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  Subjects -> PSYCHOLOGY (Total: 877 journals)
Showing 1 - 174 of 174 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acción Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Colombiana de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Comportamentalia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta de Investigación Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Psychologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Activités     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidades en Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ad verba Liberorum : Journal of Linguistics & Pedagogy & Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Addictive Behaviors Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
ADHD Report The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Experimental Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Advances in Mental Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Physiotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Advances in the Study of Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aggression and Violent Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 409)
Aggressive Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Ágora - studies in psychoanalytic theory     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Aletheia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Behavioral Scientist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Imago     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Applied Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
American Journal of Community Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Health Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Psychoanalysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Psychologist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 182)
Anales de Psicología     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Análise Psicológica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Análisis y Modificación de Conducta     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 218)
Anuario de Psicología / The UB Journal of Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied and Preventive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Applied Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Applied Neuropsychology : Adult     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Applied Neuropsychology : Child     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Psychological Measurement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 143)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Archive for the Psychology of Religion / Archiv für Religionspychologie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Archives of Scientific Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arquivos Brasileiros de Psicologia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asia-Pacific Psychiatry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian American Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
At-Tajdid : Jurnal Ilmu Tarbiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Attention, Perception & Psychophysics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Australian Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Autism Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autism's Own     Open Access  
Autism-Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Avaliação Psicológica     Open Access  
Avances en Psicologia Latinoamericana     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Balint Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Barbaroi     Open Access  
Basic and Applied Social Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Behavior Analysis in Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Behavior Analyst     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Behavior Modification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Behavior Research Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Behavior Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Behavioral Development Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription  
Behavioral Interventions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Behavioral Sleep Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Behaviormetrika     Hybrid Journal  
Behaviour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Behaviour Research and Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 131)
Behavioural Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biofeedback     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Boletim Academia Paulista de Psicologia     Open Access  
Boletim de Psicologia     Open Access  
Brain Informatics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Clinical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 138)
British Journal of Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
British Journal of Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
British Journal of Health Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
British Journal of Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 59)
British Journal of Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 65)
British Journal of Social Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cadernos de psicanálise (Rio de Janeiro)     Open Access  
Cadernos de Psicologia Social do Trabalho     Open Access  
Canadian Art Therapy Association     Hybrid Journal  
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Canadian Psychology / Psychologie canadienne     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology     Hybrid Journal  
Cendekia : Jurnal Kependidikan dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Child Development Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Ciencia Cognitiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ciencia e Interculturalidad     Open Access  
Ciências & Cognição     Open Access  
Ciencias Psicológicas     Open Access  
Clínica y Salud     Open Access  
Clinical Medicine Insights : Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Clinical Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Clinical Psychology and Special Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Coaching Psykologi - The Danish Journal of Coaching Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cogent Psychology     Open Access  
Cógito     Open Access  
Cognition & Emotion     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Cognitive Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Cognitive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Cognitive Research : Principles and Implications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Consciousness and Cognition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Construção Psicopedagógica     Open Access  
Consulting Psychology Journal : Practice and Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contagion : Journal of Violence, Mimesis, and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Contemporary Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Contemporary School Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contextos Clínicos     Open Access  
Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Counseling Psychologist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Counseling Psychology and Psychotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Counselling and Psychotherapy Research : Linking research with practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Counselling and Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Counselling Psychology Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Couple and Family Psychoanalysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Couple and Family Psychology : Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Creativity Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Creativity. Theories - Research - Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Criminal Justice Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cuadernos de Neuropsicología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte     Open Access  
Cuadernos de Psicopedagogía     Open Access  
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cultural-Historical Psychology     Open Access  
Culturas Psi     Open Access  
Culture and Brain     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Addiction Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Directions In Psychological Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Psychological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current psychology letters     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Research in Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Decision     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Depression and Anxiety     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Developmental Neuropsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Developmental Psychobiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Developmental Psychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Diagnostica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Dialectica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Discourse     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Diversitas: Perspectivas en Psicologia     Open Access  
Drama Therapy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Dreaming     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Drogues, santé et société     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Ecopsychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ECOS - Estudos Contemporâneos da Subjetividade     Open Access  
Educational Psychology Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Educazione sentimentale     Full-text available via subscription  
Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Elpis - Czasopismo Teologiczne Katedry Teologii Prawosławnej Uniwersytetu w Białymstoku     Open Access  
Emotion     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Emotion Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
En-Claves del pensamiento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Enseñanza e Investigacion en Psicologia     Open Access  
Epiphany     Open Access   (Followers: 3)

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Journal Cover Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
  [SJR: 2.531]   [H-I: 26]   [17 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1878-9293 - ISSN (Online) 1878-9307
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Beyond Stereotypes of Adolescent Risk Taking: Placing the Adolescent Brain
           in Developmental Context

    • Authors: Daniel Romer; Valerie F. Reyna; Theodore D. Satterthwaite
      Pages: 19 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Daniel Romer, Valerie F. Reyna, Theodore D. Satterthwaite
      Recent neuroscience models of adolescent brain development attribute the morbidity and mortality of this period to structural and functional imbalances between more fully developed limbic regions that subserve reward and emotion as opposed to those that enable cognitive control. We challenge this interpretation of adolescent development by distinguishing risk-taking that peaks during adolescence (sensation seeking and impulsive action) from risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood (impulsive choice and other decisions under known risk). Sensation seeking is primarily motivated by exploration of the environment under ambiguous risk contexts, while impulsive action, which is likely to be maladaptive, is more characteristic of a subset of youth with weak control over limbic motivation. Risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood occurs primarily under conditions of known risks and reflects increases in executive function as well as aversion to risk based on increases in gist-based reasoning. We propose an alternative Life-span Wisdom Model that highlights the importance of experience gained through exploration during adolescence. We propose, therefore, that brain models that recognize the adaptive roles that cognition and experience play during adolescence provide a more complete and helpful picture of this period of development.

      PubDate: 2017-08-01T18:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • Neural connectivity moderates association between sleep and impulsivity in

    • Authors: Sarah M. Tashjian; Diane Goldenberg; Adriana Galván
      Pages: 35 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Sarah M. Tashjian, Diane Goldenberg, Adriana Galván
      Adolescence is characterized by chronic insufficient sleep and extensive brain development, but the relation between adolescent sleep and brain function remains unclear. We report the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to investigate functional connectivity as a moderator between sleep and impulsivity, a problematic behavior during this developmental period. Naturalistic differences in sleep have not yet been explored as treatable contributors to adolescent impulsivity. Although public and scientific attention focuses on sleep duration, we report individual differences in sleep quality, not duration, in fifty-five adolescents (ages 14–18) yielded significant differences in functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and default mode network. Poor sleep quality was related to greater affect-related impulsivity among adolescents with low, but not high, connectivity, suggesting neural functioning relates to individual differences linking sleep quality and impulsivity. Response inhibition and cognitive impulsivity were not related to sleep quality, suggesting that sleep has a greater impact on affect-related impulsivity. Exploring environmental contributors of poor sleep quality, we demonstrated pillow comfort was uniquely related to sleep quality over age, sex, and income, a promising advance ripe for intervention.

      PubDate: 2017-08-01T18:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.006
      Issue No: Vol. 27 (2017)
  • The temporal and spatial brain dynamics of automatic emotion regulation in

    • Authors: Charline Urbain; Julie Sato; Elizabeth W. Pang; Margot J. Taylor
      Pages: 62 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 26
      Author(s): Charline Urbain, Julie Sato, Elizabeth W. Pang, Margot J. Taylor
      Mechanisms for automatic emotion regulation (AER) are essential during childhood as they offset the impact of unwanted or negative emotional responses without drawing on limited attentional resources. Despite the importance of AER in improving the efficiency and flexibility of self-regulation, few research studies have investigated the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. To fill this gap, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate AER-related brain processes in 25 children (∼10 years old) who performed a go/no–go task that included an incidental exposure to faces containing socio-emotional cues. Whole brain results revealed that the inhibition of angry faces (compared with happy faces) was associated with a stronger recruitment of several brain regions from 100 to 425ms. These activations involved the right angular and occipital gyri from 100 to175ms, the right orbito-frontal gyrus (OFG) from 250 to 325ms (p corr < 0.05), and finally, the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) from 325 to 425ms. Our results suggest a specific involvement of these regions in the automatic regulation of negative emotional stimuli in children. In the future, this knowledge may help understand developmental conditions where inhibition impairments are exacerbated by an emotional context.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Evidence for the triadic model of adolescent brain development: Cognitive
           load and task-relevance of emotion differentially affect adolescents and

    • Authors: Sven C. Mueller; Sofie Cromheeke; Roma Siugzdaite; C. Nicolas Boehler
      Pages: 91 - 100
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 26
      Author(s): Sven C. Mueller, Sofie Cromheeke, Roma Siugzdaite, C. Nicolas Boehler
      In adults, cognitive control is supported by several brain regions including the limbic system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when processing emotional information. However, in adolescents, some theories hypothesize a neurobiological imbalance proposing heightened sensitivity to affective material in the amygdala and striatum within a cognitive control context. Yet, direct neurobiological evidence is scarce. Twenty-four adolescents (12–16) and 28 adults (25–35) completed an emotional n-back working memory task in response to happy, angry, and neutral faces during fMRI. Importantly, participants either paid attention to the emotion (task-relevant condition) or judged the gender (task-irrelevant condition). Behaviorally, for both groups, when happy faces were task-relevant, performance improved relative to when they were task-irrelevant, while performance decrements were seen for angry faces. In the dlPFC, angry faces elicited more activation in adults during low relative to high cognitive load (2-back vs. 0-back). By contrast, happy faces elicited more activation in the amygdala in adolescents when they were task-relevant. Happy faces also generally increased nucleus accumbens activity (regardless of relevance) in adolescents relative to adults. Together, the findings are consistent with neurobiological models of adolescent brain development and identify neurodevelopmental differences in cognitive control emotion interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-07-06T08:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 26 (2017)
  • Development holds the key to understanding the interplay of nature versus
           nurture in shaping the individual

    • Authors: Nikolaus Steinbeis; Eveline Crone; Sarah-Jayne Blakemore; Kathrin Cohen Kadosh
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 25
      Author(s): Nikolaus Steinbeis, Eveline Crone, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:47:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.05.006
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
  • A systematic review of adrenarche as a sensitive period in neurobiological
           development and mental health

    • Authors: Michelle L. Byrne; Sarah Whittle; Nandita Vijayakumar; Meg Dennison; Julian G. Simmons; Nicholas B. Allen
      Pages: 12 - 28
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 25
      Author(s): Michelle L. Byrne, Sarah Whittle, Nandita Vijayakumar, Meg Dennison, Julian G. Simmons, Nicholas B. Allen
      Substantial hormonal and neurobiological changes occur during puberty, and are widely argued to render this period of life a sensitive period in terms of risk for mental health problems. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on adrenarche, the earlier phase of pubertal development. Furthermore, there is a limited understanding of the association between adrenarche and neural development during this phase of life. We systematically reviewed research examining human adrenarcheal development as operationalized by hormonal levels of DHEA and DHEA-S, in relation to indices of mental health (Systematic Review 1). We then reviewed the limited amount of literature that has examined the association between adrenarcheal development and brain structure or function (Systematic Review 2). In general, studies showed that earlier timing of adrenarche was associated with greater mental health symptoms, and there is emerging support that brain development plays a role in this relationship. However, several methodological inconsistencies were noted. We propose that future research in this area test a theoretical model of adrenarche as a sensitive period of neurobiological development, whereby timing of exposure to hormones interacts with brain development, biological sex, and psychosocial stress to influence environmental sensitivity and risk for mental health problems through adolescence.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:47:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2016.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
  • Sensitive periods of substance abuse: Early risk for the transition to

    • Authors: Chloe J. Jordan; Susan L. Andersen
      Pages: 29 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 25
      Author(s): Chloe J. Jordan, Susan L. Andersen
      Early adolescent substance use dramatically increases the risk of lifelong substance use disorder (SUD). An adolescent sensitive period evolved to allow the development of risk-taking traits that aid in survival; today these may manifest as a vulnerability to drugs of abuse. Early substance use interferes with ongoing neurodevelopment to induce neurobiological changes that further augment SUD risk. Although many individuals use drugs recreationally, only a small percentage transition to SUD. Current theories on the etiology of addiction can lend insights into the risk factors that increase vulnerability from early recreational use to addiction. Building on the work of others, we suggest individual risk for SUD emerges from an immature PFC combined with hyper-reactivity of reward salience, habit, and stress systems. Early identification of risk factors is critical to reducing the occurrence of SUD. We suggest preventative interventions for SUD that can be either tailored to individual risk profiles and/or implemented broadly, prior to the sensitive adolescent period, to maximize resilience to developing substance dependence. Recommendations for future research include a focus on the juvenile and adolescent periods as well as on sex differences to better understand early risk and identify the most efficacious preventions for SUD.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:47:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2016.10.004
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
  • How do antidepressants influence the BOLD signal in the developing

    • Authors: Julia J. Harris; Clare Reynell
      Pages: 45 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 25
      Author(s): Julia J. Harris, Clare Reynell
      Depression is a highly prevalent life-threatening disorder, with its first onset commonly occurring during adolescence. Adolescent depression is increasingly being treated with antidepressants, such as fluoxetine. The use of medication during this sensitive period of physiological and cognitive brain development produces neurobiological changes, some of which may outlast the course of treatment. In this review, we look at how antidepressant treatment in adolescence is likely to alter neurovascular coupling and brain energy use and how these changes, in turn, affect our ability to identify neuronal activity changes between participant groups. BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), the method most commonly used to record brain activity in humans, is an indirect measure of neuronal activity. This means that between-group comparisons – adolescent versus adult, depressed versus healthy, medicated versus non-medicated – rely upon a stable relationship existing between neuronal activity and the BOLD response across these groups. We use data from animal studies to detail the ways in which fluoxetine may alter this relationship, and explore how these alterations may influence the interpretation of BOLD signal differences between groups that have been treated with fluoxetine and those that have not.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:47:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2016.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
  • Children’s head motion during fMRI tasks is heritable and stable
           over time

    • Authors: Laura E. Engelhardt; Mary Abbe Roe; Jenifer Juranek; Dana DeMaster; K. Paige Harden; Elliot M. Tucker-Drob; Jessica A. Church
      Pages: 58 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 25
      Author(s): Laura E. Engelhardt, Mary Abbe Roe, Jenifer Juranek, Dana DeMaster, K. Paige Harden, Elliot M. Tucker-Drob, Jessica A. Church
      Head motion during fMRI scans negatively impacts data quality, and as post-acquisition techniques for addressing motion become increasingly stringent, data retention decreases. Studies conducted with adult participants suggest that movement acts as a relatively stable, heritable phenotype that serves as a marker for other genetically influenced phenotypes. Whether these patterns extend downward to childhood has critical implications for the interpretation and generalizability of fMRI data acquired from children. We examined factors affecting scanner motion in two samples: a population-based twin sample of 73 participants (ages 7–12 years) and a case-control sample of 32 non-struggling and 78 struggling readers (ages 8–11 years), 30 of whom were scanned multiple times. Age, but not ADHD symptoms, was significantly related to scanner movement. Movement also varied as a function of task type, run length, and session length. Twin pair concordance for head motion was high for monozygotic twins and moderate for dizygotic twins. Cross-session test-retest reliability was high. Together, these findings suggest that children’s head motion is a genetically influenced trait that has the potential to systematically affect individual differences in BOLD changes within and across groups. We discuss recommendations for future work and best practices for pediatric neuroimaging.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:47:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
  • Beyond eye gaze: What else can eyetracking reveal about cognition and
           cognitive development'

    • Authors: Maria K. Eckstein; Belén Guerra-Carrillo; Alison T. Miller Singley; Silvia A. Bunge
      Pages: 69 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 25
      Author(s): Maria K. Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T. Miller Singley, Silvia A. Bunge
      This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain’s locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain. Spontaneous eyeblink rate correlates with levels of dopamine in the central nervous system, and can reveal processes underlying learning and goal-directed behavior. Taken together, gaze, pupil dilation, and blink rate are three non-invasive and complementary measures of cognition with high temporal resolution and well-understood neural foundations. Here we review the neural foundations of pupil dilation and blink rate, provide examples of their usage, describe analytic methods and methodological considerations, and discuss their potential for research on learning, cognitive development, and plasticity.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:47:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
  • Cortical specialisation to social stimuli from the first days to the
           second year of life: A rural Gambian cohort

    • Authors: S. Lloyd-Fox; K. Begus; D. Halliday; L. Pirazzoli; A. Blasi; M. Papademetriou; M.K. Darboe; A.M. Prentice; M.H. Johnson; S.E. Moore; C.E. Elwell
      Pages: 92 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 25
      Author(s): S. Lloyd-Fox, K. Begus, D. Halliday, L. Pirazzoli, A. Blasi, M. Papademetriou, M.K. Darboe, A.M. Prentice, M.H. Johnson, S.E. Moore, C.E. Elwell
      Brain and nervous system development in human infants during the first 1000days (conception to two years of age) is critical, and compromised development during this time (such as from under nutrition or poverty) can have life-long effects on physical growth and cognitive function. Cortical mapping of cognitive function during infancy is poorly understood in resource-poor settings due to the lack of transportable and low-cost neuroimaging methods. Having established a signature cortical response to social versus non-social visual and auditory stimuli in infants from 4 to 6 months of age in the UK, here we apply this functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) paradigm to investigate social responses in infants from the first postnatal days to the second year of life in two contrasting environments: rural Gambian and urban UK. Results reveal robust, localized, socially selective brain responses from 9 to 24 months of life to both the visual and auditory stimuli. In contrast at 0–2 months of age infants exhibit non-social auditory selectivity, an effect that persists until 4–8 months when we observe a transition to greater social stimulus selectivity. These findings reveal a robust developmental curve of cortical specialisation over the first two years of life.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:47:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2016.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
  • The transition from childhood to adolescence is marked by a general
           decrease in amygdala reactivity and an affect-specific ventral-to-dorsal
           shift in medial prefrontal recruitment

    • Authors: Jennifer A. Silvers; Catherine Insel; Alisa Powers; Peter Franz; Chelsea Helion; Rebecca Martin; Jochen Weber; Walter Mischel; B.J. Casey; Kevin N. Ochsner
      Pages: 128 - 137
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 25
      Author(s): Jennifer A. Silvers, Catherine Insel, Alisa Powers, Peter Franz, Chelsea Helion, Rebecca Martin, Jochen Weber, Walter Mischel, B.J. Casey, Kevin N. Ochsner
      Understanding how and why affective responses change with age is central to characterizing typical and atypical emotional development. Prior work has emphasized the role of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC), which show age-related changes in function and connectivity. However, developmental neuroimaging research has only recently begun to unpack whether age effects in the amygdala and PFC are specific to affective stimuli or may be found for neutral stimuli as well, a possibility that would support a general, rather than affect-specific, account of amygdala-PFC development. To examine this, 112 individuals ranging from 6 to 23 years of age viewed aversive and neutral images while undergoing fMRI scanning. Across age, participants reported more negative affect and showed greater amygdala responses for aversive than neutral stimuli. However, children were generally more sensitive to both neutral and aversive stimuli, as indexed by affective reports and amygdala responses. At the same time, the transition from childhood to adolescence was marked by a ventral-to-dorsal shift in medial prefrontal responses to aversive, but not neutral, stimuli. Given the role that dmPFC plays in executive control and higher-level representations of emotion, these results suggest that adolescence is characterized by a shift towards representing emotional events in increasingly cognitive terms.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:47:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2016.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
  • The neural substrates of cognitive flexibility are related to individual
           differences in preschool irritability: A fNIRS investigation

    • Authors: Yanwei Li; Adam S. Grabell; Lauren S. Wakschlag; Theodore J. Huppert; Susan B. Perlman
      Pages: 138 - 144
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 25
      Author(s): Yanwei Li, Adam S. Grabell, Lauren S. Wakschlag, Theodore J. Huppert, Susan B. Perlman
      Preschool (age 3–5) is a phase of rapid development in both cognition and emotion, making this a period in which the neurodevelopment of each domain is particularly sensitive to that of the other. During this period, children rapidly learn how to flexibly shift their attention between competing demands and, at the same time, acquire critical emotion regulation skills to respond to negative affective challenges. The integration of cognitive flexibility and individual differences in irritability may be an important developmental process of early childhood maturation. However, at present it is unclear if they share common neural substrates in early childhood. Our main goal was to examine the neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in preschool children and test for associations with irritability. Forty-six preschool aged children completed a novel, child-appropriate, Stroop task while dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation was recorded using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Parents rated their child’s irritability. Results indicated that left DLPFC activation was associated with cognitive flexibility and positively correlated with irritability. Right DLPFC activation was also positively correlated with irritability. Results suggest the entwined nature of cognitive and emotional neurodevelopment during a developmental period of rapid and mutual acceleration.

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:47:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2016.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 25 (2017)
  • Handling newborn monkeys alters later exploratory, cognitive, and social

    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Simpson; Valentina Sclafani; Annika Paukner; Stefano S.K. Kaburu; Stephen J. Suomi; Pier F. Ferrari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Elizabeth A. Simpson, Valentina Sclafani, Annika Paukner, Stefano S.K. Kaburu, Stephen J. Suomi, Pier F. Ferrari
      Touch is one of the first senses to develop and one of the earliest modalities for infant-caregiver communication. While studies have explored the benefits of infant touch in terms of physical health and growth, the effects of social touch on infant behavior are relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated the influence of neonatal handling on a variety of domains, including memory, novelty seeking, and social interest, in infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n =48) from 2-12 weeks of age. Neonates were randomly assigned to receive extra holding, with or without accompanying face-to-face interactions. Extra-handled infants, compared to standard-reared infants, exhibited less stress-related behavior and more locomotion around a novel environment, faster approach of novel objects, better working memory, and less fear towards a novel social partner. In sum, infants who received more tactile stimulation in the neonatal period subsequently demonstrated more advanced motor, social, and cognitive skills—particularly in contexts involving exploration of novelty—in the first three months of life. These data suggest that social touch may support behavioral development, offering promising possibilities for designing future early interventions, particularly for infants who are at heightened risk for social disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.010
  • Cognitive flexibility and its electrophysiological correlates in Gilles de
           la Tourette syndrome

    • Authors: Florian Lange; Caroline Seer; Kirsten Müller-Vahl; Bruno Kopp
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Florian Lange, Caroline Seer, Kirsten Müller-Vahl, Bruno Kopp
      Motor symptoms in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) have been related to changes in frontostriatal brain networks. These changes may also give rise to alterations in cognitive flexibility. However, conclusive evidence for altered cognitive flexibility in patients with GTS is still lacking. Here, we meta-analyzed data from 18 neuropsychological studies that investigated cognitive flexibility in GTS using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results revealed medium-sized GTS-related performance deficits, which were significantly modulated by age: Whilst being substantial in children and adolescents with GTS, WCST deficits seem to dissolve in adult patients with GTS. This age-related normalization of WCST performance might result from the compensatory recruitment of cognitive control in adult patients with GTS. We addressed this possibility by examining neural correlates of proactive and reactive cognitive control in an event-related potential (ERP) study. We analyzed cue- and target-locked ERPs from 23 adult patients with GTS and 26 matched controls who completed a computerized version of the WCST. Compared to controls, patients with GTS showed a marked increase in parietal cue-locked P3 activity, indicating enhanced proactive cognitive control. We conclude that the additional recruitment of proactive cognitive control might ensure flexible cognitive functioning in adult patients with GTS.

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.008
  • Gentle touch perception: From early childhood to adolescence

    • Authors: Ilona Croy; Isac Sehlstedt; Helena Backlund Wasling; Rochelle Ackerley; Håkan Olausson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Ilona Croy, Isac Sehlstedt, Helena Backlund Wasling, Rochelle Ackerley, Håkan Olausson
      Affective touch plays an important role in children’s social interaction and is involved in shaping the development of the social brain. The positive affective component of touch is thought to be conveyed via a group of unmyelinated, low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents, known as C-tactile fibers that are optimally activated by gentle, slow, stroking touch. Touch targeting these C-tactile fibers has been shown to decrease the heart rate in infants. The current study investigated the relationship between age and psychophysical ratings in response to affective touch. A total of n=43 participants (early childhood: aged 5-8 years, 9 girls, 12 boys; late childhood: aged 9-12 years, 12 girls, 10 boys) were presented with C-tactile optimal and sub-optimal stroking velocities and rated touch pleasantness on an affective pictorial scale. For both age groups, we found that children preferred C-tactile-targeted stimulation. A comparison with previously published data showed that the children’s preference for C-tactile-targeted stimulation was similar to those obtained in adolescents and adults. We speculate that the effect of C-tactile-targeted touch, which is linked with pleasantness, shapes the children’s preference for C-tactile over non-C-tactile-targeted stimulation, and that C-tactile afferent stimulation is important for social development.

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.009
  • Flexing dual-systems models: How variable cognitive control in children
           informs our understanding of risk-taking across development

    • Authors: Rosa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Rosa Li
      Prevailing models of the development of decision-making propose that peak risk-taking occurs in adolescence due to a neural imbalance between two processes: gradual, linearly developing cognitive control and rapid, non-linearly developing reward-processing. Though many studies have found neural evidence supporting this dual-systems imbalance model, its behavioral predictions have been surprisingly difficult to document. Most laboratory studies have not found adolescents to exhibit greater risk-taking than children, and public health data show everyday risk-taking to peak in late adolescence/early adulthood. Moreover, when adolescents are provided detailed information about decision options and consequences, they evince similar behavior to adults. Such findings point to a critical feature of the development of decision-making that is missed by imbalance models. Specifically, the engagement of cognitive control is context dependent, such that cognitive control and therefore advantageous decision-making increases when available information is high and decreases when available information is low. Furthermore, the context dependence of cognitive control varies across development, such that increased information availability benefits children more than adolescents, who benefit more than adults. This review advances a flexible dual-systems model that is only imbalanced under certain conditions; explains disparities between neural, behavioral, and public health findings; and provides testable hypotheses for future research.

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
  • Cascading effects of attention disengagement and sensory seeking on social
           symptoms in a community sample of infants at-risk for a future diagnosis
           of autism spectrum disorder

    • Authors: Grace T. Baranek; Tiffany G. Woynaroski; Sallie Nowell; Lauren Turner Brown; Michaela DuBay; Elizabeth R. Crais; Linda R. Watson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Grace T. Baranek, Tiffany G. Woynaroski, Sallie Nowell, Lauren Turner Brown, Michaela DuBay, Elizabeth R. Crais, Linda R. Watson
      Recent work suggests sensory seeking predicts later social symptomatology through reduced social orienting in infants who are at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD. We drew on extant longitudinal data from a community sample of at-risk infants who were identified at 12 months using the First Year Inventory, and followed to 3–5 years. We replicate findings of Damiano et al. (in this issue) that a) high-risk infants who go on to be diagnosed with ASD show heightened sensory seeking in the second year of life relative to those who do not receive a diagnosis, and b) increased sensory seeking indirectly relates to later social symptomatology via reduced social orienting. We extend previous findings to show that sensory seeking has more clinical utility later in the second year of life (20–24 months) than earlier (13–15 months). Further, this study suggests that diminished attention disengagement at 12–15 months may precede and predict increased sensory seeking at 20–24 months. Findings add support for the notion that sensory features produce cascading effects on social development in infants at risk for ASD, and suggest that reduced attention disengagement early in life may set off this cascade.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.006
  • Developmental Sequelae and Neurophysiologic Substrates of Sensory Seeking
           in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    • Authors: Cara R. Damiano-Goodwin; Tiffany G. Woynaroski; David M. Simon; Lisa V. Ibañez; Michael Murias; Anne Kirby; Cassandra R. Newsom; Mark T. Wallace; Wendy L. Stone; Carissa J. Cascio
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Cara R. Damiano-Goodwin, Tiffany G. Woynaroski, David M. Simon, Lisa V. Ibañez, Michael Murias, Anne Kirby, Cassandra R. Newsom, Mark T. Wallace, Wendy L. Stone, Carissa J. Cascio
      It has been proposed that early differences in sensory responsiveness arise from atypical neural function and produce cascading effects on development across domains. This longitudinal study prospectively followed infants at heightened risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and infants at relatively lower risk for ASD (siblings of typically developing children; Sibs-TD) to examine the developmental sequelae and possible neurophysiological substrates of a specific sensory response pattern: unusually intense interest in nonsocial sensory stimuli or “sensory seeking.” At 18 months, sensory seeking and social orienting were measured with the Sensory Processing Assessment, and a potential neural signature for sensory seeking (i.e., frontal alpha asymmetry) was measured via resting state electroencephalography. At 36 months, infants’ social symptomatology was assessed in a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. Sibs-ASD showed elevated sensory seeking relative to Sibs-TD, and increased sensory seeking was concurrently associated with reduced social orienting across groups and resting frontal asymmetry in Sibs-ASD. Sensory seeking also predicted later social symptomatology. Findings suggest that sensory seeking may produce cascading effects on social development in infants at risk for ASD and that atypical frontal asymmetry may underlie this atypical pattern of sensory responsiveness.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.005
  • Simulating interaction: using gaze-contingent eye-tracking to measure the
           reward value of social signals in toddlers with and without autism

    • Authors: Angelina Vernetti; Atsushi Senju; Tony Charman; Mark H. Johnson; Teodora Gliga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Angelina Vernetti, Atsushi Senju, Tony Charman, Mark H. Johnson, Teodora Gliga
      Several accounts have been proposed to explain difficulties with social interaction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), amongst which atypical social orienting, decreased social motivation or difficulties with understanding the regularities driving social interaction. This study uses gaze-contingent eye-tracking to tease apart these accounts by measuring reward related behaviours in response to different social videos. Toddlers at high or low familial risk for ASD took part in this study at age 2 and were categorised at age 3 as low risk controls (LR), high-risk with no ASD diagnosis (HR-no ASD), or with a diagnosis of ASD (HR-ASD). When the on-demand social interaction was predictable, all groups, including the HR-ASD group, looked longer and smiled more towards a person greeting them compared to a mechanical Toy (condition 1) and also smiled more towards a communicative over a non-communicative person (condition 2). However, all groups, except the HR-ASD group, selectively oriented towards a person addressing the child in different ways over an invariant social interaction (condition 3). These findings suggest that social interaction is intrinsically rewarding for individuals with ASD, but the extent to which it is sought may be modulated by the specific variability of naturalistic social interaction.

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.004
  • Editorial Board/Aims and Scope

    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 26

      PubDate: 2017-08-20T19:09:52Z
  • Exposure shapes the perception of affective touch

    • Authors: Uta Sailer; Rochelle Ackerley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Uta Sailer, Rochelle Ackerley
      Touch is a common occurrence in our lives, where affective and inter-personal aspects of touch are important for our well-being. We investigated whether touch exposure affects hedonic and discriminative aspects of tactile perception. The perceived pleasantness and intensity of gentle forearm stroking, over different velocities, was assessed in individuals reporting to seldom receive inter-personal touch, and in controls who received touch often. The groups did not differ in their stroking intensity judgements, nor in tactile discrimination sensitivity; however, individuals with low touch exposure evaluated the pleasantness of touch differently. These individuals did not differentiate pleasantness over the stroking velocities in the same way as the control group. The pleasantness curve for the low touch exposure group was significantly flatter and they rated 3cm/s stroking as significantly less pleasant. Other physiological and questionnaire measures were obtained and the appreciation of touch from familiar persons was positively related to the pleasantness of touch in controls, but this was not found in low touch exposure individuals. This suggests that the association of human caresses from well-known individuals, with the pleasure derived, may depend on continued exposure to it.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T18:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.008
  • A biomarker of anxiety in children and adolescents: A review focusing on
           the error-related negativity (ERN) and anxiety across development

    • Authors: Alexandria Meyer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Alexandria Meyer
      Background Anxiety disorders are the most common form of psychopathology and often begin early in development. Therefore, there is interest in identifying neural biomarkers that characterize pathways leading to anxiety disorders early in the course of development. A substantial amount of work focuses on the error-related negativity (ERN) as a biomarker of anxiety. While two previous reviews have focused on the relationship of the ERN and anxiety in adults, no previous review has focused on this issue in children and adolescents. Results and Conclusions Overall, 22 studies were included in the current review. A number of patterns emerged, including: 1.) The ERN is enhanced in clinically anxious children at all ages (6–18 years old), regardless of the task used to measure the ERN. 2.) Studies focusing on anxiety symptoms and temperamental fear suggest that the relationship between the ERN and normative anxiety may change across development. 3.) The ERN can predict the onset of anxiety disorders across different developmental periods. 4.) The ERN relates to other markers of risk for anxiety (e.g., aversive startle potentiation) in children and adolescents.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T18:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.001
  • Early dynamics of white matter deficits in children developing dyslexia

    • Authors: Jolijn Vanderauwera; Jan Wouters; Maaike Vandermosten; Pol Ghesquière
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jolijn Vanderauwera, Jan Wouters, Maaike Vandermosten, Pol Ghesquière
      Neural anomalies have been demonstrated in dyslexia. Recent studies in pre-readers at risk for dyslexia and in pre-readers developing poor reading suggest that these anomalies might be a cause of their reading impairment. Our study goes one step further by exploring the neurodevelopmental trajectory of white matter anomalies in pre-readers with and without a familial risk for dyslexia (n=61) of whom a strictly selected sample develops dyslexia later on (n=15). We collected longitudinal diffusion MRI and behavioural data until grade 3. The results provide evidence that children with dyslexia exhibit pre-reading white matter anomalies in left and right long segment of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), with predictive power of the left segment above traditional cognitive measures and familial risk. Whereas white matter differences in the left AF seems most strongly related to the development of dyslexia, differences in the left IFOF and in the right AF seem driven by both familial risk and later reading ability. Moreover, differences in the left AF appeared to by dynamic. This study supports and expands recent insights into the neural basis of dyslexia, pointing towards pre-reading anomalies related to dyslexia, as well as underpinning the dynamic character of white matter.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T18:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.003
  • Brain areas needed for numbers and calculations in children: Meta-analyses
           of fMRI studies

    • Authors: Marie Arsalidou; Matthew Pawliw-Levac; Mahsa Sadeghi; Juan Pascual-Leone
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Marie Arsalidou, Matthew Pawliw-Levac, Mahsa Sadeghi, Juan Pascual-Leone
      Children use numbers every day and typically receive formal mathematical training from an early age, as it is a main subject in school curricula. Despite an increase in children neuroimaging studies, a comprehensive neuropsychological model of mathematical functions in children is lacking. Using quantitative meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, we identify concordant brain areas across articles that adhere to a set of selection criteria (e.g., whole-brain analysis, coordinate reports) and report brain activity to tasks that involve processing symbolic and non-symbolic numbers with and without formal mathematical operations, which we called respectively number tasks and calculation tasks. We present data on children 14 years and younger, who solved these tasks. Results show activity in parietal (e.g., inferior parietal lobule and precuneus) and frontal (e.g., superior and medial frontal gyri) cortices, core areas related to mental-arithmetic, as well as brain regions such as the insula and claustrum, which are not typically discussed as part of mathematical problem solving models. We propose a topographical atlas of mathematical processes in children, discuss findings within a developmental constructivist theoretical model, and suggest practical methodological considerations for future studies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-11T18:54:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.08.002
  • Resilience in mathematics after early brain injury: The roles of parental
           input and early plasticity

    • Authors: Dana E. Glenn; Özlem Ece Demir-Lira; Dominic J. Gibson; Eliza L. Congdon; Susan C. Levine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Dana E. Glenn, Özlem Ece Demir-Lira, Dominic J. Gibson, Eliza L. Congdon, Susan C. Levine
      Children with early focal brain injury show remarkable plasticity in language development. However, little is known about how early brain injury influences mathematical learning. Here, we examine early number understanding, comparing cardinal number knowledge of typically developing children (TD) and children with pre- and perinatal lesions (BI) between 42 and 50 months of age. We also examine how this knowledge relates to the number words children hear from their primary caregivers early in life. We find that children with BI, are, on average, only slightly behind TD children in both cardinal number knowledge and later mathematical performance, and show only slightly slower learning rates than TD children in cardinal number knowledge during the preschool years. We also find that parents’ “number talk” to their toddlers predicts later mathematical ability for both TD children and children with BI. These findings suggest a relatively optimistic story in which neural plasticity is at play in children’s mathematical development following early brain injury. Further, the effects of early number input suggest that intervening to enrich the number talk that children with BI hear during the preschool years could narrow the math achievement gap.

      PubDate: 2017-08-01T18:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.005
  • Event-related potential response to auditory social stimuli,
           parent-reported social communicative deficits and autism risk in
           school-aged children with congenital visual impairment

    • Authors: Joe Bathelt; Naomi Dale; Michelle de Haan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Joe Bathelt, Naomi Dale, Michelle de Haan
      Communication with visual signals, like facial expression, is important in early social development, but the question if these signals are necessary for typical social development remains to be addressed. The potential impact on social development of being born with no or very low levels of vision is therefore of high theoretical and clinical interest. The current study investigated event-related potential responses to basic social stimuli in a rare group of school-aged children with congenital visual disorders of the anterior visual system (globe of the eye, retina, anterior optic nerve). Early-latency event-related potential responses showed no difference between the VI and control group, suggesting similar initial auditory processing. However, the mean amplitude over central and right frontal channels between 280 and 320ms was reduced in response to own-name stimuli, but not control stimuli, in children with VI suggesting differences in social processing. Children with VI also showed an increased rate of autistic-related behaviours, pragmatic language deficits, as well as peer relationship and emotional problems on standard parent questionnaires. These findings suggest that vision may be necessary for the typical development of social processing across modalities.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:31:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.003
  • Neurofunctionally dissecting the developing reading system

    • Authors: Johanna Liebig; Eva Froehlich; Carmen Morawetz; Mario Braun; Arthur M. Jacobs; Hauke R. Heekeren; Johannes C. Ziegler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Johanna Liebig, Eva Froehlich, Carmen Morawetz, Mario Braun, Arthur M. Jacobs, Hauke R. Heekeren, Johannes C. Ziegler
      The reading system can be broken down into four basic subcomponents in charge of prelexical, orthographic, phonological, and lexico-semantic processes. These processes need to jointly work together to become a fluent and efficient reader. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we systematically analyzed differences in neural activation patterns of these four basic subcomponents in children (N=41, 9–13 years) using tasks specifically tapping each component (letter identification, orthographic decision, phonological decision, and semantic categorization). Regions of interest (ROI) were selected based on a meta-analysis of child reading and included the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOT), left posterior parietal cortex (PPC), left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA). Compared to a visual baseline task, enhanced activation in vOT and the IFG was observed for all tasks with very little differences between tasks. Activity in the dorsal PPC system was confined to prelexical and phonological processing. Activity in the SMA was found in orthographic, phonological, and lexico-semantic tasks. Our results are consistent with the idea of an early engagement of the vOT accompanied by executive control functions in the frontal system, including the bilateral SMA.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:31:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.002
  • Heightened Activity in Social Reward Networks is Associated with
           Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behaviors

    • Authors: Kristen L. Eckstrand; Sophia Choukas-Bradley; Arpita Mohanty; Marissa Cross; Nicholas B. Allen; Jennifer S. Silk; Neil P. Jones; Erika E. Forbes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Kristen L. Eckstrand, Sophia Choukas-Bradley, Arpita Mohanty, Marissa Cross, Nicholas B. Allen, Jennifer S. Silk, Neil P. Jones, Erika E. Forbes
      Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N =47; 18M, 29F; 16.3±1.4years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience) completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners) on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Neural response and functional connectivity to social reward were compared for adolescents with higher- and lower-risk sexual behavior. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus and the right temporoparietal junction during receipt of social reward. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors also demonstrated greater functional connectivity between the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and left anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The greater activation and functional connectivity in self-referential, social reward, and affective processing regions among higher sexual risk adolescents underscores the importance of social influence underlying sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, results suggest an orientation towards and sensitivity to social rewards among youth engaging in higher-risk sexual behavior, perhaps as a consequence of or vulnerability to such behavior.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T06:31:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.004
  • Test-retest reliability of longitudinal task-based fMRI—implications
           for developmental studies

    • Authors: Megan M. Herting; Prapti Gautam; Zhanghua Chen; Adam Mezher; Nora C. Vetter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Megan M. Herting, Prapti Gautam, Zhanghua Chen, Adam Mezher, Nora C. Vetter
      Great advances have been made in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies, including the use of longitudinal design to more accurately identify changes in brain development across childhood and adolescence. While longitudinal fMRI studies are necessary for our understanding of typical and atypical patterns of brain development, the variability observed in fMRI blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal and its test-retest reliability in developing populations remain a concern. Here we review the current state of test-retest reliability for child and adolescent fMRI studies (ages 5 to 18 years) as indexed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). In addition to highlighting ways to improve fMRI test-retest reliability in developmental cognitive neuroscience research, we hope to open a platform for dialogue regarding longitudinal fMRI study designs, analyses, and reporting of results.

      PubDate: 2017-07-15T08:27:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.001
  • Development of selective attention in preschool-age children from lower
           socioeconomic status backgrounds

    • Authors: Amanda Hampton Wray; Courtney Stevens; Eric Pakulak; Elif Isbell; Theodore Bell; Helen Neville
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Amanda Hampton Wray, Courtney Stevens, Eric Pakulak, Elif Isbell, Theodore Bell, Helen Neville
      Although differences in selective attention skills have been identified in children from lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, little is known about these differences in early childhood, a time of rapid attention development. The current study evaluated the development of neural systems for selective attention in children from lower SES backgrounds. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were acquired from 33 children from lower SES and 14 children from higher SES backgrounds during a dichotic listening task and the lower SES group was followed longitudinally for one year. At age four, the higher SES group exhibited a significant attention effect (larger ERP response to attended compared to unattended condition), an effect not observed in the lower SES group. At age five, the lower SES group exhibited a significant attention effect comparable in overall magnitude to that observed in the 4-year-old higher SES group, but with poorer distractor suppression (larger response to the unattended condition). Together, these findings suggest both a maturational delay and divergent developmental pattern in neural mechanisms for selective attention in young children from lower compared to higher SES backgrounds. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of studying neurodevelopment within narrow age ranges and in children from diverse backgrounds. Development of selective attention in preschool-age children from lower socioeconomic status backgrounds.

      PubDate: 2017-07-06T08:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.06.006
  • Biomedical ethics and clinical oversight in multisite observational
           neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents: The ABCD experience

    • Authors: Duncan B. Clark; Celia B. Fisher; Susan Bookheimer; Saundra A. Brown; John H. Evans; Christian Hopfer; James Hudziak; Ivan Montoya; Margaret Murray; Adolf Pfefferbaum; Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Duncan B. Clark, Celia B. Fisher, Susan Bookheimer, Saundra A. Brown, John H. Evans, Christian Hopfer, James Hudziak, Ivan Montoya, Margaret Murray, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
      Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles. To illustrate, we will review the ABCD approach to three areas: (1) hazardous substance use; (2) neurological anomalies; and (3) imminent potential for self-harm or harm to others. Each ABCD site is responsible for implementing procedures consistent with these guidelines in accordance with their Institutional Review Board approved protocols, state regulations, and local resources. To assure that each site has related plans and resources in place, site emergency procedures manuals have been developed, documented and reviewed for adherence to ABCD guidelines. This article will describe the principles and process used to develop these ABCD bioethics and medical oversight guidelines, the concerns and options considered, and the resulting approaches advised to sites.

      PubDate: 2017-07-06T08:03:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.06.005
  • Connecting Brain Responsivity and Real-World Risk taking: Strengths and
           Limitations of Current Methodological Approaches

    • Authors: Lauren Sherman; Laurence Steinberg Jason Chein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Lauren Sherman, Laurence Steinberg, Jason Chein
      In line with the goal of limiting health risk behaviors in adolescence, a growing literature investigates whether individual differences in functional brain responses can be related to vulnerability to engage in risky decision-making. We review this body of work, investigate when and in what way findings converge, and provide best practice recommendations. We identified 23 studies that examined individual differences in brain responsivity and adolescent risk taking. Findings varied widely in terms of the neural regions identified as relating to risky behavior. This heterogeneity is likely due to the abundance of approaches used to assess risk taking, and to the disparity of fMRI tasks. Indeed, brain-behavior correlations were typically found in regions showing a main effect of task. However, results from a test of publication bias suggested that region of interest approaches lacked evidential value. The findings suggest that neural factors differentiating riskier teens are not localized to a single region. Therefore, approaches that utilize data from the entire brain, particularly in predictive analyses, may yield more reliable and applicable results. We discuss several decision points that researchers should consider when designing a study, and emphasize the importance of precise research questions that move beyond a general desire to address adolescent risk taking.

      PubDate: 2017-07-06T08:03:20Z
  • Editorial Board/Aims and Scope

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, Volume 25

      PubDate: 2017-06-27T07:47:48Z
  • Behavioral and neural concordance in parent-child dyadic sleep patterns

    • Authors: Tae-Ho Lee; Michelle E. Miernicki; Eva H. Telzer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Tae-Ho Lee, Michelle E. Miernicki, Eva H. Telzer
      Sleep habits developed in adolescence shape long-term trajectories of psychological, educational, and physiological well-being. Adolescents’ sleep behaviors are shaped by their parents’ sleep at both the behavioral and biological levels. In the current study, we sought to examine how neural concordance in resting-state functional connectivity between parent-child dyads is associated with dyadic concordance in sleep duration and adolescents’ sleep quality. To this end, we scanned both parents and their child (N=28 parent-child dyads; parent M age =42.8years; adolescent M age =14.9years; 14.3% father; 46.4% female adolescent) as they each underwent a resting-state scan. Using daily diaries, we also assessed dyadic concordance in sleep duration across two weeks. Our results show that greater daily concordance in sleep behavior is associated with greater neural concordance in default-mode network connectivity between parents and children. Moreover, greater neural and behavioral concordances in sleep associated with more optimal sleep quality in adolescents. The current findings expand our understanding of dyadic concordance by providing a neurobiological mechanism by which parents and children share daily sleep behaviors.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T19:45:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.06.003
  • Callous-unemotional traits moderate executive function in children with
           ASD and ADHD: a pilot event-related potential study

    • Authors: C. Tye; R. Bedford; P. Asherson; K.L. Ashwood; B. Azadi; P. Bolton; G. McLoughlin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): C. Tye, R. Bedford, P. Asherson, K.L. Ashwood, B. Azadi, P. Bolton, G. McLoughlin
      Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with varied executive function (EF) difficulties. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, a proposed antecedent of adult psychopathy, are often associated with intact or enhanced EF. Here we test whether CU traits may therefore modulate EF in ASD and ADHD, in which EF is typically impaired. We collected CU traits and measured event-related potentials (ERPs) that index EF during a cued-continuous performance test (CPT-OX) in boys with ASD, ADHD, comorbid ASD+ADHD and typical controls. We examined attentional orienting at cues (Cue-P3), inhibitory processing at non-targets (NoGo-P3) and conflict monitoring between target and non-target trials (Go-N2 vs. NoGo-N2). In children with ASD, higher CU traits were associated with an enhanced increase in N2 amplitude in NoGo trials compared to Go trials, which suggests relatively superior conflict monitoring and a potential cognitive strength associated with CU traits. The results emphasise the importance of considering the effects of co-occurring traits in the assessment of heterogeneity of EF profiles in neurodevelopmental disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T07:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.06.002
  • Hippocampal spatial mechanisms relate to the development of arithmetic
           symbol processing in children

    • Authors: Romain Mathieu; Justine Epinat-Duclos; Jessica Léone; Michel Fayol; Catherine Thevenot; Jérôme Prado
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Romain Mathieu, Justine Epinat-Duclos, Jessica Léone, Michel Fayol, Catherine Thevenot, Jérôme Prado
      Understanding the meaning of abstract mathematical symbols is a cornerstone of arithmetic learning in children. Although studies have long focused on the role of spatial intuitions in the processing of numerals, it has been argued that such intuitions may also underlie symbols conveying fundamental arithmetic concepts, such as arithmetic operators. In the present cross-sectional study, we used fMRI to investigate how and when associations between arithmetic operators and spatial brain activity emerge in children from 3rd to 10th grade. We found that the mere perception of a ‘+’ sign elicited grade-related increases of spatial activity in the right hippocampus. That is, merely perceiving ‘+’ signs – without any operands – elicited enhanced hippocampal activity after around 7th grade. In these children, hippocampal activity in response to a ‘+’ sign was further correlated with the degree to which calculation performance was facilitated by the preview of that sign before an addition problem, an effect termed operator-priming. Grade-related increases of hippocampal spatial activity were operation-specific because they were not observed with ‘×’ signs, which might evoke rote retrieval rather than numerical manipulation. Our study raises the possibility that hippocampal spatial mechanisms help build associations between some arithmetic operators and space throughout age and/or education.

      PubDate: 2017-06-15T07:48:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.06.001
  • Longitudinal Associations among Family Environment, Neural Cognitive
           Control, and Social Competence among Adolescents

    • Authors: Jungmeen Kim-Spoon; Dominique Maciejewski; Jacob Lee; Kirby Deater-Deckard; Brooks King-Casas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Dominique Maciejewski, Jacob Lee, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Brooks King-Casas
      During adolescence, prefrontal cortex regions, important in cognitive control, undergo maturation to adapt to changing environmental demands. Ways through which social-ecological factors contribute to adolescent neural cognitive control have not been thoroughly examined. We hypothesize that household chaos is a context that may modulate the associations among parental control, adolescent neural cognitive control, and developmental changes in social competence. The sample involved 167 adolescents (ages 13-14 at Time 1, 53% male). Parental control and household chaos were measured using adolescents’ questionnaire data, and cognitive control was assessed via behavioral performance and brain imaging at Time 1. Adolescent social competence was reported by adolescents at Time 1 and at Time 2 (one year later). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that higher parental control predicted better neural cognitive control only among adolescents living in low-chaos households. The association between poor neural cognitive control at Time 1 and social competence at Time 2 (after controlling for social competence at Time 1) was significant only among adolescents living in high-chaos households. Household chaos may undermine the positive association of parental control with adolescent neural cognitive control and exacerbate the detrimental association of poor neural cognitive control with disrupted social competence development.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T06:59:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.04.009
  • Cognitive performance of juvenile monkeys after chronic fluoxetine

    • Authors: Mari S. Golub; Edward P. Hackett; Casey E. Hogrefe; Csaba Leranth; John D. Elsworth; Robert H. Roth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Mari S. Golub, Edward P. Hackett, Casey E. Hogrefe, Csaba Leranth, John D. Elsworth, Robert H. Roth
      Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age) were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N=16/group) for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N=8/group) suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention. After dosing was discontinued, sustained attention, recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated. Sustained attention was affected by fluoxetine, both during and after dosing, as indexed by omission errors. Response accuracy was not affected by fluoxetine in post-dosing recognition memory and cognitive flexibility test, but formerly fluoxetine-treated monkeys compared to vehicle controls had more missed trial initiations and choices during testing. Drug treatment also interacted with genetic and environmental variables: MAOA genotype (high- and low transcription rate polymorphisms) and testing location (upper or lower tier of cages). Altered development of top-down cortical regulation of effortful attention may be relevant to this pattern of cognitive test performance after juvenile fluoxetine treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-06T13:09:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.04.008
  • A novel form of perceptual attunement: context-dependent perception of a
           native contrast in 14-month-old infants

    • Authors: Mathilde Fort; Perrine Brusini; M.Julia Carbajal; Yue Sun; Sharon Peperkamp
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Mathilde Fort, Perrine Brusini, M.Julia Carbajal, Yue Sun, Sharon Peperkamp
      By the end of their first year of life, infants have become experts in discriminating the sounds of their native language, while they have lost the ability to discriminate non-native contrasts. This type of phonetic learning is referred to as perceptual attunement. In the present study, we investigated the emergence of a context-dependent form of perceptual attunement in infancy. Indeed, some native contrasts are not discriminated in certain phonological contexts by adults, due to the presence of a language-specific process that neutralizes the contrasts in those contexts. We used a mismatch design and recorded high-density Electroencephalography (EEG) in French-learning 14-month-olds. Our results show that similarly to French adults, infants fail to discriminate a native voicing contrast (e.g., [f] vs. [v]) when it occurs in a specific phonological context (e.g., [ofbe] vs. [ovbe], no mismatch response), while they successfully detected it in other phonological contexts (e.g., [ofne] vs. [ovne], mismatch response). The present results demonstrate for the first time that by the age of 14 months, infants’ phonetic learning does not only rely on the processing of individual sounds, but also takes into account in a language-specific manner the phonological contexts in which these sounds occur.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-30T12:45:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.04.006
  • Active auditory experience in infancy promotes brain plasticity in Theta
           and Gamma oscillations

    • Authors: Gabriella Musacchia; Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla Naseem Choudhury Teresa Realpe-Bonilla Cynthia Roesler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Gabriella Musacchia, Silvia Ortiz-Mantilla, Naseem Choudhury, Teresa Realpe-Bonilla, Cynthia Roesler, April A. Benasich
      Language acquisition in infants is driven by on-going neural plasticity that is acutely sensitive to environmental acoustic cues. Recent studies showed that attention-based experience with non-linguistic, temporally-modulated auditory stimuli sharpens cortical responses. A previous ERP study from this laboratory showed that interactive auditory experience via behavior-based feedback (AEx), over a 6-week period from 4- to 7-months-of-age, confers a processing advantage, compared to passive auditory exposure (PEx) or maturation alone (Naïve Control, NC). Here, we provide a follow-up investigation of the underlying neural oscillatory patterns in these three groups. In AEx infants, Standard stimuli with invariant frequency (STD) elicited greater Theta-band (4–6Hz) activity in Right Auditory Cortex (RAC), as compared to NC infants, and Deviant stimuli with rapid frequency change (DEV) elicited larger responses in Left Auditory Cortex (LAC). PEx and NC counterparts showed less-mature bilateral patterns. AEx infants also displayed stronger Gamma (33–37Hz) activity in the LAC during DEV discrimination, compared to NCs, while NC and PEx groups demonstrated bilateral activity in this band, if at all. This suggests that interactive acoustic experience with non-linguistic stimuli can promote a distinct, robust and precise cortical pattern during rapid auditory processing, perhaps reflecting mechanisms that support fine-tuning of early acoustic mapping.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T15:30:01Z
  • Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in

    • Authors: Niki Kamkar; Daniel Lewis Wouter van den Bos J.Bruce Morton
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Niki H. Kamkar, Daniel J. Lewis, Wouter van den Bos, J.Bruce Morton
      Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain’s sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T15:30:01Z
  • Neural correlates of infants’ sensitivity to vocal expressions of

    • Authors: Manuela Missana; Nicole Altvater-Mackensen Tobias Grossmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Manuela Missana, Nicole Altvater-Mackensen, Tobias Grossmann
      Responding to others’ emotional expressions is an essential and early developing social skill among humans. Much research has focused on how infants process facial expressions, while much less is known about infants’ processing of vocal expressions. We examined 8-month-old infants’ processing of other infants’ vocalizations by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to positive (infant laughter), negative (infant cries), and neutral (adult hummed speech) vocalizations. Our ERP results revealed that hearing another infant cry elicited an enhanced negativity (N200) at temporal electrodes around 200ms, whereas listening to another infant laugh resulted in an enhanced positivity (P300) at central electrodes around 300ms. This indexes that infants’ brains rapidly respond to a crying peer during early auditory processing stages, but also selectively respond to a laughing peer during later stages associated with familiarity detection processes. These findings provide evidence for infants’ sensitivity to vocal expressions of peers and shed new light on the neural processes underpinning emotion processing in infants.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T15:30:01Z
  • Proactive control in early and middle childhood: An ERP study

    • Authors: Sarah Elke; Sandra Wiebe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 April 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Sarah Elke, Sandra A. Wiebe
      Children experience important cognitive control improvements in the transition to school. This study examined 4-5-year-olds’ (n =17) and 7-8-year-olds’ (n =22) ability to proactively deploy cognitive control. Children performed a cued task-switching paradigm presenting them with a cue indicating which attribute, color or shape, they should use to sort the upcoming stimulus. Following both cue and stimulus, we analyzed two event-related potentials: the P2 and P3, positive peaks reflecting sensory and attentional components of cognitive control, respectively. Following the cue, we also analyzed a positive slow-wave, indexing working memory engagement. We predicted that on switch trials, which required switching tasks, proactive control would result in larger cue-P3 amplitudes, reflecting recognition of the need to switch, and larger slow-wave amplitudes, reflecting maintenance of the new task-sets over the post-cue delay. This pattern was observed in both age groups. At the stimulus, in switch trials, both age groups had shorter stimulus-P2 latencies, consistent with processing facilitation. These results suggest that both 4-5- and 7-8-year-olds engaged cognitive control proactively. Older children, however, demonstrated better performance and larger cue-P2 amplitudes, suggesting more effective proactive control engagement in middle childhood.

      PubDate: 2017-04-16T15:30:01Z
  • Gamma Power in Rural Pakistani Children: Links to Executive Function and
           Verbal Ability

    • Authors: Amanda R. Tarullo; Jelena Obradović; Brandon Keehn; Muneera A. Rasheed; Saima Siyal; Charles A. Nelson; Aisha K. Yousafzai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Amanda R. Tarullo, Jelena Obradović, Brandon Keehn, Muneera A. Rasheed, Saima Siyal, Charles A. Nelson, Aisha K. Yousafzai
      Children in low- and middle-income countries are at high risk of cognitive deficits due to environmental deprivation that compromises brain development. Despite the high prevalence of unrealized cognitive potential, very little is known about neural correlates of cognition in this population. We assessed resting EEG power and cognitive ability in 105 highly disadvantaged 48-month-old children in rural Pakistan. An increase in EEG power in gamma frequency bands (21–30Hz and 31–45Hz) was associated with better executive function. For girls, EEG gamma power also related to higher verbal IQ. This study identifies EEG gamma power as a neural marker of cognitive function in disadvantaged children in low- and middle-income countries. Elevated gamma power may be a particularly important protective factor for girls, who may experience greater deprivation due to gender inequality.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T14:48:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.007
  • Diurnal cortisol after early institutional care—Age matters

    • Authors: Jessica Flannery; Laurel Gabard-Durnam; Mor Shapiro; Bonnie Goff; Christina Caldera; Jennifer Louie; Dylan G. Gee; Eva Telzer; Kathryn L. Humphreys; Daniel S. Lumian; Nim Tottenham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jessica Flannery, Laurel Gabard-Durnam, Mor Shapiro, Bonnie Goff, Christina Caldera, Jennifer Louie, Dylan G. Gee, Eva Telzer, Kathryn L. Humphreys, Daniel S. Lumian, Nim Tottenham
      Several studies have shown that young children who have experienced early caregiving adversity (e.g. previously institutionalization (PI)) exhibit flattened diurnal cortisol slopes; however, less is known about how these patterns might differ between children and adolescents, since the transition between childhood and adolescence is a time of purported plasticity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. PI youth experience a massive improvement in caregiving environment once adopted into families; therefore we anticipated that a developmental increase in HPA axis plasticity during adolescence might additionally allow for an enhanced enrichment effect by the adoptive family. In a cross-sectional sample of 197 youths (PI and Comparison; 4–15 years old) we observed age-related group differences in diurnal slope. First replicating previous findings, PI children exhibited flattened diurnal slope. This group difference, however, was not observed in adolescents. Moderation analyses showed that pubertal development, increased time with family, and early adoption contributed to the steeper diurnal cortisol slope in PI adolescents. These findings add support to existing theories positing that the transition between middle childhood and adolescence may mark an additional sensitive period for diurnal cortisol patterning, allowing PI youth to benefit from the enriched environment provided by adoptive parents during this period of development.

      PubDate: 2017-03-26T14:21:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.006
  • Attention allocation and social worries predict interpretations of
           peer-related social cues in adolescents

    • Authors: Simone P.W. Haller; Brianna R. Doherty; Mihaela Duta; Kathrin Cohen Kadosh; Jennifer Y.F. Lau; Gaia Scerif
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Simone P.W. Haller, Brianna R. Doherty, Mihaela Duta, Kathrin Cohen Kadosh, Jennifer Y.F. Lau, Gaia Scerif
      Adolescence is a sensitive period for increases in normative but also debilitating social fears and worries. As the interpretation of interpersonal cues is pertinent to social anxiety, investigating mechanisms that may underlie biases in social cue appraisal is important. Fifty-one adolescents from the community aged 14 to 19 were presented with self- and other-relevant naturalistic social scenes for 5seconds and then required to rate either a negative or a positive interpretation of the scene. Eye-tracking data were collected during the free viewing period to index attentional deployment. Individual differences in social worries were measured via self-report. Social anxiety levels significantly predicted biases in interpretation ratings across scenes. Additionally, cumulative attentional deployment to peer cues also predicted these interpretation biases: participants who spent more time on facial displays perceived more threat, i.e. endorsed more negative and less positive interpretations. Self-relevant scenes yielded greater tendencies to draw negative interpretations. Finally, older adolescents also selected more benign interpretations. Social anxiety is associated with a bias in interpreting social cues; a cognitive bias that is also influenced by attentional deployment. This study contributes to our understanding of the possible attention mechanisms that shape cognitions relevant to social anxiety in this at-risk age group.

      PubDate: 2017-03-19T14:10:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.03.004
  • Early Life Adversity during the Infant Sensitive Period for Attachment:
           Programming of Behavioral Neurobiology of Threat Processing and Social

    • Authors: Maya Opendak; Elizabeth Gould; Regina Sullivan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Maya Opendak, Elizabeth Gould, Regina Sullivan
      Animals, including humans, require a highly coordinated and flexible system of social behavior and threat evaluation. However, trauma can disrupt this system, with the amygdala implicated as a mediator of these impairments in behavior. Recent evidence has further highlighted the context of infant trauma as a critical variable in determining its immediate and enduring consequences, with trauma experienced from an attachment figure, such as occurs in cases of caregiver-child maltreatment, as particularly detrimental. This review focuses on the unique role of caregiver presence during early-life trauma in programming deficits in social behavior and threat processing. Using data primarily from rodent models, we describe the interaction between trauma and attachment during a sensitive period in early life, which highlights the role of the caregiver’s presence in engagement of attachment brain circuitry and suppressing threat processing by the amygdala. These data suggest that trauma experienced directly from an abusive caregiver and trauma experienced in the presence of caregiver cues produce similar neurobehavioral deficits, which are unique from those resulting from trauma alone. We go on to integrate this information into social experience throughout the lifespan, including consequences for complex scenarios, such as dominance hierarchy formation and maintenance.

      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:09:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.002
  • Neurodevelopmental Changes Across Adolescence in Viewing and Labeling
           Dynamic Peer Emotions

    • Authors: Jessica E. Flannery; Nicole R. Giuliani; John C. Flournoy; Jennifer H. Pfeifer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Jessica E. Flannery, Nicole R. Giuliani, John C. Flournoy, Jennifer H. Pfeifer
      Adolescence is a sensitive period of social-affective development, characterized by biological, neurological, and social changes. The field currently conceptualizes these changes in terms of an imbalance between systems supporting reactivity and regulation, specifically nonlinear changes in reactivity networks and linear changes in regulatory networks. Previous research suggests that the labeling or reappraisal of emotion increases activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), and decreases activity in amygdala relative to passive viewing of affective stimuli. However, past work in this area has relied heavily on paradigms using static, adult faces, as well as explicit regulation. In the current study, we assessed cross-sectional trends in neural responses to viewing and labeling dynamic peer emotional expressions in adolescent girls 10-23 years old. Our dynamic adolescent stimuli set reliably and robustly recruited key brain regions involved in emotion reactivity (MOFC/vMPFC, bilateral amygdala) and regulation (bilateral dorsal and ventral LPFC). However, contrary to the age-trends predicted by the dominant models in studies of risk/reward, the LPFC showed a nonlinear age trend across adolescence to labeling dynamic peer faces, whereas the MOFC/vMPFC showed a linear decrease with age to viewing dynamic peer faces. There were no significant age trends observed in the amygdala.

      PubDate: 2017-02-15T23:43:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.003
  • Autism as an adaptive common variant pathway for human brain development

    • Authors: Mark H. Johnson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
      Author(s): Mark H. Johnson
      While research on focal perinatal lesions has provided evidence for recovery of function, much less is known about processes of brain adaptation resulting from mild but widespread disturbances to neural processing over the early years (such as alterations in synaptic efficiency). Rather than being viewed as a direct behavioral consequence of life-long neural dysfunction, I propose that autism is best viewed as the end result of engaging adaptive processes during a sensitive period. From this perspective, autism is not appropriately described as a disorder of neurodevelopment, but rather as an adaptive common variant pathway of human functional brain development.

      PubDate: 2017-02-09T23:16:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2017.02.004
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