reveal neural patterns that distinguish between groups at high-risk for ASD.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 29 (2018)
  • Alterations in white matter pathways underlying phonological and
           morphological processing in Chinese developmental dyslexia

    • Authors: Mengmeng Su; Jingjing Zhao; Michel Thiebaut de Schotten; Wei Zhou; Gaolang Gong; Franck Ramus; Hua Shu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Mengmeng Su, Jingjing Zhao, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Wei Zhou, Gaolang Gong, Franck Ramus, Hua Shu
      Chinese is a logographic language that is different from alphabetic languages in visual and semantic complexity. Thus far, it is still unclear whether Chinese children with dyslexia show similar disruption of white matter pathways as in alphabetic languages. The present study focused on the alteration of white matter pathways in Chinese children with dyslexia. Using diffusion tensor imaging tractography, the bilateral arcuate fasciculus (AF-anterior, AF-posterior and AF-direct segments), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) were delineated in each individual’s native space. Compared with age-matched controls, Chinese children with dyslexia showed reduced fractional anisotropy in the left AF-direct and the left ILF. Further regression analyses revealed a functional dissociation between the left AF-direct and the left ILF. The AF-direct tract integrity was associated with phonological processing skill, an ability important for reading in all writing systems, while the ILF integrity was associated with morphological processing skill, an ability more strongly recruited for Chinese reading. In conclusion, the double disruption locus in Chinese children with dyslexia, and the functional dissociation between dorsal and ventral pathways reflect both universal and specific properties of reading in Chinese.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.04.002
  • Neurophysiological differences in the adolescent brain following a single
           night of restricted sleep - A 7T fMRI study

    • Authors: Jennifer L. Robinson; Stephen A. Erath; Rajesh K. Kana; Mona El-Sheikh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jennifer L. Robinson, Stephen A. Erath, Rajesh K. Kana, Mona El-Sheikh
      Sleep deprivation in youth has garnered international attention in recent years, as correlational studies have demonstrated significant relationships between lack of sleep and detrimental behavioral and academic outcomes. However, no study to date has systematically examined the neurophysiological consequences of a single night of sleep restriction (i.e., 4 hours) in adolescents using ultra-high field functional neuroimaging. Much of what we know regarding the neural consequences of sleep deprivation has come from the adult literature, and among those studies, the majority use region of interest (ROI) approaches, thus disregarding the dynamic mechanisms that may subserve the behavioral effects of sleep restriction. Leveraging a crossover within-subjects design, we demonstrate that pivotal brain regions involved in the default mode and limbic regulatory centers have disrupted functioning following a night of restricted sleep compared to a night of “normal sleep”. Specifically, a normal night (i.e., 8 hours) of sleep led to increased global and local efficiency of bilateral amygdala, and less efficiency in the posterior cingulate, as measured by graph theory, compared to a night of sleep restriction. Furthermore, aberrant functional connectivity patterns were identified in key fronto-limbic circuitry, suggesting a potential pathophysiological mechanism underlying the widespread effects of sleep deprivation in youth.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.012
  • A brief validated screen to identify boys and girls at risk for early
           marijuana use

    • Authors: Rolf Loeber; Duncan B. Clark; Lia Ahonen; Douglas FitzGerald; Elisa M. Trucco; Robert A. Zucker
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Rolf Loeber, Duncan B. Clark, Lia Ahonen, Douglas FitzGerald, Elisa M. Trucco, Robert A. Zucker
      To guide recruitment, the ABCD Study requires a method for identifying children at high risk for early-onset substance use that may be utilized during the recruitment process. This study was undertaken to inform the development of a brief screen for identifying youths’ risk of early-onset substance use and other adverse outcomes. To be acceptable by participants in this context, consideration of potential items was limited to child characteristics previously determined to be potentially pertinent and parental cigarette smoking. To focus the analyses on a single target substance use outcome pertinent to the stated goals of the ABCD Study, early-onset marijuana use was selected. Utilizing data collected prior to the initiation of the ABCD Study, four longitudinal data sets were used in nine secondary data analyses to test, replicate and validate a brief screening assessment for boys and girls to identify those at risk for early-onset marijuana use by ages 14–15. The combination of child externalizing problems reported by the parent (4 items: destroys things belonging to his/her family or others; disobedience at school; lying or cheating; steals outside the home) and parent smoking (1 item) proved to be the optimal screen. This was largely replicated across the four data sets. Indicators of predictive efficiency were modest in magnitude and statistically significant in 8 out of the 9 analyses. The results informed the screen’s optimal threshold for identifying children at risk for early-onset marijuana use. The addition of child internalizing problems did not improve these predictions. Further analyses showed the predictive utility of the screen for several other substance use outcomes at ages 15 to 18, including alcohol and nicotine use. The results support the use of a short screening assessment to identify youth at risk for early-onset substance use in the ABCD Study and other research.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.011
  • Current, future and potential use of mobile and wearable technologies and
           social media data in the ABCD study to increase understanding of
           contributors to child health

    • Authors: K.S. Bagot; S.A. Matthews; M. Mason; Lindsay M. Squeglia; J. Fowler; K. Gray; M. Herting; A. May; I. Colrain; J. Godino; S. Tapert; S. Brown; K. Patrick
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): K.S. Bagot, S.A. Matthews, M. Mason, Lindsay M. Squeglia, J. Fowler, K. Gray, M. Herting, A. May, I. Colrain, J. Godino, S. Tapert, S. Brown, K. Patrick
      Mobile and wearable technologies and novel methods of data collection are innovating health-related research. These technologies and methods allow for multi-system level capture of data across environmental, physiological, behavioral, and psychological domains. In the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study, there is great potential for harnessing the acceptability, accessibility, and functionality of mobile and social technologies for in-vivo data capture to precisely measure factors, and interactions between factors, that contribute to childhood and adolescent neurodevelopment and psychosocial and health outcomes. Here we discuss advances in mobile and wearable technologies and methods of analysis of geospatial, ecologic, social network and behavioral data. Incorporating these technologies into the ABCD study will allow for interdisciplinary research on the effects of place, social interactions, environment, and substance use on health and developmental outcomes in children and adolescents.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.008
  • Reliability of Neural Activation and Connectivity during Implicit Face
           Emotion Processing in Youth

    • Authors: Simone P. Haller; Katharina Kircanski; Joel Stoddard; Lauren K. White; Gang Chen; Banafsheh Sharif-Askary; Susan Zhang; Kenneth E. Towbin; Daniel S. Pine; Ellen Leibenluft; Melissa A. Brotman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Simone P. Haller, Katharina Kircanski, Joel Stoddard, Lauren K. White, Gang Chen, Banafsheh Sharif-Askary, Susan Zhang, Kenneth E. Towbin, Daniel S. Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Melissa A. Brotman
      Face emotion imaging paradigms are widely used in both healthy and psychiatric populations. Here, in children and adolescents, we evaluate the test-retest reliability of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation and task-based functional connectivity on a widely used implicit face emotion processing task (i.e., gender labeling). Twenty-five healthy youth (M age = 13.97 year s; 60% female) completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan sessions approximately two months apart. Participants identified the gender of faces displaying angry, fearful, happy, and neutral emotions. A Bayesian adaptation of the intraclass correlation (ICC) assessed reliability of evoked BOLD activation and amygdala seed-based functional connectivity on task events vs. baseline as well as contrasts between face emotions. For each face emotion vs. baseline, good reliability of activation was demonstrated across key emotion processing regions including middle, medial, and inferior frontal gyri. However, contrasts between face emotions yielded variable results. Contrasts of angry to neutral or happy faces exhibited good reliability of amygdala connectivity to prefrontal regions. Contrasts of fearful to happy faces exhibited good reliability of activation in the anterior cingulate. Findings inform the reproducibility literature and emphasize the need for continued evaluation of task reliability.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.010
  • Assessment of culture and environment in the Adolescent Brain and
           Cognitive Development Study: Rationale, description of measures, and early

    • Authors: Robert A. Zucker; Raul Gonzalez; Sarah W. Feldstein Ewing; Martin P. Paulus; Judith Arroyo; Andrew Fuligni; Amanda Sheffield Morris; Mariana Sanchez; Thomas Wills
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Robert A. Zucker, Raul Gonzalez, Sarah W. Feldstein Ewing, Martin P. Paulus, Judith Arroyo, Andrew Fuligni, Amanda Sheffield Morris, Mariana Sanchez, Thomas Wills
      Neurodevelopmental maturation takes place in a social environment in addition to a neurobiological one. Characterization of social environmental factors that influence this process is therefore an essential component in developing an accurate model of adolescent brain and neurocognitive development, as well as susceptibility to change with the use of marijuana and other drugs. The creation of the Culture and Environment (CE) measurement component of the ABCD protocol was guided by this understanding. Three areas were identified by the CE Work Group as central to this process: influences relating to CE Group membership, influences created by the proximal social environment, influences stemming from social interactions. Eleven measures assess these influences, and by time of publication, will have been administered to well over 7,000 9–10 year-old children and one of their parents. Our report presents baseline data on psychometric characteristics (mean, standard deviation, range, skewness, coefficient alpha) of all measures within the battery. Effectiveness of the battery in differentiating 9–10 year olds who were classified as at higher and lower risk for marijuana use in adolescence was also evaluated. Psychometric characteristics on all measures were good to excellent; higher vs. lower risk contrasts were significant in areas where risk differentiation would be anticipated.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.004
  • Editorial Board/Aims and Scope

    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 29

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:58:27Z
  • Biospecimens and the ABCD Study: Rationale, Methods of Collection,
           Measurement and Early Data

    • Authors: Kristina A. Uban; Megan K. Horton; Joanna Jacobus; Charles Heyser; Wesley K. Thompson; Susan F. Tapert; Pamela A.F. Madden; Elizabeth R. Sowell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Kristina A. Uban, Megan K. Horton, Joanna Jacobus, Charles Heyser, Wesley K. Thompson, Susan F. Tapert, Pamela A.F. Madden, Elizabeth R. Sowell
      Biospecimen collection in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study – of hair samples, shed deciduous (baby) teeth, and body fluids – will serve dual functions of screening for study eligibility, and providing measures of biological processes thought to predict or correlate with key study outcomes on brain and cognitive development. Biosamples are being collected annually to screen for recency of drug use prior to the neuroimaging or cognitive testing visit, and to store for the following future studies: (1) on the effects of exposure to illicit and recreational drugs (including alcohol and nicotine); (2) of pubertal hormones on brain and cognitive developmental trajectories; (3) on the contribution of genomics and epigenomics to child and adolescent development and behavioral outcomes; and (4) with pre- and post-natal exposure to environmental neurotoxicants and drugs of abuse measured from novel tooth analyses. The present manuscript describes the rationales for inclusion and selection of the specific biospecimens, methodological considerations for each measure, future plans for assessment of biospecimens during follow-up visits, and preliminary ABCD data to illustrate methodological considerations.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T13:26:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.005
  • The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study: Imaging
           Acquisition across 21 Sites

    • Authors: B.J. Casey; Tariq Cannonier; May I. Conley; Alexandra O. Cohen; Deanna M. Barch; Mary M. Heitzeg; Mary E. Soules; Theresa Teslovich; Danielle V. Dellarco; Hugh Garavan; Catherine A. Orr; Tor D. Wager; Marie T. Banich; Nicole K. Speer; Matthew T. Sutherland; Michael C. Riedel; Anthony S. Dick; James M. Bjork; Kathleen M. Thomas; Bader Charaani; Margie H. Mejia; Donald J. Hagler; M. Daniela Cornejo; Chelsea S. Sicat; Michael P. Harms; Nico U.F. Dosenbach; Monica Rosenberg; Eric Earl; Hauke Bartsch; Richard Watts; Jonathan R. Polimeni; Joshua M. Kuperman; Damien A. Fair; Anders M. Dale
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): B.J. Casey, Tariq Cannonier, May I. Conley, Alexandra O. Cohen, Deanna M. Barch, Mary M. Heitzeg, Mary E. Soules, Theresa Teslovich, Danielle V. Dellarco, Hugh Garavan, Catherine A. Orr, Tor D. Wager, Marie T. Banich, Nicole K. Speer, Matthew T. Sutherland, Michael C. Riedel, Anthony S. Dick, James M. Bjork, Kathleen M. Thomas, Bader Charaani, Margie H. Mejia, Donald J. Hagler, M. Daniela Cornejo, Chelsea S. Sicat, Michael P. Harms, Nico U.F. Dosenbach, Monica Rosenberg, Eric Earl, Hauke Bartsch, Richard Watts, Jonathan R. Polimeni, Joshua M. Kuperman, Damien A. Fair, Anders M. Dale
      The ABCD study is recruiting and following the brain development and health of over 10,000 9–10 year olds through adolescence. The imaging component of the study was developed by the ABCD Data Analysis and Informatics Center (DAIC) and the ABCD Imaging Acquisition Workgroup. Imaging methods and assessments were selected, optimized and harmonized across all 21 sites to measure brain structure and function relevant to adolescent development and addiction. This article provides an overview of the imaging procedures of the ABCD study, the basis for their selection and preliminary quality assurance and results that provide evidence for the feasibility and age-appropriateness of procedures and generalizability of findings to the existent literature.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T13:26:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.001
  • Interaction between striatal volume and DAT1 polymorphism predicts working
           memory development during adolescence

    • Authors: F. Nemmi; C. Nymberg; F. Darki; T. Banaschewski; A.L.W. Bokde; C. Büchel; H. Flor; V. Frouin; H. Garavan; P. Gowland; A. Heinz; J.-L. Martinot; F. Nees; T. Paus; M.N. Smolka; T.W. Robbins; G. Schumann; T. Klingberg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): F. Nemmi, C. Nymberg, F. Darki, T. Banaschewski, A.L.W. Bokde, C. Büchel, H. Flor, V. Frouin, H. Garavan, P. Gowland, A. Heinz, J.-L. Martinot, F. Nees, T. Paus, M.N. Smolka, T.W. Robbins, G. Schumann, T. Klingberg
      There is considerable inter-individual variability in the rate at which working memory (WM) develops during childhood and adolescence, but the neural and genetic basis for these differences are poorly understood. Dopamine-related genes, striatal activation and morphology have been associated with increased WM capacity after training. Here we tested the hypothesis that these factors would also explain some of the inter-individual differences in the rate of WM development. We measured WM performance in 487 healthy subjects twice: at age 14 and 19. At age 14 subjects underwent a structural MRI scan, and genotyping of five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or close to the dopamine genes DRD2, DAT-1 and COMT, which have previously been associated with gains in WM after WM training. We then analyzed which biological factors predicted the rate of increase in WM between ages 14 and 19. We found a significant interaction between putamen size and DAT1/SLC6A3 rs40184 polymorphism, such that TC heterozygotes with a larger putamen at age 14 showed greater WM improvement at age 19. The effect of the DAT1 polymorphism on WM development was exerted in interaction with striatal morphology. These results suggest that development of WM partially share neuro-physiological mechanism with training-induced plasticity.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T13:26:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.006
  • The development of functional network organization in early childhood and
           early adolescence: A resting-state fNIRS study

    • Authors: Lin Cai; Qi Dong; Haijing Niu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Lin Cai, Qi Dong, Haijing Niu
      Early childhood (7–8 years old) and early adolescence (11–12 years old) constitute two landmark developmental stages that comprise considerable changes in neural cognition. However, very limited information from functional neuroimaging studies exists on the functional topological configuration of the human brain during specific developmental periods. In the present study, we utilized continuous resting-state functional near-infrared spectroscopy (rs-fNIRS) imaging data to examine topological changes in network organization during development from early childhood and early adolescence to adulthood. Our results showed that the properties of small-worldness and modularity were not significantly different across development, demonstrating the developmental maturity of important functional brain organization in early childhood. Intriguingly, young children had a significantly lower global efficiency than early adolescents and adults, which revealed that the integration of the distributed networks strengthens across the developmental stages underlying cognitive development. Moreover, local efficiency of young children and adolescents was significantly lower than that of adults, while there was no difference between these two younger groups. This finding demonstrated that functional segregation remained relatively steady from early childhood to early adolescence, and the brain in these developmental periods possesses no optimal network configuration. Furthermore, we found heterogeneous developmental patterns in the regional nodal properties in various brain regions, such as linear increased nodal properties in the frontal cortex, indicating increasing cognitive capacity over development. Collectively, our results demonstrated that significant topological changes in functional network organization occurred during these two critical developmental stages, and provided a novel insight into elucidating subtle changes in brain functional networks across development.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T13:26:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.003
  • Development of inhibition and switching: a longitudinal study of the
           maturation of interference suppression and reversal processes during

    • Authors: Cassandra Richardson; Mike Anderson; Corinne L. Reid; Allison M. Fox
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Cassandra Richardson, Mike Anderson, Corinne L. Reid, Allison M. Fox
      Inhibition and switching are executive functions (EFs) that have different developmental trajectories across childhood. The development of specific processes unique to each EF may contribute to these trajectories. Interference suppression and reversal were examined in a large sample of children aged 7 and 9 years (n = 120) and followed-up after two-years to investigate developmental trajectories of inhibition and switching. The N2 and P3b components provided neural correlates of conflict monitoring and attentional processing of conflict involved in interference suppression and reversal. Interference suppression improved over time, however, switching performance did not significantly change between 7-11 years. Improvements in correct RT with age and time indicated increased efficiency of stimulus evaluation, response preparation and execution. N2 amplitude decreased with both age and time, indicating less reliance on conflict monitoring to signal cognitive control to manage stimulus and response conflict. P3b amplitude modulations indicated that different amounts of attention were allocated to updating mental representations of interference suppression and reversal task features. These data indicated different developmental trajectories of specific processes unique to inhibition and switching across the childhood period of 7-11 years, providing further empirical evidence that 7-11 years is a critical period for cognitive development.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T14:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.002

    • Authors: Annika Andersson; Lisa D. Sanders; Donna Coch; Christina M. Karns; Helen J. Neville
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Annika Andersson, Lisa D. Sanders, Donna Coch, Christina M. Karns, Helen J. Neville
      During early literacy skills development, rhyming is an important indicator of the phonological precursors required for reading. To determine if neural signatures of rhyming are apparent in early childhood, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3- to 5-year-old, preliterate children (N = 62) in an auditory prime-target nonword rhyming paradigm (e.g., bly-gry, blane-vox). Overall, nonrhyming targets elicited a larger negativity (N450) than rhyming targets over posterior regions. In contrast, rhyming targets elicited a larger negativity than nonrhyming targets over fronto-lateral sites. The amplitude of the two rhyming effects was correlated, such that a larger posterior effect occurred with a smaller anterior effect. To determine whether these neural signatures of rhyming related to phonological awareness, we divided the children into two groups based on phonological awareness scores while controlling for age and socioeconomic status. The posterior rhyming effect was stronger and more widely distributed in the group with better phonological awareness, whereas differences between groups for the anterior effect were small and not significant. This pattern of results suggests that the rhyme processes indexed by the anterior effect are developmental precursors to those indexed by the posterior effect. Overall, these findings demonstrate early establishment of distributed neurocognitive networks for rhyme processing.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T14:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.011
  • Social Network Size Relates to Developmental Neural Sensitivity to
           Biological Motion

    • Authors: L.A. Kirby; D. Moraczewski; K. Warnell; K. Velnoskey; E. Redcay
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): L.A. Kirby, D. Moraczewski, K. Warnell, K. Velnoskey, E. Redcay
      The ability to perceive others’ actions and goals from human motion (i.e., biological motion perception) is a critical component of social perception and may be linked to the development of real-world social relationships. Adult research demonstrates two key nodes of the brain’s biological motion perception system—amygdala and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS)—are linked to variability in social network properties. The relation between social perception and social network properties, however, has not yet been investigated in middle childhood—a time when individual differences in social experiences and social perception are growing. The aims of this study were to (1) replicate past work showing amygdala and pSTS sensitivity to biological motion in middle childhood; (2) examine age-related changes in the neural sensitivity for biological motion, and (3) determine whether neural sensitivity for biological motion relates to social network characteristics in children. Consistent with past work, we demonstrate a significant relation between social network size and neural sensitivity for biological motion in left pSTS, but do not find age-related change in biological motion perception. This finding offers evidence for the interplay between real-world social experiences and functional brain development and has important implications for understanding disorders of atypical social experience.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T14:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.012
  • The lifespan trajectory of neural oscillatory activity in the motor system

    • Authors: Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham; Timothy J. McDermott; Mackenzie S. Mills; Alex I. Wiesman; Yu-Ping Wang; Julia M. Stephen; Vince D. Calhoun; Tony W. Wilson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Timothy J. McDermott, Mackenzie S. Mills, Alex I. Wiesman, Yu-Ping Wang, Julia M. Stephen, Vince D. Calhoun, Tony W. Wilson
      Numerous studies connect beta oscillations in the motor cortices to volitional movement, and beta is known to be aberrant in multiple movement disorders. However, the dynamic interplay between these beta oscillations, motor performance, and spontaneous beta power (e.g., during rest) in the motor cortices remains unknown. This study utilized magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate these three parameters and their lifespan trajectory in 57 healthy participants aged 9 to 75 years old. Movement-related beta activity was imaged using a beamforming approach, and voxel time series data were extracted from the peak voxels in the primary motor cortices. Our results indicated that spontaneous beta power during rest followed a quadratic lifespan trajectory, while movement-related beta oscillations linearally increased with age. Follow-on analyses showed that spontaneous beta power and the beta minima during movement, together, significantly predicted task performance above and beyond the effects of age. These data are the first to show lifespan trajectories among measures of beta activity in the motor cortices, and suggest that the healthy brain compensates for age-related increases in spontaneous beta activity by increasing the strength of beta oscillations within the motor cortices which, when successful, enables normal motor performance into later life.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T14:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.013
  • EEG Beta desynchronization during hand goal-directed action observation in
           newborn monkeys and its relation to the emergence of hand motor skills

    • Authors: Fabrizia Festante; Ross E. Vanderwert; Valentina Sclafani; Annika Paukner; Elizabeth A. Simpson; Stephen J. Suomi; Nathan A. Fox; Pier Francesco Ferrari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Fabrizia Festante, Ross E. Vanderwert, Valentina Sclafani, Annika Paukner, Elizabeth A. Simpson, Stephen J. Suomi, Nathan A. Fox, Pier Francesco Ferrari
      Previous developmental research suggests that motor experience supports the development of action perception across the lifespan. However, it is still unknown when the neural mechanisms underlying action-perception coupling emerge in infancy. The goal of this study was to examine the neural correlates of action perception during the emergence of grasping abilities in newborn rhesus macaques. Neural activity, recorded via electroencephalogram (EEG), while monkeys observed grasping actions, mimed actions, and means-end movements during the first (W1) and second week (W2) of life was measured. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) during action observation was computed from the EEG in the alpha and beta bands, two components of the sensorimotor mu rhythm associated with activity of the mirror neuron system (MNS). Results revealed age-related changes in the beta band, but not the alpha band, over anterior electrodes, with greater desynchronization at W2 than W1 for the observation of goal-directed grasping actions. Additionally, desynchronization to observed grasping actions at W2 was associated with infants’ motor skills – measured by a separate behavioral task – such that more grasping attempts were associated to greater beta ERD. These findings suggest the emergence of an early action-perception system that relies on motor experience, shortly after birth.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T14:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.010
  • Not Just Social Sensitivity: Adolescent neural suppression of social
           feedback during risk taking

    • Authors: Ethan M. McCormick; Michael T. Perino; Eva H. Telzer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Ethan M. McCormick, Michael T. Perino, Eva H. Telzer
      Adolescence is a period of sensitivity to social stimuli. In particular, research has focused on the increased sensitivity to risks and social information seen during adolescence. However, recent evidence also suggests that adolescents can flexibly use information in service of their goals, raising an interesting question: are adolescents able to selectively discount social information if it conflicts with their goals' To test this question, fifty-five children and adolescents (ages 8–17 years) completed a social variant of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task during an fMRI session. Adolescents showed decreased tracking of negative social feedback in regions involved in salience-monitoring (e.g. insula) and social processing (e.g., TPJ, pSTS). Age-related changes in neural processing of risk and social feedback contributed to better performance for older participants. These results suggest that adolescents are able to suppress goal-irrelevant social feedback, rather than being uniformly hyper-sensitive to social information.

      PubDate: 2018-03-06T14:55:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.012
  • Adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study: Overview of substance
           use assessment methods

    • Authors: Krista M. Lisdahl; Kenneth J. Sher; Kevin P. Conway; Raul Gonzalez; Sarah W. Feldstein Ewing; Sara Jo Nixon; Susan Tapert; Hauke Bartsch; Rita Z. Goldstein; Mary Heitzeg
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Krista M. Lisdahl, Kenneth J. Sher, Kevin P. Conway, Raul Gonzalez, Sarah W. Feldstein Ewing, Sara Jo Nixon, Susan Tapert, Hauke Bartsch, Rita Z. Goldstein, Mary Heitzeg
      One of the objectives of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study ( is to establish a national longitudinal cohort of 9 and 10 year olds that will be followed for 10 years in order to prospectively study the risk and protective factors influencing substance use and its consequences, examine the impact of substance use on neurocognitive, health and psychosocial outcomes, and to understand the relationship between substance use and psychopathology. This article provides an overview of the ABCD Study Substance Use Workgroup, provides the goals for the workgroup, rationale for the substance use battery, and includes details on the substance use module methods and measurement tools used during baseline, 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessment time-points. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of these substance use domains over a period of ten years in a nationwide sample of youth presents an unprecedented opportunity to further understand the timing and interactive relationships between substance use and neurocognitive, health, and psychopathology outcomes in youth living in the United States.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.007
  • Adolescent Neurocognitive Development and Impacts of Substance Use:
           Overview of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Baseline
           Neurocognition Battery

    • Authors: M. Luciana; J.M. Bjork; B. Nagel; D.M. Barch; R. Gonzalez; S.J. Nixon; M.T. Banich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): M. Luciana, J.M. Bjork, B. Nagel, D.M. Barch, R. Gonzalez, S.J. Nixon, M.T. Banich
      Adolescence is characterized by numerous social, hormonal and physical changes, as well as a marked increase in risk-taking behaviors. Dual systems models attribute adolescent risk-taking to tensions between developing capacities for cognitive control and motivational strivings, which may peak at this time. A comprehensive understanding of neurocognitive development during the adolescent period is necessary to permit the distinction between premorbid vulnerabilities and consequences of behaviors such as substance use. Thus, the prospective assessment of cognitive development is fundamental to the aims of the newly launched Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Consortium. This paper details the rationale for ABC’lected measures of neurocognition, presents preliminary descriptive data on an initial sample of 2299 participants, and provides a context for how this large-scale project can inform our understanding of adolescent neurodevelopment.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.006
  • Two-year cortical trajectories are abnormal in children and adolescents
           with prenatal alcohol exposure

    • Authors: Timothy J. Hendrickson; Bryon A. Mueller; Elizabeth R. Sowell; Sarah N. Mattson; Claire D. Coles; Julie A. Kable; Kenneth L. Jones; Christopher J. Boys; Susanne Lee; Kelvin O. Lim; Edward P. Riley; Jeffrey R. Wozniak
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Timothy J. Hendrickson, Bryon A. Mueller, Elizabeth R. Sowell, Sarah N. Mattson, Claire D. Coles, Julie A. Kable, Kenneth L. Jones, Christopher J. Boys, Susanne Lee, Kelvin O. Lim, Edward P. Riley, Jeffrey R. Wozniak
      Objectives Cortical abnormalities in prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are known, including in gyrification (LGI), thickness (CT), volume (CV), and surface area (CS). This study provides longitudinal and developmental context to the PAE cortical development literature. Experimental Design Included: 58 children with PAE and 52 controls, ages 6-17 at enrollment, from four Collaborative Initiative on FASD (CIFASD) sites. Participants underwent a formal evaluation of physical anomalies and dysmorphic facial features associated with PAE. MRI data were collected on three platforms (Siemens, GE, and Philips) at four sites. Scans were spaced two years apart. Change in LGI, CT, CS, and CV were examined. Principal Observations Several significant regional age-by-diagnosis linear and quadratic interaction effects in LGI, CT, and CV were found, indicating atypical developmental trajectories in PAE. No significant correlations were observed between cortical measures and IQ. Conclusions Regional differences were seen longitudinally in CT, CV, and LGI in those with PAE. The findings represent important insights into developmental trajectories and may have implications for the timing of assessments and interventions in this population. It is noteworthy that cortical metrics did not correlate with IQ, suggesting that more specific aspects of cognitive development may need to be explored to provide further context.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.008
  • Introduction

    • Authors: Terry L. Jernigan; Sandra A. Brown
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Terry L. Jernigan, Sandra A. Brown
      The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study is a longitudinal, observational study of over 10,000 youth recruited at 21 sites throughout the United States. Comprehensive biennial assessments and more limited interim assessments measure health, mental health, neurocognition, family, cultural and environmental variables, substance use, genetic and other biomarkers, and structural and functional brain development. Within this Special Issue, readers will find much information about the rationale and objectives of the study, the broad ranging assessment protocols and new as well as traditional methodologies applied at baseline, the recruitment and retention strategies, and the anticipated final composition of the cohort. Information is also provided about how the study is coordinated and conducted, how decisions are made, how data quality is monitored, and how ethical standards are protected. In this introduction we will focus instead on the position of the ABCD Study in the changing landscape of biomedical research.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.002
  • Neural Cognitive Control Moderates the Association between Insular Risk
           Processing and Risk-taking Behaviors via Perceived Stress in Adolescents

    • Authors: Dominique Maciejewski; Nina Lauharatanahirun; Toria Herd; Jacob Lee; Kirby Deater-Deckard; Brooks King-Casas; Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Dominique Maciejewski, Nina Lauharatanahirun, Toria Herd, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon
      Adolescence is a critical period for the initiation of risk-taking behaviors. We examined the longitudinal interplay between neural correlates of risk processing and cognitive control in predicting risk-taking behaviors via stress. The sample consisted of 167 adolescents (53% males) who were assessed twice (M AgeTime1 = 14.13, M AgeTime2 = 15.05). Neural risk processing was operationalized as blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the anterior insula during a lottery choice task and neural cognitive control as BOLD responses during an inhibitory control task. Adolescents reported on perceived stress and risk-taking behaviors. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that low insular risk processing predicted increases in perceived stress, while perceived stress did not predict changes in insular risk processing across one year. Moreover, significant moderation by neural cognitive control indicated that low insular risk processing predicted increases in risk-taking behaviors via increases in perceived stress among adolescents with poor neural cognitive control, but not among adolescents with good neural cognitive control. The results suggest that risk processing in the anterior insular cortex plays an important role in stress experience and risk-taking behaviors particularly for vulnerable adolescents with poor neural cognitive control.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.005
  • Methodological considerations for developmental longitudinal fMRI research

    • Authors: Eva H. Telzer; Ethan M. McCormick; Sabine Peters; Danielle Cosme; Jennifer H. Pfeifer; Anna C.K. van Duijvenvoorde
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Eva H. Telzer, Ethan M. McCormick, Sabine Peters, Danielle Cosme, Jennifer H. Pfeifer, Anna C.K. van Duijvenvoorde
      There has been a large spike in longitudinal fMRI studies in recent years, and so it is essential that researchers carefully assess the limitations and challenges afforded by longitudinal designs. In this article, we provide an overview of important considerations for longitudinal fMRI research in developmental samples, including task design, sampling strategies, and group-level analyses. We first discuss considerations for task designs, weighing the pros and cons of many commonly used tasks, as well as outlining how the tasks may be impacted by repeated exposure. Secondly, we review the types of group-level analyses that can be conducted on longitudinal fMRI data, analyses which must account for repeated measures. Finally, we review and critique recent longitudinal studies that have emerged in the past few years.

      PubDate: 2018-02-24T19:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.004
  • Hubs in the Human Fetal Brain Network

    • Authors: Marion I. van den Heuvel; Elise Turk; Janessa H. Manning; Jasmine Hect; Edgar Hernandez-Andrade; Sonia S. Hassan; Roberto Romero; Martijn P. van den Heuvel; Moriah E. Thomason
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Marion I. van den Heuvel, Elise Turk, Janessa H. Manning, Jasmine Hect, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Sonia S. Hassan, Roberto Romero, Martijn P. van den Heuvel, Moriah E. Thomason
      Advances in neuroimaging and network analyses have lead to discovery of highly connected regions, or hubs, in the connectional architecture of the human brain. Whether these hubs emerge as networks begin to form in utero, has yet to be examined. The current study addresses this question and aims to determine the location of neural hubs in human fetuses. Fetal resting-state fMRI data (N = 105) was used to construct connectivity matrices for 197 discrete brain regions. We discovered that within the connectional functional organization of the human fetal brain key hubs are emerging. Consistent with prior reports in infants, visual and motor regions were identified as emerging hub areas, specifically in cerebellar areas. We also found evidence for network hubs in association cortex, including areas remarkably close to the adult fusiform facial and Wernicke areas. Functional significance of hub structure was confirmed by computationally deleting hub versus random nodes and observing that global efficiency decreased significantly more when hubs were removed (p < .001). Taken together, we conclude that both primary and association brain regions demonstrate centrality in network organization before birth. While fetal hubs may be important for facilitating network communication, they may also form potential points of vulnerability in fetal brain development.

      PubDate: 2018-02-13T19:09:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.02.001
  • Variability of the hemodynamic response in infants: Influence of
           experimental design and stimulus complexity

    • Authors: Cécile Issard; Judit Gervain
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Cécile Issard, Judit Gervain
      Measuring brain activity in developmental populations remains a major challenge despite great technological advances. Among the numerous available methods, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging modality that probes the hemodynamic response, is a powerful tool for recording brain activity in a great variety of situations and populations. Neurocognitive studies with infants have often reported inverted hemodynamic responses, i.e. a decrease instead of an increase in regional blood oxygenation, but the exact physiological explanation and cognitive interpretation of this response remain unclear. Here, we first provide an overview of the basic principles of NIRS and its use in cognitive developmental neuroscience. We then review the infant fNIRS literature to show that the hemodynamic response is modulated by experimental design and stimulus complexity, sometimes leading to hemodynamic responses with non-canonical shapes. We also argue that this effect is further modulated by the age of participants, the cortical regions involved, and the developmental stage of the tested cognitive process. We argue that this variability needs to be taken into account when designing and interpreting developmental studies measuring the hemodynamic response.

      PubDate: 2018-02-13T19:09:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.009
  • Depressed and non-depressed mothers’ touching during social
           interactions with their infants

    • Authors: Irene Mantis; Marisa Mercuri; Dale M. Stack; Tiffany M. Field
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Irene Mantis, Marisa Mercuri, Dale M. Stack, Tiffany M. Field
      Touch is a critical channel of communication used by mothers to communicate and interact with their infants and to contribute to their infants’ socio-emotional development. The present study examined maternal touching in 41 mothers with and without depressive symptomatology. Mothers and their 4-month-old infants participated in the Still-Face (maternal emotional unavailability) and Separation (maternal physical unavailability) procedures. Maternal touching behaviours were video-recorded and coded using the Caregiver Infant Touch Scale (CITS). Results indicated that mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms engaged in less touching following the perturbation in the procedure, whereas mothers with lower levels of depressive symptoms maintained stable levels of touching across both interaction periods. Mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms displayed less playful/stimulating types of touching. Taken together, these results underscore the importance of touch and suggest key differences in touching behaviour between dyads with maternal depressive symptomatology and those without.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T12:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.005
  • Income change alters default mode network connectivity for adolescents in

    • Authors: David G. Weissman; Rand D. Conger; Richard W. Robins; Paul D. Hastings; Amanda E. Guyer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): David G. Weissman, Rand D. Conger, Richard W. Robins, Paul D. Hastings, Amanda E. Guyer
      Experiencing poverty during childhood and adolescence may affect function. However, income is dynamic, and studies have not addressed whether income change relates to brain function. In the present study, we investigated whether intrinsic functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN) regions was influenced by mean family income and family income change. Parents of 68 Mexican-origin adolescents (35 females) reported family income annually when adolescents were 10-16 years old. Intercept and slope of income at each of these ages were calculated for each participant. At age 16 years, adolescents completed a resting state functional neuroimaging scan. Adolescents from high and low income families did not differ in their functional connectivity, but for adolescents in with lower incomes, their connectivity patterns depended on their income slope. Low-income adolescents whose income increased demonstrated greater connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), both DMN regions, and between the PCCand the right inferior frontal gyrus. Increases in income were associated with greater connectivity of the mPFC with the right inferior frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal lobule regardless of mean income. Increases in income, especially among adolescents in poverty, may alleviate stressors, influencing the development of brain networks.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T12:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.008
  • Adolescent pruning and stabilization of dendritic spines on cortical layer
           5 pyramidal neurons do not depend on gonadal hormones

    • Authors: Josiah R. Boivin; David J. Piekarski; A. Wren Thomas; Linda Wilbrecht
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Josiah R. Boivin, David J. Piekarski, A. Wren Thomas, Linda Wilbrecht
      Pyramidal neurons in the neocortex receive a majority of their synapses on dendritic spines, whose growth, gain, and loss regulate the strength and identity of neural connections. Juvenile brains typically show higher spine density and turnover compared to adult brains, potentially enabling greater capacity for experience-dependent circuit ‘rewiring’. Although spine pruning and stabilization in frontal cortex overlap with pubertal milestones, it is unclear if gonadal hormones drive these processes. To address this question, we used hormone manipulations and in vivo 2-photon microscopy to test for a causal relationship between pubertal hormones and spine pruning and stabilization in layer 5 neurons in the frontal cortex of female mice. We found that spine density, gains, and losses decreased from P27 to P60 and that these measures were not affected by pre-pubertal hormone injections or ovariectomy. Further analyses of spine morphology after manipulation of gonadal hormones suggest that gonadal hormones may play a role in morphological maturation and dynamics. Our data help to segregate hormone-sensitive and hormone-insensitive maturational processes that occur simultaneously in dorsomedial frontal cortex. These data provide more specific insight into adolescent development and may have implications for understanding the neurodevelopmental effects of changes in pubertal timing in humans.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T12:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.007
  • The mindedness of maternal touch: An investigation of maternal
           mind-mindedness and mother-infant touch interactions

    • Authors: Laura Crucianelli; Lisa Wheatley; Maria Laura Filippetti; Paul M. Jenkinson; Elizabeth Kirk; Aikaterini (Katerina) Fotopoulou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Laura Crucianelli, Lisa Wheatley, Maria Laura Filippetti, Paul M. Jenkinson, Elizabeth Kirk, Aikaterini (Katerina) Fotopoulou
      Increasing evidence shows that maternal touch may promote emotion regulation in infants, however less is known about how parental higher-order social cognition abilities are translated into tactile, affect-regulatory behaviours towards their infants. During 10 min book-reading, mother-infant sessions when infants were 12 months old (N = 45), we investigated maternal mind-mindedness (MM), the social cognitive ability to understand an infant’s mental state, by coding the contingency of maternal verbal statements towards the infants’ needs and desires. We also rated spontaneous tactile interactions in terms of their emotional contingency. We found that frequent non-attuned mind-related comments were associated with touch behaviours that were not contingent with the infant’s emotions; ultimately discouraging affective tactile responses from the infant. However, comments that were more appropriate to infant’s mental states did not necessarily predict more emotionally-contingent tactile behaviours. These findings suggest that when parental high-order social cognitive abilities are compromised, they are also likely to translate into inappropriate, tactile attempts to regulate infant’s emotions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T12:44:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.010
  • The error-related negativity (ERN) is an electrophysiological marker of
           motor impulsiveness on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) during

    • Authors: Jasmine B. Taylor; Troy A.W. Visser; Simone N. Fueggle; Mark A. Bellgrove; Allison M. Fox
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jasmine B. Taylor, Troy A.W. Visser, Simone N. Fueggle, Mark A. Bellgrove, Allison M. Fox
      Objectives Previous studies have postulated that the error-related negativity (ERN) may reflect individual differences in impulsivity; however, none have used a longitudinal framework or evaluated impulsivity as a multidimensional construct. The current study evaluated whether ERN amplitude, measured in childhood and adolescence, is predictive of impulsiveness during adolescence. Methods Seventy-five children participated in this study, initially at ages 7-9 years and again at 12-18 years. The interval between testing sessions ranged from 5 to 9 years. The ERN was extracted in response to behavioural errors produced during a modified visual flanker task at both time points (i.e. childhood and adolescence). Participants also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale − a measure that considers impulsiveness to comprise three core sub-traits − during adolescence. Results At adolescence, the ERN amplitude was significantly larger than during childhood. Additionally, ERN amplitude during adolescence significantly predicted motor impulsiveness at that time point, after controlling for age, gender, and the number of trials included in the ERN. In contrast, ERN amplitude during childhood did not uniquely predict impulsiveness during adolescence. Conclusions These findings provide preliminary evidence that ERN amplitude is an electrophysiological marker of self-reported motor impulsiveness (i.e. acting without thinking) during adolescence.

      PubDate: 2018-01-23T04:44:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2018.01.003
  • Development of face recognition: Dynamic causal modelling of MEG data

    • Authors: Wei He; Blake W. Johnson
      Pages: 13 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Wei He, Blake W. Johnson
      Electrophysiological studies of adults indicate that brain activity is enhanced during viewing of repeated faces, at a latency of about 250ms after the onset of the face (M250/N250). The present study aimed to determine if this effect was also present in preschool-aged children, whose brain activity was measured in a custom-sized pediatric MEG system. The results showed that, unlike adults, face repetition did not show any significant modulation of M250 amplitude in children; however children’s M250 latencies were significantly faster for repeated than non-repeated faces. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) of the M250 in both age groups tested the effects of face repetition within the core face network including the occipital face area (OFA), the fusiform face area (FFA), and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). DCM revealed that repetition of identical faces altered both forward and backward connections in children and adults; however the modulations involved inputs to both FFA and OFA in adults but only to OFA in children. These findings suggest that the amplitude-insensitivity of the immature M250 may be due to a weaker connection between the FFA and lower visual areas.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.010
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • Negative affect is related to reduced differential neural responses to
           social and non-social stimuli in 5-to-8-month-old infants: A functional
           near-infrared spectroscopy-study

    • Authors: Anne van der Kant; Szilvia Biro; Claartje Levelt; Stephan Huijbregts
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Anne van der Kant, Szilvia Biro, Claartje Levelt, Stephan Huijbregts
      Both social perception and temperament in young infants have been related to social functioning later in life. Previous functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) data (Lloyd-Fox et al., 2009) showed larger blood-oxygenation changes for social compared to non-social stimuli in the posterior temporal cortex of five-month-old infants. We sought to replicate and extend these findings by using fNIRS to study the neural basis of social perception in relation to infant temperament (Negative Affect) in 37 five-to-eight-month-old infants. Infants watched short videos displaying either hand and facial movements of female actors (social dynamic condition) or moving toys and machinery (non-social dynamic condition), while fNIRS data were collected over temporal brain regions. Negative Affect was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Results showed significantly larger blood-oxygenation changes in the right posterior-temporal region in the social compared to the non-social condition. Furthermore, this differential activation was smaller in infants showing higher Negative Affect. Our results replicate those of Lloyd-Fox et al. and confirmed that five-to-eight-month-old infants show cortical specialization for social perception. Furthermore, the decreased cortical sensitivity to social stimuli in infants showing high Negative Affect may be an early biomarker for later difficulties in social interaction.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • The integration of audio−tactile information is modulated by multimodal
           social interaction with physical contact in infancy

    • Authors: Yukari Tanaka; Yasuhiro Kanakogi; Masahiro Kawasaki; Masako Myowa
      Pages: 31 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Yukari Tanaka, Yasuhiro Kanakogi, Masahiro Kawasaki, Masako Myowa
      Interaction between caregivers and infants is multimodal in nature. To react interactively and smoothly to such multimodal signals, infants must integrate all these signals. However, few empirical infant studies have investigated how multimodal social interaction with physical contact facilitates multimodal integration, especially regarding audio − tactile (A-T) information. By using electroencephalogram (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated how neural processing involved in A-T integration is modulated by tactile interaction. Seven- to 8-months-old infants heard one pseudoword both whilst being tickled (multimodal ‘A-T’ condition), and not being tickled (unimodal ‘A’ condition). Thereafter, their EEG was measured during the perception of the same words. Compared to the A condition, the A-T condition resulted in enhanced ERPs and higher beta-band activity within the left temporal regions, indicating neural processing of A-T integration. Additionally, theta-band activity within the middle frontal region was enhanced, which may reflect enhanced attention to social information. Furthermore, differential ERPs correlated with the degree of engagement in the tickling interaction. We provide neural evidence that the integration of A-T information in infants’ brains is facilitated through tactile interaction with others. Such plastic changes in neural processing may promote harmonious social interaction and effective learning in infancy.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • Time-varying effects of income on hippocampal volume trajectories in
           adolescent girls

    • Authors: Monica E. Ellwood-Lowe; Kathryn L. Humphreys; Sarah J. Ordaz; M.Catalina Camacho; Matthew D. Sacchet; Ian H. Gotlib
      Pages: 41 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 30
      Author(s): Monica E. Ellwood-Lowe, Kathryn L. Humphreys, Sarah J. Ordaz, M.Catalina Camacho, Matthew D. Sacchet, Ian H. Gotlib
      Children from lower-SES families exhibit smaller hippocampal volume than do their higher-SES peers. Few studies, however, have compared hippocampal developmental trajectories as a function of SES. Thus, it is unclear whether initial rank-order stability is preserved, or whether volumes diverge/converge over the course of adolescence. In a sample of 101 girls ages 10–24 years, we examined the longitudinal association between family income and parental education, proxies for SES, and changes in hippocampal volume. Hippocampal volume was obtained using MRI; using mixed modeling, we examined the effects of income and education on hippocampal volume across age. As expected, changes in volume were non-linear across development. Further, trajectories diverged in mid-adolescence, with lower-income girls exhibiting reductions in hippocampal volume. Maximal income-related differences were observed at 18 years, and trajectories converged thereafter. This interaction remained significant when accounting for maternal hippocampal volume, suggesting a unique contribution of environment over potential heritable differences. In contrast, the association between parental education and offspring hippocampal volume appeared to be stable across adolescence, with higher levels of parental education predicting consistently larger hippocampal volume. These findings constitute preliminary evidence that girls from lower-income homes exhibit unique trajectories of hippocampal growth, with differences most evident in late adolescence.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T02:07:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 30 (2017)
  • Boys with Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits: Neural Response
           to Reward and Punishment and Associations with Treatment Response

    • Authors: Amy L. Byrd; Samuel W. Hawes; Jeffrey D. Burke; Rolf Loeber; Dustin A. Pardini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Amy L. Byrd, Samuel W. Hawes, Jeffrey D. Burke, Rolf Loeber, Dustin A. Pardini
      Abnormalities in reward and punishment processing are implicated in the development of conduct problems (CP), particularly among youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, no studies have examined whether CP children with high versus low CU traits exhibit differences in the neural response to reward and punishment. A clinic-referred sample of CP boys with high versus low CU traits (ages 8-11; n = 37) and healthy controls (HC; n = 27) completed a fMRI task assessing reward and punishment processing. CP boys also completed a randomized control trial examining the effectiveness of an empirically-supported intervention (i.e., Stop-Now-And-Plan;SNAP). Primary analyses examined pre-treatment differences in neural activation to reward and punishment, and exploratory analyses assessed whether these differences predicted treatment outcome. Results demonstrated associations between CP and reduced amygdala activation to punishment independent of age, race, IQ and co-occurring ADHD and internalizing symptoms. CU traits were not associated with reward or punishment processing after accounting for covariates and no differences were found between CP boys with high versus low CU traits. While boys assigned to SNAP showed a greater reduction in CP, differences in neural activation were not associated with treatment response. Findings suggest that reduced sensitivity to punishment is associated with early-onset CP in boys regardless of the level of CU traits.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.12.004
  • The neural signature of self-concept development in adolescence: the role
           of domain and valence distinctions

    • Authors: R. Van der Cruijsen; S. Peters; L.P.E. Van der Aar; E.A. Crone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): R. Van der Cruijsen, S. Peters, L.P.E. Van der Aar, E.A. Crone
      Neuroimaging studies in adults showed that cortical midline regions including medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) are important in self-evaluations. The goals of this study were to investigate the contribution of these regions to self-evaluations in late childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, and to examine whether these differed per domain (academic, physical and prosocial) and valence (positive versus negative). Also, we tested whether this activation changes across adolescence. For this purpose, participants between ages 11-21-years (N=150) evaluated themselves on trait sentences in an fMRI session. Behaviorally, adolescents rated their academic traits less positively than children and young adults. The neural analyses showed that evaluating self-traits versus a control condition was associated with increased activity in mPFC (domain-general effect), and positive traits were associated with increased activity in ventral mPFC (valence effect). Self-related mPFC activation increased linearly with age, but only for evaluating physical traits. Furthermore, an adolescent-specific decrease in striatum activation for positive self traits was found. Finally, we found domain-specific neural activity for evaluating traits in physical (dorsolateral PFC, dorsal mPFC) and academic (PPC) domains. Together, these results highlight the importance of domain distinctions when studying self-concept development in late childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T01:40:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.005
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