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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 889 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 62)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 418)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 200)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 227)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 70)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 206)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autism's Own     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access  
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 141)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 43)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 58)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 71)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access  
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 50)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
  [SJR: 2.531]   [H-I: 26]   [18 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1878-9293 - ISSN (Online) 1878-9307
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3089 journals]
  • Beyond Stereotypes of Adolescent Risk Taking: Placing the Adolescent Brain
           in Developmental Context

    • Authors: Daniel Romer; Valerie F. Reyna; Theodore D. Satterthwaite
      Pages: 19 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Daniel Romer, Valerie F. Reyna, Theodore D. Satterthwaite
      Recent neuroscience models of adolescent brain development attribute the morbidity and mortality of this period to structural and functional imbalances between more fully developed limbic regions that subserve reward and emotion as opposed to those that enable cognitive control. We challenge this interpretation of adolescent development by distinguishing risk-taking that peaks during adolescence (sensation seeking and impulsive action) from risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood (impulsive choice and other decisions under known risk). Sensation seeking is primarily motivated by exploration of the environment under ambiguous risk contexts, while impulsive action, which is likely to be maladaptive, is more characteristic of a subset of youth with weak control over limbic motivation. Risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood occurs primarily under conditions of known risks and reflects increases in executive function as well as aversion to risk based on increases in gist-based reasoning. We propose an alternative Life-span Wisdom Model that highlights the importance of experience gained through exploration during adolescence. We propose, therefore, that brain models that recognize the adaptive roles that cognition and experience play during adolescence provide a more complete and helpful picture of this period of development.

      PubDate: 2017-08-01T18:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • Neural connectivity moderates association between sleep and impulsivity in
           adolescents

    • Authors: Sarah M. Tashjian; Diane Goldenberg; Adriana Galván
      Pages: 35 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Sarah M. Tashjian, Diane Goldenberg, Adriana Galván
      Adolescence is characterized by chronic insufficient sleep and extensive brain development, but the relation between adolescent sleep and brain function remains unclear. We report the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to investigate functional connectivity as a moderator between sleep and impulsivity, a problematic behavior during this developmental period. Naturalistic differences in sleep have not yet been explored as treatable contributors to adolescent impulsivity. Although public and scientific attention focuses on sleep duration, we report individual differences in sleep quality, not duration, in fifty-five adolescents (ages 14–18) yielded significant differences in functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and default mode network. Poor sleep quality was related to greater affect-related impulsivity among adolescents with low, but not high, connectivity, suggesting neural functioning relates to individual differences linking sleep quality and impulsivity. Response inhibition and cognitive impulsivity were not related to sleep quality, suggesting that sleep has a greater impact on affect-related impulsivity. Exploring environmental contributors of poor sleep quality, we demonstrated pillow comfort was uniquely related to sleep quality over age, sex, and income, a promising advance ripe for intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-08-01T18:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
       
  • The temporal and spatial brain dynamics of automatic emotion regulation in
           children

    • Authors: Charline Urbain; Julie Sato; Elizabeth W. Pang; Margot J. Taylor
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 26
      Author(s): Charline Urbain, Julie Sato, Elizabeth W. Pang, Margot J. Taylor
      Mechanisms for automatic emotion regulation (AER) are essential during childhood as they offset the impact of unwanted or negative emotional responses without drawing on limited attentional resources. Despite the importance of AER in improving the efficiency and flexibility of self-regulation, few research studies have investigated the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. To fill this gap, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate AER-related brain processes in 25 children (∼10 years old) who performed a go/no–go task that included an incidental exposure to faces containing socio-emotional cues. Whole brain results revealed that the inhibition of angry faces (compared with happy faces) was associated with a stronger recruitment of several brain regions from 100 to 425ms. These activations involved the right angular and occipital gyri from 100 to175ms, the right orbito-frontal gyrus (OFG) from 250 to 325ms (p corr < 0.05), and finally, the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) from 325 to 425ms. Our results suggest a specific involvement of these regions in the automatic regulation of negative emotional stimuli in children. In the future, this knowledge may help understand developmental conditions where inhibition impairments are exacerbated by an emotional context.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
       
  • Tune to touch: Affective touch enhances learning of face identity in
           4-month-old infants

    • Authors: Letizia Della Longa; Teodora Gliga; Teresa Farroni
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Letizia Della Longa, Teodora Gliga, Teresa Farroni
      Touch provides more than sensory input for discrimination of what is on the skin. From early in development it has a rewarding and motivational value, which may reflect an evolutionary mechanism that promotes learning and affiliative bonding. In the present study we investigated whether affective touch helps infants tune to social signals, such as faces. Four-month-old infants were habituated to an individual face with averted gaze, which typically does not engage infants to the same extent as direct gaze does. As in a previous study, in the absence of touch, infants did not learn the identity of this face. Critically, 4-month-old infants did learn to discriminate this face when parents provided gentle stroking, but they did not when they experienced a non-social tactile stimulation. A preliminary follow-up eye-tracking study (Supplementary material) revealed no significant difference in the visual scanning of faces between touch and no-touch conditions, suggesting that affective touch may not affect the distribution of visual attention, but that it may promote more efficient learning of facial information.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T17:36:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.002
       
  • Methodological Challenges in the Comparison of Infant fMRI Across Age
           Groups

    • Authors: Rhodri Cusack; Olivia McCuaig; Annika C. Linke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Rhodri Cusack, Olivia McCuaig, Annika C. Linke
      Functional MRI (fMRI) in infants is rapidly growing and providing fundamental insights into the origins of brain functions. Comparing brain development at different ages is particularly powerful, but there are a number of methodological challenges that must be addressed if confounds are to be avoided. With development, brains change in composition in a way that alters their tissue contrast, and in size, shape, and gyrification, requiring careful image processing strategies and age-specific standard templates. The hemodynamic response and other aspects of physiology change with age, requiring careful paradigm design and analysis methods. Infants move more, particularly around the second year of age, and move in a different way to adults. This movement can lead to distortion in fMRI images, and requires tailored techniques during acquisition and post-processing. Infants have different sleep patterns, and their sensory periphery is changing macroscopically and in its neural pathways. Finally, once data have been acquired and analyzed, there are important considerations during mapping of brain processes and cognitive functions across age groups. In summary, new methods are critical to the comparison across age groups, and key to maximizing the rate at which infant fMRI can provide insight into the fascinating questions about the origin of cognition.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T17:36:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.003
       
  • Approaching retention within the adolescent brain cognitive development
           study

    • Authors: Sarah W. Feldstein Ewing; Linda Chang; Linda B. Cottler; Susan F. Tapert; Gayathri J. Dowling; Sandra A. Brown
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 November 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Sarah W. Feldstein Ewing, Linda Chang, Linda B. Cottler, Susan F. Tapert, Gayathri J. Dowling, Sandra A. Brown
      Retention efforts are critical to maintain relationships with research participants over time. This is especially important for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, where families are asked to stay engaged with the study throughout the course of 10 years. This high-degree of involvement is essential to longitudinally track child and adolescent development. At a minimum, we will connect with families every 6 months by telephone, and every year in person, with closer contact with the youth directly as they transition into adolescence. Differential retention, when related to non-random issues pertaining to demographic or risk features, can negatively impact the generalizability of study outcomes. Thus, to ensure high rates of retention for all participants, the ABCD study employs a number of efforts to support youth and families. This overview details the framework and concrete steps for retention.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T17:36:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.11.004
       
  • Demographic, physical and mental health assessments in the adolescent
           brain and cognitive development study: Rationale and description

    • Authors: Deanna M. Barch; Matthew D. Albaugh; Shelli Avenevoli; Linda Chang; Duncan B. Clark; Meyer D. Glantz; James J. Hudziak; Terry L. Jernigan; Susan F. Tapert; Debbie Yurgelun-Todd; Nelly Alia-Klein; Alexandra S. Potter; Martin P. Paulus; Devin Prouty; Robert A. Zucker; Kenneth J. Sher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Deanna M. Barch, Matthew D. Albaugh, Shelli Avenevoli, Linda Chang, Duncan B. Clark, Meyer D. Glantz, James J. Hudziak, Terry L. Jernigan, Susan F. Tapert, Debbie Yurgelun-Todd, Nelly Alia-Klein, Alexandra S. Potter, Martin P. Paulus, Devin Prouty, Robert A. Zucker, Kenneth J. Sher
      The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study incorporates a comprehensive range of measures assessing predictors and outcomes related to both mental and physical health across childhood and adolescence. The workgroup developed a battery that would assess a comprehensive range of domains that address study aims while minimizing participant and family burden. We review the major considerations that went into deciding what constructs to cover in the demographics, physical health and mental health domains, as well as the process of selecting measures, piloting and refining the originally proposed battery. We present a description of the baseline battery, as well as the six-month interim assessments and the one-year follow-up assessments. This battery includes assessments from the perspectives of both the parent and the target youth, as well as teacher reports. This battery will provide a foundational baseline assessment of the youth’s current function so as to permit characterization of stability and change in key domains over time. The findings from this battery will also be utilized to identify both resilience markers that predict healthy development and risk factors for later adverse outcomes in physical health, mental health, and substance use and abuse.

      PubDate: 2017-11-09T20:29:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.010
       
  • Assessment of the acquisition of executive function during the transition
           from adolescence to adulthood in male and female mice

    • Authors: Ryan Shepard; Emily Beckett; Laurence Coutellier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Ryan Shepard, Emily Beckett, Laurence Coutellier
      Executive functions (EF) reached full maturity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Human studies provide important information about adolescent developmental trajectories; however, little remains known about the neural circuits underlying the acquisition of mature EF. Ethical and technical considerations with human subjects limit opportunities to design experimental studies that allows for an in-depth understanding of developmental changes in neural circuits that regulate cognitive maturation. Preclinical models can offer solutions to this problem. Unfortunately, current rodent models of adolescent development have inherent flaws that limit their translational value. For instance, females are often omitted from studies, preventing the assessment of potential sex-specific developmental trajectories. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether cognitive developmental changes in rodents are similar to those observed in humans. Here, we tested adolescent and adult male and female mice in a neurocognitive battery of assays. Based on this approach, we assessed mice performances within distinct subdomains of EF, and observed similarities with human developmental trajectories. Furthermore, the sex-specific cognitive changes we observed were paralleled by molecular and neural activity changes demonstrating that our approach can be used in future research to assess the contribution of precise neural circuits to adolescent cognitive maturation.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T19:57:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.009
       
  • Intact perceptual ability, but impaired familiarity judgment, after
           neonatal perirhinal lesions in rhesus macaques

    • Authors: Alison R Weiss; Wendi Guo; Rebecca Richardson; Jocelyne Bachevalier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Alison R Weiss, Wendi Guo, Rebecca Richardson, Jocelyne Bachevalier
      The perirhinal cortex is known to support high-level perceptual abilities as well as familiarity judgments that may affect recognition memory. We tested whether poor perceptual abilities or a loss of familiarity judgment contributed to the recognition memory impairments reported earlier in monkeys with PRh lesions received in infancy (Neo-PRh) (Weiss and Bachevalier, 2016; Zeamer et al., 2015). Perceptual abilities were assessed using a version of the Visual Paired Comparison task with black&white (B&W) stimuli, and familiarity judgments were assessed using the Constant Negative task requiring repeated familiarization exposures. Adult monkeys with Neo-PRh lesions were able to recognize B&W stimuli after short delays, suggesting that their perceptual abilities were within the range of control animals. However, the same Neo-PRh monkeys were slower to acquire the Constant Negative task, requiring more exposures to objects before judging them as familiar compared to control animals. Taken together, the data help to account for the differential patterns of functional compensation on previously reported recognition tasks following neonatal versus adult-onset PRh lesions, and provide further support to the view that the PRh is involved in familiarity processes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T19:57:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.006
       
  • Brain mechanisms for processing discriminative and affective touch in
           7-month-old infants

    • Authors: Helga O. Miguel; Isabel C. Lisboa; Óscar F. Gonçalves; Adriana Sampaio
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Helga O. Miguel, Isabel C. Lisboa, Óscar F. Gonçalves, Adriana Sampaio
      Affective touch has been associated with affiliative behavior during early stages of infant development; however, its underlying brain mechanisms are still poorly understood. Purpose This study used fNIRS (functional near-infrared spectroscopy) to examine both affective and discriminative touch in 7- month-old infants (n=35). Methods Infants were provided affective stimuli on the forearm for 10 seconds followed by a 20-second rest period. The protocol was repeated for discriminative touch, and both affective and discriminative stimuli were given in a counterbalanced order. Brain activation (oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin levels) in the somatosensory and temporal regions was registered during administration of the stimuli. Results There was an increase in oxy-hemoglobin and decrease in deoxy-hemoglobin only in the somatosensory region in response to both affective and discriminative touch. No other activations were found. Conclusion Seven-month-old infants’ brain activation in the somatosensory cortex was similar for both discriminative and affective touch, but the stimuli did not elicit any activation in the temporal region/pSTS. Our study is the first to suggest that 7-month-old infants do not yet recruit socio-emotional brain areas in response to affective touch.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T19:57:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.008
       
  • Making an unknown unknown a known unknown: Missing data in longitudinal
           neuroimaging studies

    • Authors: Tyler H. Matta; John C. Flournoy; Michelle L. Byrne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Tyler H. Matta, John C. Flournoy, Michelle L. Byrne
      The analysis of longitudinal neuroimaging data within the massively univariate framework provides the opportunity to study empirical questions about neurodevelopment. Missing outcome data are an all-to-common feature of any longitudinal study, a feature that, if handled improperly, can reduce statistical power and lead to biased parameter estimates. The goal of this paper is to provide conceptual clarity of the issues and non-issues that arise from analyzing incomplete data in longitudinal studies with particular focus on neuroimaging data. This paper begins with a review of the hierarchy of missing data mechanisms and their relationship to likelihood-based methods, a review that is necessary not just for likelihood-based methods, but also for multiple-imputation methods. Next, the paper provides a series of simulation studies with designs common in longitudinal neuroimaging studies to help illustrate missing data concepts regardless of interpretation. Finally, two applied examples are used to demonstrate the sensitivity of inferences under different missing data assumptions and how this may change the substantive interpretation. The paper concludes with a set of guidelines for analyzing incomplete longitudinal data that can improve the validity of research findings in developmental neuroimaging research.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T19:57:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.001
       
  • An event-related potential investigation of the acute effects of aerobic
           and coordinative exercise on inhibitory control in children with ADHD

    • Authors: Sebastian Ludyga; Serge Brand; Markus Gerber; Peter Weber; Mark Brotzmann; Fahimeh Habibifar; Uwe Pühse
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Sebastian Ludyga, Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Peter Weber, Mark Brotzmann, Fahimeh Habibifar, Uwe Pühse
      The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task. Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition. During the task, stimulus-locked event-related potentials were recorded with electroencephalography. Both groups showed an increase of P300 amplitude and decrease of reaction time after exercise compared to the control condition. Investigating the effect of exercise modality, aerobic exercise led to greater increases of P300 amplitude and reductions in reaction time than coordinative exercise in children with ADHD. The findings suggest that a single exercise bout improves inhibitory control and the allocation of attentional resources. There were some indications that an aerobic exercise session seems to be more efficient than coordinative exercise in reducing the inhibitory control deficits that persist in children with ADHD.

      PubDate: 2017-11-02T19:57:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.007
       
  • Neural correlates of gentle skin stroking in early infancy

    • Authors: Jetro J. Tuulari; Noora M. Scheinin; Satu Lehtola; Harri Merisaari; Jani Saunavaara; Riitta Parkkola; Isac Sehlstedt; Linnea Karlsson; Hasse Karlsson; Malin Björnsdotter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jetro J. Tuulari, Noora M. Scheinin, Satu Lehtola, Harri Merisaari, Jani Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Isac Sehlstedt, Linnea Karlsson, Hasse Karlsson, Malin Björnsdotter
      Physical expressions of affection play a foundational role in early brain development, but the neural correlates of affective touch processing in infancy remain unclear. We examined brain responses to gentle skin stroking, a type of tactile stimulus associated with affectionate touch, in young infants. Thirteen term-born infants aged 11–36 days, recruited through the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, were included in the study. Soft brush strokes, which activate brain regions linked to somatosensory as well as socio-affective processing in children and adults, were applied to the skin of the right leg during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We examined infant brain responses in two regions-of-interest (ROIs) known to process gentle skin stroking – the postcentral gyrus and posterior insular cortex – and found significant responses in both ROIs. These results suggest that the neonate brain is responsive to gentle skin stroking within the first weeks of age, and that regions linked to primary somatosensory as well as socio-affective processing are activated. Our findings support the notion that social touch may play an important role in early life sensory processing. Future research will elucidate the significance of these findings for human brain development.

      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:48:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.004
       
  • Low-level neural auditory discrimination dysfunctions in specific language
           impairment—A review on mismatch negativity findings

    • Authors: Teija Kujala; Miika Leminen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Teija Kujala, Miika Leminen
      In specific language impairment (SLI), there is a delay in the child’s oral language skills when compared with nonverbal cognitive abilities. The problems typically relate to phonological and morphological processing and word learning. This article reviews studies which have used mismatch negativity (MMN) in investigating low-level neural auditory dysfunctions in this disorder. With MMN, it is possible to tap the accuracy of neural sound discrimination and sensory memory functions. These studies have found smaller response amplitudes and longer latencies for speech and non-speech sound changes in children with SLI than in typically developing children, suggesting impaired and slow auditory discrimination in SLI. Furthermore, they suggest shortened sensory memory duration and vulnerability of the sensory memory to masking effects. Importantly, some studies reported associations between MMN parameters and language test measures. In addition, it was found that language intervention can influence the abnormal MMN in children with SLI, enhancing its amplitude. These results suggest that the MMN can shed light on the neural basis of various auditory and memory impairments in SLI, which are likely to influence speech perception.

      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:48:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.005
       
  • An electrophysiological investigation of reinforcement effects in
           attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Dissociating cue sensitivity
           from down-stream effects on target engagement and performance

    • Authors: Georgia Chronaki; Fruzsina Soltesz; Nicholas Benikos; Edmund J.S. Sonuga-Barke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Georgia Chronaki, Fruzsina Soltesz, Nicholas Benikos, Edmund J.S. Sonuga-Barke
      Objective Neural hypo-sensitivity to cues predicting positive reinforcement has been observed in ADHD using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Here we report the first study using an electrophysiological analogue of this task to distinguish between (i) cue related anticipation of reinforcement and downstream effects on (ii) target engagement and (iii) performance in a clinical sample of adolescents with ADHD and controls. Methods Thirty-one controls and 32 adolescents with ADHD aged 10-16 years performed the electrophysiological (e)-MID task − in which preparatory cues signal whether a response to an upcoming target will be reinforced or not − under three conditions; positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement (response cost) and no consequence (neutral). We extracted values for both cue-related potentials known to be, both, associated with response preparation and modulated by reinforcement (Cue P3 and Cue CNV) and target-related potentials (target P3) and compared these between ADHD and controls. Results ADHD and controls did not differ on cue-related components on neutral trials. Against expectation, adolescents with ADHD displayed Cue P3 and Cue CNV reinforcement-related enhancement (versus neutral trials) compared to controls. ADHD individuals displayed smaller target P3 amplitudes and slower and more variable performance − but effects were not modulated by reinforcement contingencies. When age, IQ and conduct problems were controlled effects were marginally significant but the pattern of results did not change. Discussion ADHD was associated with hypersensitivity to positive (and marginally negative) reinforcement reflected on components often thought to be associated with response preparation − however these did not translate into improved attention to targets. In the case of ADHD, upregulated CNV may be a specific marker of hyper-arousal rather than an enhancement of anticipatory attention to upcoming targets. Future studies should examine the effects of age, IQ and conduct problems on reinforcement sensitivity in ADHD.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-27T05:48:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.003
       
  • Computational Neuroscience across the Lifespan: Promises and Pitfalls

    • Authors: Wouter van den Bos; Rasmus Bruckner; Matthew R. Nassar; Rui Mata; Ben Eppinger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Wouter van den Bos, Rasmus Bruckner, Matthew R. Nassar, Rui Mata, Ben Eppinger


      PubDate: 2017-10-14T13:42:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.09.008
       
  • The Conception of the ABCD Study: From Substance Use to a Broad NIH
           Collaboration

    • Authors: Nora D. Volkow; George F. Koob; Robert T. Croyle; Diana W. Bianchi; Joshua A. Gordon; Walter J. Koroshetz; Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable; William T. Riley; Michele H. Bloch; Kevin Conway; Bethany G. Deesds; Gayathri J. Dowling; Steven Grant; Katia D. Howlett; John A. Matochik; Glen D. Morgan; Margaret M. Murray; Antonio Noronha; Catherine Y. Spong; Eric M. Wargo; Kenneth R. Warren; Susan R.B. Weiss
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Nora D. Volkow, George F. Koob, Robert T. Croyle, Diana W. Bianchi, Joshua A. Gordon, Walter J. Koroshetz, Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable, William T. Riley, Michele H. Bloch, Kevin Conway, Bethany G. Deesds, Gayathri J. Dowling, Steven Grant, Katia D. Howlett, John A. Matochik, Glen D. Morgan, Margaret M. Murray, Antonio Noronha, Catherine Y. Spong, Eric M. Wargo, Kenneth R. Warren, Susan R.B. Weiss
      Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes in brain structure and function, and the adolescent brain is highly susceptible to being altered by experiences like substance use. However, there is much we have yet to learn about how these experiences influence brain development, how they promote or interfere with later health outcomes, or even what healthy brain development looks like. A large longitudinal study beginning in early adolescence could help us understand the normal variability in adolescent brain and cognitive development and tease apart the many factors that influence it. Recent advances in neuroimaging, informatics, and genetics technologies have made it feasible to conduct a study of sufficient size and scope to answer many outstanding questions. At the same time, several Institutes across the NIH recognized the value of collaborating in such a project because of its ability to address the role of biological, environmental, and behavioral factors like gender, pubertal hormones, sports participation, and social/economic disparities on brain development as well as their association with the emergence and progression of substance use and mental illness including suicide risk. Thus, the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study was created to answer the most pressing public health questions of our day.

      PubDate: 2017-10-12T13:33:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.002
       
  • On the role of visual experience in mathematical development: Evidence
           from blind mathematicians

    • Authors: Marie Amalric; Isabelle Denghien Stanislas Dehaene
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Marie Amalric, Isabelle Denghien, Stanislas Dehaene
      Advanced mathematical reasoning, regardless of domain or difficulty, activates a reproducible set of bilateral brain areas including intraparietal, inferior temporal and dorsal prefrontal cortex. The respective roles of genetics, experience and education in the development of this math-responsive network, however, remain unresolved. Here, we investigate the role of visual experience by studying the exceptional case of three professional mathematicians who were blind from birth (n=1) or became blind during childhood (n=2). Subjects were scanned with fMRI while they judged the truth value of spoken mathematical and nonmathematical statements. Blind mathematicians activated the classical network of math-related areas during mathematical reflection, similar to that found in a group of sighted professional mathematicians. Thus, brain networks for advanced mathematical reasoning can develop in the absence of visual experience. Additional activations were found in occipital cortex, even in individuals who became blind during childhood, suggesting that either mental imagery or a more radical repurposing of visual cortex may occur in blind mathematicians.

      PubDate: 2017-10-06T15:59:53Z
       
  • Editorial Board/Aims and Scope

    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 27


      PubDate: 2017-10-06T15:59:53Z
       
  • Social Touch Interacts with Infants’ Learning of Auditory Patterns

    • Authors: Casey Lew-Williams; Brock Ferguson; Rana Abu-Zhaya; Amanda Seidl
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Casey Lew-Williams, Brock Ferguson, Rana Abu-Zhaya, Amanda Seidl
      Infants’ experiences are defined by the presence of concurrent streams of perceptual information in social environments. Touch from caregivers is an especially pervasive feature of early development. Using three lab experiments and a corpus of naturalistic caregiver-infant interactions, we examined the relevance of touch in supporting infants’ learning of structure in an altogether different modality: audition. In each experiment, infants listened to sequences of sine-wave tones following the same abstract pattern (e.g., ABA or ABB) while receiving time-locked touch sequences from an experimenter that provided either informative or uninformative cues to the pattern (e.g., knee-elbow-knee or knee-elbow-elbow). Results showed that intersensorily redundant touch supported infants’ learning of tone patterns, but learning varied depending on the typicality of touch sequences in infants’ lives. These findings suggest that infants track touch sequences from moment to moment and in aggregate from their caregivers, and use the intersensory redundancy provided by touch to discover patterns in their environment.

      PubDate: 2017-10-06T15:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.09.006
       
  • “Loser” or “Popular”': Neural response to social status words
           in adolescents with major depressive disorder

    • Authors: Jennifer S. Silk; Kyung Hwa Lee; Rebecca Kerestes; Julianne M. Griffith; Ronald E. Dahl; Cecile D. Ladouceur
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jennifer S. Silk, Kyung Hwa Lee, Rebecca Kerestes, Julianne M. Griffith, Ronald E. Dahl, Cecile D. Ladouceur
      Concerns about social status are ubiquitous during adolescence, with information about social status often conveyed in text formats. Depressed adolescents may show alterations in the functioning of neural systems supporting processing of social status information. We examined whether depressed youth exhibited altered neural activation to social status words in temporal and prefrontal cortical regions thought to be involved in social cognitive processing, and whether this response was associated with development. Forty-nine adolescents (ages 10–18; 35 female), including 20 with major depressive disorder and 29 controls, were scanned while identifying the valence of words that connoted positive and negative social status. Results indicated that depressed youth showed reduced late activation to social status (vs neutral) words in the superior temporal cortex (STC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC); whereas healthy youth did not show any significant differences between word types. Depressed youth also showed reduced late activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus to negative (vs positive) social status words; whereas healthy youth showed the opposite pattern. Finally, age was positively associated with MPFC activation to social status words. Findings suggest that hypoactivation in the “social cognitive brain network” might be implicated in altered interpersonal functioning in adolescent depression.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T15:30:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.09.005
       
  • Visual perception of the arm manipulates the experienced pleasantness of
           touch

    • Authors: Anouk Keizer; Jutta R. de Jong; Lianne Bartlema; Chris Dijkerman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Anouk Keizer, Jutta R. de Jong, Lianne Bartlema, Chris Dijkerman
      Touch, such as a caress, can be interpreted as very pleasant. The emotional valence assigned to touch is likely related to certain bottom-up factors, such as optimal activation of C-tactile (CT) afferents. It is however unclear if besides somatosensory input, contextual factors related to the own body also play a role in the perceived pleasantness of touch. To test this, we manipulated visual appearance of the participant’s arm (veridical vision, no vision, pixelated moving statistic projected onto the arm (i.e. crawling skin)). We used slow velocity stroking (CT optimal stroking) with a soft brush to induce pleasant touch, and fast velocity stroking as a control condition. After each visual condition we asked participants (N=23) to rate the emotional valence of the stroking they felt. After slow velocity stroking ratings on perceived pleasantness (but not on perceived unpleasantness) were modulated by visual condition, with veridical vision of the arm resulting in higher pleasantness ratings than both no vision and pixelated vision. We conclude that contextual processes affect the perceived pleasantness of touch. These findings shed a new light on the underlying mechanisms of how humans experience pleasant touch and show that pleasant touch not solely dependents on bottom up information.

      PubDate: 2017-09-22T15:05:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.09.004
       
  • Cortical signatures of vicarious tactile experience in four-month-old
           infants

    • Authors: Silvia Rigato; Michael J. Banissy; Aleksandra Romanska; Rhiannon Thomas; José van Velzen; Andrew J. Bremner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Silvia Rigato, Michael J. Banissy, Aleksandra Romanska, Rhiannon Thomas, José van Velzen, Andrew J. Bremner
      The human brain recruits similar brain regions when a state is experienced (e.g., touch, pain, actions) and when that state is passively observed in other individuals. In adults, seeing other people being touched activates similar brain areas as when we experience touch ourselves. Here we show that already by four months of age, cortical responses to tactile stimulation are modulated by visual information specifying another person being touched. We recorded somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in 4-month-old infants while they were presented with brief vibrotactile stimuli to the hands. At the same time that the tactile stimuli were presented the infants observed another person’s hand being touched by a soft paintbrush or approached by the paintbrush which then touched the surface next to their hand. A prominent positive peak in SEPs contralateral to the site of tactile stimulation around 130ms after the tactile stimulus onset was of a significantly larger amplitude for the “Surface” trials than for the “Hand” trials. These findings indicate that,even at four months of age, somatosensory cortex is not only involved in the personal experience of touch but can also be vicariously recruited by seeing other people being touched.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T14:48:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.09.003
       
  • The Utility of Twins in Developmental Clinical Neuroscience Research: How
           Twins Strengthen the ABCD Research Design

    • Authors: William G. Iacono; Andrew C. Heath; John Hewitt; Michael Neale; Marie T. Banich; Monica Luciana; Pamela A. Madden; Deanna M. Barch; James Bjork
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): William G. Iacono, Andrew C. Heath, John Hewitt, Michael Neale, Marie T. Banich, Monica Luciana, Pamela A. Madden, Deanna M. Barch, James Bjork
      The ABCD twin study is designed to elucidate the genetic and environmental contributions to substance use, brain and behavioral development, and their interrelationship. Comparisons within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs provide information about genetic and environmental contributions to developmental associations, and enable stronger tests of causal hypotheses, than do comparisons involving unrelated children. Thus a sub-study of 800 pairs of same-sex twins was embedded within the overall Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) design. The ABCD Twin Hub comprises four leading centers for twin studies at the University of Minnesota, University of Colorado Boulder, Virginia Commonwealth University, and Washington University in St. Louis. Each is enrolling 200 twin pairs, as well as singletons, into ABCD. The twins are recruited from registries of all twin births in each State during 2006-2008. Singletons at each site are recruited following the same school-based procedures as the rest of the ABCD study. This paper describes the background and rationale for the ABCD twin study, the ascertainment of twin pairs and implementation strategy at each site, and the details of the proposed analytic strategies to quantify genetic and environmental influences and to test hypotheses critical to the aims of the ABCD study.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T14:48:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.09.001
       
  • Disrupted amygdala-prefrontal connectivity during emotion regulation links
           stress-reactive rumination and adolescent depressive symptoms

    • Authors: Carina H. Fowler; Michelle E. Miernicki; Karen D. Rudolph; Eva H. Telzer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Carina H. Fowler, Michelle E. Miernicki, Karen D. Rudolph, Eva H. Telzer
      Rumination in response to stress (stress-reactive rumination) has been linked to higher levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, no work to date has examined the neural mechanisms connecting stress-reactive rumination and adolescent depressive symptoms. The present work attempted to bridge this gap through an fMRI study of 41 adolescent girls (Mage =15.42, SD =0.33) – a population in whom elevated levels of depressive symptoms, rumination, and social stress sensitivity are displayed. During the scan, participants completed two tasks: an emotion regulation task and a social stress task. Using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses, we found that positive functional connectivity between the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) during the emotion regulation task mediated the association between stress-reactive rumination and depressive symptoms. These results suggest that stress-reactive rumination may interfere with the expression and development of neural connectivity patterns associated with effective emotion regulation, which may contribute, in turn, to heightened depressive symptoms.

      PubDate: 2017-09-17T14:48:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.09.002
       
  • Magnetic Resonance Elastography for Examining Developmental Changes in the
           Mechanical Properties of the Brain

    • Authors: Curtis L. Johnson; Eva H. Telzer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Curtis L. Johnson, Eva H. Telzer
      Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a quantitative imaging technique for noninvasively characterizing tissue mechanical properties, and has recently emerged as a valuable tool for neuroimaging. The measured mechanical properties reflect the microstructural composition and organization of neural tissue, and have shown significant effects in many neurological conditions and normal, healthy aging, and evidence has emerged supporting novel relationships between mechanical structure and cognitive function. The sensitivity of MRE to brain structure, function, and health make it an ideal technique for studying the developing brain; however, brain MRE studies on children and adolescents have only just begun. In this article, we review brain MRE and its findings, discuss its potential role in developmental neuroimaging, and provide suggestions for researchers interested in adopting this technique.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T14:16:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.010
       
  • Processing of structural neuroimaging data in young children: bridging the
           gap between current practice and state-of-the-art methods

    • Authors: Thanh Vân Phan; Dirk Smeets; Joel B. Talcott; Maaike Vandermosten
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Thanh Vân Phan, Dirk Smeets, Joel B. Talcott, Maaike Vandermosten
      The structure of the brain is subject to very rapid developmental changes during early childhood. Pediatric studies based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) over this age range have recently become more frequent, with the advantage of providing in vivo and non-invasive high-resolution images of the developing brain, toward understanding typical and atypical trajectories. However, it has also been demonstrated that application of currently standard MRI processing methods that have been developed with datasets from adults, may not be appropriate for use with pediatric datasets. In this review, we examine the approaches currently used in MRI studies involving young children, including an overview of the rationale for new MRI processing methods that have been designed specifically for pediatric investigations. These methods are mainly related to the use of age-specific or 4D brain atlases, improved methods for quantifying and optimizing image quality and provision for registration of developmental data obtained with longitudinal designs. The overall goal is to raise the awareness on the existence of these methods and the possibilities for implementing them in developmental neuroimaging studies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-31T08:55:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.009
       
  • Handling newborn monkeys alters later exploratory, cognitive, and social
           behaviors

    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Simpson; Valentina Sclafani; Annika Paukner; Stefano S.K. Kaburu; Stephen J. Suomi; Pier F. Ferrari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Elizabeth A. Simpson, Valentina Sclafani, Annika Paukner, Stefano S.K. Kaburu, Stephen J. Suomi, Pier F. Ferrari
      Touch is one of the first senses to develop and one of the earliest modalities for infant-caregiver communication. While studies have explored the benefits of infant touch in terms of physical health and growth, the effects of social touch on infant behavior are relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of neonatal handling on a variety of domains, including memory, novelty seeking, and social interest, in infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n =48) from 2-12 weeks of age. Neonates were randomly assigned to receive extra holding, with or without accompanying face-to-face interactions. Extra-handled infants, compared to standard-reared infants, exhibited less stress-related behavior and more locomotion around a novel environment, faster approach of novel objects, better working memory, and less fear towards a novel social partner. In sum, infants who received more tactile stimulation in the neonatal period subsequently demonstrated more advanced motor, social, and cognitive skills—particularly in contexts involving exploration of novelty—in the first three months of life. These data suggest that social touch may support behavioral development, offering promising possibilities for designing future early interventions, particularly for infants who are at heightened risk for social disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.010
       
  • Cognitive flexibility and its electrophysiological correlates in Gilles de
           la Tourette syndrome

    • Authors: Florian Lange; Caroline Seer; Kirsten Müller-Vahl; Bruno Kopp
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Florian Lange, Caroline Seer, Kirsten Müller-Vahl, Bruno Kopp
      Motor symptoms in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) have been related to changes in frontostriatal brain networks. These changes may also give rise to alterations in cognitive flexibility. However, conclusive evidence for altered cognitive flexibility in patients with GTS is still lacking. Here, we meta-analyzed data from 18 neuropsychological studies that investigated cognitive flexibility in GTS using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results revealed medium-sized GTS-related performance deficits, which were significantly modulated by age: Whilst being substantial in children and adolescents with GTS, WCST deficits seem to dissolve in adult patients with GTS. This age-related normalization of WCST performance might result from the compensatory recruitment of cognitive control in adult patients with GTS. We addressed this possibility by examining neural correlates of proactive and reactive cognitive control in an event-related potential (ERP) study. We analyzed cue- and target-locked ERPs from 23 adult patients with GTS and 26 matched controls who completed a computerized version of the WCST. Compared to controls, patients with GTS showed a marked increase in parietal cue-locked P3 activity, indicating enhanced proactive cognitive control. We conclude that the additional recruitment of proactive cognitive control might ensure flexible cognitive functioning in adult patients with GTS.

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.008
       
  • Gentle touch perception: From early childhood to adolescence

    • Authors: Ilona Croy; Isac Sehlstedt; Helena Backlund Wasling; Rochelle Ackerley; Håkan Olausson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Ilona Croy, Isac Sehlstedt, Helena Backlund Wasling, Rochelle Ackerley, Håkan Olausson
      Affective touch plays an important role in children’s social interaction and is involved in shaping the development of the social brain. The positive affective component of touch is thought to be conveyed via a group of unmyelinated, low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents, known as C-tactile fibers that are optimally activated by gentle, slow, stroking touch. Touch targeting these C-tactile fibers has been shown to decrease the heart rate in infants. The current study investigated the relationship between age and psychophysical ratings in response to affective touch. A total of n=43 participants (early childhood: aged 5-8 years, 9 girls, 12 boys; late childhood: aged 9-12 years, 12 girls, 10 boys) were presented with C-tactile optimal and sub-optimal stroking velocities and rated touch pleasantness on an affective pictorial scale. For both age groups, we found that children preferred C-tactile-targeted stimulation. A comparison with previously published data showed that the children’s preference for C-tactile-targeted stimulation was similar to those obtained in adolescents and adults. We speculate that the effect of C-tactile-targeted touch, which is linked with pleasantness, shapes the children’s preference for C-tactile over non-C-tactile-targeted stimulation, and that C-tactile afferent stimulation is important for social development.

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.009
       
  • Flexing dual-systems models: How variable cognitive control in children
           informs our understanding of risk-taking across development

    • Authors: Rosa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Rosa Li
      Prevailing models of the development of decision-making propose that peak risk-taking occurs in adolescence due to a neural imbalance between two processes: gradual, linearly developing cognitive control and rapid, non-linearly developing reward-processing. Though many studies have found neural evidence supporting this dual-systems imbalance model, its behavioral predictions have been surprisingly difficult to document. Most laboratory studies have not found adolescents to exhibit greater risk-taking than children, and public health data show everyday risk-taking to peak in late adolescence/early adulthood. Moreover, when adolescents are provided detailed information about decision options and consequences, they evince similar behavior to adults. Such findings point to a critical feature of the development of decision-making that is missed by imbalance models. Specifically, the engagement of cognitive control is context dependent, such that cognitive control and therefore advantageous decision-making increases when available information is high and decreases when available information is low. Furthermore, the context dependence of cognitive control varies across development, such that increased information availability benefits children more than adolescents, who benefit more than adults. This review advances a flexible dual-systems model that is only imbalanced under certain conditions; explains disparities between neural, behavioral, and public health findings; and provides testable hypotheses for future research.

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
       
  • Cascading effects of attention disengagement and sensory seeking on social
           symptoms in a community sample of infants at-risk for a future diagnosis
           of autism spectrum disorder

    • Authors: Grace T. Baranek; Tiffany G. Woynaroski; Sallie Nowell; Lauren Turner Brown; Michaela DuBay; Elizabeth R. Crais; Linda R. Watson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Grace T. Baranek, Tiffany G. Woynaroski, Sallie Nowell, Lauren Turner Brown, Michaela DuBay, Elizabeth R. Crais, Linda R. Watson
      Recent work suggests sensory seeking predicts later social symptomatology through reduced social orienting in infants who are at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD. We drew on extant longitudinal data from a community sample of at-risk infants who were identified at 12 months using the First Year Inventory, and followed to 3–5 years. We replicate findings of Damiano et al. (in this issue) that a) high-risk infants who go on to be diagnosed with ASD show heightened sensory seeking in the second year of life relative to those who do not receive a diagnosis, and b) increased sensory seeking indirectly relates to later social symptomatology via reduced social orienting. We extend previous findings to show that sensory seeking has more clinical utility later in the second year of life (20–24 months) than earlier (13–15 months). Further, this study suggests that diminished attention disengagement at 12–15 months may precede and predict increased sensory seeking at 20–24 months. Findings add support for the notion that sensory features produce cascading effects on social development in infants at risk for ASD, and suggest that reduced attention disengagement early in life may set off this cascade.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.006
       
  • Developmental Sequelae and Neurophysiologic Substrates of Sensory Seeking
           in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    • Authors: Cara R. Damiano-Goodwin; Tiffany G. Woynaroski; David M. Simon; Lisa V. Ibañez; Michael Murias; Anne Kirby; Cassandra R. Newsom; Mark T. Wallace; Wendy L. Stone; Carissa J. Cascio
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Cara R. Damiano-Goodwin, Tiffany G. Woynaroski, David M. Simon, Lisa V. Ibañez, Michael Murias, Anne Kirby, Cassandra R. Newsom, Mark T. Wallace, Wendy L. Stone, Carissa J. Cascio
      It has been proposed that early differences in sensory responsiveness arise from atypical neural function and produce cascading effects on development across domains. This longitudinal study prospectively followed infants at heightened risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and infants at relatively lower risk for ASD (siblings of typically developing children; Sibs-TD) to examine the developmental sequelae and possible neurophysiological substrates of a specific sensory response pattern: unusually intense interest in nonsocial sensory stimuli or “sensory seeking.” At 18 months, sensory seeking and social orienting were measured with the Sensory Processing Assessment, and a potential neural signature for sensory seeking (i.e., frontal alpha asymmetry) was measured via resting state electroencephalography. At 36 months, infants’ social symptomatology was assessed in a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. Sibs-ASD showed elevated sensory seeking relative to Sibs-TD, and increased sensory seeking was concurrently associated with reduced social orienting across groups and resting frontal asymmetry in Sibs-ASD. Sensory seeking also predicted later social symptomatology. Findings suggest that sensory seeking may produce cascading effects on social development in infants at risk for ASD and that atypical frontal asymmetry may underlie this atypical pattern of sensory responsiveness.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.005
       
  • Simulating interaction: using gaze-contingent eye-tracking to measure the
           reward value of social signals in toddlers with and without autism

    • Authors: Angelina Vernetti; Atsushi Senju; Tony Charman; Mark H. Johnson; Teodora Gliga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Angelina Vernetti, Atsushi Senju, Tony Charman, Mark H. Johnson, Teodora Gliga
      Several accounts have been proposed to explain difficulties with social interaction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), amongst which atypical social orienting, decreased social motivation or difficulties with understanding the regularities driving social interaction. This study uses gaze-contingent eye-tracking to tease apart these accounts by measuring reward related behaviours in response to different social videos. Toddlers at high or low familial risk for ASD took part in this study at age 2 and were categorised at age 3 as low risk controls (LR), high-risk with no ASD diagnosis (HR-no ASD), or with a diagnosis of ASD (HR-ASD). When the on-demand social interaction was predictable, all groups, including the HR-ASD group, looked longer and smiled more towards a person greeting them compared to a mechanical Toy (condition 1) and also smiled more towards a communicative over a non-communicative person (condition 2). However, all groups, except the HR-ASD group, selectively oriented towards a person addressing the child in different ways over an invariant social interaction (condition 3). These findings suggest that social interaction is intrinsically rewarding for individuals with ASD, but the extent to which it is sought may be modulated by the specific variability of naturalistic social interaction.

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.004
       
  • Editorial Board/Aims and Scope

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 26


      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
       
  • Exposure shapes the perception of affective touch

    • Authors: Uta Sailer; Rochelle Ackerley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Uta Sailer, Rochelle Ackerley
      Touch is a common occurrence in our lives, where affective and inter-personal aspects of touch are important for our well-being. We investigated whether touch exposure affects hedonic and discriminative aspects of tactile perception. The perceived pleasantness and intensity of gentle forearm stroking, over different velocities, was assessed in individuals reporting to seldom receive inter-personal touch, and in controls who received touch often. The groups did not differ in their stroking intensity judgements, nor in tactile discrimination sensitivity; however, individuals with low touch exposure evaluated the pleasantness of touch differently. These individuals did not differentiate pleasantness over the stroking velocities in the same way as the control group. The pleasantness curve for the low touch exposure group was significantly flatter and they rated 3cm/s stroking as significantly less pleasant. Other physiological and questionnaire measures were obtained and the appreciation of touch from familiar persons was positively related to the pleasantness of touch in controls, but this was not found in low touch exposure individuals. This suggests that the association of human caresses from well-known individuals, with the pleasure derived, may depend on continued exposure to it.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T18:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.008
       
  • A biomarker of anxiety in children and adolescents: A review focusing on
           the error-related negativity (ERN) and anxiety across development

    • Authors: Alexandria Meyer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Alexandria Meyer
      Background Anxiety disorders are the most common form of psychopathology and often begin early in development. Therefore, there is interest in identifying neural biomarkers that characterize pathways leading to anxiety disorders early in the course of development. A substantial amount of work focuses on the error-related negativity (ERN) as a biomarker of anxiety. While two previous reviews have focused on the relationship of the ERN and anxiety in adults, no previous review has focused on this issue in children and adolescents. Results and Conclusions Overall, 22 studies were included in the current review. A number of patterns emerged, including: 1.) The ERN is enhanced in clinically anxious children at all ages (6–18 years old), regardless of the task used to measure the ERN. 2.) Studies focusing on anxiety symptoms and temperamental fear suggest that the relationship between the ERN and normative anxiety may change across development. 3.) The ERN can predict the onset of anxiety disorders across different developmental periods. 4.) The ERN relates to other markers of risk for anxiety (e.g., aversive startle potentiation) in children and adolescents.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T18:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.001
       
  • Early dynamics of white matter deficits in children developing dyslexia

    • Authors: Jolijn Vanderauwera; Jan Wouters; Maaike Vandermosten; Pol Ghesquière
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jolijn Vanderauwera, Jan Wouters, Maaike Vandermosten, Pol Ghesquière
      Neural anomalies have been demonstrated in dyslexia. Recent studies in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia and in pre-readers developing poor reading suggest that these anomalies might be a cause of their reading impairment. Our study goes one step further by exploring the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter anomalies in pre-readers with and without a familial risk for dyslexia (n=61) of whom a strictly selected sample develops dyslexia later on (n=15). We collected longitudinal diffusion MRI and behavioural data until grade 3. The results provide evidence that children with dyslexia exhibit pre-reading white matter anomalies in left and right long segment of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), with predictive power of the left segment above traditional cognitive measures and familial risk. Whereas white matter differences in the left AF seems most strongly related to the development of dyslexia, differences in the left IFOF and in the right AF seem driven by both familial risk and later reading ability. Moreover, differences in the left AF appeared to by dynamic. This study supports and expands recent insights into the neural basis of dyslexia, pointing towards pre-reading anomalies related to dyslexia, as well as underpinning the dynamic character of white matter.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T18:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.003
       
  • Brain areas needed for numbers and calculations in children: Meta-analyses
           of fMRI studies

    • Authors: Marie Arsalidou; Matthew Pawliw-Levac; Mahsa Sadeghi; Juan Pascual-Leone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Marie Arsalidou, Matthew Pawliw-Levac, Mahsa Sadeghi, Juan Pascual-Leone
      Children use numbers every day and typically receive formal mathematical training from an early age, as it is a main subject in school curricula. Despite an increase in children neuroimaging studies, a comprehensive neuropsychological model of mathematical functions in children is lacking. Using quantitative meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, we identify concordant brain areas across articles that adhere to a set of selection criteria (e.g., whole-brain analysis, coordinate reports) and report brain activity to tasks that involve processing symbolic and non-symbolic numbers with and without formal mathematical operations, which we called respectively number tasks and calculation tasks. We present data on children 14 years and younger, who solved these tasks. Results show activity in parietal (e.g., inferior parietal lobule and precuneus) and frontal (e.g., superior and medial frontal gyri) cortices, core areas related to mental-arithmetic, as well as brain regions such as the insula and claustrum, which are not typically discussed as part of mathematical problem solving models. We propose a topographical atlas of mathematical processes in children, discuss findings within a developmental constructivist theoretical model, and suggest practical methodological considerations for future studies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T18:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.002
       
  • Event-related potential response to auditory social stimuli,
           parent-reported social communicative deficits and autism risk in
           school-aged children with congenital visual impairment

    • Authors: Joe Bathelt; Naomi Dale; Michelle de Haan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Joe Bathelt, Naomi Dale, Michelle de Haan
      Communication with visual signals, like facial expression, is important in early social development, but the question if these signals are necessary for typical social development remains to be addressed. The potential impact on social development of being born with no or very low levels of vision is therefore of high theoretical and clinical interest. The current study investigated event-related potential responses to basic social stimuli in a rare group of school-aged children with congenital visual disorders of the anterior visual system (globe of the eye, retina, anterior optic nerve). Early-latency event-related potential responses showed no difference between the VI and control group, suggesting similar initial auditory processing. However, the mean amplitude over central and right frontal channels between 280 and 320ms was reduced in response to own-name stimuli, but not control stimuli, in children with VI suggesting differences in social processing. Children with VI also showed an increased rate of autistic-related behaviours, pragmatic language deficits, as well as peer relationship and emotional problems on standard parent questionnaires. These findings suggest that vision may be necessary for the typical development of social processing across modalities.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:31:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.003
       
  • Neurofunctionally dissecting the developing reading system

    • Authors: Johanna Liebig; Eva Froehlich; Carmen Morawetz; Mario Braun; Arthur M. Jacobs; Hauke R. Heekeren; Johannes C. Ziegler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Johanna Liebig, Eva Froehlich, Carmen Morawetz, Mario Braun, Arthur M. Jacobs, Hauke R. Heekeren, Johannes C. Ziegler
      The reading system can be broken down into four basic subcomponents in charge of prelexical, orthographic, phonological, and lexico-semantic processes. These processes need to jointly work together to become a fluent and efficient reader. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we systematically analyzed differences in neural activation patterns of these four basic subcomponents in children (N=41, 9–13 years) using tasks specifically tapping each component (letter identification, orthographic decision, phonological decision, and semantic categorization). Regions of interest (ROI) were selected based on a meta-analysis of child reading and included the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOT), left posterior parietal cortex (PPC), left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA). Compared to a visual baseline task, enhanced activation in vOT and the IFG was observed for all tasks with very little differences between tasks. Activity in the dorsal PPC system was confined to prelexical and phonological processing. Activity in the SMA was found in orthographic, phonological, and lexico-semantic tasks. Our results are consistent with the idea of an early engagement of the vOT accompanied by executive control functions in the frontal system, including the bilateral SMA.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:31:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.002
       
  • Heightened Activity in Social Reward Networks is Associated with
           Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behaviors

    • Authors: Kristen L. Eckstrand; Sophia Choukas-Bradley; Arpita Mohanty; Marissa Cross; Nicholas B. Allen; Jennifer S. Silk; Neil P. Jones; Erika E. Forbes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Kristen L. Eckstrand, Sophia Choukas-Bradley, Arpita Mohanty, Marissa Cross, Nicholas B. Allen, Jennifer S. Silk, Neil P. Jones, Erika E. Forbes
      Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N =47; 18M, 29F; 16.3±1.4years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience) completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners) on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Neural response and functional connectivity to social reward were compared for adolescents with higher- and lower-risk sexual behavior. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus and the right temporoparietal junction during receipt of social reward. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors also demonstrated greater functional connectivity between the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and left anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The greater activation and functional connectivity in self-referential, social reward, and affective processing regions among higher sexual risk adolescents underscores the importance of social influence underlying sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, results suggest an orientation towards and sensitivity to social rewards among youth engaging in higher-risk sexual behavior, perhaps as a consequence of or vulnerability to such behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:31:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.004
       
  • Longitudinal Associations among Family Environment, Neural Cognitive
           Control, and Social Competence among Adolescents

    • Authors: Jungmeen Kim-Spoon; Dominique Maciejewski; Jacob Lee; Kirby Deater-Deckard; Brooks King-Casas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Dominique Maciejewski, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas
      During adolescence, prefrontal cortex regions, important in cognitive control, undergo maturation to adapt to changing environmental demands. Ways through which social-ecological factors contribute to adolescent neural cognitive control have not been thoroughly examined. We hypothesize that household chaos is a context that may modulate the associations among parental control, adolescent neural cognitive control, and developmental changes in social competence. The sample involved 167 adolescents (ages 13-14 at Time 1, 53% male). Parental control and household chaos were measured using adolescents’ questionnaire data, and cognitive control was assessed via behavioral performance and brain imaging at Time 1. Adolescent social competence was reported by adolescents at Time 1 and at Time 2 (one year later). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that higher parental control predicted better neural cognitive control only among adolescents living in low-chaos households. The association between poor neural cognitive control at Time 1 and social competence at Time 2 (after controlling for social competence at Time 1) was significant only among adolescents living in high-chaos households. Household chaos may undermine the positive association of parental control with adolescent neural cognitive control and exacerbate the detrimental association of poor neural cognitive control with disrupted social competence development.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.04.009
       
  • Cognitive performance of juvenile monkeys after chronic fluoxetine
           treatment

    • Authors: Mari S. Golub; Edward P. Hackett; Casey E. Hogrefe; Csaba Leranth; John D. Elsworth; Robert H. Roth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Mari S. Golub, Edward P. Hackett, Casey E. Hogrefe, Csaba Leranth, John D. Elsworth, Robert H. Roth
      Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age) were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N=16/group) for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N=8/group) suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention. After dosing was discontinued, sustained attention, recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated. Sustained attention was affected by fluoxetine, both during and after dosing, as indexed by omission errors. Response accuracy was not affected by fluoxetine in post-dosing recognition memory and cognitive flexibility test, but formerly fluoxetine-treated monkeys compared to vehicle controls had more missed trial initiations and choices during testing. Drug treatment also interacted with genetic and environmental variables: MAOA genotype (high- and low transcription rate polymorphisms) and testing location (upper or lower tier of cages). Altered development of top-down cortical regulation of effortful attention may be relevant to this pattern of cognitive test performance after juvenile fluoxetine treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T13:09:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.04.008
       
  • A novel form of perceptual attunement: context-dependent perception of a
           native contrast in 14-month-old infants

    • Authors: Mathilde Fort; Perrine Brusini; M.Julia Carbajal; Yue Sun; Sharon Peperkamp
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Mathilde Fort, Perrine Brusini, M.Julia Carbajal, Yue Sun, Sharon Peperkamp
      By the end of their first year of life, infants have become experts in discriminating the sounds of their native language, while they have lost the ability to discriminate non-native contrasts. This type of phonetic learning is referred to as perceptual attunement. In the present study, we investigated the emergence of a context-dependent form of perceptual attunement in infancy. Indeed, some native contrasts are not discriminated in certain phonological contexts by adults, due to the presence of a language-specific process that neutralizes the contrasts in those contexts. We used a mismatch design and recorded high-density Electroencephalography (EEG) in French-learning 14-month-olds. Our results show that similarly to French adults, infants fail to discriminate a native voicing contrast (e.g., [f] vs. [v]) when it occurs in a specific phonological context (e.g., [ofbe] vs. [ovbe], no mismatch response), while they successfully detected it in other phonological contexts (e.g., [ofne] vs. [ovne], mismatch response). The present results demonstrate for the first time that by the age of 14 months, infants’ phonetic learning does not only rely on the processing of individual sounds, but also takes into account in a language-specific manner the phonological contexts in which these sounds occur.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T12:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.04.006
       
  • Active auditory experience in infancy promotes brain plasticity in Theta
           and Gamma oscillations

    • Authors: Gabriella Musacchia; Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla Naseem Choudhury Teresa Realpe-Bonilla Cynthia Roesler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Gabriella Musacchia, Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Naseem Choudhury, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, Cynthia Roesler, April A. Benasich
      Language acquisition in infants is driven by on-going neural plasticity that is acutely sensitive to environmental acoustic cues. Recent studies showed that attention-based experience with non-linguistic, temporally-modulated auditory stimuli sharpens cortical responses. A previous ERP study from this laboratory showed that interactive auditory experience via behavior-based feedback (AEx), over a 6-week period from 4- to 7-months-of-age, confers a processing advantage, compared to passive auditory exposure (PEx) or maturation alone (Naïve Control, NC). Here, we provide a follow-up investigation of the underlying neural oscillatory patterns in these three groups. In AEx infants, Standard stimuli with invariant frequency (STD) elicited greater Theta-band (4–6Hz) activity in Right Auditory Cortex (RAC), as compared to NC infants, and Deviant stimuli with rapid frequency change (DEV) elicited larger responses in Left Auditory Cortex (LAC). PEx and NC counterparts showed less-mature bilateral patterns. AEx infants also displayed stronger Gamma (33–37Hz) activity in the LAC during DEV discrimination, compared to NCs, while NC and PEx groups demonstrated bilateral activity in this band, if at all. This suggests that interactive acoustic experience with non-linguistic stimuli can promote a distinct, robust and precise cortical pattern during rapid auditory processing, perhaps reflecting mechanisms that support fine-tuning of early acoustic mapping.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T15:30:01Z
       
  • Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in
           children

    • Authors: Niki Kamkar; Daniel Lewis Wouter van den Bos J.Bruce Morton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Niki H. Kamkar, Daniel J. Lewis, Wouter van den Bos, J.Bruce Morton
      Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain’s sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T15:30:01Z
       
  • Neural correlates of infants’ sensitivity to vocal expressions of
           peers

    • Authors: Manuela Missana; Nicole Altvater-Mackensen Tobias Grossmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Manuela Missana, Nicole Altvater-Mackensen, Tobias Grossmann
      Responding to others’ emotional expressions is an essential and early developing social skill among humans. Much research has focused on how infants process facial expressions, while much less is known about infants’ processing of vocal expressions. We examined 8-month-old infants’ processing of other infants’ vocalizations by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive (infant laughter), negative (infant cries), and neutral (adult hummed speech) vocalizations. Our ERP results revealed that hearing another infant cry elicited an enhanced negativity (N200) at temporal electrodes around 200ms, whereas listening to another infant laugh resulted in an enhanced positivity (P300) at central electrodes around 300ms. This indexes that infants’ brains rapidly respond to a crying peer during early auditory processing stages, but also selectively respond to a laughing peer during later stages associated with familiarity detection processes. These findings provide evidence for infants’ sensitivity to vocal expressions of peers and shed new light on the neural processes underpinning emotion processing in infants.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T15:30:01Z
       
  • Proactive control in early and middle childhood: An ERP study

    • Authors: Sarah Elke; Sandra Wiebe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Sarah Elke, Sandra A. Wiebe
      Children experience important cognitive control improvements in the transition to school. This study examined 4-5-year-olds’ (n =17) and 7-8-year-olds’ (n =22) ability to proactively deploy cognitive control. Children performed a cued task-switching paradigm presenting them with a cue indicating which attribute, color or shape, they should use to sort the upcoming stimulus. Following both cue and stimulus, we analyzed two event-related potentials: the P2 and P3, positive peaks reflecting sensory and attentional components of cognitive control, respectively. Following the cue, we also analyzed a positive slow-wave, indexing working memory engagement. We predicted that on switch trials, which required switching tasks, proactive control would result in larger cue-P3 amplitudes, reflecting recognition of the need to switch, and larger slow-wave amplitudes, reflecting maintenance of the new task-sets over the post-cue delay. This pattern was observed in both age groups. At the stimulus, in switch trials, both age groups had shorter stimulus-P2 latencies, consistent with processing facilitation. These results suggest that both 4-5- and 7-8-year-olds engaged cognitive control proactively. Older children, however, demonstrated better performance and larger cue-P2 amplitudes, suggesting more effective proactive control engagement in middle childhood.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T15:30:01Z
       
  • Gamma Power in Rural Pakistani Children: Links to Executive Function and
           Verbal Ability

    • Authors: Amanda R. Tarullo; Jelena Obradović; Brandon Keehn; Muneera A. Rasheed; Saima Siyal; Charles A. Nelson; Aisha K. Yousafzai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Amanda R. Tarullo, Jelena Obradović, Brandon Keehn, Muneera A. Rasheed, Saima Siyal, Charles A. Nelson, Aisha K. Yousafzai
      Children in low- and middle-income countries are at high risk of cognitive deficits due to environmental deprivation that compromises brain development. Despite the high prevalence of unrealized cognitive potential, very little is known about neural correlates of cognition in this population. We assessed resting EEG power and cognitive ability in 105 highly disadvantaged 48-month-old children in rural Pakistan. An increase in EEG power in gamma frequency bands (21–30Hz and 31–45Hz) was associated with better executive function. For girls, EEG gamma power also related to higher verbal IQ. This study identifies EEG gamma power as a neural marker of cognitive function in disadvantaged children in low- and middle-income countries. Elevated gamma power may be a particularly important protective factor for girls, who may experience greater deprivation due to gender inequality.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T14:48:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.007
       
 
 
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